WorldWideScience

Sample records for instruments for measuring loads or pressure

  1. Robust Load Cell Cell for Discrete Contact Force Measurements of Sampling Systems and/or Instruments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to develop a simple, robust, extreme environment compatible, mechanical load cell to enable the control of contact forces for placement of...

  2. Assessment of wind turbine load measurement instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfiadakis, E; Papadopoulos, K [CRES (Greece); Borg, N van der [ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Petersen, S M [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Seifert, H [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In the framework of Sub-Task3 `Wind turbine load measurement instrumentation` of EU-project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development`, the load measurement techniques have been assessed by laboratory, full scale and numerical tests. The existing methods have been reviewed with emphasis on the strain gage application techniques on composite materials and recommendations are provided for the optimisation of load measurement techniques. (au) EU. 14 refs.

  3. An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglzim, El-Hassane; Rouane, Amar; El-Moznine, Reddad

    2007-10-17

    In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentationdeveloped in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell orbattery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. Thisinstrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electroniccards. Software under Hpvee ® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout ofthe impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, like the ambienttemperature, the fuel cell temperature, the level of the hydrogen, etc..., were taken withseveral sensors that enable us to control the measurement. To filter the noise and theinfluence of the 50Hz, we have implemented a synchronous detection which filters in a verynarrow way around the useful signal. The theoretical result obtained by a simulation underPspice ® of the method used consolidates the choice of this method and the possibility ofobtaining correct and exploitable results. The experimental results are preliminary results ona 12V vehicle battery, having an inrush current of 330A and a capacity of 40Ah (impedancemeasurements on a fuel cell are in progress, and will be the subject of a forthcoming paper).The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7V, 10V, 8V and 5V)and with two imposed currents (0.6A and 4A). The Nyquist diagram resulting from theexperimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internalimpedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the valuesobtained (both theoretical and practical) enables us to validate our electronic measurementinstrumentation. One of the future uses for this instrumentation is to integrate it with several control sensors, on a vehicle as an embedded system to monitor the degradation of fuel cell membranes.

  4. An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddad El-Moznine

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentationdeveloped in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell orbattery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. Thisinstrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electroniccards. Software under Hpvee® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout ofthe impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, like the ambienttemperature, the fuel cell temperature, the level of the hydrogen, etc..., were taken withseveral sensors that enable us to control the measurement. To filter the noise and theinfluence of the 50Hz, we have implemented a synchronous detection which filters in a verynarrow way around the useful signal. The theoretical result obtained by a simulation underPspice® of the method used consolidates the choice of this method and the possibility ofobtaining correct and exploitable results. The experimental results are preliminary results ona 12V vehicle battery, having an inrush current of 330A and a capacity of 40Ah (impedancemeasurements on a fuel cell are in progress, and will be the subject of a forthcoming paper.The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7V, 10V, 8V and 5Vand with two imposed currents (0.6A and 4A. The Nyquist diagram resulting from theexperimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internalimpedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the valuesobtained (both theoretical and practical enables us to validate our electronic measurementinstrumentation. One of the future uses for this instrumentation is to integrate it with several control sensors, on a vehicle as an embedded system to monitor the degradation of fuel cell membranes.

  5. Instrumenting a pressure suppression experiment for a Mark I boiling water reactor: another measurements engineering challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, W.M.; Brough, W.G.; Miller, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    A 1 / 5 -scale test facility of a pressure-suppression system from a Mark I boiling water reactor was instrumented with seven types of transducers to obtain high-accuracy, dynamic loading data during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. A total of 27 air tests have been completed with an average of 175 transducers recorded for each test. An end-to-end calibration of the total measurement system was run to establish accuracy of the data. The instrumentation verified the analysis of the dynamic loading of the pressure-suppression system

  6. An instrumented implant for vertebral body replacement that measures loads in the anterior spinal column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlmann, Antonius; Gabel, Udo; Graichen, Friedmar; Bender, Alwina; Bergmann, Georg

    2007-06-01

    Realistic loads on a spinal implant are required among others for optimization of implant design and preclinical testing. In addition, such data may help to choose the optimal physiotherapy program for patients with such an implant and to evaluate the efficacy of aids like braces or crutches. Presently, no implant is available that can measure loads in the anterior spinal column during activities of daily life. Therefore, an implant instrumented for in vivo load measurement was developed for vertebral body replacement. The aim of this paper is to describe in detail a telemeterized implant that measures forces and moments acting on it. Six load sensors, a nine-channel telemetry unit and a coil for inductive power supply of the electronic circuits were integrated into a modified vertebral body replacement (Synex). The instrumented part of the implant is hermetically sealed. Patients are videotaped during measurements, and implant loads are displayed on and off line. The average accuracy of load measurement is better than 2% for force and 5% for moment components with reference to the maximum value of 3000 N and 20 Nm, respectively. The measuring implant described here will provide additional information on spinal loads.

  7. Instrumenting a pressure suppression experiment for a MK I boiling water reactor: another measurements engineering challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, W.M.; Brough, W.G.; Miller, T.B.

    1977-01-01

    A scale test facility of a pressure suppression system from a boiling water reactor was instrumented with seven types of transducers to obtain high-accuracy experimental data during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. The instrumentation verified the analysis of the dynamic loading of the pressure suppression system

  8. Review of modern instrumentation for magnetic measurements at high pressure and low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Kamenev, K.V.

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure magnetic susceptibility experiments can provide insights into the changes in magnetic behavior and electric properties which can accompany extreme compressions of material. Instrumentation plays an important role in the experimental work in this field since 1990s. Here we present a comprehensive review of the high-pressure instrumentation development for magnetic measurement from the engineering perspective in the last 20 years. Suitable nonmagnetic materials for high pressure cell are introduced initially. Then we focus on the existing cells developed for magnetic property measurement system (MPMS) SQUID magnetometer from Quantum Design (USA). Two categories of high pressure cells for this system are discussed in detail respectively. Some high pressure cells with built-in magnetic measurement system are also reviewed

  9. Feasibility study for CPR1000 incore measurement instrumentation educed from the reactor pressure vessel upper head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guang Jianwei; Liu Qian; Li Wenhong; Duan Yuangang

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses about the feasibility of in-core measurement instrumentation educed from the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) upper head. Incore instrumentation educed from the reactor pressure vessel upper head is one of advanced technology in the third generation nuclear power plant. This technology can reduce the manufacture problem of RPV; decrease the manufacture time effectively. Furthermore, this technology can get rid of the trouble for loss of water caused by many penetrations in the RPV bottom head, can increase security of nuclear power plant. By the description of structure analysis, comparison, maturity for four type incore instrumentation detectors, the incore instrumentation can be educed from RPV upper head, which can increase reactor's security, reduce the manufacture time, decrease group dose in refueling period. The core design ability can be enhanced through this study. (authors)

  10. Integrated pressure-force-kinematics measuring system for the characterisation of plantar foot loading during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomozzi, C; Macellari, V; Leardini, A; Benedetti, M G

    2000-03-01

    Plantar pressure, ground reaction force and body-segment kinematics measurements are largely used in gait analysis to characterise normal and abnormal function of the human foot. The combination of all these data together provides a more exhaustive, detailed and accurate view of foot loading during activities than traditional measurement systems alone do. A prototype system is presented that integrates a pressure platform, a force platform and a 3D anatomical tracking system to acquire combined information about foot function and loading. A stereophotogrammetric system and an anatomically based protocol for foot segment kinematics is included in a previously devised piezo-dynamometric system that combines pressure and force measurements. Experimental validation tests are carried out to check for both spatial and time synchronisation. Misalignment of the three systems is found to be within 6.0, 5.0 and 1.5 mm for the stereophotogrammetric system, force platform and pressure platform, respectively. The combination of position and pressure data allows for a more accurate selection of plantar foot subareas on the footprint. Measurements are also taken on five healthy volunteers during level walking to verify the feasibility of the overall experimental protocol. Four main subareas are defined and identified, and the relevant vertical and shear force data are computed. The integrated system is effective when there is a need for loading measurements in specific plantar foot subareas. This is attractive both in clinical assessment and in biomechanics research.

  11. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Tests Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) was a development test performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) East Test Area (ETA) Test Stand 116. The test article included a 5% scale Ares I vehicle model and tower mounted on the Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 200 instruments located throughout the test article. There were four primary ASMAT instrument suites: ignition overpressure (IOP), lift-off acoustics (LOA), ground acoustics (GA), and spatial correlation (SC). Each instrumentation suite incorporated different sensor models which were selected based upon measurement requirements. These requirements included the type of measurement, exposure to the environment, instrumentation check-outs and data acquisition. The sensors were attached to the test article using different mounts and brackets dependent upon the location of the sensor. This presentation addresses the observed effect of the sensors and mounts on the acoustic and pressure measurements.

  12. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) is a 5% scale model test of the Ares I vehicle, launch pad and support structures conducted at MSFC to verify acoustic and ignition environments and evaluate water suppression systems Test design considerations 5% measurements must be scaled to full scale requiring high frequency measurements Users had different frequencies of interest Acoustics: 200 - 2,000 Hz full scale equals 4,000 - 40,000 Hz model scale Ignition Transient: 0 - 100 Hz full scale equals 0 - 2,000 Hz model scale Environment exposure Weather exposure: heat, humidity, thunderstorms, rain, cold and snow Test environments: Plume impingement heat and pressure, and water deluge impingement Several types of sensors were used to measure the environments Different instrument mounts were used according to the location and exposure to the environment This presentation addresses the observed effects of the selected sensors and mount design on the acoustic and pressure measurements

  13. Thermophysical instruments for non-destructive examination of tightness and internal gas pressure or irradiated power reactor fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastoushin, V.V.; Novikov, A.Yu.; Bibilashvili, Yu.K.

    1998-01-01

    The developed thermophysical method and technical instruments for non-destructive leak-tightness and gas pressure inspection inside irradiated power reactor fuel rods and FAs under poolside and hot cell conditions are described. The method of gas pressure measuring based on the examination of parameters of thermal convection that aroused in gas volume of rod plenum by special technical instruments. The developed method and technique allows accurate value determination of not only one of the main critical rod parameters, namely total internal gas pressure, that forms rod mean life in the reactor core, but also the partial pressure of every main constituent of gaseous mixture inside irradiated fuel rod, that provides the feasibility of authentic and reliable leak-tightness detection. The described techniques were experimentally checked during the examination of all types power reactor fuel rods existing in Russia (WWER, BN, RBMK) and could form the basis for new technique development for non-destructive examination of PWR (and other) type rods and FAs having gas plenum filled with spring or another elements of design. (author)

  14. Development and Validation of Two Instruments Measuring Intrinsic, Extraneous, and Germane Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepsch, Melina; Schmitz, Florian; Seufert, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Load Theory is one of the most powerful research frameworks in educational research. Beside theoretical discussions about the conceptual parts of cognitive load, the main challenge within this framework is that there is still no measurement instrument for the different aspects of cognitive load, namely intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Hence, the goal of this paper is to develop a differentiated measurement of cognitive load. In Study 1 (N = 97), we developed and analyzed two strategies to measure cognitive load in a differentiated way: (1) Informed rating: We trained learners in differentiating the concepts of cognitive load, so that they could rate them in an informed way. They were asked then to rate 24 different learning situations or learning materials related to either high or low intrinsic, extraneous, or germane load. (2) Naïve rating: For this type of rating of cognitive load we developed a questionnaire with two to three items for each type of load. With this questionnaire, the same learning situations had to be rated. In the second study (N = between 65 and 95 for each task), we improved the instrument for the naïve rating. For each study, we analyzed whether the instruments are reliable and valid, for Study 1, we also checked for comparability of the two measurement strategies. In Study 2, we conducted a simultaneous scenario based factor analysis. The informed rating seems to be a promising strategy to assess the different aspects of cognitive load, but it seems not economic and feasible for larger studies and a standardized training would be necessary. The improved version of the naïve rating turned out to be a useful, feasible, and reliable instrument. Ongoing studies analyze the conceptual validity of this measurement with up to now promising results. PMID:29201011

  15. Development and Validation of Two Instruments Measuring Intrinsic, Extraneous, and Germane Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepsch, Melina; Schmitz, Florian; Seufert, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Load Theory is one of the most powerful research frameworks in educational research. Beside theoretical discussions about the conceptual parts of cognitive load, the main challenge within this framework is that there is still no measurement instrument for the different aspects of cognitive load, namely intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Hence, the goal of this paper is to develop a differentiated measurement of cognitive load. In Study 1 ( N = 97), we developed and analyzed two strategies to measure cognitive load in a differentiated way: (1) Informed rating: We trained learners in differentiating the concepts of cognitive load, so that they could rate them in an informed way. They were asked then to rate 24 different learning situations or learning materials related to either high or low intrinsic, extraneous, or germane load. (2) Naïve rating: For this type of rating of cognitive load we developed a questionnaire with two to three items for each type of load. With this questionnaire, the same learning situations had to be rated. In the second study ( N = between 65 and 95 for each task), we improved the instrument for the naïve rating. For each study, we analyzed whether the instruments are reliable and valid, for Study 1, we also checked for comparability of the two measurement strategies. In Study 2, we conducted a simultaneous scenario based factor analysis. The informed rating seems to be a promising strategy to assess the different aspects of cognitive load, but it seems not economic and feasible for larger studies and a standardized training would be necessary. The improved version of the naïve rating turned out to be a useful, feasible, and reliable instrument. Ongoing studies analyze the conceptual validity of this measurement with up to now promising results.

  16. Development and Validation of Two Instruments Measuring Intrinsic, Extraneous, and Germane Cognitive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Klepsch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Load Theory is one of the most powerful research frameworks in educational research. Beside theoretical discussions about the conceptual parts of cognitive load, the main challenge within this framework is that there is still no measurement instrument for the different aspects of cognitive load, namely intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Hence, the goal of this paper is to develop a differentiated measurement of cognitive load. In Study 1 (N = 97, we developed and analyzed two strategies to measure cognitive load in a differentiated way: (1 Informed rating: We trained learners in differentiating the concepts of cognitive load, so that they could rate them in an informed way. They were asked then to rate 24 different learning situations or learning materials related to either high or low intrinsic, extraneous, or germane load. (2 Naïve rating: For this type of rating of cognitive load we developed a questionnaire with two to three items for each type of load. With this questionnaire, the same learning situations had to be rated. In the second study (N = between 65 and 95 for each task, we improved the instrument for the naïve rating. For each study, we analyzed whether the instruments are reliable and valid, for Study 1, we also checked for comparability of the two measurement strategies. In Study 2, we conducted a simultaneous scenario based factor analysis. The informed rating seems to be a promising strategy to assess the different aspects of cognitive load, but it seems not economic and feasible for larger studies and a standardized training would be necessary. The improved version of the naïve rating turned out to be a useful, feasible, and reliable instrument. Ongoing studies analyze the conceptual validity of this measurement with up to now promising results.

  17. An instrument to measure differential pore pressures in deep ocean sediments: Pop-Up-Pore-Pressure-Instrument (PUPPI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, P.J.; McPhail, S.D.; Packwood, A.R.; Hart, B.

    1985-01-01

    A Pop-Up-Pore-Pressure-Instrument (PUPPI) has been developed to measure differential pore pressures in sediments. The differential pressure is the pressure above or below normal hydrostatic pressure at the depth of the measurement. It is designed to operate in water depths up to 6000 metres for periods of weeks or months, if required, and measures differential pore pressures at depths of up to 3 metres into the sediments with a resolution of 0.05 kPa. It is a free-fall device with a lance which penetrates the sediments. This lance and the ballast weight is disposed when the PUPPI is acoustically released from the sea floor. When combined with permeability and porosity values of deep-sea sediments the pore pressure measurements made using the PUPPI suggest advection velocities as low as 8.8 mm/yr. The mechanical, electrical and acoustic systems are described together with data obtained from both shallow and deep water trials. (author)

  18. Does aquatic exercise reduce hip and knee joint loading? In vivo load measurements with instrumented implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Kutzner

    Full Text Available Aquatic exercises are widely used for rehabilitation or preventive therapies in order to enable mobilization and muscle strengthening while minimizing joint loading of the lower limb. The load reducing effect of water due to buoyancy is a main advantage compared to exercises on land. However, also drag forces have to be considered that act opposite to the relative motion of the body segments and require higher muscle activity. Due to these opposing effects on joint loading, the load-reducing effect during aquatic exercises remains unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the joint loads during various aquatic exercises and to determine the load reducing effect of water. Instrumented knee and hip implants with telemetric data transfer were used to measure the resultant joint contact forces in 12 elderly subjects (6x hip, 6x knee in vivo. Different dynamic, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing activities were performed by the subjects on land and in chest-high water. Non-weight-bearing hip and knee flexion/extension was performed at different velocities and with additional Aquafins. Joint forces during aquatic exercises ranged between 32 and 396% body weight (BW. Highest forces occurred during dynamic activities, followed by weight-bearing and slow non-weight-bearing activities. Compared to the same activities on land, joint forces were reduced by 36-55% in water with absolute reductions being greater than 100%BW during weight-bearing and dynamic activities. During non-weight-bearing activities, high movement velocities and additional Aquafins increased the joint forces by up to 59% and resulted in joint forces of up to 301%BW. This study confirms the load reducing effect of water during weight-bearing and dynamic exercises. Nevertheless, high drag forces result in increased joint contact forces and indicate greater muscle activity. By the choice of activity, movement velocity and additional resistive devices joint forces can be modulated

  19. Optical fiber Bragg grating-instrumented silicone liner for interface pressure measurement within prosthetic sockets of lower-limb amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim; Arifin, Nooranida; Pirouzi, Gholamhossein; Mahamd Adikan, Faisal Rafiq; Shasmin, Hanie Nadia; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-instrumented prosthetic silicone liner that provides cushioning for the residual limb and can successfully measure interface pressures inside prosthetic sockets of lower-limb amputees in a simple and practical means of sensing. The liner is made of two silicone layers between which 12 FBG sensors were embedded at locations of clinical interest. The sensors were then calibrated using a custom calibration platform that mimics a real-life situation. Afterward, a custom gait simulating machine was built to test the liner performance during an amputee's simulated gait. To validate the findings, the results were compared to those obtained by the commonly used F-socket mats. As the statistical findings reveal, both pressure mapping methods measured the interface pressure in a consistent way, with no significant difference (P-values ≥0.05). This pressure mapping technique in the form of a prosthetic liner will allow prosthetics professionals to quickly and accurately create an overall picture of the interface pressure distribution inside sockets in research and clinical settings, thereby improving the socket fit and amputee's satisfaction.

