WorldWideScience

Sample records for insular floras affected

  1. Insular Activity during Passive Viewing of Aversive Stimuli Reflects Individual Differences in State Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2009-01-01

    People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…

  2. Intracellular calcium chelation and pharmacological SERCA inhibition of Ca2+ pump in the insular cortex differentially affect taste aversive memory formation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, María Isabel; González-Cedillo, Francisco J; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2011-09-01

    Variation in intracellular calcium concentration regulates the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity and is associated with a variety of memory/retrieval and learning paradigms. Accordingly, impaired calcium mobilization from internal deposits affects synaptic plasticity and cognition in the aged brain. During taste memory formation several proteins are modulated directly or indirectly by calcium, and recent evidence suggests the importance of calcium buffering and the role of intracellular calcium deposits during cognitive processes. Thus, the main goal of this research was to study the consequence of hampering changes in cytoplasmic calcium and inhibiting SERCA activity by BAPTA-AM and thapsigargin treatments, respectively, in the insular cortex during different stages of taste memory formation. Using conditioned taste aversion (CTA), we found differential effects of BAPTA-AM and thapsigargin infusions before and after gustatory stimulation, as well as during taste aversive memory consolidation; BAPTA-AM, but not thapsigargin, attenuates acquisition and/or consolidation of CTA, but neither compound affects taste aversive memory retrieval. These results point to the importance of intracellular calcium dynamics in the insular cortex during different stages of taste aversive memory formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Skin flora: Differences between people affected by Albinism and those with normally pigmented skin in Northern Tanzania - cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprono, Samson K; Masenga, John E; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard

    2012-07-30

    Skin flora varies from one site of the body to another. Individual's health, age and gender determine the type and the density of skin flora. A 1  cm² of the skin on the sternum was rubbed with sterile cotton swab socked in 0.9% normal saline and plated on blood agar. This was cultured at 35 °C. The bacteria were identified by culturing on MacConkey agar, coagulase test, catalase test and gram staining. Swabs were obtained from 66 individuals affected by albinism and 31 individuals with normal skin pigmentation. Those with normal skin were either relatives or staying with the individuals affected by albinism who were recruited for the study. The mean age of the 97 recruited individuals was 30.6 (SD ± 14.9) years. The mean of the colony forming units was 1580.5 per cm2. Those affected by albinism had a significantly higher mean colony forming units (1680  CFU per cm²) as compared with 453.5  CFU per cm² in those with normally pigmented skin (p = 0.023). The skin type and the severity of sun- damaged skin was significantly associated with a higher number of colony forming units (p = 0.038). Individuals affected by albinism have a higher number of colony forming units which is associated with sun- damaged skin.

  4. Repeated forced swim stress enhances CFA-evoked thermal hyperalgesia and affects the expressions of pCREB and c-Fos in the insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbe, H; Kimura, A; Donishi, T; Kaneoke, Y

    2014-02-14

    Stress affects brain activity and promotes long-term changes in multiple neural systems. Exposure to stressors causes substantial effects on the perception and response to pain. In several animal models, chronic stress produces lasting hyperalgesia. The insular (IC) and anterior cingulate cortices (ACC) are the regions exhibiting most reliable pain-related activity. And the IC and ACC play an important role in pain modulation via the descending pain modulatory system. In the present study we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and c-Fos in the IC and ACC after forced swim stress (FS) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection to clarify changes in the cerebral cortices that affect the activity of the descending pain modulatory system in the rats with stress-induced hyperalgesia. FS (day 1, 10min; days 2-3, 20min) induced an increase in the expression of pCREB and c-Fos in the anterior IC (AIC). CFA injection into the hindpaw after the FS shows significantly enhanced thermal hyperalgesia and induced a decrease in the expression of c-Fos in the AIC and the posterior IC (PIC). Quantitative image analysis showed that the numbers of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the left AIC and PIC were significantly lower in the FS+CFA group (L AIC, 95.9±6.8; L PIC, 181.9±23.1) than those in the naive group (L AIC, 151.1±19.3, pCFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia through dysfunction of the descending pain modulatory system. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Flora Luma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankjær, Raune; Kitel, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    Flora Luma is a plant controlled installation which detects the bioelectrical signals emitted from plants and displays them as animated light on freestanding amorphous objects.......Flora Luma is a plant controlled installation which detects the bioelectrical signals emitted from plants and displays them as animated light on freestanding amorphous objects....

  6. How does the human impact of footpaths affect flora biodiversity in the rainforest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J. H. F.

    2017-12-01

    Tioman Island is the largest Island in the Pahang region in Malaysia, known for its biodiverse reefs and dense rainforests, making it a popular tourist site. Over the course of two weeks, I was able to collect data on how the heavy development of Tioman Island's tourist industry was affecting the biodiversity of the region, specifically the implementation of infrastructure like footpaths. Tioman was an excellent setting for my research as it provided both primary and secondary rainforest with varying amounts of developments, allowing me to draw parallels between the data of the two distinct footpaths. To measure biodiversity against the prevalence of footpaths in forests, I set up 10 adjacent two by one meter quadrats perpendicular to the path, the first being on the path, and counted the quantities of different species within each quadrat. This process was repeated three times with five meter spacings between the various transects to better represent biodiversity in the region. Those three trials were then repeated at a site of contrasting human impact to come up with 60 quadrats' worth of data. Individually, each quadrat's biodiversity was then quantified using the Simpson's Diversity Index, which was then given a Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient before being compared with one another. The results of my research showed a general increase in biodiversity levels the further away it was from the path, until a certain point where it dropped and displayed a steady state, which did not fulfill the linear trend I was expecting in my hypothesis.

  7. Nitrogen isotopic patterns of vegetation as affected by breeding activity of Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassiostris): A coupled analysis of feces, inorganic soil nitrogen and flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizota, C.

    2009-01-01

    Two currently breeding colonies (Matsushima Bay and Rishiri island; northern Japan) of predominant Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassiostris) were studied for N isotopic patterns of flora, which is affected by increased supply of inorganic soil N derived from the microbial transformation of feces. Coupled samples of feces, topsoil and flora were collected in early to mid July (2008), when input of fecal N onto soils was at its maximum. As bird migration and breeding continued, native Japanese red-pine (Pinus densiflora), junipers (Juniperus chinensis and Juniperus rigita; Matsushima Bay colony) and Sasa senanensis (Rishiri colony) declined, while ornithocoprophilus exotic plants succeeded. Among tree species on the islands, P. densiflora with ectomycorrizal colonization appears highly susceptible to elevated concentrations of NH 4 -N in the topsoil. A mechanism for best explaining the plant succession associated with the breeding activity of Black-tailed Gull was evidenced by two parameters: first, concomitant elevation of N content in the flora and second, inorganic soil N content, along with changes in N isotopic composition (δ 15 N). Earlier isotopic data on the foliar N affected by breeding activity were compiled and reviewed. Emphasis was put on isotopic information for inorganic N in soils that controls plant succession.

  8. Lichen flora of Derbyshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawksworth, D L

    1969-01-01

    The lichen flora of the central English county of Derbyshire is described and discussed. The distribution of each species is described with reference to 10 km grid squares. In areas where air pollution is severe, very few species are found, even if otherwise suitable habitants are available. Air pollution is therefore considered to be the dominant factor affecting the present lichen flora of the county. The lichen communities have been studied and nineteen unions belonging to eleven federations are recognized. Several species are discussed taxonomically. 182 references, 15 tables.

  9. Insular subdivisions functional connectivity dysfunction within major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaolong; Lin, Pan; Wu, Xiaoping; Gong, Ruxue; Yang, Rui; Wang, Jue

    2018-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder characterized by cognitive and affective deficits. Previous studies suggested that insula is a crucial node of the salience network for initiating network switching, and dysfunctional connection to this region may be related to the mechanism of MDD. In this study, we systematically investigated and quantified the altered functional connectivity (FC) of the specific insular subdivisions and its relationship to psychopathology of MDD. Resting-state FC of insular subdivisions, including bilateral ventral/dorsal anterior insula and posterior insula, were estimated in 19 MDD patients and 19 healthy controls. Abnormal FC was quantified between groups. Additionally, we investigated the relationships between insular connectivity and depressive symptom severity. MDD patients demonstrated aberrant FC for insular subdivisions to superior temporal sulcus, inferior prefrontal gyrus, amygdala and posterior parietal cortex. Moreover, depression symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale scorers) were associated with the FC values of insular subdivisions. First, the sample size of our current study is relatively small, which may affect the statistic power. Second, using standardized insular subdivision seeds for FC analyses may neglect subtle natural differences in size and location of functional area across individuals and may thus affect connectivity maps. Abnormal FC of insular subdivisions to default network and central executive network may represent impaired intrinsic networks switching which may affect the underlying emotional and sensory disturbances in MDD. And our findings can help to understand the pathophysiology and underlying neural mechanisms of MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardioembolism and Involvement of the Insular Cortex in Patients with Ischemic Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihoon Kang

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether topographical characteristics of insular involvement in ischemic stroke are associated with cardioembolism.A consecutive series of patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke within 7 days of symptom onset were identified. Based on diffusion-weighted imaging, we included those who had ischemic lesions in the middle cerebral artery (MCA territory. Each patient was assigned to one of two groups based on the presence or absence of insular involvement. The primary outcome was the frequency of cardioembolism, which was compared based on insular involvement. Of 1,311 patients with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory, 112 had insular involvement (8.5%. The frequency of cardioembolism in patients with insular involvement (52.7% was significantly higher than that in patients without insular involvement (30.4%, P < 0.001. Although insular involvement was associated with a severe baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (13 vs. 4, it did not independently affect the 3-month functional outcome.In cases of stroke in the MCA territory, involvement of the insular cortex may be associated with a risk of cardioembolism.

  11. Insular threat associations within taxa worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Camille; Courchamp, Franck; Bellard, Céline

    2018-04-23

    The global loss of biodiversity can be attributed to numerous threats. While pioneer studies have investigated their relative importance, the majority of those studies are restricted to specific geographic regions and/or taxonomic groups and only consider a small subset of threats, generally in isolation despite their frequent interaction. Here, we investigated 11 major threats responsible for species decline on islands worldwide. We applied an innovative method of network analyses to disentangle the associations of multiple threats on vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants in 15 insular regions. Biological invasions, wildlife exploitation, and cultivation, either alone or in association, were found to be the three most important drivers of species extinction and decline on islands. Specifically, wildlife exploitation and cultivation are largely associated with the decline of threatened plants and terrestrial vertebrates, whereas biological invasions mostly threaten invertebrates and freshwater fish. Furthermore, biodiversity in the Indian Ocean and near the Asian coasts is mostly affected by wildlife exploitation and cultivation compared to biological invasions in the Pacific and Atlantic insular regions. We highlighted specific associations of threats at different scales, showing that the analysis of each threat in isolation might be inadequate for developing effective conservation policies and managements.

  12. Insular species swarm goes underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Cylindroiulus Verhoeff, 1894, C. julesvernei and C. oromii, are described from the subterranean ecosystem of Madeira Island, Portugal. Species are illustrated with photographs and diagrammatic drawings. The new species belong to the Cylindroiulus madeirae......-group, an insular species swarm distributed in the archipelagos of Madeira and the Canary Islands. We discuss the differences between the new species and their relatives and present information on the subterranean environment of Madeira. An updated overview of the subterranean biodiversity of millipedes...

  13. Differential effects of insular and ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions on risky decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, L; Bechara, A; Damasio, H; Aitken, M R F; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W

    2008-05-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and insular cortex are implicated in distributed neural circuitry that supports emotional decision-making. Previous studies of patients with vmPFC lesions have focused primarily on decision-making under uncertainty, when outcome probabilities are ambiguous (e.g. the Iowa Gambling Task). It remains unclear whether vmPFC is also necessary for decision-making under risk, when outcome probabilities are explicit. It is not known whether the effect of insular damage is analogous to the effect of vmPFC damage, or whether these regions contribute differentially to choice behaviour. Four groups of participants were compared on the Cambridge Gamble Task, a well-characterized measure of risky decision-making where outcome probabilities are presented explicitly, thus minimizing additional learning and working memory demands. Patients with focal, stable lesions to the vmPFC (n = 20) and the insular cortex (n = 13) were compared against healthy subjects (n = 41) and a group of lesion controls (n = 12) with damage predominantly affecting the dorsal and lateral frontal cortex. The vmPFC and insular cortex patients showed selective and distinctive disruptions of betting behaviour. VmPFC damage was associated with increased betting regardless of the odds of winning, consistent with a role of vmPFC in biasing healthy individuals towards conservative options under risk. In contrast, patients with insular cortex lesions failed to adjust their bets by the odds of winning, consistent with a role of the insular cortex in signalling the probability of aversive outcomes. The insular group attained a lower point score on the task and experienced more 'bankruptcies'. There were no group differences in probability judgement. These data confirm the necessary role of the vmPFC and insular regions in decision-making under risk. Poor decision-making in clinical populations can arise via multiple routes, with functionally dissociable effects of vmPFC and

  14. Food related processes in the insular cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eFrank

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The insular cortex is a multimodal brain region with regional cytoarchitectonic differences indicating various functional specializations. As a multisensory neural node, the insular cortex integrates perception, emotion, interoceptive awareness, cognition, and gustation. Regarding the latter, predominantly the anterior part of the insular cortex is regarded as the primary taste cortex.In this review, we will specifically focus on the involvement of the insula in food processing and on multimodal integration of food-related items. Influencing factors of insular activation elicited by various foods range from calorie-content to the internal physiologic state, body mass index or eating behavior. Sensory perception of food-related stimuli including seeing, smelling, and tasting elicits increased activation in the anterior and mid-dorsal part of the insular cortex. Apart from the pure sensory gustatory processing, there is also a strong association with the rewarding/hedonic aspects of food items, which is reflected in higher insular activity and stronger connections to other reward-related areas. Interestingly, the processing of food items has been found to elicit different insular activation in lean compared to obese subjects and in patients suffering from an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa. The knowledge of functional differences in the insular cortex opens up the opportunity for possible noninvasive treatment approaches for obesity and eating disorders. To target brain functions directly, real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback offers a state-of-the-art tool to learn to control the anterior insular cortex activity voluntarily. First evidence indicates that obese adults have an enhanced ability to regulate the anterior insular cortex.

  15. Extreme insular dwarfism evolved in a mammoth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herridge, Victoria L; Lister, Adrian M

    2012-08-22

    The insular dwarfism seen in Pleistocene elephants has come to epitomize the island rule; yet our understanding of this phenomenon is hampered by poor taxonomy. For Mediterranean dwarf elephants, where the most extreme cases of insular dwarfism are observed, a key systematic question remains unresolved: are all taxa phyletic dwarfs of a single mainland species Palaeoloxodon antiquus (straight-tusked elephant), or are some referable to Mammuthus (mammoths)? Ancient DNA and geochronological evidence have been used to support a Mammuthus origin for the Cretan 'Palaeoloxodon' creticus, but these studies have been shown to be flawed. On the basis of existing collections and recent field discoveries, we present new, morphological evidence for the taxonomic status of 'P'. creticus, and show that it is indeed a mammoth, most probably derived from Early Pleistocene Mammuthus meridionalis or possibly Late Pliocene Mammuthus rumanus. We also show that Mammuthus creticus is smaller than other known insular dwarf mammoths, and is similar in size to the smallest dwarf Palaeoloxodon species from Sicily and Malta, making it the smallest mammoth species known to have existed. These findings indicate that extreme insular dwarfism has evolved to a similar degree independently in two elephant lineages.

  16. The Ethiopian Flora Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demissew, Sebsebe; Brochmann, Christian; Kelbessa, Ensermu

    2011-01-01

    The account reviews and analyses the scietific projects derived from activities in connection with the Ethiopian Flora Project, including the [Ethiopian] Monocot Project, the Afro-alpine "Sky-island" project, the Vegetation and Ecological Conditions of Plantations Project, the Fire Ecology Projec...

  17. Flora of Egy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Francis

    L Boulos (Botany Department, Alexandria University) for critically reading the manuscript. REFERENCES. Abdallah M (1983) The vegetation of Gebel Elba. Unpublished report submitted to The Academy of Scientific Research and. Technology, Cairo. Abdallah M & Sa'ad FM (1975) Taxonomical studies in the flora of Egypt.

  18. Vocabular Clarity and Insular Scandinavian: A response

    OpenAIRE

    Enger, Hans-Olav

    2017-01-01

    In his article “Testing Vocabular Clarity in insular Scandinavian”, Haukur Þorgeirsson (HT) discusses the analysis of Faroese noun inflection presented in Enger (2013a). It is rewarding to see that the NBP/VC motivates careful consideration of alternative analyses and additional facts. HT raises valid questions and interesting challenges, including issues that were not dealt with in sufficient detail by Enger (2013a); yet I cannot agree with his main conclusions. Given space limitations, this...

  19. Ethiopian flora project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hedberg

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available After thorough planning, an Ethiopian Flora Project has recently been initiated, financed by the Ethiopian Science and Technology Commission from a Swedish grant. The planning was effected by a working group including representatives of the Biology Department at Addis Ababa University and the Institute of Systematic Botany in Uppsala as well as some international experts selected by AETFAT, and was finalized by an Ethiopian Flora Committee. The project leader is Professor Tewolde Berhan G. Egziabher in Addis Ababa, assisted by an Ethiopian secretariat under the Director of the National Herbarium. A European counterpart secretariat, headed by the author, has also been organized with Dr I. Hedberg as co-ordinator. Collecting expeditions to insufficiently known areas, loans from the Addis Ababa Herbarium to collaborating taxonomists, and other activities inside Ethiopia are organized by the Ethiopian secretariat, whereas the Uppsala secretariat is responsible for the initiation and co-ordination of the taxonomic revisions and family accounts needed for the Flora. Collaborators for several of the roughly 200 families of Ethiopian vascular plants have already been secured, but many more remain to be covered. AETFAT members with specialist knowledge of the remaining families are requested to help fill the gaps in our list of contributors.

  20. Loss of long-term depression in the insular cortex after tail amputation in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Gang; Zhuo, Min

    2014-01-08

    The insular cortex (IC) is an important forebrain structure involved in pain perception and taste memory formation. Using a 64-channel multi-electrode array system, we recently identified and characterized two major forms of synaptic plasticity in the adult mouse IC: long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). In this study, we investigate injury-related metaplastic changes in insular synaptic plasticity after distal tail amputation. We found that tail amputation in adult mice produced a selective loss of low frequency stimulation-induced LTD in the IC, without affecting (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG)-evoked LTD. The impaired insular LTD could be pharmacologically rescued by priming the IC slices with a lower dose of DHPG application, a form of metaplasticity which involves activation of protein kinase C but not protein kinase A or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. These findings provide important insights into the synaptic mechanisms of cortical changes after peripheral amputation and suggest that restoration of insular LTD may represent a novel therapeutic strategy against the synaptic dysfunctions underlying the pathophysiology of phantom pain.

  1. Towards grid parity in insular energy systems: The case of photovoltaics (PV) in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokaides, Paris A.; Kylili, Angeliki

    2014-01-01

    Grid parity is defined as the threshold at which a grid-connected renewable energy sources (RES) system supplies electricity to the end user at the same price as grid-supplied electricity. Predictions from the 2006 time-frame expected retail grid parity for solar in the 2016 to 2020 era, but due to rapid downward pricing changes, more recent calculations have forced dramatic reductions in time scale, and the suggestion that solar has already reached grid parity in a wide variety of locations. This study presents aspects of achieving grid parity in insular energy systems, based on a case study applied in Cyprus. The analysis presents the variation of the manufacturing cost, the selling price of the produced energy, and the performance of the solar panels to examine the conditions of accomplishing grid parity event. It is also concluded that grid parity may be easier achieved in insular energy systems due to the higher cost of primary energy. - Highlights: • This study presents aspects of achieving grid parity in insular energy systems, based on a case study applied in Cyprus. • The impact of the manufacturing cost and the feed in tariff on accomplishing grid parity event is analysed. • A sensitivity analysis is conducted to define the parameters that strongly affect the goal of grid parity. • It is concluded that grid parity may be easier achieved in insular energy systems due to the higher cost of primary energy

  2. FLORA OF MOLOCHNYI ESTUARY COASTS

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    Kolomiychuk V.P.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Present-day characteristic of the coastal flora of Molochnyi eastury is given, that is one of the largest estuaries in Ukraine, the shores and waters of which in 2009 became a part of the Pryazov’ya National Nature Park. The analysis of the main parameters of the flora is made. Rare component of the estuary coastal flora is characterized, further steps to conserve the nature of Pryazov’ya are proposed.

  3. Altered Functional Connectivity of Insular Subregions in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyun Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches have demonstrated that the insula is the crucial hub of the human brain networks and most vulnerable region of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, little is known about the changes of functional connectivity of insular subregions in the AD patients. In this study, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data including 32 AD patients and 38 healthy controls (HCs. By defining three subregions of insula, we mapped whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC and identified several distinct RSFC patterns of the insular subregions: For positive connectivity, three cognitive-related RSFC patterns were identified within insula that suggest anterior-to-posterior functional subdivisions: (1 an dorsal anterior zone of the insula that exhibits RSFC with executive control network (ECN; (2 a ventral anterior zone of insula, exhibits functional connectivity with the salience network (SN; (3 a posterior zone along the insula exhibits functional connectivity with the sensorimotor network (SMN. In addition, we found significant negative connectivities between the each insular subregion and several special default mode network (DMN regions. Compared with controls, the AD patients demonstrated distinct disruption of positive RSFCs in the different network (ECN and SMN, suggesting the impairment of the functional integrity. There were no differences of the positive RSFCs in the SN between the two groups. On the other hand, several DMN regions showed increased negative RSFCs to the sub-region of insula in the AD patients, indicating compensatory plasticity. Furthermore, these abnormal insular subregions RSFCs are closely correlated with cognitive performances in the AD patients. Our findings suggested that different insular subregions presented distinct RSFC patterns with various functional networks, which are differently affected in the AD patients.

  4. ASIC1a regulates insular long-term depression and is required for the extinction of conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Guang; Liu, Ming-Gang; Deng, Shining; Liu, Yan-Mei; Shang, Lin; Ding, Jing; Hsu, Tsan-Ting; Jiang, Qin; Li, Ying; Li, Fei; Zhu, Michael Xi; Xu, Tian-Le

    2016-12-07

    Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) has been shown to play important roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here we identify a crucial role for ASIC1a in long-term depression (LTD) at mouse insular synapses. Genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of ASIC1a reduced the induction probability of LTD without affecting that of long-term potentiation in the insular cortex. The disruption of ASIC1a also attenuated the extinction of established taste aversion memory without altering the initial associative taste learning or its long-term retention. Extinction of taste aversive memory led to the reduced insular synaptic efficacy, which precluded further LTD induction. The impaired LTD and extinction learning in ASIC1a null mice were restored by virus-mediated expression of wild-type ASIC1a, but not its ion-impermeable mutant, in the insular cortices. Our data demonstrate the involvement of an ASIC1a-mediated insular synaptic depression mechanism in extinction learning, which raises the possibility of targeting ASIC1a to manage adaptive behaviours.

  5. Irradiation mucositis and oral flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

  6. ASIC1a regulates insular long-term depression and is required for the extinction of conditioned taste aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei-Guang; Liu, Ming-Gang; Deng, Shining; Liu, Yan-Mei; Shang, Lin; Ding, Jing; Hsu, Tsan-Ting; Jiang, Qin; Li, Ying; Li, Fei; Zhu, Michael Xi; Xu, Tian-Le

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) has been shown to play important roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here we identify a crucial role for ASIC1a in long-term depression (LTD) at mouse insular synapses. Genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of ASIC1a reduced the induction probability of LTD without affecting that of long-term potentiation in the insular cortex. The disruption of ASIC1a also attenuated the extinction of established taste aversion memory without alte...

  7. Wildlife and flora and the perceived attractiveness of green places: A comparison between local and national green places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Akke; Haartsen, Tialda; Buijs, A.E.; Huigen, Paulus P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a growing interest in experiencing wildlife and flora in nature-based tourism destinations, while at the same time it is far less clear whether wildlife and flora also matter in green places near home. This paper examines whether wildlife and flora affect the perceived

  8. Wildlife and flora and the perceived attractiveness of green places : A comparison between local and national green places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Akke; Haartsen, Tialda; Buijs, Arjen; Huigen, Paulus P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a growing interest in experiencing wildlife and flora in nature-based tourism destinations, while at the same time it is far less clear whether wildlife and flora also matter in green places near home. This paper examines whether wildlife and flora affect the perceived

  9. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant...

  10. Diatom flora of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoeman, FR

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available identity if the species presented, an illustrating them through the medium of the light, transmission and scanning electron microscopes. The latter is probably the most valuable contribution the Flora makes to diatomists...

  11. Sertula Florae Colombiae, VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Uribe Lorenzo

    1964-06-01

    Full Text Available La preparación de un texto moderno que acompañe la publicación de las láminas de la Flora de la Real expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada, ha hecho necesaria la recolección botánica intensiva, en las regiones que exploraron don JOSE CELESTINO MUTlS y sus compañeros.  Indispensable en algunos casos para la correcta interpretación de los icones, cuando los datos gráficos consignados por el artista son insuficientes para la determinación segura de la especie. Sólo el cotejo de la lámina con una planta viva y la posterior clasificación de ésta, ofrece seguridad en la determinación. Por otra parte, se logra así la proyección de nuestro trabajo actual en el ambiente y el medio en que se desarrolló el de Mutis y sus colaboradores.

  12. Ex situ Flora of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of living collections-based research and discovery has been a prominent feature throughout the history of evolution and advance of botanical science: such research is the core and soul of the botanical gardens. Currently, there are c. 162 Chinese botanical gardens, harboring c. 20,000 species in China. As an example of initiatives to utilize the garden cultivated flora to address plant diversity conservation and germplasm discovery for sustainable agriculture and the bio-industries, the Ex situ Flora of China project aims to catalog and document this mega-diversity of plants that are cultivated in the Chinese botanical gardens. The concept of Ex situ Flora of China is a complete new formulation of species, based on garden cultivated individuals and populations, to obtain better morphological descriptions, provide multi-purpose applicability and a fundamental data service that will support national bio-strategies and bio-industries. It emphasises integrative information, accurately collected from living collections across different Chinese botanical gardens, on biology, phenology, cultivation requirements and uses of plant resources, which are normally not available from traditional Floras based on herbarium specimens. The ex situ flora should provide better information coverage for taxonomy, biological and introduction and collection data and color photos of stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seed, as well as useful information of cultivation key points and main use of each plant. In general, the Ex situ Flora of China provides more useful information than the traditional Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. The project of Ex situ Flora of China is planned to be one of the most important initiatives of the plant diversity research platform for sustainable economic and social development in China.

  13. Attenuated sensitivity to the emotions of others by insular lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri eTerasawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The insular cortex has been considered to be the neural base of visceral sensation for many years. Previous studies in psychology and cognitive neuroscience have accumulated evidence indicating that interoception is an essential factor in the subjective feeling of emotion. Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that anterior insular cortex activation is associated with accessing interoceptive information and underpinning the subjective experience of emotional state.Only a small number of studies have focused on the influence of insular damage on emotion processing and interoceptive awareness. Moreover, disparate hypotheses have been proposed for the alteration of emotion processing by insular lesions. Some studies show that insular lesions yield an inability for understanding and representing disgust exclusively, but other studies suggest that such lesions modulate arousal and valence judgments for both positive and negative emotions.In this study, we examined the alteration in emotion recognition in three right insular and adjacent area damaged cases with well-preserved higher cognitive function. Participants performed an experimental task using morphed photos that ranged between neutral and emotional facial expressions (i.e., anger, sadness, disgust, and happiness. Recognition rates of particular emotions were calculated to measure emotional sensitivity. In addition, they performed heartbeat perception task for measuring interoceptive accuracy. The cases identified emotions that have high arousal level (e.g., anger as less aroused emotions (e.g., sadness and a case showed remarkably low interoceptive accuracy. The current results show that insular lesions lead to attenuated emotional sensitivity across emotions, rather than category-specific impairments such as to disgust. Despite the small number of cases, our findings suggest that the insular cortex modulates recognition of emotional saliency and mediates interoceptive and emotional

  14. Orosensory and Homeostatic Functions of the Insular Taste Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Ivan E; Geha, Paul; Small, Dana M

    2012-03-01

    The gustatory aspect of the insular cortex is part of the brain circuit that controls ingestive behaviors based on chemosensory inputs. However, the sensory properties of foods are not restricted to taste and should also include salient features such as odor, texture, temperature, and appearance. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that specialized circuits within the central taste pathways must be involved in representing several other oral sensory modalities in addition to taste. In this review, we evaluate current evidence indicating that the insular gustatory cortex functions as an integrative circuit, with taste-responsive regions also showing heightened sensitivity to olfactory, somatosensory, and even visual stimulation. We also review evidence for modulation of taste-responsive insular areas by changes in physiological state, with taste-elicited neuronal responses varying according to the nutritional state of the organism. We then examine experimental support for a functional map within the insular cortex that might reflect the various sensory and homeostatic roles associated with this region. Finally, we evaluate the potential role of the taste insular cortex in weight-gain susceptibility. Taken together, the current experimental evidence favors the view that the insular gustatory cortex functions as an orosensory integrative system that not only enables the formation of complex flavor representations but also mediates their modulation by the internal state of the body, playing therefore a central role in food intake regulation.

  15. The Role of the Insular Cortex in Retaliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Emmerling

    Full Text Available The insular cortex has consistently been associated with various aspects of emotion regulation and social interaction, including anger processing and overt aggression. Aggression research distinguishes proactive or instrumental aggression from retaliation, i.e. aggression in response to provocation. Here, we investigated the specific role of the insular cortex during retaliation, employing a controlled behavioral aggression paradigm implementing different levels of provocation. Fifteen healthy male volunteers underwent whole brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to identify brain regions involved in interaction with either a provoking or a non-provoking opponent. FMRI group analyses were complemented by examining the parametric modulations of brain activity related to the individual level of displayed aggression. These analyses identified a hemispheric lateralization as well as an anatomical segregation of insular cortex with specifically the left posterior part being involved in retaliation. The left-lateralization of insular activity during retaliation is in accordance with evidence from electro-physiological studies, suggesting left-lateralized fronto-cortical dominance during anger processing and aggressive acts. The posterior localization of insular activity, on the other hand, suggests a spatial segregation within insular cortex with particularly the posterior part being involved in the processing of emotions that trigger intense bodily sensations and immediate action tendencies.

  16. [The microbial flora in the digestive tract and diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svačina, Štěpán

    2015-04-01

    The microbial flora in the digestive tract has been recently studied in relation to metabolic diseases. There are relations to both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The intestinal flora is affected by diet, physical exercise and it significantly changes after bariatric surgeries. Giving birth by caesarean section affects the gut flora development and increases the risk of type 1 diabetes in further life of the child. Obese patients with type 2 diabetes may lack protective microbes which improve glucoregulation in the experiment or on the contrary their patogenous microbes may grow which have been proven to even be able to penetrate into abdominal adipose tissue and play a role, inter alia, in the hepatic impairment and systemic inflammation. Also vaccination against these microbes is under consideration. Microbiome can be also positively affected by metformin treatment. The transfer of intestinal flora by means of fecal transplantation can improve glucoregulation. The influencing of intestinal flora is likely to become a new mechanism of diabetes treatment.

  17. Posterior insular cortex - a site of vestibular-somatosensory interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bernhard; Zu Eulenburg, Peter; Best, Christoph; Geber, Christian; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Birklein, Frank; Dieterich, Marianne

    2013-09-01

    Background In previous imaging studies the insular cortex (IC) has been identified as an essential part of the processing of a wide spectrum of perception and sensorimotor integration. Yet, there are no systematic lesion studies in a sufficient number of patients examining whether processing of vestibular and the interaction of somatosensory and vestibular signals take place in the IC. Methods We investigated acute stroke patients with lesions affecting the IC in order to fill this gap. In detail, we explored signs of a vestibular tone imbalance such as the deviation of the subjective visual vertical (SVV). We applied voxel-lesion behaviour mapping analysis in 27 patients with acute unilateral stroke. Results Our data demonstrate that patients with lesions of the posterior IC have an abnormal tilt of SVV. Furthermore, re-analysing data of 20 patients from a previous study, we found a positive correlation between thermal perception contralateral to the stroke and the severity of the SVV tilt. Conclusions We conclude that the IC is a sensory brain region where different modalities might interact.

  18. Microbial flora in orodental infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare the normal aerobic and anaerobic bacterial oral flora with flora from deep seated dental caries, gingivitis and adult periodontitis. All the samples belonging to both the control and study groups yielded microbes. Aerobe / Anaerobe ratio was high in normal flora (1.48 as compared to dental caries (0.9, gingivitis (0.72 and periodontitis (0.56. Ninety seven percent of orodental infections were polymicrobial and three or more microbes were found in 84% cases of study group as compared to 28% in controls. Streptococcus mutans and anaerobic lactobacilli were common in dental caries, Actinomyces and Peptostreptococcus spp. in gingivitis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis.

  19. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something or ...... have been mapped and it is already possible to recognize the hot-spots of biodiversity as these are linked to the centres of endemism. Determining the centres of diversity is an important and significant contribution to further conservation measures at the global level....

  20. Insular cortex activity and the evocation of laughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattendorf, Elise; Westermann, Birgit; Lotze, Martin; Fiedler, Klaus; Celio, Marco R

    2016-06-01

    The insular cortex is fundamentally involved in the processing of interoceptive information. It has been postulated that the integrative monitoring of the bodily responses to environmental stimuli is crucial for the recognition and experience of emotions. Because emotional arousal is known to be closely coupled to functions of the anterior insula, we suspected laughter to be associated primarily with neuronal activity in this region. An anatomically constrained re-analysis of our imaging data pertaining to ticklish laughter, to inhibited ticklish laughter, and to voluntary laughter revealed regional differences in the levels of neuronal activity in the posterior and mid-/anterior portions of the insula. Ticklish laughter was associated specifically with right ventral anterior insular activity, which was not detected under the other two conditions. Hence, apparently, only laughter that is evoked as an emotional response bears the signature of autonomic arousal in the insular cortex. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. bacterial flora and antibiotic sensitivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purulent pelvic collections are common pathologies observed in contemporary gynaecological practice. They may originate from chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, from abortions or following normal deliveries. This study was designed to compare the bacterial flora in purulent pelvic collections obtained from HIV infected ...

  2. Annual report Foundation Flora Malesiana 1992

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Second Flora Malesiana Symposium — The highlight of the year was the Second Flora Malesiana Symposium. It was organized under the auspices of the Foundation Flora Malesiana (FFM) by Puslitbang Biologi of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) and the Fakultas Biologi of the Gadjah Mada

  3. 19 CFR 7.2 - Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... than Puerto Rico. 7.2 Section 7.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... NAVAL STATION § 7.2 Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico. (a) Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico are also American territory but, because those insular...

  4. Depth study of insular shelf electric sounding Adelaida anomaly (Rivera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of the Uranium prospecting programme, the DINAMIGE geophysical equipment have made a study. It was about the depth of insular shelf electric sounding on the anomalies zone of Adelaida. This equipment carried out a study of the following subjects: geographical location, geologic framework, geophysical intervention, developed works, methods and material and results

  5. Insular Cortex Is Involved in Consolidation of Object Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico; Okuda, Shoki; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the insular cortex (IC), also termed gustatory cortex, is critically involved in conditioned taste aversion and taste recognition memory. Although most studies of the involvement of the IC in memory have investigated taste, there is some evidence that the IC is involved in memory that is not based on taste. In…

  6. Second Surgery in Insular Low-Grade Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Ius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Given the technical difficulties, a limited number of works have been published on insular gliomas surgery and risk factors for tumor recurrence (TR are poorly documented. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine TR in adult patients with initial diagnosis of insular Low-Grade Gliomas (LGGs that subsequently underwent second surgery. Methods. A consecutive series of 53 patients with insular LGGs was retrospectively reviewed; 23 patients had two operations for TR. Results. At the time of second surgery, almost half of the patients had experienced progression into high-grade gliomas (HGGs. Univariate analysis showed that TR is influenced by the following: extent of resection (EOR (P<0.002, ΔVT2T1 value (P<0.001, histological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma (P=0.017, and mutation of IDH1 (P=0.022. The multivariate analysis showed that EOR at first surgery was the independent predictor for TR (P<0.001. Conclusions. In patients with insular LGG the EOR at first surgery represents the major predictive factor for TR. At time of TR, more than 50% of cases had progressed in HGG, raising the question of the oncological management after the first surgery.

  7. Insular artefacts from Viking-Age burials from mid-Norway. A review of contact between Trøndelag and Britain and Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Margrethe Heen-Pettersen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a detailed overview of the Insular artefacts found in Viking-Age burials from the Trøndelag region of mid-Norway, most of which have not previously been published in English. The archaeological evidence indicates that contact between Trøndelag and the British Isles was well established at an early stage of the Viking Age. The main evidence for contact comes from the 9th century, when a number of significant patterns can be discerned. Some local concentrations of Insular goods show the continuing importance of some pre-Viking centres, while other areas suggest co-operation between several neighbouring families in order to equip and provision overseas expeditions. Later, the datable Insular artefacts indicate significant changes in the nature of contact. North Sea trading towards the end of the Viking Age appears to be affected by increasing centralisation of power in Trøndelag during the 10th century.

  8. Bacterial flora of sturgeon fingerling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arani, A.S.; Mosahab, R.

    2008-01-01

    The study on microbial populations is a suitable tool to understand and apply control methods to improve the sanitary level of production in fish breeding and rearing centers, ensure health of sturgeon fingerlings at the time of their release into the rivers and also in the conversation and restoration of these valuable stocks in the Caspian Sea, Iran. A laboratory research based on Austin methods (Austin, B., Austin, D.A. 1993) was conducted for bacterial study on 3 sturgeon species naming A. persicus, A. stellatus and A. nudiventris during different growth stages. Bacterial flora of Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Edwardsiella, Staphylococcus, Proteus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas and Plesiomonas were determined. The factors which may induce changes in bacterial populations during different stages of fife are the followings: quality of water in rearing ponds, different conditions for growth stages, suitable time for colonization of bacterial flora in rearing pond, water temperature increase in fingerlings size and feeding condition. (author)

  9. Flora og insekter i hegn på økologiske og konventionelle bedrifter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne Bruus; Aude, E.; Tybirk, K.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the project was to compare flora and insect fauna of organic and conventional hedgerows, and to study whether the drift of herbicides into hedgerows alone or in combination with differences in fertiliser application may explain any differences. The project consequently consisted of two...... of the most important agricultural conditions having an effect on flora and insect fauna in different agricultural systems. In the experiment flora and insect fauna were studied for three years. In the hedgerows clear differences in the floral composition were found, with more plant species in hedgerows...... at organically grown fields that at conventionally grown fields, on both sandy and loamy soils. The insect fauna was correlated with the flora, but no clear differences were found between the two agricultural systems. Apart from the hedgerow flora, also the type of crop grown on the adjacent fields affected...

  10. Insular networks for emotional processing and social cognition: comparison of two case reports with either cortical or subcortical involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Blas; Sedeño, Lucas; Sposato, Luciano A; Sigman, Mariano; Riccio, Patricia M; Salles, Alejo; Lopez, Vladimir; Schroeder, Johannes; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2013-05-01

    The processing of the emotion of disgust is attributed to the insular cortex (IC), which is also responsible for social emotions and higher-cognitive functions. We distinguish the role of the IC from its connections in regard to these functions through the assessment of emotions and social cognition in a double case report. These subjects were very rare cases that included a focal IC lesion and a subcortical focal stroke affecting the connections of the IC with frontotemporal areas. Both patients and a sample of 10 matched controls underwent neuropsychological and affective screening questionnaires, a battery of multimodal basic emotion recognition tests, an emotional inference disambiguation task using social contextual clues, an empathy task and a theory of mind task. The insular lesion (IL) patient showed no impairments in emotion recognition and social emotions and presented with a pattern of delayed reaction times (RTs) in a subset of both groups of tasks. The subcortical lesion (SL) patient was impaired in multimodal aversive emotion recognition, including disgust, and exhibited delayed RTs and a heterogeneous pattern of impairments in subtasks of empathy and in the contextual inference of emotions. Our results suggest that IC related networks, and not the IC itself, are related to negative emotional processing and social emotions. We discuss these results with respect to theoretical approaches of insular involvement in emotional and social processing and propose that IC connectivity with frontotemporal and subcortical regions might be relevant for contextual emotional processing and social cognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Body size evolution in insular speckled rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalus mitchellii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Meik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Speckled rattlesnakes (Crotalus mitchellii inhabit multiple islands off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. Two of the 14 known insular populations have been recognized as subspecies based primarily on body size divergence from putative mainland ancestral populations; however, a survey of body size variation from other islands occupied by these snakes has not been previously reported. We examined body size variation between island and mainland speckled rattlesnakes, and the relationship between body size and various island physical variables among 12 island populations. We also examined relative head size among giant, dwarfed, and mainland speckled rattlesnakes to determine whether allometric differences conformed to predictions of gape size (and indirectly body size evolving in response to shifts in prey size.Insular speckled rattlesnakes show considerable variation in body size when compared to mainland source subspecies. In addition to previously known instances of gigantism on Angel de la Guarda and dwarfism on El Muerto, various degrees of body size decrease have occurred frequently in this taxon, with dwarfed rattlesnakes occurring mostly on small, recently isolated, land-bridge islands. Regression models using the Akaike information criterion (AIC showed that mean SVL of insular populations was most strongly correlated with island area, suggesting the influence of selection for different body size optima for islands of different size. Allometric differences in head size of giant and dwarf rattlesnakes revealed patterns consistent with shifts to larger and smaller prey, respectively.Our data provide the first example of a clear relationship between body size and island area in a squamate reptile species; among vertebrates this pattern has been previously documented in few insular mammals. This finding suggests that selection for body size is influenced by changes in community dynamics that are related to graded differences in area over

  12. Flora omanikud tülis / Inno Tähismaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tähismaa, Inno, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Valdusfirma AS-i Flora Kommerts kahe vähemusaktsionäri Rita Kulli ja Elar Kruusma tehingutest Flora gruppi kuuluvate AS-i Flora Vara ja AS-i Flora Liit varaga. Diagramm: Vähemusaktsionärid näitasid võimu. Lisa: Flora juhid. Vt. samas: Kalleim osa kinnisvara

  13. Women in the Dictionary of Danish Insular Dialects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    Women in the Dictionary of Danish Insular Dialects In this presentation, I discuss the representation of female domains in the Dictionary of Danish Insular Dialects (DID; Ømålsordbogen ), an historical dictionary giving thorough descriptions of the dialects on the Danish isles 1750-1945. First...... volume appeared in 1992 but data collection and structure of the dictionary date back to the 1920s. It has been pointed out that the language, thoughts and domains of women until recently have been strongly neglected in for instance literary studies and history – and that the representations have been...... characterised by stereotypical images. This point has also been made as regards dictionaries (Hageberg 1990, choice of vocabulary; Mattisson 2006, data and examples). As for DID, however, female domains (‘food’, ‘clothes’, ‘milk’ etc.) are thoroughly registered in the collections and described in the dictionary...

  14. Tobacco dependence, the insular cortex and the hypocretin connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use is a major cause of disease and premature death in the United States. Nicotine is considered the key component of tobacco responsible for addiction in human smokers. Accumulating evidence supports an important role for the hypocretin (orexin) neuropeptide system in regulating the reinforcing properties of most major drugs of abuse, including nicotine. Here, data showing that nicotine activates hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, and that disruption of hypocretin transmission decreases nicotine self-administration behavior in rats will be reviewed. Recent findings suggesting that plasma hypocretin levels may be related to the magnitude of cigarette craving in abstinent smokers will be discussed. Finally, data suggesting that hypocretin transmission in the insular cortex may play an important role in regulating nicotine self-administration behavior in rats will be reviewed. This latter finding may provide mechanistic insight into the apparent disruption of tobacco addiction reported in human smokers with stroke-associated damage to the insular cortex. PMID:20816891

  15. Activation of the insular cortex during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, James; Nobrega, A C; McColl, R

    1997-01-01

    role as a site for regulation of autonomic activity. 2. Eight subjects were studied during voluntary active cycling and passively induced cycling. Additionally, four of the subjects underwent passive movement combined with electrical stimulation of the legs. 3. Increases in regional cerebral blood flow...... during active, but not passive cycling. There were no significant changes in rCBF for the right insula. Also, the magnitude of rCBF increase for leg primary motor areas was significantly greater for both active cycling and passive cycling combined with electrical stimulation compared with passive cycling...... alone. 5. These findings provide the first evidence of insular activation during dynamic exercise in humans, suggesting that the left insular cortex may serve as a site for cortical regulation of cardiac autonomic (parasympathetic) activity. Additionally, findings during passive cycling with electrical...

  16. EARLY MIOCENE INSULAR VERTEBRATES FROM LAERRU (SARDINIA, ITALY: PRELIMINARY NOTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL ZOBOLI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new vertebrate assemblage was discovered in an Early  Miocene lacustrine deposit near the village of Laerru (northern Sardinia, Italy. The assemblage is composed by mammals, reptiles and a bird. The mammals are represented by three ruminants (cf. Sardomeryx oschiriensis, Pecora indet. small size and Pecora indet. very small size and one dormouse (Peridyromys aff. murinus while reptiles are represented by turtles (Trionychidae? and crocodiles (cf. Diplocynodon sp.. A bird bone fragment is also reported and referred to Palaeortyx cf. brevipes (Galliformes. The assemblage can be related to the “Oschiri fauna”, one of the oldest endemic insular fauna known in the Mediterranean. The age of the Laerru vertebrates is early-middle Burdigalian, between 18.8 and 18.3 Ma, corresponding to the mammal unit of the main land MN3. The predominance of ruminants confirms the good capacity of these mammals to colonize insular environments.

  17. Lichen flora of Tomaszow Mazowiecki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydzak, J; Krysiak, K

    1970-01-01

    In Tomaszow Mazowiecki, a small town in Poland with the air highly contaminated with gases (SO/sub 2/, CS/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S), a flora of epiphytic and epilithic lichens is present. Lichens are not indicators of air pollution. They are indicators of a complex of microclimatic conditions that enable them to maintain a positive balance of assimilation and of respiratory processes in a given station within the town as well as in natural habitats. 58 references, 16 figures, 7 tables.

  18. The insular taste cortex contributes to odor quality coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G Veldhuizen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite distinct peripheral and central pathways, stimulation of both the olfactory and the gustatory systems may give rise to the sensation of sweetness. Whether there is a common central mechanism producing sweet quality sensations or two discrete mechanisms associated independently with gustatory and olfactory stimuli is currently unknown. Here we used fMRI to determine whether odor sweetness is represented in the piriform olfactory cortex, which is thought to code odor quality, or in the insular taste cortex, which is thought to code taste quality. Fifteen participants sampled two concentrations of a pure sweet taste (sucrose, two sweet food odors (chocolate and strawberry, and two sweet floral odors (lilac and rose. Replicating prior work we found that olfactory stimulation activated the piriform, orbitofrontal and insular cortices. Of these regions, only the insula also responded to sweet taste. More importantly, the magnitude of the response to the food odors, but not to the non-food odors, in this region of insula was positively correlated with odor sweetness rating. These findings demonstrate that insular taste cortex contributes to odor quality coding by representing the taste-like aspects of food odors. Since the effect was specific to the food odors, and only food odors are experienced with taste, we suggest this common central mechanism develops as a function of experiencing flavors.

  19. Lichen flora of London: effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundon, J R

    1967-01-01

    There is good, but not conclusive, evidence that sulfur dioxide is the pollutant which deleteriously affects lichens. The distribution of many lichens in London corresponds closely with the concentrations of sulfur dioxide. Low humidity is also a factor. Apart from actually killing lichens, increasing air pollution can render certain species incapable of colonizing new surfaces, although the old thalli themselves are able to survive as relicts. Until the early nineteenth century air pollution affected the lichen flora only in the small built-up area of London. The halting of building around London since 1938 has brought stability to the lichen vegetation of the area, and since then changes have been minor ones. Recent changes in pollution emissions have had little effect on the lichen flora between 1950 and 1967. This is to be expected as sulfur dioxide concentrations have remained fairly constant at ground level.

  20. Insular epilepsy: similarities to temporal lobe epilepsy case report Epilepsia insular: similaridades à epilepsia do lobo temporal - relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR CUKIERT

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Insular epilepsy has been rarely reported and its clinical and electrographic features are poorly understood. The electrographic study of the insula is difficult since it is hidden from the brain surface by the frontal and temporal lobe. A 48 years-old woman started having simple partial autonomic and complex partial seizures with automatisms and ictal left arm paresis 8 years prior to admission. Seizure's frequency was 1 per week. Pre-operative EEG showed a right temporal lobe focus. Neuropsychological testing disclosed right fronto-temporal dysfunction. MRI showed a right anterior insular cavernous angioma. Intraoperative ECoG obtained after spliting of the sylvian fissure showed independent spiking from the insula and temporal lobe and insular spikes that spread to the temporal lobe. The cavernous angioma and the surrounding gliotic tissue were removed and the temporal lobe was left in place. Post-resection ECoG still disclosed independent temporal and insular spiking with a lower frequency. The patient has been seizure-free since surgery. Insular epilepsy may share many clinical and electroencephalographic features with temporal lobe epilepsy.A epilepsia insular tem sido raramente relatada e suas características clínicas e eletrencefalográficas são pobremente conhecidas. O estudo eletrográfico da ínsula é difícil já que ela se encontra recoberta pelos lobos frontal e temporal. Uma paciente, de 48 anos, começou a ter crises parciais simples autonômicas e crises parciais complexas com automatismos e paresia crítica de membro superior esquerdo 8 anos antes desta internação. A frequência de crises era de 1/semana . O EEG pré-operatório mostrou foco temporal direito. Testagem neuropsicológica demonstrou disfunção fronto-temporal direita. RMN demonstrou cavernoma insular anterior direito. A eletrocorticografia intraoperatória obtida após a abertura da fissura sylviana demonstrou a presença de espículas independentes na

  1. GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COASTAL FLORA OF THE AZOV SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiychuk V. P.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative indicators of the coastal flora of the Azov Sea are presented. Geographical features of the flora of the region have been analyzed. The major endemic complexes of the flora being investigated are described.

  2. Natural Vegetation of the Flora area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebsebe, Demissew; Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea......A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  3. Anticancer Drugs from Marine Flora: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sithranga Boopathy, N.; Kathiresan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharide...

  4. Geographical constraints are stronger than invasion patterns for European urban floras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ricotta

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that affect invasion success of alien species is an important prerequisite for the effective management of present and future aliens. To gain insight into this matter we asked the following questions: Are the geographical patterns of species distributions in urban floras different for native compared with alien plant species? Does the introduction of alien species contribute to the homogenization of urban floras? We used a Mantel test on Jaccard dissimilarity matrices of 30 urban floras across the British Isles, Italy and central Europe to compare the spatial distribution of native species with four classes of alien species: archaeophytes, all neophytes, non-invasive neophytes, and invasive neophytes. Archaeophytes and neophytes are species that were introduced into Europe before and after 1500 AD, respectively. To analyze the homogenizing effect of alien species on the native urban floras, we tested for differences in the average dissimilarity of individual cities from their group centroid in ordination space. Our results show that the compositional patterns of native and alien species seem to respond to the same environmental drivers, such that all four classes of alien species were significantly related to native species across urban floras. In this framework, alien species may have an impact on biogeographic patterns of urban floras in ways that reflect their history of introduction and expansion: archaeophytes and invasive neophytes tended to homogenize, while non-invasive neophytes tended to differentiate urban floras.

  5. Phylogeny and adaptation shape the teeth of insular mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledevin, Ronan; Chevret, Pascale; Ganem, Guila; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Hardouin, Emilie A; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Pisanu, Benoit; da Luz Mathias, Maria; Schlager, Stefan; Auffray, Jean-Christophe; Renaud, Sabrina

    2016-02-10

    By accompanying human travels since prehistorical times, the house mouse dispersed widely throughout the world, and colonized many islands. The origin of the travellers determined the phylogenetic source of the insular mice, which encountered diverse ecological and environmental conditions on the various islands. Insular mice are thus an exceptional model to disentangle the relative role of phylogeny, ecology and climate in evolution. Molar shape is known to vary according to phylogeny and to respond to adaptation. Using for the first time a three-dimensional geometric morphometric approach, compared with a classical two-dimensional quantification, the relative effects of size variation, phylogeny, climate and ecology were investigated on molar shape diversity across a variety of islands. Phylogeny emerged as the factor of prime importance in shaping the molar. Changes in competition level, mostly driven by the presence or absence of the wood mouse on the different islands, appeared as the second most important effect. Climate and size differences accounted for slight shape variation. This evidences a balanced role of random differentiation related to history of colonization, and of adaptation possibly related to resource exploitation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Anticancer drugs from marine flora: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithranga Boopathy, N; Kathiresan, K

    2010-01-01

    Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides. The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumour activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of DNA, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine floras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds. Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide a baseline information for promoting the marine flora-based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease.

  7. Flora asociada a sitios minados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisel Herrero-Hechavarría

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En Ocujal de Mayarí, provincia Holguín, se realizó una investigación con el objetivo de conocer en qué medida se recupera la biodiversidad y el endemismo por medio de la flora asociada a sitios minados, recultivados después de sustituir plantaciones de Casuarina equisetifolia. Para su ejecución se talaron en áreas minadas parcelas de Casuarina (especie pionera de 4, 6, 7 y 9 años de edad para poner en su lugar Pinus cubensis, la especie autóctona del sitio. Se realizó una medición detallada del sotobosque en las distintas parcelas replicadas de pino, en las cuales se identificaron las especies en los diferentes estratos, así como la cantidad de individuos por especie y familias, al igual que otros datos de interés: endemismo, distribución y forma vital.