  20. A new transducer for local load measurements of friction and roll pressure in cold flat rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagergren, J.; Wanheim, Tarras; Precz, W.

    2006-01-01

    The only way to establish the true rolling pressure and the true friction condition in cold rolling is to conduct measurements in the roll bite. A new transducer design is therefore proposed, in order to overcome problems in previous measurements in the past 70 years. The new idea is to increase ...... and able to avoid signal disturbance. The pressure and friction stress distribution results was as expected by the authors and showed good reproducibility, together with a proven agreement between recorded and simulated signals....... selected from a steady state with no disturbance from the material flow. The transducer was able to simultaneously measure both the normal pressure and the friction stress. An estimation of the coefficient of friction was accordingly performed. The new transducer works very well, it was seen to be robust...

  1. Instruments for meteorological measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This present rule has for objective to determine the means for meteorological measurement near a site of nuclear facility in which there is not a PWR power plant [fr

  2. Field instrumentation for hydrofracturing stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarnason, Bjarni; Torikka, Arne.

    1989-08-01

    A recently developed system for rock stress measurements by the hydraulic fracturing method is documented in detail. The new equipment is intended for measurement in vertical or nearvertical boreholes, down to a maximum depth of 1000 m. The minimum borehole, diameter required is 56 mm. Downhole instrumentation comprises a straddle packer assembly for borehole fracturing, equipment for determination of fracture orientations and a pressure transducer. The downhole tools are operated by means of a multihose system, containing high pressure hydraulic tubings, signal cable and carrying wire into one hose unit. The surface components of the equipment include a system for generation and control of water pressures up to approximately 75 MPa, an hydraulically operated drum for the multihose and a data acquisition system. All surface instrumentation is permanently mounted on a truck, which also serves as power source for the instrumentation. In addition to the description of instrumentation, the theoretical fundament and the testing procedures associated with the hydraulic fracturing method are briefly outlined

  3. Measurement differences between turbidity instruments, and their implications for suspended sediment concentration and load calculations: A sensor inter-comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymszewicz, A; O'Sullivan, J J; Bruen, M; Turner, J N; Lawler, D M; Conroy, E; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2017-09-01

    The use of turbidity for indicating environmentally detrimental levels of suspended and colloidal matter in freshwater systems, and for defining acceptable water quality standards in national and European drinking water regulations, is well established. Turbidity is therefore frequently adopted as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), or as a relative and objective measure of water clarity in monitoring programmes. Through systematic, controlled experimentation, we tested the response of 12 commercially available turbidity sensors, of various designs, to gauge their measurement consistency when benchmarked against pre-prepared sediment suspensions of known SSC. Results showed that despite calibration to a Formazin standard, sensor responses to identical SSC solutions (in the range of 20-1000 mg L -1 ) varied considerably. For a given SSC, up to five-fold differences in recorded turbidity were recorded across the tested instruments. Furthermore, inconsistent measurements were identified across instruments, regardless of whether they operated using backscatter or side-scatter optical principles. While the findings may have implications for compliance with turbidity-based water quality standards, they are less likely to be an issue when turbidity is being used as a surrogate for SSC, provided that instrument use remains constant and that instrument drift is not an issue. In this study, a field comparison of a subset of four study sensors showed that despite very different absolute turbidity readings for a given SSC, well correlated and reliable turbidity - SSC ratings were established (as evidenced by r 2 coefficients from 0.92 to 0.98). This led to reasonably consistent suspended sediment load estimates of between 64.7 and 70.8 tonnes for a rainfall event analysed. This study highlights the potential for issues to arise when interpreting water turbidity datasets that are often assumed to be comparable, in that measurement inconsistency of the

  4. Patient perspective workshop: moving towards OMERACT guidelines for choosing or developing instruments to measure patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, John R; Fries, James F; Hewlett, Sarah E; Osborne, Richard H; Newman, Stanton; Ciciriello, Sabina; van de Laar, Mart A; Dures, Emma; Minnock, Patricia; Heiberg, Turid; Sanderson, Tessa C; Flurey, Caroline A; Leong, Amy L; Montie, Pamela; Richards, Pam

    2011-08-01

    The workshop Choosing or Developing Instruments held at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 10 meeting was designed to help participants think about the underlying methods of instrument development. Conference pre-reading material and 3 brief introductory presentations elaborated the issues, and participants broke into discussion groups before reconvening to share insights, engage in a more general discussion of the issues, and vote on recommendations. Tradeoffs between using current imperfect measures and the long and complex process of developing new instruments were considered, together with the need for rigor in patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument development. The main considerations for PRO instrument development were listed and a research agenda for action produced. As part of the agenda for action, it is recommended that researchers and patient partners work together to tackle these issues, and that OMERACT bring forward proposals for acceptable instrument development protocols that would meet an enhanced "Truth" statement in the OMERACT Filter.

  5. Development of a Blood Pressure Measurement Instrument with Active Cuff Pressure Control Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsien Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an oscillometric blood pressure (BP measurement approach based on the active control schemes of cuff pressure. Compared with conventional electronic BP instruments, the novelty of the proposed BP measurement approach is to utilize a variable volume chamber which actively and stably alters the cuff pressure during inflating or deflating cycles. The variable volume chamber is operated with a closed-loop pressure control scheme, and it is activated by controlling the piston position of a single-acting cylinder driven by a screw motor. Therefore, the variable volume chamber could significantly eliminate the air turbulence disturbance during the air injection stage when compared to an air pump mechanism. Furthermore, the proposed active BP measurement approach is capable of measuring BP characteristics, including systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, during the inflating cycle. Two modes of air injection measurement (AIM and accurate dual-way measurement (ADM were proposed. According to the healthy subject experiment results, AIM reduced 34.21% and ADM reduced 15.78% of the measurement time when compared to a commercial BP monitor. Furthermore, the ADM performed much consistently (i.e., less standard deviation in the measurements when compared to a commercial BP monitor.

  6. Instruments measuring family or caregiver burden in severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schene, A. H.; Tessler, R. C.; Gamache, G. M.

    1994-01-01

    The consequences of psychiatric disorders for family members, usually called family or caregiver burden, have been studied during the last 4 decades. During this period a variety of instruments have been developed to measure the impact of mental illness on family members, but not all instruments

  7. Instrument for measuring flow velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffo, J.

    1977-01-01

    The design described here means to produce a 'more satisfying instrument with less cost' than comparable instruments known up to now. Instead of one single turbine rotor, two similar ones but with opposite blade inclination and sense of rotation are to be used. A cylindrical measuring body is carrying in its axis two bearing blocks whose shape is offering little flow resistance. On the shaft, supported by them, the two rotors run in opposite direction a relatively small axial distance apart. The speed of each rotor is picked up as pulse recurrence frequency by a transmitter and fed to an electronic measuring unit. Measuring errors as they are caused for single rotors by turbulent flow, profile distortion of the velocity, or viscous flow are to be eliminated by means of the contrarotating turbines and the subsequently added electronic unit, because in these cases the adulterating increase of the angular velocity of one rotor is compensated by a corresponding deceleration of the other rotor. The mean value then indicated by the electronic unit has high accurancy of measurement. (RW) [de

  8. Nuclear instrumentation for radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses. Nuclear detectors and associated electronics facilitate detection and measurement of different types of radiation like alpha particles, beta particles, gamma radiation, and detection of neutrons. Nuclear instrumentation has evolved greatly since the discovery of radioactivity. There has been tremendous advancement in detector technology, electronics, computer technology, and development of efficient algorithms and methods for spectral processing to extract precisely qualitative and quantitative information of the radiation. Various types of detectors and nuclear instruments are presently available and are used for different applications. This paper describes nuclear radiation, its detection and measurement and associated electronics, spectral information extraction, and advances in these fields. The paper also describes challenges in this field

  9. Effects of external pressure loading on human skin blood flow measured by 133Xe clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, G.A. Jr.; Daly, C.H.; Kennedy, D.; Chimoskey, J.

    1976-01-01

    Forearm skin blood flow was measured during external pressure loading in normal human subjects using 133 Xe washout from intracutaneous injection sites. Pressures ranging between 5 and 150 mmHg were applied through a 3-cm-diameter disc placed over the site of flow determination. The pressure was maintained constant by a servo-controlled loading mechanism. Flow decreased with pressures from 5 to 10 and 30 to 150 mmHg, but remained constant with pressures from 10 to 30 mmHg. Reactive hyperemia occurred following removal of pressures of 90 mmHg or greater, but did not occur following removal of lower pressures. The pressure-flow curve for parasacral skin of paraplegic subjects closely paralleled the pressure-flow curve of normal skin at pressures tested: 5 to 15 mmHg. These data are interpreted to demonstrate autoregulation of skin blood flow. Autoregulation in parasacral skin of paraplegic subjects suggests a peripheral mechanism. The occurrence of hyperemia at pressures which exceed the ability of skin to autoregulate suggests that both autoregulation and post occlusion hyperemia may have the same mechanism

  10. Instrument for measuring fuel cladding strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billeter, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    Development work to provide instrumentation for the continuous measurement of strain of material specimens such as nuclear fuel cladding has shown that a microwave sensor and associated instrumentation hold promise. The cylindrical sensor body enclosing the specimen results in a coaxial resonator absorbing microwave energy at frequencies dependent upon the diameter of the specimen. Diametral changes of a microinch can be resolved with use of the instrumentation. Very reasonable values of elastic strain were measured at 75 0 F and 1000 0 F for an internally pressurized 20 percent C.W. 316 stainless steel specimen simulating nuclear fuel cladding. The instrument also indicated the creep strain of the same specimen pressurized at 6500 psi and at a temperature of 1000 0 F for a period of 700 hours. Although the indicated strain appears greater than actual, the sensor/specimen unit experienced considerable oxidation even though an inert gas purge persisted throughout the test duration. By monitoring at least two modes of resonance, the measured strain was shown to be nearly independent of sensor temperature. To prevent oxidation, a second test was performed in which the specimen/sensor units were contained in an evacuated enclosure. The strain of the two prepressurized specimens as indicated by the microwave instrumentation agreed very closely with pre- and post-test measurements obtained with use of a laser interferometer

  11. Research on pressure sensors for biomedical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a piezo-resistive pressure transducer is discussed suitable for recording pressures typically encountered in biomedical applications. The pressure transducer consists of a thin silicon diaphragm containing four strain-sensitive resistors, and is fabricated using silicon monolithic integrated-circuit technology. The pressure transducers can be as small as 0.7 mm outer diameter, and are, as a result, suitable for mounting at the tip of a catheter. Pressure-induced stress in the diaphragm is sensed by the resistors, which are interconnected to form a Wheatstone bridge.

  12. A microwave pressure sounder. [for remote measurement of atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, G. E.; Flower, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for the remote measurement of atmospheric surface pressure will be described. Such measurements could be made from a satellite in polar orbit and would cover many areas for which conventional meteorological data are not available. An active microwave instrument is used to measure the strength of return echoes from the ocean surface at a number of frequencies near the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band. Factors which affect the accuracy with which surface pressure can be deduced from these measurements will be discussed and an instrument designed to test the method by making measurements from an aircraft will be described.

  13. Identification of key outcome measures when using the instrumented timed up and go and/or posturography for fall screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Renee Beach; Kinney, Allison L; Jackson, Kurt; Diestelkamp, Wiebke; Bigelow, Kimberly Edginton

    2017-09-01

    The Timed Up and Go (TUG) has been commonly used for fall risk assessment. The instrumented Timed Up and Go (iTUG) adds wearable sensors to capture sub-movements and may be more sensitive. Posturography assessments have also been used for determining fall risk. This study used stepwise logistic regression models to identify key outcome measures for the iTUG and posturography protocols. The effectiveness of the models containing these measures in differentiating fallers from non-fallers were then compared for each: iTUG total time duration only, iTUG, posturography, and combined iTUG and posturography assessments. One hundred and fifty older adults participated in this study. The iTUG measures were calculated utilizing APDM Inc.'s Mobility Lab software. Traditional and non-linear posturography measures were calculated from center of pressure during quiet-standing. The key outcome measures incorporated in the iTUG assessment model (sit-to-stand lean angle and height) resulted in a model sensitivity of 48.1% and max re-scaled R 2 value of 0.19. This was a higher sensitivity, indicating better differentiation, compared to the model only including total time duration (outcome of the traditional TUG), which had a sensitivity of 18.2%. When the key outcome measures of the iTUG and the posturography assessments were combined into a single model, the sensitivity was approximately the same as the iTUG model alone. Overall the findings of this study support that the iTUG demonstrates greater sensitivity than the total time duration, but that carrying out both iTUG and posturography does not greatly improve sensitivity when used as a fall risk screening tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sources of variance in BC mass measurements from a small marine engine: Influence of the instruments, fuels and loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Yang, Jiacheng; Gagné, Stéphanie; Chan, Tak W.; Thomson, Kevin; Fofie, Emmanuel; Cary, Robert A.; Rutherford, Dan; Comer, Bryan; Swanson, Jacob; Lin, Yue; Van Rooy, Paul; Asa-Awuku, Akua; Jung, Heejung; Barsanti, Kelley; Karavalakis, Georgios; Cocker, David; Durbin, Thomas D.; Miller, J. Wayne; Johnson, Kent C.

    2018-06-01

    Knowledge of black carbon (BC) emission factors from ships is important from human health and environmental perspectives. A study of instruments measuring BC and fuels typically used in marine operation was carried out on a small marine engine. Six analytical methods measured the BC emissions in the exhaust of the marine engine operated at two load points (25% and 75%) while burning one of three fuels: a distillate marine (DMA), a low sulfur, residual marine (RMB-30) and a high-sulfur residual marine (RMG-380). The average emission factors with all instruments increased from 0.08 to 1.88 gBC/kg fuel in going from 25 to 75% load. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested BC emissions against instrument, load, and combined fuel properties and showed that both engine load and fuels had a statistically significant impact on BC emission factors. While BC emissions were impacted by the fuels used, none of the fuel properties investigated (sulfur content, viscosity, carbon residue and CCAI) was a primary driver for BC emissions. Of the two residual fuels, RMB-30 with the lower sulfur content, lower viscosity and lower residual carbon, had the highest BC emission factors. BC emission factors determined with the different instruments showed a good correlation with the PAS values with correlation coefficients R2 >0.95. A key finding of this research is the relative BC measured values were mostly independent of load and fuel, except for some instruments in certain fuel and load combinations.

  15. Measurement of Henry's Law Constants Using Internal Standards: A Quantitative GC Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis or Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chang; Boisvert, Susanne M.; Arida, Ann-Marie C.; Day, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    An internal standard method applicable to undergraduate instrumental analysis or environmental chemistry laboratory has been designed and tested to determine the Henry's law constants for a series of alkyl nitriles. In this method, a mixture of the analytes and an internal standard is prepared and used to make a standard solution (organic solvent)…

  16. Assessment of sexual difficulties associated with multi-modal treatment for cervical or endometrial cancer: A systematic review of measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Isabella D; Sangha, Amrit; Lucas, Grace; Wiseman, Theresa

    2016-12-01

    Practitioners and researchers require an outcome measure that accurately identifies the range of common treatment-induced changes in sexual function and well-being experienced by women after cervical or endometrial cancer. This systematic review critically appraised the measurement properties and clinical utility of instruments validated for the measurement of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in this clinical population. A bibliographic database search for questionnaire development or validation papers was completed and methodological quality and measurement properties of selected studies rated using the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instrument (COSMIN) checklist. 738 articles were screened, 13 articles retrieved for full text assessment and 7 studies excluded, resulting in evaluation of 6 papers; 2 QoL and 4 female sexual morbidity measures. Five of the six instruments omitted one or more dimension of female sexual function and only one instrument explicitly measured distress associated with sexual changes as per DSM V (APA 2013) diagnostic criteria. None of the papers reported measurement error, responsiveness data was available for only two instruments, three papers failed to report on criterion validity, and test-retest reliability reporting was inconsistent. Heterosexual penile-vaginal intercourse remains the dominant sexual activity focus for sexual morbidity PROMS terminology and instruments lack explicit reference to solo or non-coital sexual expression or validation in a non-heterosexual sample. Four out of six instruments included mediating treatment or illness items such as vaginal changes, menopause or altered body image. Findings suggest that the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) remains the most robust sexual morbidity outcome measure, for research or clinical use, in sexually active women treated for cervical or endometrial cancer. Development of an instrument that measures sexual dysfunction in women who are

  17. Dynamic surface-pressure instrumentation for rods in parallel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.; Lawrence, W.

    1979-01-01

    Methods employed and experience gained in measuring random fluid boundary layer pressures on the surface of a small diameter cylindrical rod subject to dense, nonhomogeneous, turbulent, parallel flow in a relatively noise-contaminated flow loop are described. Emphasis is placed on identification of instrumentation problems; description of transducer construction, mounting, and waterproofing; and the pretest calibration required to achieve instrumentation capable of reliable data acquisition

  18. Model SH intelligent instrument for thickness measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Juntao; Jia Weizhuang; Zhao Yunlong

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduce Model SH Intelligent Instrument for thickness measuring by using principle of beta back-scattering and its application range, features, principle of operation, system design, calibration and specifications

  19. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to...

  20. Transient pressure measurements at part load operating condition of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Goyal

    2 Water Power Laboratory, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian ... The present paper focuses on the investigation of a high head model Francis turbine operating at 50% load. ..... cascade of bandpass filters in MATLAB to eliminate the .... simulation of unsteady operation of hydroelectric systems.

  1. Method for sensing and measuring a concentration or partial pressure of a reactant used in a redox reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findl, E.

    1984-12-21

    A method for sensing or measuring the partial pressure or concentration of an electroactive species used in conjunction with an electrolyte, the method being characterized by providing a constant current between an anode and a cathode of an electrolyte-containing cell, while measuring changes in voltage that occur between either the anode and cathode or between a reference electrode and one of the main electrodes of the cell, thereby to determine the concentration or partial pressure of the electro-active species as a function of said measured voltage changes. The method of the invention can be practiced using either a cell having only an anode and a cathode, or using a cell having an anode and a cathode in combination with a reference electrode. Accurate measurements of small concentrations or partial pressures of electro-active species are obtainable with the method of the invention, by using constant currents of only a few microamperes between the anode and cathode of the cell, while the concentration-determining voltage is measured.

  2. Measurement control program for NDA instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems

  3. Flexible pressure sensors for smart protective clothing against impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Bo; Shu, Lin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The development of smart protective clothing will facilitate the quick detection of injuries from contact sports, traffic collisions and other accidents. To obtain real-time information like spatial and temporal pressure distributions on the clothing, flexible pressure sensor arrays are required. Based on a resistive fabric strain sensor we demonstrate all flexible, resistive pressure sensors with a large workable pressure range (0–8 MPa), a high sensitivity (1 MPa −1 ) and an excellent repeatability (lowest non-repeatability ±2.4% from 0.8 to 8 MPa) that can be inexpensively fabricated using fabric strain sensors and biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The pressure sensitivity is tunable by using elastomers with different elasticities or by the pre-strain control of fabric strain sensors. Finite element simulation further confirms the sensor design. The simple structure, large workable pressure range, high sensitivity, high flexibility, facile fabrication and low cost of these pressure sensors make them promising candidates for smart protective clothing against impact loading. (paper)

  4. Characterization of a traceable profiler instrument for areal roughness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen-Schmidt, P

    2011-01-01

    A two-dimensional profiler instrument was designed and realized at the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt). The main function of the instrument is to provide traceable results in the field of roughness measurement. It is equipped with a linear moving stylus which is guided by precision air bearings. The moving part of the stylus has weight around 1 g and is carried by a magnetic field. The contacting force of the tip onto the surface under test is controlled by a small voice coil actuator in a closed control loop. Vertical movements of the stylus are captured by two different, completely independent measurement systems, covering a range of 100 µm. The first one is an interferometer, which provides a traceable signal, and the second one is an inductive measurement system. The signal from the inductive measurement system is calibrated by the interferometer. The sample under test is carried within the x–y-plane by a linear guided table with low noise air bearings. These air bearings are preloaded by vacuum and a constant gap is achieved by gas pressure controllers. Both axes of the table are driven by linear voice coil actuators and their movement in the plane is measured by linear encoders. The sample carrier is equipped with two axes tilt compensation, by which the sample under test can be levelled automatically using the measurement system of the stylus. Real-time data acquisition, manual handling and automated procedures are managed by a programmable controller and proprietary software written in LabVIEW. After measurement, data from the system can be directly transferred into the smd- or sdf-format. Results of measurements on different samples to characterize the metrological behaviour of the instrument will be reported. To characterize the uncertainty of the instrument, a model is applied, which is in accordance with approved rules for contact stylus instruments

  5. Electronic instrumentation system for pulsed neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, J.; Igielski, A.; Kowalik, W.

    1982-01-01

    An essential point of pulsed neutron measurement of thermal neutron parameters for different materials is the registration of the thermal neutron die-away curve after a fast neutron bursts have been injected into the system. An electronic instrumentation system which is successfully applied for pulsed neutron measurements is presented. An important part of the system is the control unit which has been designed and built in the Laboratory of Neutron Parameters of Materials. (author)

  6. Nuclear instrumentation for the industrial measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, S.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with nuclear instrumentation and its application to industry, power plant fuel reprocessing plant and finally with homeland security. The first part concerns the reactor instrumentation, in-core and ex-core measurement system. Ionization Uranium fission chamber will be introduced with their acquisition system especially Campbell mode system. Some progress have been done on regarding sensors failure foresee. The second part of this work deals with reprocessing plant and associated instrumentation for nuclear waste management. Proportional counters techniques will be discussed, especially Helium-3 counter, and new development on electronic concept for reprocessing nuclear waste plant (one electronic for multipurpose acquisition system). For nuclear safety and security for human and homeland will be introduce. First we will explain a new particular approach on operational dosimetric measurement and secondly, we will show new kind of organic scintillator material and associated electronics. Signal treatment with real time treatment is embedded, in order to make neutron gamma discrimination possible even in solid organic scintillator. Finally, the conclusion will point out future, with most trends in research and development on nuclear instrumentation for next years. (author) [fr

  7. Loading-unloading pressure-volume curves for rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, D R; Lilley, E M [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The stress-strain codes (SOC and TENSOR) used to calculate phenomenology of nuclear explosion for the Plowshare Program require inter alia the pressure-volume relationships of the earth media. In this paper we describe a rapid and accurate method to obtain pressure-volume data to 40 kb at 25 deg. C for rocks. These experimental results may also be related to the in situ elastic properties of the rock and to other laboratory measurement of properties, such as ultrasonic experiments with pressure and Hugoniot determinations. Qualitative features of the pressure-volume curves can be related to the initial porosity of the rock. A porous rock is usually quite compressible at low pressures. If the porosity is in the form of narrow cracks, the cracks are closed at a pressure of about 3 to 6 kb, after which the rock is much less compressible. If the porosity is in the form of spherical pores, it is not necessarily removed even at pressures of 40 kb, depending on the strength of the rock, and the compressibility is higher at all pressures than for a similar rock containing no porosity. Data for water-saturated samples show the phase transformation due to free water at about 10 and 22 kb. However, the presence of 'nonliquid' water, which is loosely contained within the lattice of clay or zeolitic minerals or adsorbed on particle surfaces, is also observed. (author)

  8. Loading-unloading pressure-volume curves for rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, D.R.; Lilley, E.M.

    1970-01-01

    The stress-strain codes (SOC and TENSOR) used to calculate phenomenology of nuclear explosion for the Plowshare Program require inter alia the pressure-volume relationships of the earth media. In this paper we describe a rapid and accurate method to obtain pressure-volume data to 40 kb at 25 deg. C for rocks. These experimental results may also be related to the in situ elastic properties of the rock and to other laboratory measurement of properties, such as ultrasonic experiments with pressure and Hugoniot determinations. Qualitative features of the pressure-volume curves can be related to the initial porosity of the rock. A porous rock is usually quite compressible at low pressures. If the porosity is in the form of narrow cracks, the cracks are closed at a pressure of about 3 to 6 kb, after which the rock is much less compressible. If the porosity is in the form of spherical pores, it is not necessarily removed even at pressures of 40 kb, depending on the strength of the rock, and the compressibility is higher at all pressures than for a similar rock containing no porosity. Data for water-saturated samples show the phase transformation due to free water at about 10 and 22 kb. However, the presence of 'nonliquid' water, which is loosely contained within the lattice of clay or zeolitic minerals or adsorbed on particle surfaces, is also observed. (author)

  9. A technique for measuring dynamic friction coefficient under impact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y L; Qin, J G; Chen, R; Zhao, P D; Lu, F Y

    2014-09-01

    We develop a novel setup based on the split Hopkinson pressure bar technique to test the dynamic friction coefficient under impact loading. In the setup, the major improvement is that the end of the incident bar near the specimen is wedge-shaped, which results in a combined compressive and shear loading applied to the specimen. In fact, the shear loading is caused by the interfacial friction between specimen and bars. Therefore, when the two loading force histories are measured, the friction coefficient histories can be calculated without any assumptions and theoretical derivations. The geometry of the friction pairs is simple, and can be either cuboid or cylindrical. Regarding the measurements, two quartz transducers are used to directly record the force histories, and an optical apparatus is designed to test the interfacial slip movement. By using the setup, the dynamic friction coefficient of PTFE/aluminum 7075 friction pairs was tested. The time resolved dynamic friction coefficient and slip movement histories were achieved. The results show that the friction coefficient changes during the loading process, the average data of the relatively stable flat plateau section of the friction coefficient curves is 0.137, the maximum normal pressure is 52 MPa, the maximum relative slip velocity is 1.5 m/s, and the acceleration is 8400 m(2)/s. Furthermore, the friction test was simulated using an explicit FEM code LS-DYNA. The simulation results showed that the constant pressure and slip velocity can both be obtained with a wide flat plateau incident pulse. For some special friction pairs, normal pressure up to a few hundred MPa, interfacial slip velocities up to 10 m/s, and slip movement up to centimeter-level can be expected.

  10. 77 FR 37409 - Request for Domains, Instruments, and Measures for Development of a Standardized Instrument for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... experience as well. On both issues, CMS is interested in instruments and items which can measure quality of... Measures for Development of a Standardized Instrument for Use in Public Reporting of Enrollee Satisfaction..., communication, coordination of care, customer service), instruments, and measures for measuring the level of...

  11. Instrumentation and control strategies for an integral pressurized water reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several vendors have recently been actively pursuing the development of integral pressurized water reactors (iPWRs that range in power levels from small to large reactors. Integral reactors have the features of minimum vessel penetrations, passive heat removal after reactor shutdown, and modular construction that allow fast plant integration and a secure fuel cycle. The features of an integral reactor limit the options for placing control and safety system instruments. The development of instrumentation and control (I&C strategies for a large 1,000 MWe iPWR is described. Reactor system modeling—which includes reactor core dynamics, primary heat exchanger, and the steam flashing drum—is an important part of I&C development and validation, and thereby consolidates the overall implementation for a large iPWR. The results of simulation models, control development, and instrumentation features illustrate the systematic approach that is applicable to integral light water reactors.

  12. An expert system for pressurized water reactor load maneuvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaung Lin; Jungping Chen; Yihjiunn Lin; Lianshin Lin

    1993-01-01

    Restartup after reactor shutdown and load-follow operations are the important tasks in operating pressurized water reactors. Generally, the most efficient method is to apply constant axial offset control (CAOC) strategy during load maneuvers. An expert system using CAOC strategy, fuzzy reasoning, a two-node core model, and operational constraints has been developed. The computation time is so short that this system, which leads to an approximate closed-loop control, could be useful for on-site calculation

  13. Blood pressure measurement: one arm or both arm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prasad K; Shekhar, Susheela; Reddy, B N; Nirmala, B C

    2011-09-01

    Guidelines for measuring blood pressure includes measurement of blood pressure on both arms but it is often ignored. Our case report aims at highlighting the need follow the guidelines. A 60 year old 59 kg weighing male asymptomatic patient without any comobidities was posted for bilateral inguinal hernia repair. The interarm blood pressure difference was discovered incidentally during his preanaesthetic evalution. On further evaluation patient was found to be having subclavian stenosis on left side which was asymptomatic. Intraoperative and post operative period was uneventful. Blood pressure measurement should be done in accordance with the stipulated guidelines. Inter arm blood pressure difference should be noted in all patients as not only for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension but also as a tool to diagnose asymptomatic peripheral vascular disesase.

  14. Novel instrument for characterizing comprehensive physical properties under multi-mechanical loads and multi-physical field coupling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyi; Zhao, Hongwei; Ma, Zhichao; Qiao, Yuansen; Hong, Kun; Ren, Zhuang; Zhang, Jianhai; Pei, Yongmao; Ren, Luquan

    2018-02-01

    Functional materials represented by ferromagnetics and ferroelectrics are widely used in advanced sensor and precision actuation due to their special characterization under coupling interactions of complex loads and external physical fields. However, the conventional devices for material characterization can only provide a limited type of loads and physical fields and cannot simulate the actual service conditions of materials. A multi-field coupling instrument for characterization has been designed and implemented to overcome this barrier and measure the comprehensive physical properties under complex service conditions. The testing forms include tension, compression, bending, torsion, and fatigue in mechanical loads, as well as different external physical fields, including electric, magnetic, and thermal fields. In order to offer a variety of information to reveal mechanical damage or deformation forms, a series of measurement methods at the microscale are integrated with the instrument including an indentation unit and in situ microimaging module. Finally, several coupling experiments which cover all the loading and measurement functions of the instrument have been implemented. The results illustrate the functions and characteristics of the instrument and then reveal the variety in mechanical and electromagnetic properties of the piezoelectric transducer ceramic, TbDyFe alloy, and carbon fiber reinforced polymer under coupling conditions.

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from unknown platforms in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1957-10-21 to 1963-08-15 (NCEI Accession 0157734)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157734 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea,...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1994-12-01 to 1996-01-21 (NODC Accession 0115589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115589 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay...

  17. Measurement Properties of Instruments for Measuring of Lymphedema: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, Janine T; Viehoff, Peter B; Beurskens, Carien H G; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; van der Wees, Philip J

    2016-12-01

    Lymphedema is a common complication of cancer treatment, resulting in swelling and subjective symptoms. Reliable and valid measurement of this side effect of medical treatment is important. The purpose of this study was to provide best evidence regarding which measurement instruments are most appropriate in measuring lymphedema in its different stages. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were used, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Clinical studies on measurement instruments assessing lymphedema were reviewed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) scoring instrument for quality assessment. Data on reliability, concurrent validity, convergent validity, sensitivity, specificity, applicability, and costs were extracted. Pooled data showed good intrarater intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) (.89) for bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) in the lower extremities and high intrarater and interrater ICCs for water volumetry, tape measurement, and perometry (.98-.99) in the upper extremities. In the upper extremities, the standard error of measurement was 3.6% (σ=0.7%) for water volumetry, 5.6% (σ=2.1%) for perometry, and 6.6% (σ=2.6%) for tape measurement. Sensitivity of tape measurement in the upper extremities, using different cutoff points, varied from 0.73 to 0.90, and specificity values varied from 0.72 to 0.78. No uniform definition of lymphedema was available, and a gold standard as a reference test was lacking. Items concerning risk of bias were study design, patient selection, description of lymphedema, blinding of test outcomes, and number of included participants. Measurement instruments with evidence for good reliability and validity were BIS, water volumetry, tape measurement, and perometry, where BIS can detect alterations in extracellular fluid in stage 1 lymphedema and the other measurement instruments can detect alterations in volume

  18. Strain Measurement System Developed for Biaxially Loaded Cruciform Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.

    2000-01-01

    A new extensometer system developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field measures test area strains along two orthogonal axes in flat cruciform specimens. This system incorporates standard axial contact extensometers to provide a cost-effective high-precision instrument. The device was validated for use by extensive testing of a stainless steel specimen, with specimen temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1100 F. In-plane loading conditions included several static biaxial load ratios, plus cyclic loadings of various waveform shapes, frequencies, magnitudes, and durations. The extensometer system measurements were compared with strain gauge data at room temperature and with calculated strain values for elevated-temperature measurements. All testing was performed in house in Glenn's Benchmark Test Facility in-plane biaxial load frame.