  8. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Matsudaira

    Full Text Available A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old. We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between

  9. The association of insular stroke with lesion volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishanth Kodumuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The insula has been implicated in many sequelae of stroke. It is the area most commonly infarcted in people with post-stroke arrhythmias, loss of thermal sensation, hospital acquired pneumonia, and apraxia of speech. We hypothesized that some of these results reflect the fact that: (1 ischemic strokes that involve the insula are larger than strokes that exclude the insula (and therefore are associated with more common and persistent deficits; and (2 insular involvement is a marker of middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion. We analyzed MRI scans of 861 patients with acute ischemic hemispheric strokes unselected for functional deficits, and compared infarcts involving the insula to infarcts not involving the insula using t-tests for continuous variables and chi square tests for dichotomous variables. Mean infarct volume was larger for infarcts including the insula (n = 232 versus excluding the insula (n = 629: 65.8 ± 78.8 versus 10.2 ± 15.9 cm3 (p < 0.00001. Even when we removed lacunar infarcts, mean volume of non-lacunar infarcts that included insula (n = 775 were larger than non-lacunar infarcts (n = 227 that excluded insula: 67.0 cm3 ± 79.2 versus 11.5 cm3 ± 16.7 (p < 0.00001. Of infarcts in the 90th percentile for volume, 87% included the insula (χ2 = 181.8; p < 0.00001. Furthermore, 79.0% infarcts due to MCA occlusion included the insula; 78.5% of infarcts without MCA occlusion excluded the insula (χ2 = 93.1; p < 0.0001. The association between insular damage and acute or chronic sequelae likely often reflects the fact that insular infarct is a marker of large infarcts caused by occlusion of the MCA more than a specific role of the insula in a range of functions. Particularly in acute stroke, some deficits may also be due to ischemia of the MCA or ICA territory caused by large vessel occlusion.

  10. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  11. Tonsillar Surface Micro Flora: Does it Truly Represent Pathological Tonsillar Flora?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Syed Nadeem Ul; Ayub, Zeeshan; Ahmed, Azeema

    2017-01-01

    To determine the best method of identifying core tonsillar flora. Quasi-experimental study. ENT Department, Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from September 2013 to October 2015. Eighty-seven patients of recurrent tonsillitis undergoing tonsillectomy were included. All the patients, after being anaesthetised, had surface swabs taken from the tonsillar surface followed by tonsillar aspiration with a 5cc syringe. Following tonsillectomy, the tonsils were sent for culture of core flora. All three specimens from each patient were cultured according to established criteria. The patient population had 33 (37%) female and 54 (62%) male patients. Flora of 12 (13.8%) surface swabs and 68 (78.2%) tonsillar aspirates matched the flora cultured from core of the tonsils. Chi-square test showed this difference to be significant (p-value flora as compared to surface swabs.

  12. GLOBAL AND INSULAR DIMENSIONS: SPACE IN SARDINIA BLUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Chiarini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus attention on the dimension of space in Sardinia Blues (Publisher Bompiani, 2008, by Flavio Soriga. This is justified by the centrality of space throughout the novel and by the title itself. The island of Sardinia is not just a mere setting, but it is most importantly the articulating and conducting thread for all the themes related to the characters’ self-identity and existential issues. The regional Sardinian space, perceived as stereotyped and folkloristic, and the global space, seen as a source of both desire and fear, are problematized by the three young self-proclaimed “pirates of the island” in their long hours of idleness. It is our intention to highlight the conflicts of this marginal insular condition, heavily contaminated by an inevitable process of change, in Soriga’s simultaneously innovative and nostalgic fragmented text, filled with songs’ extracts and languages hybrids.

  13. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henje Blom, Eva; Connolly, Colm G; Ho, Tiffany C; LeWinn, Kaja Z; Mobayed, Nisreen; Han, Laura; Paulus, Martin P; Wu, Jing; Simmons, Alan N; Yang, Tony T

    2015-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad-happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL). Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli. The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group. Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression. Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Composition and characteristics of Libyan flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition, life forms and the distribution of plants in Libya were studied. The results show that in Libya there are 2103 species that belong to 856 genera and 155 families. The distribution among Libyan seed plants was characterized by a high proportion of herbs (annual to perennial, unlike the low number of woody (tree and shrub species; these have an important influence on the structure of floral composition. The geographic element of the flora was predominantly tropical and Mediterranean. The local plants belong to representative tropical desert flora. The presence and distribution characteristics of flora in Libya show that climate, environmental condition, ecological amplitude and adaptive capacity of the plants have a determinative influence on the floristic stock in the area studies.

  15. Changes of flora-information over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Changes in Flora-information over time can be divided into three different categories: (1) “Real changes” (species enter the region by natural dispersal or become extinct). (2) “Floristic changes” (species known from elsewhere are discovered). (3) “Taxonomic changes” (species are discovered...... to the Linnaean methods, but these methods were also applied to the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea before the end of the 18th century. An intensive activity involving floristic and taxonomic changes took place in Ethiopia and Eritrea in the 19th century, particularly before ca. 1850, after which a period....... Recent studies of the Orchidaceae family in Scandinavia has demonstrated considerable changes in our information about that family in Scandinavia during the last 50 years, both real, floristic and taxonomic changes. Similar, or even greater, changes are to be expected in the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  16. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerasimyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis Keywords: cemeteries, Odessa, flora, plants, ekobiomorphs.

  17. Flora-On: Occurrence data of the vascular flora of mainland Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Júlia; Francisco, Ana; Porto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The Flora-On dataset currently includes 253,310 occurrence records for the class Embryopsidae (vascular plants), comprising data collated via the platform http://flora-on.pt/ relating to observation records of vascular plants across mainland Portugal. Observations are uploaded directly to the database primarily by experienced botanists and naturalists, typically on a weekly basis, and consist of geo-referenced data points for species (or infraspecific taxa) along with their date of observation and phenological state. The Flora-On project aims to compile and make publicly accessible chorological, ecological, morphological and photographic information for the entire vascular flora of Portugal. The project's website offers powerful query and visualization capabilities, of which we highlight the probabilistic bioclimatic and phenological queries which operate based on the empirical density distributions of species in those variables. Flora-On was created and continues to be maintained by volunteers who are Associate members of Sociedade Portuguesa de Botânica (Botanical Society of Portugal). Given its focus on research-grade and current data, the Flora-On project represents a significant contribution to the knowledge of the present distribution and status of the Portuguese flora.

  18. 76 FR 66035 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for Insular Watch and Jewelry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for Insular Watch and Jewelry Program Benefits AGENCY: International Trade Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort to reduce...

  19. La proyección colonial de Chile a la Patagonia Insular en el siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Urbina Carrasco, María Ximena

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the geopolitical consequences of the shipwreck of the English frigate Wager and the landfall of the ship Anna into the coasts of the Western Insular Patagonia in 1741 are presented, which were part of the fleet of George Anson. The news reporting the English presence in the deserted and unknown insular and coastal territory southernmost Chiloé, and which had disseminated towards the end of the continent, promoted the deployment of different actions tending to make presence no...

  20. Contributo alla conoscenza della flora lichenica epifitica dell'Umbria

    OpenAIRE

    Ravera, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    CONTRIBUTION TO THE EPIPHYTIC LICHEN FLORA OF UMBRIA (C. ITALY). 47 species of epiphytic lichens are reported as additions to the poorly known lichen flora of Umbria. The ecology and distribution of selected species are discussed.

  1. Insular cortex involvement in declarative memory deficits in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lingjiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroimaging studies have proved that hippocampus relate to the deficient of memory in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Many studies in healthy subjects also shown that insular cortex (IC be involved in the declarative memory. This study was designed to investigate whether insular cortex is involved in declarative memory deficits in patients with PTSD. Methods Twelve subjects with PTSD and 12 subjects without PTSD victims underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects performed encoding and retrieval memory tasks during the fMRI session. Voxel-based morphometry method was used to analyze gray-matter volume, and the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2 was used to analyze activated brain areas when performing tasks. Results Grey matter volume was significantly reduced bilaterally in the insular cortex of PTSD subjects than non-PTSD. PTSD group also had lower level of activation in insular cortex when performing word encoding and retrieval tasks than non-PTSD group. Conclusion The study provides evidence on structural and function abnormalities of the insular cortex in patients with PTSD. Reduced grey-matter volume in insular cortex may be associated with declarative memory deficits in patients with PTSD.

  2. Protein synthesis and intestinal flora in piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namioka, Shigeo

    1980-01-01

    Utilization of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) by the flora in piglet colon was studied by administration of 15 N-urea and 15 N-ammonium salt to aseptic piglets and to SPF piglets which had been acclimatized to a clean environment after settling of intestinal flora. Administration of 15 N-urea did not result in 15 N uptake by any tissue-constituting protein at any site of the aseptic piglets, almost all 15 N being excreted into the urine. In contrast, the tissue and skeletal muscle of the SPF piglets showed incorporated 15 N from urea. Urea was converted, by urease of the intestinal flora, into NH 3 , which was absorbed from the mucosa of the intestinal tract to reach the liver where it was synthesized into glutamic acid, followed by conversion into various amino acids. 15 N-ammonium administration produced a significant amount of 15 N even in the tissue protein of the aseptic piglets. After NPN administration, the liver protein-constituting amino acid fraction showed 15 N-labeling of almost all essential, as well as non-essential amino acids. Culture of colonic flora with 15 N-urea revealed 15 N-labeling of all amino acids that constituted bacterial cells, indicating the presence of urea recycling mediated by bacterial urease in single rumen animals.(Chiba, N.)

  3. Mariene flora en fauna te boek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.; Gittenberger, A.

    2006-01-01

    Het aantal boeken over de Nederlandse flora en fauna neemt gestaag toe. En ook de afgelopen jaren zijn er weer aardig wat nieuwe titels uitgekomen over het Nederlandse zeeleven. Op deze pagina's vier van die boeken. Eerder, in de Onderwatersport van april 2005, is ook al een aantal titels

  4. LACTIC FLORA-LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Colombo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The EC Regulation 2073/2005 (1 requires that food processors evaluate the capability of ready-to-use (RTE products to support the development of Listeria monocytogenes when their pH and aW values are favourable to the growth of this microorganism. It is renown that the lactic flora plays an important role in many different foods, both from a technological and a food safety standpoint. This study was aimed to observe the behaviour and the potential anti-Listeria effect of some natural lactic flora present in Italian liver patè crostini (chicken heart and liver, anchovies, onions, capers, starch, no added preservatives through the Combase Predictor – Max Growth Rate predictive software. The natural lactic flora of the crostini demonstrated a variable capability to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes which depends upon : the concentration of the lactic flora at the beginning of the shelf life period and the subsequent lag phase, the possible release of anti-Listeria substances, and the maximum growth rate.

  5. De flora van het Urbaan district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, Ton

    1999-01-01

    The urban areas in the Netherlands can be considered as a separate flora district; the so-called “Urban district”. It consists of large stony areas, with a “steppe”-like environment and a deviant climate. Characteristic for urban areas are often disturbed and trampled communities of ruderals and

  6. Globalization of flora: inviting worldwide ecosystem disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Carey

    2002-01-01

    Meeting the needs of expanding human populations has changed land use worldwide and presented a biodiversity crisis. Emerging related concerns are threats to native species from homogenization of world flora and the spread of exotic species by human activities (Soule 1990, United States Congress, Office of Technology Assessment 1993, Wilcove and others 1998, Soule and...

  7. Microbial Flora of Partially Processed Periwinkles (Tympantotonus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of microbial flora of partially processed periwinkles (Tympanotonus fuscatus) sold in six markets in Port Harcourt was undertaken for twelve weeks. Results show that all samples of periwinkles were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Escherichia coil, Staphepidermidis sp., Micrococcus sp., ...

  8. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease. Inhibits pathogenic enteric bacteria. Decrease luminal pH; Secrete bacteriocidal proteins; Colonization resistance; Block epithelial binding – induce MUC2. Improves epithelial and mucosal barrier integrity. Produce ...

  9. Naturalized alien flora of the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Essl, Franz; Lenzner, Bernd; Dawson, Wayne; Kreft, Holger; Weigelt, Patrick; Winter, Marten; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Antonova, Liubov A.; Barcelona, Julie F.; Cabezas, Francisco J.; Cárdenas, Dairon; Cárdenas-Toro, Juliana; Castaño, Nicolás; Chacón, Eduardo; Chatelain, Cyrille; Dullinger, Stefan; Ebel, Aleksandr L.; Figueiredo, Estrela; Fuentes, Nicol; Genovesi, Piero; Groom, Quentin J.; Henderson, Lesley; Inderjit,; Kupriyanov, Andrey; Masciadri, Silvana; Maurel, Noëlie; Meerman, Jan; Morozova, Olga; Moser, Dietmar; Nickrent, Daniel L.; Nowak, Pauline M.; Pagad, Shyama; Patzelt, Annette; Pelser, Pieter B.; Seebens, Hanno; Shu, Wen Sheng; Thomas, Jacob; Velayos, Mauricio; Weber, Ewald; Wieringa, Jan J.; Baptiste, María P.; Kleunen, Van Mark

    2017-01-01

    Using the recently built Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database, containing data on the distribution of naturalized alien plants in 483 mainland and 361 island regions of the world, we describe patterns in diversity and geographic distribution of naturalized and invasive plant species,

  10. A new way of editing a flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van der W.J.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Akoègninou, A.; Yédomonhan, H.

    2010-01-01

    Modern electronic tools have become common tools of most scientists. Flora writers and other botanists producing large manuscripts with a certain fixed structure may go even further and use the so-called Mail Merge option in a word processor such as Microsoft Word™. This tool allows structuring a

  11. Anticancer Drugs from Marine Flora: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sithranga Boopathy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine floras, such as bacteria, actinobacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, microalgae, seaweeds, mangroves, and other halophytes are extremely important oceanic resources, constituting over 90% of the oceanic biomass. They are taxonomically diverse, largely productive, biologically active, and chemically unique offering a great scope for discovery of new anticancer drugs. The marine floras are rich in medicinally potent chemicals predominantly belonging to polyphenols and sulphated polysaccharides. The chemicals have displayed an array of pharmacological properties especially antioxidant, immunostimulatory, and antitumour activities. The phytochemicals possibly activate macrophages, induce apoptosis, and prevent oxidative damage of DNA, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. In spite of vast resources enriched with chemicals, the marine floras are largely unexplored for anticancer lead compounds. Hence, this paper reviews the works so far conducted on this aspect with a view to provide a baseline information for promoting the marine flora-based anticancer research in the present context of increasing cancer incidence, deprived of the cheaper, safer, and potent medicines to challenge the dreadful human disease.

  12. Does circumcision alter the periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised boys and to evaluate the effect of circumcision on alteration of periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora. Materials and Methods: Pattern of periurethral bacterial flora before and after circumcision was studied ...

  13. User's manual for the FLORA equilibrium and stability code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freis, R.P.; Cohen, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This document provides a user's guide to the content and use of the two-dimensional axisymmetric equilibrium and stability code FLORA. FLORA addresses the low-frequency MHD stability of long-thin axisymmetric tandem mirror systems with finite pressure and finite-larmor-radius effects. FLORA solves an initial-value problem for interchange, rotational, and ballooning stability

  14. Specific and differential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades by unfamiliar taste in the insular cortex of the behaving rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, D E; Hazvi, S; Rosenblum, K; Seger, R; Dudai, Y

    1998-12-01

    Rats were given to drink an unfamiliar taste solution under conditions that result in long-term memory of that taste. The insular cortex, which contains the taste cortex, was then removed and assayed for activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades by using antibodies to the activated forms of various MAPKs. Extracellular responsive kinase 1-2 (ERK1-2) in the cortical homogenate was significantly activated within taste solution, without alteration in the total level of the ERK1-2 proteins. The activity subsided to basal levels within ERK1-2 was not activated when the taste was made familiar. The effect of the unfamiliar taste was specific to the insular cortex. Jun N-terminal kinase 1-2 (JNK1-2) was activated by drinking the taste but with a delayed time course, whereas the activity of Akt kinase and p38MAPK remained unchanged. Elk-1, a member of the ternary complex factor and an ERK/JNK downstream substrate, was activated with a time course similar to that of ERK1-2. Microinjection of a reversible inhibitor of MAPK/ERK kinase into the insular cortex shortly before exposure to the novel taste in a conditioned taste aversion training paradigm attenuated long-term taste aversion memory without significantly affecting short-term memory or the sensory, motor, and motivational faculties required to express long-term taste aversion memory. It was concluded that ERK and JNK are specifically and differentially activated in the insular cortex after exposure to a novel taste, and that this activation is required for consolidation of long-term taste memory.

  15. SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPRING FLORA OF CEMETERIES OF ODESSA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The spring flora was analyzed on six cemeteries in Odessa, such cemeteries as Vtoroe xristianskoe, Troickoe, Tairovskoe, Trete evrejskoe, Oficerskoe (Dmitrievskое and Severnoe. There were found and identified 235 species of plants, which belong to 186 genera and 67 families. There was taken a taxonomic analysis of flora of the cemeteries also of spreding of plants by ekobiomorphs, the analysis of hronotyp and origin. The proportion of the flora on the cemeteries is 1:2,8:3,5. The dominant family of the flora of Odessa’s cemeteries is Asteraceae. There are other leading families such as Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae. Herbs and trees are dominant among the life forms. Mesophytes and kseromezophytes are in the majority among hihromorphs. Heliophytes are on the first place by adapting to the light. Our results showed that the adventitious plants occupy up to 44% of all amount of plants at the cemeteries in Odessa. Kenophytes is a dominant group among them. Floragenetics analysis revealed the dominance of the plants from Asia. There have been allocated plants that were met at all six cemeteries independently of the location religious and age characteristics of the cemetery. "Core" of the flora of Odessa’s cemetery have made weed Acer negundo L., Ballota nigra L. and decorative Hedera helix L., Centaurea dealbata Willd., Buxus sempervirens L., Convallaria majalis L., Sedum kamtschaticum Fisch., Thuja occidentalis L., Hemerocalis fulva (L. L. There were found 4 species of plants that belong to the rare and endangered plants of Odessa’s region: Convallaria majalis L., Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur, Clematis integrifolia L., Paeonia tenuifolia L. Moreover Convallaria majalis L. grows on all six investigated cemeteries. Also two species: Hyacinthella leucophaea (K. Koch Schur and Clematis

  16. THE GARGANO TERRE ROSSE INSULAR FAUNAS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEDERICO MASINI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available After forty years from its discovery, the history of the field surveys and of the researches on the fossiliferous deposits on Gargano is briefly reported. The Gargano fauna belongs to the Abruzzo-Apulian Palaeobioprovince (including also Scontrone and Palena, Abruzzo. The fossil assemblage comprehends all the classes of terrestrial vertebrates: Reptilia, Amphibia, Aves and Mammalia. The faunal composition is unbalanced and presents the features of a typical insular endemic fauna. The bulk of the assemblage is composed of small mammals and birds. Based on literature, we report the most characteristic features, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary remarks on a list of mammals, focusing particularly on the adaptations of the most endemic taxa. Moreover, a biochronological scheme of the major faunal events is proposed and illustrated. Although still imperfect, the scheme is the first synopsis of all the biochronological and taxonomical information on mammals so far available. Eventually, the hypotheses on the origin and modes of colonisation are summarized and shortly discussed. From this overview the Gargano fauna is indeed of great interest for studies of evolution and biogeography. Nonetheless, there are persistent uncertainties on its age and origin, as well as on the age of infilling of the karstic fissure system of this unique fossiliferous locality. 

  17. Distribution and biology of Indo-Pacific insular hypogeal shrimps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciolek, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ten species of caridean shrimps, representing nine genera in five families, have been found in exposures of the marine water table at 28 islands from Hawaii to the western Indian Ocean. Synthesis of literature information and personal observations indicate that, as a group, these shrimps are characterized by red body pigment, reduced but pigmented eyes, euryhalinity, a proclivity for interstitial seawater in limestone or lava rock, generalized food requirements, and probable pre-Pleistocene origins. The shrimps have not been found in waters cooler than about 20°C.Species are often solitary, but as many as five are known to coexist. Six of the species have widely scattered populations, some as far apart as Hawaii and the Red Sea. Passive oceanic dispersal is endorsed as a general explanation for such apparently disjunct distributions. On the basis of an assumed primary habitat requirement of interstitial marine water, which could include that in shallow submerged rock as well as that in emergent (insular) rock, I hypothesize a much more cosmopolitan distribution of these shrimps in the Indo-Pacific Tropical Zone.

  18. Posterior insular cortex – a site of vestibular–somatosensory interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Bernhard; zu Eulenburg, Peter; Best, Christoph; Geber, Christian; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Birklein, Frank; Dieterich, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Background In previous imaging studies the insular cortex (IC) has been identified as an essential part of the processing of a wide spectrum of perception and sensorimotor integration. Yet, there are no systematic lesion studies in a sufficient number of patients examining whether processing of vestibular and the interaction of somatosensory and vestibular signals take place in the IC. Methods We investigated acute stroke patients with lesions affecting the IC in order to fill this gap. In detail, we explored signs of a vestibular tone imbalance such as the deviation of the subjective visual vertical (SVV). We applied voxel-lesion behaviour mapping analysis in 27 patients with acute unilateral stroke. Results Our data demonstrate that patients with lesions of the posterior IC have an abnormal tilt of SVV. Furthermore, re-analysing data of 20 patients from a previous study, we found a positive correlation between thermal perception contralateral to the stroke and the severity of the SVV tilt. Conclusions We conclude that the IC is a sensory brain region where different modalities might interact. PMID:24392273

  19. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorpas, Antonis A.; Lasaridi, Katia; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Chroni, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste framework directive has set clear waste prevention procedures. • Household Compositional analysis. • Waste management plans. • Zero waste approach. • Waste generation. - Abstract: Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes

  20. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorpas, Antonis A., E-mail: antonis.zorpas@ouc.ac.cy [Cyprus Open University, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, Environmental Conservation and Management, P.O. Box 12794, 2252 Latsia, Nicosia (Cyprus); Lasaridi, Katia, E-mail: klasaridi@hua.gr [Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea (Greece); Voukkali, Irene [Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, ENVITECH LTD, Department of Research and Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 (Cyprus); Loizia, Pantelitsa, E-mail: irenevoukkali@envitech.org [Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, ENVITECH LTD, Department of Research and Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 (Cyprus); Chroni, Christina [Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea (Greece)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Waste framework directive has set clear waste prevention procedures. • Household Compositional analysis. • Waste management plans. • Zero waste approach. • Waste generation. - Abstract: Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes.

  1. HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. V.K. Umrao, VKU

    2017-01-01

    The HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS), is an international-peer reviewed, open access journal that serves as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of R & D advances and innovations in all facets of Horticultural Science (Pomology, Olericulture, Floriculture, Post Harvest Technology, Plant Biotechnology, and Medicinal & Aromatic Plants etc.) and its allied branches on an international level. HRS is officially published quarterly (March, June, September and December) every year, in Engl...

  2. Abstracts: HortFlora Res. Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Umrao, Dr. V.K.

    2014-01-01

    Overview The HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS), is an international-peer reviewed, open access journal that serves as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of R & D advances and innovations in all facets of Horticultural Science (Pomology, Olericulture, Floriculture, Post Harvest Technology, Plant Biotechnology, and Medicinal & Aromatic Plants etc.) and its allied branches on an international level. HRS is officially published quarterly (March, June, September and December) every y...

  3. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  4. Aportaciones a la flora de Galicia, VIII

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Vigide, F.; García Martínez, X.R.; Silva Pando, F.J.; González Domínguez, J.; Blanco Dios, J.B.; Rodríguez González, A.; Rial Pousa, S.; Álvarez Graña, D.; Caamaño Portela, J.L.; Pino Pérez, J.J.; Pino Pérez, R.

    2006-01-01

    Se citan 37 plantas de variado interés para la flora gallega. Se incluyen 8 novedades de carácter regional (Pteris incompleta Cav., Potentilla recta L., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Solanum sisymbrifolium Lam., Knautia integrifolia (L.) Bertol., Senecio inaequidens DC. Melica arrecta G. Kunze y Stipa clausa Trab.), 17 novedades provinciales (Vandenboschia speciosa (Willd.) G. Kunkel, Ranunculus bupleuroides Brot., Silene niceensis All., Armeria transmontana (Samp.) Lawr., Alcea rosea...

  5. Hamiguitan Range: A sanctuary for native flora

    OpenAIRE

    Amoroso, Victor B.; Aspiras, Reyno A.

    2010-01-01

    Hamiguitan Range is one of the wildlife sanctuaries in the Philippines having unique biodiversity resources that are at risk due to forest degradation and conversion of forested land to agriculture, shifting cultivation, and over-collection. Thus, it is the main concern of this research to identify and assess the endemic and endangered flora of Hamiguitan Range. Field reconnaissance and transect walk showed five vegetation types namely: agro-ecosystem, dipterocarp, montane, typical mossy and ...

  6. Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, M.; Willard, E.E.; Efferding, S.

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ''conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,'' and to ''outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.'' The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ''unique vulnerabilities'' were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas' experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry

  7. Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.; Willard, E.E.; Efferding, S. [Ensys Energy & Systems, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

  8. The flora of Oktibbeha County, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidolf, A.; McDaniel, S.; Nuttle, T.

    2002-01-01

    We surveyed the flora of Oktibbeha County, Mississippi, U.S.A., from February 1994 to 1996. Occupying 118 square kilometers in east-central Mississippi, Oktibbeha County lies among 3 physiographic regions that include, from west to east, Interior Flatwoods, Pontotoc Ridge, and Black Prairie. Accordingly, the county harbors a diverse flora. Based on field work, as well as an extensive review of published literature and herbarium records at IBE and MISSA, we recorded a total of 1,148 taxa (1,125 species, 7 hybrids, 16 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 514 genera in 160 families, over 85% of all taxa documented were native. Compared to 3 other counties in east-central Mississippi, Oktibbeha County has the second largest recorded flora. The number of state-listed (endangered, threatened, or of special concern) taxa (67) documented in this survey far exceeds that reported from any other county in the region. Three introduced species, Ilex cornuta Lindl. & Paxton, Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Carrie??re, and Nandina domestica Thunb., are reported in a naturalized state for the first time from Mississippi. We also describe 16 different plant communities belonging to 5 broad habitat categories: bottomland forests, upland forests and prairies, aquatic habitats, seepage areas, and human-influenced habitats. A detailed description of the vegetation associated with each of these communities is provided.

  9. Conjunctival bacterial flora in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmun Nahar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival flora refers to population of microorganisms that dwell within the eyes of healthy individuals and is important in maintaining a healthy ocular surface and normal conjunctival function. Conjunctival flora may be altered by a variety of factors that include age, immunosuppression and geography. Immune function is compromised in diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to see the pattern of conjunctival bacterial flora in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. This cross sectional study was carried out in BSMMU during the period of January 2011 to December 2011. Total 500 conjunctival swabs were collected from both eyes of 50 diabetic patients attending OPD of Endocrinology Department of BSMMU and 200 non-diabetic individuals. Significant number of culture was positive in diabetic patients (64.0% compared to that of non-diabetic individuals (38.0%. Staphylococcus epidermidis was predominant in both study groups (diabetic vs non-diabetic: 41.3% vs 65.26%. Staphylococcus aureus (15.22%, Escherichia coli (6.52% and Enterobacter (8.33% were isolated in diabetic patients. Rate of positive culture in both and single eyes were higher in diabetic (28%, 36.0% than that of non-diabetic individuals (9.5%, 28.5%. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2013; 7(1: 5-8

  10. Vaginal microbial flora and outcome of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Laura; Di Vico, Augusto; Nucci, Marta; Quagliozzi, Lorena; Spagnuolo, Terryann; Labianca, Antonietta; Bracaglia, Marina; Ianniello, Francesca; Caruso, Alessandro; Paradisi, Giancarlo

    2010-04-01

    The vaginal microflora of a healthy asymptomatic woman consists of a wide variety of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and species dominated by the facultative, microaerophilic, anaerobic genus Lactobacillus. The activity of Lactobacillus is essential to protect women from genital infections and to maintain the natural healthy balance of the vaginal flora. Increasing evidence associates abnormalities in vaginal flora during pregnancy with preterm labor and delivery with potential neonatal sequelae due to prematurity and poor perinatal outcome. Although this phenomenon is relatively common, even in populations of women at low risk for adverse events, the pathogenetic mechanism that leads to complications in pregnancy is still poorly understood. This review summarizes the current knowledge and uncertainties in defining alterations of vaginal flora in non-pregnant adult women and during pregnancy, and, in particular, investigates the issue of bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis. This could help specialists to identify women amenable to treatment during pregnancy leading to the possibility to reduce the preterm birth rate, preterm premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, neonatal, puerperal and maternal-fetal infectious diseases. Vaginal ecosystem study with the detection of pathogens is a key instrument in the prevention of preterm delivery, pPROM, chorioamnionitis, neonatal, puerperal and maternal-fetal infections.

  11. Altered Insular and Occipital Responses to Simulated Vertical Self-Motion in Patients with Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Riccelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPersistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD is a common functional vestibular disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of non-vertiginous dizziness and unsteadiness that are exacerbated by upright posture, self-motion, and exposure to complex or moving visual stimuli. Recent physiologic and neuroimaging data suggest that greater reliance on visual cues for postural control (as opposed to vestibular cues—a phenomenon termed visual dependence and dysfunction in central visuo-vestibular networks may be important pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying PPPD. Dysfunctions are thought to involve insular regions that encode recognition of the visual effects of motion in the gravitational field.MethodsWe tested for altered activity in vestibular and visual cortices during self-motion simulation obtained via a visual virtual-reality rollercoaster stimulation using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 15 patients with PPPD and 15 healthy controls (HCs. We compared between groups differences in brain responses to simulated displacements in vertical vs horizontal directions and correlated the difference in directional responses with dizziness handicap in patients with PPPD.ResultsHCs showed increased activity in the anterior bank of the central insular sulcus during vertical relative to horizontal motion, which was not seen in patients with PPPD. However, for the same comparison, dizziness handicap correlated positively with activity in the visual cortex (V1, V2, and V3 in patients with PPPD.ConclusionWe provide novel insight into the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying PPPD, including functional alterations in brain processes that affect balance control and reweighting of space-motion inputs to favor visual cues. For patients with PPPD, difficulties using visual data to discern the effects of gravity on self-motion may adversely affect balance control, particularly for individuals who simultaneously rely too heavily on visual

  12. The frequent shift to intermediate flora in preterm delivery cases after abnormal vaginal flora screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Takanori; Akimoto, Yumiko; Tanimoto, Hirotoshi; Teramoto, Mitsue; Teramoto, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The effect of screening and treatment for abnormal vaginal flora on the reduction of preterm deliveries remains controversial. We evaluated whether this screening and treatment reduces the preterm delivery rate for general-population pregnant women. Pregnant women of the Intervention group (n = 574) underwent the screening test and the treatment of vaginal metronidazole during the early second trimester, and those of the Control group (n = 1,161) did not. We compared the preterm delivery rate between these two groups. We also compared the profiles of vaginal flora of the preterm delivery cases with those of the pregnant women with a normal course. There was no significant difference in the preterm delivery rate between these two groups. However, in the preterm delivery cases, a frequent shift to intermediate flora was observed not before but after the screening in the Intervention group. This shift may explain why most of the previous studies failed in regard to the prevention of preterm deliveries. PMID:24762852

  13. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  14. Scheduling Model for Renewable Energy Sources Integration in an Insular Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo J. Osório

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Insular power systems represent an asset and an excellent starting point for the development and analysis of innovative tools and technologies. The integration of renewable energy resources that has taken place in several islands in the south of Europe, particularly in Portugal, has brought more uncertainty to production management. In this work, an innovative scheduling model is proposed, which considers the integration of wind and solar resources in an insular power system in Portugal, with a strong conventional generation basis. This study aims to show the benefits of increasing the integration of renewable energy resources in this insular power system, and the objectives are related to minimizing the time for which conventional generation is in operation, maximizing profits, reducing production costs, and consequently, reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  16. [The composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, D; Lin, Y; Jiang, X; Lan, L; Zhang, W; Wang, B X

    2017-03-02

    Objective: To explore the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora. Method: Twenty-four specimens were collected from pregnant Kunming mouse including 8 mice of early embryonic (12-13 days) gastrointestinal tissues, 8 cases of late embryonic (19-20 days)gastrointestinal tissues, 8 of late pregnancy placental tissues.The 24 samples were extracted by DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Result: The level of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actino-bacteria and Firmicutes were predominantin all specimens.The relative content of predominant bacterial phyla in each group: Proteobacteria (95.00%, 88.14%, 87.26%), Bacteroidetes(1.71%, 2.15%, 2.63%), Actino-Bacteria(1.16%, 4.10%, 3.38%), Firmicutes(0.75%, 2.62%, 2.01%). At the level of family, there were nine predominant bacterial families in which Enterobacteriaeae , Shewanel laceae and Moraxellaceae were dominant.The relative content of dominant bacterial family in eachgroup: Enterobacteriaeae (46.99%, 44.34%, 41.08%), Shewanellaceae (21.99%, 21.10%, 19.05%), Moraxellaceae (9.18%, 7.09%, 5.64%). From the species of flora, the flora from fetal gastrointestinal in early pregnancy and late pregnancy (65.44% and 62.73%) were the same as that from placenta tissue in the late pregnancy.From the abundance of bacteria, at the level of family, the same content of bacteria in three groups accounted for 78.16%, 72.53% and 65.78% respectively. Conclusion: It was proved that the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora were colonized. At the same time the bacteria are classified.

  17. Calodium (Capillaria hepaticum (Nematoda, Capillariidae in insular small rodent populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugmyrin Sergey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The data on the distribution of the nematode Calodium hepaticum (Bancroft 1893 Moravec 1982 (syn.: Capillaria hepatica, Hepaticola hepatica on the islands of Kizhi Archipelago are reported (N 62°00'; E 35°12'. Samples were collected on 18 islands and the mainland part of the Kizhi skerries region in the period from August 2005 till 2014. The method of partial helminthological dissection was applied to 346 specimens of rodents belonging to two species – the bank vole Myodes glareolus Schreber 1780 (301 spm. and the field vole Microtus agrestis Linnaeus 1761 (45 spm.. The prevalence and the abundance index of nematode were 16.6% and 1.1 in M. glareolus and 11.1%; 0.3 in M. agrestis, respectively. The highest prevalence and abundance of C. hepaticum were detected in mature voles. No sex-related differences were found. C. hepaticum was present in 12 of 19 sampling sites. On the islands where the sample number (host individuals was over 15, the highest prevalence and abundance values were 57% and 5.8 spm., respectively. Significant positive coefficients of correlation (Spearman’s and Pearson’s ones between nematode numbers and characteristics of the island were found in the pair «Prevalence – degree of isolation» (0.48 and 0.49. Single-factor analysis of variance showed that the size of the island had some effect on the nematode invasion prevalence and abundance. However, no significant regression relationship between the prevalence and abundance of nematodes and characteristics of an island was revealed by multivariate regression analysis (multiple regression: the coefficient of determination of the regression equation R2 < 0.3, and the regression coefficients were insignificant The reasons for high abundance of C. hepaticum in northern insular ecosystems are discussed. Possible key factors for the stable vitality of the parasite populations are: 1 favourable hydrothermal conditions of the soil in the shore (littoral zone; 2 the

  18. NEW AND RARE PLANTS FOR THE FLORA OF CENTRAL SIBERIА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kurbatsky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Three species (Ceratophyllum submersum L., Astragalus glycyphyllos L., Centaurea apiculata Ledeb. are reported for the first time for the flora of Central Siberia and two species (Amoria hybrida (L. C. Presl, Thyselium palustre (L. Rafin. for the flora of Khakassia. New localities of four rare species (Hackelia thymifolia (DC. Johnston, Chaenorhinum minus (L. Willk. et Lange, Orobanche uralensis G. Beck, Valeriana alternifolia Ledeb. of the flora of the Republic of Khakassia are also given.

  19. Some relative notes to the diversity of the Colombian flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Piedrahita, Santiago

    2002-01-01

    Although it is impossible to calculate an exact figure, it is calculated in 35.000 the number of species of plants that conform the Colombian flora; apart from applying the concept of species it is necessary to mention the absence of an official politics that favors the investigation. The author makes a journey of the Colombian flora from geologic times until our days, including the climatological changes and the different flora types according to our thermal soils

  20. Particulate matter pollution from aviation-related activity at a small airport of the Aegean Sea Insular Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psanis, C; Triantafyllou, E; Giamarelou, M; Manousakas, M; Eleftheriadis, K; Biskos, G

    2017-10-15

    The unprecedented growth in aviation during the last years has resulted in a notable increase of local air pollution related to airports. The impacts of aviation on air quality can be extremely high particularly around airports serving remote insular regions with pristine atmospheric environments. Here we report measurements that show how the atmospheric aerosol is affected by the activity at a small airport in a remote region. More specifically, we provide measurements performed at the airport of Mytilene, Greece, a regional yet international airport that serves the entire island of Lesvos; the third largest island of the country. The measurements show that the activity during landing, taxiing and take-off of the aircrafts accounted for up to a 10-fold increase in particulate matter (PM) mass concentration in the vicinity of the airport. The number concentration of particles having diameters from 10 to 500nm also increased from ca. 4×10 2 to 8×10 5 particlescm -3 , while the mean particle diameter decreased to 20nm when aircrafts were present at the airport. Elemental analysis on particle samples collected simultaneously at the airport and at a remote site 3km away, showed that the former were significantly influenced by combustion sources, and specifically from the engines of the aircrafts. Our results show that despite their small size, local airports serving remote insular regions should be considered as important air pollution hotspots, raising concerns for the exposure of the people working and leaving in their vicinities to hazardous pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Flora of vascular plants of selected Poznań cemeteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Czarna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of 395 species of vascular flora at four rarely used cemeteries within the Poznań city was confirmed in 2010. Apart from naturally occurring species, cultivated species were noted equally. Among species appearing spontaneously between the graves, species new for the flora of Poland: Chionodoxa forbesii, Ch. luciliae, Puschkinia scilloides, new for the flora of Wielkopolska: Bidens ferulifolius, Hyacinthoides hispanica and new for the flora of Poznań: Erigeron ramosus, Lilium bulbiferum, Pimpinella nigra, Poa subcaerulea, Veronica hederifolia s.s., were recorded. Names of taxa originating from cultivation are underlined.

  2. Geographical factors of the abundance of flora in Russian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselkin, D. V.; Tretyakova, A. S.; Senator, S. A.; Saksonov, S. V.; Mukhin, V. A.; Rozenberg, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    An analysis of data on the species abundance of flora in 89 cities (urban flora) of the Russian Federation facilitated determination of its main factors. It has been revealed that the factors determining the abundance of native and alien components of urban flora vary. The city area and population number are the main factors of the total number of species and of the abundance of native species in urban flora. The diversity and participation of alien species increase in parallel with. the urbanization rate, anthropogenic transformation of the regions, and the age of cities and are in adverse correlation with the climate severity.

  3. HELICOBACTER PYLORI EN LA FLORA BACTERIANA ORAL

    OpenAIRE

    Moromi Nakata, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    No hay duda de la relación existente entre enfermedades orales con otras enfermedades sistémicas. En tal contexto, las bacterias de la flora bacteriana oral, que alcanzan alrededor de 350 especies, para la mayoría de tales bacterias no se ha demostrado un rol específico, conociéndose sí una clara relación entre los Estreptococos orales (Streptococcus sanguis, Strecoccus mutans, Streptococcus sobri nus) y Actinobacillus actinomycetencomitans, entre otros, con la endocarditis bacteriana; así co...

  4. Flora y fauna crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Chávez-Silverman

    2004-01-01

    Flora & Fauna Crónica” is from the book, Killer Crónicas, which will be published by the University of Wisconsin Press in 2004. This collection of chronicles began in 2000, after Susana was awarded a fellowship by the US National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) for a project on contemporary Argentine women's poetry. She spent thirteen months in Buenos Aires where, in addition to research and writing on her official (academic) book, she began to send bilingual, punning “letters from the so...

  5. Collectors of botanical specimens from the flora area mentioned in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    Information based on all available sources about full name, nationality, profession, area and period of collection, with whom they are known to have made joint collections, herbaria in which the collections have been deposited etc., for all collectors mentioned in vol. 1-7 of the Flora of Ethiopi...

  6. Modulation of the storage of social recognition memory by neurotransmitter systems in the insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Lorena E S; Zinn, Carolina G; Schmidt, Scheila D; Saenger, Bruna F; Ferreira, Flávia F; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2017-09-15

    The insular cortex (IC) receives projections from prefrontal, entorhinal and cingulate cortex, olfactory bulb and basal nuclei and has reciprocal connections with the amygdala and entorhinal cortex. These connections suggest a possible involvement in memory processes; this has been borne out by data on several behaviors. Social recognition memory (SRM) is essential to form social groups and to establish hierarchies and social and affective ties. Despite its importance, knowledge about the brain structures and the neurotransmitter mechanisms involved in its processing is still scarce. Here we study the participation of NMDA-glutamatergic, D1/D5-dopaminergic, H2-histaminergic, β-adrenergic and 5-HT 1A -serotoninergic receptors of the IC in the consolidation of SRM. Male Wistar rats received intra-IC infusions of substances acting on these receptors immediately after the sample phase of a social discrimination task and 24h later were exposed to a 5-min retention test. The intra-IC infusion of antagonists of D1/D5, β-adrenergic or 5-HT 1A receptors immediately after the sample phase impaired the consolidation of SRM. These effects were blocked by the concomitant intra-IC infusion of agonists of these receptors. Antagonists and agonists of NMDA and H2 receptors had no effect on SRM. The results suggest that the dopaminergic D1/D5, β-adrenergic and serotonergic 5-HT 1A receptors in the IC, but not glutamatergic NMDA and the histaminergic H2 receptors, participate in the consolidation of SRM in the IC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Disconnection of basolateral amygdala and insular cortex disrupts conditioned approach in Pavlovian lever autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Helen M; Lafferty, Danielle S; Lesser, Ellen N; Bacharach, Sam Z; Calu, Donna J

    2018-01-01

    Previously established individual differences in appetitive approach and devaluation sensitivity observed in goal- and sign-trackers may be attributed to differences in the acquisition, modification, or use of associative information in basolateral amygdala (BLA) pathways. Here, we sought to determine the extent to which communication of associative information between BLA and anterior portions of insular cortex (IC) supports ongoing Pavlovian conditioned approach behaviors in sign- and goal-tracking rats, in the absence of manipulations to outcome value. We hypothesized that the BLA mediates goal-, but not sign- tracking approach through interactions with the IC, a brain region involved in supporting flexible behavior. We first trained rats in Pavlovian lever autoshaping to determine their sign- or goal-tracking tendency. During alternating test sessions, we gave unilateral intracranial injections of vehicle or a cocktail of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonists, baclofen and muscimol, unilaterally into the BLA and contralaterally or ipsilaterally into the IC prior to reinforced lever autoshaping sessions. Consistent with our hypothesis we found that contralateral inactivation of BLA and IC increased the latency to approach the food cup and decreased the number of food cup contacts in goal-trackers. While contralateral inactivation of BLA and IC did not affect the total number of lever contacts in sign-trackers, this manipulation increased the latency to approach the lever. Ipsilateral inactivation of BLA and IC did not impact approach behaviors in Pavlovian lever autoshaping. These findings, contrary to our hypothesis, suggest that communication between BLA and IC maintains a representation of initially learned appetitive associations that commonly support the initiation of Pavlovian conditioned approach behavior regardless of whether it is directed at the cue or the location of reward delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic activity in the insular cortex and hypothalamus predicts hot flashes: an FDG-PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hadine; Deckersbach, Thilo; Lin, Nancy U; Makris, Nikos; Skaar, Todd C; Rauch, Scott L; Dougherty, Darin D; Hall, Janet E

    2012-09-01

    Hot flashes are a common side effect of adjuvant endocrine therapies (AET; leuprolide, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors) that reduce quality of life and treatment adherence in breast cancer patients. Because hot flashes affect only some women, preexisting neurobiological traits might predispose to their development. Previous studies have implicated the insula during the perception of hot flashes and the hypothalamus in thermoregulatory dysfunction. The aim of the study was to understand whether neurobiological factors predict hot flashes. [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) brain scans coregistered with structural magnetic resonance imaging were used to determine whether metabolic activity in the insula and hypothalamic thermoregulatory and estrogen-feedback regions measured before and in response to AET predict hot flashes. Findings were correlated with CYP2D6 genotype because of CYP2D6 polymorphism associations with tamoxifen-induced hot flashes. We measured regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose uptake (rCMRglu) in the insula and hypothalamus on FDG-PET. Of 18 women without hot flashes who began AET, new-onset hot flashes were reported by 10 (55.6%) and were detected objectively in nine (50%) participants. Prior to the use of all AET, rCMRglu in the insula (P ≤ 0.01) and hypothalamic thermoregulatory (P = 0.045) and estrogen-feedback (P = 0.007) regions was lower in women who reported developing hot flashes. In response to AET, rCMRglu was further reduced in the insula in women developing hot flashes (P ≤ 0.02). Insular and hypothalamic rCMRglu levels were lower in intermediate than extensive CYP2D6 metabolizers. Trait neurobiological characteristics predict hot flashes. Genetic variability in CYP2D6 may underlie the neurobiological predisposition to hot flashes induced by AET.

  9. Differential structural and resting state connectivity between insular subdivisions and other pain-related brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, K; Jbabdi, S; Lin, C S; Andersson, J; Tracey, I

    2014-10-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the anterior, mid, and posterior division of the insula subserve different functions in the perception of pain. The anterior insula (AI) has predominantly been associated with cognitive-affective aspects of pain, while the mid and posterior divisions have been implicated in sensory-discriminative processing. We examined whether this functional segregation is paralleled by differences in (1) structural and (2) resting state connectivity and (3) in correlations with pain-relevant psychological traits. Analyses were restricted to the 3 insular subdivisions and other pain-related brain regions. Both type of analyses revealed largely overlapping results. The AI division was predominantly connected to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (structural and resting state connectivity) and orbitofrontal cortex (structural connectivity). In contrast, the posterior insula showed strong connections to the primary somatosensory cortex (SI; structural connectivity) and secondary somatosensory cortex (SII; structural and resting state connectivity). The mid insula displayed a hybrid connectivity pattern with strong connections with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, SII (structural and resting state connectivity) and SI (structural connectivity). Moreover, resting state connectivity revealed strong connectivity of all 3 subdivisions with the thalamus. On the behavioural level, AI structural connectivity was related to the individual degree of pain vigilance and awareness that showed a positive correlation with AI-amygdala connectivity and a negative correlation with AI-rostral anterior cingulate cortex connectivity. In sum, our findings show a differential structural and resting state connectivity for the anterior, mid, and posterior insula with other pain-relevant brain regions, which might at least partly explain their different functional profiles in pain processing. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  10. Microsurgery Resection of Intrinsic Insular Tumors via Transsylvian Surgical Approach in 12 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Ming-can; Chen, Shi-jie; Xu, Xian-ping; Yang, Yong; Cai, Jie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics, operative methods, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the resection of intrinsic insular gliomas via transsylvian approach. From June 2008 to June 2010, 12 patients with intrinsic insular gliomas were treated via transsylvian microsurgical approach, with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging diffusion tensor imaging (MR DTI) evaluation. The data of these patients were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had astrocytoma, including 8 patients of Grades I to II, 2 patients of Grades III to IV, and 2 patients of mixed glial tumors. The insular tumors were completely removed in 9 patients, whereas they were only partially removed from 3 patients. No death was related to the operations. Two patients had transient aphasia, 2 experienced worsened hemiplegia on opposite sides of their bodies, and 2 had mild hemiplegia and language function disturbance. Most of the insular gliomas are of low grade. By evaluating the damage of the corticospinal tract through DTI and using ultrasonography to locate the tumors during operation, microsurgery treatment removes the lesions as much as possible, protects the surrounding areas, reduces the mobility rate, and improves the postoperative quality of life

  11. Involvement of the insular cortex in regulating glucocorticoid effects on memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fornari, Raquel V.; Wichmann, Romy; Atucha, Erika; Desprez, Tifany; Eggens-Meijer, Ellie; Roozendaal, Benno

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are known to enhance the consolidation of memory of emotionally arousing experiences by acting upon a network of interconnected brain regions. Although animal studies typically do not consider the insular cortex (IC) to be part of this network, the present findings indicate that the

  12. Depth study of insular shelf electric sounding in the Puntas de Abrojal anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of the Uranium prospecting Programme, a geophysics team composed by BRGM and DINAMIGE workers were carried out an study about of insular shelf electric sounding on the Puntas de Abrojal area.A geographical location, geologic framework, geophysical survey and methods, materials and results were given

  13. Depth study of insular shelf electric sounding in the Las Mercedes anomaly (Tacuarembo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of Uranium prospecting Programme the geophysics team composed by BRGM and DINAMIGE workers were carried out an study about insular shelf electric sounding on the Mercedes area.They were studied the following topics: geographical location, geologic framework, methods, materials and some results

  14. Zoogeography of primates in insular Southeast Asia: species-area relationships and the effects of taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.; Meijaard, E.

    2008-01-01

    Given its complex zoogeography and large number of islands insular Southeast Asia makes an excellent subject for studying the interrelationships of species richness, island area and isolation. The islands are merely highpoints of an immense shallow continental shelf which during Pleistocene glacial

  15. The biogeography of threatened insular iguanas and opportunities for invasive vertebrate management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tershy, Bernie R.; Newton, Kelly M.; Spatz, Dena R.; Swinnerton, Kirsty; Iverson, John B.; Fisher, Robert N.; Harlow, Peter S.; Holmes, Nick D.; Croll, Donald A.; Iverson, J.B.; Grant, T. D.; Knapp, C. R.; Pasachnik, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Iguanas are a particularly threatened group of reptiles, with 61% of species at risk of extinction. Primary threats to iguanas include habitat loss, direct and indirect impacts by invasive vertebrates, overexploitation, and human disturbance. As conspicuous, charismatic vertebrates, iguanas also represent excellent flagships for biodiversity conservation. To assist planning for invasive vertebrate management and thus benefit threatened iguana recovery, we identified all islands with known extant or extirpated populations of Critically Endangered and Endangered insular iguana taxa as recognized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. For each island, we determined total area, sovereignty, the presence of invasive alien vertebrates, and human population. For the 23 taxa of threatened insular iguanas we identified 230 populations, of which iguanas were extant on 185 islands and extirpated from 45 islands. Twenty-one iguana taxa (91% of all threatened insular iguana taxa) occurred on at least one island with invasive vertebrates present; 16 taxa had 100% of their population(s) on islands with invasive vertebrates present. Rodents, cats, ungulates, and dogs were the most common invasive vertebrates. We discuss biosecurity, eradication, and control of invasive vertebrates to benefit iguana recovery: (1) on islands already free of invasive vertebrates; (2) on islands with high iguana endemicity; and (3) for species and subspecies with small total populations occurring across multiple small islands. Our analyses provide an important first step toward understanding how invasive vertebrate management can be planned effectively to benefit threatened insular iguanas.

  16. Paleo relief study of insular shelf electric sounding in Amarillo level basin Rivera distric in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of the Uranium project the geophysical team composed by BRGM and DINAMIGE members have carried out a study of insular shelf morphology. It was a sedimentary basin level in the middle of the Isla Cristalina. The following topics were developed: geographical location, geologic framework, developed works and materials, methods and results

  17. Long-term monitoring of an insular population of Barbary Falcon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Territory spacing and breeding rates of an insular population (north-western Tenerife, Canary Islands) of Barbary Falcon Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides was studied from 1993 to 2008. The population increased constantly since the outset, from two pairs in 1993 to 12 in 2008. Mean density was 5.48 pairs per 100 km2 and ...

  18. Probabilistic tractography recovers a rostrocaudal trajectory of connectivity variability in the human insular cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerliani, Leonardo; Thomas, Rajat M.; Jbabdi, Saad; Siero, Jeroen C. W.; Nanetti, Luca; Crippa, Alessandro; Gazzola, Valeria; D'Arceuil, Helen; Keysers, Christian

    The insular cortex of macaques has a wide spectrum of anatomical connections whose distribution is related to its heterogeneous cytoarchitecture. Although there is evidence of a similar cytoarchitectural arrangement in humans, the anatomical connectivity of the insula in the human brain has not yet

  19. FLORA LICHEN WESTERN MOUNTAINS VRANJE PLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bogdanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lichen is a symbiotic plant built by the cells of algae and fungi hyphae. Algae are usually presented - green (Chlorophyta or blue green (Cyanophyta, a mushroom commonly found is ascomycetae and sometimes basidiomycetae. Mushrooms receive oxygen and carbohydrates from algae, and they in turn provide water, CO2 and mineral salts. Lichens are often found on trees and rocks in unpolluted environments and can be used as a bioindicator species. In during 2015-2016. was realized a survey of epiphytic lichen flora of the western mountains in environment of Vranje. Sampling was carried out at 4 locations: Borino brdo, Krstilovica, Markovo Kale and Pljačkovica. Based on the collected and determined samples can be concluded that the study implemented of the area of 25 species of lichens of which: 8 as crust, leafy 12 and 5 shrub. The research results indicate that the lichen flora of the western mountains environments Vranje of a rich and diverse as a result of favorable geographic position, geological and soil composition, climate and plant cover that provide opportunities for the development and survival of lichens.