  19. Evaluation of the SCA instrument for measuring patient satisfaction with cancer care administered via paper or via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, N; Dandapani, S V; Miksad, R A; Houlihan, M J; Kaplan, I; Regan, M; Greenfield, T K; Sanda, M G

    2011-03-01

    Patients' perspectives provide valuable information on quality of care. This study evaluates the feasibility and validity of Internet administration of Service Satisfaction Scale for Cancer Care (SCA) to assess patient satisfaction with outcome, practitioner manner/skill, information, and waiting/access. Primary data collected from November 2007 to April 2008. Patients receiving cancer care within 1 year were recruited from oncology, surgery, and radiation clinics at a tertiary care hospital. An Internet-based version of the 16-item SCA was developed. Participants were randomised to Internet SCA followed by paper SCA 2 weeks later or vice versa. Seven-point Likert scale responses were converted to a 0-100 scale (minimum-maximum satisfaction). Response distribution, Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest correlations were calculated. Among 122 consenting participants, 78 responded to initial SCA. Mean satisfaction scores for paper/Internet were 91/90 (outcome), 95/94 (practitioner manner/skill), 89/90 (information), and 86/86 (waiting/access). Response rate and item missingness were similar for Internet and paper. Except for practitioner manner/skill, test-retest correlations were robust r = 0.77 (outcome), 0.74 (information), and 0.75 (waiting/access) (all P measurement of cancer care satisfaction for a wide range of cancer diagnoses, treatment modalities, and clinic settings.

  20. Performance tests for instruments measuring radon activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.; Buchroeder, H.; Schmidt, V.

    2009-01-01

    Performance tests of electronic instruments measuring the activity concentration of 222 Rn have been carried out with respect to the standard IEC 61577-2. In total, 9 types of instrument operating with ionization chambers or electrostatic collection have been tested for the influence of different climatic and radiological factors on the measurement characteristics. It is concluded that all types of instrument, which are commercially available, are suitable for indoor radon measurements. Because of the dependence on climatic conditions, the outdoor use is partly limited.

  1. Instrumentation and measurement method for the ATLAS test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Byong Jo; Chu, In Chul; Eu, Dong Jin; Kang, Kyong Ho; Kim, Yeon Sik; Song, Chul Hwa; Baek, Won Pil

    2007-03-15

    An integral effect test loop for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the ATLAS is constructed by thermal-hydraulic safety research division in KAERI. The ATLAS facility has been designed to have the length scale of 1/2 and area scale of 1/144 compared with the reference plant, APR1400 which is a Korean evolution type nuclear reactors. A total 1300 instrumentations is equipped in the ATLAS test facility. In this report, the instrumentation of ATLAS test facility and related measurement methods were introduced.

  2. Instrument for measuring moisture in wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, L

    1980-06-01

    A method to determine the moisture content in wood chips, in batch and on-line, has been investigated. The method can be used for frozen and non frozen chips. Samples of wood chips are thawn and dryed with microwaves. During the drying the sample is weighed continously and the rate of drying is measured. The sample is dried t 10 percent moisture content. The result is extrapolated to the drying rate zero. The acccuracy at the method is 1.6 to 1.7 percent for both frozen and non frozen chips. The accuracy of the method is considered acceptable, but sofisticated sampling equipment is necessary. This makes the method too complex to make the instrument marketable.

  3. Evaluation of construct and criterion validity for the 'Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs' (LOAD clinical metrology instrument and comparison to two other instruments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myles Benjamin Walton

    Full Text Available To test the 'Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs' (LOAD questionnaire for construct and criterion validity, and to similarly test the Helsinki Chronic Pain Index (HCPI and the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI.Prospective Study.222 dogs with osteoarthritis.Osteoarthritis was diagnosed in a cohort of dogs on the basis of clinical history and orthopedic examination. Force-platform analysis was performed and a "symmetry index" for peak vertical force (PVF was calculated. Owners completed LOAD, CBPI and HCPI instruments. As a test of construct validity, inter-instrument correlations were calculated. As a test of criterion validity, the correlations between instrument scores and PVF symmetry scores were calculated. Additionally, internal consistency of all instruments was calculated and compared to those previously reported. Factor analysis is reported for the first time for LOAD, and is compared to that previously reported for CBPI and HCPI.Significant moderate correlations were found between all instruments, implying construct validity for all instruments. Significant weak correlations were found between LOAD scores and PVF symmetry index, and between CBPI scores and PVF symmetry index.LOAD is an owner-completed clinical metrology instrument that can be recommended for the measurement of canine osteoarthritis. It is convenient to use, validated and, as demonstrated here for the first time, has a correlation with force-platform data.

  4. Pipe connection for high pressure and temperature loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haferkamp, D.; Hodzic, A.; Paetz, E.; Stach, H.

    1976-01-01

    The patent proposes an inprovement of the clamping device for a pipe joint connecting pipelines which are subject to high pressure and temperature loads, e.g. in a nuclear power plant. This clamping device may be tightened and loosened by remote control. The proposed clamping ring consists of several segments connected with each other by hinge-type guide pins and fishplates. (UWI) [de

  5. Brazing of Sealing for Instrumentation Feed through of high Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Ahn, S. H.; Joung, C. Y.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, C. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Fuel Test Loop(FTL) is a facility which could conduct a fuel irradiation test at HANARO(High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor). FTL simulates commercial NPP's operating conditions such as the pressure, temperature and neutron flux levels to conduct the irradiation and thermo-hydraulic tests. It is composed of an In-Pile test Section(IPS) and an Out- Pile System(OPS). The OPS contains a pressurizer, cooler, pump, heater and purification system which are necessary to maintain the proper fluid conditions. In addition, the OPS contains engineered safety systems that could safely shutdown both HANARO and FTL if an accident occurs. The IPS accommodating fuel pins has loaded IP-1 hole in HANARO has a double pressure vessel for the design conditions of 350 .deg. C, 17.5MPa and is composed of outer assembly and inner assembly. It has instruments such as a thermocouple, LVDT and SPND to measure the fuel performances during the test. FTL coolant is supplied to the IPS at the core of commercial nuclear power plants and the same temperature, pressure and flow conditions. Sensors installed on the inside of IPS to send a signal transmission MI-Cables to the outside for instrumentation is through the pressure boundary. Therefore, pressure boundary should be maintained in the sealing performance. Brazing is typically lower than the melting point of material without melting the material almost would be like welding when it is necessary to use. It is commonly used to use BAg(ASME II SFA-5.8 UNS-P07563) filler metal, but corrosion occurs containing a large quantity of copper in Bag, and when contact with the coolant, the coolant water quality is influenced. Therefore, using BNi-2(ASME II SFA-5.8 UNS-N99620) filler metal is considered. Brazing at the Sealing Plug in the top of IPS was considered for Mi-cable's integrity and to maintain the pressure boundary. After brazing is performed, brazing the Mi-cable integrity and pressure boundary sealing performance was

  6. Brazing of Sealing for Instrumentation Feed through of high Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Ahn, S. H.; Joung, C. Y.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, C. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Fuel Test Loop(FTL) is a facility which could conduct a fuel irradiation test at HANARO(High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor). FTL simulates commercial NPP's operating conditions such as the pressure, temperature and neutron flux levels to conduct the irradiation and thermo-hydraulic tests. It is composed of an In-Pile test Section(IPS) and an Out- Pile System(OPS). The OPS contains a pressurizer, cooler, pump, heater and purification system which are necessary to maintain the proper fluid conditions. In addition, the OPS contains engineered safety systems that could safely shutdown both HANARO and FTL if an accident occurs. The IPS accommodating fuel pins has loaded IP-1 hole in HANARO has a double pressure vessel for the design conditions of 350 .deg. C, 17.5MPa and is composed of outer assembly and inner assembly. It has instruments such as a thermocouple, LVDT and SPND to measure the fuel performances during the test. FTL coolant is supplied to the IPS at the core of commercial nuclear power plants and the same temperature, pressure and flow conditions. Sensors installed on the inside of IPS to send a signal transmission MI-Cables to the outside for instrumentation is through the pressure boundary. Therefore, pressure boundary should be maintained in the sealing performance. Brazing is typically lower than the melting point of material without melting the material almost would be like welding when it is necessary to use. It is commonly used to use BAg(ASME II SFA-5.8 UNS-P07563) filler metal, but corrosion occurs containing a large quantity of copper in Bag, and when contact with the coolant, the coolant water quality is influenced. Therefore, using BNi-2(ASME II SFA-5.8 UNS-N99620) filler metal is considered. Brazing at the Sealing Plug in the top of IPS was considered for Mi-cable's integrity and to maintain the pressure boundary. After brazing is performed, brazing the Mi-cable integrity and pressure boundary sealing performance was tested

  7. Ionizing radiation measurements using low cost instruments for teaching in college or high-school in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. C.; Vilela, D. C.; Migoto, V. G.; Gomes, M. P.; Martin, I. M.; Germano, J. S. E.

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation one of modern physics experimental teaching in colleges and high school can be easily implemented today due to low coasts of detectors and also electronic circuits and data acquisition interfaces. First it is interesting to show to young’s students what is ionizing radiation and from where they appears near ground level? How it is possible to measure these radiations and how to check intensities variation during day, night, dry and wet periods in the same school? For increasing interest and stimulation in others students how to proceed in making the graphics of the ionizing radiation and presenting him in real time using Web internet facilities? Many others facilities like calibration of the detector using low intensities radioactive ionizing radiation sources, make comparison of the measurements and discussions of the results should be possible between many groups of students from several schools in the region of Brazil. This paper presents the experimental procedures including detectors and associated electronic including data acquisition, graphics elaboration and Web internet procedures to discuss and exchanging data measurements from several schools.

  8. Comparison of nanoparticle measurement instruments for occupational health applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskinen, J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lyyränen, J.; Koivisto, J.; Ruusunen, J.; Järvelä, M.; Tuomi, T.; Hämeri, K.; Auvinen, A.; Jokiniemi, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles are used in many applications because of their novel properties compared to bulk material. A growing number of employees are working with nanomaterials and their exposure to nanoparticles trough inhalation must be evaluated and monitored continuously. However, there is an ongoing debate in the scientific literature about what are the relevant parameters to measure to evaluate exposure to level. In this study, three types of nanoparticles (ammonium sulphate, synthesised TiO 2 agglomerates and aerosolised TiO 2 powder, modes in a range of 30–140 nm mobility size) were measured with commonly used aerosol measurement instruments: scanning and fast mobility particle sizers (SMPS, FMPS), electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI), condensation particle counter (CPC) together with nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM) to achieve information about the interrelations of the outputs of the instruments. In addition, the ease of use of these instruments was evaluated. Differences between the results of different instruments can mainly be attributed to the nature of test particles. For spherical ammonium sulphate nanoparticles, the data from the instruments were in good agreement while larger differences were observed for particles with more complex morphology, the TiO 2 agglomerates and powder. For instance, the FMPS showed a smaller particle size, a higher number concentration and a narrower size distribution compared with the SMPS for TiO 2 particles. Thus, the type of the nanoparticle was observed to influence the data obtained from these different instruments. Therefore, care and expertise are essential when interpreting results from aerosol measurement instruments to estimate nanoparticle concentrations and properties.

  9. Measuring achievement goal motivation, mindsets and cognitive load: validation of three instruments' scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Castillo, Richmond M; Gas, Becca; Artino, Anthony R

    2017-10-01

    Measurement of motivation and cognitive load has potential value in health professions education. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of scores from Dweck's Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale (ITIS), Elliot's Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) and Leppink's cognitive load index (CLI). This was a validity study evaluating internal structure using reliability and factor analysis, and relationships with other variables using the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Two hundred and thirty-two secondary school students participated in a medical simulation-based training activity at an academic medical center. Pre-activity ITIS (implicit theory [mindset] domains: incremental, entity) and AGQ-R (achievement goal domains: mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance), post-activity CLI (cognitive load domains: intrinsic, extrinsic, germane) and task persistence (self-directed repetitions on a laparoscopic surgery task) were measured. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) was > 0.70 for all domain scores except AGQ-R performance-avoidance (alpha 0.68) and CLI extrinsic load (alpha 0.64). Confirmatory factor analysis of ITIS and CLI scores demonstrated acceptable model fit. Confirmatory factor analysis of AGQ-R scores demonstrated borderline fit, and exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-domain model for achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance and avoidance). Correlations among scores from conceptually-related domains generally aligned with expectations, as follows: ITIS incremental and entity, r = -0.52; AGQ-R mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance, r = 0.71; mastery-approach and performance-approach, r = 0.55; performance-approach and performance-avoidance, r = 0.43; mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance, r = 0.36; CLI germane and extrinsic, r = -0.35; ITIS incremental and AGQ-R mastery-approach, r = 0.34; ITIS incremental and CLI germane, r = 0.44; AGQ-R mastery

  10. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  11. Equipment for liquid metal pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment is proposed for measuring liquid metal pressure in piping or a tank. An auxiliary piping is connected to the piping or tank at the measuring point. The auxiliary piping transports liquid metal to a container by means of an electromagnetic pump. The piping also houses an electromagnetic flow ratemeter connected to an electric comparator. The comparator and the electromagnetic pump are connected to the pump output generator. (Z.M.)

  12. Torque and Axial Loading Physics for Measuring Atmospheric Icing Load and Icing Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Mughal, Umair Najeeb; Virk, Muhammad Shakeel

    2015-01-01

    Measuring icing load and icing rate are important parameters for an atmospheric icing sensor. A new icing sensor has recently been designed and developed at Narvik University College for measuring atmospheric icing rate, icing load and icing type. Unlike the existing atmospheric icing sensors commercially available in market, which uses the axial loading for measuring icing load and icing rate, this new sensory system measures icing load and icing rate using the torque loading physics. The pe...

  13. Intraocular pressure measurements in relation to head position and through soft contact lenses: comparison of three portable instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ainat; Shemesh, Gabi; Loewenstein, Anat; Kurtz, Shimon

    2011-01-01

    to compare the reproducibility of three portable instruments-the Tono-Pen tonometer (Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Depew, NY), the Phosphene tonometer (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY), and the TERT (Through Eyelid Russian Tonometer; Rjazan State Instrument Making, Rjazan, Russia)-in the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) with and without soft contact lenses and in different head positions. twenty-six eyes of healthy volunteers were examined by the three instruments while the subjects were sitting, recumbent, and hyperextending their heads, and with and without contact lenses. IOP measurements were compared and the effects of head position and presence of contact lenses on the resultant values were analyzed. the average difference between the recumbent and sitting positions was 3.56, 2.68, and 2.62 mm Hg for the Tono-Pen tonometer, Phosphene tonometer, and TERT, respectively. There was an increase of 5.60, 2.78, and 2.63 mm Hg in hyperextension compared to sitting for the Tono-Pen tonometer, Phosphene tonometer, and TERT, respectively. The difference in the IOP values obtained in the presence and absence of therapeutic contact lens for the three instruments in the three positions was between -1.23 and +1.47 mm Hg. IOP measurements of bedridden patients are only slightly higher than those of sitting patients except for the Tono-Pen tonometer in the hyperextension position. The presence of contact lenses does not affect IOP values obtained by the three evaluated instruments.

  14. Instrumentation for Examining Microbial Response to Changes In Environmental Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaich, J.; Storrs, A.; Wang, J.; Ouandji, C.; Arismendi, D.; Hernandez, J.; Sardesh, N.; Ibanez, C. R.; Owyang, S.; Gentry, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Automated Adaptive Directed Evolution Chamber (AADEC) is a device that allows operators to generate a micro-scale analog of real world systems that can be used to model the local-scale effects of climate change on microbial ecosystems. The AADEC uses an artificial environment to expose cultures of micro-organisms to environmental pressures, such as UV-C radiation, chemical toxins, and temperature. The AADEC autonomously exposes micro-organisms to slection pressures. This improves upon standard manual laboratory techniques: the process can take place over a longer period of time, involve more stressors, implement real-time adjustments based on the state of the population, and minimize the risk of contamination. We currently use UV-C radiation as the main selection pressure, UV-C is well studied both for its cell and DNA damaging effects as a type of selection pressure and for its related effectiveness as a mutagen; having these functions united makes it a good choice for a proof of concept. The AADEC roadmap includes expansion to different selection pressures, including heavy metal toxicity, temperature, and other forms of radiation. The AADEC uses closed-loop control to feedback the current state of the culture to the AADEC controller that modifies selection pressure intensity during experimentation, in this case culture density and growth rate. Culture density and growth rate are determined by measuring the optical density of the culture using 600 nm light. An array of 600 nm LEDs illuminate the culture and photodiodes are used to measure the shadow on the opposite side of the chamber. Previous experiments showed that we can produce a million fold increase to UV-C radiation over seven iterations. The most recent implements a microfluidic system that can expose cultures to multiple different selection pressures, perform non-survival based selection, and autonomously perform hundreds of exposure cycles. A scalable pump system gives the ability to pump in various

  15. Dynamic Load Measurement of Ballistic Gelatin Impact Using an Instrumented Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidt, J. D.; Periira, J. M.; Hammer, J. T.; Gilat, A.; Ruggeri, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    Bird strikes are a common problem for the aerospace industry and can cause serious damage to an aircraft. Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a surrogate for actual bird carcasses in bird strike tests. Numerical simulations of these tests are used to supplement experimental data, therefore it is necessary to use numerical modeling techniques that can accurately capture the dynamic response of ballistic gelatin. An experimental technique is introduced to validate these modeling techniques. A ballistic gelatin projectile is fired into a strike plate attached to a 36 in. long sensor tube. Dynamic load is measured at two locations relative to the strike plate using strain gages configured in a full Wheatstone bridge. Data from these experiments are used to validate a gelatin constitutive model. Simulations of the apparatus are analyzed to investigate its performance.