  20. Gender differences in functional connectivities between insular subdivisions and selective pain-related brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Xin; Yang, Yang; Nan, Hai-Yan; Yu, Ying; Sun, Qian; Yan, Lin-Feng; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Jin; Qiu, Zi-Yu; Gao, Yi; Cui, Guang-Bin; Chen, Bi-Liang; Wang, Wen

    2018-03-14

    The incidence of pain disorders in women is higher than in men, making gender differences in pain a research focus. The human insular cortex is an important brain hub structure for pain processing and is divided into several subdivisions, serving different functions in pain perception. Here we aimed to examine the gender differences of the functional connectivities (FCs) between the twelve insular subdivisions and selected pain-related brain structures in healthy adults. Twenty-six healthy males and 11 age-matched healthy females were recruited in this cross-sectional study. FCs between the 12 insular subdivisions (as 12 regions of interest (ROIs)) and the whole brain (ROI-whole brain level) or 64 selected pain-related brain regions (64 ROIs, ROI-ROI level) were measured between the males and females. Significant gender differences in the FCs of the insular subdivisions were revealed: (1) The FCs between the dorsal dysgranular insula (dId) and other brain regions were significantly increased in males using two different techniques (ROI-whole brain and ROI-ROI analyses); (2) Based on the ROI-whole brain analysis, the FC increases in 4 FC-pairs were observed in males, including the left dId - the right median cingulate and paracingulate/ right posterior cingulate gyrus/ right precuneus, the left dId - the right median cingulate and paracingulate, the left dId - the left angular as well as the left dId - the left middle frontal gyrus; (3) According to the ROI-ROI analysis, increased FC between the left dId and the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex was investigated in males. In summary, the gender differences in the FCs of the insular subdivisions with pain-related brain regions were revealed in the current study, offering neuroimaging evidence for gender differences in pain processing. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02820974 . Registered 28 June 2016.

  1. Fungal flora and deoxynivalenol (DON) level in wheat from Jeddah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to explore the fungal flora along with the DON concentration in the collected wheat samples from Jeddah market to correlate between this flora and the detected DON. Whole grain wheat samples were collected from Jeddah market and this represents imported and locally produced wheat. The results ...

  2. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. http://www.hewlett.org/. Think Tank Initiative. This initiative is creating high-quality independent research and policy institutions throughout the developing world. View more. Think Tank Initiative. Growth and Economic Opportunities for ...

  3. Flora of St Katherine Protectorate: key to families and genera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An illustrated key to families and genera of the flora of the St Katherine Protectorate is provided to facilitate the identification of the unique flora of the area, based on five years of collecting mainly in the mountains and wadis surrounding the town of St Katherine. The key includes 43 families and 141 genera, the families ...

  4. Studies on bacterial flora and biological control agent of Cydia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, in order to find a more effective and safe biological control agent against Cydia pomonella, we investigated the bacterial flora and tested them for insecticidal effects on this insect. According to morphological, physiological and biochemical tests, bacterial flora were identified as Proteus rettgeri (Cp1), ...

  5. Regional floras, a significant modern trend in plant taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1959-01-01

    Besides through monographic work plant taxonomy has a second way of framing synthetic attempts and that is by compiling Florulas and Floras, containing a complete account of the flora of parts of the globe, of cities, islets, islands, states, countries, or continents. Irrespective of their style,

  6. Regional Floras: the target groups, usage and feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, F.S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The target groups for regional floras may be generalized for the purpose of this discussion, into four main groups. Firstly, in the Flora Malesiana region – a major producer of tropical hardwoods and other commercial forest products – one large target is the forest industry, consisting of foresters,

  7. New records of Petunia (Solanaceae) for the Argentinean flora

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Toshio; Soto, Silvina; Suárez, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    Petunia interior and P. guarapuavensis are reported for the first time for the Argentinean flora, and their geographical distributions are updated. Petunia interior y P. guarapuavensis son citadas por pimera vez para la Flora Argentina, con una actualización de su distribución geográfica.

  8. The scientific study of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea up to the beginning of the Ethiopian Flora Project (1980)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An account of the history of the scientific exploration of the flora in Ethiopia and Eritrea, mainly based on experience from the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, but with conclusions from the newest literature also taken into account....

  9. The herb flora of Taiwan or How to master a Flora without types and with only a few books

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1967-01-01

    My visit to and trips in Taiwan, in 1966, brought me into close contact with the wonderfully rich and varied flora of this large island which is fairly easily accessible if one speaks Chinese or is accompanied by Chinese companions, as was my privilege. As is well known the woody flora of Taiwan is

  10. Fifty years of mapping the Balkan flora for Atlas Florae Europaeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uotila Pertti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atlas Florae Europaeae (AFE, a programme for mapping the distribution of vascular plants in Europe, was launched in 1965 as a collaborative effort between European botanists. A historical review of the mapping for AFE in the Balkan countries, cited in the last volume (16 from 2013 as Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic (F. Y. R. of Macedonia, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, and Turkey (European part, is presented and achievements and problems discussed. The special challenges facing mapping of the Balkan area during the past 50 years include the extremely rich flora, diverse and mountainous relief, political and economic difficulties, inaccessibility of available data, and scarcity of botanists contributing and collecting data for mapping.

  11. THE FLORA OF HEKIMDAG (BOZDAG, ESKISEHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ARDIÇ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the flora of Eskişehir Hekimdağ (Bozdağ were investigated. According to Davis's grid system, the research area lies in B3 square. The plant samples collected in this region and determined that there are 59 families, as well as 467 species and subspecies taxa belonging to 219 genera. The phytogeographical distribution is as follows: 49 Mediterranean, 31 Euro-Siberian, 19 Irano-Turanian, 6 Euxin and 362 unknown or other-regional elements. The largest families are Asteraceae (50, Fabaceae (38, Lamiaceae (24, Poaceae (21 and Liliaceae (18 in terms of the number of species and subspecies included. Genera represented by the highest number of species are Centaurea (7, Alyssum (6, Silene, Astragalus, Trifolium, Lathyrus ve Campanula (5 . The number of endemic taxa within the study area is 41 (10.86%. 13 taxa are new records for the B3 square.

  12. Alien species in the Finnish weed flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. HYVÖNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing the invasion of alien weed species in Finland based on a review of their occurrence in the Finnish weed flora. The evaluation was conducted for the three phases of the invasion process, i.e. introduction, naturalization and invasion. The literature review revealed that 815 alien weed species occur in Finland of which 314 are regarded as naturalized. Based on their occurrence in different climate zones, the risk of naturalization of new harmful alien weed species was deemed low for those species not currently found in Finland, but higher for species occurring as casual aliens in Finland. In the latter group, 10 species of concern were detected. Exploration of the distribution patterns of naturalized species within Finland revealed species occupancy to be dependent on the residence time of the species. Established neophytes can be expected to extend their ranges and to increase occupation of agricultural habitats in the future.;

  13. Flora da Paraíba, Brasil: Loganiaceae Flora of Paraíba, Brazil: Loganiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiriaki Nurit

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se o tratamento taxonômico da família Loganiaceae, como parte do projeto "Flora da Paraíba", que vem sendo realizado com o objetivo de identificar e catalogar as espécies da flora local. Realizouse coletas e observações de campo para as identificações, descrições e ilustrações botânicas que foram efetuadas após estudos morfológicos, com o auxílio da bibliografia especializada, complementados pela análise de fotos de tipos, espécimes dos herbários EAN, JPB e IPA, e comparação com material identificado por especialistas. Registrou-se para a Paraíba quatro espécies: Spigelia anthelmia L., com ampla distribuição, e três espécies de Strychnos, somente coletadas em remanescentes de Mata Atlântica, S. atlantica Krukoff & Barneby, S. parvifolia A. DC. e S. trinervis (Vell. Mart.This work constitutes a taxonomic treatment of the Loganiaceae family as part of the project "Flora da Paraíba", which have been carried out with the objective to identify and catalogue the species of the local flora. The botanical identifications and illustrations were made by morphological studies supported by bibliography, analysis of the types, specimens from herbaria EAN, JPB and IPA, and comparison with samples previously identified by specialists, complemented by field observations. Four species of Loganiaceae belonging two genera were found in State of Paraíba: Spigelia anthelmia L. that has wide distribution and three species of Strychnos, found on remains of Atlantic forest, which are S. atlantica Krukoff & Barneby, S. parvifolia A. DC. and S. trinervis (Vell. Mart.

  14. Consequences of forest energy for flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruuse, A.

    1992-01-01

    The report examines the effects of forest energy on the field layer vegetation, and includes whole-tree harvesting, liming, fertilization, wood ash distribution and the importance of broadleaved trees. Whole-tree harvesting is negative for some of the vascular plant species, and positive for others, and can have a drastically negative effect on lichens, mosses and decomposing fungi. Whole-tree harvesting can be accepted from the viewpoint of the flora if: - between 10 and 30 % of the slash is left on the clearcut area, - hardwood stands or mixed stands with hardwood are excepted from whole-tree harvesting, - dead lying or standing trees, a few broadleaved trees and old trees, are left on the clearcut area. Liming has some effects on the flora, especially a very negative effect on lichens and mosses. Liming can be accepted if; - it only takes place where whole-tree harvesting has been used or where acidification caused by air pollution has been observed, - the amounts are moderate, 2 to 4 tonnes/ha, and the liming material has a rather large grain size, - it is unevenly distributed, and - it is avoided in naturally acid stands with a special vegetation. Fertilization has negative effects on all the considered vegetation groups. It can only be accepted as compensation for whole-tree harvesting, and no more nitrogen must be added than is taken away in the harvest. In southern Sweden even the compensatory fertilization should be avoided. The consequences of wood ash distribution are little known. Until more facts are presented, only enough wood ash as to compensate for the loss through whole-tree harvesting should be distributed. If the use of forest energy would lead to an increase of the broadleaved tree ratio it would be positive. (54 refs.)

  15. Does the Vaginal Flora Modify When a Synthetic Mesh is Used for Genital Prolapse Repair in Postmenopausal Women? A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Edilson Benedito; Brito, Luiz Gustavo Oliveria; Giraldo, Paulo César; Teatin Juliato, Cássia Raquel

    2018-01-10

    The vaginal flora from postmenopausal women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is different from younger women. We hypothesized that the decision of a surgical route using a mesh would modify the vaginal flora. The purpose of this study was to analyze the vaginal flora from postmenopausal women that were submitted to abdominal sacrocervicopexy or vaginal sacrospinous fixation. A pilot, randomized controlled study with 50 women aged 55 to 75 years (n = 25; abdominal sacrocervicopexy + subtotal hysterectomy; n = 25 vaginal sacrospinous fixation + vaginal hysterectomy) was performed. A polyvinylidene mesh was used in both arms. The vaginal content analysis was collected before and 60 days after the surgery. The type of flora, the presence of lactobacilli/leukocytes, and the Nugent criteria were analyzed. Most of the women were white (80%), with at least 1 comorbidity (69.9%), did not present sexual activity (60%), and presented advanced stage 4 POP. Two thirds of women presented a type 3 flora, and half of them did not present lactobacilli (48.3%). About the Nugent criteria, 51.7% presented normal flora, 46.6% found altered flora, and 1.7% had bacterial vaginosis. There were no differences about the type of flora (P = 1), number of lactobacilli (P = 0.9187), Nugent criteria (P = 0.4235), inflammation (P = 0.1018), and bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.64) before and after surgery in both groups. In this pilot study, the use of synthetic mesh by vaginal or abdominal route did not affect the vaginal flora in postmenopausal women operated on by POP surgery.

  16. Macroevolución y microevolución en sistemas insulares: el patrón Rand Flora en el género Canarina

    OpenAIRE

    Mairal Pisa, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Tesis Doctoral leída en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid en 2015. Directora de la Tesis: Isabel Sanmartín Bastida. Codirectora: María Luisa Alarcón Codirector: Cavero Juan José Aldasoro Martín Global change and the current biodiversity crisis have increased the need to understand the effect of climate change on patterns of biodiversity distribution and the mechanisms or factors underlying them. To understand the origin of these biodiversity patterns, scientists have resort...

  17. Flora terrestre de la isla Malpelo (Colombia, Pacífico Oriental Tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén D. González-Román

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La isla Malpelo se encuentra en el Pacífico colombiano, a unos 380km de la costa continental. La Isla ha sido objeto de algunos estudios geológicos, ecológicos y faunísticos, tanto marinos como terrestres, pero ningún estudio estrictamente botánico. Con el fin de realizar un inventario de la flora terrestre de Malpelo, se realizaron tres salidas de campo durante el 2010, en las que se recolectaron plantas vasculares, musgos y líquenes, y se tomaron datos sobre su distribución en la Isla. El grupo más diverso correspondió a los líquenes, con 25 especies, incluidos cuatro nuevos géneros para Colombia, Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa y Verrucaria, y 15 nuevos registros de especies para Colombia. La alta riqueza de especies de líquenes en la Isla puede deberse a la forma de reproducción asexual de estos organismos, que pudieron haber sido transportados hasta Malpelo por aves migratorias o por viento; además, pueden estar protegidos químicamente de la herbivoría por cangrejos terrestres. La gran cantidad de registros nuevos para Colombia se explica por la poca cantidad de trabajos en líquenes saxícolas en el país, sobre todo en zonas costeras e insulares. Solo se registraron dos especies de plantas vasculares, una gramínea, Paspalum sp., y un helecho, Pityrogramma calomelanos. También se recolectó una especie de musgo, Octoblepharum albidum. La escasez de plantas vasculares probablemente se deba a la combinación de condiciones de los suelos y a la herbivoría por cangrejos terrestres. El presente estudio es el primero en darle relevancia a la flora terrestre de Malpelo y constituye un punto de referencia y comparación para estudios semejantes en otras islas del Pacífico Oriental Tropical.

  18. The Uruguayan Per mic mega flora. A synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornaglia, L.; Ruiz, F.; Introcaso, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Permian mega floras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the micro floral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called transition xilotaphofloras as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

  19. The Anterior Insular Cortex→Central Amygdala Glutamatergic Pathway Is Critical to Relapse after Contingency Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venniro, Marco; Caprioli, Daniele; Zhang, Michelle; Whitaker, Leslie R; Zhang, Shiliang; Warren, Brandon L; Cifani, Carlo; Marchant, Nathan J; Yizhar, Ofer; Bossert, Jennifer M; Chiamulera, Cristiano; Morales, Marisela; Shaham, Yavin

    2017-10-11

    Despite decades of research on neurobiological mechanisms of psychostimulant addiction, the only effective treatment for many addicts is contingency management, a behavioral treatment that uses alternative non-drug reward to maintain abstinence. However, when contingency management is discontinued, most addicts relapse to drug use. The brain mechanisms underlying relapse after cessation of contingency management are largely unknown, and, until recently, an animal model of this human condition did not exist. Here we used a novel rat model, in which the availability of a mutually exclusive palatable food maintains prolonged voluntary abstinence from intravenous methamphetamine self-administration, to demonstrate that the activation of monosynaptic glutamatergic projections from anterior insular cortex to central amygdala is critical to relapse after the cessation of contingency management. We identified the anterior insular cortex-to-central amygdala projection as a new addiction- and motivation-related projection and a potential target for relapse prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inman, C.F.; Haverson, K.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Jones, P.H.; Harris, C.; Smidt, H.; Miller, B.; Bailey, M.; Stokes, C.

    2010-01-01

    P>Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect

  1. Probabilistic Tractography Recovers a Rostrocaudal Trajectory of Connectivity Variability in the Human Insular Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerliani, Leonardo; Thomas, Rajat M; Jbabdi, Saad; Siero, Jeroen CW; Nanetti, Luca; Crippa, Alessandro; Gazzola, Valeria; D'Arceuil, Helen; Keysers, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The insular cortex of macaques has a wide spectrum of anatomical connections whose distribution is related to its heterogeneous cytoarchitecture. Although there is evidence of a similar cytoarchitectural arrangement in humans, the anatomical connectivity of the insula in the human brain has not yet been investigated in vivo. In the present work, we used in vivo probabilistic white-matter tractography and Laplacian eigenmaps (LE) to study the variation of connectivity patterns across insular territories in humans. In each subject and hemisphere, we recovered a rostrocaudal trajectory of connectivity variation ranging from the anterior dorsal and ventral insula to the dorsal caudal part of the long insular gyri. LE suggested that regional transitions among tractography patterns in the insula occur more gradually than in other brain regions. In particular, the change in tractography patterns was more gradual in the insula than in the medial premotor region, where a sharp transition between different tractography patterns was found. The recovered trajectory of connectivity variation in the insula suggests a relation between connectivity and cytoarchitecture in humans resembling that previously found in macaques: tractography seeds from the anterior insula were mainly found in limbic and paralimbic regions and in anterior parts of the inferior frontal gyrus, while seeds from caudal insular territories mostly reached parietal and posterior temporal cortices. Regions in the putative dysgranular insula displayed more heterogeneous connectivity patterns, with regional differences related to the proximity with either putative granular or agranular regions. Hum Brain Mapp 33:2005–2034, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21761507

  2. La proyección colonial de Chile a la Patagonia Insular en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbina Carrasco, María Ximena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the geopolitical consequences of the shipwreck of the English frigate Wager and the landfall of the ship Anna into the coasts of the Western Insular Patagonia in 1741 are presented, which were part of the fleet of George Anson. The news reporting the English presence in the deserted and unknown insular and coastal territory southernmost Chiloé, and which had disseminated towards the end of the continent, promoted the deployment of different actions tending to make presence noted, such as military and missionary expeditions, fort establishment and area patrols. None of the latter implied a permanent settlement or effective incorporation of such border, although they indeed involved the creation of a «mobile frontier» for Chiloé and the development of a Western Patagonia image.

    Este artículo presenta las consecuencias geopolíticas del naufragio de la fragata inglesa Wager y la recalada de otro barco, el Anna, que formaban parte de la flota de George Anson, en las costas de la Patagonia Occidental Insular en 1741. La noticia de la presencia inglesa en el despoblado y desconocido territorio insular y bordemarino al sur de Chiloé, y que se proyectaba al fin del continente, generó el despliegue de acciones tendentes a marcar presencia, como expediciones militares y misionales, la fundación de un fuerte y el patrullaje por la zona. Nada de esto se tradujo en un asentamiento permanente o incorporación efectiva de dicha frontera, pero si en la conformación de una «frontera móvil» de Chiloé, y la construcción de una imagen de la Patagonia Occidental.

  3. Sex Differences in Insular Cortex Gyri Responses to the Valsalva Maneuver

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, Paul M.; Rieken, Nicholas S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Middlekauff, Holly R.; Wu, Paula; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in autonomic regulation may underlie cardiovascular disease variations between females and males. One key autonomic brain region is the insular cortex, which typically consists of five main gyri in each hemisphere, and shows a topographical organization of autonomic function across those gyri. The present study aims to identify possible sex differences in organization of autonomic function in the insula. We studied brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses t...

  4. Smart and sustainable power systems operations, planning, and economics of insular electricity grids

    CERN Document Server

    Catalão, João P S

    2015-01-01

    The smart grid initiative, integrating advanced sensing technologies, intelligent control methods, and bi-directional communications into the contemporary electricity grid, offers excellent opportunities for energy efficiency improvements and better integration of distributed generation, coexisting with centralized generation units within an active network. A large share of the installed capacity for recent renewable energy sources already comprises insular electricity grids, since the latter are preferable due to their high potential for renewables. However, the increasing share of

  5. Ontogeny of neuro-insular complexes and islets innervation in the human pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E. Proshchina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of the neuro-insular complexes (NIC and the islets innervation in human pancreas has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to describe the developmental dynamics and distribution of the nervous system structures in the endocrine part of human pancreas. We used doublestaining with antibodies specific to pan-neural markers (neuron-specific enolase (NSE and S100 protein and to hormones of pancreatic endocrine cells. NSE and S100-positive nerves and ganglia were identified in the human fetal pancreas from gestation week (gw 10 onwards. Later the density of S100 and NSE-positive fibers increased. In adults this network was sparse. The islets innervation started to form from gw 14. NSE-containing endocrine cells were identified from gw 12 onwards. Additionally, S100-positive cells were detected both in the periphery and within some of the islets starting at gw 14. The analysis of islets innervation has shown that the fetal pancreas contained neuro-insular complexes and the number of these complexes was reduced in adults. The highest density of neuro-insular complexes is detected during middle and late fetal periods, when the mosaic islets, typical for adults, form. The close integration between the developing pancreatic islets and the nervous system structures may play an important role not only in the hormone secretion, but also in the islets morphogenesis.

  6. Role of insular cortex in visceral hypersensitivity model in rats subjected to chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, LiSha; Sun, HuiHui; Ge, Chao; Chen, Ying; Peng, HaiXia; Jiang, YuanXi; Wu, Ping; Tang, YinHan; Meng, QingWei; Xu, ShuChang

    2014-12-30

    Abnormal processing of visceral sensation at the level of the central nervous system has been proven to be important in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of stress related functional gastrointestinal disorders. However, the specific mechanism is still not clear. The insular cortex (IC) was considered as one important visceral sensory area. Moreover, the IC has been shown to be involved in various neuropsychiatric diseases such as panic disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, whether the IC is important in psychological stress related visceral hypersensitivity has not been studied yet. In our study, through destruction of the bilateral IC, we explored whether the IC played a critical role in the formation of visceral hypersensitivity induced by chronic stress on rats. Chronic partial restraint stress was used to establish viscerally hypersensitive rat model. Bilateral IC lesions were generated by N-methyl-D-day (door) aspartate. After a recovery period of 7 days, 14-day consecutive restraint stress was performed. The visceromotor response to colorectal distension was monitored by recording electromyogram to measure rats׳ visceral sensitivity. We found that bilateral insular cortex lesion could markedly inhibit the formation of visceral hypersensitivity induced by chronic stress. The insular cortex plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of stress-related visceral hypersensitivity.

  7. Successful Insular Glioma Removal in a Deaf Signer Patient During an Awake Craniotomy Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metellus, Philippe; Boussen, Salah; Guye, Maxime; Trebuchon, Agnes

    2017-02-01

    Resection of tumors located within the insula of the dominant hemisphere represents a technical challenge because of the complex anatomy, including the surrounding vasculature, and the relationship to functional (motor and language) structures. We report here the case of a successful resection of a left insular glioma in a native deaf signer during an awake craniotomy. The patient, a congenitally deaf right-handed patient who is a native user of sign language, presented with a seizure 1 week before he was referred to our department. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left heterogeneous insular tumor enhanced after intravenous gadolinium infusion. Because of its deep and dominant hemisphere location, an awake craniotomy was decided. The patient was evaluated intraoperatively using object naming, text reading, and sign repetition tasks. An isolated inferior frontal gyrus site evoked repeated object naming errors. A transopercular parietal approach was performed and allowed the successful removal of the tumor under direct electric stimulation and electrocorticography. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful removal of a left insular tumor without any functional sequelae in a native deaf signer using intraoperative direct cerebral stimulation during an awake craniotomy. The methodology used also provides the first evidence of the actual anatomo-functional organization of language in deaf signers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Insular neural system controls decision-making in healthy and methamphetamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Nakamura, Akihiro; Wang, Tian; Nagai, Taku; Sato, Jun; Sawada, Makoto; Ohira, Hideki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2015-07-21

    Patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders such as substance-related and addictive disorders exhibit altered decision-making patterns, which may be associated with their behavioral abnormalities. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying such impairments are largely unknown. Using a gambling test, we demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH)-treated rats chose a high-risk/high-reward option more frequently and assigned higher value to high returns than control rats, suggestive of changes in decision-making choice strategy. Immunohistochemical analysis following the gambling test revealed aberrant activation of the insular cortex (INS) and nucleus accumbens in METH-treated animals. Pharmacological studies, together with in vivo microdialysis, showed that the insular neural system played a crucial role in decision-making. Moreover, manipulation of INS activation using designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug technology resulted in alterations to decision-making. Our findings suggest that the INS is a critical region involved in decision-making and that insular neural dysfunction results in risk-taking behaviors associated with altered decision-making.

  9. Delay discounting mediates the association between posterior insular cortex volume and social media addiction symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; He, Qinghua; Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine

    2018-04-25

    Addiction-like symptoms in relation to excessive and compulsive social media use are common in the general population. Because they can lead to various adverse effects, there is a growing need to understand the brain systems and processes that are involved in potential social media addiction. We focus on the morphology of the posterior subdivision of the insular cortex (i.e., the insula), because it has been shown to be instrumental to supporting the maintenance of substance addictions and problematic behaviors. Assuming that social media addiction shares neural similarities with more established ones and consistent with evidence from the neuroeconomics domain, we further examine one possible reason for this association-namely that insular morphology influences one's delay discounting and that this delay discounting contributes to exaggerated preference for immediate social media rewards and consequent addiction-like symptoms. Based on voxel-based morphometry techniques applied to MRI scans of 32 social media users, we show that the gray matter volumes of the bilateral posterior insula are negatively associated with social media addiction symptoms. We further show that this association is mediated by delay discounting. This provides initial evidence that insular morphology can be associated with potential social media addiction, in part, through its contribution to poor foresight and impulsivity as captured by delay discounting.

  10. Lichen flora and ecology of the roadside trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydzak, J

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lichen flora of roadside trees were carried out at 69 sites in eastern Poland in 1966-1969. Conclusive relationships between lichen distributions and air pollution from automobile exhaust gases could not be inferred from the data.

  11. Met flora meer fauna de stad in trekken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffman, M.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Meer flora en fauna in de stedelijke omgeving begint met de aanplant van gevarieerd groen. Plant Publicity Holland geeft in een overzicht aan welke bomen, heesters en vaste planten daarvoor geschikt zijn.

  12. Analysis of biological spectrum of Divčibare flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential analyses which is performed during the floristic study of a region is the analysis of the biological spectrum. The analysis of the biological spectrum of the flora includes the determination of the type of life form for each taxon described in the flora of the study region. If it is considered that life form is a specific structural-functional response to the environmental effects and the result of the adaptation during the species evolution, it is clear that the basic characteristics of the site are more or less reflected in any life form. This fact is confirmed by the analysis of the biological spectrum of Divčibare flora. The study results are in correlation with the results of the analysis of the biological spectrum of the flora of Serbia and the Balkan Peninsula.

  13. Marine algal flora of submerged Angria Bank (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.; Ambiye, V.

    Submerged Angria Bank was surveyed for the deep water marine algal flora. About 57 species were reported from this bank for the first time. Rhodophyta dominated (30 species) followed by Chlorophyta (18 species) and Phaeophyta (9 species). A few...

  14. Emerging antibiotic resistant enteric bacterial flora among food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emerging antibiotic resistant enteric bacterial flora among food animals in Abeokuta, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Bacterial resistance to antibiotic in food animals is an emerging public health concern as a result of ...

  15. study of oral and gingival microbial flora in institutionalized mentally

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    from the mouth and gingiva of 138 institutionalized mentally retarded patients of Sari to culture in specific media to ... Key words: Oral and gingival microbial flora, Mental retardation, D%, Sari ... staphylococcus aureus and, in case of negative.

  16. Nutrients, phytochemicals, fungal flora and aflatoxin in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ob

    In this study, the effect of salting on the pH, phytochemicals, fungal flora and nutrient composition of. Vernonia .... Vitamin C, β-carotene, carbohydrates, protein and moisture: ..... on rats fed a high cholesterol diet. ... male New Zealand rabbits.

  17. The isolation and antibiogram of aerobic nasal bacterial flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following microorganisms were identified from the normal flora of the grasscutters, they are; Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus sp, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus cerus , E. coli, Serratia sp, Streptococcus sp, Pasteurella multocida, Streptacoccus, sp., Mannheimia heamolytica, Klebsiella sp., ...

  18. Hamiguitan Range: A sanctuary for native flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Victor B; Aspiras, Reyno A

    2011-01-01

    Hamiguitan Range is one of the wildlife sanctuaries in the Philippines having unique biodiversity resources that are at risk due to forest degradation and conversion of forested land to agriculture, shifting cultivation, and over-collection. Thus, it is the main concern of this research to identify and assess the endemic and endangered flora of Hamiguitan Range. Field reconnaissance and transect walk showed five vegetation types namely: agro-ecosystem, dipterocarp, montane, typical mossy and mossy-pygmy forests. Inventory of plant species revealed 163 endemic species, 35 threatened species, and 33 rare species. Assessment of plants also showed seven species as new record in Mindanao and one species as new record in the Philippines. Noteworthy is the discovery of Nepenthes micramphora, a new species of pitcher plant found in the high altitudes of Hamiguitan Range. This species is also considered site endemic, rare, and threatened. The result of the study also showed that the five vegetation types of Mt. Hamiguitan harbor a number of endangered, endemic, and rare species of plants. Thus, the result of this study would serve as basis for the formulation of policies for the protection and conservation of these species and their habitats before these plants become extinct.

  19. Flora of the Holy Bible part I - fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, G V R

    2002-01-01

    Holy Bible described several plants and the authentication of certain Biblical flora is still in debate. In this present paper, attempts are being made to workout the correct botanical identity of certain plants based on the description mentioned in the Bible. Bible is a genuinely documented book everything mentioned in the Bible has a great significance. Present study is undertaken with a view to evaluate the biblical flora in correlation with the present day knowledge especially with the Ayurvedic system of medicine.

  20. Orchidaceous Additions to the Flora of China and Vietnam (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ormerod

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuing literature and herbarium studies of Chinese and Vietnamese orchids have revealed a variety of new and noteworthy floristic information. One species is newly recorded for the flora of China, one for Yunnan Province, China and one is newly recorded for the flora of Vietnam. One new synonym is proposed in the genus Oberonia. Five new species are proposed, viz. Epigeneium forrestii, Liparis brunnea, L. rockii, L. superposita and L. yuana.

  1. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak PA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prathibha Anand Nayak,1 Ullal Anand Nayak,2 Vishal Khandelwal3 1Department of Periodontics, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Index Dental College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. Keywords: xylitol, caries preventive effect, oral flora 

  2. Effect of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshiri, Ali; Shabani, Ziba; Mokhtaree, Mohammad R; Sayadi, Ahmad R; Faezi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This cross-sectional study was performed in the Psychiatry, and Ear, Nose, and Throat Departments, Moradi Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran from June to November 2008. Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before, and 2-3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Patients were not advised to change their number of cigarettes, and we used methadone for the substitution of opium. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (p=0.03). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus alpha hemolytic, and Staphylococcus aureus were not found in the second culture. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was for ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%), and cloxacillin (72%), and the most resistance for amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance for chloramphenicol. Some potential pathogens decrease or are even absent after opium cessation. Opium smoking affects the nasopharyngeal flora.

  3. Brain Metabolites in Autonomic Regulatory Insular Sites in Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Mary A.; Yadav, Santosh K.; Macey, Paul M.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Autonomic, pain, and neuropsychologic comorbidities appear in heart failure (HF), likely resulting from brain changes, indicated as loss of structural integrity and functional deficits. Among affected brain sites, the anterior insulae are prominent in serving major regulatory roles in many of the disrupted functions commonly seen in HF. Metabolite levels, including N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), and myo-inositol (MI), could ind...

  4. Investigation of the effects of oleuropein rich diet on rat enteric bacterial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraz, A; Simsek, T; Tekin, S Z; Elmas, S; Tekin, M; Sahin, H; Altinisik, H B; Pala, C

    2016-01-01

    Oleuropein is a phenolic compound of olive leaves. Enteric bacterial flora is very important for human health and diet is a directly affecting factor of enteric bacterial flora composition. In this study, it was hypothesized that oleuropein could reduce total aerobic bacterial count in rat caecal flora. Twenty adult, male, Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into two groups. Group C (n=10) was fed with standard rat chow and water for 30 days. Group O (n=10) received olive leaf extract 20 mg/kg/day by intragastric gavage in addition to standard rat chow and water for 30 days. One gram of caecal content was collected from each rat and then consecutive 10-fold serial dilutions were prepared with a final concentration of 10-8. Then 0.1 ml of each dilution were spread onto the surfaces of Plate Count Agar and Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar to enumerate the aerobic enteric bacteria. Total aerobic bacterial counts of Group O were significantly lower than of Group C in all agar plates inoculated with ceacal samples for every dilution (pbacterial translocation by reducing enteric bacterial counts (Tab. 1, Ref. 32).

  5. Epiphytic flora on Gelidium corneum (Rhodophyta: Gelidiales in relation to wave exposure and depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endika Quintano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The canopy-forming macroalga Gelidium corneum (Hudson J.V. Lamouroux plays a major role in the functioning of the subtidal ecosystem of the Cantabrian Sea (northern Spain. Despite its importance, little is known about the factors that may potentially affect the distribution pattern of its epiphytic flora. Here we examine two indirect factors: coastal orientation (N and NW and depth (3 and 7 m, as proxies for wave exposure and light availability, respectively. We test their effects on the total epiphytic load, alpha diversity (species richness, Shannon, Simpson and evenness measures and multivariate structure of the epiphytic flora growing on G. corneum in subtidal waters off the Basque coast. Plocamium cartilagineum, Dictyota dichotoma and Acrosorium ciliolatum were found to be the most common epiphytes. Significant interactive effect of coastal orientation and depth were observed for species composition and abundance of epiphytic flora. Increased wave exposure resulted in a lower epiphyte load and a less diverse community, suggesting that under high hydrodynamic conditions epiphytes were more likely to become dislodged from hosts. However, light availability only had a significant effect on the distribution of epiphytes below a certain threshold of wave action, with the epiphytic load being 30-40% greater on shallow bottoms.

  6. Prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant rectal flora in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy: A prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ho Seok; Hwang, Eu Chang; Yu, Ho Song; Jung, Seung Il; Lee, Sun Ju; Lim, Dong Hoon; Cho, Won Jin; Choe, Hyun Sop; Lee, Seung-Ju; Park, Sung Woon

    2018-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant rectal flora in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy and to identify the high-risk groups. From January 2015 to March 2016, rectal swabs of 557 men who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy were obtained from five institutions. Clinical variables, including demographics, rectal swab culture results and infectious complications, were evaluated. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify the risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance of rectal flora and infectious complications. The incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was 48.1 and 11.8%, respectively. The most common fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria was Escherichia coli (81% of total fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria, 39% of total rectal flora), and 16 (2.9%) patients had infectious complications. Univariable and multivariable analysis of clinical parameters affecting fluoroquinolone resistance showed no factor associated with fluoroquinolone resistance of rectal flora. The clinical parameter related to infectious complications after prostate biopsy was a history of operation within 6 months (relative risk 6.60; 95% confidence interval 1.99-21.8, P = 0.002). These findings suggest that a risk-based approach by history taking cannot predict antibiotic resistance of rectal flora, and physicians should consider targeted antibiotic prophylaxis or extended antibiotic prophylaxis for Korean patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy because of high antibiotic resistance of rectal flora. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  7. Observaciones sobre la flora del “Norte Chico” de Chile./ Notes on the flora of

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    Guillermo Ulriksen Becker [1952

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde un profundo conocimiento adquirido en sus estudios teóricos y prácticos, Guillermo Ulriksen da una mirada a la flora y fauna encontrada en sus exhaustivos recorridos por el Norte Chico de Chile, y a sus experiencias con ellas en circunstancias de su trabajo −conjunto con Oscar Prager− para efectos del proyecto del llamado “Plan Serena” desde 1947, y de su tesis de título de Arquitecto en 1952-53. En esta última, intenta aportar bases para la planeación regional del Norte Chico, a partir de las carencias que él estima existieron en el mandato del “Plan Serena”. Corresponde el presente escrito a un anexo con observaciones complementarias en la citada tesis./ Guillermo Ulriksen presents a deep study of the flora and fauna of the Norte Chico, as a part of his study for the Plan Serena and for his Graduation Proyect. He also tries to propose the basis for the development plan for the Norte Chico.

  8. Discovery of a diverse cave flora in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fang

    2018-01-01

    Few studies document plants in caves. Our field observations of a widespread and seemingly angiosperm-rich cave flora in SW China lead us to test the following hypotheses, 1) SW China caves contain a diverse vascular plant flora, 2) that this is a relic of a largely absent forest type lacking endemic species, and 3) that the light environment plants occupy in caves is not distinct from non-cave habitats. To do so we surveyed 61 caves and used species accumulation curves (SAC) to estimate the total diversity of this flora and used a subsample of 14 caves to characterise the light environment. We used regional floras and existing conservation assessments to evaluate the conservation value of this flora. We used observations on human disturbance within caves to evaluate anthropogenic activities. Four-hundred-and-eighteen vascular plant species were documented with SACs predicting a total diversity of 529–846. Ninety-three percent of the species documented are known karst forest species, 7% are endemic to caves and 81% of the species are angiosperms. We demonstrate that the light environment in caves is distinct to that of terrestrial habitats and that a subset of the flora likely grow in the lowest light levels documented for vascularised plants. Our results suggest that the proportion of species threatened with extinction is like that for the terrestrial habitat and that almost half of the entrance caverns sampled showed signs of human disturbance. We believe that this is the first time that such an extensive sample of cave flora has been undertaken and that such a diverse vascular plant flora has been observed in caves which we predict occurs elsewhere in SE Asia. We argue that the cave flora is an extension of the karst forest understory present prior to catastrophic deforestation in the 20thC. We suggest that within SW China caves serve as both refuges and a valuable source of germplasm for the restoration of karst forest. We also propose that caves represent a

  9. Discovery of a diverse cave flora in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Alexandre K; Bystriakova, Nadia; Fu, Longfei; Wen, Fang; Wei, Yigang

    2018-01-01

    Few studies document plants in caves. Our field observations of a widespread and seemingly angiosperm-rich cave flora in SW China lead us to test the following hypotheses, 1) SW China caves contain a diverse vascular plant flora, 2) that this is a relic of a largely absent forest type lacking endemic species, and 3) that the light environment plants occupy in caves is not distinct from non-cave habitats. To do so we surveyed 61 caves and used species accumulation curves (SAC) to estimate the total diversity of this flora and used a subsample of 14 caves to characterise the light environment. We used regional floras and existing conservation assessments to evaluate the conservation value of this flora. We used observations on human disturbance within caves to evaluate anthropogenic activities. Four-hundred-and-eighteen vascular plant species were documented with SACs predicting a total diversity of 529-846. Ninety-three percent of the species documented are known karst forest species, 7% are endemic to caves and 81% of the species are angiosperms. We demonstrate that the light environment in caves is distinct to that of terrestrial habitats and that a subset of the flora likely grow in the lowest light levels documented for vascularised plants. Our results suggest that the proportion of species threatened with extinction is like that for the terrestrial habitat and that almost half of the entrance caverns sampled showed signs of human disturbance. We believe that this is the first time that such an extensive sample of cave flora has been undertaken and that such a diverse vascular plant flora has been observed in caves which we predict occurs elsewhere in SE Asia. We argue that the cave flora is an extension of the karst forest understory present prior to catastrophic deforestation in the 20thC. We suggest that within SW China caves serve as both refuges and a valuable source of germplasm for the restoration of karst forest. We also propose that caves represent a

  10. Bacterial flora of conjunctiva after death

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    Sagili Chandrasekhara Reddy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the frequency of bacterial flora of conjunctiva after death (cadaver eyes which will give information about the bacterial contamination of donor eyes, and the in-vitro sensitivity of isolated bacteria to the commonly used antibiotics in ophthalmic practice.METHODS: Conjunctival swabs were taken from the cadavers (motor vehicle accident deaths and patients who died in the hospital, within 6h after death, and sent for culture and sensitivity test. Conjunctival swabs, taken from the healthy conjunctiva of patients admitted for cataract surgery, were sent for culture and sensitivity as controls (eyes in those of living status. The bacterial isolates were tested against the commonly used antibiotics (chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin in ophthalmology practice.RESULTS: Bacteria were isolated in 41 out of 100 conjunctival swabs (41%, taken from 50 cadavers (study group. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most common bacteria isolated (15%, followed by pseudomonas aeruginosa (5%. Gentamicin was effective against majority of the bacterial isolates (82%. Bacteria were isolated from 7 out of 100 conjunctival swabs taken as control group (eyes in living state. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most common organism (5% isolated in control group; the others were staphylococcus aureus (1% and beta hemolyticus streptococci (1%.CONCLUSION: Bacteria were isolated from 41% of the cadaver eyes. High percentage sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to gentamicin (82% supports the practice of thorough irrigation of the eyes with gentamicin solution before starting the procedure of enucleation followed by immersion of the enucleated eyeballs in gentamycin solution, to prevent the bacterial contamination.

  11. Flora y fauna crónica

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    Susana Chávez-Silverman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available “Flora & Fauna Crónica” is from the book, Killer Crónicas, which will be published by the University of Wisconsin Press in 2004. This collection of chronicles began in 2000, after Susana was awarded a fellowship by the US National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH for a project on contemporary Argentine women's poetry. She spent thirteen months in Buenos Aires where, in addition to research and writing on her official (academic book, she began to send bilingual, punning “letters from the southern [cone] front” to colleagues and friends by email. Susana says: “Living in Buenos Aires, that gorgeous, turn of the century city in a country on the brink of (economic collapse—home to many of the authors and artists I had long admired (Borges, Cortázar, Alfonsina Storni, Alejandra Pizarnik, and before them the foundational Romantics, Sarmiento and Echeverría—brought out a sense of self, dis/placed yet oddly at home, in a cultural, linguistic and even tangible way. In Buenos Aires, the fragmented parts of me, the voices, cultures, and places inside of me, rubbed up against each other and struck fire. I called my email missives “Crónicas,” inspired by the somewhat rough-hewn, journalistic, often fantastic first-hand accounts sent “home” by the early conquistadores, and refashioned by modern-day counterparts such as Carlos Monsiváis, Elena Poniatowska, and Cristina Pacheco.” One of Susana’s crónicas, “Anniversary Crónica,” inspired by the wedding anniversary of Susana’s parents and by the so-called “Soweto Riots” in South Africa, was recently awarded First prize in Personal Memoir in the Chicano Literary Excellence Contest sponsored by the U.S. national literary magazine el Andar.

  12. Do Mixed-Flora Preoperative Urine Cultures Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, Michael R; Kawasaki, Amie; Amundsen, Cindy L; Weidner, Alison C; Siddiqui, Nazema Y

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether mixed-flora preoperative urine cultures, as compared with no-growth preoperative urine cultures, are associated with a higher prevalence of postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs). This was a retrospective cohort study. Women who underwent urogynecologic surgery were included if their preoperative clean-catch urine culture result was mixed flora or no growth. Women were excluded if they received postoperative antibiotics for reasons other than treatment of a UTI. Women were divided into two cohorts based on preoperative urine culture results-mixed flora or no growth; the prevalence of postoperative UTI was compared between cohorts. Baseline characteristics were compared using χ 2 or Student t tests. A logistic regression analysis then was performed. We included 282 women who were predominantly postmenopausal, white, and overweight. There were many concomitant procedures; 46% underwent a midurethral sling procedure and 68% underwent pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Preoperative urine cultures resulted as mixed flora in 192 (68%) and no growth in 90 (32%) patients. Overall, 14% were treated for a UTI postoperatively. There was no difference in the proportion of patients treated for a postoperative UTI between the two cohorts (25 mixed flora vs 13 no growth, P = 0.77). These results remained when controlling for potentially confounding variables in a logistic regression model (adjusted odds ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.43-1.96). In women with mixed-flora compared with no-growth preoperative urine cultures, there were no differences in the prevalence of postoperative UTI. The clinical practice of interpreting mixed-flora cultures as negative is appropriate.

  13. Microbial flora analysis for the degradation of beta-cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhang; Wei, Zhang

    2017-03-01

    In the Xinjiang region of Eurasia, sustained long-term and continuous cropping of cotton over a wide expanse of land is practiced, which requires application of high levels of pyrethroid and other classes of pesticides-resulting in high levels of pesticide residues in the soil. In this study, soil samples were collected from areas of long-term continuous cotton crops with the aim of obtaining microbial resources applicable for remediation of pyrethroid pesticide contamination suitable for the soil type and climate of that area. Soil samples were first used to culture microbial flora capable of degrading beta-cypermethrin using an enrichment culture method. Structural changes and ultimate microbial floral composition during enrichment were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Four strains capable of degrading beta-cypermethrin were isolated and preliminarily classified. Finally, comparative rates and speeds of degradation of beta-cypermethrin between relevant microbial flora and single strains were determined. After continuous subculture for 3 weeks, soil sample microbial flora formed a new type of microbial flora by rapid succession, which showed stable growth by utilizing beta-cypermethrin as the sole carbon source (GXzq). This microbial flora mainly consisted of Pseudomonas, Hyphomicrobium, Dokdonella, and Methyloversatilis. Analysis of the microbial flora also permitted separation of four additional strains; i.e., GXZQ4, GXZQ6, GXZQ7, and GXZQ13 that, respectively, belonged to Streptomyces, Enterobacter, Streptomyces, and Pseudomonas. Under culture conditions of 37 °C and 180 rpm, the degradation rate of beta-cypermethrin by GXzq was as high as 89.84% within 96 h, which exceeded that achieved by the single strains GXZQ4, GXZQ6, GXZQ7, and GXZQ13 and their derived microbial flora GXh.

  14. Pleistocene changes in the fauna and flora of South america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, B S

    1971-08-27

    forest elements (40) now justify the conclusion that the floras and faunas of these areas were also greatly affected by Pleistocene climatic shifts. In the broad region of South America that lies within the tropics, a series of humid-arid cycles (Appendix, 6, 8-10) drastically and repeatedly altered vegetation patterns during the Quaternary. Both montane and lowland rainforests were fragmented during dry periods and were able to reexpand during humid phases. Speciation of forest elements was initiated-and sometimes completed-in isolated patches of the fragmented forest. Secondary contact, with hybridization or reunition of populations that did not become reproductively isolated, occurred in periods of reexpansion. These biological data, combined with supportive geological evidence (Appendix, 1-11), show that climatic events during the last million or so years have affected the biota of South America as much as the Pleistocene glacial changes affected the biotas of Eurasia and North America. Since most of South America lies within tropical latitudes, it is suggested here that part of the diversity of species in the tropical areas of this continent is due to two historical factors: the lack of wholesale elimination of species (compared with northern and high latitudes), and ample opportunity for speciation in successive periods of ecological isolation. The apparent paradox of the wealth of species in the "stable tropics" is partially explained by the fact that the tropics have probably been quite unstable, from the point of view of their biotas, during the Pleistocene and perhaps part of the Tertiary.

  15. Geographical analysis of the Uredinales flora of Poland

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    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the Polish flora of the order Uredinales is based on a simultaneously published descriptive elaboration (M a j e w s k i 1977, ms. The information on the Uredinales flora of Poland has been compared as far as possible with the data obtained from the analysis of the flora of sever al other countries in Europe with a different type of vegetations. In a chapter devoted to the statistics of the flora of Polish rust fungi the number of genera and species of these fungi in Poland is discussed, as well as their life cycles and host plants. The distribution of Uredinales in Poland is analysed on the basis of the A r w i d s s o n - D u r r i e u classification modified by the author, and particular attention is paid to the depedence of the range of the fungus on its life cycle and the occurrence of the host. Changes in the flora a result of its synantropization are also considered. The Polish Uredinales are divided into several groups on the basis of range, and example of their distribution involving historical factors are discussed.

  16. A biogeographical study on tropical flora of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua

    2017-12-01

    The tropical climate in China exists in southeastern Xizang (Tibet), southwestern to southeastern Yunnan, southwestern Guangxi, southern Guangdon, southern Taiwan, and Hainan, and these southern Chinese areas contain tropical floras. I checked and synonymized native seed plants from these tropical areas in China and recognized 12,844 species of seed plants included in 2,181 genera and 227 families. In the tropical flora of southern China, the families are mainly distributed in tropical areas and extend into temperate zones and contribute to the majority of the taxa present. The genera with tropical distributions also make up the most of the total flora. In terms of geographical elements, the genera with tropical Asian distribution constitute the highest proportion, which implies tropical Asian or Indo-Malaysia affinity. Floristic composition and geographical elements are conspicuous from region to region due to different geological history and ecological environments, although floristic similarities from these regions are more than 90% and 64% at the family and generic levels, respectively, but lower than 50% at specific level. These differences in the regional floras could be influenced by historical events associated with the uplift of the Himalayas, such as the southeastward extrusion of the Indochina geoblock, clockwise rotation and southeastward movement of Lanping-Simao geoblock, and southeastward movement of Hainan Island. The similarity coefficients between the flora of southern China and those of Indochina countries are more than 96% and 80% at family and generic levels, indicating their close floristic affinity and inclusion in the same biogeographically floristic unit.

  17. A Cretaceous origin for fire adaptations in the Cape flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tianhua; Lamont, Byron B; Manning, John

    2016-10-05

    Fire has had a profound effect on the evolution of worldwide biotas. The Cape Floristic Region is one of the world's most species-rich regions, yet it is highly prone to recurrent fires and fire-adapted species contribute strongly to the overall flora. It is hypothesized that the current fire regimes in the Cape could be as old as 6-8 million years (My), while indirect evidence indicates that the onset of fire could have reached 18 million years ago (Ma). Here, we trace the origin of fire-dependent traits in two monocot families that are significant elements in the fire-prone Cape flora. Our analysis shows that fire-stimulated flowering originated in the Cape Haemodoraceae 81 Ma, while fire-stimulated germination arose in the African Restionaceae at least 70 Ma, implying that wildfires have been a significant force in the evolution of the Cape flora at least 60 My earlier than previous estimates. Our results provide strong evidence for the presence of fire adaptations in the Cape from the Cretaceous, leading to the extraordinary persistence of a fire-adapted flora in this biodiversity hotspot, and giving support to the hypothesis that Cretaceous fire was a global phenomenon that shaped the evolution of terrestrial floras.

  18. Does circumcision alter the periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora

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    Mushtaq Ahmad Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised boys and to evaluate the effect of circumcision on alteration of periurethral uropathogenic bacterial flora. Materials and Methods: Pattern of periurethral bacterial flora before and after circumcision was studied prospectively in 124 boys. The results were analysed to compare change in bacterial colonisation before and after circumcision. Results: The age range was 6 weeks to 96 months. Most (94.3% of the boys had religious indication and 5.7% had medical indication for circumcision. E. coli, Proteus and Klebsiella were most common periurethral bacterial flora in uncircumcised subjects. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus was most common periurethral bacterial flora in circumcised subjects. In 66.1% of circumcised subjects, no bacteria were grown from periurethral region. Conclusion: We conclude that presence of prepuce is associated with great quantity of periurethral bacteria, greater likelihood of the presence of high concentration of uropathogens and high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI. This study provides circumstantial evidence supporting the idea that early circumcision may be beneficial for prevention of UTI.

  19. The effects of feral cats on insular wildlife: the Club-Med syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steve C.; Danner, Raymond M.; Timm, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic cats have been introduced to many of the world‘s islands where they have been particularly devastating to insular wildlife which, in most cases, evolved in the absence of terrestrial predatory mammals and feline diseases. We review the effects of predation, feline diseases, and the life history characteristics of feral cats and their prey that have contributed to the extirpation and extinction of many insular vertebrate species. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a persistent land-based zoonotic pathogen hosted by cats that is known to cause mortality in several insular bird species. It also enters marine environments in cat feces where it can cause the mortality of marine mammals. Feral cats remain widespread on islands throughout the world and are frequently subsidized in colonies which caretakers often assert have little negative effect on native wildlife. However, population genetics, home range, and movement studies all suggest that there are no locations on smaller islands where these cats cannot penetrate within two generations. While the details of past vertebrate extinctions were rarely documented during contemporary time, a strong line of evidence is emerging that the removal of feral cats from islands can rapidly facilitate the recolonization of extirpated species, particularly seabirds. Islands offer unique, mostly self-contained ecosystems in which to conduct controlled studies of the effects of feral cats on wildlife, having implications for continental systems. The response of terrestrial wildlife such as passerine birds, small mammals, and herptiles still needs more thorough long-term monitoring and documentation after the removal of feral cats.

  20. Diatom flora in subterranean ecosystems: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Falasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora, mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges with the substratum, inducing the adsorption of cations and dissolved organic molecules from the cave formations (speleothems. Coupled with the metabolic activities of heterotrophic microorganisms colonising such layer (biofilm, this phenomenon may lead to the corrosion of the mineral surfaces. In this review, we investigate the formation of biofilms, especially of diatom-dominated ones, as a consequence of artificial lighting and its impacts on speleothems. Whenever light reaches the subterranean habitat (both artificially and naturally a relative high number of species of diatoms may indeed colonise it. Cave entrances, artificially illuminated walls and speleothems inside the cave are generally the preferred substrates. This review focuses on the diatom flora colonising subterranean habitats, summarizing the information contained in all the scientific papers published from 1900 up to date. In this review we provide a complete checklist of the diatom taxa recorded in subterranean habitats, including a total of 363 taxa, belonging to 82 genera. The most frequent and abundant species recorded in caves and other low light subterranean habitats are generally aerophilic and

  1. A entrada de sal num espaço insular: Ilha da Madeira (1750-1832

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    Filipe dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the input of salt, from 1750 to 1832, in an insular space: the island of Madeira. The perception of this supply trade will be based, primarily, in a documental source of the municipality of Funchal (where is the only port of Madeira with conection with the exterior: the books of Registo dos Navios entrados no Funchal e despachos da Casa da Saúde. Through a quantitative approach, the topics of analysis are: conjunctural movements of importation; position of Madeira as a scale for salt in the Atlantic; areas of origin; duration of trips; types of ships carriers of salt.

  2. Insular species swarm goes underground: two new troglobiont Cylindroiulus millipedes from Madeira (Diplopoda: Julidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboleira, Ana Sofia P S; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-04-04

    Two new species of the genus Cylindroiulus Verhoeff, 1894, C. julesvernei and C. oromii, are described from the subterranean ecosystem of Madeira Island, Portugal. Species are illustrated with photographs and diagrammatic drawings. The new species belong to the Cylindroiulus madeirae-group, an insular species swarm distributed in the archipelagos of Madeira and the Canary Islands. We discuss the differences between the new species and their relatives and present information on the subterranean environment of Madeira. An updated overview of the subterranean biodiversity of millipedes in Macaronesia is also provided.

  3. Mutism and auditory agnosia due to bilateral insular damage--role of the insula in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, M; Daquin, G; Milandre, L; Royere, M L; Rey, M; Lanteri, A; Salamon, G; Khalil, R

    1995-03-01

    We report a case of transient mutism and persistent auditory agnosia due to two successive ischemic infarcts mainly involving the insular cortex on both hemispheres. During the 'mutic' period, which lasted about 1 month, the patient did not respond to any auditory stimuli and made no effort to communicate. On follow-up examinations, language competences had re-appeared almost intact, but a massive auditory agnosia for non-verbal sounds was observed. From close inspection of lesion site, as determined with brain resonance imaging, and from a study of auditory evoked potentials, it is concluded that bilateral insular damage was crucial to both expressive and receptive components of the syndrome. The role of the insula in verbal and non-verbal communication is discussed in the light of anatomical descriptions of the pattern of connectivity of the insular cortex.

  4. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF ROMANIA

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    CIOCÂRLAN VASILE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are present and discussed the fact that the legitimate name is Cirsium heterophyllum (L. Hill and the synonime name is Cirsium helenioides auct., non (L. Hill.In the flora of Romania, as well as in Europe, is growing Cirsium heterophyllum (L. Hill; Cirsium helenioides (L. Hill is growing in Central Asia and in Siberie.Follow, it is showed that the taxa Juncus trifidus L. ssp. monanthos (Jacq. Asch. & Graebn. is not growing in the flora of Romania. There is presented an infraspecific taxa, new for the science, namely: Juncus trifidus L. ssp. trifidus var. brevifolia Ciocârlan var. nova., discovered in the Mountains of Cozia (Vâlcea county.Also, in this paper is presented two rare plants in the flora of Romania: Dianthus kladovanus Degen and Thymus longicaulis C. Presl, species listed in the “Red Lists”, discovered by the author in new localities.

  5. Characteristic Flora and Fauna of the Kachin State, Northern Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Yi Win; Cilia Linburt; Yin Yin May

    2005-10-01

    Three biological expeditions was made from June 2003 to June 2004. Altitude is a major factor among the differences of flora and fauna distribution. Hkakaborazi (19296') is a reservoir of glaciers with permanent ice and snow from which rivers. Melikha and Maekha emanate. Ayeyarwaddy river formed from those two rivers and flow beside Myirkyina. Therefore, water quality of each river and their tributaries are cool and fresh. This quality can preserve endemic species. Unknown species of jellyfishes of Ayeyarwaddy river was collected from Myitkyina environ. Also, three different terrestrial habitats namely icy-mountain range, cool temperature and subtropical forest can conserve their characteristic flora and fauna. Flora and fauna distribution is always related to their habitat or environs. Diagnostic features of each species were recorded by photographs. The findings were discussed from conservation point of view.

  6. Androsace septentrionalis (Primulaceae), a new species for the Balkan flora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, V.; Vukojicic, S.; Tan, Kit

    2005-01-01

    Androsace septentrionalis L. (Primulaceae) is recorded as a new species for the Balkan flora on the basis of herbarium material collected several times from Mt. Prokletije, situated near the borders of Serbia (Metochia and Kosovo province), Montenegro and Albania. The locality marks the southernm......Androsace septentrionalis L. (Primulaceae) is recorded as a new species for the Balkan flora on the basis of herbarium material collected several times from Mt. Prokletije, situated near the borders of Serbia (Metochia and Kosovo province), Montenegro and Albania. The locality marks...... the southernmost limit of the species' range in Europe. The existence of A. septentrionalis in the Balkans may be the result of migration of the tundra-steppe flora from central and East Europe towards the mountains of the peninsula during the Ice Age....

  7. Susceptibility to infection and immune response in insular and continental populations of Egyptian vulture: implications for conservation.

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    Laura Gangoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A generalized decline in populations of Old World avian scavengers is occurring on a global scale. The main cause of the observed crisis in continental populations of these birds should be looked for in the interaction between two factors -- changes in livestock management, including the increased use of pharmaceutical products, and disease. Insular vertebrates seem to be especially susceptible to diseases induced by the arrival of exotic pathogens, a process often favored by human activities, and sedentary and highly dense insular scavengers populations may be thus especially exposed to infection by such pathogens. Here, we compare pathogen prevalence and immune response in insular and continental populations of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture under similar livestock management scenarios, but with different ecological and evolutionary perspectives. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult, immature, and fledgling vultures from the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula were sampled to determine a the prevalence of seven pathogen taxa and b their immunocompetence, as measured by monitoring techniques (white blood cells counts and immunoglobulins. In the Canarian population, pathogen prevalence was higher and, in addition, an association among pathogens was apparent, contrary to the situation detected in continental populations. Despite that, insular fledglings showed lower leukocyte profiles than continental birds and Canarian fledglings infected by Chlamydophila psittaci showed poorer cellular immune response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A combination of environmental and ecological factors may contribute to explain the high susceptibility to infection found in insular vultures. The scenario described here may be similar in other insular systems where populations of carrion-eaters are in strong decline and are seriously threatened. Higher susceptibility to infection may be a further factor contributing decisively to the extinction

  8. Four neophytes new for the flora of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Đorđije Milanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During systematic field research carried out in the wider Posavina region, Livanjsko polje, and the environs of Zavidovići (Bosnia and Herzegovina, the following four neophytes new for the flora of the country were recorded: Hypericum majus, Juncus dudleyi, Symphyotrichum lanceolatum and Sisyrinchium montanum. While the last two species have been previously recorded from the region (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum from Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Slovenia; Sisyrinchium montanum from Croatia, Hypericum majus and Juncus dudleyi are here registered as new for the neophyte flora of the Balkan Peninsula

  9. Bacterial flora of soil after application of oily waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, V

    1975-01-01

    The influence of mineral oils and oily waste on the bacterial flora of soil was studied both in the field and in model experiments by plate counts followed by examination of the composition of the bacterial flora developing on the plates and by enrichment cultures followed by isolation of pure cultures. A strong increase in bacterial numbers after oil application was observed both in field and model experiments, and this increase occurred within all groups of bacteria, except spore formers and streptomycetes. The most important species of oil decomposing bacteria belonged to the genera Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas.

  10. New Records To The Vascular Flora Of Kazakhstan (Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel Aleksandr L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents distributional data for seven species new for the flora of Kazakhstan: Atriplex gardneri var. aptera (A. Nelson S. L. Welsh. & Crompton, Cardamine hirsuta L., Carduus acanthoides L., Galega orientalis Lam., Silene cserei Baumg., Didymophysa fedtschenkoana Regel and Acinos arvensis (Lam. Dandy. Didymophysa fedtschenkoana is a native element in the Kazakh flora; the other species should be treated as alien, expansively spreading or invasive in this part of Asia. A list of localities of the species in Kazakhstan and their habitat preferences are presented.

  11. The Permian mega floras of Uruguay.A synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisafulli, A.; Herbst, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Permian megafloras of Uruguay. A synthesis. An analysis of the impression and fossil wood floras from the Permian of Uruguay is given through a series of Tables. These show : (1) the list of taxa, (2) anatomical characters of the woods, (3) data on the microfloral associations, (4) paleoenvironmental information and (5) comparisons with contemporaneous Gondwana floras. The evolutionary degree of the woods is briefly analyzed where they correspond to the so-called ''transition xilotaphofloras'' as they present typical Paleozoic anatomical characters but with secondary xylem of more advanced characteristics. (author)

  12. Intestinal flora imbalance promotes alcohol-induced liver fibrosis by the TGFβ/smad signaling pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Hao, Xiuxian; Xu, Lili; Cui, Jing; Xue, Li; Tian, Zibin

    2017-10-01

    Intestinal flora performs a crucial role in human health and its imbalance may cause numerous pathological changes. The liver can also affect the intestinal function through bile secretion via the enterohepatic cycle. The pathophysiological association between the gut and the liver is described as the gut-liver axis. The present study investigated the role of intestinal flora in alcohol-induced liver fibrosis. A total of 36 C57 mice were randomly and equally divided into 3 different dietary regimes: Group I (alcohol injury; received alcohol); group II (alcohol injury with flora imbalance; received alcohol plus lincomycin hydrochloride) and group III (alcohol injury with corrected flora imbalance; received alcohol, lincomycin hydrochloride and extra probiotics). The present study then investigated several indicators of liver damage. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in mice serum were studied. Masson staining and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining was also performed, and the expression of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (smad) 3 and smad4 proteins in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of the mice was examined using western blot analysis. The levels of serum ALP, AST and ALT were the highest in group II mice, and all 3 levels decreased in group III mice compared with those from group II. The degree of liver fibrosis was aggravated in group II mice compared with group I mice. The apoptosis of HSCs was significantly inhibited in group II mice, but was increased in group III mice. The HSCs in group II mice exhibited higher expression of smad3 and smad4, whilst group III mice (with corrected intestinal flora imbalance) exhibited downregulated expression of smad3 and smad4. The present data indicates that the intestinal flora perform a significant role in maintaining liver homeostasis. Furthermore, an imbalance of intestinal flora can exacerbate alcohol

  13. Long-term aversive taste memory requires insular and amygdala protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Balderas, Israela; Saucedo-Alquicira, Fernando; Cruz-Castañeda, Paulina; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2011-03-01

    Some reports have shown that the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is necessary to degrade repressor factors to produce new proteins essential to memory consolidation. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that memory updating also relies on protein degradation through the UPS. To evaluate whether degradation of proteins is part of the cellular events needed for long-term storage of taste aversion, we injected lactacystin--an UPS inhibitor--into the amygdala and/or insular cortex 30 min before the first or second training trials. The results revealed that degradation of proteins in either the amygdala or insular cortex suffices for long-term stabilization of first-time encounter taste aversion. On the other hand, lactacystin applied in the insula, but not in the amygdala, before the second training prevented long-term storage of updated information. Our results support that degradation of proteins by means of the UPS is required every time taste aversion is to be stored in long-term memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Translating EU renewable energy policy for insular energy systems: Reunion Island's quest for energy autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sawatzky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the negative impacts of climate change has led to agreement on the need to decarbonise energy systems through the employment of renewable energy. With many national and transnational policies in place, the options available to insular energy systems (IES differ from those of interconnected areas due to fragility in their production and distribution networks. Based on the concepts of policy mobility and translation, this study examines the interplay of EU renewable energy policy and insular governance processes aimed at achieving energy autonomy through renewable energy development. Reunion Island, a French Overseas Department and Region, is used as a case study to examine local energy governance processes, aspects that shape regional translation of national and EU policy, and the potential effects that create structures and pathways of energy transition. The study shows that Reunion Island’s regional Energy Governance Committee has significant application potential as a governance tool in other IES and small islands within the EU, but that renewable energy development is restricted due to national policy measures and path dependent governance structural constraints.

  15. High antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards: a warning signal of excessive specimen collection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Delibes

    Full Text Available We live-captured lizards on islands in the Gulf of California and the Baja California peninsula mainland, and compared their ability to escape predation. Contrary to expectations, endemic lizard species from uninhabited islands fled from humans earlier and more efficiently than those from peninsular mainland areas. In fact, 58.2% (n=146 of the lizards we tried to capture on the various islands escaped successfully, while this percentage was only 14.4% (n=160 on the peninsular mainland. Separate evidence (e.g., proportion of regenerated tails, low human population at the collection areas, etc. challenges several potential explanations for the higher antipredatory efficiency of insular lizards (e.g., more predation pressure on islands, habituation to humans on the peninsula, etc.. Instead, we suggest that the ability of insular lizards to avoid predators may be related to harvesting by humans, perhaps due to the value of endemic species as rare taxonomic entities. If this hypothesis is correct, predation-related behavioral changes in rare species could provide early warning signals of their over-exploitation, thus encouraging the adoption of conservation measures.

  16. Functional role for suppression of the insular-striatal circuit in modulating interoceptive effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Anel A; Agan, Verda E; Makhijani, Viren H; Pedroza, Stephen; McElligott, Zoe A; Besheer, Joyce

    2017-09-27

    The insular cortex (IC) is a region proposed to modulate, in part, interoceptive states and motivated behavior. Interestingly, IC dysfunction and deficits in interoceptive processing are often found among individuals with substance-use disorders. Furthermore, the IC projects to the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), a region known to modulate the discriminative stimulus/interoceptive effects of alcohol and other drug-related behaviors. Therefore, the goal of the present work was to investigate the possible role of the IC ➔ AcbC circuit in modulating the interoceptive effects of alcohol. Thus, we utilized a chemogenetic technique (hM4D i designer receptor activation by designer drugs) to silence neuronal activity in the IC of rats trained to discriminate alcohol (1 g/kg, IG) versus water using an operant or Pavlovian alcohol discrimination procedure. Chemogenetic silencing of the IC or IC ➔ AcbC neuronal projections resulted in potentiated sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol in both the operant and Pavlovian tasks. Together, these data provide critical evidence for the nature of the complex IC circuitry and, specifically, suppression of the insular-striatal circuit in modulating behavior under a drug stimulus control. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Flora tugevdas jaotustegevuse ümberkorraldamisega kaubamärki / Rivo Sarapik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Avtomobili i transport 19. märts lk. 6. Flora logistikakogemus: oma autopargist ja laost loobumine aitas keemiafirmal Flora suurendada tootevalikut, kasvatada klientide arvu ning vähendada kulusid

  18. Association of sexually transmitted infections, Candida species, gram-positive flora and perianal flora with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Ali; Tuin, Hellen; Bliekendaal, Harry; Spaargaren, Joke

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterised by depletion of the normal Lactobacillus spp. and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria. We investigated the composition of vaginal microbiota and their association with BV in women of reproductive age. Vaginal samples from 1197 women were analysed, whereby n=451 patients had normal flora and n=614 were diagnosed with BV, the remaining patients were diagnosed with having either intermediate flora (n=42) or dysbacteriosis (n=90). The reported results show that pathogens are associated with BV. This knowledge will further expand our understanding of events leading to BV, which may lead to more effective prevention and treatment strategies.

  19. Comparison of anterior cingulate versus insular cortex as targets for real-time fMRI regulation during pain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten eEmmert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback allows learning voluntary control over specific brain areas by means of operant conditioning and has been shown to decrease pain perception. To further increase the effect of rt-fMRI neurofeedback on pain, we directly compared two different target regions of the pain network i.e. the anterior insular cortex (AIC and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC.Participants for this prospective study were randomly assigned to two age-matched groups of 14 participants each (7 females per group for AIC and ACC feedback. First, a functional localizer using block-design heat pain stimulation was performed to define the pain-sensitive target region within the AIC or ACC. Second, subjects were asked to down-regulate the feedback signal in four neurofeedback runs during identical pain stimulation. Data analysis included task-related and functional connectivity analysis.At the behavioral level, pain ratings significantly decreased during feedback versus localizer runs, but there was no difference between AIC and ACC groups. Concerning neuroimaging, ACC and AIC showed consistent involvement of the caudate nucleus for subjects that learned down-regulation (17/28 in both task-related and functional connectivity analysis. The functional connectivity towards the caudate nucleus is stronger for the ACC while the AIC is more heavily connected to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.Consequently, the ACC and AIC are suitable targets for real-time fMRI neurofeedback during pain perception as they both affect the caudate nucleus, although functional connectivity indicates that the direct connection seems to be stronger with the ACC. Additionally, the caudate, an important area involved in pain perception and suppression, could be a rt-fMRI target itself. Future studies are needed to identify parameters characterizing successful regulators and to assess the effect of repeated rt-fMRI neurofeedback on pain

  20. The dates of publication of Blume’s Flora Javae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1939-01-01

    The actual dates of publication of the greater part of BLUME’s Flora Javae (lit. 1) appear to be unknown among taxonomists. The title-page of the first volume is dated 1828, and we find the same year at the base of the preface. The volume containing the Orchideae (lit. 2) is dated 1858, but further

  1. A Synoptic Account of Flora of Solapur District, Maharashtra (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushnadeoray Garad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides the first systematic and comprehensive account of the flora of Solapur district of Maharashtra (India. The flora of this region demonstrates a wide range of species diversity and growth forms. The vegetation of the district mainly represents tropical dry deciduous forests, thorny open scrub and vast grasslands. During the present work, a total of 1441 taxa belonging to 699 genera and 125 families of flowering plants were recorded. A new species Crinum solapurense Gaikwad et al. is described. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 210 taxa, followed by Poaceae (157 taxa, Asteraceae (85 taxa, Malvaceae (68 taxa and Euphorbiaceae (48 taxa. Acacia is the largest genus with 25 taxa, followed by Euphorbia (23, Cyperus (22, Crotalaria (19 and Ipomoea (19. The herbaceous flora of the district is notable as it amounts to 56.21% of the whole of flora. The ratio of indigenous woody to herbaceous components is 1:1.28. The proportion of indigenous taxa (978 to the cultivated ones (460 is 1.35: 0.5 in the district.

  2. A synoptic account of flora of solapur district, maharashtra (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garad, Krushnadeoray U; Gore, Ramchandra D; Gaikwad, Sayajirao P

    2015-01-01

    The present paper provides the first systematic and comprehensive account of the flora of Solapur district of Maharashtra (India). The flora of this region demonstrates a wide range of species diversity and growth forms. The vegetation of the district mainly represents tropical dry deciduous forests, thorny open scrub and vast grasslands. During the present work, a total of 1441 taxa belonging to 699 genera and 125 families of flowering plants were recorded. A new species Crinumsolapurense Gaikwad et al. is described. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 210 taxa, followed by Poaceae (157 taxa), Asteraceae (85 taxa), Malvaceae (68 taxa) and Euphorbiaceae (48 taxa). Acacia is the largest genus with 25 taxa, followed by Euphorbia (23), Cyperus (22), Crotalaria (19) and Ipomoea (19). The herbaceous flora of the district is notable as it amounts to 56.21% of the whole of flora. The ratio of indigenous woody to herbaceous components is 1:1.28. The proportion of indigenous taxa (978) to the cultivated ones (460) is 1.35: 0.5 in the district.

  3. Alien flora of Turkey: checklist, taxonomic composition and ecological attributes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uludag, A.; Aksoy, N.; Yazlik, A.; Arslan, Z. F.; Yazmiş, E.; Üremiş, I.; Cossu, T. A.; Groom, Q.; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Brundu, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2017), s. 61-85 ISSN 1619-0033 Grant - others:COST(XE) TD1209; AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:FA; Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : alien flora * Turkey * invasions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation

  4. Vascular flora and macroscopic fauna on the Fernow Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlene M. Madarish; Jane L. Rodrigue; Mary Beth Adams

    2002-01-01

    This report is the first comprehensive inventory of the vascular flora and macroscopic fauna known to occur within the Fernow Experimental Forest in north-central West Virignia. The compendium is based on information obtained from previous surveys, current research, and the personal observations of USDA Forest Service personnel and independent scientists. More than 750...

  5. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Sipuncula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Edward B.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Key to Sipuncula (Peanut Worms); (3) Annotated Systematic List of Species;…

  6. Toothpaste formulation efficacy in reducing oral flora | Okpalugo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the microbial quality as well as the effectiveness of seven brands of toothpaste marketed in Abuja, Nigeria's capital city, for reducing oral bacterial flora. Methods: Seven brands of toothpaste were randomly purchased from the open market in Abuja. Two brands contained triclosan + sodium fluoride as ...

  7. Native flora rescue program: GASENE project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [Telsan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jacomelli, Junior, Jose Almir [AGF Engenharia, Araucaria, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Concerning the surrounding flora, the implementation of pipelines may cause fragmentation and isolation of the remaining natural vegetation, possibly changing the forest structure; thus raising the border effect; modifying the ratio of species and life forms, decreasing the vegetal diversity and/or causing a lack of connectivity among the remaining indigenous forest resources. In the case of pipelines, the most important environmental measure intended to mitigate the damage caused to the flora is the adoption of Indigenous Flora Rescue Programs. This paper is aimed at analyzing the programs currently applied during the implementation of the GASENE project, by conducting a case study. The main targets of such program are obtaining seeds and fruits with a view to subsidize the potential production of sapling to be further employed in the recovery of areas impacted by the pipeline works; and then relocate the most significant samples of species rescued from the suppressed areas in order to comprise forest areas adjacent to the pipeline's right-of-way. The programs had little differences in their methodology while being implemented, however, we consider that up to the present moment the results obtained in the preservation of species of native flora have been satisfactory. (author)

  8. Enige diatomeeënsoorten, nieuw voor de Nederlandse flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Herman

    1974-01-01

    During an investigation of the epiphyton, growing on the culms of Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, and Glyceria maxima, in the nature-reserve “Het Naardermeer”, ten species of diatoms were discovered which are new for the Dutch flora. These are enumerated together with some notes on their

  9. Notulae to the Italian alien vascular flora: 4

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso,Gabriele; Domina,Gianniantonio; Bonari,Gianmaria; Buono,Sergio; Chianese,Giuseppina; Cortesi,Gloria; Cortesi,Gloria; Iamonico,Duilio; Olivieri,Nicola; Peruzzi,Lorenzo; Pierini,Brunello; Roma-Marzio,Francesco; Scoppola,Anna; Soldano,Adriano; Stinca,Adriano

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, new data concerning the Italian distribution of alien vascular flora are presented. It includes new records and exclusions for Italy or for Italian administrative regions of taxa in the genera Cedrus, Cenchrus, Citrus, Cyrtomium, Diospyros, Elaeagnus, Erigeron, Iris, Oenothera, Pavonia, Phytolacca, Styphnolobium, and Verbena. Furthermore, a new combination in the genus Amaranthus is proposed.

  10. Oral Hygiene and Oral Flora Evaluation in Psychiatric Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The oral hygiene of most patients was insufficient. The presence of Gram‑negative Bacilli growth in the oral flora can be explained by poor hand hygiene. These findings suggest that it is useful to educate individuals about oral hygiene and hand hygiene and to inform the staff and families about this issue.

  11. Distribution and diversity of flora and fauna in International Institute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution and diversity of flora and fauna in International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) forest and nature reserve, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. ... was also sighted in the study site and several other birds which normally winter around the lake. Key words: Ecology, Distribution, Diversity, Forest, Nature Reserve, IITA, ...

  12. Native flora rescue program: GASENE project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [Telsan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jacomelli Junior, Jose Almir [AGF Engenharia, Araucaria, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Concerning the surrounding flora, the implementation of pipelines may cause fragmentation and isolation of the remaining natural vegetation, possibly changing the forest structure; thus raising the border effect; modifying the ratio of species and life forms, decreasing the vegetal diversity and/or causing a lack of connectivity among the remaining indigenous forest resources. In the case of pipelines, the most important environmental measure intended to mitigate the damage caused to the flora is the adoption of Indigenous Flora Rescue Programs. This paper is aimed at analyzing the programs currently applied during the implementation of the GASENE project, by conducting a case study. The main targets of such program are obtaining seeds and fruits with a view to subsidize the potential production of sapling to be further employed in the recovery of areas impacted by the pipeline works; and then relocate the most significant samples of species rescued from the suppressed areas in order to comprise forest areas adjacent to the pipeline's right-of-way. The programs had little differences in their methodology while being implemented, however, we consider that up to the present moment the results obtained in the preservation of species of native flora have been satisfactory. (author)

  13. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  14. Investigations on ileal microbial flora in weaning piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klüss, J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Konstantinov, S.R.; Kwella, M.; Kuhla, S.; Souffrant, W.B.

    2003-01-01

    To characterize ileal microbial flora in weaning piglets a slaughter trial was conducted. 224 German Landrace piglets of both genders were allocated to four different feeding regimes (with or without avilamycin, 3 resp. 8 % crude fibre content). At predefined times pre- and postweaning piglets were

  15. Mushroom flora and associated insect fauna in Nsukka Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mushroom flora and associated insect pests of mushrooms in Nsukka urban was studied. The abundance of mushrooms from sampled communites is indicaed with the family, Agaricaceae predominating “out of home” environment yielded more mushrooms (4.62) than the homestead environment (3.26). Insect pests ...

  16. WEED FLORA OF CASSAVA IN WEST NILE ZONES OF UGANDA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Information on weeds of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in eastern Africa is limited. The objective of this study was to establish the status of weed flora in selected cassava growing regions of Uganda. This study was conducted in 2013 at Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute; (AbiZARDI) in Arua, ...

  17. Biological spectrum with some other ecological attributes of the flora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the current available information on the flora and vegetation of the Asir mountain of SW Saudi Arabia, spectra on life form and some other ecological attributes were analyzed and reviewed in different sub-ecosystem of the investigated area. The floristic list of Asir Mountain of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia consists ...

  18. Microbial flora of Clarias Gariepinus in the early stages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to establish the microbial flora in farmed Clarias gariepinus hatchery systems. Enumeration of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, total coliforms, Salmonella spp. Vibrio spp. and Aeromonas hydrophila from eggs (fertilized and unfertilized), larvae, fry, fry feed and tank water showed that ...

  19. A Prospective Comparative Study of the Bacterial Flora of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative comparative study of the bacterial flora of the vagina and cervix of 90 non-pregnant women of childbearing age (18-35 years) in Calabar was undertaken. The study revealed that both aerobic and microaerophilic organisms as well as the strictly anaerobic bacteria constituted the microflora of the lower genital of ...

  20. Flora of St Katherine Protectorate: key to families and genera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flora of St Katherine Protectorate: key to families and genera. Wafaa Kamel, Magda Gazar, Samy Zalat, Francis Gilbert. Abstract. Egyptian Journal of Natural History Vol.1 1999: 1-39. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. ( Allium sativum ) on Salmonella typhi infection, gastrointestinal flora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of garlic (Allium sativum) in treating Salmonella typhi infection and on the gastrointestinal flora and hematological parameters of rats was investigated. Crude garlic extract inhibited the growth of S. typhi on agar plate with a zone of inhibition averaging 23.8 mm in diameter using the agar diffusion ...

  2. Flora White (1860-1948): New Woman, Stark Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Linda C.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the life of education reformer Flora White, who both represented and deviated from the stereotypical new woman portrayed in popular literature of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. White's decision to reject marriage and children in favor of a career resulted in greater financial insecurity and an unmet desire…

  3. Inventory of Medicinal Flora from Thal Desert, Punjab, Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The whole area was surveyed for inventorying medicinal flora by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: The people of the study area are extremely knowledgeable, hence reported 120 plants which are being used in treating various human diseases. The detailed inventory including ...

  4. La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett. http://www.hewlett.org/ · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month. Subscribe · Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy ...

  5. Flora of Beyt Shankhodar in the Gul of Kuchchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Ambiye, V.

    Different types of flora of Beyt Shankhodar in the Gulf of Kuchchh have been studied with reference to the abiotic and biotic factors. Major floral groups were both of terrestrial and marine habitats. Most of the terrestrial plants are of xerophytic...

  6. Marine flora of Nicobar group of islands in Anadman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    The marine flora of 4 islands comprised 66 species of marine algae, 7 of seagrasses, and 10 of mangroves. Maximum number of marine algae (6) and mangroves (9) were reported from Great Nicobar Island, whereas more (7) species of seagrasses were...

  7. Microbiological flora and nail polish: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, G M; Flournoy, D J; Schlageter, P

    1994-11-01

    Removing nail polish and prosthetic nails from operating room (OR) personnel prior to scrubbing and from patients prior to hand surgery is recommended but not practiced in many hospitals. There is concern that nail polish can act as a vehicle for the transfer of infectious agents. This study was designed to determine the incidence of microbiological flora of nail polish in a clinical setting.

  8. Flora of Chihuahuan desertscrub on limestone in northeastern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; J. Jesus. Sanchez-Escalante

    2013-01-01

    Transects were done in desertscrub on limestone to characterize the flora of the westernmost Chihuahuan Desert. Most of the sites (15) were in the Municipios of Agua Prieta and Naco in northeastern Sonora, with single sites near Ascensión, northwestern Chihuahua and east of Douglas in southeastern Arizona. A total of 236 taxa were recorded on transects. Dicot perennial...

  9. Over flora en vegetatie van drie Noorddrentse bosjes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkman, J.J.

    1971-01-01

    This paper deals with the flora and vegetation of two small woods in the northern part of the prov. Drente. These woods are comparatively rich in species for the region in question, probably owing to the richer soil. Wood associations present are: Querco-Betuletum, Violo-Quercetum,

  10. Orchidaceous Additions to the Floras of China and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ormerod

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Literature and herbarium studies of Chinese and Taiwanese orchids has revealed a variety of new and noteworthy data pertinent to the floras of China and Taiwan. Three new combinations are proposed, viz. Anoectochilus baotingensis, Oberonia sinica and Odontochilus nanlingensis.

  11. Evaluation of flora diversity and abundance in Awba Dam Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated flora diversity and abundance in Awba Dam Tourism Centre, Ibadan, Nigeria. Complete enumeration of trees (>10cm diameter at breast height (dbh)), saplings, and small trees growing within 50m radius of the Awba dam was carried out. The percentage canopy cover of tree species (to the nearest 5%) ...

  12. The Paleocene and lower Eocene pollen flora of Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leidelmeyer, P.

    1966-01-01

    A description is given of a Paleocene and Lower Eocene pollen flora of two bore-holes in Guana. Some new species are described and some remarks are made on their stratigraphical significance. Pollen diagrams are presented, one probably representing the entire Paleocene and a part of the Eocene.

  13. Origin of the flora of the Malay Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridley, H.N.

    1937-01-01

    In my work on the Malay Peninsula, I included such plants as were known from the districts of North Kedah, Perlis and Setul. Botanically however, the Malayan flora ceases at a line running from a little north of Kedah peak Lat. 6.5, to Kota Bahru in North Kelantan Lat. 6.10. It is in fact

  14. Aanwinsten voor de Nederlandse adventief-flora, 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.; Reichgelt, Th.J.

    1963-01-01

    1. Navarretia squarrosa (Eschsch.) Hook. & Arn. is mentioned here in addition to our last paper on the Netherlands adventitious flora, published in Gorteria 1, no. 10, 1963, p. 113—117. The species was found in 1962 near Joure, prov. Friesland, and was most probably introduced with bird-seed. 2. All

  15. The alpine flora of Mount Wilhelm (New Guinea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1958-01-01

    The flora of the higher mountains of New Guinea has been the object of several extensive collecting trips in the past forty years. Until quite recently, however, a serious gap in our knowledge was the very scanty information available from the area between Mount Wilhelmina in the West and Mount

  16. Feminizing the Professional: The Government Reports of Flora Annie Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Rebecca J.

    1998-01-01

    Studies Flora Annie Steel, an uneducated woman who nonetheless became an Inspector of Female Schools in Punjab, India, in 1884. Focuses on her reports within the context of British imperialism and late 19th-century report conventions. Concludes that cultural expectations for women in imperialism influenced Steel's response to the genre; and the…

  17. Overview of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea: The long road to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to the initiation of the Ethiopian Flora Project (EFP), there were a number of attempts over the years to write the flora for a particular region/s or areas of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The modern Ethiopian Flora Project was initiated in 1980 as a bilateral agreement between the Ethiopian and Swedish governments through the ...

  18. Composition, Endemism and Phytogeographical Affinities of the Taiwan Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Fu Hsieh

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan vascular flora is exceptionally interesting not only because it is rich and diversified, but because it is of great phytogeographic significance owing to its geographic location. The flora of Taiwan, including naturalized plants, comprises 233 families and 1389 genera with 4216 species. In terms of major growth forms, there are 588 trees, 426 shrubs, 249 lianas, 177 vines, and 2776 herbs or ferns. Approximately 234 species are exotics typically associated with pastures, road clearings and other human disturbances. An extremely large percentage of these naturalized plants are of tropical New World origin. Among the native flora, the Orchidaceae (331 species, Gramineae (249, Compositae (194, Leguminosae (176, Cyperaceae (174, Rosaceae (105, Rubiaceae (93 and Euphorbiaceae (76 rank highest in numbers of species. Clearly, the greatest part of Taiwan's floristics richness comes from a wealth of species in primarily lowland (0–600 m asl. taxa. A total of 2571 species were recorded in the lowlands, whereas only about 251 species occur between 3100-3950 m. Endemic genera are extremely scarce in Taiwan, with only four, namely Sinopanax (Araliaceae, Hayatella (Rubiaceae, Kudoacanthus (Acanthaceae, and Haraella (Orchidaceae. In contrast to the low percentage of generic endemism, there is a remarkably higher specific endemism. About 1041 species (26.1% of indigenous plants are known only from Taiwan. A detailed examination of these species shows that there is a distinct trend of increasing endemism with increasing altitude (r² = 0.99. A survey of indigenous non-endemic species on the basis of their geographical distribution outside Taiwan shows that they can be classified into 6 major categories: 1. pantropical and palaeotropical species (1029 species; 2. species distributed in eastern Asia, from Himalayas through southern & eastern China to Taiwan, with some extending to the Ryukyus and Japan (1075 species; 3. widespread species extending

  19. Vascular flora of Kenya, based on the Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenya, an African country with major higher plant diversity, has a corresponding diversity of plant associations, because of the wide geographic distribution, diverse climatic conditions and soil types. In this article, all vascular plants of Kenya were counted based on the completed "Flora of Tropical East Africa (FTEA", and all families and genera were revised using recent molecular systematics research, forming a "Synoptic List of Families and Genera of Kenyan Vascular Plants (SLFGKVP". In total, there are 225 families, 1538 genera and 6293 indigenous species and and 62 families, 302 genera and 588 exotic species in Kenya. The Fabaceae with 98 genera and 576 Species is the largest family. Two of the seven plant distribution regions of Kenya, K4 and K7 are the most species-richest areas with regard to both total and endemic species, with 3375 and 3191 total species and 174 and 185 endemic species in K4 and K7 respectively. While, K3 and K5 have the highest density of both total and endemic species. K1 has the lowest density of total species, and K2 has the lowest density of endemic species.

  20. Awake craniotomy versus craniotomy under general anesthesia for the surgical treatment of insular glioma: choices and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gravesteijn, B.Y. (B. Y.); Keizer, M.E. (M. E.); A. Vincent (Audrey); J.W. Schouten (Joost); R.J. Stolker (Robert); M. Klimek (Markus)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To investigate differences in outcomes in patients who underwent surgery for insular glioma using an awake craniotomy (AC) vs. a craniotomy under general anesthesia (GA). Methods: Data from patients treated at our hospital between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed retrospectively.

  1. Insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States—A regional synthesis to support biodiversity conservation in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Wolfe, William J.

    2016-08-11

    In the southeastern United States, insular ecosystems—such as rock outcrops, depression wetlands, high-elevation balds, flood-scoured riparian corridors, and insular prairies and barrens—occupy a small fraction of land area but constitute an important source of regional and global biodiversity, including concentrations of rare and endemic plant taxa. Maintenance of this biodiversity depends upon regimes of abiotic stress and disturbance, incorporating factors such as soil surface temperature, widely fluctuating hydrologic conditions, fires, flood scouring, and episodic droughts that may be subject to alteration by climate change. Over several decades, numerous localized, site-level investigations have yielded important information about the floristics, physical environments, and ecological dynamics of these insular ecosystems; however, the literature from these investigations has generally remained fragmented. This report consists of literature syntheses for eight categories of insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States, concerning (1) physical geography, (2) ecological determinants of community structures including vegetation dynamics and regimes of abiotic stress and disturbance, (3) contributions to regional and global biodiversity, (4) historical and current anthropogenic threats and conservation approaches, and (5) key knowledge gaps relevant to conservation, particularly in terms of climate-change effects on biodiversity. This regional synthesis was undertaken to discern patterns across ecosystems, identify knowledge gaps, and lay the groundwork for future analyses of climate-change vulnerability. Findings from this synthesis indicate that, despite their importance to regional and global biodiversity, insular ecosystems of the southeastern United States have been subjected to a variety of direct and indirect human alterations. In many cases, important questions remain concerning key determinants of ecosystem function. In particular, few

  2. The Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea project concluded with a fourth Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009.......En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009....

  3. Effects of flow regulation and fragmentation by dams on riparian flora in boreal rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Roland

    2000-01-01

    The object of this thesis is to evaluate the effects of river regulation on riparian flora in boreal rivers, and to increase the understanding of the processes causing patterns in species diversity. Comparisons of free-flowing and regulated rivers showed that regulated rivers have fewer plant species and less plant cover per 200-m-stretch of river margin. Regulated river-margins were less species-rich compared to free-flowing rivers irrespective of the type of regulated water level regime, except for unimpounded reaches downstream of dams. Species with good dispersal capacity (wind-dispersed or long-floating species) were least affected by regulation, showing that the ability to recolonize after local extinction is an important character. The temporal development of river-margin vegetation in regulated rivers was studied by investigating differently-old reservoirs and impoundments. Plant-species richness along storage reservoirs increased during the first 30-40 years following damming, but declined thereafter. Both species richness and plant cover remained impoverished compared to free-flowing rivers about 70 years after regulation. Along run-of-river impoundments, plant species richness and cover peaked after 10-20 years. In the long run, riparian species richness was lower, but riparian species density did not differ, compared to free-flowing rivers. Dams fragment the riparian flora. Adjacent run-of-river impoundments developed different riparian floras, probably because dams are barriers to the dispersal of species with poor floating ability. This shows that dams disrupt the ecological continuity not only for the river channel, but also for the adjoining riparian corridor. The number of species and genera were similar between river margins along boreal free-flowing rivers in Europe and North America. The riparian floras shared few species but many genera and families. The regional species pools were similar-sized and composed of species with similar traits, and

  4. Introductions do not compensate for functional and phylogenetic losses following extinctions in insular bird assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Fernando L; Lees, Alexander C; Cianciaruso, Marcus V

    2016-09-01

    The ratio of species extinctions to introductions has been comparable for many insular assemblages, suggesting that introductions could have 'compensated' for extinctions. However, the capacity for introduced species to replace ecological roles and evolutionary history lost following extinction is unclear. We investigated changes in bird functional and phylogenetic diversity in the wake of extinctions and introductions across a sample of 32 islands worldwide. We found that extinct and introduced species have comparable functional and phylogenetic alpha diversity. However, this was distributed at different positions in functional space and in the phylogeny, indicating a 'false compensation'. Introduced and extinct species did not have equivalent functional roles nor belong to similar lineages. This makes it unlikely that novel island biotas composed of introduced taxa will be able to maintain ecological roles and represent the evolutionary histories of pre-disturbance assemblages and highlights the importance of evaluating changes in alpha and beta diversity concurrently. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. ["Entero-insular axis" and regulation of blood sugar and insulin levels following oral glucose loading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, B G

    1978-11-01

    The mineral water Essentuki 17 administered per so with glucose exerted a modifying effect on the regulation of glycaemia and insulinaemia in intact rats. This effect undergoes a few phases of changing and disappears by the 30th day. Under conditions of this adaptation, the glycaemia regulation is somewhat worsening. After i.v. administration of glucose during this period the regulation of glycaemia and insulinaemia remains unaltered. This suggests that the mineral water exerts its biological effect, mainly, on the entero-insular axis system (Unger and Eisentraut, 1969) and that the modifying effect is due not to a concrete complex of the mineral water electrolytes but rather to the unspecific factor of "perturbation" in the enteral medium.

  6. Microbial flora of odontogenic abscesses in pet guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarikova, A; Hauptman, K; Knotek, Z; Jekl, V

    2016-10-01

    Abscesses of odontogenic origin in guinea pigs pose a serious health problem and need to be treated with a combination of surgical and medical therapy. The aim of this prospective study was to describe the microbial flora of odontogenic abscesses associated with osteomyelitis in 24 pet guinea pigs, to perform antibiotic sensitivity testing, and to make recommendations for practitioners on the antibiotics of first choice. Inclusion criteria for the study included the animal being diagnosed with an odontogenic abscess which underwent surgery and was not pre-treated with an antibiotic. Inclusion criteria matched for 24 guinea pigs. Samples (pus, capsule and affected tooth/bone) for bacteriological examination were collected under sterile conditions during the surgical procedure. The most commonly isolated bacteria from abscesses of odontogenic origin were Bacteroides fragilis in 12.8 per cent (6/47) of cases, Pasteurella multocida in 10.6 per cent (5/47) and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius in 8.5 per cent (4/47). Aerobic bacterial species only were isolated in 29.2 per cent (7/24) of cases, anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 33.3 per cent (8/24), and mixed infection with anaerobic and aerobic bacterial species was seen in 37.5 per cent (9/24). Aerobes (n=20) were sensitive to enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in 100 per cent of samples, benzylpenicillin potassium (penicillin G, PNCG) in 90 per cent, cephalotin in 85 per cent, amoxicillin-clavulanate in 75 per cent, doxycycline in 70 per cent, gentamicin in 65 per cent and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 55 per cent. Anaerobes (n=27) were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate in 100 per cent of cases, clindamycin in 96.3 per cent, metronidazole in 92.6 per cent, PNCG in 92.6 per cent and cephalotin in 74.1 per cent. As guinea pigs are strictly herbivorous animals, based on the results of this study the recommended antibiotic treatment for odontogenic abscesses is a combination of fluoroquinolones and metronidazole

  7. Suppressive responses by visual food cues in postprandial activities of insular cortex as revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2014-06-03

    'Hara-Hachibu' in Japanese means a subjective sense by which we stop eating just before the motivation to eat is completely lost, a similar concept to caloric restriction (CR). Insular cortex is a critical platform which integrates sensory information into decision-making processes in eating behavior. We compared the responses of insular cortex, as assessed by magnetoencephalography (MEG), immediately after presentation of food images in the Fasting condition with those in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition. Eleven healthy, right-handed males [age, 27.2±9.6 years; body mass index, 22.6±2.1kg/m(2) (mean±SD)] were enrolled in a randomized, two-crossover experiment (Fasting and 'Hara-Hachibu' conditions). Before the MEG recordings in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition, the participants consumed rice balls as much as they judged themselves to have consumed shortly before reaching satiety. During the MEG recordings, they viewed food pictures projected on a screen. The intensities of MEG responses to viewing food pictures were significantly lower in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition than those in the Fasting condition (Pvisual food stimuli in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition was positively associated with the factor-3 (food tasted) (r=0.693, P=0.018) and aggregated scores (r=0.659, P=0.027) of the Power of Food Scale, a self-report measure of hedonic hunger. These findings may help to elucidate the neural basis of variability of appetite phenotypes under the condition of CR among individuals, and to develop possible strategies for the maintenance of adequate CR in daily life. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hospital acquired pneumonia is linked to right hemispheric peri-insular stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Kemmling

    Full Text Available Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP is a major complication of stroke. We sought to determine associations between infarction of specific brain regions and HAP.215 consecutive acute stroke patients with HAP (2003-2009 were carefully matched with 215 non-pneumonia controls by gender, then NIHSS, then age. Admission imaging and binary masks of infarction were registered to MNI-152 space. Regional atlas and voxel-based log-odds were calculated to assess the relationship between infarct location and the likelihood of HAP. An independently validated penalized conditional logistic regression model was used to identify HAP associated imaging regions.The HAP and control patients were well matched by gender (100%, age (95% within 5-years, NIHSS (98% within 1-point, infarct size, dysphagia, and six other clinical variables. Right hemispheric infarcts were more frequent in patients with HAP versus controls (43.3% vs. 34.0%, p = 0.054, whereas left hemispheric infarcts were more frequent in controls (56.7% vs. 44.7%, p = 0.012; there was no significant difference between groups in the rate of brainstem strokes (p = 1.0. Of the 10 most infarcted regions, only right insular cortex volume was different in HAP versus controls (20 vs. 12 ml, p = 0.02. In univariate analyses, the highest log-odds regions for pneumonia were right hemisphere, cerebellum, and brainstem. The best performing multivariate model selected 7 brain regions of infarction and 2 infarct volume-based variables independently associated with HAP.HAP is associated with right hemispheric peri-insular stroke. These associations may be related to autonomic modulation of immune mechanisms, supporting recent hypotheses of stroke mediated immune suppression.

  9. The future of the northeast Atlantic benthic flora in a high CO2 world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Juliet; Williamson, Christopher J; Smale, Dan A; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Mieszkowska, Nova; Santos, Rui; Cunliffe, Michael; Steinke, Michael; Yesson, Christopher; Anderson, Kathryn M; Asnaghi, Valentina; Brownlee, Colin; Burdett, Heidi L; Burrows, Michael T; Collins, Sinead; Donohue, Penelope J C; Harvey, Ben; Foggo, Andrew; Noisette, Fanny; Nunes, Joana; Ragazzola, Federica; Raven, John A; Schmidt, Daniela N; Suggett, David; Teichberg, Mirta; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    Seaweed and seagrass communities in the northeast Atlantic have been profoundly impacted by humans, and the rate of change is accelerating rapidly due to runaway CO2 emissions and mounting pressures on coastlines associated with human population growth and increased consumption of finite resources. Here, we predict how rapid warming and acidification are likely to affect benthic flora and coastal ecosystems of the northeast Atlantic in this century, based on global evidence from the literature as interpreted by the collective knowledge of the authorship. We predict that warming will kill off kelp forests in the south and that ocean acidification will remove maerl habitat in the north. Seagrasses will proliferate, and associated epiphytes switch from calcified algae to diatoms and filamentous species. Invasive species will thrive in niches liberated by loss of native species and spread via exponential development of artificial marine structures. Combined impacts of seawater warming, ocean acidification, and increased storminess may replace structurally diverse seaweed canopies, with associated calcified and noncalcified flora, with simple habitats dominated by noncalcified, turf-forming seaweeds.

  10. Corticotrigeminal Projections from the Insular Cortex to the Trigeminal Caudal Subnucleus Regulate Orofacial Pain after Nerve Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation in Insular Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Han; Li, Hui; Chen, Tao; Cui, Jing; Zang, Wei-Dong; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI) induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc), especially the superficial laminae (I/II), received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These findings may help

  11. Cervicovaginal cytokines, sialidase activity and bacterial load in reproductive-aged women with intermediate vaginal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Greatti, Mariana Morena de Vieira; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães; Ferreira, Carolina Sanitá Tafner; Marconi, Camila

    2016-11-01

    Studies have shown that not only bacterial vaginosis, but also intermediate vaginal flora has deleterious effects for women's reproductive health. However, literature still lacks information about microbiological and immunological aspects of intermediate flora. To characterize intermediate flora regarding levels of Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-10, sialidase; loads of Gardnerella vaginalis, total bacteria and to verify whether it is closer related to normal flora or bacterial vaginosis. This cross-sectional study enrolled 526 non-pregnant reproductive-aged women distributed in 3 groups according to pattern of vaginal flora using Nugent's system in normal, intermediate and bacterial vaginosis. Cervicovaginal levels of cytokines, sialidases, loads of G. vaginalis and total bacteria were assessed by ELISA, conversion of MUAN and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. A principal component analysis(PCA) using all measured parameters was performed to compare the three different types of flora. Results showed that intermediate flora is associated with increased cervicovaginal IL-1beta in relation to normal flora(Pbacterial vaginosis, intermediate flora has higher IL-8 and IL-10 levels(Pbacterial vaginosis(Pbacterial differed among all groups(Pbacterial vaginosis. PCA showed that normal and intermediate flora were closely scattered, while bacterial vaginosis were grouped separately. Although intermediate flora shows some differences in cytokines, sialidases and bacterial loads in relation to normal flora and bacterial vaginosis, when taken together, general microbiological and immunological pattern pattern of intermediate flora resembles the normal flora. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, R

    2000-06-30

    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading.

  13. Flora of the city of Podgorica, Montenegro: Taxonomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević Danijela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the taxonomic segment of a floristic study undertaken in the city of Podgorica in the period of 2002-2007. The check-list of spontaneously growing vascular plants includes 1227 species and subspecies belonging to 545 genera and 118 families. The dominant families are Poaceae (11.7%, asteraceae (11.2% and Fabaceae (9.2%. The most abundant genera are Trifolium (2.1%, Euphorbia (1.5%, Carex (1.5%, Bromus (1.3% and Vicia (1.2%. Analysis of the flora of Podgorica in comparison with some other european cities showed that the flora of Podgorica is most similar to that of Rome (Q/S= 0,7.

  14. New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae in the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.

  15. China: a rich flora needed of urgent conservation

    OpenAIRE

    López-Pujol, Jordi; Zhao, A-Man

    2004-01-01

    [EN] China is one of the richest countries in plant biodiversity in the world. Besides to a rich flora, which contains about 33 000 vascular plants (being 30 000 of these angiosperms, 250 gymnosperms, and 2 600 pteridophytes), there is a extraordinary ecosystem diversity. In addition, China also contains a large pool of both wild and cultivated germplasm; one of the eight original centers of crop plants in the world was located there. China is also considered one of the main ce...

  16. Evolutionary history of the angiosperm flora of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li-Min; Mao, Ling-Feng; Yang, Tuo; Ye, Jian-Fei; Liu, Bing; Li, Hong-Lei; Sun, Miao; Miller, Joseph T.; Mathews, Sarah; Hu, Hai-Hua; Niu, Yan-Ting; Peng, Dan-Xiao; Chen, You-Hua; Smith, Stephen A.; Chen, Min; Xiang, Kun-Li; Le, Chi-Toan; Dang, Viet-Cuong; Lu, An-Ming; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Li, Jian-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2018-02-01

    High species diversity may result from recent rapid speciation in a ‘cradle’ and/or the gradual accumulation and preservation of species over time in a ‘museum’. China harbours nearly 10% of angiosperm species worldwide and has long been considered as both a museum, owing to the presence of many species with hypothesized ancient origins, and a cradle, as many lineages have originated as recent topographic changes and climatic shifts—such as the formation of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the development of the monsoon—provided new habitats that promoted remarkable radiation. However, no detailed phylogenetic study has addressed when and how the major components of the Chinese angiosperm flora assembled to form the present-day vegetation. Here we investigate the spatio-temporal divergence patterns of the Chinese flora using a dated phylogeny of 92% of the angiosperm genera for the region, a nearly complete species-level tree comprising 26,978 species and detailed spatial distribution data. We found that 66% of the angiosperm genera in China did not originate until early in the Miocene epoch (23 million years ago (Mya)). The flora of eastern China bears a signature of older divergence (mean divergence times of 22.04-25.39 Mya), phylogenetic overdispersion (spatial co-occurrence of distant relatives) and higher phylogenetic diversity. In western China, the flora shows more recent divergence (mean divergence times of 15.29-18.86 Mya), pronounced phylogenetic clustering (co-occurrence of close relatives) and lower phylogenetic diversity. Analyses of species-level phylogenetic diversity using simulated branch lengths yielded results similar to genus-level patterns. Our analyses indicate that eastern China represents a floristic museum, and western China an evolutionary cradle, for herbaceous genera; eastern China has served as both a museum and a cradle for woody genera. These results identify areas of high species richness and phylogenetic diversity, and

  17. Noteworthy additions to the flora of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwari D. Rai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent botanical explorations, we recorded three interesting plant species from the alpine regions (>3500m of the Uttarakhand State in the western Himalaya.  After a detailed scrutiny of the literature and herbarium specimens, we ascertain their identity and report them as additions to the flora of Uttarakhand.  In this paper descriptions of these species along with their phenology, distribution, photographs, ecology and phytogeographical notes have been presented.

  18. Cross-cultural comparison of medicinal floras used against snakebites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Marianne; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Jäger, Anna K; Rønsted, Nina

    2012-02-15

    Envenomation causes an estimated 1.8-2.5 million incidences per year with a mortality level of 100-125,000 persons annually and more than 100,000 individuals suffer from severe complications, which may end in amputation of the attacked limb. The use of plants is a major part of the traditional practitioners' treatment of snakebites. A database was created for plants used to treat snakebites worldwide. From this database, we selected five countries with a high number of entries and representing different cultures, geography and floristic zones: Brazil, Nicaragua, Nepal, China and South Africa. The datasets were analysed by regression and binominal analysis to see if any family or genus used against snakebites was overrepresented in the respective traditional medicinal systems relative to the abundance in the local flora. The families from the different geographical areas were compared to ascertain whether the same plant families are preferred by different peoples. Three 'hot' families (Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae) were recovered in at least two of the five compared countries in the regression analyses and one 'hot' family (Zingiberaceae) was recovered in two of the compared countries in the binomial analyses. Four out of five floras possess families identified as outliers in both regression and binomial analyses. Eight families were recovered by both the binomial and the regression analysis (40-62% of all highlighted families respectively). At the genus level, only Piper (Piperaceae) was recovered as a 'hot' genus in at least two floras. Seven genera were highlighted by both analyses (25-44% of the highlighted genera). Cross-cultural comparison of medicinal floras used against snakebites appears to be useful for highlighting candidate families and genera for further studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Allamanda schottii (Apocynaceae: nueva cita para la Flora Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Hurrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo Allamanda schottii Pohl (Apocynaceae es documentada como nueva cita genérica y específica para la Flora Argentina. La especie fue hallada en la ribera del Paraná, en el norte de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina. Se incluye su sinonimia, descripción, comentarios sobre su distribución, hábitat, fenología, biología reproductiva, nombres vulgares, usos y observaciones.