  16. An instrumented object for hand exercise and assessment using a pneumatic pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, A.; Tharion, G.; Kumar, R. K.; Devasahayam, S. R.

    2018-05-01

    Measurement of grip force is important for both exercise training and assessment of the hand during physical rehabilitation. The standard method uses a grip dynamometer which measures the force between the fingers and opposing thumb. The primary limitation of the grip dynamometer is the restriction of measurement to cylindrical grasps. Any deformation of the hand due to muscular or skeletal disease makes the grip dynamometer difficult or impossible to use. An alternative to the grip dynamometer is a sealed pneumatic object that can be gripped by the hand. Measurement of the internal pressure in the object can be related to the grip force. In this paper, we analyze such a pneumatic pressure sensing object for hand grip assessment and also describe an easy fabrication of the grip sensor. The instrumented object presented in this paper is designed to assess both the maximal voluntary grip forces and continuous grip force to monitor control of hand function during exercise under instruction from a therapist. Potential uses of such a pneumatic pressure sensing object for hand grip are in physical rehabilitation of patients following paralysing illnesses like stroke and spinal cord injury.

  17. Validation of an instrumented dummy to assess mechanical aspects of discomfort during load carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Wettenschwiler

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing load in backpacks and other load carriage systems over the last decades, load carriage system designs have to be adapted accordingly to minimize discomfort and to reduce the risk of injury. As subject studies are labor-intensive and include further challenges such as intra-subject and inter-subject variability, we aimed to validate an instrumented dummy as an objective laboratory tool to assess the mechanical aspects of discomfort. The validation of the instrumented dummy was conducted by comparison with a recent subject study. The mechanical parameters that characterize the static and dynamic interaction between backpack and body during different backpack settings were compared. The second aim was to investigate whether high predictive power (coefficient of determination R2>0.5 in assessing the discomfort of load carriage systems could be reached using the instrumented dummy. Measurements were conducted under static conditions, simulating upright standing, and dynamic conditions, simulating level walking. Twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt, were assessed. The mechanical parameters were measured in the shoulder and the hip region of the dummy and consisted of average pressure, peak pressure, strap force and relative motion between the system and the body. The twelve configurations consisted of three different weights (15kg, 20kg, and 25kg, combined with four different hip belt tensions (30N, 60N, 90N, and 120N. Through the significant (p<0.05 correlation of the mechanical parameters measured on the dummy with the corresponding values of the subject study, the dummy was validated for all static measurements and for dynamic measurements in the hip region to accurately simulate the interaction between the human body and the load carriage system. Multiple linear regressions with the mechanical parameters measured on the dummy as independent

  18. Instruments for measuring mental health recovery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Marisa; Groessl, Erik J; O'Connell, Maria; Davidson, Larry; Aarons, Gregory A

    2013-12-01

    Persons in recovery, providers, and policymakers alike are advocating for recovery-oriented mental health care, with the promotion of recovery becoming a prominent feature of mental health policy in the United States and internationally. One step toward creating a recovery-oriented system of care is to use recovery-oriented outcome measures. Numerous instruments have been developed to assess progress towards mental health recovery. This review identifies instruments of mental health recovery and evaluates the appropriateness of their use including their psychometric properties, ease of administration, and service-user involvement in their development. A literature search using the Medline and Psych-INFO databases was conducted, identifying 21 instruments for potential inclusion in this review, of which thirteen met inclusion criteria. Results suggest only three instruments (25%) have had their psychometric properties assessed in three or more unique samples of participants. Ease of administration varied between instruments, and for the majority of instruments, development included service user involvement. This review updates and expands previous reviews of instruments to assess mental health recovery. As mental health care continues to transform to a recovery-oriented model of service delivery, this review may facilitate selection of appropriate assessments of mental health recovery for systems to use in evaluating and improving the care they provide. © 2013.

  19. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...... load as percentage (%) of systolic/diastolic readings ≥135/≥85 mm Hg and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg during day and night, respectively, or as the area under the BP curve (mm Hg×h) using the same ceiling values. During a period of 10.7 years (median), 1284 participants died and 1109 experienced a fatal or nonfatal...... cardiovascular end point. In multivariable-adjusted models, the risk of cardiovascular complications gradually increased across deciles of BP level and load (Pbased on 24-hour systolic or diastolic BP level (generalized R(2) statistic ≤0.294%; net...

  20. Requirements for a quality measurement instrument for semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Krukkert, D.; Oude Luttighuis, P.; Hillegersberg van, J. van

    2010-01-01

    This study describes requirements for an instrument to measure the quality of semantic standards. A situational requirements engineering method was used, resulting in a goal-tree in which requirements are structured. This structure shows requirements related to the input of the instrument; stating

  1. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  2. Method for compensating bellows pressure loads while accommodating thermal deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodle, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Many metal bellows are used on storage ring vacuum chambers. They allow the ring to accommodate deformations associated with alignment, mechanical assembly and thermal expansion. The NSLS has two such electron storage rings, the vuv ring and the x-ray ring. Both rings utilize a number of welded metal bellows within the ring and at every beam port. There are provisions for 16 beam ports on the vuv and 28 ports in the x-ray ring. At each of these locations the bellows are acted on by an external pressure of 1 atmosphere, which causes a 520 lb reaction at the vacuum chamber beam port and at the beamline flange downstream of the bellows. The use of rigid tie rods across the bellows flanges to support this load is troublesome because most storage ring vacuum chambers are baked in situ to achieve high internal vacuum. Significant forces can develop on components if thermal deformation is restrained and damage could occur

  3. Apt strain measurement technique for impulsive loading applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Soumya Ranjan; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Sahoo, Niranjan

    2017-01-01

    The necessity of precise measurement of strain time history for impulsive loading applications has been addressed in the present investigation. Finite element modeling is initially carried out for a hemispherical test model and stress bar assembly to arrive at an appropriate location for strain measurement. In dynamic calibration experiments, strain measurements are performed using two wire and three wire quarter bride arrangements along with half bridge circuit. Usefulness of these arrangements has been verified by analyzing strain signals in time and frequency domains. Comparison of recovered force time histories proved that the half bridge circuit is the most suitable for such applications. Actual shock tube testing of the instrumented hemispherical test model confirmed the applicability of half bridge circuit for short duration strain measurements. (technical note)

  4. The laser, measuring instrument for plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderegg, F.; Behn, R.; Paris, P.J.; Salito, S.A.; Siegrist, M.R.; Weisen, H.

    1988-06-01

    There are several different and in general complementary methods for the investigation of plasmas. All of them have different characteristics and properties covering a large spectrum of physical measuring techniques. Electromagnetic waves serving as 'thermometers' permit to detect the global behaviour of the plasma as well as that of the particles composing it. One of the advantages of these introspective methods is that it brings information on temporary and local conditions of the domain being interrogated. With the development of micro-wave sources and lasers after the war the principal tools of this type of plasma diagnostics are now available. In this paper the emphasis is on the lasers which are different according to the type of measurement. Their versatility in measuring plasma parameters is largely acknowledged. We illustrate the potential of measuring methods by lasers by means of the research work done at two experimental installations of CRPP. (author) 21 figs., 8 refs

  5. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science & education, instrumentation & training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D.; Dittrich, P.-G.; Duentsch, E.

    2010-07-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science & education, instrumentation & training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  6. Micro packaged MEMS pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiong; Yao Yan; Ma Jiahao; Zhang Zhaohua; Zhang Yanhang; Wang Qian; Ren Tianling

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a micro packaged MEMS pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement which belongs to BioMEMS. It can be used in lumbar puncture surgery to measure intracranial pressure. Miniaturization is key for lumbar puncture surgery because the sensor must be small enough to allow it be placed in the reagent chamber of the lumbar puncture needle. The size of the sensor is decided by the size of the sensor chip and package. Our sensor chip is based on silicon piezoresistive effect and the size is 400 × 400 μm 2 . It is much smaller than the reported polymer intracranial pressure sensors such as liquid crystal polymer sensors. In terms of package, the traditional dual in-line package obviously could not match the size need, the minimal size of recently reported MEMS-based intracranial pressure sensors after packaging is 10 × 10 mm 2 . In this work, we are the first to introduce a quad flat no-lead package as the package form of piezoresistive intracranial pressure sensors, the whole size of the sensor is minimized to only 3 × 3 mm 2 . Considering the liquid measurement environment, the sensor is gummed and waterproof performance is tested; the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.9 × 10 −2 mV/kPa. (paper)

  7. Blood Pressure and Arterial Load After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindman, Brian R; Otto, Catherine M; Douglas, Pamela S; Hahn, Rebecca T; Elmariah, Sammy; Weissman, Neil J; Stewart, William J; Ayele, Girma M; Zhang, Feifan; Zajarias, Alan; Maniar, Hersh S; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Blackstone, Eugene; Chinnakondepalli, Khaja M; Tuzcu, E Murat; Leon, Martin B; Pibarot, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    After aortic valve replacement, left ventricular afterload is often characterized by the residual valve obstruction. Our objective was to determine whether higher systemic arterial afterload-as reflected in blood pressure, pulsatile and resistive load-is associated with adverse clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Total, pulsatile, and resistive arterial load were measured in 2141 patients with severe aortic stenosis treated with TAVR in the PARTNER I trial (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve) who had systolic blood pressure (SBP) and an echocardiogram obtained 30 days after TAVR. The primary end point was 30-day to 1-year all-cause mortality. Lower SBP at 30 days after TAVR was associated with higher mortality (20.0% for SBP 100-129 mm Hg versus 12.0% for SBP 130-170 mm Hg; P <0.001). This association remained significant after adjustment, was consistent across subgroups, and confirmed in sensitivity analyses. In adjusted models that included SBP, higher total and pulsatile arterial load were associated with increased mortality ( P <0.001 for all), but resistive load was not. Patients with low 30-day SBP and high pulsatile load had a 3-fold higher mortality than those with high 30-day SBP and low pulsatile load (26.1% versus 8.1%; hazard ratio, 3.62; 95% confidence interval, 2.36-5.55). Even after relief of valve obstruction in patients with aortic stenosis, there is an independent association between post-TAVR blood pressure, systemic arterial load, and mortality. Blood pressure goals in patients with a history of aortic stenosis may need to be redefined. Increased pulsatile arterial load, rather than blood pressure, may be a target for adjunctive medical therapy to improve outcomes after TAVR. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00530894. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Instrument for measuring metal-thermoelectric semiconductor contact resistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanxner, M.; Nechmadi, M.; Meiri, B.; Schildkraut, I.

    1979-02-01

    An instrument for measuring electrical, metal-thermoelectric semiconductor contact resistance is described. The expected errors of measurement are indicated. The operation of the instrument which is based on potential traversing perpendicularly to the contact plane is illustrated for the case of contacts of palladium and bismuth telluride-based thermoelectric material

  9. In-core flow measurement and calibration of gags using on-load instrumented stringers in a C.A.G.R. at Hinkley Point 'B'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, W.E.; Carrick, I.H.

    1982-06-01

    The initial fuel loading of the first CAGR at Hinkley Point included 5 specially instrumented stringers (OLIS) each containing a flow-measuring venturi and additional thermocouples. Venturi absolute and differential pressures were measured by transducers mounted on the pile-cap. Transducers and thermocouples were routed to a computer/logger and processed into stringer performance data. The venturi was engineered to comply closely with appropriate British Standards but compromises were made to minimise interaction with other functions of the OLIS plug unit, justifying rig calibration of venturis to check for deviation in behaviour. High accuracy and reliability of the flow measuring system were established by thorough commissioning procedures. The transducers were selected for low sensitivity to their operational environment. Nevertheless calibration of all transducers was carried out both in laboratory and in-situ. Errors introduced by signal processing were identified and zero drift monitored. Pipe-runs were scrupulously leak-tested and leak sensitivity was evaluated. After one year re-calibration and recommissioning gave confidence of long term stability. Measurements of stringer behaviour were collected in a series of tests spanning the full range of both the setting of the channel flow control gags and the reactor power. Throughout these tests comprehensive monitoring, with intercalibration between the OLIS and comparison with installed reactor instrumentation has quantified residual error. These measurements were used to check the theoretical model used by the station for channel flow assessment. The excellent agreement obtained justified proceeding to the derivation of a universal gag resistance calibration applying to all power levels. In performance tests aimed at evaluation of overall generating efficiency, the theoretical model was used to make accurate estimates of reactor power and flow which agreed well with estimates based directly on further OLIS

  10. Signal quality measures for unsupervised blood pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Sukor, J; Redmond, S J; Lovell, N H; Chan, G S H

    2012-01-01

    Accurate systolic and diastolic pressure estimation, using automated blood pressure measurement, is difficult to achieve when the transduced signals are contaminated with noise or interference, such as movement artifact. This study presents an algorithm for automated signal quality assessment in blood pressure measurement by determining the feasibility of accurately detecting systolic and diastolic pressures when corrupted with various levels of movement artifact. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared to a manually annotated reference scoring (RS). Based on visual representations and audible playback of Korotkoff sounds, the creation of the RS involved two experts identifying sections of the recorded sounds and annotating sections of noise contamination. The experts determined the systolic and diastolic pressure in 100 recorded Korotkoff sound recordings, using a simultaneous electrocardiograph as a reference signal. The recorded Korotkoff sounds were acquired from 25 healthy subjects (16 men and 9 women) with a total of four measurements per subject. Two of these measurements contained purposely induced noise artifact caused by subject movement. Morphological changes in the cuff pressure signal and the width of the Korotkoff pulse were extracted features which were believed to be correlated with the noise presence in the recorded Korotkoff sounds. Verification of reliable Korotkoff pulses was also performed using extracted features from the oscillometric waveform as recorded from the inflatable cuff. The time between an identified noise section and a verified Korotkoff pulse was the key feature used to determine the validity of possible systolic and diastolic pressures in noise contaminated Korotkoff sounds. The performance of the algorithm was assessed based on the ability to: verify if a signal was contaminated with any noise; the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of this noise classification, and the systolic and diastolic pressure

  11. Neutron measuring instruments for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, M.; Schneider, W.; Hoefert, M.; Kuehn, H.; Jahr, R.; Wagner, S.; Piesch, E.

    1979-09-01

    The present report deals with selected topics from the field of neutron dosimetry for radiation protection connected with the work of the subcommittee 6802 in the Standards Committee on Radiology (NAR) of the German Standards Institute (DIN). It is a sort of material collection. The topics are: 1. Measurement of the absorbed-energy dose by a) ionization chambers in fields of mixed radiation and b) recoil-proton proportional counting tubes. 2. Measurement of the equivalent dose, neutron monitors, combination methods by a) rem-meters, b) recoil-proton counting tubes, c) recombination method, tissue-equivalent proportional counters, activation methods for high energies in fields of mixed radiation, d) personnel dosimetry by means of ionization chambers and counting tubes, e) dosimetry by means of activation methods, nuclear track films, nonphotographic nuclear track detectors and solid-state dosimeters. (orig./HP) [de

  12. A digital instrument for reactivity measurements in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwaszczewski, S.

    1979-01-01

    An instrument for digital determination of the reactivity in nuclear reactors is described. It is based on the CAMAC standard apparatus, suitable for the use of pulse or current type neutron detectors and operates with prompt response and an output signal proportional to the core neutron flux. The measured data of neutron flux and reactivity can be registered by a digital display unit, an indicator, or, by request of the operator, a paper type punch. The algorithms used for reactivity calculation are considered and the results of numerical studies on those algorithms are discussed. The instrument has been used for determining the reactivity of the control elements in the fast-thermal assembly ANNA and in the research reactor MARIA. Some results of these measurements are given. (author)

  13. Digital instrument for reactivity measurements in a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chwaszczewski, S [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland)

    1979-07-01

    An instrument for digital determination of the reactivity in nuclear reactors is described. It is based on the CAMAC standard apparatus, suitable for the use of pulse or current type neutron detectors and operates with prompt response and an output signal proportional to the core neutron flux. The measured data of neutron flux and reactivity can be registered by a digital display unit, an indicator, or, by request of the operator, a paper type punch. The algorithms used for reactivity calculation are considered and the results of numerical studies on those algorithms are discussed. The instrument has been used for determining the reactivity of the control elements in the fast-thermal assembly ANNA and in the research reactor MARIA. Some results of these measurements are given.

  14. MODERN INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU CATALINA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Any significant management action can be assessed both in terms of success of immediate goals and as effect of the organization ability to embrace change. Market competition intensifies with the development of Romanian society and its needs. Companies that offer different products and services need to impose certain advantages and to increase their performances. The paper will present modern tools for measuring and evaluating organizational performance, namely: Balanced Scorecard, Deming model and Baldrige model. We also present an example for Balance Scorecard, of an organizations belonging to the cosmetics industry.