  20. ABSTRACTS: HortFlora Res. Spectrum, Vol. 4, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Umrao, Dr. V.K.

    2017-01-01

    The HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS), Website: www.hortflorajournal.com, is an international-peer reviewed, open access journal that serves as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of R & D advances and innovations in all facets of Horticultural Science (Pomology, Olericulture, Floriculture, Post Harvest Technology, Plant Biotechnology, and Medicinal & Aromatic Plants etc.) and its allied branches on an international level. HRS is officially published quarterly (March, June, Septemb...

  1. HortFlora Research Spectrum; NAAS Rating 3.78

    OpenAIRE

    Umrao, Dr. V.K.

    2017-01-01

    The journal HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS) having International Impact (NAAS Rating: 3.78; ICV: 27.39, GIF: 0.471; IBI Factor: 2.8; NJIF: 2.14; GSCIF: 0.364; OAJI Impact Factor: 0.201), publishes high quality peer reviewed/refereed original research papers, review articles and research notes on all aspects of Horticultural plants' research including agronomic management, plant nutrition, biotechnology, crop improvement, plant protection, plant physiology, cell & molecular biology, medicina...

  2. Nutrients, phytochemicals, fungal flora and aflatoxin in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of salting on the pH, phytochemicals, fungal flora and nutrient composition of Vernonia amygdalina leaves was investigated. There was a decrease in pH from 5.88 for the fresh, to 5.80, 5.73, 5.24, and 5.02 for the light brined, light salted, heavy salted and light brine + vinegar treated leaves, ...

  3. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Francesca; Barsotti, Giovanni; Attili, Anna Rita; Mugnaini, Linda; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Preziuso, Silvia; Corazza, Michele; Preziuso, Giovanna; Sgorbini, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to identify conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep. Prospective study. Tuscany. 100 eyes from 50 adult Massese female sheep were examined. The sheep included in the study were considered free of anterior ophthalmic abnormalities. Bacteria were identified by morphological assessment, Gram staining, biochemical tests. Identification of filamentous fungi was achieved at the genus level, and Aspergillus species were identified based on keys provided by other authors. Yeast colonies were highlighted, but not identified. Positive cultures were obtained from 100/100 eyes for bacteria, and from 86/100 eyes for fungi. A total of 14 types of bacteria and 5 types of fungi were isolated. Yeasts were isolated from 13/100 eyes. The most frequent fungal isolates were saprophytic fungi. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora of clinically normal eyes were reported in sheep. The positivity obtained for conjunctival bacteria was higher compared to findings in the literature by other authors in the same species (100 per cent v 40 per cent), while our results were in line with a recent work performed on mouflons (Ovis Musimon) with a 100 per cent positivity for bacterial conjunctival fornix. In our survey, Gram-positive species were prevalent, as reported by other authors in different species. Few data are available in the literature regarding conjunctival fungal flora in healthy small ruminants. The prevalence of conjunctival fungal flora in this study was higher than findings reported in mouflons (86 per cent v 45 per cent). Differences in fungal prevalence may be due to different methods of managing herds, though further studies are required to verify this hypothesis. The similarities in bacterial and fungal isolates between sheep and mouflons suggest a genera pattern of conjunctival colonisation by bacteria and fungi.

  4. La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La Fondation William et Flora Hewlett. http://www.hewlett.org/. Initiative Think tank. Cette initiative permet d'établir des organismes indépendants qui se consacrent à la recherche et à l'élaboration de politiques dans des pays en développement. Voir davantage. Initiative Think tank. Croissance de l'économie et débouchés ...

  5. Cape plants: corrections and additions to the flora. 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Comprising an area of ± 90 000 km:, less than 5% of the land surface of the southern African subcontinent, the Cape Floristic Region (CFR is one of the world’s richest areas for plant species diversity. A recent synoptic flora for the Region has established a new base line for an accurate assessment of the flora. Here we document corrections and additions to the flora at family, genus and species ranks. As treated in Cape plants, which was completed in 1999. the flora comprised 173 families (five endemic, 988 genera (160 endemic: 16.2%, and 9 004 species (6 192 endemic: 68.8%. Just four years later, a revised count resulting from changes in the circumscriptions of families and genera, and the discovery of new species or range extensions of species, yields an estimate of 172 families (four endemic, 992 genera (162 endemic: 16.3% and 9 086 species (6 226: 68.5% endemic. Of these, 948 genera and 8 971 species are seed plants. The number of species packed into so small an area is remarkable for the temperate zone and compares favourably with species richness for areas of compa­rable size in the wet tropics. The degree of endemism is also remarkable for a continental area. An unusual family compo­sition includes, in descending order of size, based on species number. Asteraceae. Fabaceae. Iridaceae. Ericaceae. Aizoaceae, Scrophulariaceae. Proteaceae. Restionaceae, Rutaceae. and Orchidaceae. Disproportionate radiation has resulted in 59.1% of the species falling in the 10 largest families and 74.6% in the largest 20 families. Thirteen genera have more than 100 species and the 20 largest genera contribute some 31.5% of the total species number.

  6. State of the knowledge of flora of hepaticas of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe M, Jaime; Gradstein, S Rob

    1999-01-01

    The Colombian hepatic flora is a very rich one. About 60% of all the species of tropical America and one sixth of the world's hepaticas occur in Colombia. The country has more species than the whole of Africa south of the Sahara and almost twice as many as Europe. The new catalogue of the hepaticas of Colombia accepts 840 species (in 36 families and 136 genera): 832 species of Hepaticae and 8 species of Anthocerotae

  7. Ecological study of algal flora of Neelum river Azad Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghari, M.K.; Leghari, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    First time ecological study of Algal Flora of Neelum River Azad Kashmir was carried out during January 1998 to July 1998. A total of 78 species belonging to 48 genera of 4 Algal groups. Cyanophyceae (16 species 20.5 % belonging to 11 genera), Choloronophycease (23 species 29.5 % belonging to 18 genera), Bacillariophyceae (37 species 47 % belonging to 17 genera), Xanthophyceae (2 species 3 % belonging to 2 genera) and 39 physico - chemical parameters were recorded. (author)

  8. Microbial flora variations in the respiratory tract of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cangemi de Gutierrez

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A stable microbial system in the respiratory tract acts as an important defense mechanism against pathogenic microorganisms. Perturbations in this system may allow pathogens to establish. In an ecological environment such as the respiratory tract, there are many diverse factors that play a role in the establishment of the indigenous flora. In the present work we studied the normal microbial flora of different areas of the respiratory tract of mice and their evolution from the time the mice were born. Our interest was to know which were the dominant groups of microorganisms in each area, which were the first capable of colonizing and which dominated over time to be used as probiotic microorganisms. Our results show that Gram negative facultatively anaerobic bacilli and strict anaerobic microorganisms were the last ones to appear in the bronchia, while aerobic and Gram positive cocci were present in all the areas of the respiratory tract. The number of facultative aerobes and strict anaerobes were similar in the nasal passage, pharynx instilled and trachea, but lower in bronchia. The dominant species were Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus saprophyticcus, followed by S. epidermidis, Lactobacilli and S. cohnii I which were present on every studied days but at different proportions. This paper is the first part of a research topic investigating the protective effect of the indigenous flora against pathogens using the mice as an experimental model.

  9. La flora vascular de la Sierra de Chiribiquete, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés B. Rocio

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary checklist of Chiribiquete flora has 549 species of vascular plants, which belong to 315 genera and 107 families. The families with the highest species number were: Rubiaceae (32, Melastomataceae (31, Orchidaceae (25 and Bromeliaceae (24; there were 30% of the families represented by one species. The majar tloristic affinities of the Chiribiquete flora are with the Amazonregion and the Guayana central province. Eleven species (including ten new are endemic to Chiribiquete and 167 are endemic to the Guayana region.El catálogo preliminar de la flora de Chiribiquete incluye 549 especies de plantas vasculares, pertenecientes a 315 géneros y a 107 familias. Las familias con mayor número de especies son Rubiaceae (32 Melastomataceae (31, Orchidaceae (25 y Bromeliaceae (24; el 30% de las familias están representadas por una especie. Las afinidades florísticas son mayores con la región amazónica y con la provincia Guayana central. Once especies (incluyendo diez novedades  taxonómicas tienen área de distribución endémica de Chiribiquete y 167 están restringidas a la región Guayana.

  10. Flora of the Kap River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Cloete

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis ot the flora of the newly proclaimed Kap River Reserve (600 ha is given. The reserve is adjacent to the Fish River and some 5 km from the Fish River Mouth It consists of a coastal plateau up to 100 m a.s.I. which is steeply dissected by the two rivers that partially form the boundary of the reserve. The flora of the reserve was sampled over a period o f three years and plants were collected in all the vegetation types of grassland, thicket and forest. 488 species were collected with a species to family ratio of 4:4. The majority of the taxa recorded represent the major phytochoria of the region. Nineteen species are endemic to the Eastern Cape, two are classed as vulnerable, five are rare, six are protected and a further seventeen are of uncertain status. The flora of the Kap River has closest affinities to that of the Alexandria Forest.

  11. Analysis of weed flora in conventional and organic potato production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić, Lj.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Composition of weed flora is highly dynamic and depends upon great number of factors, of which cultural practices that are applied by humans in certain crops are the most important. One of the most frequently grown plants in the world and in our country is potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanaceae, due to its high biological and nutritive value. Therefore, in the paper was presented taxonomic analysis of weed flora in potato grown conventionally and according to the principles of organic agricultural production, with the intention to point out to eventual differences between present weeds. Of the total number of identified species, from phylum Equisetophyta and class Equisetopsida, in organic potato crop, was determined only one, Equisetum arvense. Of remaining 38 weeds from phylum Magnoliophyta., classified into two classes, Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida. On both of potato growing systems, 39 weed species were found, classified into 16 families and 32 genus. Of the total number, 31 species was identified in conventional potato crop, and only 23 species in potato crop grown according to organic principles, which is for about quarter less. Biological spectrum of weed flora in both potato growing systems is pronouncedly of terrophytic – geophytic type. In the spectrum of area types were recorded differences, i.e. in the conventional potato crop represented are only widely distributed species, while in the organic crop, beside species of wide distribution are also present elements of Pontic group.

  12. Accuracy of the cytopathology, bacterioscopy, and vaginal flora culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, P Q; Pereira, M A P; Palomo, F S; Okazaki, C; Schimidt, M A; Speck, N M G; Ribalta, J C L

    2013-01-01

    An over-population of vaginal microorganisms causing inflammatory processes renders it difficult to properly assess the cytopathological exam that aims to screen precedent cervical lesions. On the contrary, the occurrence of the microbial flora saprophyte does not influence correct cythodiagnosis. To assess the composition of vaginal tract aerobic microorganisms of asymptomatic women in menacme and post-menopause, and to analyze the accuracy of cytopathologic, bacterioscopic exams, and culturing of the flora. The women were first submitted to a focused anamnestic interrogatory and then submitted to gynecological exam. A sample of the vaginal fluid was collected with a culture swab and a smear was made on two glass slides for stained bacterioscopic exam (GRAM). The collection of material was then compiled in a cytopathologic smear analysis. All women signed the free and informed consent letter and the project was approved by the Ethics Research Board of Hospital São Paulo - UNIFESP. Bacterioscopy and culture proved to be better than the cytopathologic exam in featuring the bacilli and cocci. The bacterioscopy provided a better detection of the presence of bacilli (p < 0.001); no statistical difference was seen between both exams with respect to the detected cocci. The beta-hemolytic Streptococcus group was of significance in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). In this study, the bacterioscopic and culture exams of the vaginal fluid were more effective in assessing the vaginal flora and in the detection of bacilli, compared to the cytopathological exam.

  13. Isolated insular strokes and plasma MR-proANP levels are associated with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Frontzek

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the relationship of insular strokes and plasma MR-proANP levels with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (NDAF.This study is based on a prospective acute stroke cohort (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00390962. Patient eligibility was dependent on the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke, absence of previous stroke based on past medical history and MRI, no history of AF and congestive heart failure (cohort A and, additionally, no stroke lesion size ≥ 20 mL (sub-cohort A*. AF, the primary endpoint, was detected on 24-hour electrocardiography and/or echocardiography. Involvement of the insula was assessed by two experienced readers on MRI blinded to clinical data. MR-proANP levels were obtained through a novel sandwich immunoassay. Logistic-regression-models were fitted to estimate odds ratios for the association of insular strokes and MR-proANP with NDAF. The discriminatory accuracy of insular strokes and MR-proANP was assessed by a model-wise comparison of the area under the receiver-operating-characteristics-curve (AUC with known predictors of AF.104 (cohort A and 83 (cohort A* patients fulfilled above-mentioned criteria. Patients with isolated insular strokes had a 10.7-fold higher odds of NDAF than patients with a small ischemic stroke at any other location. The AUC of multivariate logistic regression models for the prediction of NDAF improved significantly when adding stroke location and MR-proANP levels. Moreover, MR-proANP levels remained significantly elevated throughout the acute hospitalization period in patients with NDAF compared to those without.Isolated insular strokes and plasma MR-proANP levels on admission are independent predictors of NDAF and significantly improve the prediction accuracy of identifying patients with NDAF compared to known predictors including age, the NIHSS and lesion size. To accelerate accurate diagnosis and enhance secondary prevention in acute stroke, higher levels of MR

  14. Phytoremediation: Potential flora for synthetic dyestuff metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruj Tahir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dumping of dye-laden effluents into different environmental compartments adversely affects equilibrium and integrity of ecological systems. Being genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic these dyes are quite damaging to health of biota (either aquatic or terrestrial. Many of these dyes are resistant to degradation and remediation under natural conditions and through conventional treatment methods. This situation has necessitated the development of effective and efficient wastewater treatment strategies without further stressing the environment and endangering other life forms. To date many biological systems including microorganisms and plants have been assessed for metabolism of dyestuffs. Phytoremediation catalyzed by natural solar driven pumps (green plants and their associated metabolic processes has emerged as a comparatively new approach and has proven to be one of the most effective environmental friendly strategies for removal, detoxification and decolorization of dyes. Hence, this review quotes the literature of applied aspects of various plant species and their inherent metabolic as well as extractive potentials which enable them to effectively deal with various coloring agents.

  15. Flora of the city of Podgorica, Montenegro: Chorologic structure and comparison with the floras of Rome, Patras, and Salonika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević Danijela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the geographical structure of the flora of Podgorica revealed that 85.9% of the species are native, while 14.1% are non-native. This ratio is typical of Mediterranean settlements, where even the most urbanized region reflects the overall character of the surrounding flora. In terms of chorologic groups, the three largest are: eury-Mediterranean (18.2%, cosmopolitan (12.6%, and steno-Mediterranean (8.3%. The percentage of endemic and subendemic plants is also significant (6.8%. Within the group of aliens, species of Asian origin prevail. Comparative analysis of the chorologic spectra of Podgorica, Rome, Patras, and Salonika revealed some similarities.

  16. Building and Applying "Insularity Theory": Review on Knapp's Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou-Tzeveleki, Stella

    listing of external factors (colonization, invasions) originating in the Near East and the Aegean as sequential narrative history, and the descriptive, systemic analysis of 'materiality, production, trade, migration and colonization which have for long been the cornerstones of Cypriot archaeology' (p. 11). In contrast, he turns his attention towards the internal processes within the island society of Bronze Age Cyprus, which shape its insularity and give it a distinctive identity at this specific period, processes that lead to contextual history and formative tradition. 'To study how any society changes, at any time, it is crucial first to look at internal rather than external factors' (p. 1). Defining the concept of insularity is his aim; therefore, he begins with a number of very apposite rhetorical questions (p. 13) and identifies several individual parameters (connectivity, islandscape, social identity, ethnicity, migration, acculturation, hybridization) to which he assigns collective and individual meanings. The eight chapters that follow may be assigned, broadly, to three general units: in the first of these (ch. 1-2), Knapp offers a synthesis of these parameters in the form of a 'theory of insularity'. In the second (ch. 3-7) he formulates his revised narrative of the prehistory and social identity of the island, which involves a presentation of social and economic, rather than stylistic categories, on the basis of the parameters laid down in his theoretical scheme. Finally, in the third unit (ch. 8), he records his overall conclusions, the new cognitive experiences and concerns that have emerged from the application of his theory, both to Cyprus and to insular archaeology in the Mediterranean and on a world scale. Knapp's synthesis of the theory of insularity in the first unit is a major contribution to Mediterranean archaeology, and makes this book a seminal work. Continuing and broadening Broodbank's (2000) reasoning about the Cyclades, Knapp, with Cyprus as his

  17. Effects of insularity on digestion: living on islands induces shifts in physiological and morphological traits in island reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagonas, Kostas; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Valakos, Efstratios D.

    2015-10-01

    Living on islands entails numerous challenges for animals, among which resource scarcity stands out. In order to survive, animals have to optimize energy acquisition. We examined the impact of insularity on digestion comparing a series of physiological and morphological traits of adult males between insular and mainland populations of the Balkan green lizard. Island lizards had longer gastrointestinal tracts and gut passage times and higher digestive efficiencies. The dissection of the hindgut revealed an unexpected finding, the presence of cecal valves that were more frequent in island lizards. Thanks to all above islanders retain food for longer periods and thus maximize energy income and increase the amount of the extracted nutrients. That way, they secure energy income from the limited, in time and quantity, food resources of the islands.

  18. Effect of air pollution on the epiphytic flora of conifers in the Stockholm region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstroem, H

    1968-01-01

    Epiphytic flora (especially lichens) have been investigated in order to see how they respond to air pollution. The study was restricted to those occurring up to a height of 2.3 m from the ground, on trunks of the conifers Picea abies and Pinus silvestries. The area of investigation lies north of Stockholm. Wind diagrams show a slight predominance of winds from Stockholm. This means that polluted air is spread out over the area of investigation. All epiphytic vegetation on the station-trees for which the species were determined are listed. The distribution of lichen species is discussed, especially how air pollution has affected the distributions of the three lichens, Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Zopf (syn. Parmelia physodes (L.) Ach.) Parmeliopsis ambigua (Wulf) Nyl. Pseudevernia furfuraceae (L.) Zopf (syn. Parmelia furfuraceae (L.) Ach.). Maps of distributions have been made for the most common epiphytes.

  19. Climate-driven extinctions shape the phylogenetic structure of temperate tree floras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L; Borchsenius, Finn; Plum, Christoffer M; Ordonez, Alejandro; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2015-03-01

    When taxa go extinct, unique evolutionary history is lost. If extinction is selective, and the intrinsic vulnerabilities of taxa show phylogenetic signal, more evolutionary history may be lost than expected under random extinction. Under what conditions this occurs is insufficiently known. We show that late Cenozoic climate change induced phylogenetically selective regional extinction of northern temperate trees because of phylogenetic signal in cold tolerance, leading to significantly and substantially larger than random losses of phylogenetic diversity (PD). The surviving floras in regions that experienced stronger extinction are phylogenetically more clustered, indicating that non-random losses of PD are of increasing concern with increasing extinction severity. Using simulations, we show that a simple threshold model of survival given a physiological trait with phylogenetic signal reproduces our findings. Our results send a strong warning that we may expect future assemblages to be phylogenetically and possibly functionally depauperate if anthropogenic climate change affects taxa similarly. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Interrelations between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Korniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents differences and similarities between segetal and ruderal flora in the Olsztyn Lake District. The investigation was conducted in rural areas and in areas of small towns. 415 taxa of vascular plants were noted altogether in the flora examined. The segetal flora includes 259 species, and the ruderal flora - 334 ones. A comparison between species of those two florae (table l, figure l, 81 species appear in segetal habitats, and 156 in ruderal habitats. Common species, for those two comparsing florae (segetal and ruderal were 178. The following plants were classified as frequent or common in ruderal habitats of the Olsztyn Lake District, having (under certain conditions a significant influence on the weed infestation of cultivated fields: Amaranthus retroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Atriplex patula, Chamomilla suaveolens, Cirsium arvense, Conyza canadensis, Descurainia sophia, Galinsoga ciliata, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Lapsana communis, Melandrium album, Poa annua, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus, Sisymbrium officinale, Sonchus arvensis, Sonchus asper, Sonchus oleraceus, Tussil farfara.

  1. Learning to Identify Local Flora with Human Feedback (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-23

    cally tag images with species names of flora or fauna to sup- port content-based retrieval [10]. Detecting and identifying species could help to infer...Learning to Identify Local Flora with Human Feedback Stefan Lee and David Crandall School of Informatics and Computing Indiana University {steflee...applications that use consumer pho- tos to track the distribution of natural phenomena [8]. But flora identification is a very difficult problem, both

  2. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo and Liang Bua (Flores support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  3. [Performance of entero-insular axis in an athletic population: diet and exercise influence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carmen; Quezada-Feijoo, Maribel; Toro, Carmen; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Segura, Eduardo; Mangas, Alipio; Toro, Rocio

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between physical exercise and appetite regulation can lead to improved competitive performance of athletes. Mediators of the entero-insular axis generate neurohumoral signals that influence on the appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. Determine the influence of diet and prolonged exercise on intestinal peptide, ghrelin, resistin, leptin, and incretins (GLP-1 and GIP) in an athlete population. It is a prospective intervention study, conducted from October 2012 to March 2013. 32 healthy semiprofessional rugby players, aged 13-39 years were included. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were taken at time 0 and after six months of study. Athletes were randomized to a protein diet (PD) or Mediterranean diet (MD) and plasma levels of intestinal peptide, ghrelin, resistin, leptin, and incretins were calculated. In the PD group, GLP-1 and GIP plasmatic levels showed a significant decrease (p <0.03; p <0.01 respectively). GLP-1 and ghrelin plasmatic concentration demonstrated a significant decrease (p <0.03 respectively) in those who experienced gain of muscle mass (MM). Finally, the athletes related to the PD who showed increased total weight and muscle mass presented significantly decreased GLP-1 concentration (p <0.03 and p<0.002, respectively). GLP-1 plasmatic concentration was decreased, with the PD suggesting to be more beneficial for the athletes in order to avoid hypoglycemia. Furthermore, muscle mass and total weight gain, linked to the PD, could enhance athletic performance in certain sport modalities. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Ontogeny of neuro-insular complexes and islets innervation in the human pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshchina, Alexandra E; Krivova, Yulia S; Barabanov, Valeriy M; Saveliev, Sergey V

    2014-01-01

    The ontogeny of the neuro-insular complexes (NIC) and the islets innervation in human pancreas has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to describe the developmental dynamics and distribution of the nervous system structures in the endocrine part of human pancreas. We used double-staining with antibodies specific to pan-neural markers [neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 protein] and to hormones of pancreatic endocrine cells. NSE and S100-positive nerves and ganglia were identified in the human fetal pancreas from gestation week (gw) 10 onward. Later the density of S100 and NSE-positive fibers increased. In adults, this network was sparse. The islets innervation started to form from gw 14. NSE-containing endocrine cells were identified from gw 12 onward. Additionally, S100-positive cells were detected both in the periphery and within some of the islets starting at gw 14. The analysis of islets innervation has shown that the fetal pancreas contained NIC and the number of these complexes was reduced in adults. The highest density of NIC is detected during middle and late fetal periods, when the mosaic islets, typical for adults, form. The close integration between the developing pancreatic islets and the nervous system structures may play an important role not only in the hormone secretion, but also in the islets morphogenesis.

  5. Gray matter volume of the anterior insular cortex and social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagna, Alfredo; Dufford, Alexander J; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Tingting; Zheng, Weihao; Coons, Edgar E; Hof, Patrick R; Hu, Bin; Wu, Yanhong; Fan, Jin

    2018-05-01

    In human life, social context requires the engagement in complex interactions among individuals as the dynamics of social networks. The evolution of the brain as the neurological basis of the mind must be crucial in supporting social networking. Although the relationship between social networking and the amygdala, a small but core region for emotion processing, has been reported, other structures supporting sophisticated social interactions must be involved and need to be identified. In this study, we examined the relationship between morphology of the anterior insular cortex (AIC), a structure involved in basic and high-level cognition, and social networking. Two independent cohorts of individuals (New York group n = 50, Beijing group n = 100) were recruited. Structural magnetic resonance images were acquired and the social network index (SNI), a composite measure summarizing an individual's network diversity, size, and complexity, was measured. The association between morphological features of the AIC, in addition to amygdala, and the SNI was examined. Positive correlations between the measures of the volume as well as sulcal depth of the AIC and the SNI were found in both groups, while a significant positive correlation between the volume of the amygdala and the SNI was only found in the New York group. The converging results from the two groups suggest that the AIC supports network-level social interactions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Insular activation during reward anticipation reflects duration of illness in abstinent pathological gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke eTsurumi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling (PG is a chronic mental disorder characterized by a difficulty restraining gambling behavior despite negative consequences. Although brain abnormalities in patients with substance use disorders are caused by repetitive drug use and recover partly with drug abstinence, the relationship between brain activity and duration of illness or abstinence of gambling behavior in PG patients remains unclear. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain activity of 23 PG patients recruited from a treatment facility with 27 demographically-matched healthy control subjects during reward anticipation, and examined the correlations between brain activity and duration of illness or abstinence in PG patients. During reward anticipation, PG patients showed decreased activity compared to healthy controls in a broad range of the reward system regions, including the insula cortex. In PG patients, activation in the left insula showed a significant negative correlation with illness duration. Our findings suggest that insular activation during reward anticipation may serve as a marker of progression of pathological gambling.

  7. Spatial sedimentary distribution, seasonality and the characteristics of organic matter on Fernando de Noronha insular shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lima Barcellos

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted in the Fernando de Noronha archipelago (4°S/32°W. The objective is the evaluation of the spatial distribution and seasonal variations in the sediments and sedimentary organic matter in the northern insular shelf of Fernando de Noronha ("Mar de Dentro". Nineteen surface sediment samples were collected between December 2013, July 2014 and November 2014. The studied methods included analysis of the grain size, coarse fraction, morphoscopy, total organic matter content, calcium carbonate, organic carbon, total nitrogen, sedimentary phosphorus (organic, inorganic and total, elemental ratios (C/N, C/P and stable isotopic ratios (δ13C-δ15N. The results allowed to infer that there is no seasonal variation in sediment distribution. Whereas, the shelf sediments present a calcareous sandy sedimentary cover (CaCO3≈ 88.3%, predominantly of well-sorted fine sands, with low organic matter content (TOM3.0%; TN>0.4% of mixed origin (δ13C= -24.5 to -23.0%PDB, which were related to anthropogenic impacts and the biotic and abiotic local processes.

  8. CHARLES DARWIN: INMORTALIZADO EN EPÓNIMOS DE GEA, FLORA Y FAUNA RECIENTES DE CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Se presentan epónimos de gea, flora y fauna de Chile, erigidos en honor de Charles Darwin, naturalista a bordo del H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836), para denominar accidentes geográficos de territorio chileno y nuevas especies de flora y fauna descritas de ejemplares recolectados en Chile por él. Eponyms of gea, flora and fauna, erected in honour of Charles Darwin, naturalist on board of the H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836), for desígnate geographic accidents and new species of flora and fauna described...

  9. [Effect of rat intestinal flora on in vitro metabolic transformation of pumiloside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui; Li, Meng-Xuan; Li, Hai-Bo; Liu, Wen-Jun; Meng, Zhao-Qing; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-05-01

    To study the metabolic transformation of pumiloside by rat intestinal flora in vitro and identify its metabolites. Pumiloside was incubated in the rat intestinal flora in vitro. HPLC was used to monitor the metabolic process, and HPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to identify the structures of biotransformation products. In vitro, pumiloside was easily metabolized by rat intestinal flora, and with the prolongation of metabolic time, pumiloside was transformed into several metabolites. Three metabolites were initially identified in this experiment. The study indicated that pumiloside could be extensively metabolized in the rat intestinal flora in vitro. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa.......An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa....

  11. Vaginal flora alterations and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Fausto; da Silva, Márcia G; Polettini, Jossimara; Tristao, Andréa da R; Peracoli, José C; Witkin, Steven S; Rudge, Marilza V C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate associations between alterations in vaginal flora and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women. Vaginal specimens from 245 pregnant women were analyzed by microscopy for vaginal flora. Signs and symptoms of vaginal infection were determined by patient interviews and gynecologic examinations. Abnormal vaginal flora was identified in 45.7% of the subjects. The final clinical diagnoses were bacterial vaginosis (21.6%), vaginal candidosis (10.2%), intermediate vaginal flora (5.2%), aerobic vaginitis (2.9%), mixed flora (2.9%) and other abnormal findings (2.9%). The percentage of women with or without clinical signs or symptoms was not significantly different between these categories. The presence of vaginal odor or vaginal discharge characteristics was not diagnostic of any specific flora alteration; pruritus was highly associated with candidosis (p vaginal odor was associated with bacterial vaginosis (p = 0.0026). The prevalence of atypical vaginal flora is common in our low-risk pregnant population and is not always associated with pathology. The occurrence of specific signs or symptoms does not always discriminate between women with different types of atypical vaginal flora or between those with abnormal and normal vaginal flora. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Flora of fieId plantings and parks and its origin

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    Czesław Hołdyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the studies presented in this paper was the flora of field plantings of different origin. The vascular flora ofthe plantings examined comprises 254 taxons, including 53 trees and shrubs, and 201 herbaceous vascular plants. The flora is rich and diverse. In 26,8% of taxons it is presents in all types of plantings. More than half of the registered species occurs once or twice only in all 23 planting groups studied. A detailed analysis of the flora examined shows that field plantings in agricultural landscapes may, in a small number of cases, constitute a source of weeds diaspores propagating in fields.

  13. Does the surrounding landscape heterogeneity affect the butterflies of insular grassland reserves? A contrast between composition and configuration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlancarová, Jana; Beneš, Jiří; Kristýnek, M.; Kepka, P.; Konvička, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-12 ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 114/2012/P; GA JU(CZ) 144/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : butterfly communities * calcareous grasslands * GIS Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.717, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10841-013-9607-3#

  14. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

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    Vishwas Sudhir Chitale

    Full Text Available India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single

  15. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  16. China : a rich flora needed of urgent conservation

    OpenAIRE

    López-Pujol, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    China is one of the richest countries in plant biodiversity in the world. Besides to a rich flora, which contains about 33.000 vascular plants (being 30.000 of these angiosperms, 250 gymnosperms, and 2.600 pteridophytes), there is a extraordinary ecosystem diversity. In addition, China also contains a large pool of both wild and cultivated germplasm; one of the eight original centers of crop plants in the world was located there. China is also considered one of the main centers of origin and ...

  17. Usos populares de la flora tipica del oeste de Cartagena

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Madrid, María José; Martínez Madrid, Isabel María

    2011-01-01

    Se recopilan los usos que popularmente se llevan o llevaban a cabo con la flora local del Oeste de Cartagena, para as´ı estudiar los conocimientos que a ´un conserva la poblaci´on y realizar un peque ˜ no sondeo de las plantas m´as utilizadas, atendiendo a su ubicaci´on y uso. Esta recopilaci´on de datos la he realizado mediante una serie de entrevistas abiertas a diversas personas de distintas edades en las que les preguntaba por plantas medicinales, enfermedades q...

  18. [The influence of electromagnetic fields on flora and fauna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochalska, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of natural and artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF) on fauna and flora. The mechanisms of Earth's magnetic field detection and the use of this skill by migratory animals to faultlessly reach the destination of their travel are discussed, as well as the positive effects of electric and magnetic fields on plants relative to their physiology, yielding and health. EMF influence on social insects and animal organisms, including possible DNA damages and DNA repair systems, is presented. The influence of high frequency electromagnetic fields on birds nesting is also discussed.

  19. Pregnancy in HIV-Positive Patients: Effects on Vaginal Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vallone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high proportion of HIV-infected pregnant women present pathogenic organisms in their lower genital tract. This has been associated with the development of postpartum morbility, HIV transmission to the partner and offspring, and other gynaecological conditions, such as cervical dysplasia or cancer. Vaginal flora alterations can range from 47% in Western countries to 89% in Africa in pregnant HIV-positive patients, much higher than about 20% of the general population. Pathogen organism retrieval is high. As peripartum complications due to vaginal infections seem higher in HIV-positive patients, accurate investigation and treatment of such infections are strongly mandatory.

  20. Sertula Florae Colombiae – XV: Nuevas Melastomatáceas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Uribe Lorenzo

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available El notable aumento de las colecciones del Herbario Nacional Colombiano muestran la riqueza de la flora melastomatácea de Colombia. Uno de los géneros más ricos y más bien caracterizados es Blakea. En este artículo describo dos nuevas especies muy interesantes. Dejo consignada mi gratitud para elnotable dibujante, don Silvio Fernández Valencia, a quien se deben las magníficas ilustraciones y muchos datos y mediciones de órganos pequeñísimos, que facilitaron  las descripciones exactas de las plantas.

  1. Phytogeography of the vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal (Andes, Venezuela) and its ties to other páramo floras

    OpenAIRE

    Cuello, N.L.; Cleef, A.M.; Aymard, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ramal de Guaramacal is an outlier and lower elevation mountain range located at the northeastern end of the Venezuelan Andes. Phytogeographical patterns and affinities of the low altitude and wet vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal, have been studied with emphasis in to the analysis of the floristic connections of the Guaramacal páramo flora with the neighboring dry páramos of the Sierra Nevada de Mérida and other páramo floras of the northern Andes and Central America. A total of 25...

  2. Differential requirement of de novo Arc protein synthesis in the insular cortex and the amygdala for safe and aversive taste long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Ramos, Kioko; Venkataraman, Archana; Morin, Jean-Pascal; Osorio-Gómez, Daniel; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2018-04-16

    Several immediate early genes products are known to be involved in the facilitation of structural and functional modifications at distinct synapses activated through experience. The IEG-encoded protein Arc (activity regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein) has been widely implicated in long-term memory formation and stabilization. In this study, we sought to evaluate a possible role for de novo Arc protein synthesis in the insular cortex (IC) and in the amygdala (AMY) during long-term taste memory formation. We found that acute inhibition of Arc protein synthesis through the infusion of antisense oligonucleotides administered in the IC before a novel taste presentation, affected consolidation of a safe taste memory trace (ST) but spared consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Conversely, blocking Arc synthesis within the AMY impaired CTA consolidation but had no effect on ST long-term memory formation. Our results suggest that Arc-dependent plasticity during taste learning is required within distinct structures of the medial temporal lobe, depending on the emotional valence of the memory trace. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain); Aplicacion de Flora Autoctona en la Recuperacion de Zonas Afectadas por la Mineria en el Valle del Rio Rodrigatos (El Bierzo, Leon, Espana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galean, L; Gamarra, R; Sainz, H; Millan, R

    2010-07-27

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  4. Flora Normal, Probióticos y Salud Humana Flora Normal, Probióticos y Salud Humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Anaya-Velázquez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La microbiota es el conjunto de microorganismos que se localizan de manera normal en distintos sitios del cuerpo humano. Varios factores permiten que se mantenga el equilibrio necesario para conservar la salud. Se ha descrito que una de las funciones más importantes de la flora normal es la resistencia que confi ere a la invasión por agentes patógenos a través de diversos mecanismos como es la producción de bacteriocinas, ácido láctico o peróxido de hidrógeno entre otros. Destacan los lactobacilos (Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus y L. bifidus, habitantes del tracto gastrointestinal y vaginal, que inhiben el crecimiento de bacterias y virus como Salmonella y el VIH respectivamente. Los probióticos son microorganismos vivos, no patógenos, los cuales administrados en cantidades adecuadas confieren un beneficio sobre la salud del huésped. La investigación de diversas bacterias resulta alentadora debido a su uso potencial para mantener y restaurar la flora normal lo cual puede ser benéfico para la nutrición, la prevención de enfermedades y en un futuro ser parte de un tratamiento integral. The microbiota is the group of microorganisms that live normally in different parts of the human body. Several factors allow the maintenance of the required equilibrium to preserve health. It has been described that one of the most important functions of the normal flora is the resistance they confer to humans against invasion by pathogenic agents by different mechanisms such as production of bacteriocins, lactic acid or hydrogen peroxide. Among the most noticeable microorganisms are lactobacilli (Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus and L. bifidus, inhabitants of gastrointestinal and genital tract which inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and viruses such as Salmonella and VIH, respectively. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Research conducted with several

  5. Ocular fungal flora from healthy horses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, A R; Nikaein, D; Sharifzadeh, A; Gharagozlou, F

    2014-03-01

    This study was carried out in order to isolate and identify the normal conjunctival fungal flora from Caspian miniature, Thoroughbred, Turkmen and Persian Arab breeds in Tehran, Iran. A total of seventy-two adult healthy horses were studied. Ocular samples were collected from right and left eyes by using sterile cotton swabs; samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated at 30°C for 7-10 days. Molds and yeasts were identified using macro and micro-morphological and physiological characteristics. Number of fungal colonies per eye varied between 0 and 123 colony forming units (CFUs). The most predominant fungal isolates were Aspergillus (19.9%), Rhizopus (15.9%) and Penicillium (15.1%). No significant differences were observed between types of eye fungal floras in different breeds. Caspian miniature horses had significantly the highest number of fungal isolates in compare with other breeds (P<0.001), however no significant difference was observed among other breeds under study. The fungal isolates were almost the same as with studies performed in other countries, although differences in species isolated could be related to geographic and climate difference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Interrelationships Within the Bacterial Flora of the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Carson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of 240 consecutive vaginal swabs using the compatibility profile technique revealed that only 2 bacteria have the ability to be a sole isolate and as such a candidate to be a major aerobic regulator of the bacterial flora of the female genital tract (BFFGT. Compatibility profiles of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis have shown that these organisms shared compatibility profiling for the majority of the normal bacterial constituents of the female genital tract. Dominance disruption appears to come from the addition of compatible co-isolates and presumed loss of numerical superiority. These phenomena appear to be the keys to reregulation of BFFGT. Lactobacillus appears to be the major regulator of both G. vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria. When additional organisms are added to the bacterial flora, they may add to or partially negate the inhibitory influence of Lactobacillus on the BFFGT. Inhibitor interrelationships appear to exist between coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus and the group B streptococci (GBS and other beta hemolytic streptococci. Facilitating interrelationships appear to exist between S. aureus and the GBS and selected Enterobacteriaceae.

  7. Medicinal Plants in the Flora of Luhansk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Naumov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To establish a resource base of medicinal plants of Donbass, and to develop methods for their balanced use, it is necessary to conduct an inventory and analysis of the spread of wild species, that recently was not carried out in Luhansk and Donetsk region. These circumstances have served as an incentive to carry out special investigations. Test species belong to 403 genus and 108 families. List of vascular plants of Luhansk region has more than 1,200 species. We have established that in the study area, there are 718 species of medicinal plants, representing 60 % of the total flora of the region, covering so much of the taxonomic diversity of Donbass flora. The family of the Asteraceae (105 species, 50 genuses is different in terms of the greatest number of species of medicinal plants and genus family. The families of Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae contain more than 40 species, the families of Apiaceae и Rosaceae — over 30 species, Caryophylaceae и Polygonaceae — more than 20 species, a total of 301 species. The remaining 99 families presented a small number of basic taxonomic units. The species Viscum album, Ajuga chia, Salvia nemorosa were found during expeditions. These species have not been previously described for the region.

  8. Normal bacterial flora from vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Boscán-Ocando, Julio; Nava, Jexenia

    2011-02-01

    In order to describe the normal bacterial flora in vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows, 51 healthy multiparous cows, at least 90-day postpartum, were selected. Duplicated swabs (N = 102) were taken from the vaginal fornix of cows to perform aerobic and anaerobic cultures as well as conventional biochemical tests. Out of 102 swabs, bacterial growth was obtained in 55 (53.9%) while the remaining 47 (46.1%) did not exhibited any bacterial growth. Of the 55 bacterial growths, 23 (41.8%) were aerobic whereas 32 (58.1%) were anaerobic. Likewise, 29 (52.72%) of bacterial growths were pure and 26 (47.27%) were mixed. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, Gram positive bacteria were predominant (81.82% and 73.08%, respectively) over Gram negative bacteria (18.18% and 26.92%, respectively). Isolated bacteria were Arcanobacterium pyogenes (22.92%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.63%), Staphylococcus coagulase negative (17.71%), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (6.25%), Bacteroides spp. (13.54%), and Peptostreptococcus spp. (7.29%). In conclusion, normal vaginal bacterial flora of Criollo Limonero cows was predominantly Gram positive and included A. pyogenes, S. aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. rhusiopathiae, Bacteroides spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. In Criollo Limonero cattle, adaptive aspects such as development of humoral and physical mechanisms for defense, and bacterial adaptation to host deserve research attention.

  9. Decontamination Efficiency of Fish Bacterial Flora from Processing Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birna Guðbjörnsdóttir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous parameters that can influence bacterial decontamination during washing of machinery and equipment in a food processing establishment. Incomplete decontamination of bacteria will increase the risk of biofilm formation and consequently increase the risk of pathogen contamination or prevalence of other undesirable microorganisms such as spoilage bacteria in the processing line. The efficiency of a typical washing protocol has been determined by testing three critical parameters and their effects on bacterial decontamination. Two surface materials (plastic and stainless steel, water temperatures (7 and 25 °C and detergent concentrations (2 and 4 % were used for this purpose in combination with two types of detergents. Biofilm was prepared on the surfaces with undefined bacterial flora obtained from minced cod fillets. The bacterial flora of the biofilm was characterised by cultivation and molecular analysis of 16S rRNA genes. All different combinations of washing protocols tested were able to remove more than 99.9 % of the bacteria in the biofilm and reduce the cell number from 7 to 0 or 2 log units of bacteria/cm2. The results show that it is possible to use less diluted detergents than recommended with comparable success, and it is easier to clean surface material made of stainless steel compared to polyethylene plastic.

  10. Spatial phylogenetics of the vascular flora of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherson, Rosa A; Thornhill, Andrew H; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael; Freyman, William A; Pliscoff, Patricio A; Mishler, Brent D

    2017-07-01

    Current geographic patterns of biodiversity are a consequence of the evolutionary history of the lineages that comprise them. This study was aimed at exploring how evolutionary features of the vascular flora of Chile are distributed across the landscape. Using a phylogeny at the genus level for 87% of the Chilean vascular flora, and a geographic database of sample localities, we calculated phylogenetic diversity (PD), phylogenetic endemism (PE), relative PD (RPD), and relative PE (RPE). Categorical Analyses of Neo- and Paleo-Endemism (CANAPE) were also performed, using a spatial randomization to assess statistical significance. A cluster analysis using range-weighted phylogenetic turnover was used to compare among grid cells, and with known Chilean bioclimates. PD patterns were concordant with known centers of high taxon richness and the Chilean biodiversity hotspot. In addition, several other interesting areas of concentration of evolutionary history were revealed as potential conservation targets. The south of the country shows areas of significantly high RPD and a concentration of paleo-endemism, and the north shows areas of significantly low PD and RPD, and a concentration of neo-endemism. Range-weighted phylogenetic turnover shows high congruence with the main macrobioclimates of Chile. Even though the study was done at the genus level, the outcome provides an accurate outline of phylogenetic patterns that can be filled in as more fine-scaled information becomes available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by the flora and benthic macrofauna of the Bouregreg estuary wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamar M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Estuarine systems account for a high proportion of wetlands in Morocco due to the development of the river system. These estuarine and coastal Moroccan environments are as rich in fauna and flora as their European equivalents and present much originality. However, these coastal areas are generally highly urbanized and industrialized, and therefore subject to domestic and industrial discharges. The Bouregreg Estuary represents a good example of this situation, in view of this pollution (organic, chemical and biological and the absence of fresh water supply upstream of the estuary after the dam was built, is increasingly unable of restoring the equilibrium of this ecosystem. This tide can instead ensure the polluting discharge downstream or upstream. Metallic contamination affects the different compartments of the estuarine ecosystem (sediment, water and benthic species (fauna and flora. The objective of this study is to assess the accumulation and bioaccumulation of five heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Cr and Pb at the sediment level of two dominant plant species (Artiplex portulacoides and Sarcocornia fructicosa and three species of benthic macrofauna (Scrobicularia plana, Venerupis decussata and Hediste diversicolor from the wetland of this estuary. This work will enable us to clearly understand the nutritional relationships between plant, animal, water and sediment species. The results of the analysis revealed that bioaccumulation varies from one species to another and from one metal to another. Thus, the levels of Lead and Chromium at Sarcocornia fructicosa are higher than those found at Artiplex portulacoides. Nevertheless, the latter accumulates better the other metals: Cu, Zn and Fe. While, the macrofauna shows a fairly large variation depending on the life style and sensitivity of species. Thus, Hediste diversicolor showed high levels of the various metals analyzed compared to Scrobicularia plana and Venerupis decussata.

  13. Flora sampling in the vicinity of gamma greenhouse: As a flora sampling model for supporting the national nuclear power program (NPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Shakinah Salleh; Norazlina Noordin; Salmah Moosa; Sakinah Ariffin; Salahbiah Abdul Majid; Nur Humaira Lau Abdullah; Mohd Zaidan Kandar; Abdul Rahim Harun

    2012-01-01

    Gamma Green House was used as a model to study radiation effects on flora and ecosystems in supporting the National Nuclear Power Programme (NPP). A task force was formed in BAB which consists of 3 main groups of flora, fauna and microorganisms. For the flora group, two sampling expeditions have been carried out on July 7, 2011 and March 2, 2012 with the assistant of experts from University Putra Malaysia. From these expeditions, a preliminary data on the types and distribution of plants in selected quadrants close to the Gamma Greenhouse has been successfully observed and the collected plant samples have been preserved as part of the herbarium collection. This paper will describe on the sampling activities and sample preservation. Knowledge gained from this study will be very useful as model for flora distribution baseline data at plant site(author)

  14. Role of the agranular insular cortex in contextual control over cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello, Amy A; Wang, Rong; Lyons, Carey M; Higginbotham, Jessica A; Hodges, Matthew A; Fuchs, Rita A

    2017-08-01

    Environmental stimulus control over drug relapse requires the retrieval of context-response-cocaine associations, maintained in long-term memory through active reconsolidation processes. Identifying the neural substrates of these phenomena is important from a drug addiction treatment perspective. The present study evaluated whether the agranular insular cortex (AI) plays a role in drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior and cocaine memory reconsolidation. Rats were trained to lever press for cocaine infusions in a distinctive context, followed by extinction training in a different context. Rats in experiment 1 received bilateral microinfusions of vehicle or a GABA agonist cocktail (baclofen and muscimol (BM)) into the AI or the overlying somatosensory cortex (SSJ, anatomical control region) immediately before a test of drug-seeking behavior (i.e., non-reinforced lever presses) in the previously cocaine-paired context. The effects of these manipulations on locomotor activity were also assessed in a novel context. Rats in experiment 2 received vehicle or BM into the AI after a 15-min reexposure to the cocaine-paired context, intended to reactivate context-response-cocaine memories and initiate their reconsolidation. The effects of these manipulations on drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior were assessed 72 h later. BM-induced pharmacological inactivation of the AI, but not the SSJ, attenuated drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior without altering locomotor activity. Conversely, AI inactivation after memory reactivation failed to impair subsequent drug-seeking behavior and thus cocaine memory reconsolidation. These findings suggest that the AI is a critical element of the neural circuitry that mediates contextual control over cocaine-seeking behavior.

  15. Marinospirillum insulare sp. nov., a novel halophilic helical bacterium isolated from kusaya gravy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomi, M; Kimura, B; Hayashi, M; Okuzumi, M; Fujii, T

    2004-01-01

    A novel species that belongs to the genus Marinospirillum is described on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences and DNA-DNA hybridization. Four strains of helical, halophilic, Gram-negative, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from kusaya gravy, which is fermented brine that is used for the production of traditional dried fish in the Izu Islands of Japan. All of the new isolates were motile by means of bipolar tuft flagella, of small cell size, coccoid-body-forming and aerophilic; it was concluded that they belong to the same bacterial species, based on DNA-DNA hybridization values (>70% DNA relatedness). DNA G+C contents of the new strains were 42-43 mol% and they had isoprenoid quinone Q-8 as the major component. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the new isolates were members of the genus Marinospirillum; sequence similarity of the new isolates to Marinospirillum minutulum, Marinospirillum megaterium and Marinospirillum alkaliphilum was 98.5, 98.2 and 95.2%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene indicated that the new isolates had enough phylogenetic distance from M. minutulum and M. megaterium to be regarded as different species, with 84.7 and 78.7% sequence similarity, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that the new isolates had <36% DNA relatedness to M. minutulum and M. megaterium, supporting the phylogenetic conclusion. Thus, a novel species is proposed: Marinospirillum insulare sp. nov. (type strain, KT=LMG 21802T=NBRC 100033T).

  16. Bidirectional modulation of taste aversion extinction by insular cortex LTP and LTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Escobar, Martha L

    2017-07-01

    The history of activity of a given neuron has been proposed to bidirectionally influence its future response to synaptic inputs. In particular, induction of synaptic plasticity expressions such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) modifies the performance of several behavioral tasks. Our previous studies in the insular cortex (IC), a neocortical region that has been related to acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that induction of LTP in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla)-IC pathway before CTA training enhances the retention of this task. In addition, we reported that CTA training triggers a persistent impairment in the ability to induce in vivo LTP in the IC. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether LTD can be induced in the Bla-IC projection in vivo, as well as, whether the extinction of CTA is bidirectionally modified by previous synaptic plasticity induction in this pathway. Thus, rats received 900 train pulses (five 250μs pulses at 250Hz) delivered at 1Hz in the Bla-IC projection in order to induce LTD or 10 trains of 100Hz/1s with an intertrain interval of 20s in order to induce LTP. Seven days after surgery, rats were trained in the CTA task including the extinction trials. Our results show that the Bla-IC pathway is able to express in vivo LTD in an N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent manner. Induction of LTD in the Bla-IC projection previous to CTA training facilitates the extinction of this task. Conversely, LTP induction enhances CTA retention. The present results show the bidirectional modulation of CTA extinction in response to IC-LTP and LTD, providing evidence of the homeostatic adaptation of taste learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CaMKII Requirement for in Vivo Insular Cortex LTP Maintenance and CTA Memory Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yectivani Juárez-Muñoz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-calmodulin/dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII plays an essential role in LTP induction, but since it has the capacity to remain persistently activated even after the decay of external stimuli it has been proposed that it can also be necessary for LTP maintenance and therefore for memory persistence. It has been shown that basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla stimulation induces long-term potentiation (LTP in the insular cortex (IC, a neocortical region implicated in the acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA. Our previous studies have demonstrated that induction of LTP in the Bla-IC pathway before CTA training increased the retention of this task. Although it is known that IC-LTP induction and CTA consolidation share similar molecular mechanisms, little is known about the molecular actors that underlie their maintenance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of CaMKII in the maintenance of in vivo Bla-IC LTP as well as in the persistence of CTA long-term memory (LTM. Our results show that acute microinfusion of myr-CaMKIINtide, a selective inhibitor of CaMKII, in the IC of adult rats during the late-phase of in vivo Bla-IC LTP blocked its maintenance. Moreover, the intracortical inhibition of CaMKII 24 h after CTA acquisition impairs CTA-LTM persistence. Together these results indicate that CaMKII is a central key component for the maintenance of neocortical synaptic plasticity as well as for persistence of CTA-LTM.

  18. Solar irradiance assessment in insular areas using Himawari-8 satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liandrat, O.; Cros, S.; Turpin, M.; Pineau, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    The high amount of surface solar irradiance (SSI) in the tropics is an advantage for a profitable PV production. It will allow many tropical islands to pursue their economic growth with a clean, affordable and locally produced energy. However, the local meteorological conditions induce a very high variability which is problematic for a safe and gainful injection into the power grid. This issue is even more critical in non-interconnected territories where network stability is an absolute necessity. Therefore, the injection of PV power is legally limited in some European oversea territories. In this context, intraday irradiance forecasting (several hours ahead) is particularly useful to mitigate the production variability by reducing the cost of power storage management. At this time scale, cloud cover evolves with a stochastic behaviour not properly represented in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Analysing cloud motion using images from geostationary meteorological satellites is a well-known alternative to forecasting SSI up to 6 hours ahead with a better accuracy than NWP models. In this study, we present and apply our satellite-based solar irradiance forecasting methods over two measurement sites located in the field of view of the satellite Himawari-8: Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia) and New Caledonia (France). In particular, we converted 4 months of images from Himawari-8 visible channel into cloud index maps. Then, we applied an algorithm computing a cloud motion vector field from a short sequence of consecutive images. Comparisons between forecasted SSI at 1 hour of time horizon and collocated pyranometric measurements show a relative RMSE between 20 and 27%. Error sources related to the tropic insular context (coastal area heterogeneity, sub-pixel scale orographic cloud appearance, convective situation…) are discussed at every implementation step for the different methods.

  19. From carbon sink to carbon source: extensive peat oxidation in insular Southeast Asia since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Liew, Soo Chin; Page, Susan E.

    2017-02-01

    Tropical peatlands of the western part of insular Southeast Asia have experienced extensive land cover changes since 1990. Typically involving drainage, these land cover changes have resulted in increased peat oxidation in the upper peat profile. In this paper we provide current (2015) and cumulative carbon emissions estimates since 1990 from peat oxidation in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo, utilizing newly published peatland land cover information and the recently agreed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) peat oxidation emission values for tropical peatland areas. Our results highlight the change of one of the Earth’s most efficient long-term carbon sinks to a short-term emission source, with cumulative carbon emissions since 1990 estimated to have been in the order of 2.5 Gt C. Current (2015) levels of emissions are estimated at around 146 Mt C yr-1, with a range of 132-159 Mt C yr-1 depending on the selection of emissions factors for different land cover types. 44% (or 64 Mt C yr-1) of the emissions come from industrial plantations (mainly oil palm and Acacia pulpwood), followed by 34% (49 Mt C yr-1) of emissions from small-holder areas. Thus, altogether 78% of current peat oxidation emissions come from managed land cover types. Although based on the latest information, these estimates may still include considerable, yet currently unquantifiable, uncertainties (e.g. due to uncertainties in the extent of peatlands and drainage networks) which need to be focused on in future research. In comparison, fire induced carbon dioxide emissions over the past ten years for the entire equatorial Southeast Asia region have been estimated to average 122 Mt C yr-1 (www.globalfiredata.org/_index.html). The results emphasise that whilst reducing emissions from peat fires is important, urgent efforts are also needed to mitigate the constantly high level of emissions arising from peat drainage, regardless of fire occurrence.

  20. Antinociceptive tolerance to NSAIDs in the agranular insular cortex is mediated by opioid mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirkulashvili N

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natia Pirkulashvili,1 Nana Tsiklauri,1 Marina Nebieridze,2 Merab G Tsagareli1 1Laboratory of Pain and Analgesia, 2Laboratory of Brain Metabolism, Beritashvili Center for Experimental Biomedicine, Tbilisi, Georgia Abstract: Several lines of investigations have shown that in some brain areas, in particular, in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter, rostral ventromedial medulla, central nucleus of amygdala, nucleus raphe magnus, and dorsal hippocampus, microinjections of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs induce antinociception with distinct development of tolerance. The agranular insular cortex (AIC is a small region of the cerebral cortex located on the lateral area of the rat’s cerebral hemisphere that is involved in the perception and response to pain. In the present study, we investigated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effects of NSAIDs diclofenac, ketorolac, and xefocam microinjected into the AIC in rats. Male Wistar rats receiving NSAIDs into the AIC were tested for antinociception by tail-flick and hot plate tests. Treatment with each NSAID significantly enhanced the tail-flick and hot plate latencies on the first day, followed by a progressive decrease in the analgesic effect over a 4-day period, ie, they developed tolerance. Pretreatment with an opioid antagonist naloxone completely prevented, and posttreatment naloxone abolished, the analgesic effects of the three NSAIDs in both behavioral assays. These findings support the notion that the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of NSAIDs is mediated via an endogenous opioid system possibly involving descending pain modulatory systems. Keywords: antinociception, endogenous opioids, descending modulation, nociception, non­opioid tolerance

  1. Reduced spontaneous neuronal activity in the insular cortex and thalamus in healthy adults with insomnia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hong; Liu, Cun-Zhi; Zhang, Jihui; Yuan, Zhen; Tang, Li-Rong; Tie, Chang-Le; Fan, Jin; Liu, Qing-Quan

    2016-10-01

    Poor sleep and insomnia have been recognized to be strongly correlated with the development of depression. The exploration of the basic mechanism of sleep disturbance could provide the basis for improved understanding and treatment of insomnia and prevention of depression. In this study, 31 subjects with insomnia symptoms as measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and 71 age- and gender-matched subjects without insomnia symptoms were recruited to participate in a clinical trial. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we examined the alterations in spontaneous brain activity between the two groups. Correlations between the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and clinical measurements (e.g., insomnia severity and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAMD] scores) were also tested in all subjects. Compared to healthy participants without insomnia symptoms, participants with insomnia symptoms showed a decreased fALFF in the left ventral anterior insula, bilateral posterior insula, left thalamus, and pons but an increased fALFF in the bilateral middle occipital gyrus and right precentral gyrus. More specifically, a significant, negative correlation of fALFF in the left thalamus with early morning awakening scores and HAMD scores in the overall sample was identified. These results suggest that insomnia symptoms are associated with altered spontaneous activity in the brain regions of several important functional networks, including the insular cortex of the salience and the thalamus of the hyperarousal network. The altered fALFF in the left thalamus supports the "hyperarousal theory" of insomnia symptoms, which could serve as a biomarker for insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution of metals in fauna, flora and sediments of wet detention ponds and natural shallow lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, D.A.; Nielsen, A.H.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Fauna, flora, and sediment were collected from 9 wet detention ponds receiving stormwater runoff and 11 small natural shallow lakes. The fauna and flora samples were sorted into species or groups of species and, together with sediments, analyzed for aluminum, copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, cadmium,...

  3. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak project – progress and future activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.S.; Nadiah, I.; Eryani, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Tropical forests in Borneo (Brunei Darussalam, Kalimantan, Sabah and Sarawak) are considered as one of the twelve mega biodiversity centres in the world. However, until now, there is no up-to-date or complete documentation on the flora of the island. The Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak Project,

  4. Proton pump inhibitor medication is associated with colonisation of gut flora in the oropharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, A; Thorarinsdottir, H R; Holmberg, A; Schött, U; Klarin, B

    2018-03-08

    The normal body exists in mutualistic balance with a large range of microbiota. The primary goal of this study was to establish whether there is an imbalance in the oropharyngeal flora early after hospital or ICU admittance, and whether flora differs between control, ward and critically ill patients. The secondary goal was to explore whether there are patient characteristics that can be associated with a disturbed oropharyngeal flora. Oropharyngeal cultures were obtained from three different study groups: (1) controls from the community, (2) ward patients and (3) critically ill patients, the two latter within 24 h after admittance. Cultures were obtained from 487 individuals: 77 controls, 193 ward patients and 217 critically ill patients. Abnormal pharyngeal flora was more frequent in critically ill and ward patients compared with controls (62.2% and 10.4% vs. 1.3%, P flora in the oropharynx was more frequent in critically ill patients compared with ward patients or controls (26.3% vs. 4.7% and 1.3%, P flora in the oropharynx in both ward and critically ill patients (P = 0.030 and P = 0.044, respectively). This study indicates that abnormal oropharyngeal flora is an early and frequent event in hospitalised patients and more so in the critically ill, compared to controls. Proton pump inhibitor medication is associated with colonisation of gut flora in the oropharynx. © 2018 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Rijksherbarium and its contribution to the research on the Netherlands and European flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennema, J.

    1979-01-01

    In the first decades of its existence the interest of the Rijksherbarium was certainly not directed towards the study of the Dutch and European flora. The initiative to embark on research of the flora of the Netherlands was born outside the walls of the institute. In 1845, R. B. van den Bosch

  6. Bacterial skin flora of diabetic patients in the Jos University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetics frequently are afflicted with bacterial skin infections because of the high circulating blood sugar. The frequent skin infections in these patients may be a result of change in normal skin flora. This study was carried out to find out the normal skin flora of these patients. Ninety four (50 study and 44 control) consecutive ...

  7. Impact of marine influence and cultivation on the diatom flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a limnological and palaeolimnological study of the western part of the Great Coast of Senegal, an analysis of diatoms was carried out in Thiaroye Pond in the suburbs of Dakar. Current diatom flora in the water and on floating plants, and subfossil flora in two cores were sampled in 1996 and 2003. A total of 104 ...

  8. Fish losses due to bacterial flora and infections of fishes in Kainji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses the losses incurred as a result of bacterial flora and infection in captured and cultured fish. The role played by these bacterial flora on the overall quality and health of fish is discussed. Bacteria have been reported to cause diseases in ponds and increase in the spoilage rate of raw and preserved fish in ...

  9. A precursor to the treatment of Dorstenia for the floras of Cameroun and Gabon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.; Hijman, M.E.E.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper is the result of a study of Dorstenia mainly made on behalf of the Floras of Cameroun and Gabon. It presents, as a precursor to the treatment in those Floras, some general remarks on the genus Dorstenia, a key to the species, a survey of the taxa distinguished, new combinations and

  10. El Caribe Insular: entre la realidad y la subversión epistémica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Valdés García

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available El Caribe Insular: entre la realidad y la subversión epistémica Resumen La realidad del Caribe, su ser real, su onto, dado en el complejo proceso de su historia y su estar siendo, genera formas, modos de aprehensión, conceptos que distan de aquellos establecidos por el pensamiento occidental. A lo largo del siglo XX se han formulado nociones como negritud, choteo, creolization, frontera imperial, condenados de la tierra, discurso antillano, antillanidad, poética de la relación, transcultura­ción, y conceptos-metáforas como “caliban”–, los cuales constituyen una expresión teórico-filosófica de la realidad, de la existencia caribeña. Un caso notable tratado en el texto es el surgimiento del Grupo Nuevo Mundo (New World Group, el cual ante la creación de nuevos Estados nación tras la independencia de la corona inglesa constatan su insatisfacción por el saber y las herramientas teóricas metropolitanas vigentes y tras considerar que “pensaban para actuar” propusieron desarrollar un “pensamiento independiente” (Independent thought y a enunciar nociones como ‘decolonización epistémica’, ‘soberanía epistémica’, ‘caribeñización epistémica’ o a estudiar al Caribe como un sistema de plantación. La subversión epistémica llegaba esta vez en el Caribe anglófono de la mano de activos intelectuales, quienes con finalidad práctica y compromiso con su mundo, pensaban para transformar. Palabras clave: Caribe, decolonización epistémica, Grupo Nuevo Mundo, Pensamiento crítico O Caribe Insular: entre a realidade e a subversão epistêmica Resumo A realidade do Caribe, o seu verdadeiro eu, seu onto, dado o complexo processo de sua história e de seu "estar sendo",  gera formas, modos de apreensão, conceitos que estão longe dos estabelecidos pelo pensamento ocidental. Ao longo do século XX tem-se formulado noções como negritude, choteo, crioulização, fronteira imperial, condenados da terra, discurso

  11. The problem of the use the hybrid and photovoltaic systems in insular zones with climatic siversity in Madeira; A problematica da utilizacao de sistemas fotovoltaicos e hibridos em zonas insulares de diversidade climatica-ILHA da Madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magro, J. C. E.

    2004-07-01

    Project PAUER contemplates the evaluation and utilization of renewable energy in insular zones with climatic diversity, situated on the Archipelago of Madeira. The project has three main areas of intervention: prospecting and evaluating energetic resources; creation of data bases of climatic data for application in energetic studies and other areas; the installation of twenty autonomous photovoltaic or hybrid systems in isolated localities. This communication presents some data from meteorological observations made up until the present date, following appropriate statistical analysis. Characteristics of some installed photovoltaic and hybrid systems as well as some of the principal problems encountered in the field are also given. (Author)

  12. Supplementary Material for: The flora phenotype ontology (FLOPO): tool for integrating morphological traits and phenotypes of vascular plants

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert; AlShahrani, Mona; Gkoutos, Georgios; Gosline, George; Groom, Quentin; Hamann, Thomas; Kattge, Jens; Oliveira, Sylvia de; Schmidt, Marco; Sierra, Soraya; Smets, Erik; Vos, Rutger; Weiland, Claus

    2016-01-01

    traits of plant species found in Floras. We used the Plant Ontology (PO) and the Phenotype And Trait Ontology (PATO) to extract entity-quality relationships from digitized taxon descriptions in Floras, and used a formal ontological approach based

  13. [Changes of fecal flora and its correlation with inflammatory indicators in patients with inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Ye; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhou, Youlian; Zhang, Shaoheng; Wang, Pu; Xie, Shan; Jiang, Bo

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the changes in fecal flora and its correlation with the occurrence and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We collected fresh fecal specimens from 167 IBD patients (including 113 with ulcerative colitis and 54 with Crohn's disease) and 54 healthy volunteers. The fecal flora was analyzed by gradient dilution method and the data of inflammatory markers including WBC, PLT, CRP and ESR were collected to assess the association between the fecal flora and the inflammatory markers. The species Enterrococcus (6.60∓0.23, Pflora. The changes in fecal flora did not show a significant correlation with these inflammatory markers. IBD patients have fecal flora imbalance compared with the healthy controls, and this imbalance may contribute to the occurrence and progression of IBD. The decline of Eubacterium contributes to the occurrence and development of IBD.

  14. Learning Touch Preferences with a Tactile Robot Using Dopamine Modulated STDP in a Model of Insular Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Shuo eChou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurorobots enable researchers to study how behaviors are produced by neural mechanisms in an uncertain, noisy, real-world environment. To investigate how the somatosensory system processes noisy, real-world touch inputs, we introduce a neurorobot called CARL-SJR, which has a full-body tactile sensory area. The design of CARL-SJR is such that it encourages people to communicate with it through gentle touch. CARL-SJR provides feedback to users by displaying bright colors on its surface. In the present study, we show that CARL-SJR is capable of learning associations between conditioned stimuli (CS; a color pattern on its surface and unconditioned stimuli (US; a preferred touch pattern by applying a spiking neural network (SNN with neurobiologically inspired plasticity. Specifically, we modeled the primary somatosensory cortex, prefrontal cortex, striatum, and the insular cortex, which is important for hedonic touch, to process noisy data generated directly from CARL-SJR’s tactile sensory area. To facilitate learning, we applied dopamine-modulated Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP to our simulated prefrontal cortex, striatum and insular cortex. To cope with noisy, varying inputs, the SNN was tuned to produce traveling waves of activity that carried spatiotemporal information. Despite the noisy tactile sensors, spike trains, and variations in subject hand swipes, the learning was quite robust. Further, the plasticity (i.e., STDP in primary somatosensory cortex and insular cortex in the incremental pathway of dopaminergic reward system allowed us to control CARL-SJR’s preference for touch direction without heavily pre-processed inputs. The emerged behaviors we found in this model match animal’s behaviors wherein they prefer touch in particular areas and directions. Thus, the results in this paper could serve as an explanation on the underlying neural mechanisms for developing tactile preferences and hedonic touch.

  15. Modulation of functionally localized right insular cortex activity using real-time fMRI-based neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Berman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for subjects to learn to volitionally control localized brain activity using neurofeedback is actively being investigated. We aimed to investigate the ability of healthy volunteers to quickly learn to use visual feedback during real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI to modulate brain activity within their anterior right insular cortex (RIC localized during a blink suppression task, an approach of possible interest in the use of rtfMRI to reduce urges. The RIC region of interest (RIC-ROI was functionally localized using a blink suppression task, and BOLD signal changes within RIC-ROI used to create a constantly updating display fed back to the subject in the scanner. Subjects were instructed to use emotional imagery to try and increase activity within RIC-ROI during four feedback training runs (FB1–FB4. A ‘control’ run (CNTRL before training and a ‘transfer’ run (XSFR after training were performed without feedback to assess for baseline abilities and learning effects. Fourteen participants completed all neurofeedback training runs. At the group level, increased BOLD activity was seen in the anterior RIC during all the FB runs, but a significant increase in the functionally defined RIC-ROI was only attained during FB2. In atlas-defined insular cortex ROIs, significant increases were seen bilaterally during the CNTRL, FB1, FB2, and FB4 runs. Increased activity within the insular cortices did not show lateralization. Training did, however, result in a significant increase in functional connectivity between the RIC-ROI and the medial frontal gyrus when comparing FB4 to FB1. Since neurofeedback training did not lead to an increase in BOLD signal across all feedback runs, we suggest that learning to control one’s brain activity in this fashion may require longer or repeated rtfMRI training sessions.

  16. Comments on the Updated Tetrapartite Pallium Model in the Mouse and Chick, Featuring a Homologous Claustro-Insular Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This essay reviews step by step the conceptual changes of the updated tetrapartite pallium model from its tripartite and early tetrapartite antecedents. The crucial observations in mouse material are explained first in the context of assumptions, tentative interpretations, and literature data. Errors and the solutions offered to resolve them are made explicit. Next, attention is centered on the lateral pallium sector of the updated model, whose definition is novel in incorporating a claustro-insular complex distinct from both olfactory centers (ventral pallium) and the isocortex (dorsal pallium). The general validity of the model is postulated at least for tetrapods. Genoarchitectonic studies performed to check the presence of a claustro-insular field homolog in the avian brain are reviewed next. These studies have indeed revealed the existence of such a complex in the avian mesopallium (though stratified outside-in rather than inside-out as in mammals), and there are indications that the same pattern may be found in reptiles as well. Peculiar pallio-pallial tangential migratory phenomena are apparently shared as well between mice and chicks. The issue of whether the avian mesopallium has connections that are similar to the known connections of the mammalian claustro-insular complex is considered next. Accrued data are consistent with similar connections for the avian insula homolog, but they are judged to be insufficient to reach definitive conclusions about the avian claustrum. An aside discusses that conserved connections are not a necessary feature of field-homologous neural centers. Finally, the present scenario on the evolution of the pallium of sauropsids and mammals is briefly visited, as highlighted by the updated tetrapartite model and present results. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Rare, threatened and relict species in flora of SNR Zasavica

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    Stanković, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In group of biodiversity important plant species there are 23 taxa. 20 taxa are mentioned in „Preliminary Red List of flora of Serbia and Montenegro with IUCN 2001 Conservation Statuses“ in following categories: two as critically endangered (Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. and Hottonia palustris L., four as endangered (Hippuris vulgaris L., Lindernia palustris Hartm., Ranunculus lingua L. and Urtica kioviensis Rogow., five as vulnerable (Achillea aspleniifolia Vent., Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill. H. P. Fuchs, Leucojum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum, Stratiotes aloides L. and Thelypteris palustris (Schott subsp.palustris, while 9 are with indefinite categories (CR-VU, due to data deficient (DD. Special Nature Reserve „Zasavica“ is the only habitat in Serbia for Aldrovanda vesiculosa L., which was until 2005. considered as extinct from Serbia.

  18. Brasilien Vervain (Verbena brasiliensis Vell. in Colkheti flora

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    I. Sh. Mikeladze

    2017-06-01

    In this work the current condition, invasive indicators, bio morphological characteristics and growth-development properties of new invasive species, South American origin Verbena Brasiliensis spread in Colkheti flora (Western Georgia's seaside part is given. In Colkheti it is mainly spread in the seaside, along the roads, along the railroad, on the ruderal places, near channels and rivers, deserted building sites, landfills, non-agricultural lands. Verbena Brasiliensis is a perennial, erect, branched, 50–210 cm height. The plant starts flowering in April–May and lasts till November. It is distinguished with high reproductivity. Fully grown plant in the second year develops about 90000–100000 seeds. Consequently the area of plant spread is gradually growing.

  19. Bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora and fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen-Fang; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2012-09-01

    In recent decades, the pharmaceutical application potential of marine natural products has attracted much interest from both natural product chemists and pharmacologists. Our group has long been engaged in the search for bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora (such as mangroves and algae) and fauna (including sponges, soft corals, and mollusks), resulting in the isolation and characterization of numerous novel secondary metabolites spanning a wide range of structural classes and various biosynthetic origins. Of particular interest is the fact that many of these compounds show promising biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, and enzyme inhibitory effects. By describing representative studies, this review presents a comprehensive summary regarding the achievements and progress made by our group in the past decade. Several interesting examples are discussed in detail.

  20. Bacterial and fungal flora of seagull droppings in Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, John; Clayton, Yvonne M.

    1971-01-01

    In Jersey 166 fresh and 122 dried seagull droppings were obtained and studied locally and in London for the presence of bacteria and fungi of potentially pathogenic nature. There were no salmonella or shigella bacteria isolated from the two groups but there was a high proportion of Candida albicans obtained from the fresh material (21·7%) and only 1·6% from the dry faeces. Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum were not found in either the dry or fresh droppings. The normal bacterial and fungal flora of the seagull was established and it is considered that the C. albicans in fresh gull droppings would not materially increase albicans infections in man. PMID:5104846

  1. Notes on the Orchid Flora of Thailand (II

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    Henrik Æ. Pedersen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three orchid species are newly recorded for the flora of Thailand. The discovery of Macodes petola in the southern part of Peninsular Thailand, adjacent to known occurrences across the Malaysian border, was expected. On the other hand, the find of Cheirostylis octodactyla in Thailand considerably extended the known range of this species to the west, as it was previously known only from the northern part of the Philippines, Taiwan and (through a single collection from northern Vietnam. The recent discovery of populations of Zeuxine bidupensis in Thailand suggests that this species, hitherto considered endemic to Vietnam, does not only have morphological, but also geographic affintities to the little known Z. pantlingii from West Bengal.

  2. Time series analysis of aerobic bacterial flora during Miso fermentation.

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    Onda, T; Yanagida, F; Tsuji, M; Shinohara, T; Yokotsuka, K

    2003-01-01

    This article reports a microbiological study of aerobic mesophilic bacteria that are present during the fermentation process of Miso. Aerobic bacteria were enumerated and isolated from Miso during fermentation and divided into nine groups using traditional phenotypic tests. The strains were identified by biochemical analysis and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, Kocuria kristinae, Staphylococcus gallinarum and S. kloosii. All strains were sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by the lactic acid bacteria isolated from Miso. The dominant species among the undesirable species throughout the fermentation process were B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. It is suggested that bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria are effective in the growth prevention of aerobic bacteria in Miso. This study has provided useful information for controlling of bacterial flora during Miso fermentation.

  3. Genus Sisymbrium L. (Rockets In The Flora Of Latvia

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    Rūrāne Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest genera in the Cruciferae family in Latvia is Sisymbrium L. The genus includes not only native, but also some alien species. The distributions of the Sisymbrium species were reviewed for the first time in the last 50th years in Latvia. The distribution data were compiled from herbarium material, literature and field surveys. An identification key for the Sisymbrium species in Latvia and detailed scientific nomenclature are presented in the current study. In total, seven species of Sisymbrium were found in Latvia — S. supinum L., S. loeselii L., S. polymorphum (Murray Roth, S. volgense M. Bieb. ex E. Fourn., S. altissimum L., S. orientale L. and S. officinale (L. Scop. The mainly were recorded in railway verges, roadsides, waste dumps and wasteland. Five species of the genus are alien to the flora of Latvia — S. loeselii, S. altissimum, S. polymorphum, S. orientale, and S. volgense; two are native — S. supinum and S. officinale.

  4. NOTES FOR FLORA OF MATO GROSSO STATE: THE ASTERACEAE FAMILY

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    L. Cavalheiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed work aimed to survey the Asteraceae species contained in the collection of the Herbarium UFMT for purposes of performing the preliminary version to compose the Flora of Mato Grosso State. Allied to this was held to update the number of species as well as the nomenclatural verification of all scientific names. Were found 150 species in 82 genera of which 33 are new records for the state and 16 are framed in IUCN categories. The species are distributed over all biomes: Cerrado, Pantanal and the Amazon forest, but the forest environment showed low number of samples, probably due to the difficulties of access by researchers. Finally, when we combine the analysis of the collection of UFMT to other herbaria that have herbarium collections in the state, we actually have a very real composition survey of Asteraceae for Mato Grosso State.

  5. Oral flora of Python regius kept as pets.

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    Dipineto, L; Russo, T P; Calabria, M; De Rosa, L; Capasso, M; Menna, L F; Borrelli, L; Fioretti, A

    2014-05-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the oral bacterial flora of 60 Python regius kept as pets by culture and biochemical methods. All isolates were also submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion method. The oral cavity of snakes sampled harboured a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria mainly constituted by Pseudomonas spp., Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, but also by Salmonella spp. Staphylococcus spp. was the commonest Gram-positive isolates, and various anaerobic Clostridium species were also found. The most effective antimicrobial agents were enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, followed by doxycycline and gentamicin. The oral cavity of snakes sampled harboured a wide range of bacteria. Our results suggest that people who come in contact with snakes could be at risk of infection and should follow proper hygiene practices when handling these reptiles. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

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    Verloove, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain.- Recent fieldwork in Tenerife, especially in September 2010, yielded several interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, “Asian” Cardamine flexuosa, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla and Solanum abutiloides are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, while Eragrostis barrelieri var. pygmaea, Ficus microcarpa, Ipomoea purpurea, Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata, Sechium edule, Tradescantia zebrina and Turnera ulmifolia are new to the flora of the island of Tenerife. New records of Acacia cyclops, Atriplex suberecta, Heliotropium curassavicum, Paspalum dilatatum, P. notatum, Pluchea ovalis, Pulicaria paludosa, Sclerophylax spinescens and Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum confirm their recent expansion on the island of Tenerife. New records are provided for the recently described Sporobolus copei . Finally, Paspalum vaginatum (hitherto possibly confused with P. distichum and Potentilla indica are confirmed from the island of Tenerife.

    Adiciones para la flora de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España.- Algunos recientes trabajos de campo en Tenerife, especialmente en Septiembre de 2010, trajeron consigo varias nuevas e interesantes adiciones de plantas vasculares no autóctonas. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa “Asiática”, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla y

  7. NEW CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ALIEN FLORA IN ROMANIA

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    SÎRBU CULIŢĂ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a number of seventeen alien plant species are presented, one of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. Some species are mentioned for the first time in the flora of Moldavia (Aster novae-angliae L., Cenchrus incertus M. A. Curtis, Chenopodium pumilio R. Br., Fraxinus americana L., Lindernia dubia (L. Pennell, Petunia × atkinsiana D. Don, Solidago gigantea Aiton, Tagetes erecta L. or Transylvania (Kochia sieversiana (Pallas C. A. Mey., and some are reported from new localities (seven species. For each species, there are presented general data on the geographical origin, its distribution in Europe and worldwide, as well as its invasion history and current distribution in Romania. Some of these species manifest a remarkable spreading tendency, expanding their invasion area in Romania. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi (IASI.

  8. Mold Flora of Traditional Cheeses Produced in Turkey

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    Musa Yalman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In our country, there are many cheese types that are produced traditionally. Cheeses which produced from cows, sheep and goat milk that matured with spontaneous growth of molds present in livestock skins, pots and similar environments are among them. They are produced traditionally in Mediterrian, Central and Eastern Anatolia regions. Molds that grow spontaneously in cheeses could create public health risk because of their secondary metabolites. Penicillium spp. are the most isolated mold from these cheeses and Penicillium roqueforti is determined as the dominant species. Furthermore, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor, Geotrichum, Cladosporium species have been isolated. It is very important to control the ripening conditions and starter strain selection since some strains were reported as mycotoxin producers. In this review, it has been tried to give general information about traditional production of mold-ripened cheese in Turkey and the mold flora found in traditional cheeses. In addition, public health risk of these cheeses is reported.

  9. Flora of vascular plants in the Chilgapsan Provincial Park, Korea

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    Ro-Young Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The flora of Chilgapsan Provincial Park in Cheongyang-gun (Chungcheongnam-do, Korea was surveyed from 2000 to 2014. In 19 field surveys, vascular plants were revealed 490 taxa belonging to 97 families, 309 genera, 433 species, four subspecies, 48 varieties, and five forms. Plants of various categories were discovered in this study. For the Korean endemic plants 15 taxa were recorded, and 11 taxa designated by the Korean Forest Service as rare plants were investigated in this region. The plants above the third degree among the floristic regional indicator plants designated by the Korean Ministry of Environment were 10 taxa. In addition, 33 taxa of naturalized and 73 taxa of cultivated plants were recorded.

  10. Aportes a la Flora de Colombia: Estudios en Compuestas - VI

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    Díaz Piedrahíta Santiago

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Bajo este título se han publicado varios artículos en los cuales se han propuesto nuevas especies de asteráceas de los géneros Espeletia, Paragynoxys, Senecio y Verbesina; en esta ocasión se describe una especie de Senecio, novedad surgida en desarrollo de la revisión del material de herbario y preparación de los textos del tratamiento de las Cornpositae de la Flora de la Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada.  Se trata de una interesante especie sobresaliente por el color blanco de las flores femeninas y de la cual se conservan en los archivos del Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, una bella lámina iluminada en color y una diagnosis.

  11. PRIMER REGISTRO DE DENNSTAEDTIA DISSECTA (DENNSTAEDTIACEAE PARA LA FLORA ARGENTINA

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    Agustina Yañez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para la flora argentina a Dennstaedtia dissecta, hallada en la provincia de Misiones. Este nuevo registro surgió del estudio de ejemplares de los herbarios BA y LP, y luego se corroboró con colecciones realizadas en los Parques Provinciales Cruce Caballero y Urugua-í. Además de las características del rizoma y la lámina, las esporas resultaron una importante fuente de información en la identificación de esta especie. Se describen e ilustran los caracteres diagnósticos, y se incluye una clave para identificar a las especies de Dennstaedtia presentes en Misiones.

  12. A Prebiotic Formula Improves the Gastrointestinal Bacterial Flora in Toddlers

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    Ya-Ling Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effect of enriched 3-prebiotic formula (including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides on toddler gut health by measuring fecal microbiota. Our results revealed that the consumption of 3-prebiotic formula three times per day giving total intake of 1.8 g prebiotic ingredients significantly showed the increased number of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. colonies and the reduced populations of both C. perfringens and total anaerobic bacteria on the fecal bacterial flora in toddlers at 18~36 months. In addition, total organic acids in the fecal samples significantly increased which improves the utilization of bifidus under acidic conditions after consumption of the 3-prebiotic formula. Therefore, using the formula enriched with prebiotic may maintain gut health in toddlers.

  13. [Terrestrial flora of Malpelo Island, Colombia, Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Román, Rubén D; López-Victoria, Mateo; Silverstone-Sopkin, Philip A

    2014-03-01

    Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in

  14. Microbial flora associated with submerged mangrove leaf litter in India

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    Narayanasamy Rajendran

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the microbial flora in decomposing mangrove leaves in relation to changes in nitrogen and tannin levels, and in penaeid prawn assemblages. Senescent leaves of two mangrove species (Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina kept in nylon bags, were separately immersed for 80 days in five tanks full of mangrove water. A known amount of decomposing leaves was collected every ten days from each tank for microorganism counts, total nitrogen and tannin measurement, and juvenile penaeid prawn counts. Five genera of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB, three species of azotobacters and 19 species of fungi were identified. The azotobacters showed a significant peak around 40-50 days after the beginning of of decomposition, similar to the trend for total nitrogen and for prawn assemblages. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 393-400. Epub 2007 June, 29.Se estudió la flora microbiana en hojas en descomposición de mangles, considerando nitrógeno, taninos y camarones peneidos jóvenes. Colocamos hojas viejas de dos especies de mangle (Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina en bolsas de nylon y las sumergimos en agua de manglar durante 80 días usando cinco tanques separados. Cada diez días extrajimos una cantidad conocida de hojas en descomposición de cada tanque. Hallamos cinco géneros de bacterias heterotróficas totales (THB, tres especies de azotobacterias y 19 especies de hongos. Las azotobacterias presentaron un pico significativo de abundancia alrededor de los 40-50 días de descomposición, un patrón similar a los del nitrógeno total y los camarones.

  15. Fire-adapted Gondwanan Angiosperm floras evolved in the Cretaceous

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    Lamont Byron B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fires have been widespread over the last 250 million years, peaking 60−125 million years ago (Ma, and might therefore have played a key role in the evolution of Angiosperms. Yet it is commonly believed that fireprone communities existed only after the global climate became more arid and seasonal 15 Ma. Recent molecular-based studies point to much earlier origins of fireprone Angiosperm floras in Australia and South Africa (to 60 Ma, Paleocene but even these were constrained by the ages of the clades examined. Results Using a molecular-dated phylogeny for the great Gondwanan family Proteaceae, with a 113-million-year evolutionary history, we show that the ancestors of many of its characteristic sclerophyll genera, such as Protea, Conospermum, Leucadendron, Petrophile, Adenanthos and Leucospermum (all subfamily Proteoideae, occurred in fireprone habitats from 88 Ma (83−94, 95% HPD, Mid-Upper Cretaceous. This coincided with the highest atmospheric oxygen (combustibility levels experienced over the past 150 million years. Migration from non-fireprone (essentially rainforest-climate-type environments was accompanied by the evolution of highly speciose clades with a range of seed storage traits and fire-cued seed release or germination mechanisms that was diagnostic for each clade by 71 Ma, though the ant-dispersed lineage (as a soil seed-storage subclade was delayed until 45 Ma. Conclusions Focusing on the widespread 113-million-year-old family Proteaceae, fireproneness among Gondwanan Angiosperm floras can now be traced back almost 90 million years into the fiery Cretaceous. The associated evolution of on-plant (serotiny and soil seed storage, and later ant dispersal, affirms them as ancient adaptations to fire among flowering plants.

  16. The Effect of Chronic Alcoholism on the Conjunctival Flora.

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    Gunduz, Göksel; Gunduz, Abuzer; Polat, Nihat; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Yakupogulları, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of alcohol abuse on the conjunctival flora. The cases were evaluated as two groups. The study group consisted of 55 heavy-drinking males diagnosed with alcohol abuse, while the control group consisted of 55 males without a history of alcohol abuse. Samples were taken from the inferior fornix conjunctiva with sterile cotton-tipped swabs (Amies transport medium) for culture. The samples were inoculated into blood agar, chocolate agar, eosine methylene blue agar and Saboraud-Dextrose agar (Oxoid/UK) with the dilution method. The microorganisms that grew in study group subjects were Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CNS) in 30 (54.5%), Staphylococcus aureus in 14 (25.5%), Moraxella spp. in 3 (5.5%), Streptococcus spp. in 3 (5.5), Bacillus spp. in 3 (5.5%), Corynebacterium spp. in 3 (5.5%), Candida spp. in 3 (5.5%), Haemophilus spp. in 2 (3.6%), Acinetobacter spp. in 2 (3.6%), Neisseria spp. in 1 (1.8%) and Micrococcus spp. in 1 (1.8%). The results for control group were CNS in 31 (56.4%), Bacillus spp. in 7 (12.7%), S. aureus in 5 (9.1%), and Corynebacterium spp. in 2 (3.6%). Moraxella spp., Streptococcus spp., Candida spp., Haemophilus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Neisseria spp. and Micrococcus spp. microorganisms grew in the conjunctival flora samples of the study group but not in the control group. S. aureus colonization was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (p chronic alcoholism is different than the normal population.

  17. Strong indication of an extinction-based saturation of the flora on the Pacific Robinson Crusoe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greimler, Josef; Schulze, Christian H; López Sepúlveda, Patricio; Novoa, Patricio; Gatica, Alejandro; Reiter, Karl; Wessely, Johannes; Baeza, Carlos; Peñailillo, Patricio; Ruiz, Eduardo; Stuessy, Tod

    2018-03-01

    Oceanic islands are vulnerable ecosystems and their flora has been under pressure since the arrival of the first humans. Human activities and both deliberately and inadvertently introduced biota have had and continue to have a severe impact on island endemic plants. The number of alien plants has increased nearly linearly on many islands, perhaps resulting in extinction-based saturation of island floras. Here, we provide evidence for such a scenario in Alejandro Selkirk, Robinson Crusoe Islands (Archipelago Juan Fernández, Chile). We compared species richness and species composition of historical vegetation samples from 1917 with recent ones from 2011. Changes in species' relative occurrence frequency were related to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode, distribution status, and humidity and temperature preferences. While total species richness of vascular plants remained relatively similar, species composition changed significantly. Plants endemic to the Robinson Crusoe Islands declined, exotic species increased substantially within the period of ca. 100 years. Further, the relative occurrence frequency of plants with preferences for very warm and humid climate decreased, while the opposite was found for plants preferring drier and colder environments. Potential drivers responsible for this dramatic shift in the vegetation within only one century might have been the large goat population affecting especially small populations of endemic plants and climatic changes. Taking into account a substantial extinction debt, we expect further shifts in the vegetation of this small oceanic island toward alien plants. This would have significant negative consequences on global biodiversity, considering that island floras contribute substantially to global plant species richness due to their high proportion of endemics.

  18. Both Hypo-Connectivity and Hyper-Connectivity of the Insular Subregions Associated With Severity in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Jinping Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Some studies identified hypo-connectivity, while others showed hyper-connectivity of the insula in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD. These contradictory findings leave open the question of whether and to what extent functional connectivity of the insula is altered and how functional connectivity of the insula is associated with the severity of ASD. A newly emerging insular atlas that comprises multiple functionally differentiated subregions provides a new framework to interpret the functional significance of insular findings and uncover the mechanisms underlying the severity of ASD. Using the new insular atlas, the present study aimed to investigate the distinct functional connectivity of the insular subregions and their associations with ASD severity in a cohort of 49 children with ASD and 33 typically developing (TD subjects. We found that compared with TD group, the ASD group showed different connectivity patterns in the left ventral agranular insula, right ventral dysgranular and granular insula, and dorsal dysgranular insula, characterized by significant hyper-connectivity and/or hypo-connectivity with special brain regions. Furthermore, both the hypo-connectivity and hyper-connectivity patterns of the insular subregions were significantly associated with the severity of ASD symptoms. Our research demonstrated distinct functional connectivity patterns of the insular subregions and emphasized the importance of the subdivisions within the insula to the potential impact of functional difference in children with ASD. Moreover, these results might help us to better understand the mechanisms underlying the symptoms in children with ASD and might elucidate potential biomarkers for clinical applications.

  19. Gustatory imagery reveals functional connectivity from the prefrontal to insular cortices traced with magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masayuki; Sasabe, Tetsuya; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Our experience and prejudice concerning food play an important role in modulating gustatory information processing; gustatory memory stored in the central nervous system influences gustatory information arising from the peripheral nervous system. We have elucidated the mechanism of the "top-down" modulation of taste perception in humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and demonstrated that gustatory imagery is mediated by the prefrontal (PFC) and insular cortices (IC). However, the temporal order of activation of these brain regions during gustatory imagery is still an open issue. To explore the source of "top-down" signals during gustatory imagery tasks, we analyzed the temporal activation patterns of activated regions in the cerebral cortex using another non-invasive brain imaging technique, magnetoencephalography (MEG). Gustatory imagery tasks were presented by words (Letter G-V) or pictures (Picture G-V) of foods/beverages, and participants were requested to recall their taste. In the Letter G-V session, 7/9 (77.8%) participants showed activation in the IC with a latency of 401.7±34.7 ms (n = 7) from the onset of word exhibition. In 5/7 (71.4%) participants who exhibited IC activation, the PFC was activated prior to the IC at a latency of 315.2±56.5 ms (n = 5), which was significantly shorter than the latency to the IC activation. In the Picture G-V session, the IC was activated in 6/9 (66.7%) participants, and only 1/9 (11.1%) participants showed activation in the PFC. There was no significant dominance between the right and left IC or PFC during gustatory imagery. These results support those from our previous fMRI study in that the Letter G-V session rather than the Picture G-V session effectively activates the PFC and IC and strengthen the hypothesis that the PFC mediates "top-down" control of retrieving gustatory information from the storage of long-term memories and in turn activates the IC.

  20. Gustatory imagery reveals functional connectivity from the prefrontal to insular cortices traced with magnetoencephalography.

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    Masayuki Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Our experience and prejudice concerning food play an important role in modulating gustatory information processing; gustatory memory stored in the central nervous system influences gustatory information arising from the peripheral nervous system. We have elucidated the mechanism of the "top-down" modulation of taste perception in humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and demonstrated that gustatory imagery is mediated by the prefrontal (PFC and insular cortices (IC. However, the temporal order of activation of these brain regions during gustatory imagery is still an open issue. To explore the source of "top-down" signals during gustatory imagery tasks, we analyzed the temporal activation patterns of activated regions in the cerebral cortex using another non-invasive brain imaging technique, magnetoencephalography (MEG. Gustatory imagery tasks were presented by words (Letter G-V or pictures (Picture G-V of foods/beverages, and participants were requested to recall their taste. In the Letter G-V session, 7/9 (77.8% participants showed activation in the IC with a latency of 401.7±34.7 ms (n = 7 from the onset of word exhibition. In 5/7 (71.4% participants who exhibited IC activation, the PFC was activated prior to the IC at a latency of 315.2±56.5 ms (n = 5, which was significantly shorter than the latency to the IC activation. In the Picture G-V session, the IC was activated in 6/9 (66.7% participants, and only 1/9 (11.1% participants showed activation in the PFC. There was no significant dominance between the right and left IC or PFC during gustatory imagery. These results support those from our previous fMRI study in that the Letter G-V session rather than the Picture G-V session effectively activates the PFC and IC and strengthen the hypothesis that the PFC mediates "top-down" control of retrieving gustatory information from the storage of long-term memories and in turn activates the IC.

  1. Rapid and repeated origin of insular gigantism and dwarfism in Australian tiger snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, J Scott; Scott, Ian A W; Hayes, Christine

    2005-01-01

    It is a well-known phenomenon that islands can support populations of gigantic or dwarf forms of mainland conspecifics, but the variety of explanatory hypotheses for this phenomenon have been difficult to disentangle. The highly venomous Australian tiger snakes (genus Notechis) represent a well-known and extreme example of insular body size variation. They are of special interest because there are multiple populations of dwarfs and giants and the age of the islands and thus the age of the tiger snake populations are known from detailed sea level studies. Most are 5000-7000 years old and all are less than 10,000 years old. Here we discriminate between two competing hypotheses with a molecular phylogeography dataset comprising approximately 4800 bp of mtDNA and demonstrate that populations of island dwarfs and giants have evolved five times independently. In each case the closest relatives of the giant or dwarf populations are mainland tiger snakes, and in four of the five cases, the closest relatives are also the most geographically proximate mainland tiger snakes. Moreover, these body size shifts have evolved extremely rapidly and this is reflected in the genetic divergence between island body size variants and mainland snakes. Within south eastern Australia, where populations of island giants, populations of island dwarfs, and mainland tiger snakes all occur, the maximum genetic divergence is only 0.38%. Dwarf tiger snakes are restricted to prey items that are much smaller than the prey items of mainland tiger snakes and giant tiger snakes are restricted to seasonally available prey items that are up three times larger than the prey items of mainland tiger snakes. We support the hypotheses that these body size shifts are due to strong selection imposed by the size of available prey items, rather than shared evolutionary history, and our results are consistent with the notion that adaptive plasticity also has played an important role in body size shifts. We suggest

  2. Flora planctónica de laguna Lagartos, Quintana Roo Planktonic flora from Lagartos Lagoon, Quintana Roo

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    Viridiana Margarita Nava-Ruiz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de la flora planctónica de la laguna Lagartos, basada en la observación de muestras superficiales obtenidas entre noviembre de 2007 a septiembre de 2008. Las muestras se recolectaron con una botella Van Dorn de 2 litros en la parte central de la laguna; se registraron 67 taxa: 28 Bacillariophyta, 22 Cyanoprokaryota, 7 Chlorophyta, 6 Dinoflagellata, 2 Euglenophyta y 2 Cryptophyta. Las cianofitas dominaron durante todo el periodo de estudio, con una contribución mayor al 80% de la abundancia total del fitoplancton. Son nuevos registros para México 13 especies: Chroococcus pulcherrimus, Coelosphaerium confertum, Cyanodyction iac, Phormidium pachydermaticum, Planktolyngbya contorta, Rhodomonas minuta, Amphidinium massartii, Ensiculifera cf. loeblichii, Heterocapsa cf. pseudotriquetra, Prorocentrum cassubicum, Licmophora normaniana, Fistulifera saprophila y Amphora richardiana. Todos los taxa listados se ilustran con microfotografías.The planktonic flora from Lagartos Lagoon, Quintana Roo, was examined based on the observation of samples collected from November 2007 to September 2008. The superficial samples were collected with a Van Dorn bottle of 2 L, in the core part of the lagoon. A total of 67 taxa were identified: 28 Bacillariophyta, 22 Cyanoprokaryota, 7 Chlorophyta, 6 Dinoflagellata, 2 Euglenophyta and 2 Cryptophyta. Nevertheless, the blue green algae dominated during all study period, with more of 80% to the total abundance of the phytoplankton. The species Chroococcus pulcherrimus, Coelosphaerium confertum, Cyanodyction iac, Phormidium pachydermaticum, Planktolyngbya contorta, Rhodomonas minuta, Amphidinium massartii, Ensiculifera cf. loeblichii, Heterocapsa cf. pseudotriquetra, Prorocentrum cassubicum, Licmophora normaniana, Fistulifera saprophila and Amphora richardiana were recorded for the first time in Mexico. All the taxa are illustrated with microphotographs.

  3. Intersectional gene flow between insular endemics of Ilex (Aquifoliaceae) on the Bonin Islands and the Ryukyu Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoguchi, H; Watanabe, I

    2000-06-01

    Hybridization and introgression play important roles in plant evolution, and their occurrence on the oceanic islands provides good examples of plant speciation and diversification. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and trnL (UAA) 3'exon-trnF (GAA) intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), and the sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were examined to investigate the occurrence of gene transfer in Ilex species on the Bonin Islands and the Ryukyu Islands in Japan. A gene phylogeny for the plastid genome is in agreement with the morphologically based taxonomy, whereas the nuclear genome phylogeny clusters putatively unrelated endemics both on the Bonin and the Ryukyu Islands. Intersectional hybridization and nuclear gene flow were independently observed in insular endemics of Ilex on both sets of islands without evidence of plastid introgression. Gene flow observed in these island systems can be explained by ecological features of insular endemics, i.e., limits of distribution range or sympatric distribution in a small land area.

  4. Spatial distribution and environmental analysis of the alpine flora in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gómez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the digital edition of the “Atlas of the vascular flora of the Pyrenees” (www.florapyrenaea. org, the alpine flora of this mountain range is delimited in order to know its diversity and the different patterns of its spatial distribution, along with some other environmental characteristics. The Pyrenean alpine flora is made up of 645 taxa (630 species and 15 subspecies. All the administrative regions harbour more than 60% of the alpine plants, with Catalonia and Aragon reaching the highest values (around 90%. Along the altitudinal gradient, the highest plant diversity is found between 2300 and 2600 m. a. s. l., although 25% of the total alpine flora goes beyond 3000 m. On the other hand, a remarkable number of alpine plants live in the lowlands, and thus more than 300 alpine plants can be found below 1500 m. The average altitude range of the alpine plants is 1369 m, 300 m wider than that observed for the whole Pyrenean flora. Life-forms, habitat distribution and habitat naturalness of alpine plants are significantly different from those of the whole Pyrenean flora. Distribution of abundance categories also shows values of rarity significantly lower among alpine plants than for the whole flora. More than half the Pyrenean endemic plants are present in the alpine flora. High diversity and wide ecological amplitude of the alpine flora must be taken into account either when considering vulnerability of alpine plants facing “global change” or when addressing conservation policies for the whole Pyrenees from a common perspective.

  5. Effect of septoplasty and per-operative antibiotic prophylaxis on nasal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, E; Alimoglu, Y; Aygun, G; Kilic, E; Yagiz, C

    2012-01-01

    Septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed procedures in otolaryngology practice. Prophylactic use of antibiotics is controversial. Disruption of nasal flora may predispose individuals to infection. We investigated the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis and septoplasty on nasal flora. We included 115 consecutive patients who underwent septoplasty because of symptomatic nasal septal deviation. Patients were divided into study and control groups. Study patients received prophylactic parenteral sodium cefazoline twice a day beginning intra-operatively and while the nasal packing remained in the nose for 48 h, and expandable polyvinyl acetate (Merocel) packing covered with antibiotic ointment containing 0.2% nitrofurazone was inserted into each nostril at the end of the operation. Control patients received neither parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis nor antibiotic ointment around the Merocel packs. Both groups received oral prophylactic cefuroxime axetil for 5 d after nasal packing was removed. Nasal flora was determined pre-operatively, post-operatively when nasal packing was removed, and 3 mo after surgery. Study patients were compared to control patients at pack removal and 1 mo after surgery The effect of antibiotic use in septoplasty on nasal flora was as follows: Increased isolation rate of gram-positive rods (p = 0.007), decreased methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci (p = 0.002). Pre-operative and post-operative culture results at 3 mo were compared. The effect of septoplasty on nasal flora was as follows: Decreased coagulase-negative staphylococci (p = 0.05), decreased Klebsiella (p flora. Antibiotics do not protect against S. aureus colonization and contribute to a decrease in normal flora. Antibiotics do not seem to confer benefit in terms of flora changes. Studies investigating flora changes with a longer follow-up should be conducted.

  6. Changes in human gut flora with age: an Indian familial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nachiket; Shetty, Sudarshan; Lanjekar, Vikram; Ranade, Dilip; Shouche, Yogesh

    2012-09-26

    The gut micro flora plays vital role in health status of the host. The majority of microbes residing in the gut have a profound influence on human physiology and nutrition. Different human ethnic groups vary in genetic makeup as well as the environmental conditions they live in. The gut flora changes with genetic makeup and environmental factors and hence it is necessary to understand the composition of gut flora of different ethnic groups. Indian population is different in physiology from western population (YY paradox) and thus the gut flora in Indian population is likely to differ from the extensively studied gut flora in western population. In this study we have investigated the gut flora of two Indian families, each with three individuals belonging to successive generations and living under the same roof. Denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed age-dependant variation in gut microflora amongst the individuals within a family. Different bacterial genera were dominant in the individual of varying age in clone library analysis. Obligate anaerobes isolated from individuals within a family showed age related differences in isolation pattern, with 27% (6 out of 22) of the isolates being potential novel species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. In qPCR a consistent decrease in Firmicutes number and increase in Bacteroidetes number with increasing age was observed in our subjects, this pattern of change in Firmicutes / Bacteroidetes ratio with age is different than previously reported in European population. There is change in gut flora with age amongst the individuals within a family. The isolation of high percent of novel bacterial species and the pattern of change in Firmicutes /Bacteroidetes ratio with age suggests that the composition of gut flora in Indian individuals may be different than the western population. Thus, further extensive study is needed to define the gut flora in Indian population.

  7. Floristic response to urbanization: Filtering of the bioregional flora in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Rebecca W; Aronson, Myla F J; Hipp, Andrew L

    2017-08-09

    Globally, urban plant populations are becoming increasingly important, as these plants play a vital role in ameliorating effects of ecosystem disturbance and climate change. Urban environments act as filters to bioregional flora, presenting survival challenges to spontaneous plants. Yet, because of the paucity of inventory data on plants in landscapes both before and after urbanization, few studies have directly investigated this effect of urbanization. We used historical, contemporary, and regional plant species inventories for Indianapolis, Indiana USA to evaluate how urbanization filters the bioregional flora based on species diversity, functional traits, and phylogenetic community structure. Approximately 60% of the current regional flora was represented in the Indianapolis flora, both historically and presently. Native species that survived over time were significantly different in growth form, life form, and dispersal and pollination modes than those that were extirpated. Phylogenetically, the historical flora represented a random sample of the regional flora, while the current urban flora represented a nonrandom sample. Both graminoid habit and abiotic pollination are significantly more phylogenetically conserved than expected. Our results likely reflect the shift from agricultural cover to built environment, coupled with the influence of human preference, in shaping the current urban flora of Indianapolis. Based on our analyses, the urban environment of Indianapolis does filter the bioregional species pool. To the extent that these filters are shared by other cities and operate similarly, we may see increasingly homogenized urban floras across regions, with concurrent loss of evolutionary information. © 2017 Dolan et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).

  8. Vegetation and flora of short-rotation willow stands from a conservation viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, L.

    1986-01-01

    The energy forests were studied using random 0.5 x 0.5 m quadrats in which cover for field- and bottom-layer species was recorded in a percentage scale. The data were analysed using various multivariate methods. The vegetation and flora of twelve coppices in southern Sweden were investigated. Also the succession during the establishment phase on a meadow on the west coast and on a peat bog in the east-central part of the country was studied. Moreover, the impact on fen vegetation downstream of an energy forest on a peat bog was investigated. The flora and vegetation of energy forests is dominated by common ruderal species like Cirsium arvense, Galeopsis tetrahit and Urtica dioica. Uncommon species from woodland and fen habitats are only occasionally found. The field layer of energy forests shows a clear seasonality with maximal cover in July. The species number and the composition of vegetation vary greatly between the coppices and is largely determined by the management system. Intense cultivation including fertilization and the use of herbicides depletes the flora. Long rotation times decrease both species diversity and the field-layer cover. Uncommon species are mostly found in old coppices, which also often have a rich spring flora. A change in flora and vegetation occurs when an energy forest is established. The change is great and the time needed for stabilization of the energy forest flora is long when the original flora is dissimilar to the coppice flora. Willow coppices can increase habitat diversity in regions dominated by coniferous forests or in large-scale agricultural areas. Structural heterogeneity of a stand promotes diversity of the flora. Such heterogeneity can be created if a stand is composed of a variety of willow clones, if it is harvested at intervals, contains gaps, open ditches and is surrounded by edge zones of various types.