  15. Meteorological Instrumentation and Measurements Open Resource Training Modules for Undergraduate and Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, A.; Clark, R. D.; Stevermer, A.

    2017-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory, Millersville University and The COMET Program are collaborating to produce a series of nine online modules on the the topic of meteorological instrumentation and measurements. These interactive, multimedia educational modules can be integrated into undergraduate and graduate meteorology courses on instrumentation, measurement science, and observing systems to supplement traditional pedagogies and enhance blended instruction. These freely available and open-source training tools are designed to supplement traditional pedagogies and enhance blended instruction. Three of the modules are now available and address the theory and application of Instrument Performance Characteristics, Meteorological Temperature Instrumentation and Measurements, and Meteorological Pressure Instrumentation and Measurements. The content of these modules is of the highest caliber as it has been developed by scientists and engineers who are at the forefront of the field of observational science. Communicating the availability of these unique and influential educational resources with the community is of high priority. These modules will have a profound effect on the atmospheric observational sciences community by fulfilling a need for contemporary, interactive, multimedia guided education and training modules integrating the latest instructional design and assessment tools in observational science. Thousands of undergraduate and graduate students will benefit, while course instructors will value a set of high quality modules to use as supplements to their courses. The modules can serve as an alternative to observational research training and fill the void between field projects or assist those schools that lack the resources to stage a field- or laboratory-based instrumentation experience.

  16. A Universal Standard for the Validation of Blood Pressure Measuring Devices: Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/European Society of Hypertension/International Organization for Standardization (AAMI/ESH/ISO) Collaboration Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Alpert, Bruce; Mieke, Stephan; Asmar, Roland; Atkins, Neil; Eckert, Siegfried; Frick, Gerhard; Friedman, Bruce; Graßl, Thomas; Ichikawa, Tsutomu; Ioannidis, John P; Lacy, Peter; McManus, Richard; Murray, Alan; Myers, Martin; Palatini, Paolo; Parati, Gianfranco; Quinn, David; Sarkis, Josh; Shennan, Andrew; Usuda, Takashi; Wang, Jiguang; Wu, Colin O; O'Brien, Eoin

    2018-03-01

    In the past 30 years, several organizations, such as the US Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), the British Hypertension Society, the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) Working Group on Blood Pressure (BP) Monitoring, and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), have developed protocols for clinical validation of BP measuring devices. However, it is recognized that science, as well as patients, consumers, and manufacturers, would be best served if all BP measuring devices were assessed for accuracy according to an agreed single validation protocol that had global acceptance. Therefore, an international initiative was taken by the AAMI, ESH, and ISO experts who agreed to develop a universal standard for device validation. This statement presents the key aspects of a validation procedure, which were agreed by the AAMI, ESH, and ISO representatives as the basis for a single universal validation protocol. As soon as the AAMI/ESH/ISO standard is fully developed, this will be regarded as the single universal standard and will replace all other previous standards/protocols. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc., and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

  17. Experience of the use of radiation measuring instruments for Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, S.; Ohshima, T.; Kawaguti, H.

    1994-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, among a series of international cooperations, also from our company T.OHSHIMA visited Russia in October, 1991 as a member of the USSR and Japan Joint Specialist Meeting on Environmental Radiation and Shelter Structure of Chernobyl-4 Nuclear Power Plant, and a few members including H.KAWAGUTI visited there in December, 1991 for the handling instructions of the apparatus delivered to Sasagawa Memorial Health Cooperation Foundation. During these visits to Russia they carried electronic personal dosimeters and pocketsize dose ratemeters, measured the doses and dose rate of some areas including the actual polluted areas and gained interesting data. Especially T.OHSHIMA entered the turbine structure of Chernobyl No.4 Reactor and experienced 7m Sv/h. I introduce these measurement data and the instruments used for the measurement. Also H.KAWAGUTI and others explained the maintenance and handling of the whole body counter loaded into the medical examination car offered to Russia for Chernobyl Sasagawa Medical Care Cooperation Project of Sasagawa Memorial Health Cooperation Foundation. I introduce the outline of this medical examination car laying stress on the whole body counter and present a part of the data by the whole body counter measured during the medical care cooperation. (author)

  18. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... Procedures § 86.120-94 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters...

  19. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  20. Ad-hoc Network of Smart Sensors for Mechanical Load Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Strain gauges load cells are transducers devices capable of converting changes in applied mechanical load into an electrical analog signal. Those devices have a large spectrum of applications ranging from domestic to industrial or even medical appliances just to name a few. In this work, they are used in the electronic instrumentation of a force platform that will be used to carry out the analysis and characterization of human biomechanical walking. In this platform, four load cells are installed, each one capable of measuring forces along two different axis. A total of eight strain-gauges per load cell are employed. Hence, analog signal transmission, besides requiring a large number of connection wires, is prone to interference and noise. Moreover, with this solution, scalability requires severe changes in the connection topology. In order to circumvent those problems, an alternative in-situ signal conditioning and digital data transmission system was devised. This approach, as far as investigated, presents an innovative solution to signal conditioning and data transmission for load-cells. In particular, the presented solution allows the creation of an ad-hoc network of load cells, using the I²C protocol with a master interface that allows the users to interact and change the parameters of each load cell. This instrumentation structure has been successfully tested and the obtained results are documented in this article.

  1. An intelligent instrument for measuring the dynamic parameters of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Guoping

    2002-01-01

    An intelligent instrument was developed for measuring direction and velocity of the groundwater, permeability coefficient, hydraulic transmitting coefficient, static level, hydraulic gradient and flow direction of each layer. The instrument can be widely applied for detecting seepage of abutment and river bank, exploitation of groundwater, conservation of water and soil, water surging in mine, survey of groundwater resource and environment protection etc

  2. An instrumentation for control and measurement of activated mineral samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaarup, P.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of an instrumentation for control of a pneumatic tube system used to transport mineral samples for activation in a reactor and from there to a detector arrangement. A possible content of uranium in the samples can be seen from the radiation measured. The instrumentation includes a PDP-11 computer and a CAMAC crate

  3. Measurement properties of adult quality-of-life measurement instruments for eczema: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinl, D; Prinsen, C A C; Deckert, S; Chalmers, J R; Drucker, A M; Ofenloch, R; Humphreys, R; Sach, T; Chamlin, S L; Schmitt, J; Apfelbacher, C

    2016-03-01

    The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative has identified quality of life (QoL) as a core outcome domain to be evaluated in every eczema trial. It is unclear which of the existing QoL instruments is most appropriate for this domain. Thus, the aim of this review was to systematically assess the measurement properties of existing measurement instruments developed and/or validated for the measurement of QoL in adult eczema. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase identifying studies on measurement properties of adult eczema QoL instruments. For all eligible studies, we assessed the adequacy of the measurement properties and the methodological quality with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. A best evidence synthesis summarizing findings from different studies was the basis to assign four degrees of recommendation (A-D). A total of 15 articles reporting on 17 instruments were included. No instrument fulfilled the criteria for category A. Six instruments were placed in category B, meaning that they have the potential to be recommended depending on the results of further validation studies. Three instruments had poor adequacy in at least one required adequacy criterion and were therefore put in category C. The remaining eight instruments were minimally validated and were thus placed in category D. Currently, no QoL instrument can be recommended for use in adult eczema. The Quality of Life Index for Atopic Dermatitis (QoLIAD) and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are recommended for further validation research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Advanced Measuring (Instrumentation Methods for Nuclear Installations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiu-kuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear technology has been widely used in the world. The research of measurement in nuclear installations involves many aspects, such as nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycle, safety and security, nuclear accident, after action, analysis, and environmental applications. In last decades, many advanced measuring devices and techniques have been widely applied in nuclear installations. This paper mainly introduces the development of the measuring (instrumentation methods for nuclear installations and the applications of these instruments and methods.

  5. Control device intended for a gamma radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a monitoring device for a gamma radiation measuring instrument or radiation meter, in which the radiation to be measured brings about, inter alia, the ionisation of a gas and the generation of current pulses. The dial of this meter is generally calibrated in roentgens per hour, i.e. in radiation rate units. This instrument of very simple design is remarkable for its operating reliability. Preferably placed at the inlet to a radioactive area, it enables every user of a ratemeter to check, over the entire measuring range of this instrument, its proper operation prior to entering the area. To this effect, the monitoring device in question has a thick wall lead castle, having an internal cavity in which is mounted a radioactive source delivering a gamma radiation with given constant characteristics, through a measurement window closed by a calibrated plug. Lead doors articulated on the castle can be superimposed on this window to bring about a given attenuation of the radiation coming from the source and delivered to the exterior of the castle [fr

  6. Applanation optical coherence elastography: noncontact measurement of intraocular pressure, corneal biomechanical properties, and corneal geometry with a single instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Nair, Achuth; Schill, Alexander; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-02-01

    Current clinical tools provide critical information about ocular health such as intraocular pressure (IOP). However, they lack the ability to quantify tissue material properties, which are potent markers for ocular tissue health and integrity. We describe a single instrument to measure the eye-globe IOP, quantify corneal biomechanical properties, and measure corneal geometry with a technique termed applanation optical coherence elastography (Appl-OCE). An ultrafast OCT system enabled visualization of corneal dynamics during noncontact applanation tonometry and direct measurement of micro air-pulse induced elastic wave propagation. Our preliminary results show that the proposed Appl-OCE system can be used to quantify IOP, corneal biomechanical properties, and corneal geometry, which builds a solid foundation for a unique device that can provide a more complete picture of ocular health.

  7. Neutron multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  8. Instrument for Airborne Measurement of Carbonyl Sulfide, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to develop small, low power instrumentation for the real-time direct measurement of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the atmosphere, especially...

  9. Instrument for Airborne Measurement of Carbonyl Sulfide, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II SBIR program, Southwest Sciences will continue the development of small, low power instrumentation for real-time direct measurement of carbonyl...

  10. A measuring instrument for evaluation of quality systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, C.; Bakker, D.H. de; Groenewegen, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop an instrument for provider organizations, consumers, purchasers, and policy makers to measure and compare the development of quality systems in provider organizations. Design: Cross-sectional study of provider organizations using a structured questionnaire to survey managers.

  11. Instrumentation for radon measurement and diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, N.; Ellacott, K.; Brabant, L.

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge of existing protocols and guidelines, coupled with equipment acumen can make for a successful endeavor in the radon field. But where do you collect a users perspective on radon equipment? Obtaining a first hand understanding of how radon detection equipment may be applied can be a lengthy and expensive process. In this paper first principals of progeny collection, and counting, are covered. Use of Thomson and Nielsen equipment to screen, and diagnose radon will e presented. Equipment performance in a wide variety of field applications and in calibration chambers will be brought to light. The distinctive nature and versatility of the equipment will e outlined with applications information, system performance, and unique configurations

  12. Cavity-enhanced quantum-cascade laser-based instrument for carbon monoxide measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Robert; Gupta, Manish; Owano, Thomas G; Baer, Douglas S; Ricci, Kenneth N; O'Keefe, Anthony; Podolske, James R

    2005-11-01

    An autonomous instrument based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy has been developed and successfully deployed for measurements of carbon monoxide in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument (Carbon Monoxide Gas Analyzer) consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high-reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data-acquisition electronics, and data-analysis software. CO measurements were determined from high-resolution CO absorption line shapes obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the R(7) transition of the fundamental vibration band near 2172.8 cm(-1). The instrument reports CO mixing ratio (mole fraction) at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature, and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May-June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41,000 ft (12.5 km), the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time) and an accuracy limited by the reference CO gas cylinder (uncertainty < 1.0%). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights.

  13. MetBaro - Pressure Instrument for Mars MetNet Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkko, J.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Leinonen, J.; Mäkinen, T.

    2009-04-01

    THE METNET MISSION FOCUSED ON THE Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetBaro is the pressure instrument of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Barocap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetBaro is a capacitic type of sensing device where capasitor plates are moved by ambient pressure. MetBaro device consists of two pressure transducers including a total of 6 Barocap® sensor heads of high-stability and high-resolution types. The long-term stability of MetBaro is in order of 20…50 µBar and resolution a few µBar. MetBaro is small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs about 50g without wires and controlling FPGA, and consumes 15 mW of power. A similar device has successfully flown in Phoenix mission, where it performed months of measurements on Martian ground. Another device is also part of the Mars Science Laboratory REMS instrument (to be launched in 2011).

  14. Assessment of the DIXTAL DX-2710 Automated Oscillometric Device for Blood Pressure Measurement with the Validation Protocols of the British Hypertension Society (BHS and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele M. P. Mano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the Dixtal DX2710 automated oscillometric device used for blood pressure measurement according to the protocols of the BHS and the AAMI. METHODS: Three blood pressure measurements were taken in 94 patients (53 females 15 to 80 years. The measurements were taken randomly by 2 observers trained to measure blood pressure with a mercury column device connected with an automated device. The device was classified according to the protocols of the BHS and AAMI. RESULT: The mean of blood pressure levels obtained by the observers was 148±38/93±25 mmHg and that obtained with the device was 148±37/89±26 mmHg. Considering the differences between the measurements obtained by the observer and those obtained with the automated device according to the criteria of the BHS, the following classification was adopted: "A" for systolic pressure (69% of the differences < 5; 90% < 10; and 97% < 15 mmHg; and "B" for diastolic pressure (63% of the differences < 5; 83% < 10; and 93% < 15 mmHg. The mean and standard deviation of the differences were 0±6.27 mmHg for systolic pressure and 3.82±6.21 mmHg for diastolic pressure. CONCLUSION: The Dixtal DX2710 device was approved according to the international recommendations.

  15. Simultaneous validation of the SunTech CT40 automated blood pressure measurement device by the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/International Organization for Standardization 81060-2: 2013 standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo Friz, Hernan; Punzi, Veronica; Petri, Francesco; Orlandi, Riccardo; Maggiolini, Daniele; Polo Friz, Melisa; Primitz, Laura; Vighi, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to perform a simultaneous, third-party, independent validation of the oscillometric SunTech CT40 device for blood pressure (BP) measurement, according to the 1993 protocol of the British Hypertension Society and the standard of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)/the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 81060-2:2013. Patient recruitment, study procedures, and data analysis followed the recommendations stated by the protocols. The study was approved by the institutional review board. A total of 94 participants were included, 52 (55.3%) women, mean±SD age: 63.1±18.0 years, mean±SD arm circumference: 35.0±9.0 cm. The average of observers' entry BPs was 146.9±37.2 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 82.2±22.1 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Differences between the standard measurement and the test device within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, for the better observer, were 79.4, 96.5, and 100.0% for SBP and 82.6, 97.5, and 100.0% for DBP, respectively. The mean±SD differences between the readings obtained using the test device and those obtained by the observers (AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standard criterion 1) were 0.3±5.0 mmHg (SBP) and -0.8±4.3 mmHg (DBP), and the mean±SD differences between average of reference readings and average of test device readings in each patient (criterion 2) were 0.3±3.9 and -0.8±3.5 mmHg for SBP and DBP, respectively. The CT40 BP device achieved A/A grade of the British Hypertension Society protocol and fulfilled the requirements (criteria 1 and 2) of the AAMI/ISO standard. CT40 can be recommended for BP measurement in adults.

  16. Basic principles for measurement of intramuscular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    We review historical and methodological approaches to measurements of intramuscular pressure (IMP) in humans. These techniques provide valuable measures of muscle tone and activity as well as diagnostic criteria for evaluation of exertional compartment syndrome. Although the wick and catheter techniques provide accurate measurements of IMP at rest, their value for exercise studies and diagnosis of exertional compartment syndrome is limited because of low frequency response and hydrostatic (static and inertial) pressure artifacts. Presently, most information on diagnosis of exertional compartment syndromes during dynamic exercise is available using the Myopress catheter. However, future research and clinical diagnosis using IMP can be optimized by the use of a miniature transducer-tipped catheter such as the Millar Mikro-tip.