  9. Impact of Qi-invigorating traditional Chinese medicines on intestinal flora: A basis for rational choice of prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Meng; Li, Xiao-Bo; Peng, Ying

    2017-04-01

    According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Qi (vital energy) is regarded as a driving force of biological activities in human body, including both nutrient substances and organ functions. Qi-invigorating TCMs are widely used to treat various symptoms and disorders, such as fatigue, obesity, immunosuppression, intestinal flora imbalance, and gastrointestinal diseases, in which Qi is considered to be reduced or depleted. Interestingly, abundant clinical evidences suggest that these disorders are associated with the alternation of intestinal flora, which directly affects disease status. Herein we review the interaction between gut microbiota and Qi-invigorating TCMs under healthy and disease conditions and discuss the mechanisms of action and applications of Qi-invigorating TCMs in enhancing health status through microbial alternation. A better understanding of the role of Qi-invigorating TCMs in modulating microbial composition and the association between intestinal microbiota and diseases would help reveal the clinical consequences of microbiota alteration and explore opportunities to harness this symbiotic relationship to improve public health. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathogenic Gut Flora in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Evasio; Aquilani, Roberto; Testa, Cristian; Baiardi, Paola; Angioletti, Stefania; Boschi, Federica; Verri, Manuela; Dioguardi, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to measure the presence of pathogenic gut flora and intestinal permeability (IP) and their correlations with disease severity, venous blood congestion, and inflammation in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Evidence suggests that translocation of gut flora and/or their toxins from the intestine to the bloodstream is a possible trigger of systemic CHF inflammation. However, the relation between pathogenic gut flora and CHF severity, as well as IP, venous blood congestion as right atrial pressure (RAP), and/or systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]), is still unknown. This study analyzed 60 well-nourished patients in stable condition with mild CHF (New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class I to II; n = 30) and moderate to severe CHF (NYHA functional class III to IV; n = 30) and matched healthy control subjects (n = 20). In all subjects, the presence and development in the feces of bacteria and fungi (Candida species) were measured; IP according to cellobiose sugar test results was documented. The study data were then correlated with RAP (echocardiography) and systemic inflammation. Compared with normal control subjects, the entire CHF population had massive quantities of pathogenic bacteria and Candida such as Campylobacter (85.3 ± 3.7 CFU/ml vs. 1.0 ± 0.3 CFU/ml; p < 0.001), Shigella (38.9 ± 12.3 CFU/ml vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 CFU/ml; p < 0.001), Salmonella (31.3 ± 9.1 CFU/ml vs 0 CFU/ml; p < 0.001), Yersinia enterocolitica (22.9 ± 6.3 CFU/ml vs. 0 CFU/ml; p < 0.0001), and Candida species (21.3 ± 1.6 CFU/ml vs. 0.8 ± 0.4 CFU/ml; p < 0.001); altered IP (10.2 ± 1.2 mg vs. 1.5 ± 0.8 mg; p < 0.001); and increased RAP (12.6 ± 0.6 mm Hg) and inflammation (12.5 ± 0.6 mg/dl). These variables were more pronounced in patients with moderate to severe NYHA functional classes than in patients with the mild NYHA functional class. Notably, IP, RAP, and CRP were mutually interrelated (IP vs. RAP, r = 0.55; p < 0.0001; IP vs

  11. GABA-Mediated Inactivation of Medial Prefrontal and Agranular Insular Cortex in the Rat: Contrasting Effects on Hunger- and Palatability-Driven Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A; Spencer, Robert C; Sadeghian, Ken; Mena, Jesus D

    2016-03-01

    A microanalysis of hunger-driven and palatability-driven feeding was carried out after muscimol-mediated inactivation of two frontal regions in rats, the agranular/dysgranular insular cortex (AIC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Food and water intake, feeding microstructure, and general motor activity were measured under two motivational conditions: food-deprived rats given standard chow or ad libitum-fed rats given a palatable chocolate shake. Muscimol infusions into the AIC diminished intake, total feeding duration, and average feeding bout duration for the palatable-food condition only but failed to alter exploratory-like behavior (ambulation or rearing). In contrast, intra-vmPFC muscimol infusions did not alter the overall intake of chow or chocolate shake. However, these infusions markedly increased mean feeding bout duration for both food types and produced a modest but significant reduction of exploratory-like behavior. The lengthening of feeding-bout duration and reduction in rearing were mimicked by intra-vmPFC blockade of AMPA-type but not NMDA-type glutamate receptors. Neither water consumption nor the microstructure of water drinking was affected by inactivation of either site. These results indicate a regional heterogeneity in frontal control of feeding behavior. Neural processing in AIC supports palatability-driven feeding but is not necessary for intake of a standard food under a food-restriction condition, whereas ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and AMPA signaling therein, modulates the duration of individual feeding bouts regardless of motivational context. Results are discussed in the context of regionally heterogeneous frontal modulation of two distinct components of feeding behavior: reward valuation based upon taste perception (AIC) vs switching between ingestive and non-ingestive (eg, exploratory-like) behavioral repertoires (vmPFC).

  12. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

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    Suto C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikako Suto1,2, Masahiro Morinaga1,2, Tomoko Yagi1,2, Chieko Tsuji3, Hiroshi Toshida41Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanObjective: To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery.Subjects and methods: The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis.Results: The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%, among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%, followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%. All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7% were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%, the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%. The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or

  13. Alien flora of Turkey: checklist, taxonomic composition and ecological attributes

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    Ahmet Uludag

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an updated checklist of the alien flora of Turkey with information on its structure. The alien flora of Turkey comprises 340 taxa, among which there are 321 angiosperms, 17 gymnosperms and two ferns. Of the total number of taxa, 228 (68% are naturalized and 112 (32% are casual. There are 275 neophytes (172 naturalized and 103 casual and 61 archaeophytes (52 naturalized and 9 casual; four species could not be classified with respect to the residence time. In addition, 47 frequently planted taxa with a potential to escape are also listed. The richest families are Asteraceae (38 taxa, Poaceae (30, Fabaceae (23 and Solanaceae (22. As for the naturalized alien plants, the highest species richness is found in Asteraceae (31 taxa, Poaceae (22, Amaranthaceae (18 and Solanaceae (15. The majority of alien taxa are perennial (63.8% of the total number of taxa with this life history assigned, including those with multiple life histories, annuals contribute 33.8% and 2.4% are biennial aliens. Among perennials the most common life forms are phanerophytes, of which 20.3% are trees and 12.6% shrubs; woody vines, stem succulents, and aquatic plants are comparatively less represented. Most of the 340 alien taxa introduced to Turkey have their native ranges in Americas (44.7% and Asia (27.6%. Of other regions, 9.1% originated in Africa, 4.4% in Eurasia, 3.8% in Australia and Oceania and 3.5% in the Mediterranean. The majority of taxa (71.9% were introduced intentionally, whereas the remaining (28.1% were introduced accidentally. Among the taxa introduced intentionally, the vast majority are ornamental plants (55.2%, 10.0% taxa were introduced for forestry and 6.7% as crops. Casual alien plants are most commonly found in urban and ruderal habitats (40.1% where naturalized taxa are also often recorded (27.3%. Plants that occur as agricultural weeds are typically naturalized rather than casual (16.0% vs 7.1%, respectively. However, (seminatural

  14. Flora and fauna of Thummalapalle uranium mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullaiah, T.

    2012-01-01

    Thummalapalle Uranium Mining site is located near Thummalapalle village in Vemula mandal, Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh. Flora and faunal study was carried out in the area 30 km radius from the mining site, covering an area of 2828 Km 2 , during 2009-2012. The geographical coordinates of the centre point are NL 14° 19 min 59.3 sec and EL 78° 15 min 18.2 sec. Altitude of the study area ranges from 198 to 875 m above MSL. Scrub type of forest is dominant in the core zone followed by waste lands and agriculture lands. Buffer zone I and II also are dominated by scrub forest except a small patch at the North West corner where degraded dry deciduous forest is seen. A total of 859 plant taxa comprising 474 genera and 120 families were identified. Of the 859 taxa, 768 are Angiosperms, 9 Pteridophytes, 25 Bryophytes, 44 Algae and 14 Lichens. A total of 49 endemic taxa (2 strictly Andhra Pradesh, 5 to Eastern Ghats and 43 from Peninsular India) have been recorded. Albizia thompsonii and Ceropegia spiralis, rare taxa, have been recorded in the study area and these two species are distributed throughout peninsular India. Quadrat analysis revealed that Heteropogon contortus, Catunaregum spinosa, Asparagus racemosus and Croton scabiosus are the dominant in herbs, shrubs, climbers and trees respectively. A total of 419 animal species belonging to 358 genera and 178 families have been recorded in the Thummalapalle Uranium Mining Area. A total of nine endemic animal species have been recorded. Golden Gecko (Calodactylodes aureus) which is endemic to Eastern Ghats is recorded in Buffer zone 1. Fejervarya caperata is a new record to Andhra Pradesh, which was earlier reported from Western Ghats. An analysis of the flora reveals interesting features. Orchidaceae which is the second largest family in India is only one species represented in Thummalapalle Uranium Mining Area as it is evident that the growth and development of Orchids in open dry deciduous and scrub forests are

  15. Artículos humanísticos en Flora Montiberica (1-50 [Humanistic articles in Flora Montiberica (1-50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María de Jaime Lorén

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Realizamos un breve estudio de los artículos de carácter histórico y humanístico publicados en los cincuenta primeros números de la revista Flora Montiberica, que demuestra notable el interés de la misma por estos temas. También la especialización de ciertos colaboradores, así como el atractivo que para muchos botánicos tienen los aspectos históricos relacionados con la ciencia que estudian. Summary: Humanistic articles in Flora Montiberica (1-50. We´ve carried out a brief study about the articles of historical and humanistic nature published in the first fifty numbers of the journal Flora Montiberica, this one demonstrates significant interest on these issues. Also the specialization of certain contributors, as well as the charm it have for many botanists the historical aspects related to the science they study.

  16. Geographical constraints are stronger than invasion patterns for European urban floras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricotta, C.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Kühn, I.; Rapson, G.; Pyšek, Petr; La Sorte, F. A.; Thompson, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-6, e85661 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : urban floras * plant invasions * Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  17. [An analysis of the DNA fingerprinting of intestinal flora in inflammatory bowel disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-mei; Han, Ying; Wang, Ji-heng; Wang, Zhi-hong

    2007-02-01

    DNA fingerprinting for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and healthy subjects was carried out to compare the difference of intestinal flora between the two groups. DNA fingerprinting for IBD patients and healthy persons was set up with enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR) technology and the difference of intestinal flora between the two groups compared. DNA fingerprinting of the IBD patients and healthy subjects was identified and a significant difference was noticed between them. There were lots of bands in the DNA fingerprinting of the healthy subjects but few in that of the IBD patients. Strikingly, same distribution of the principal band of DNA fingerprinting was noticed in IBD patients. The variety of intestinal flora in healthy subjects is more apparent than that in IBD patients. An unique principal band might be the sequence of the presence of specific etiopathogenetic bacterium, or it might be the combined sequence of mixed bacterial flora.

  18. Composition and palaeogeographic position of the Early Permian Jambi flora from Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waveren, van I.M.; Iskandar, E.A.P.; Booi, M.; Konijnenburg-van Cittert, van J.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary taxonomic revision of the Early Permian Jambi flora results in a lower number of taxa, a number of new determinations and several new combinations (Dicranophyllum molle (Jongmans & Gothan) comb. nov., Oligocarpia posthumii (Jongmans & Gothan) nov. comb., Callipteridium strictinervis

  19. THE ANALYSIS OF THE VASCULAR FLORA FROM THE NATURAL PARK VÂNATORI – NEAMT

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    DARABAN MIHAELA

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the flora from The Natural Park Vânatori – Neamt, in the aspect of the participation of different life - form categoriers, floristic elements and ecological indices.

  20. Microprocessor system for data acquisition and processing for the Flora device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    ''VEhFORMIKA'' microprocessor system for data collection and processing when conducting experiments at the ''Flora'' device is described, its application is grounded. The complex allows one to conduct investigations using multichannel methods and exercise the device electrophysical control

  1. Analysis of the biological spectrum of vascular flora of Ravni Srem flood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurišić Branislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential analyses performed during the floristic study of a region is the analysis of the biological spectrum. The analysis of the biological spectrum of the flora includes the determination of the type of life form for each taxon described in the flora of the study region. If it is considered that life form is a specific structural-functional response to the environmental effects and the result of the adaptation during the species evolution, it is clear that the basic characteristics of the site are more or less reflected in any life form. This fact is confirmed by the analysis of the biological spectrum of the flora of Ravni Srem. The analysis of the Ravni Srem flora shows the domination of the hemicryptophytes and the subdomination of the phanerophytes with a considerable participation of the therophytes.

  2. Atoll mangroves and associated flora from Republic of Maldives, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    of the north atolls. Male' atoll was totally devoid of mangroves due to their large scale reclamation mainly for urbanisation and tourism. Mangrove flora comprised of 12 species and was dominated by Bruguiera cylindrica followed by Lumnitzera racemosa, Ceriops...

  3. Flora and vegetation of walls in the town of Krosno Odrzanskie (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratynskji, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The flora and vegctation of walls in Krosno Odrzanskie (West Poland is described based on field research conducted in 1999 and 2000. The vascular flora consists of 96 species from 35 families. Predomination of apophytes and plants capable of vegetation propagation was obscrved. i> Asplenietum trichomano-rutae-murariae and Cymbalarietum murales are reported for the first time from this region of Poland.

    A partir del trabajo de campo realizado entre 1999 y el 2000 se describe la flora y la vegetación de las paredes en Krosno Odazanskie (Polonia Occidental. 96 especies de 35 familias constituyen la flora vascular. Predominan los apófilos y plantas capaces de reproducirse vegetativamente. Las asociaciones Asplenietum trichomano-rutae-murariae y Cymbalarietum murales se citan por vez primera para esta región de Polonia.

  4. Studies on mangrove swamps of Goa 1. Heterotrophic bacterial flora from mangrove swamps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P; Mathani, S; Mavinkurve, S

    Heterotrophic bacterial flora from the mangrove swamps of Goa consisted of physiologically active organisms exhibiting cellulolytic, pectinolytic, amylolytic, proteolytic and H2S forming activities, throughout the year. Coryneform and Bacillus were...

  5. Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

  6. Preslia: hundred years of exploring central-European flora and vegetation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Kaplan, Zdeněk; Chytrý, M.; Hrouda, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-11 ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : central Europe * botanical research * flora and vegetation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.104, year: 2014

  7. New insights on .i.Paludotona./i., an insular endemic lagomorph (Mammalia) from the Tusco-Sardinian Palaeoprovince (Italy, Turolian, Late Miocene)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angelone, Ch.; Čermák, Stanislav; Rook, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 3 (2017), s. 455-473 ISSN 0035-6883 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Paludotona minor n. sp. * Paludotona etruria * taxonomy * evolution * insular endemism * palaeobiogeography * MN11–12 Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 0.851, year: 2016 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/9082

  8. Medicaid and CHIP: Opportunities Exist to Improve U.S. Insular Area Demographic Data That Could Be Used to Help Determine Federal Funding. GAO-09-558R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Linda T.

    2009-01-01

    The five largest insular areas of the United States--American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands--receive federal funding through Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), joint federal-state programs that finance health care for certain low-income…

  9. 19 CFR 7.3 - Duty-free treatment of goods imported from insular possessions of the United States other than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSULAR POSSESSIONS AND GUANTANAMO BAY NAVAL STATION § 7.3 Duty-free treatment of goods imported from...) The goods became a new and different article of commerce as a result of production or manufacture... possession or the United States results from the original commercial transaction between the importer and the...

  10. Memory Trace Reactivation and Behavioral Response during Retrieval Are Differentially Modulated by Amygdalar Glutamate Receptors Activity: Interaction between Amygdala and Insular Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Gómez, Daniel; Guzmán-Ramos, Kioko; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2017-01-01

    The insular cortex (IC) is required for conditioned taste aversion (CTA) retrieval. However, it remains unknown which cortical neurotransmitters levels are modified upon CTA retrieval. Using in vivo microdialysis, we observed that there were clear elevations in extracellular glutamate, norepinephrine, and dopamine in and around the center of the…

  11. Effects of Prolonged Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Gluco-Insular Regulation: The Not-So-Sweet Price for Good Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siervo, Mario; Riley, Heather L.; Fernandez, Bernadette O.; Leckstrom, Carl A.; Martin, Daniel S.; Mitchell, Kay; Levett, Denny Z. H.; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Mythen, Monty G.; Grocott, Michael P. W.; Feelisch, Martin; Ahuja, V.; Aref-Adib, G.; Burnham, R.; Chisholm, A.; Clarke, K.; Coates, D.; Coates, M.; Cook, D.; Cox, M.; Dhillon, S.; Dougall, C.; Doyle, P.; Duncan, P.; Edsell, M.; Edwards, L.; Evans, L.; Gardiner, P.; Grocott, M.; Gunning, P.; Hart, N.; Harrington, J.; Harvey, J.; Holloway, C.; Howard, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Imray, C.; Ince, C.; Jonas, M.; van der Kaaij, J.; Khosravi, M.; Kolfschoten, N.; Levett, D.; Luery, H.; Luks, A.; Martin, D.; McMorrow, R.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Montgomery, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The mechanisms by which low oxygen availability are associated with the development of insulin resistance remain obscure. We thus investigated the relationship between such gluco-insular derangements in response to sustained (hypobaric) hypoxemia, and changes in biomarkers of oxidative

  12. Preserving the evolutionary potential of floras in biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Félix; Grenyer, Richard; Rouget, Mathieu; Davies, T Jonathan; Cowling, Richard M; Faith, Daniel P; Balmford, Andrew; Manning, John C; Procheş, Serban; van der Bank, Michelle; Reeves, Gail; Hedderson, Terry A J; Savolainen, Vincent

    2007-02-15

    One of the biggest challenges for conservation biology is to provide conservation planners with ways to prioritize effort. Much attention has been focused on biodiversity hotspots. However, the conservation of evolutionary process is now also acknowledged as a priority in the face of global change. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a biodiversity index that measures the length of evolutionary pathways that connect a given set of taxa. PD therefore identifies sets of taxa that maximize the accumulation of 'feature diversity'. Recent studies, however, concluded that taxon richness is a good surrogate for PD. Here we show taxon richness to be decoupled from PD, using a biome-wide phylogenetic analysis of the flora of an undisputed biodiversity hotspot--the Cape of South Africa. We demonstrate that this decoupling has real-world importance for conservation planning. Finally, using a database of medicinal and economic plant use, we demonstrate that PD protection is the best strategy for preserving feature diversity in the Cape. We should be able to use PD to identify those key regions that maximize future options, both for the continuing evolution of life on Earth and for the benefit of society.

  13. Changes in the lichen flora following air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skye, E; Hallberg, I

    1969-01-01

    The lichen flora on tree trunks around a shale oil works in southern Sweden has been analyzed with regard to composition and distribution on two different occasions, in 1951/1953 and in 1967/1969. Changes in the distribution have been observed and are regarded as being due to the increase of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere which took place in the area up to 1966, and which resulted in the substrate becoming more and more acid. The changes consist partly of the continued disappearance from the investigated area of lichens which normally grow on moderately acid to nearly neutral substrate and partly in the new colonization of the investigated area by a group of species which normally grow on acid bark. After 1966 the biggest source of pollution was removed from the area and in the summer of 1967 some signs of recovery could be already observed with regard to certain species. This recovery took the form of strong lobe growth leading to a definite difference in appearance between the central and the peripheral parts of single lichens.

  14. High-performance functional ecopolymers based on flora and fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Liquid crystalline (LC) polymers of rigid monomers based on flora and fauna were prepared by in-bulk polymerization. Para-coumaric (p-coumaric) acid [4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4HCA)] and its derivatives were selected as phytomonomers and bile acids were selected as biomonomers. The 4HCA homopolymer showed a thermotropic LC phase only in a state of low molecular weight. The copolymers of 4HCA with bile acids such as lithocholic acid (LCA) and cholic acid (CA) showed excellent cell compatibilities but low molecular weights. However, P(4HCA-co-CA)s allowed LC spinning to create molecularly oriented biofibers, presumably due to the chain entanglement that occurs during in-bulk chain propagation into hyperbranching architecture. P[4HCA-co-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA)]s showed high molecular weight, high mechanical strength, high Young's modulus, and high softening temperature, which may be achieved through the entanglement by in-bulk formation of hyperbranching, rigid structures. P(4HCA-co-DHCA)s showed a smooth hydrolysis, in-soil degradation, and photo-tunable hydrolysis. Thus, P(4HCA-co-DHCA)s might be applied as an environmentally degradable plastic with extremely high performance.

  15. Bio-Park Pereira [Colombia]: Flora and Fauna Parkland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos de León Naranjo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The project aims to build a parkland in the sub-urban area of Pereira, (Cerritos sector in the center of the Coffee Region of Colombia, which in addition to its tourism and recreation, contributes to the conservation of wildlife through education, research, and ecologically viable actions, economically viable and socially equitable. This project is considered a major project for the city of Pereira, as it strives to be a tourist attraction level not just regionally but nationally and internationally, which will close and friendly interaction with native flora and fauna and exotic providing healthy recreation while promoting the preservation of biodiversity. In Bio-parque be plotted four bio-regions: African Savanna, African Rainforest, Asian mangroves, South American Cliffs, and three bio-regions of Colombia: Andean Forest, Arid Caribbean and Amazon. Human cultures of each of these regions are also highlighted as examples of the wide adaptability of human beings. The main objective of the educational message in Bioparque is to show how the survival and welfare of living beings, both human and of animal and plant species depend on the knowledge and awareness of natural history, dynamics and accurate management of their different living conditions interaction.

  16. Repairing effects of Iran flora on wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Afshar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The skin is the largest and the heaviest organ in the human body which, in addition to its important roles in the protection, waste removal, and contribution to vitamin D synthesis. As an important sensory organ, it can play a major role in the maintenance of homeostasis in the body. Total loss of of the skin integrity can cause harms and diseases that lead to physical disability and even death. Therefore, one of the main problem faced by medical science so far, is the question of .wound healing in the shortest possible time and with minimal side effects. Increasing the wound healing rate leads to positive financial and health results. Thus, several studies on new therapeutic techniques such as use of chemical drugs, herbal medication and homeopathy have been done. Moreover, physical methods such as laser therapy and other treatmentshave been constantly improving. In recent decades, the use of herbal medicine, as an effective method, has been progressing in most countries including Iran. In the traditional medicine of Iran various methods of using plants for the treatment of diseases are common. This is actually justifiable due to the geographic diversity of the flora in Iran. In the present paper the effectivity of the cut healing properties of some medicinal herbs in Iran is discussed.

  17. Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Youssef, Y.A.; Awny, N.M.; Hussein, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated. (author)

  18. Bacterial flora of spices and its control by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zawahry, Y A; Youssef, Y A; Awny, N M; Hussein, H A

    1985-01-01

    The bacterial contamination was tested in 26 samples of spices. Chili, allspice and paprika were the most contaminated spices by bacteria. Five bacterial genera were isolated, namely bacillus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, micrococcus, and coccobacillus, all being gram-positive. Most isolates have been related to the genus bacillus. The bacterial isolates were identified as B. alvei, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pasteurii, B. pumilus, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus, B. incertaesedis, Micrococcus luteus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus sp. and coccobacillus sp. Irradiation of spices led to a significant decrease in the bacterial count of all samples. The dose required to inhibit completely the natural bacterial flora was 25 KGY. The most radioresistant isolates were staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus luteus which were subjected to sublethal doses of 15 and 20 KGY respectively. The dose response curves of the 2 most radioresistant isolates showed simple exponential relationship. The D 10-value of S. aureus and M. luteus were 0.9 and 1.1 KGY, respectively. The effect of storage period on the bacterial load of, as well as, the antibacterial activity of the tested spices were investigated.

  19. Natural flora and anticancer regime: milestones and roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Ira; Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Cancer has long been an area of extensive research both at the molecular as well as pharmaceutical level. However, lack of understanding of the underlying molecular signalling and the probable targets of therapeutics is a major concern in successful treatment of cancer. The situation becomes even worse, with the increasing side effects of the existing synthetic commercial drugs. Natural compounds especially those derived from plants have been best explored for their anticancer properties and most of them have been efficient against the known molecular targets of cancer. However, advent of biotechnology and resulting advances in medical arena have let to the increasing knowledge of newer carcinogenic signaling agents which has made the anticancer drug discovery even more demanding. The present review aims to bring forward the molecular mediators of cancer and compiles the plant derived anticancer agents with special emphasis on their clinical status. Since marine arena has proved to be a tremendous source of pharmaceutical agents, this review also focuses on the anticancer potential of marine plants especially algae. This is a comprehensive review covering major aspects of cancer mediation and utilization of marine flora for remediation of this deadly disease.

  20. The antibacterial activity of honey derived from Australian flora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Irish

    Full Text Available Chronic wound infections and antibiotic resistance are driving interest in antimicrobial treatments that have generally been considered complementary, including antimicrobially active honey. Australia has unique native flora and produces honey with a wide range of different physicochemical properties. In this study we surveyed 477 honey samples, derived from native and exotic plants from various regions of Australia, for their antibacterial activity using an established screening protocol. A level of activity considered potentially therapeutically useful was found in 274 (57% of the honey samples, with exceptional activity seen in samples derived from marri (Corymbia calophylla, jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata and jellybush (Leptospermum polygalifolium. In most cases the antibacterial activity was attributable to hydrogen peroxide produced by the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase. Non-hydrogen peroxide activity was detected in 80 (16.8% samples, and was most consistently seen in honey produced from Leptospermum spp. Testing over time found the hydrogen peroxide-dependent activity in honey decreased, in some cases by 100%, and this activity was more stable at 4 °C than at 25 °C. In contrast, the non-hydrogen peroxide activity of Leptospermum honey samples increased, and this was greatest in samples stored at 25 °C. The stability of non-peroxide activity from other honeys was more variable, suggesting this activity may have a different cause. We conclude that many Australian honeys have clinical potential, and that further studies into the composition and stability of their active constituents are warranted.

  1. Maternal risk factors for abnormal vaginal flora during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, Cecilia; Cappello, Nazario; Latino, Maria A; Polarolo, Giulia; Masuelli, Giulia; Cavallo, Franco; Benedetto, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora during pregnancy and associated maternal risk factors. A retrospective study was undertaken of cervicovaginal smears performed on pregnant women at a center in Turin, Italy, between 2000 and 2010. Patients were divided into three groups: women with symptoms of genital infections (G1), asymptomatic women at risk of preterm birth (G2), and asymptomatic women with no risk (G3). Logistic regression models identified variables associated with microorganisms. Among 11 219 samples, 4913 (43.8%) were positive, of which 3783 (77.0%) were positive for a single microorganism. Multivariate analysis for G1 showed positive associations between multiple sexual partners and bacterial vaginosis/Ureaplasma urealyticum, and multiparity with preterm birth and U. urealyticum (Paerobic vaginitis, and North African origin and bacterial vaginosis/U. urealyticum (P<0.05 for all). In G3, there were associations between little education (<8 years) and bacterial vaginosis/U. urealyticum, multiple sexual partners and bacterial vaginosis/U. urealyticum, and bacterial vaginosis and Eastern European origin and not being married (P<0.05 for all). Positive cervicovaginal smears were associated with a particular profile. Testing could be advisable for symptomatic women at any stage of pregnancy, during the first trimester for asymptomatic women at risk of preterm birth, and for some asymptomatic women. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Weed flora in organically grown spring cereals in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SALONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The weed flora in organically grown spring cereals was investigated in southern and central Finland in 1997-1999 with the primary purpose of determining the species composition and the level of weed infestation. Altogether 165 fields were surveyed in the middle of the growing season. A total of 126 weed species were found, of which 42 exceeded the frequency level of 10%. The most frequent weed species were Chenopodium album, Stellaria media, Galeopsis spp. and Viola arvensis. Elymus repens was the most frequent grass species. The average density of weeds was 469 plants m-2 (median 395, and the air-dry biomass was 678 kg ha-1 (median 567 which accounted for 17% of the total biomass of the crop stand. Infestation by Chenopodium album and the perennial species Elymus repens, Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis is of major concern. Weed control strategies should include direct control measures to overcome weed problems related to the conversion period from conventional to organic growing.

  3. Dataset of Phenology of Mediterranean high-mountain meadows flora (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Jesús Pérez-Luque; Cristina Patricia Sánchez-Rojas; Regino Zamora; Ramón Pérez-Pérez; Francisco Javier Bonet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sierra Nevada mountain range (southern Spain) hosts a high number of endemic plant species, being one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the Mediterranean basin. The high-mountain meadow ecosystems (borreguiles) harbour a large number of endemic and threatened plant species. In this data paper, we describe a dataset of the flora inhabiting this threatened ecosystem in this Mediterranean mountain. The dataset includes occurrence data for flora collected in those ecosystems...

  4. Ethnobotanical Investigation of Medicinal Flora used by Indigenous People in District Attock, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Irum Naz

    2014-01-01

    The Present Survey deals with ethno taxonomical observation of medicinal plants of district Attock. The study was designed to disseminate the dynamic of local knowledge, explore, conserve and document medicinal flora. During survey, traditional folk uses of medicinal flora were gathered via questionnaire, plant specimens were collected and photography was done for identification. Eighty medicinal plant species belonging to 64 genera reported to be used by local inhabitants for different disea...

  5. Flora robotica -- An Architectural System Combining Living Natural Plants and Distributed Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Heiko; Divband Soorati, Mohammad; Heinrich, Mary Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Key to our project flora robotica is the idea of creating a bio-hybrid system of tightly coupled natural plants and distributed robots to grow architectural artifacts and spaces. Our motivation with this ground research project is to lay a principled foundation towards the design and implementation...... of flora robotica, such as the continuous growth process of architectural artifacts and self-repair of living architecture....

  6. Comparative analysis of the intestinal flora in type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Miura, Takamasa; Hirakata, Satomi; Hosoyama, Akira; Sugino, Sakiko; Umeno, Aya; Murotomi, Kazutoshi; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Koike, Taisuke

    2017-10-30

    A relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and intestinal flora has been suggested since development of analysis technology for intestinal flora. An animal model of T2DM is important for investigation of T2DM. Although there are some animal models of T2DM, a comparison of the intestinal flora of healthy animals with that of T2DM animals has not yet been reported. The intestinal flora of Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice was compared with that of Tsumura, Suzuki, Non Obesity (TSNO) mice in the present study. The TSOD mice showed typical type 2 diabetes symptoms, which were high-fat diet-independent. The TSOD and the TSNO mouse models were derived from the same strain, ddY. In this study, we compared the intestinal flora of TSOD mice with that if TSNO mice at 5 and 12 weeks of age. We determined that that the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was significantly higher in the cecum of TSOD mice than in that of TSNO mice. The intestinal flora of the cecum and that of the feces were similar between the TSNO and the TSOD strains. The dominant bacteria in the cecum and feces were of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. However, the content of some bacterial species varied between the two strains. The percentage of Lactobacillus spp. within the general intestinal flora was higher in TSOD mice than in TSNO mice. In contrast, the percentages of order Bacteroidales and family Lachnospiraceae were higher in TSNO mice than in TSOD mice. Some species were observed only in TSOD mice, such as genera Turicibacter and SMB53 (family Clostridiaceae), the percentage of which were 3.8% and 2.0%, respectively. Although further analysis of the metabolism of the individual bacteria in the intestinal flora is essential, genera Turicibacter and SMB53 may be important for the abnormal metabolism of type 2 diabetes.

  7. Evaluation of nasal and oropharyngeal flora in patients with acne vulgaris according to treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuguz, Pınar; Callioglu, Elif E; Tulaci, Kamil G; Kacar, Seval D; Balta, Ilknur; Asik, Gulsah; Karatas, Serap; Karaca, Semsettin

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in nasal and oropharyngeal flora in patients with acne during treatments with tetracycline and isotretinoin. Swab specimens were taken from the right and left nasal cavities and oropharynx of 55 patients with acne and 20 healthy volunteers who were admitted to the dermatology department (Etlik Educational and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey) before the administration of treatment and in the third month of treatment. Study participants were divided into four groups as follows: patients with acne on topical treatment only, systemic isotretinoin, and systemic tetracycline, and the control group. Of 55 patients with acne, 18 were male and 37 were female. The mean age of the patients and the control group was 22.21 ± 4.22 and 21.95 ± 7.64, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the nasal flora of five patients, normal flora was suppressed in the oropharyngeal cultures of seven patients, and normal flora grew in the cultures of the other 20 patients who were on tetracycline treatment. On the other hand, normal flora grew in the nasal and oropharyngeal cultures of all the patients who were on isotretinoin treatment. Treatment options and follow-up procedures for acne vulgaris may lead to the development of bacterial resistance and damage to flora. In particular, systemic tetracycline treatment leads to changes in flora of the nose and throat in patients with acne with an increased carriage of S. aureus. Therefore, careful attention should be paid to the duration of tetracycline treatment in order to not increase the risk of disturbance of microbial flora. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. The flora of Early Permian coal measures from the Parana Basin in Brazil: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannuzzi, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an updated overview integrating both previous and newly published data on the most important floras found associated with Early Permian coal seams in the Parana Basin, Brazil. These floras occur within the Rio Bonito Formation and correspond to the Gondwana ''Glossopteris Flora.'' For this review, five floras are selected, in ascending stratigraphic order: the ''Sao Joao do Triunfo,'' ''Figueira,'' ''Quiteria,'' ''Morro do Papaleo'' and ''Irapua Bed'' floras. They are the best-known floras of the basin in terms of taxonomic composition, paleoecology and environments of deposition. An early-mid Sakmarian to earliest Artinskian age is indicated for the Rio Bonito Formation based on absolute radiometric and relative biostratigraphic ages. Integration of available information about the selected floras allows evaluation of taphonomic and paleoecological factors to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the Early Permian floral record in the Parana Basin. The variation observed in both the taxonomic composition of individual floras and in the frequency of occurrence of different plant groups is due to the broad range of environmental/edaphic conditions that prevailed in the many different depositional settings represented in the Rio Bonito Formation. A more precise age determination obtained for the plant-bearing deposits permits the establishment of a more confident correlation between the Early Permian floral succession in the Parana Basin and other Early Permian floral successions in other basins. The Sakmarian global warming favored the appearance of pecopterid and sphenopterid ferns amongst the spore-producing plants, and the glossopterids amongst the pollen-producing plants. (author)

  9. Lista anotada de nuevas adiciones para la flora andina de Moquegua, Perú

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Se presentan nuevos registros de 103 especies reunidas en 79 géneros y 33 familias para la flora del norte de la cuenca alta del Río Tambo-Ichuña, en la Provincia General Sánchez Cerro en el Departamento de Moque-gua. Con esto la flora de la región andina del norte de Moquegua se eleva a 507

  10. Effects of different digestible carbohydrates on bile acid metabolism and SCFA production by human gut micro-flora grown in an in vitro semi-continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampa, Andrea; Silvi, Stefania; Fabiani, Roberto; Morozzi, Guido; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2004-02-01

    The main source of carbon in the human large intestine comes from carbohydrates like starches and oligosaccharides which remain unchanged by gastric digestion. These polysaccharides are metabolised in the colon by saccharolytic bacteria whose composition is dependent upon the substrate availability. Among the metabolites produced, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are important for colon function and to prevent diseases. In particular, butyrate affects several cellular functions (proliferation, membrane synthesis, sodium absorption), and it has been shown to be protective against colorectal cancer. In addition, faecal bacteria are responsible for the conversion of primary bile acids (BA) to secondary BA, which are considered tumor promoters. In this study we investigated the in vitro effect of different substrates (CrystaLean starch, xylo-oligosaccharides, corn starch) supplied to human faecal micro-flora, on the SCFA production, on the bowel micro-flora composition and on the primary BA conversion rate. In addition, with corn starch as substrate, we considered the effect of enriching normal human faecal micro-flora with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, on the above reported parameters.

  11. The lichen flora of declining coniferous trees in the northern Black Forest: Ecological studies aiming at a differentiated assessment of air pollution effects and epidemic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliemeroth, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    For the forest region of Klosterreichenbach, a map of the state of the lichen flora has been drawn up, based on investigations of lichens on trees in different states of decline and of various age categories, and covering various species of trees, growing in areas showing the typical signs of the novel types of forest damage, and in areas subjected to pollutant emissions of a nearby, heavily polluting emission source. In the close-in area of this emission source, forest decline has been found to be strongly correlated with a heavily depleted lichen flora. Beyond the area affected by the emission source, the degree of decline of the trees has been found to increase with tree hight and age, but the quality and quantity data taken of lichen flora on these trees showed an improving trend, which however is superimposed by climatic and biological factors. The final analysis of the data indicates that the novel types of forest damage can no longer be explained by air pollution alone. (VHE) With many figs. and tabs [de

  12. Composition and structure of the flora in intra-urban railway areas

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    Małgorzta Wrzesień

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Railway areas are considered as large greenspaces and are recognized important in improving the biodiversity and dynamic of urban flora. In this study, we examined the flora composition and diversity along intra-city railway lines in Lublin, SE Poland and Lviv, W Ukraine. The flora has been analyzed in terms of species composition (multivariate ordination techniques, life span, life form, type of pollination mode, seed dispersal, life strategy sensu Grime, hemerophoby, urbanity degree, and in terms of habitat preferences using ecological indicator values. The multivariate analysis (CCA clearly revealed that abiotic factors (topographical, weather elements (annual precipitation and air temperature, and soil attributes (moisture, trophy, pH, salinity differed between two cities and impacted on the differences in railway flora composition. Plants growing on the intra-urban railway areas are mainly hemicryptophytes/perennials, C, CR, CRS-strategists, insect-, self-, or wind-pollinated, reproducing by seeds and mainly dispersed by wind. Intra-urban railway areas are predominated by native species, however the participation of invasive alien species is higher than their proportion in domestic floras. The share of invasive species is greater in railway areas of Lviv, ca. 12% (45 species compared to 8% in Lublin (36 species. Spontaneous flora in intra-urban railway areas represent distinct adaptations to unique urban-industrial ecosystems with different degree of anthropogenic disturbance.

  13. Optimise the microbial flora with milk and yoghurt to prevent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James A

    2018-05-01

    Pathogenic bacteria, which are temporary or permanent members of our microbial flora, cause or contribute to a wide range of human disease at all ages. Conditions include Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer, autoimmunity and psychosis, amongst others. The mechanism of damage is inflammation which can be chronic or acute. An optimal microbial flora includes a wide range of pathogenic bacteria in low dose. This allows specific immunity to be developed and maintained with minimal inflammatory damage. Human milk has evolved to deliver an optimal microbial flora to the infant. Cow's milk has the potential, following appropriate fortification, to maintain an optimal human microbial flora throughout life. Yoghurt is a fermented milk product in which bacteria normally present in milk convert sugars to lactic acid. The acid suppresses the growth of pathogens in the oral cavity, oropharynx and oesophagus. Thus yoghurt can restore an optimal flora in these regions in the short term. Since bacteria are transported between epithelial surfaces, yoghurt will also optimise the flora elsewhere. The judicious use of milk and yogurt could prevent a high proportion of human disease. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaginal lactobacilli profile in pregnant women with normal & abnormal vaginal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Thirupathaiah; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Donugama, Vasundhara

    2017-10-01

    Lactobacilli species that are better adapted to vaginal environment of women may colonize better and offer protection against vaginal pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the distribution of common Lactobacillus species was investigated in pregnant women. Sixty seven pregnant women were included in the study and vaginal samples were collected for Gram staining. Women were classified as normal vaginal flora, intermediate flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV) based on Nugent's score. Vaginal samples were also collected for the identification of Lactobacillus spp. by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) profiling of 16S rDNA amplification method. Lactobacillus crispatus (100%) was the most predominant Lactobacillus spp. present in pregnant women with normal flora, followed by L. iners (77%), L. jensenii (74%) and L. helveticus (60%). While, L. iners was commonly present across groups in women with normal, intermediate or BV flora, L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. helveticus decreased significantly as the vaginal flora changed to intermediate and BV. In women with BV, except L. iners other species of lactobacilli was less frequently prevalent. Species such as L. rhamnosus, L. fermentum, L. paracasei and L. casei were not detected in any vaginal sample. L. crispatus, L. jensinii and L. helveticus were predominant species in women with normal flora. L. crispatus alone or in combination with L. jensinii and L. helveticus may be evaluated for probiotic properties for the prevention and treatment of BV.

  15. Effects of Erythropoiesis-stimulating Agents on Intestinal Flora in Peritoneal Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilici, Muammer; Oz, Ibrahim Ilker; Uygun Ilikhan, Sevil; Borazan, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) on intestinal flora in peritoneal fibrosis. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups as the control group, which received 0.9% saline (3 mL/d) intraperitoneally; the chlorhexidine gluconate (CH) group, which received 3 mL/d injections of 0.1% CH intraperitoneally, and the ESA group, which received 3 mL/d injections of 0.1% CH intraperitoneally and epoetin beta (3 doses of 20 IU/kg/wk) subcutaneously. On the 21st day, the rats were sacrificed and the visceral peritoneum samples were obtained from left liver bowel. Blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta and intestinal flora samples were obtained from transverse colon. Histopathologically, the CH, ESA, and control groups had peritoneal thickness of 135.4 ± 22.2 µm, 48.6 ± 12.8 µm, and 6.0 ± 2.3 µm, respectively. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacterium in the intestinal flora in the control group. Significant changes in microbial composition of intestinal flora towards Proteus species and Enterobacter species was seen among the groups (P flora among these groups were significantly different (P flora by a clinically significant amount in experimental peritoneal fibrosis. We consider that ESAs achieve this via regulating intestinal peristaltism.

  16. Eupatorium capilifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae, REKAMAN BARU UNTUK FLORA JAWA

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    Arifin Surya Dwipa Irsyam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sebanyak 227 jenis tumbuhan Asteraceae terdapat di Pulau Jawa berdasarkan Flora of Java. Namun, suku Asteraceae di Pulau Jawa belum banyak ditinjau kembali sejak buku tersebut terbit 51 tahun yang lalu, sehingga memungkinkan adanya jenis-jenis tambahan yang belum terekam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi adanya jenis tambahan yang terdapat di Pulau Jawa. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode jelajah di Labuan (Banten, Bogor (Jawa Barat, Malang, dan Situbondo (Jawa Timur. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton merupakan rekaman baru yang dapat melengkapi flora Jawa. Jenis tersebut dikelompokkan ke dalam puak Eupatorieae. Abstract There are 227 species of Asteraceae in Java Island recorded in the Flora of Java. However, only few review of this family for Java since Flora of Java has published 51 years ago. Some possibilities of unrecorded species may occur after this Flora of Java published. This research was conducted to provide information on additional species in Java Island. This research was carried out using exploration method in Labuan (Banten, Bogor (West Java, Malang and Situbondo (East Java. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton is a new record for completing the flora of Java Island. This species belongs to Eupatorieae tribe.   

  17. The oldest gibbon fossil (Hylobatidae) from insular Southeast Asia: evidence from Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/Middle Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingicco, Thomas; de Vos, John; Huffman, O Frank

    2014-01-01

    A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891-1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here.

  18. Application of Awake Craniotomy and Intraoperative Brain Mapping for Surgical Resection of Insular Gliomas of the Dominant Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohamadi, Maysam; Shirani, Mohammad; Shariat Moharari, Reza; Pour-Rashidi, Ahmad; Ketabchi, Mehdi; Khajavi, Mohammadreza; Arami, Mohamadali; Amirjamshidi, Abbas

    2016-08-01

    Radical resection of dominant insular gliomas is difficult because of their close vicinity with internal capsule, basal ganglia, and speech centers. Brain mapping techniques can be used to maximize the extent of tumor removal and to minimize postoperative morbidities by precise localization of eloquent cortical and subcortical areas. Patients with newly diagnosed gliomas of dominant insula were enrolled. The exclusion criteria were severe cognitive disturbances, communication difficulty, age greater than 75 years, severe obesity, difficult airways for intubation and severe cardiopulmonary diseases. All were evaluated preoperatively with contrast-enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional brain MRI, and diffusion tensor tractography of language and motor systems. All underwent awake craniotomy with the same anesthesiology protocol. Intraoperative monitoring included continuous motor-evoked potential, electromyography, electrocorticography, direct electrical stimulation of cortex, and subcortical tracts. The patients were followed with serial neurologic examination and imaging. Ten patients were enrolled (4 men, 6 women) with a mean age of 43.6 years. Seven patients suffered from low-grade glioma, and 3 patients had high-grade glioma. The most common clinical presentation was seizure followed by speech disturbance, hemiparesis, and memory loss. Extent of tumor resection ranged from 73% to 100%. No mortality or new major postoperative neurologic deficit was encountered. Seizure control improved in three fourths of patients with medical refractory epilepsy. In one patient with speech disorder at presentation, the speech problem became worse after surgery. Brain mapping during awake craniotomy helps to maximize extent of tumor resection while preserving neurologic function in patients with dominant insular lobe glioma. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Phytogeography of the vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal (Andes, Venezuela) and its ties to other páramo floras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello, N.L.; Cleef, A.M.; Aymard, G.

    2010-01-01

    Ramal de Guaramacal is an outlier and lower elevation mountain range located at the northeastern end of the Venezuelan Andes. Phytogeographical patterns and affinities of the low altitude and wet vascular páramo flora of Ramal de Guaramacal, have been studied with emphasis in to the analysis of the

  20. NOTES ON THE PALM FLORA OF CENTRAL SUMATRA

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    John Dransfield

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In July and August 1972, I spent five weeks on an expedition to study rattans and other palms in the provinces of Jambi and West Sumatra. This central area of Sumatra was chosen because expeditions have already been made to South Sumatra in February 1971 and March 1972 and to North Sumatra and Aceh with the Kyoto University Expedition in August 1971, and therefore collections made in this central area would link up collections from the south and north and would hence add considerably to our knowledge of the palm flora of this rich island. After advice from the Department of Nature Conservation in Jambi and from Dr. M. Jacobs in Rijksherbarium (Leiden had been considered, it was decided to work westwards from Berbak Nature Reserve on the east coast near Nipah Panjang, to the Bukit Barisan, the main range of Sumatra, to Gunung Kerinci Nature Reserve and G. Tujuh near Sungai Penuh and from there, across the western part of the Bukit Barisan to Padang and Bukittinggi. From Bukittinggi it was planned to visit the Kafflesia arnoldii Nature Reserve at Batang Palupuh, and then return to Jambi by way of Muara Tebo and Muara Tembesi, where reputedly there still exists lowland forest. By more or less confining our collecting activities to the normally neglected Palmae it was hoped that within the time available a large area could be covered reasonably, and a palm transect for central Sumatra made. Two assistants from Bogor accompanied me to help in the difficult task of collecting rattans: Dedy Darnaedi (Herbarium Bogoriense and Abdul Hanan (Kebun Raya. These assistants were also given individual collecting assignments as part of a scheme for training assistants in field botany. Dedy was to collect Pteridophyta and Hanan to collect material for growing in the Kebun Raya. Soetrisno Soewoko, head of Nature Conservation in Jambi accompanied us throughout tha expedition.

  1. Historical flora of Moscow’s Railway Junction (until 2012

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    Vinogradova Yulia Konstantinovna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon the biodiversity at the railways. The list of species found within the Moscow Railways (≈300 km from 1851 until today has been compiled based on herbarium data [MHA, MW, LE] and personal observations conducted in 1980-2016. The list of “railways’ flora” includes 1087 taxa from 447 genera of 94 families – this is significantly higher than what is known for the railroads of other regions. A brief comparative analysis with the “railways’ flora” in other regions of the world in respect of the species number, taxonomy and life form spectrum has been performed. The therophytes absolutely prevail in the life-form spectrum (46 percent. The role of the railways as a pathway for alien species has been confirmed. Around 54 percent of all alien plants recorded for the Moscow Region (Moscow and Moscow Region grow along the railways. Several species new for the former USSR territory was found there, as well as many species new for the Moscow Region. The Railways are not only “donors/sources” of alien species, they also act as a refugee area for “the escapees”: over 30 years, Asclepias syriaca has been growing within the section of the Kursk-Moscow railway located near the All-Russian Research Institute of Medical and Aromatic Plants. Galega officinalis, a specie that forms a 200 m2 area of tangled vegetation, was found there, too. A trend when plants fall out of cultivation was established, this is how Sedum hispanicum and S. album emerged. The article also marks the role of the rail slopes as a refugium of rare and endangered plants of the natural flora: some 35 species included in the Red Book of Moscow were found within the area.

  2. Flora within no-hunting zone of Hanna, Isfahan, Iran

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    Saied Jamaledin Khajeddin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Floristic studies of a region have many advantages, since the floristic list is a useful identity document which provides the genetic potentials of the area. The area of Hanna no-hunting zone is 20452 ha and is located at the southern part of Isfahan province. In this study the floristic list of the region is presented and their life forms and endangered species are stated. Field data collections were conducted during the years 2007 through 2008. First the studied area boundaries were exposed on a topographic map with a scale of 1:25000. Then, the plant species of the region were collected and identified according to the floras. According to the presented list, there were 307 species belonging to 209 genuses which are classified in 51 families. The Asteraceae has the highest species diversity in the region with 33 genus and 52 species. According to Raunkiaer’s life form criteria, the identified species are categorized as: hemicryptophytes 50.5%, therophytes 23.1%, chamephytes 11.4%, phanerophytes (6.8% and geophytes (8.1%. The high percent occurrence of the perennial species confirms the plant species adaptations to the climatic and edaphic conditions of the region. In the Hanna region, 76 medicinal and industrial species were listed belonging to 67 genera and 29 families. The Asteraceae and Lamiaceae families had 12 and 13 species of the medicinal plant species accordingly and they had the most species diversities in this category among the other families. There were 9 vulnerable species, 28 lower risk and 4 data deficient species in the studied region.

  3. Bacterial flora-typing with targeted, chip-based Pyrosequencing

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    El-Sayed Yasser Y

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metagenomic analysis of microbial communities holds the potential to improve our understanding of the role of microbes in clinical conditions. Recent, dramatic improvements in DNA sequencing throughput and cost will enable such analyses on individuals. However, such advances in throughput generally come at the cost of shorter read-lengths, limiting the discriminatory power of each read. In particular, classifying the microbial content of samples by sequencing the Results We describe a method for identifying the phylogenetic content of bacterial samples using high-throughput Pyrosequencing targeted at the 16S rRNA gene. Our analysis is adapted to the shorter read-lengths of such technology and uses a database of 16S rDNA to determine the most specific phylogenetic classification for reads, resulting in a weighted phylogenetic tree characterizing the content of the sample. We present results for six samples obtained from the human vagina during pregnancy that corroborates previous studies using conventional techniques. Next, we analyze the power of our method to classify reads at each level of the phylogeny using simulation experiments. We assess the impacts of read-length and database completeness on our method, and predict how we do as technology improves and more bacteria are sequenced. Finally, we study the utility of targeting specific 16S variable regions and show that such an approach considerably improves results for certain types of microbial samples. Using simulation, our method can be used to determine the most informative variable region. Conclusion This study provides positive validation of the effectiveness of targeting 16S metagenomes using short-read sequencing technology. Our methodology allows us to infer the most specific assignment of the sequence reads within the phylogeny, and to identify the most discriminative variable region to target. The analysis of high-throughput Pyrosequencing on human flora

  4. Alterations in oral microbial flora induced by waterpipe tobacco smoking

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    Shakhatreh MAK

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Muhamad Ali K Shakhatreh,1 Omar F Khabour,1 Karem H Alzoubi,2 Majed M Masadeh,3 Emad I Hussein,4 George N Bshara1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Irbid, Jordan; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 4Department of Biological Sciences, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan Background: Waterpipe smoking is a global health problem and a serious public concern. Little is known about the effects of waterpipe smoking on oral health. In the current study, we examined the alterations of oral microbial flora by waterpipe smoking. Methods: One hundred adult healthy subjects (59 waterpipe smokers and 41 non-smokers were recruited into the study. Swabs were taken from the oral cavity and subgingival regions. Standard culturing techniques were used to identify types, frequency, and mean number of microorganisms in cultures obtained from the subjects. Results: It was notable that waterpipe smokers were significantly associated with a history of oral infections. In subgingiva, Acinetobacter and Moraxella species were present only in waterpipe smokers. In addition, the frequency of Candida albicans was higher in the subgingiva of waterpipe smokers (p = 0.023 while the frequency of Fusobacterium nucleatum was significantly lower in the subgingiva of waterpipe smokers (p = 0.036. However, no change was observed in other tested bacteria, such as Campylobacter species; Viridans group streptococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and Staphylococcus aureus. In oral cavity and when colony-forming units were considered, the only bacterial species that showed significant difference were the black-pigmented bacteria (p < 0.001. Conclusion: This study provides evidence indicating that some of the oral microflora is significantly altered by

  5. Consequences of major nuclear accidents on wild fauna and flora: dosimetric assessments remain a weakness to establish robust conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    As about hundred of studies have been undertaken after the major nuclear accidents (Chernobyl and Fukushima) to study the consequences of these accidents on wild flora and fauna, notably on the effects of low doses of ionizing radiations, it appears that some of them reported noticeable effects due to extremely low doses. Such findings put knowledge in radiobiology into question again. This note aims at discussing the importance of the quality of dosimetric assessments for any study performed 'in natura'. It seems that the ambient external dose rate is not systematically a good indicator of the dose or dose rate absorbed by a living organism in radio-contaminated environment. This note outlines the problem related to the spatial heterogeneity of the radioactive contamination, that some statistic methods are not always adapted to data set quality. It briefly indicates other factors which may affect the quality of data set obtained during in situ studies

  6. Vertical distribution of spiders associated to Quercus humboldtii and clusia spp. at sanctuary of fauna and flora Iguaque, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanegas, Silvia; Fagua, Giovanny; Florez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    the vertical distribution of spiders associated to trees of quercus humboldtii and clusia spp. with different architectural model, was studied at sanctuary of fauna and flora of Iguaque; for this, we selected trees of each architectural model, stratified them each three m in high starting at the base to the canopy of the tree. We took samples in each stratus for 20 min during the day and at night. Also, we took samples in the nearest ground plot (4 m 2) . We collected 1,261 specimens of 104 morphospecies and 20 families. The most frequent families were theridiidae, salticidae, araneidae, linyphiidae, anyphaenidae, and theridiosomatidae. We observed differences in the spiders' vertical distribution in abundance, richness, composition, time period, and sex ratio, all of them attributable to plant architectures and its stratification. Clusia spider community was the most diverse, quercus spider community was the richest rain, period of time at day, and support availability affected the spiders' composition.

  7. Bacterial Flora Changes in Conjunctiva of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Type I Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Fei, Yuda; Qin, Yali; Luo, Dan; Yang, Shufei; Kou, Xinyun; Zi, Yingxin; Deng, Tingting; Jin, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of both humans and animals plays an important role in their health and the development of disease. Therefore, the bacterial flora of the conjunctiva may also be associated with some diseases. However, there are no reports on the alteration of bacterial flora in conjunctiva of diabetic rats in the literature. Therefore, we investigated the changes in bacterial flora in bulbar conjunctiva of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetes. A high dose of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The diabetic rats were raised in the animal laboratory and at 8 months post-injection of STZ swab samples were taken from the bulbar conjunctiva for cultivation of aerobic bacteria. The bacterial isolates were identified by Gram staining and biochemical features. The identified bacteria from both diabetic and healthy rats were then compared. The diabetic and healthy rats had different bacterial flora present in their bulbar conjunctiva. In total, 10 and 8 bacterial species were found in the STZ and control groups, respectively, with only three species (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus gallinarum and Escherichia coli) shared between the two groups. Gram-positive bacteria were common in both groups and the most abundant was Enterococcus faecium. However, after the development of T1DM, the bacterial flora in the rat bulbar conjunctiva changed considerably, with a reduced complexity evident. STZ-induced diabetes caused alterations of bacterial flora in the bulbar conjunctiva in rats, with some bacterial species disappearing and others emerging. Our results indicate that the conjunctival bacterial flora in diabetic humans should be surveyed for potential diagnostic markers or countermeasures to prevent eye infections in T1DM patients.

  8. 16S rDNA analysis of the effect of fecal microbiota transplantation on pulmonary and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianhao; Yang, Zhongshan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Han, Niping; Yuan, Jiali; Cheng, Yu

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of FMT on regulations of dysbacteriosis of pulmonary and intestinal flora in rats with 16S rDNA sequencing technology. A total of 27 SPF rats (3-4 weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (K), model control group (MX), and fecal microbiota transplantation group (FMT); each group contained nine rats. The OTU values of the pulmonary and intestinal flora of the MX group decreased significantly compared with the normal control group. After FMT, the OTU value of pulmonary flora increased, while the value of OTU in intestinal flora declined. At the phylum level, FMT down-regulated Proteobacteria , Firmicutes , and Bacteroidetes in the pulmonary flora. At the genus level, FMT down-regulated Pseudomonas , Sphingobium , Lactobacillus , Rhizobium , and Acinetobacter , thus maintaining the balance of the pulmonary flora. Moreover, FMT could change the structure and diversity of the pulmonary and intestinal flora by positively regulating the pulmonary flora and negatively regulating intestinal flora. This study may provide a scientific basis for FMT treatment of respiratory diseases.

  9. The intestinal flora is required to support antibody responses to systemic immunization in infant and germ free mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamousé-Smith, Esi S; Tzeng, Alice; Starnbach, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    The presence of a complex and diverse intestinal flora is functionally important for regulating intestinal mucosal immune responses. However, the extent to which a balanced intestinal flora regulates systemic immune responses is still being defined. In order to specifically examine whether the acquisition of a less complex flora influences responses to immunization in the pre-weaning stages of life, we utilize a model in which infant mice acquire an intestinal flora from their mothers that has been altered by broad-spectrum antibiotics. In this model, pregnant dams are treated with a cocktail of antibiotics that alters both the density and microbial diversity of the intestinal flora. After challenge with a subcutaneous immunization, the antibiotic altered flora infant mice have lower antigen specific antibody titers compared to control age-matched mice. In a second model, we examined germ free (GF) mice to analyze how the complete lack of flora influences the ability to mount normal antibody responses following subcutaneous immunization. GF mice do not respond well to immunization and introduction of a normal flora into GF mice restores the capacity of these mice to respond. These results indicate that a gastrointestinal flora reduced in density and complexity at critical time points during development adversely impacts immune responses to systemic antigens.

  10. [Contamination of human milk with aerobic flora: Evaluation of losses for a human milk bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, C; Courdent, P; Charlet, C; Dumoulin, D; Courcol, R; Pierrat, V

    2015-05-01

    In France, human milk banks pasteurize milk for the mother's own hospitalized baby (personalized milk) and for donation. There is specific legislation regulating the activity of human milk banks with bacterial screening of donor milk before and after pasteurization. Milk should be tested for Staphylococcus aureus and total aerobic flora. Any sample of milk positive for aerobic flora and/or S. aureus before and/or after pasteurization should be discarded. The real pathogenicity of the total aerobic flora is actually debated as well as the usefulness of systematic postpasteurization screening. The aim of this study was to quantify milk losses related to prepasteurization contamination by total aerobic flora in a regional milk bank, to identify losses due to contamination with S. aureus or aerobic flora, and to analyze differences between centers. This was a prospective observational study conducted in the regional human milk bank of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais area in France. Data were collected from six major centers providing 80% of the milk collected between June 2011 and June 2012. Variables were the volumes of personalized milk collected by each center, volumes of contaminated milk, and the type of bacteria identified. During the study period, the regional human milk bank treated 4715 L (liters) of personalized milk and 508 L (10.8%) were discarded due to bacteriological screening. Among these 508 L, 43% were discarded because of a prepasteurization contamination with aerobic flora, 55% because of a prepasteurization contamination with S. aureus, and 2% because of other pathogenic bacteria. Postpasteurization tests were positive in 25 samples (0.5%). Only five of these 25 samples were positive before pasteurization and in all cases with S. aureus. A total of 218 L were destroyed because of prepasteurization contamination with total aerobic flora, while the postpasteurization culture was sterile. There was a great difference between centers in the percentage of

  11. Bioleaching of Arsenic-Rich Gold Concentrates by Bacterial Flora before and after Mutation

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    Xuehui Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the bioleaching efficiency of arsenic-rich gold concentrates, a mixed bacterial flora had been developed, and the mutation breeding method was adopted to conduct the research. The original mixed bacterial flora had been enrichedin acid mine drainage of Dexing copper mine, Jiangxi Province, China. It was induced by UV (ultraviolet, ultrasonic, and microwave, and their combination mutation. The most efficient bacterial flora after mutation was collected for further bioleaching of arsenic-rich gold concentrates. Results indicated that the bacterial flora after mutation by UV 60 s combined with ultrasonic 10 min had the best oxidation rate of ferrous, the biggest density of cells, and the most activity of total protein. During bioleaching of arsenic-rich gold concentrates, the density of the mutant bacterial cells reached to 1.13×108 cells/mL at 15 days, more than 10 times compared with that of the original culture. The extraction of iron reached to 95.7% after 15 days, increased by 9.9% compared with that of the original culture. The extraction of arsenic reached to 92.6% after 12 days, which was increased by 46.1%. These results suggested that optimum combined mutation could improve leaching ability of the bacterial flora more significantly.

  12. Bioleaching of Arsenic-Rich Gold Concentrates by Bacterial Flora before and after Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuehui; Yuan, Xuewu; Liu, Na; Chen, Xiaoguang; Abdelgadir, Awad; Liu, Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the bioleaching efficiency of arsenic-rich gold concentrates, a mixed bacterial flora had been developed, and the mutation breeding method was adopted to conduct the research. The original mixed bacterial flora had been enrichedin acid mine drainage of Dexing copper mine, Jiangxi Province, China. It was induced by UV (ultraviolet), ultrasonic, and microwave, and their combination mutation. The most efficient bacterial flora after mutation was collected for further bioleaching of arsenic-rich gold concentrates. Results indicated that the bacterial flora after mutation by UV 60 s combined with ultrasonic 10 min had the best oxidation rate of ferrous, the biggest density of cells, and the most activity of total protein. During bioleaching of arsenic-rich gold concentrates, the density of the mutant bacterial cells reached to 1.13 × 108 cells/mL at 15 days, more than 10 times compared with that of the original culture. The extraction of iron reached to 95.7% after 15 days, increased by 9.9% compared with that of the original culture. The extraction of arsenic reached to 92.6% after 12 days, which was increased by 46.1%. These results suggested that optimum combined mutation could improve leaching ability of the bacterial flora more significantly. PMID:24381948

  13. Correction to Hepper and Friis's analysis of Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryding, Olof; Friis, Ib

    2014-01-01

    The name Nepeta nepetellae has been accepted in Carl Christensen’s standard index to Forsskål’s Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica, listed in Index Kewensis and IPNI, listed as an accepted name in The Plant List and accepted in Hepper and Friis’s revision of the plants of Forsskål’s Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabic...... to the currently used names and clarify a complex nomenclatural situation, which has confused several previous authors on the subject. The meanings of asterisked names in Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica and their bearing for N. nepetellae are briefly reviewed.......The name Nepeta nepetellae has been accepted in Carl Christensen’s standard index to Forsskål’s Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica, listed in Index Kewensis and IPNI, listed as an accepted name in The Plant List and accepted in Hepper and Friis’s revision of the plants of Forsskål’s Flora Aegyptiaco......-Arabica. If accepted, N. nepetellae may threaten names in current use in Arabia and Africa. However, the name is so similar to the earlier N. nepetella L. that the two names are likely to be confused. Nepeta nepetellae is rejected as a later illegitimate homonym of N. nepetella, which will remove the threat...

  14. Suppression of Listeria monocytogenes by the Native Micro-Flora in Teewurst Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Watson, Clytrice; Grant, Ar'Quette; Brice, Michline

    2013-10-21

    Modern consumers are interested in the use of non-chemical methods to control pathogens when heat sterilization is not an option. Such is the case with teewurst sausage, a raw spreadable sausage and a popular German commodity. Although Listeria was not found in teewurst, the optimal microbial growing conditions of teewurst coupled with the ubiquity of L. monocytogenes in nature, makes the possibility of contamination of products very possible. This pilot study was conducted to examine teewurst's native micro-flora's ability to suppress the outgrowth of L. monocytogenes at 10 °C using standard plate counts and PCR-DGGE. Traditional plating methods showed L. monocytogenes growth significantly decreased when in competition with the teewurst's native micro-flora ( p flora of the teewurst suppressed the overall growth of L. monocytogenes by an average of two logs, under these conditions. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) amplicons with unique banding patterns were extracted from DGGE gel for identification. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactobacillus curvatus were identified as a part of the teewurst's native micro-flora. Although the native micro-flora did not decrease L. monocytogenes to below limits of detection, it was enough of a decrease to warrant further investigation.

  15. Early stages of formation and dispersal of the temperate flora in the Boreal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budantsev, L.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The thesis of this review is that the composition of a flora can be understood only as a process, or separate stage, in the context of migration in time and space of various floristic assemblages and their isolation, as induced by transformation of continental and ocean shapes, changes in climate, and the environment as a whole. Thus the formation of geofloras of the past was influenced by gradually changing environments that determined the spread, patterning, and spatial differentiation of floras and their evolution. Parallel to the more commonly-seen names of eras-Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic-we can speak of the Paleophytic, Mesophytic, and Cenophytic eras. Eras defined in these two ways (by faunistic or by floristic criteria) do not completely coincide. Generally, changes in the flora have, necessarily, preceded changes in the fauna. It is the Cenophytic with which this review is mostly concerned, the era of Angiosperm dominance. The movement of early subtropical and warm temperate floras in the Early Cenophytic, followed by temperate or even boreal floras, as the climate changes, is traced in detail

  16. Changes in the predominant human Lactobacillus flora during in vitro fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsum Urban

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signature matching of nucleotide sequences in the V1 and V3 regions 16S rRNA genes using pyrosequencing technology is a powerful tool for typing vaginal Lactobacilli to the species level and has been used for investigating the vaginal microbial niche. Methods This study has characterized the normal cultivable vaginal Lactobacillus flora at varying estradiol levels in plasma; the study comprised 17 patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization (IVF treatment. The vaginal status of each participant was initially assessed as normal according to Amsel and Nugent criteria. Results L. crispatus, L. gasseri and/or L. jensenii were present in 10 of the patients throughout the study period, and little variation among these three species was encountered in individual patients. The flora of three women was dominated by L. delbrüeckii, L. rhamnosus or L. vaginalis. One woman exhibited a dominance of L. iners. The flora of the remaining three women were initially dominated by L. rhamnosus or L. reuteri, but as their estrogen levels rose, their flora composition altered, to become dominated by one of the three species most common in a normal, healthy vagina. Conclusion Signature matching of nucleotide sequences in the V1 and V3 regions of 16S rRNA genes is a discriminative tool for the study of vaginal Lactobacilli and can be used to track the Lactobacillus flora under a variety of physiological conditions.

  17. NCCOS Assessment: Underwater Video for Ground Validation and Accuracy Assessment of Benthic Habitat Maps of the Insular Shelf South of St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, 2010-03-20 to 2017-02-10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The presence and absence of the four substrate and four biological cover types were documented at 1,353 locations on the insular shelf south of St. Thomas and St....

  18. De Barbados a Samoa: repaso de los principales hitos de los pequeños estados insulares en desarrollo desde 1994 hasta 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario José Gallego

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Los pequeños Estados insulares en desarrollo precisaban de una voz común que se pudo escuchar por primera vez en Barbados, en 1994, durante la primera Conferencia celebrada para tratar los asuntos propios de estos espacios vulnerables por su tamaño y condición insular. El despegue posterior de este grupo de Estados en la arena internacional hasta la recientemente celebrada tercera Conferencia, en septiembre de 2014 en Samoa, es el tema central del artículo. El repaso a los diferentes momentos clave sucedidos durante estas dos décadas permite constatar los asuntos prioritarios para este grupo de países en cada contexto y sus avances hacia la completa institucionalización de sus asuntos por parte de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas.

  19. José Lezama Lima e a busca da identidade insular: Uma reflexão sobre a fronteira imagínaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma L. da Fonseca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo das ilhas já foi, pioneiramente, interesse dos cientistas naturais e dos geógrafos, passando para o campo dos estudos antropológicos e históricos devido à sua especificidade espacial. Cada área de conhecimento buscou compreender espécies de seres vivos e seu comportamento no mundo insular por um lado protegido pelas fronteiras limitadas da água e por outro, ameaçado pela restrição de seu habitat. Através da literatura de um homem insular, José Lezama Lima, buscamos fazer algumas análises de sua convivência com o espaço da ilha e sua identidade cultural.

  20. Role of intestinal flora in colorectal cancer from the metabolite perspective: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuwen; Gao, Jianlan; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Shanshan; Wen, Caixia

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common human malignant tumors. Recent research has shown that colorectal cancer is a dysbacteriosis-induced disease; however, the role of intestinal bacteria in colorectal cancer is unclear. This review explores the role of intestinal flora in colorectal cancer. In total, 57 articles were included after identification and screening. The pertinent literature on floral metabolites in colorectal cancer from three metabolic perspectives – including carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism – was analyzed. An association network regarding the role of intestinal flora from a metabolic perspective was constructed by analyzing the previous literature to provide direction and insight for further research on intestinal flora in colorectal cancer. PMID:29440929

  1. Alteration in the endogenous intestinal flora of swiss webster mice by experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandack Nobre

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The association between worm infections and bacterial diseases has only recently been emphasized. This study examined the effect of experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection on endogenous intestinal flora of Swiss Webster mice. Eight mice aging six weeks were selected for this experiment. Four were infected with A. costaricensis and the other four were used as controls. Twenty eight days after the worm infection, all mice in both groups were sacrificed and samples of the contents of the ileum and colon were obtained and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In the mice infected with A. costaricensis there was a significant increase in the number of bacteria of the endogenous intestinal flora, accompanied by a decrease in the number of Peptostreptococcus spp. This alteration in the intestinal flora of mice infected by the nematode may help to understand some bacterial infections described in humans.

  2. The flora phenotype ontology (FLOPO): tool for integrating morphological traits and phenotypes of vascular plants

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2016-11-14

    Background The systematic analysis of a large number of comparable plant trait data can support investigations into phylogenetics and ecological adaptation, with broad applications in evolutionary biology, agriculture, conservation, and the functioning of ecosystems. Floras, i.e., books collecting the information on all known plant species found within a region, are a potentially rich source of such plant trait data. Floras describe plant traits with a focus on morphology and other traits relevant for species identification in addition to other characteristics of plant species, such as ecological affinities, distribution, economic value, health applications, traditional uses, and so on. However, a key limitation in systematically analyzing information in Floras is the lack of a standardized vocabulary for the described traits as well as the difficulties in extracting structured information from free text. Results We have developed the Flora Phenotype Ontology (FLOPO), an ontology for describing traits of plant species found in Floras. We used the Plant Ontology (PO) and the Phenotype And Trait Ontology (PATO) to extract entity-quality relationships from digitized taxon descriptions in Floras, and used a formal ontological approach based on phenotype description patterns and automated reasoning to generate the FLOPO. The resulting ontology consists of 25,407 classes and is based on the PO and PATO. The classified ontology closely follows the structure of Plant Ontology in that the primary axis of classification is the observed plant anatomical structure, and more specific traits are then classified based on parthood and subclass relations between anatomical structures as well as subclass relations between phenotypic qualities. Conclusions The FLOPO is primarily intended as a framework based on which plant traits can be integrated computationally across all species and higher taxa of flowering plants. Importantly, it is not intended to replace established

  3. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler's system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu's concept. Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species. The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92% and 472 temperate genera (51.08%. The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species. These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and

  4. [Markers of antimicrobial drug resistance in the most common bacteria of normal facultative anaerobic intestinal flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavsić, Teodora

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria of normal intestinal flora are frequent carriers of markers of antimicrobial drug resistance. Resistance genes may be exchanged with other bacteria of normal flora as well as with pathogenic bacteria. The increase in the number of markers of resistance is one of the major global health problems, which induces the emergence of multi-resistant strains. The aim of this study is to confirm the presence of markers of resistance in bacteria of normal facultative anaerobic intestinal flora in our region. The experiment included a hundred fecal specimens obtained from a hundred healthy donors. A hundred bacterial strains were isolated (the most numerous representatives of the normal facultative-anaerobic intestinal flora) by standard bacteriological methods. The bacteria were cultivated on Endo agar and SS agar for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. Having been incubated, the selected characteristic colonies were submitted to the biochemical analysis. The susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs was tested by standard disc diffusion method, and the results were interpreted according to the Standard of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2010. The marker of resistance were found in 42% of the isolated bacteria. The resistance was the most common to ampicillin (42% of isolates), amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (14% of isolates), cephalexin (14%) and cotrimoxazole (8%). The finding of 12 multiresistant strains (12% of isolates) and resistance to ciprofloxacin were significant. The frequency of resistance markers was statistically higher in Klebsiella pneumoniae compared to Escherichia coli of normal flora. The finding of a large number of markers of antimicrobial drug resistance among bacteria of normal intestinal flora shows that it is necessary to begin with systematic monitoring of their antimicrobial resistance because it is an indicator of resistance in the population.

  5. The flora phenotype ontology (FLOPO): tool for integrating morphological traits and phenotypes of vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Alshahrani, Mona; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Gosline, George; Groom, Quentin; Hamann, Thomas; Kattge, Jens; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Schmidt, Marco; Sierra, Soraya; Smets, Erik; Vos, Rutger A; Weiland, Claus

    2016-11-14

    The systematic analysis of a large number of comparable plant trait data can support investigations into phylogenetics and ecological adaptation, with broad applications in evolutionary biology, agriculture, conservation, and the functioning of ecosystems. Floras, i.e., books collecting the information on all known plant species found within a region, are a potentially rich source of such plant trait data. Floras describe plant traits with a focus on morphology and other traits relevant for species identification in addition to other characteristics of plant species, such as ecological affinities, distribution, economic value, health applications, traditional uses, and so on. However, a key limitation in systematically analyzing information in Floras is the lack of a standardized vocabulary for the described traits as well as the difficulties in extracting structured information from free text. We have developed the Flora Phenotype Ontology (FLOPO), an ontology for describing traits of plant species found in Floras. We used the Plant Ontology (PO) and the Phenotype And Trait Ontology (PATO) to extract entity-quality relationships from digitized taxon descriptions in Floras, and used a formal ontological approach based on phenotype description patterns and automated reasoning to generate the FLOPO. The resulting ontology consists of 25,407 classes and is based on the PO and PATO. The classified ontology closely follows the structure of Plant Ontology in that the primary axis of classification is the observed plant anatomical structure, and more specific traits are then classified based on parthood and subclass relations between anatomical structures as well as subclass relations between phenotypic qualities. The FLOPO is primarily intended as a framework based on which plant traits can be integrated computationally across all species and higher taxa of flowering plants. Importantly, it is not intended to replace established vocabularies or ontologies, but rather

  6. Living on the edge: timing of Rand Flora disjunctions congruent with ongoing aridification in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Lisa; Riina, Ricarda; Mairal, Mario; Meseguer, Andrea S; Culshaw, Victoria; Cendoya, Jon; Serrano, Miguel; Carbajal, Rodrigo; Ortiz, Santiago; Heuertz, Myriam; Sanmartín, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Rand Flora is a well-known floristic pattern in which unrelated plant lineages show similar disjunct distributions in the continental margins of Africa and adjacent islands-Macaronesia-northwest Africa, Horn of Africa-Southern Arabia, Eastern Africa, and Southern Africa. These lineages are now separated by environmental barriers such as the arid regions of the Sahara and Kalahari Deserts or the tropical lowlands of Central Africa. Alternative explanations for the Rand Flora pattern range from vicariance and climate-driven extinction of a widespread pan-African flora to independent dispersal events and speciation in situ. To provide a temporal framework for this pattern, we used published data from nuclear and chloroplast DNA to estimate the age of disjunction of 17 lineages that span 12 families and nine orders of angiosperms. We further used these estimates to infer diversification rates for Rand Flora disjunct clades in relation to their higher-level encompassing lineages. Our results indicate that most disjunctions fall within the Miocene and Pliocene periods, coinciding with the onset of a major aridification trend, still ongoing, in Africa. Age of disjunctions seemed to be related to the climatic affinities of each Rand Flora lineage, with sub-humid taxa dated earlier (e.g., Sideroxylon) and those with more xeric affinities (e.g., Campylanthus) diverging later. We did not find support for significant decreases in diversification rates in most groups, with the exception of older subtropical lineages (e.g., Sideroxylon, Hypericum, or Canarina), but some lineages (e.g., Cicer, Campylanthus) showed a long temporal gap between stem and crown ages, suggestive of extinction. In all, the Rand Flora pattern seems to fit the definition of biogeographic pseudocongruence, with the pattern arising at different times in response to the increasing aridity of the African continent, with interspersed periods of humidity allowing range expansions.

  7. Deciphering shallow paleomagnetic inclinations: 1. Implications from correlation of Albian volcanic rocks along the Insular/Intermontane Superterrane boundary in the southern Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, M. L.; Enkin, R. J.; Mahoney, J. B.; Mustard, P. S.; Baker, J.

    2003-04-01

    Geologic and paleomagnetic data lead to two contradictory hypotheses regarding the paleoposition of the Insular and Intermontane Superterranes that presently constitute the western Canadian Cordillera. Paleomagnetic data from the Insular and Intermontane superterranes suggest a southerly origin coinciding with the latitude of Mexico and the northwest United States, respectively, during the mid-Cretaceous. Geologic evidence points to a northerly origin for these same tectonic entities during this period; both models cannot be correct. Geologic and paleomagnetic data from the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area in south central British Columbia (51.5°N, 122.5°W) are critical to resolving these contradictory hypotheses. Late Cretaceous rocks correlated to the Insular Superterrane with large paleomagnetic displacements unconformably overlie mid-Cretaceous rocks correlative to the Spences Bridge Group of the Intermontane Superterrane. We provide paleomagnetic evidence of this correlation based on similar magnetic properties, opaque mineral assemblages, demagnetization behavior, fold test results, mean inclinations, clockwise vertical axes rotations, and statistically indistinguishable paleomagnetic poles and displacement estimates. This correlation and the observed geologic relationships in the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area indicate that the Insular and Intermontane Superterranes were linked by the mid-Cretaceous. Sites from the two previous Spences Bridge Group studies are combined with their correlatives in the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area to give 81 sites that yield a paleomagnetic pole of 60.5°N, 304.5°E, dp = 3.7°, dm = 5.5° which corresponds to 1050 ± 450 km of displacement from the south. This new displacement estimate suggests that the Spences Bridge arc formed at the latitude of southern Oregon during the mid-Cretaceous.

  8. Mepraia spinolai in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean Coast (Chile - First insular record and feeding pattern on the Pan de Azúcar Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagua Franco Hernán

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In a field collection performed at Pan de Azúcar Island in Northern Chile, 95 specimens representing all instars of Mepraia spinolai were collected. The intestinal contents of 55 specimens were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and were found to be negative. This is the first record of an insular habitat for M. spinolai, where the insects had fed mainly on seabirds (78%, some on marine mammals (5%, and some on reptiles (7%.

  9. Changes in the lichen flora influenced by the Bełchatów Industrial Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of our study, i.e.. before opening the Bełchatów brown coal mine and the power station 155 species of lichens were registered in the period 1970-1985. A preliminary estimation of the influence of the Bełchatów Industrial Region (BIR on the lichen flora has been performed. More than 1% of the lichen flora has entirely disappcared, about 43% of the species have shown partial devastation of their localities and numerous localities of more than 35% of taxa have been threatened.

  10. Thallophytic algal flora from a new Silurian Lagerstätte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinn, Oive

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Algae have always been the most diverse and numerous eukaryotic autotrophs in marine ecosystems. Both fossil andmolecular data point to an early Proterozoic origin for algae. Although known for their long evolutionary history, the fossil recordof algae is sparse and mainly remains of taxa with heavily calcified thalli are preserved. However, fossils of noncalcareous algae,known as extremely sporadic and occasional finds from different parts of the world, provide important insights into thepalaeobiology of algal flora in the Earth's past. Here we describe highly diverse flora of noncalcareous thallophytic algae from aSilurian age deposit.

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PIGMENTS ON REGENERANTS FROM IN VITRO AND SPONTANEOUS FLORA OF THYMUS sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA M. ROŞU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quantitative determination of pigments extract of Thymus sp. from in vitro culture and spontaneous flora. For in vitro culture were used phytohormones (indoleacetic acid-IAA, indole-3-butyric acid-IBA and benzylaminopurine-BAP in order to obtain a high yield in development of Thymus sp. plants. The source of spontaneous flora of Thymus sp. was Bacau (Magura, Romania. The biochemical investigations realised on Thymus sp. using Thin Layer Chromatography and the UV-Vis spectrophotometry showed that the production of assimilating pigments is influenced by growth and lighting conditions of plants.

  12. Folleto informativo sobre fauna y flora para la autopreparación de los inspectores aduanales

    OpenAIRE

    María Teresa Oviedo Pérez; Ángela M. Fernández Serrano

    2010-01-01

    La Convención sobre el Comercio Internacional de Especies Amenazadas de Fauna y Flora Silvestres, firmada en Washington el 3 de marzo de 1973, de la que la República de Cuba es parte desde el 19 de julio de 1990, establece los requisitos para la importación, la exportación, la reexportación y la introducción de las especies, partes o derivados de la fauna y la flora silvestres, amenazadas o en peligro de extinción y las Resoluciones adoptadas p...

  13. Determination of specific alpha-radioactivity of flora samples from semipalatinsk test site (STS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blekhman, A.M.; Dujsenbaev, A.; Orazova, A.O.

    1999-01-01

    For further rehabilitation of soil earlier contaminated with radioactive fallout, the method of radionuclide absorption by plants is vital. The last updating of electronic system of the facility meant to analyze impulse shape /2/ helped to enlarge dynamical range of registration and reduction of identification threshold for alpha particles up to 50 keV. We have developed methods for STS flora samples preparation and performed first measurements of their specific alpha activity. Measurement results are in table 1. Measurement results analysis shows that STS flora samples can accumulate considerable concentrations of alpha active nuclides

  14. Notes i contribucions al coneixement de la flora de Menorca (X). Notes florístiques

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga-Arguimbau, Pere

    2014-01-01

    Es donen a conèixer noves dades corològiques i observacions taxonòmiques per a la flora de Menorca referents a 50 tàxons. D'aquests 13 són novetat per a la flora de les Balears: Agrostis stolonifera subsp. gaditana (Boiss. & Reut.) Valdés & H. Scholz, Asteriscus pygmaeus (DC.) Coss. & Durieu, Callitriche obtnsangula Le Gall, Dactylis glomerata subsp. hackelii (Asch. & Graebn.) Cif. & Giacom., Daucus muricatus (L.) L., Ehrharta calycina J.E. Sm., Eleocharis palustris subsp. waltersii Bures & D...

  15. Effect of irradiation upon the bacterial flora in patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, D.H.; Gill, G.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-two consecutive patients with cancer of the head and neck, who were to receive a full tumoricidal dose of irradiation to a field that included the oral cavity and pharynx, were studied to determine the effect of the irradiation on their local bacterial flora. Aerobic cultures were taken prior to, at the completion of, and one month after the completion of their irradiation. The percentage of patients with potentially pathogenic organisms increased dramatically as the effect of the irradiation increased. This change in the local flora has obvious implications concerning the increased incidence of postoperative wound infections in patients who have received prior irradiation

  16. Distortion of time interval reproduction in an epileptic patient with a focal lesion in the right anterior insular/inferior frontal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, Vincent; Pfeuty, Micha; Klein, Madelyne; Collé, Steffie; Brissart, Hélène; Jonas, Jacques; Maillard, Louis

    2014-11-01

    This case report on an epileptic patient suffering from a focal lesion at the junction of the right anterior insular cortex (AIC) and the adjacent inferior frontal cortex (IFC) provides the first evidence that damage to this brain region impairs temporal performance in a visual time reproduction task in which participants had to reproduce the presentation duration (3, 5 and 7s) of emotionally-neutral and -negative pictures. Strikingly, as compared to a group of healthy subjects, the AIC/IFC case considerably overestimated reproduction times despite normal variability. The effect was obtained in all duration and emotion conditions. Such a distortion in time reproduction was not observed in four other epileptic patients without insular or inferior frontal damage. Importantly, the absolute extent of temporal over-reproduction increased in proportion to the magnitude of the target durations, which concurs with the scalar property of interval timing, and points to an impairment of time-specific rather than of non temporal (such as motor) mechanisms. Our data suggest that the disability in temporal reproduction of the AIC/IFC case would result from a distorted memory representation of the encoded duration, occurring during the process of storage and/or of recovery from memory and leading to a deviation of the temporal judgment during the reproduction task. These findings support the recent proposal that the anterior insular/inferior frontal cortices would be involved in time interval representation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  18. Fossil Flora of the John Day Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Frank Hall

    1902-01-01

    For a number of years I have been gradually accumulating material for a thorough revision of the Tertiary floras of the Pacific slope. Fossil plants are known to occur at numerous points within this area, and their study and identification has already furnished valuable data bearing on the geological history of the region, and when still further exploited it is confidently expected that they will afford more exact data for the use of geologists. This investigation is progressing satisfactorily, and at no distant day it is hoped to have it in form for final publication. From time to time various members of the United States Geological Survey, as well as others not connected with this organization, have sent in small collections of fossil plants for determination. These have been studied and reported upon as fully as the condition of the problem permitted, so that the determinations could be immediately available to geologists, but with the reservation that none of the questions could be fully settled until all known material had been studied and properly correlated. The rich fossil plant deposits in the John Day Basin, as set forth more fully in the historical account which follows, have been known for a period of nearly fifty years, but their study has been carried on in a more or less desultory manner. There has also been considerable confusion as to the horizons whence these plants came. As various species of plants described originally from the John Day region were detected in various other localities in Oregon, and in surrounding areas, as central Washington, western Idaho, and northern California, it became more than ever apparent that a thorough study of all material obtainable from this type area would be necessary before any definite or satisfactory conclusions could be reached. The immediate incentive for this revision was furnished by the receipt of a considerable collection of plants, made by Dr. John C. Merriam in 1900 while he was in charge of an

  19. Pleistocene and Holocene Iberian flora: a complete picture and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sampériz, Penélope

    2010-05-01

    A detailed analysis of the location and composition of Iberian vegetation types during the whole Pleistocene and Holocene periods shows a complex patched landscape with persistence of different types of ecosystems, even during glacial times. In addition, recent, high-resolution palaeoecological records are changing the traditional picture of post-glacial vegetation succession in the Iberian Peninsula. The main available charcoal and pollen sequences include, coniferous and deciduous forest, steppes, shrublands, savannahs and glacial refugia during the Pleistocene for Meso-thermophytes (phytodiversity reservoirs), in different proportions. This panorama suggests an environmental complexity that relates biotic responses to climate changes forced by Milankovitch cycles, suborbital forcings and by the latitudinal and physiographic particularities of the Iberian Peninsula. Thus, many factors are critical in the course of vegetational developments and strong regional differences are observed since the Early Pleistocene. Currently, the flora of Iberia is located in two biogeographical/climatic regions: the Eurosiberian and the Mediterranean. The first one includes northern and northwestern areas of the peninsula, where post-glacial responses of vegetation are very similar to Central Europe, although with some particularities due to its proximity to both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean region. The second one comprises the main territory of Iberia and shows more complex patterns and singularities, now and in the past. Steppe landscapes dominated extensive areas over all the territory during the cold spells of the Quaternary, especially during the Late Pleistocene up to the Last Glacial Maximum, but differences in composition of the dominant taxa (Compositae versus Artemisia) are observed since the Early Pleistocene, probably related to moisture regional gradients. Coastal shelves and intramountainous valleys, even in continental areas, are spots of floristic

  20. Evasive mating behaviour by female nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre, 1788, in an equatorial insular breeding ground

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    André S. Afonso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mating events and aggregations of vulnerable nurse sharks Ginglymostoma cirratum were recorded in the insular protected area of Fernando de Noronha (FEN, Brazil, between April and August 2015. Female sharks were observed clustering in groups of up to 14 individuals in shallow water adjacent to the shore. Several evasive mating behaviours in the presence of males were noticed, including shoreward movement, positioning ventral side up at the sea surface with emerged pectoral and pelvic fins, body rolling and caudal fin thrashing. Fresh bite marks indicative of male courtship and coupling attempts were visible in female's pectoral and caudal fins. Altogether, the observed behaviours match previous reports of non-cooperative female nurse sharks during mating opportunities. An extended mating season coupled with a persistent use of inshore habitats result in nurse sharks being particularly vulnerable to human pressure during a most sensitive stage of their life cycle. The effective conservation of nurse shark populations from the western South Atlantic may thus depend on the protection of critical habitats where this species aggregates to reproduce. Explicitly addressing environmental requirements by vulnerable species in local management strategies is indispensable to ensure that human pressure, including ecotourism development, does not collide with stipulated conservation aims.

  1. Dynamics of avian haemosporidian assemblages through millennial time scales inferred from insular biotas of the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Leticia; Latta, Steven C; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-06-20

    Although introduced hemosporidian (malaria) parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) have hastened the extinction of endemic bird species in the Hawaiian Islands and perhaps elsewhere, little is known about the temporal dynamics of endemic malaria parasite populations. Haemosporidian parasites do not leave informative fossils, and records of population change are lacking beyond a few decades. Here, we take advantage of the isolation of West Indian land-bridge islands by rising postglacial sea levels to estimate rates of change in hemosporidian parasite assemblages over a millennial time frame. Several pairs of West Indian islands have been connected and separated by falling and rising sea levels associated with the advance and retreat of Pleistocene continental glaciers. We use island isolation following postglacial sea-level rise, ca. 2.5 ka, to characterize long-term change in insular assemblages of hemosporidian parasites. We find that assemblages on formerly connected islands are as differentiated as assemblages on islands that have never been connected, and both are more differentiated than local assemblages sampled up to two decades apart. Differentiation of parasite assemblages between formerly connected islands reflects variation in the prevalence of shared hemosporidian lineages, whereas differentiation between islands isolated by millions of years reflects replacement of hemosporidian lineages infecting similar assemblages of avian host species.

  2. Sodium butyrate into the insular cortex during conditioned taste-aversion acquisition delays aversive taste memory extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Reyes-López, Julian; Miranda, María Isabel

    2014-04-16

    Histone acetylation is one mechanism that promotes gene expression, and it increases during learning of various tasks. Specifically, novel taste consumption produces an increased acetylation of histone lysine residues in the insular cortex (IC), where protein synthesis is crucial during memory consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). However, the role of this elevated histone acetylation during CTA learning has not been examined directly. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of sodium butyrate (NaBu), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, injected into the IC during CTA acquisition. Male Wistar rats, IC bilaterally implanted, were injected 60 min before saccharine presentation, with a total volume of 0.5 µl of NaBu solution (100, 500, and 10 µg/0.5 µl) or saline; 30 min later animals were injected intraperitoneally with lithium chloride, a malaise-inducing drug. The next day, CTA retrieval was tested. No effects of NaBu were observed during acquisition or retrieval, but during extinction trials, a significant delay in aversive memory extinction was observed in the group injected with the lowest NaBu dose. This result indicates that NaBu in the IC strengthens CTA and delays aversive memory extinction, and suggests that histone acetylation could increase long-term taste-aversive memory strength.

  3. Acute infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the insular cortex promotes conditioned taste aversion extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Serrano, Luis M; Ramírez-León, Betsabee; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2014-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators not only for synaptic plasticity, but also for the behavioral organism-environment interactions. Our previous studies in the insular cortex (IC), a neocortical region that has been related with acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that intracortical microinfusion of BDNF induces a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla)-IC projection and enhances the retention of CTA memory of adult rats in vivo. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether acute BDNF-infusion in the IC modifies the extinction of CTA. Accordingly, animals were trained in the CTA task and received bilateral IC microinfusions of BDNF before extinction training. Our results showed that taste aversion was significantly reduced in BDNF rats from the first extinction trial. Additionally, we found that the effect of BDNF on taste aversion did not require extinction training. Finally we showed that the BDNF effect does not degrade the original taste aversion memory trace. These results emphasize that BDNF activity underlies memory extinction in neocortical areas and support the idea that BDNF is a key regulator and mediator of long-term synaptic modifications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Insular identity and urban contexts: representations of the local in the construction of an image of Palma (Mallorca, Balearic Islands

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    Mercè Picornell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the relationship between island and city in the configuration of an insular identity. The hypothesis addresses the special visibility that, in the case of small islands, results from the confrontation between two relevant singularities – the city and the island – in the symbolic conceptualization of territory. The opposition between island contexts and urban spaces is thus considered in terms of the local/global and rural/urban binaries. These are analysed in contemporary cultural representations of the relationship between the island of Mallorca and its historical and administrative capital, Palma. Since the 1960s, Mallorca has become a mass tourism destination with a considerable demographic impact, especially in the capital, which is the island’s gateway for both tourism and immigration. This paper considers geographical, literary and media discourses along with particular mass-consumption cultural products to argue that Palma is represented as a predatory ‘monster’ devouring the island’s ‘local’ identity. It is argued that different types of neo-ruralism have emerged and reinforced the opposition between the island and the city. This opposition underlies a process of counter-acculturation that delineates and strengthens Mallorcan self-representation in a context defined by an increasingly diverse population as a result of tourism and migratory flows.

  5. Time and decision making: differential contribution of the posterior insular cortex and the striatum during a delay discounting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Leland, David S; Paulus, Martin P

    2007-06-01

    Delay discounting refers to the fact that an immediate reward is valued more than the same reward if it occurs some time in the future. To examine the neural substrates underlying this process, we studied 13 healthy volunteers who repeatedly had to decide between an immediate and parametrically varied delayed hypothetical reward using a delay discounting task during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subject's preference judgments resulted in different discounting slopes for shorter ( or =1 year) delays. Neural activation associated with the shorter delays relative to the longer delays was associated with increased activation in the head of the left caudate nucleus and putamen. When individuals selected the delayed relative to the immediate reward, a strong activation was found in bilateral posterior insular cortex. Several brain areas including the left caudate nucleus showed a correlation between the behaviorally determined discounting and brain activation for the contrast of intervals with delays or =1 year. These results suggest that (1) the posterior insula, which is a critical component of the decision-making neural network, is involved in delaying gratification and (2) the degree of neural activation in the striatum, which plays a fundamental role in reward prediction and in time estimation, may code for the time delay.

  6. Experience of the Canary Islands in the development of insular 100% RES systems and micro-grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piernavieja, Gonzalo; Suarez, Salvador; Henriquez, Daniel [Instituto Tecnologico de Canarias (Canary Islands Institute of Technology - ITC), Las Palmas, Gran Canaria (Spain). RandD Div.

    2010-07-01

    Given the mentioned circumstances, conventional energy planning in the Canary Islands is a very complex task. The Regional Energy Plan PECAN (2007-2015) tries to correct the existing critical situation setting, among others, the ambitious goal of >25% electricity from RES (mostly wind) for 2015. In parallel to this conventional energy planning, outstanding initiatives in the distributed generation field are underway. ITC vision is that the Canarian Archipelago, given its particular characteristics (insular systems of different sizes, abundant RES potential -different sources-, important natural and biodiversity heritage, etc.), are a laboratory for testing and demonstrating new energy technologies in real conditions, as well as their commercial implementation. These new technologies include energy storage (particularly for excess RES that cannot be absorbed by the grids), development of 100% energy self- sufficiency models (with exclusive use of RES) and micro-/minigrids with high RES penetration and RES forecasting, including advanced ICTs and sustainable mobility concepts (e.g. V2G technologies). Given the high conventional generation costs and the relatively low RES costs (wind electricity production cost is less than 0.03 Euro/kWh), the Canary Islands could in the short term achieve grid parity, and in this sense pioneer the change to a RES based energy system. Models tested on the islands could be exported or extrapolated to our islands, regions of developing countries and even other regions in continental Europe. (orig.)

  7. Population structure and genetic variability of mainland and insular populations of the Neotropical water rat, Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae

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    Francisca C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven microsatellite loci were used to investigate the genetic variability and structure of six mainland and two island populations of the Neotropical water rat Nectomys squamipes, a South American semi-aquatic rodent species with a wide distribution. High levels of variability were found within mainland populations while island populations were less variable but the more differentiated in respect to allele number and frequency. The time of biological divergence between mainland and island populations coincided with geological data. A significant geographic structure was found in mainland populations (theta = 0.099; rho = 0.086 although the degree of differentiation was relatively low in respect to the distance between surveyed localities (24 to 740 km. Genetic and geographic distances were not positively correlated as previously found with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Significant but low genetic differentiation in the mainland and lack of isolation by distance can be explained by large population size and/or recent population expansion. Additionally, the agreement between the age of geologic events (sea level fluctuations and divergence times for insular populations points to a good reference for molecular clock calibration to associate recent environmental changes and the distribution pattern of small mammals in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

  8. The insular cortex: relationship to skin conductance responses to facial expression of emotion in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sarah J; Bellerose, Jenny; Douglas, Danielle; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2014-03-01

    The insula plays an important role both in emotion processing and in the generation of epileptic seizures. In the current study we examined thickness of insular cortices and bilateral skin conductance responses (SCR) in healthy subjects in addition to a small number of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. SCR measures arousal and is used to assess non-conscious responses to emotional stimuli. We used two emotion tasks, one explicitly about emotion and the other implicit. The explicit task required judgments about emotions being expressed in photographs of faces, while the implicit one required judgments about the age of the people in the photographs. Patients and healthy differed in labeling neutral faces, but not other emotions. They also differed in their SCR to emotions, though the profile depended on which hand the recordings were from. Finally, we found relationships between the thickness of the insula and SCR to each task: in the healthy group the thickness of the left insula was related to SCR to the emotion-labeling task; in the patient group it was between the thickness of the right insula and SCR in the age-labeling task. These patterns were evident only for the right hand recordings, thus underscoring the importance of bilateral recordings.

  9. In favor of general probability distributions: lateral prefrontal and insular cortices respond to stimulus inherent, but irrelevant differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres-Missé, Anna; Trampel, Robert; Turner, Robert; Kotz, Sonja A

    2016-04-01

    A key aspect of optimal behavior is the ability to predict what will come next. To achieve this, we must have a fairly good idea of the probability of occurrence of possible outcomes. This is based both on prior knowledge about a particular or similar situation and on immediately relevant new information. One question that arises is: when considering converging prior probability and external evidence, is the most probable outcome selected or does the brain represent degrees of uncertainty, even highly improbable ones? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the current study explored these possibilities by contrasting words that differ in their probability of occurrence, namely, unbalanced ambiguous words and unambiguous words. Unbalanced ambiguous words have a strong frequency-based bias towards one meaning, while unambiguous words have only one meaning. The current results reveal larger activation in lateral prefrontal and insular cortices in response to dominant ambiguous compared to unambiguous words even when prior and contextual information biases one interpretation only. These results suggest a probability distribution, whereby all outcomes and their associated probabilities of occurrence--even if very low--are represented and maintained.

  10. The extreme insular adaptation of Garganornis ballmanni Meijer, 2014: a giant Anseriformes of the Neogene of the Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Rossi, Maria Adelaide; Göhlich, Ursula B.

    2017-01-01

    New skeletal elements of the recently described endemic giant anseriform Garganornis ballmanni Meijer, 2014 are presented, coming from the type-area of the Gargano and from Scontrone, southern and central Italy, respectively. The new remains represent the first bird remains found at Scontrone so far, and another shared element between these two localities, both part of the Apulia-Abruzzi Palaeobioprovince. The presence of a very reduced carpometacarpus confirms its flightlessness, only previously supposed on the basis of the very large size, while the morphologies of tarsometatarsus and posterior phalanges clearly indicate the adaptation of G. ballmanni to a terrestrial, non-aquatic, lifestyle. Its very large body size is similar to that observed in different, heavily modified, insular waterfowl and has been normally interpreted as the response to the absence of terrestrial predators and a protection from the aerial ones. The presence of a carpal knob in the proximal carpometacarpus also indicates a fighting behaviour for this large terrestrial bird species. PMID:28280574

  11. Biogeographical divergence of the flora of Yunnan, southwestern China initiated by the uplift of Himalaya and extrusion of Indochina block.

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    Zhu Hua

    Full Text Available The floral composition of Yunnan is conspicuously linked to the biogeographical history of this extremely species-rich province in southwestern China. The floristic compositions of three representative regions in Yunnan were compared to reveal their variation with geography. From southern Yunnan, 4150 native species (including subspecies and varieties from 1240 genera and 183 families of seed plants were recognized. From central Yunnan 3389 native species from 1095 genera and 167 families of seed plants were recognized. From northwestern Yunnan 6807 native species from 1296 genera and 166 families of seed plants were recognized. Although these three floras across Yunnan are similar in familial composition, similarities between the floras of southern and northwestern Yunnan are low at the generic and specific levels. The flora of northwestern Yunnan is dominated by families and genera with cosmopolitan and north temperate distributions, while the flora of southern Yunnan is dominated by tropical families and genera. Northwestern Yunnan is composed largely of temperate genera, of which the highest proportion has a north temperate distribution. In contrast, southern Yunnan has mainly tropical genera, of which most have a tropical Asian distribution. The flora of central Yunnan is a combination of southern and northwestern Yunnan. These three floras might be derived from a common Tertiary tropical or subtropical East Asian flora, but the geological history of each region has influenced its flora, and they have remained divergent since the late Tertiary. The flora of northwestern Yunnan has evolved with the uplift of the Himalayas and by gradual proliferation of mainly cosmopolitan and north temperate floristic elements, while the flora of southern Yunnan has evolved with extrusion of the Indochina block and the influence of mainly tropical Asian elements.

  12. Biogeographical divergence of the flora of Yunnan, southwestern China initiated by the uplift of Himalaya and extrusion of Indochina block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The floral composition of Yunnan is conspicuously linked to the biogeographical history of this extremely species-rich province in southwestern China. The floristic compositions of three representative regions in Yunnan were compared to reveal their variation with geography. From southern Yunnan, 4150 native species (including subspecies and varieties) from 1240 genera and 183 families of seed plants were recognized. From central Yunnan 3389 native species from 1095 genera and 167 families of seed plants were recognized. From northwestern Yunnan 6807 native species from 1296 genera and 166 families of seed plants were recognized. Although these three floras across Yunnan are similar in familial composition, similarities between the floras of southern and northwestern Yunnan are low at the generic and specific levels. The flora of northwestern Yunnan is dominated by families and genera with cosmopolitan and north temperate distributions, while the flora of southern Yunnan is dominated by tropical families and genera. Northwestern Yunnan is composed largely of temperate genera, of which the highest proportion has a north temperate distribution. In contrast, southern Yunnan has mainly tropical genera, of which most have a tropical Asian distribution. The flora of central Yunnan is a combination of southern and northwestern Yunnan. These three floras might be derived from a common Tertiary tropical or subtropical East Asian flora, but the geological history of each region has influenced its flora, and they have remained divergent since the late Tertiary. The flora of northwestern Yunnan has evolved with the uplift of the Himalayas and by gradual proliferation of mainly cosmopolitan and north temperate floristic elements, while the flora of southern Yunnan has evolved with extrusion of the Indochina block and the influence of mainly tropical Asian elements.

  13. Characteristics of the flora of fallow lands on rendzina soils on the Twardowice Plateau (Silesian Upland

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    Beata Babczyńska-Sendek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations on the flora of fallow lands on rendzina soils. The research was carried out in the area of the Twardowice Plateau (the Silesian Upland within 9 areas adjacent to xerothermic grasslands. The investigated flora consisted of 220 vascular plant species with the dominance of native taxa. Plants of xerothermic grasslands and thermophilous edges were the most numerous (32%. The dominance of Libanotis pyrenaica in 4 of the examined areas should be emphasized. The percentage of meadow species was also considerable (25%. Anthropophytes comprised 18% of the flora of fallow lands and archaeophytes prevailed among them (9%. Solidago canadensis, an invasive species, was the constant component of the investigated fallows and sometimes its coverage was remarkable. As a result of the high proportion of xerothermic and thermophilous plants, plants associated with dry soils and soils having an intermediate character between dry and fresh, as well as plants preferring slightly acidic to alkaline soils poor in nitrogen compounds predominated in the investigated fallows. Perennial plants prevailed (65% in the studied flora and slightly more than half of the species reproduced only by seeds. Competitive plant species (C strategists had the highest proportion (39% and species with intermediate strategies CSR, CR and CS were also numerous. The investigations have shown that there are favourable conditions for settling and growth of many xerothermic species in the investigated fallow lands. Moreover, the neighbouring grasslands are the seed source for these areas.

  14. Life-history traits of the northwest European flora : The LEDA database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knevel, IC; Bekker, RM; Bakker, JP; Kleyer, M

    An international group of scientists is building a 'trait base', an open internet database of life-history traits of the Northwest European flora (LEDA) that can be used as a tool in planning, in nature conservation and restoration, and in other applied research. The species-trait matrix will

  15. Choanal and cloacal aerobic bacterial flora in captive green iguanas: a comparative analysis

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    Silvia Barazorda Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterize the choanal and cloacal aerobic bacterial flora in healthy captive green iguanas and to compare it with the bacterial flora of the biofilm present in the water container of each terrarium. Samples were collected from the choana and the cloaca of 20 healthy captive adult green iguanas and from the biofilm of 15 water containers. The final identification of aerobic bacteria was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Salmonella positive samples were serotyped. The most common strains observed at each test location were from 1 choanae: Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter cloacae and Comamonas testosteroni; 2 cloacae: Citrobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and Corynebacterium spp.; and 3 biofilms: Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp. and Acidovorax spp. We showed that apart from Salmonella spp., the choanal and cloacal bacterial flora differed from the microorganisms present in the biofilm of the animal’s water container. These data revealed that healthy captive adult green iguanas harbored several aerobic bacterial strains that in immunosuppressed reptiles may act as opportunistic pathogens. Also, several of the aerobic bacteria identified in samples are potential zoonotic agents. Characterization of the normal background flora in captive reptiles and their environment can contribute to an understanding of the spread of bacterial contamination and the risk of potential zoonotic diseases for people in contact with these animals.

  16. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Echinodermata: Holothuroidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, David L.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Morphology; (3) Systematic Characters; (4) Examination Procedures; (5)…

  17. The Upper Santa Ynez River as Habitat for a Diverse Riparian Flora and Fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Violet Gray; James M. Greaves; Thomas E. Olson

    1989-01-01

    The upper Santa Ynez River, Santa Barbara County, provides habitats for a relatively large population of least Bell's vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus), as well as diverse riparian flora and fauna. Of particular interest is the richness of the species within particular guilds. Four species of vireos: least Bell's, warbling (Vireo...

  18. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae and Sphyriidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ju-Shey

    This report is part of a sub-series to aid biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers, and informed laymen in the identification and study of marine flora and fauna of the Northeastern United States. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Glossary; (3) Key to the marine lernaeopodoid copepods of the Northeastern United…

  19. Compositional similarity among urban floras within and across continents: biogeographical consequences of human mediated biotic interchange

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    La Sorte, F. A.; McKinney, M. L.; Pyšek, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2007), s. 913-921 ISSN 1354-1013 Grant - others:DAISIE(XE) SSPI-CT-2003-511202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : urban floras * homogenization * Europe and USA Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.786, year: 2007

  20. Suppression of Listeria monocytogenes by the Native Micro-Flora in Teewurst Sausage

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    Michline Brice

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumers are interested in the use of non-chemical methods to control pathogens when heat sterilization is not an option. Such is the case with teewurst sausage, a raw spreadable sausage and a popular German commodity. Although Listeria was not found in teewurst, the optimal microbial growing conditions of teewurst coupled with the ubiquity of L. monocytogenes in nature, makes the possibility of contamination of products very possible. This pilot study was conducted to examine teewurst’s native micro-flora’s ability to suppress the outgrowth of L. monocytogenes at 10 °C using standard plate counts and PCR-DGGE. Traditional plating methods showed L. monocytogenes growth significantly decreased when in competition with the teewurst’s native micro-flora (p < 0.05. The native micro-flora of the teewurst suppressed the overall growth of L. monocytogenes by an average of two logs, under these conditions. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE amplicons with unique banding patterns were extracted from DGGE gel for identification. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactobacillus curvatus were identified as a part of the teewurst’s native micro-flora. Although the native micro-flora did not decrease L. monocytogenes to below limits of detection, it was enough of a decrease to warrant further investigation.