  17. Instrumentation for collecting and measuring radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essling, M.A.; Hengde, W.; Markun, F.; Toohey, R.E.; Rundo, J.; Miranda, J.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A new sampling can is described for collecting an air sample for determination of its radon content. Instruments which are employed for the continuous monitoring of radon or its daughters in houses are described and their performances discussed

  18. Instruments assessing attitudes toward or capability regarding self-management of osteoarthritis: a systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, J P; Hunter, D J; Meneses, S R F; Collins, N J; Dobson, F; Lucas, B R; Mills, K

    2017-08-01

    To make a recommendation on the "best" instrument to assess attitudes toward and/or capabilities regarding self-management of osteoarthritis (OA) based on available measurement property evidence. Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychINFO (inception to 27 December 2016). Two reviewers independently rated measurement properties using the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) 4-point scale. Best evidence synthesis was determined by considering COSMIN ratings for measurement property results and the level of evidence available for each measurement property of each instrument. Eight studies out of 5653 publications met the inclusion criteria, with eight instruments identified for evaluation: Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC), Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC), Patient Activation Measure (PAM), Educational Needs Assessment (ENAT), Stages of Change Questionnaire in Osteoarthritis (SCQOA), Effective Consumer Scale (EC-17) and Perceived Efficacy in Patient-Physician Interactions five item (PEPPI-5) and ten item scales. Measurement properties assessed for these instruments included internal consistency (k = 8), structural validity (k = 8), test-retest reliability (k = 2), measurement error (k = 1), hypothesis testing (k = 3) and cross-cultural validity (k = 3). No information was available for content validity, responsiveness or minimal important change (MIC)/minimal important difference (MID). The Dutch PEPPI-5 demonstrated the best measurement property evidence; strong evidence for internal consistency and structural validity but limited evidence for reliability and construct validity. Although PEPPI-5 was identified as having the best measurement properties, overall there is a poor level of evidence currently available concerning measurement properties of instruments to assess attitudes toward and/or capabilities regarding osteoarthritis self-management. Further

  19. High-pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria for ternary systems composed by {(E)-2-hexenal or hexanal + carbon dioxide + water}: Partition coefficient measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Arturo; López, Pablo I.; Valle, José M. del; Fuente, Juan C. de la

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new apparatus based on a static–analytic method was assembled in this work. • This work reports high-pressure VLE data of (E)-2-hexenal or hexanal + CO 2 + water. • Data includes (CO 2 + water) partition coefficients of (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal. • High separation factors from water (∼10 4 ) were found especially for (E)-2-hexenal. • The data were obtained at T = (313, 323, and 333) K and pressures from (8 to 19) MPa. - Abstract: A new apparatus based on a static–analytic method assembled in this work was utilised to perform high-pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements of aqueous ternary systems. This work includes values of isothermal partition coefficients between CO 2 and water of two apple aroma constituents, (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal. Additionally, this work reports new experimental (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements for the ternary systems (CO 2 + (E)-2-hexenal + water) and (CO 2 + hexanal + water), at fixed liquid phase composition (600 mg · kg −1 ), at temperatures of (313, 323 and 333) K and at pressures from (8 to 19) MPa. Vapour liquid interphase was checked and monitored visually for all the systems studied in this work. No liquid immiscibility was observed at the composition, temperatures and pressures studied. In order to suggest reasonable operation conditions for fractionation of aromas with dense carbon dioxide, partition coefficients of the aroma compounds between CO 2 and water along with their separation factors from water were calculated. Partition coefficients of (E)-2-hexenal between CO 2 and water were in the range of (6 to 91) and where found to be near six times higher than those of hexanal (9 to 17). Very high separation factors from water were observed (∼10 4 ) especially for (E)-2-hexenal. The highest separation factor, for both compounds, was found at a temperature of 313 K and pressures from (12 to 14) MPa

  20. An instrument for X-ray set quality assurance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willetts, R.J.; West, M.B.; Brydon, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype electronic instrument for performing quality assurance (QA) measurements on diagnostic radiological equipment with a view to long-term performance assessment on a Regional basis. The instrument is based on a Tandy 200 laptop computer and has been developed primarily to include the assessment of image intensifier/TV systems in a general QA package. It is capable of accepting signals from the following sources: (1) a radiation detector (diode array); (2) a Keithley kV divider (Keithley Instruments, Inc.); (3) the video output of an image intensifier system. (author)

  1. Assessment of integrity for the pressure vessel internals of PWRs under blowdown loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiss, M.; Benner, J.; Ludwig, A.

    1984-01-01

    In safety analysis of pressurized water reactors the loss-of-coolant accident plays a central role. Thereby a sudden break of a cold primary coolant pipe close to the reactor pressure vessel is postulated. The sudden pressure release of the primary system (blowdown) causes high dynamic loading on the pressure vessel internals. The resulting deformations must not impair shut down of the reactor and decay heat removal in an inadmissible way. For this assessment a blowdown analysis for a 1300 MW pressurized water reactor is carried out. These investigations are completed with a detailed stress analysis for the highly loaded core barrel clamping. The results show that the reactor pressure vessel internals are able to withstand blowdown loading. Even in case of a sudden and complete break of the primary coolant pipe the loading has to be twice as high to endanger the structural integrity. (orig.) [de

  2. Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments

  3. Development of retrieval, reservation and management system for measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Kenzo; Ito, Emi.

    1985-08-01

    In order to computerize the lending and management of measuring instruments, at first, the specification of the software was examined, but thereafter, the development was begun. The largest aim of the computerization was the automation and labor saving of the lending works of diverse measuring instruments and the automatic management. From user side, it is desirable to know the specification and the state of use and reservation of measuring instruments and to be able to easily make reservation based on the information. Besides, from management side, it is desirable to know the location and the state of use and reservation of measuring instruments, to immediately prepare for lending and returning, and to automate the recording of lending and returning. So as to satisfy those conditions, the automatic reservation and management system for measuring instruments was developed. At the same time, the means to simply input required data such as specification, names of manufacturers and equipment number was developed. The input of data was carried out for three months from October, 1984, and the system was almost completed in December, 1984. The full scale operation was started in Junuary, 1985. (Kako, I.)

  4. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  5. Flexible Piezoelectric-Induced Pressure Sensors for Static Measurements Based on Nanowires/Graphene Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zefeng; Wang, Zhao; Li, Xinming; Lin, Yuxuan; Luo, Ningqi; Long, Mingzhu; Zhao, Ni; Xu, Jian-Bin

    2017-05-23

    The piezoelectric effect is widely applied in pressure sensors for the detection of dynamic signals. However, these piezoelectric-induced pressure sensors have challenges in measuring static signals that are based on the transient flow of electrons in an external load as driven by the piezopotential arisen from dynamic stress. Here, we present a pressure sensor with nanowires/graphene heterostructures for static measurements based on the synergistic mechanisms between strain-induced polarization charges in piezoelectric nanowires and the caused change of carrier scattering in graphene. Compared to the conventional piezoelectric nanowire or graphene pressure sensors, this sensor is capable of measuring static pressures with a sensitivity of up to 9.4 × 10 -3 kPa -1 and a fast response time down to 5-7 ms. This demonstration of pressure sensors shows great potential in the applications of electronic skin and wearable devices.

  6. Acoustic sensor for remote measuring of pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataev V. F.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with sensors based on delay lines on surface acoustic waves (SAW, having a receiving-emitting and a reflective interdigital transducers (IDT. The dependence of the reflection coefficient of SAW on type and intensity of the load was studied. The authors propose a composite delay line in which the phase of the reflection coefficient depends on the pressure. Pressure leads to a shift of the reflective IDT relative to the transceiver, because they are located on different substrates. The paper also presents functional diagrams of the interrogator.

  7. Caisson structures in the Beaufort Sea 1982-1990 : characteristics, instrumentation and ice loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timco, G.W.; Johnston, M.E. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Hydraulics Centre

    2002-11-01

    This report presents a comprehensive overview of the instrumentation, characteristics and measured ice loads on the caisson structures used for exploratory drilling in the Canadian Beaufort Sea during the 1970s and 1980s. The focus was placed on the Tarsiut Caissons, the Single Steel Drilling Caisson (SSDC), the Caisson Retained Island (CRI), and the Molikpaq. Details on the ice-load measuring instrumentation were provided for each of the drill sites featuring an ice-load measurement program. The results of global loads on the structures were presented as a Line Load (global load per width of the structure) and the Global Pressure (line load per ice thickness). The authors showed that global loads were a function of the ice macrostructure (level first-year sea ice, multi-year ice, first-year ridges, hummock fields, isolated floes). A general increase in the Line Load with increasing ice thickness was revealed through analysis. There was considerable scatter in the data, and the authors explained it by examining the failure mode of the ice during the interaction process. 36 refs., 4 tabs., 57 figs.

  8. Intercomparison of different instruments for measuring radon concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michikuni; Iida, Takao

    1990-01-01

    An intercomparison of different instruments for measurement of radon concentration was carried out. The instruments include an ionization chamber, the charcoal-trap method, a flow-type ionization chamber (pulse-counting method), a two-filter method, an electrostatic collection method and a passive integration radon monitor. All instruments except for the passive radon monitor have been calibrated independently. Measurements were performed over a concentration range from about 3.5 Bq·m -3 (in outdoor air) to 110 Bq·m -3 (in indoor air). The results obtained by these techniques, except the two-filter technique, are comparable. Radon daughter concentration measured using a filter-sampling method was about 52% of radon concentration. (author)

  9. Instrumentation availability for a pressurized water reactor with a large dry containment during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcieri, W.C.; Hanson, D.J.

    1991-03-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, the availability of instruments to supply accident management information during a broad range of severe accidents is evaluated for a pressurized water reactor with a large dry containment. Results from this evaluation include the following: (a) identification of plant conditions that would impact instrument performance and information needs during severe accidents, (b) definition of envelopes of parameters that would be important in assessing the performance of plant instrumentation for a broad range of severe accident sequences, and (c) assessment of the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. 16 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  10. The Construct Validity of an Instrument for Measuring Type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To develop an instrument (DSCKQ-30) for measuring type 2 diabetic patients' knowledge of self-care practices. Methods: A 30-item questionnaire (DSCKQ-30) consisting of close ended questions was developed for this study. DSCKQ-30 was self administered to a cross-section of randomly selected 400 ...

  11. Measuring cognitive load: mixed results from a handover simulation for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John Q; Irby, David M; Barilla-LaBarca, Maria-Louise; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2016-02-01

    The application of cognitive load theory to workplace-based activities such as patient handovers is hindered by the absence of a measure of the different load types. This exploratory study tests a method for measuring cognitive load during handovers. The authors developed the Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs (CLI4H) with items for intrinsic, extraneous, and germane load. Medical students completed the measure after participating in a simulated handover. Exploratory factor and correlation analyses were performed to collect evidence for validity. Results yielded a two-factor solution for intrinsic and germane load that explained 50 % of the variance. The extraneous load items performed poorly and were removed from the model. The score for intrinsic load correlated with the Paas Cognitive Load scale (r = 0.31, p = 0.004) and was lower for students with more prior handover training (p = 0.036). Intrinsic load did not, however, correlate with performance. Germane load did not correlate with the Paas Cognitive Load scale but did correlate as expected with performance (r = 0.30, p = 0.005) and was lower for those students with more prior handover training (p = 0.03). The CLI4H yielded mixed results with some evidence for validity of the score from the intrinsic load items. The extraneous load items performed poorly and the use of only a single item for germane load limits conclusions. The instrument requires further development and testing. Study results and limitations provide guidance to future efforts to measure cognitive load during workplace-based activities, such as handovers.

  12. An intelligent instrument for measuring exhaust temperature of marine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan-Qi; Su, Hua; Liu, Jun

    2006-12-01

    Exhaust temperature of the marine engine is commonly measured through thermocouple. Measure deviation will occur after using the thermocouple for some time due to nonlinearity of thermocouple itself, high temperature and chemical corrosion of measure point. Frequent replacement of thermocouple will increase the operating cost. This paper designs a new intelligent instrument for solving the above-mentioned problems of the marine engine temperature measurement, which combines the conventional thermocouple temperature measurement technology and SCM(single chip microcomputer). The reading of the thermocouple is simple and precise and the calibration can be made automatically and manually.

  13. Instrument-mounted displays for reducing cognitive load during surgical navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrlich, Marc; Tavakol, Parnian; Black, David; Wenig, Dirk; Rieder, Christian; Malaka, Rainer; Kikinis, Ron

    2017-09-01

    Surgical navigation systems rely on a monitor placed in the operating room to relay information. Optimal monitor placement can be challenging in crowded rooms, and it is often not possible to place the monitor directly beside the situs. The operator must split attention between the navigation system and the situs. We present an approach for needle-based interventions to provide navigational feedback directly on the instrument and close to the situs by mounting a small display onto the needle. By mounting a small and lightweight smartwatch display directly onto the instrument, we are able to provide navigational guidance close to the situs and directly in the operator's field of view, thereby reducing the need to switch the focus of view between the situs and the navigation system. We devise a specific variant of the established crosshair metaphor suitable for the very limited screen space. We conduct an empirical user study comparing our approach to using a monitor and a combination of both. Results from the empirical user study show significant benefits for cognitive load, user preference, and general usability for the instrument-mounted display, while achieving the same level of performance in terms of time and accuracy compared to using a monitor. We successfully demonstrate the feasibility of our approach and potential benefits. With ongoing technological advancements, instrument-mounted displays might complement standard monitor setups for surgical navigation in order to lower cognitive demands and for improved usability of such systems.

  14. Upper and Lower Bound Limit Loads for Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels Used for Aerosol Cans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen John Hardy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The elastic compensation method proposed by Mackenzie and Boyle is used to estimate the upper and lower bound limit (collapse loads for one-piece aluminium aerosol cans, which are thin-walled pressure vessels subjected to internal pressure loading. Elastic-plastic finite element predictions for yield and collapse pressures are found using axisymmetric models. However, it is shown that predictions for the elastic-plastic buckling of the vessel base require the use of a full three-dimensional model with a small unsymmetrical imperfection introduced. The finite element predictions for the internal pressure to cause complete failure via collapse fall within the upper and lower bounds. Hence the method, which involves only elastic analyses, can be used in place of complex elastic-plastic finite element analyses when upper and lower bound estimates are adequate for design purposes. Similarly, the lower bound value underpredicts the pressure at which first yield occurs.

  15. An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figurski, J.D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J.R.; Denny, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

  16. Instrument for the measuring magnetic field characteristics of induction acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.M.; Romasheva, P.I.

    1976-01-01

    An instrument for the measuring instantaneous values of variable and pulsed magnetic fields with an amplitide of 0.005-2.0 and duration of 5x10 -6 -2x10 -2 sec is described. Time resolution is not less than 0.5 musec, measuring accuracy is about 1%. Induction coils are used as sensors. A digital voltmeter serves as a secondary recorder

  17. A gas thermometer for vapor pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, A. D.

    2008-08-01

    The pressure of an inert gas over the range 400 1000 K was measured on a tensimetric unit with a quartz membrane pressure gauge of enhanced sensitivity. It was shown that a reactor with a membrane null gauge could be used as a gas thermometer. The experimental confidence pressure and temperature intervals were 0.07 torr and 0.1 K at a significance level of 0.05. A Pt-Pt/10% Rh thermocouple was calibrated; the results were approximated by a polynomial of degree five. The error in temperature calculations was 0.25 K.

  18. Uncertainties for pressure-time efficiency measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdal, Jørgen; Jonsson, Pontus; Dahlhaug, Ole Gunnar; Nielsen, Torbjørn; Cervantes, Michel

    2010-01-01

     In connection with the pressure-time project at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and Luleå University of Technology, a number of tests with the pressure-time method have been performed at the Waterpower Laboratory in Trondheim, Norway. The aim is to lower the uncertainty and improve usability of the method. Also a field test at the Anundsjoe power plant in Sweden has been performed. The pressure-time measurement is affected by random uncertainty. To minimize the effect of t...

  19. Satisfaction measurement instruments for healthcare service users: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Renato Santos de; Bourliataux-Lajoinie, Stephane; Martins, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction surveys can be an interesting way to improve quality and discuss the concept of patient-centered care. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the validated patient satisfaction measurement instruments applied in healthcare. The systematic review searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. The search strategy used the terms: "Patient Satisfaction" AND "Patient centered care" AND "Healthcare survey OR Satisfaction questionnaire" AND...

  20. Trends in instrumentation for environmental radiation measurements at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiebert, R.D.; Wolf, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent instruments developed to fulfill radiation monitoring needs at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are described. Laboratory instruments that measure tritium gas effluents alone, or in the presence of activated air from D-T fusion reactors are discussed. Fully portable systems for gamma, x-ray, and alpha analyses in the field are described. Also included are descriptions of survey instruments that measure low levels of transuranic contaminants and that measure pulsed-neutron dose rates

  1. Development of an in vitro three dimensional loading-measurement system for long bone fixation under multiple loading conditions: a technical description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson David A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to design and verify the capabilities of an in vitro loading-measurement system that mimics in vivo unconstrained three dimensional (3D relative motion between long bone ends, applies uniform load components over the entire length of a test specimen, and measures 3D relative motion between test segment ends to directly determine test segment construct stiffness free of errors due to potting-fixture-test machine finite stiffness. Intact equine cadaveric radius bones, which were subsequently osteotomized/ostectomized and instrumented with bone plates were subjected to non-destructive axial, torsion, and 4-point bending loads through fixtures designed to allow unconstrained components of non-load associated 3D relative motion between radius ends. 3D relative motion between ends of a 50 mm long test segment was measured by an infrared optical tracking system to directly determine its stiffness. Each specimen was then loaded to ultimate failure in either torsion or bending. Cortical bone cross-section diameters and published bone biomechanical properties were substituted into classical mechanics equations to predict the intact test segment theoretical stiffness for comparison and thus loading-measurement system verification. Intact measured stiffness values were the same order of magnitude as theoretically predicted. The primary component of relative motion between ends of the test segment corresponded to that of the applied load with the other 3D components being evident and consistent in relative magnitude and direction for unconstrained loading of an unsymmetrical double plate oblique fracture configuration. Bone failure configurations were reproducible and consistent with theoretically predicted. The 3D loading-measurement system designed: a mimics unconstrained relative 3D motion between radius ends that occurs in clinical situations, b applies uniform compression, torsion, and 4-point bending loads

  2. An automated optimization of core fuel loading pattern for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Renji

    1988-11-01

    An optimum method was adopted to search for an optimum fuel loading pattern in pressurized water reactors. A radial power peak factor was chosen as the objective function of the optimum loading. The direct search method with shuffling rules is used to find optimum solution. The search for an optimum loading pattern with the smallest radial power peak by exchanging fuel assemblies was made. The search process is divided into two steps. In the first step fresh fuels or high reactivity fuels are arranged which are placed in core interior to have a reasonable fuel loading pattern. To further reduce the radial power peak factor, the second step will be necessary to rearrange the exposed lower reactivity fuel around the assemblies which has the radial power peak. In optimum process 1.5 group coarse mesh diffusion theory or two group nodal Green function diffusion theory is utilized to calculate the two dimensional power distribution after each shuffle. Also, above two methods are combinatively utilized to calculate the state quantity. It is not only true to save CPU time, but also can obtian exact results. Besides above function, the code MSOFEL is used to search critical boron concentration and to predict burn-up. The code has been written with FORTRAN-4. The optimum loading pattern was chosen for OCONEE and QINSHAN nuclear power plants as reference examples. The validity and feasibility of MSOFEL was demonstrated

  3. Heat transfer and pressure measurements for the SSME fuel turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael G.; Kim, Jungho

    1991-01-01

    A measurement program is underway using the Rocketdyne two-stage Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) fuel turbine. The measurements use a very large shock tunnel to produce a short-duration source of heated and pressurized gas which is subsequently passed through the turbine. Within this environment, the turbine is operated at the design values of flow function, stage pressure ratio, stage temperature ratio, and corrected speed. The first stage vane row and the first stage blade row are instrumented in both the spanwise and chordwise directions with pressure transducers and heat flux gages. The specific measurements to be taken include time averaged surface pressure and heat flux distributions on the vane and blade, flow passage static pressure, flow passage total pressure and total temperature distributions, and phase resolved surface pressure and heat flux on the blade.

  4. Design and Testing of a Controller for the Martian Atmosphere Pressure and Humidity Instrument DREAMS-P/H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapani Nikkanen, Timo; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA), driven by the goal of performing a soft landing on Mars, is planning to launch the Entry, descent and landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)[1] simultaneously with the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) as a part of the ExoMars program towards Mars in 2016. As a secondary objective, the EDM will gather meteorological data and observe the electrical environment of the landing site with its Dust characterisation, Risk assessment, and Environmental Analyser on the Martian Surface (DREAMS). The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) is participating in the project by designing, building and testing a pressure and a humidity instrument for Mars, named DREAMS-P and DREAMS-H, respectively. The instruments are based on previous FMI designs, including ones flown on board the Huygens, Phoenix and Mars Science Laboratory.[2] Traditionally, the FMI pressure and humidity instruments have been controlled by an FPGA. However, the need to incorporate more autonomy and modifiability into instruments, cut the development time and component costs, stimulated interest to study a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Microcontroller Unit (MCU) based instrument design. Thus, in the DREAMS-P/H design, an automotive MCU is used as the instrument controller. The MCU has been qualified for space by tests in and outside FMI. The DREAMS-P/H controller command and data interface utilizes a RS-422 connection to receive telecommands from and to transmit data to the Central Electronics Unit (CEU) of the DREAMS science package. The two pressure transducers of DREAMS-P and one humidity transducer of DREAMS-H are controlled by a single MCU. The MCU controls the power flow for each transducer and performs pulse counting measurements on sensor and reference channels to retrieve scientific data. Pressure and humidity measurements are scheduled and set up according to a configuration table assigned to each transducer. The configuration tables can be modified during the flight. The whole

  5. Eccentric pressurized tube for measuring creep rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    Creep rupture is a long term failure mode in structural materials that occurs at high temperatures and moderate stress levels. The deterioration of the material preceding rupture, termed creep damage, manifests itself in the formation of small cavities on grain boundaries. To measure creep damage, sometimes uniaxial tests are performed, sometimes density measurements are made, and sometimes the grain boundary cavities are measured by microscopy techniques. The purpose of the present research is to explore a new method of measuring creep rupture, which involves measuring the curvature of eccentric pressurized tubes. Theoretical investigations as well as the design, construction, and operation of an experimental apparatus are included in this research

  6. Measurement Properties of Instruments for Measuring of Lymphedema: Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, J.T.; Viehoff, P.B.; Beurskens, C.H.G.; Laarhoven, H.W. van; Sanden, M.W. van der; Wees, P.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphedema is a common complication of cancer treatment, resulting in swelling and subjective symptoms. Reliable and valid measurement of this side effect of medical treatment is important. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide best evidence regarding which measurement

  7. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Armando; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user. PMID:27034893

  8. Virtual Instrument for Emissions Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Armando; Ramos, Rogelio; Montero, Gisela; Coronado, Marcos; García, Conrado; Pérez, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The gases emissions measurement systems in internal combustion engines are strict and expensive nowadays. For this reason, a virtual instrument was developed to measure the combustion emissions from an internal combustion diesel engine, running with diesel-biodiesel mixtures. This software is called virtual instrument for emissions measurement (VIEM), and it was developed in the platform of LabVIEW 2010® virtual programming. VIEM works with sensors connected to a signal conditioning system, and a data acquisition system is used as interface for a computer in order to measure and monitor in real time the emissions of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2 gases. This paper shows the results of the VIEM programming, the integrated circuits diagrams used for the signal conditioning of sensors, and the sensors characterization of O2, NO, CO, SO2, and CO2. VIEM is a low-cost instrument and is simple and easy to use. Besides, it is scalable, making it flexible and defined by the user.

  9. Laguna Verde annulus pressurization loads evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, M. A.; Cruz, M. A.; Cardenas, J. B.; Vargas, A.; Cruz, H. J.; Mercado, J. J.

    2010-10-01

    Annulus pressurization, jet impingement, pipe whip restraint and jet thrust are phenomena related to postulated pipe ruptures. A postulated pipe rupture at the weld between recirculation, or feedwater piping and a reactor nozzle safe end, will lead to a high flow rate of flashing water/steam mixture into the annulus between the reactor pressure vessel and the biological shield wall. The total effect of the vessel and pipe inventory blowdown from the break being postulated must be accounted for in the evaluation. A recirculation line break will give rise to an angular dependent short term pressure differential around the vessel, followed by a longer term pressure buildup in the annulus. A recirculation line postulated rupture may not produce worst case conditions and reference to time intervals for only the recirculation break should be treated superficially. A postulated rupture of the feedwater piping may produce the extreme case for determining: 1) the shield wall and reactor vessel to pedestal interactions, 2) loading on the reactor vessel internals, or 3) responses for the balance of piping attached to the vessel. Recently it was identified a potential issue regarding the criteria used to determine which cases were evaluated for Annulus Pressurization (A P) loads for new loads plants. The original A P loads methodology in the late 1970 and early 1980 years separated the mass/energy release calculation from the structural response calculation based on the implicit assumption that the maximum overall mass/energy release will result in maximizing the structural response and corresponding stresses on the reactor pressure vessel, internals, and containment structures. This process did not consider the dynamic response in the primary and secondary safety related structures, components and equipment. Consequently, the A P loads used as input for design adequacy evaluations of Nuclear Steam Supply System safety related components for new loads plants might have

  10. A critical pressure based panel method for prediction of unsteady loading of marine propellers under cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.; Bose, N.; Colbourne, B.

    2002-01-01

    A simple numerical procedure is established and implemented into a time domain panel method to predict hydrodynamic performance of marine propellers with sheet cavitation. This paper describes the numerical formulations and procedures to construct this integration. Predicted hydrodynamic loads were compared with both a previous numerical model and experimental measurements for a propeller in steady flow. The current method gives a substantial improvement in thrust and torque coefficient prediction over a previous numerical method at low cavitation numbers of less than 2.0, where severe cavitation occurs. Predicted pressure coefficient distributions are also presented. (author)

  11. An integrative review of literature examining psychometric properties of instruments measuring anxiety or fear in hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Roxie L; Park, Jeong-hwan

    2012-06-01

    Anxiety and fear are among the most frequently reported emotional responses to hospitalization and are known to be contributing factors to pain and other negative patient outcomes. The first step in confronting unnecessary anxiety and fear is to identify valid and clinically feasible assessment instruments. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate instruments that measure children's fear or anxiety associated with hospitalization or painful procedures. A search was conducted of published English-language literature from 1980 through 2010 with the use of Ovid Health and Psychosocial Instruments, Medline, Nursing/Academic Edition, Cinahl, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria specified that the self-report instrument: 1) was developed in English; 2) was developed for and/or widely used with hospitalized children or children undergoing medical procedures or treatment; and 3) had research evidence of psychometric properties from at least five different studies. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed only five fear or anxiety instruments with adequate testing for evaluation of reliability and validity. Although all instruments have beginning psychometric adequacy, no one tool stands out as superior to the others. Therefore, we recommend that researchers and clinicians exercise caution in choosing assessment instruments, balancing potential strengths with reported limitations. Using more than one tool (triangulating) may be one way to achieve more credible results. Knowledge of credible existing instruments alerts us to what is possible today and to the imperative for research that will improve communication with children tomorrow. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Appropriate nominal stresses for use with ASME Code pressure-loading stress indices for nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.

    1976-06-01

    This program is part of a cooperative effort with industry to develop and verify analytical methods for assessing the safety of nuclear pressure-vessel and piping-system design. The study of nominal stresses and stress indices described is part of a continuing study of design rules for nozzles in pressure vessels being coordinated by the PVRC Subcommittee on Reinforced Openings and External Loadings. Results from these studies are used by appropriate ASME Code groups in drafting new and improved design rules

  13. Pneumatic load compensating or controlling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. R. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A pneumatic load compensating or controlling system for restraining a load with a predetermined force or applying a predetermined force to the load is described; it includes a source of pressurized air, a one-way pneumatic actuator operatively connected to a load, and a fluid conduit fluidically connecting the actuator with the source of pressurized air. The actuator is of the piston and cylinder type, and the end of the fluid conduit is connected to the upper or lower portion of the cylinder whereby the actuator alternatively and selectively restrains the load with a predetermined force or apply a predetermined force to the load. Pressure regulators are included within the system for variably selectively adjusting the pressurized fluid to predetermined values as desired or required; a pressure amplifier is included within the system for multiplying the pressurized values so as to achieve greater load forces. An accumulator is incorporated within the system as a failsafe operating mechanism, and visual and aural alarm devices, operatively associated with pressure detecting apparatus, readily indicate the proper or improper functioning of the system.

  14. Calibration Base Lines for Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A calibration base line (CBL) is a precisely measured, straight-line course of approximately 1,400 m used to calibrate Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments...

  15. A closed solution for the collapse load of pressurized pipelines in free spans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Luciano M. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Murray, David W.; Xuejun Song [University of Alberta (Canada). Civil Engineering Dept.

    2005-07-01

    Submarine pipelines for oil exploitation, generally, are under internal pressure and compressive thermal loading. Due to rough see-bottom terrains, these pipelines may be supported only intermittently and span freely. The collapse of such pipelines may produce oil leakage to the environment. A common engineering practice for the determination of the collapse load of such pipelines is the use of finite element modeling. This paper presents an analytical method for the determination of the collapse load of pressurized pipelines extended over free spans. The formulation also takes into account the internal pressure and initial imperfection, generally present in these pipelines. Collapse load is determined from a deduced transcendental equation. Results of the presented formulation are compared with sophisticated finite element analyses. While sophisticated finite element analysis requires hours of computer processing, the present formulation takes practically no time to assess a good approximation for the collapse load of pressurized free span pipelines under compression. The present paper is not intended to substitute the more precise finite element analyses but to provide an easier, faster, and practical way to determine a first approximation of the collapse load of pressurized free span pipelines. (author)

  16. Airflow resistivity instrument for in situ measurement on the earth's ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An airflow resistivity instrument features a novel specimen holder, especially designed for in situ measurement on the earth's ground surface. This capability eliminates the disadvantages of prior intrusive instruments, which necessitate the removal of a test specimen from the ground. A prototype instrument can measure airflow resistivities in the range 10-5000 cgs rayl/cm, at specimen depths up to 15.24 cm (6 in.), and at differential pressures up to 2490.8 dyn sq cm (1 in. H2O) across the specimen. Because of the close relationship between flow resistivity and acoustic impedance, this instrument should prove useful in acoustical studies of the earth's ground surface. Results of airflow resistivity measurements on an uncultivated grass field for varying values of moisture content are presented.

  17. Measurement and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2018-01-02

    This is a chapter for a book called the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineering. Though it is not obvious from the title, the book deals mainly with power engineering. The first chapter (not mine) is about the fundamental quantities used in measurement. This chapter is about the process and the instrumentation.

  18. Nondestructive assay instrument for measurement of plutonium in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirk, D.G.; Hsue, F.; Li, T.K.; Canada, T.R.

    1979-01-01

    A nondestructive assay (NDA) instrument that measures the 239 Pu content in solutions, using a passive gamma-ray spectroscopy technique, has been developed and installed in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. A detailed evaluation of this instrument has been performed. The results show that the instrument can routinely determine 239 Pu concentrations of 1 to 500 g/l with accuracies of 1 to 5% and assay times of 1 to 2 x 10 3 s

  19. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning the development of pressure instrumentation for the space shuttle main engine is reported. The following specific topics were addressed: (1) transducer design and materials, (2) silicon piezoresistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures, (3) chip mounting characterization, and (4) frequency response optimization.

  20. Measuring head for determining the pressure of fission gases released inside bars of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granata, S.

    1984-01-01

    A measuring head suitable for determining the pressure of fission gases released inside non-instrumented bars of nuclear fuel (which have reached high irradiation levels), and for connection to said bars by a method which allows no escape of said active gases and does not cause appreciable disturbance either to the fuel or to the released fission gases, is disclosed. The head consists of a tubular casing adapted to be welded at one end to the bar, and having a metal bellows at its other end. A pointed metal bar is used to penetrate the bar by a blow to a pin, whereupon pressure variations within the casing are measured by a pressure measuring device having an iron core, the movement of the core, due to such pressure variations, being recorded by a differential transformer. (author)

  1. limit loads for wall-thinning feeder pipes under combined bending and internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Je, Jin Ho; Lee, Kuk Hee; Chung, Ha Joo; Kim, Ju Hee; Han, Jae Jun; Kim, Yun Jae

    2009-01-01

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) during inservice conditions produces local wall-thinning in the feeder pipes of CANDU. The Wall-thinning in the feeder pipes is main degradation mechanisms affecting the integrity of piping systems. This paper discusses the integrity assessment of wall-thinned feeder pipes using limit load analysis. Based on finite element limit analyses, this paper compare limit loads for wall-thinning feeder pipes under combined bending and internal pressure with proposed limit loads. The limit loads are determined from limit analyses based on rectangular wall-thinning and elastic-perfectly-plastic materials using the large geometry change.

  2. Coherent Lidar Turbulence Measurement for Gust Load Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Soreide, David; Bagley, Hal

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence adversely affects operation of commercial and military aircraft and is a design constraint. The airplane structure must be designed to survive the loads imposed by turbulence. Reducing these loads allows the airplane structure to be lighter, a substantial advantage for a commercial airplane. Gust alleviation systems based on accelerometers mounted in the airplane can reduce the maximum gust loads by a small fraction. These systems still represent an economic advantage. The ability to reduce the gust load increases tremendously if the turbulent gust can be measured before the airplane encounters it. A lidar system can make measurements of turbulent gusts ahead of the airplane, and the NASA Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-Flight Measurements (ACLAIM) program is developing such a lidar. The ACLAIM program is intended to develop a prototype lidar system for use in feasibility testing of gust load alleviation systems and other airborne lidar applications, to define applications of lidar with the potential for improving airplane performance, and to determine the feasibility and benefits of these applications. This paper gives an overview of the ACLAIM program, describes the lidar architecture for a gust alleviation system, and describes the prototype ACLAIM lidar system.

  3. A Secure System Architecture for Measuring Instruments in Legal Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peters

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems show the tendency of becoming more and more connected. This fact combined with the trend towards the Internet of Things, from which measuring instruments are not immune (e.g., smart meters, lets one assume that security in measuring instruments will inevitably play an important role soon. Additionally, measuring instruments have adopted general-purpose operating systems to offer the user a broader functionality that is not necessarily restricted towards measurement alone. In this paper, a flexible software system architecture is presented that addresses these challenges within the framework of essential requirements laid down in the Measuring Instruments Directive of the European Union. This system architecture tries to eliminate the risks general-purpose operating systems have by wrapping them, together with dedicated applications, in secure sandboxes, while supervising the communication between the essential parts and the outside world.

  4. Instrumentation for electromagnetic field generation in biological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaric, K.; Malaric, R.; Tkalec, M.; Lenicek, I.; Sala, A.

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are part of everyday life in modern world. Extremely low-frequency EMFs (50 Hz) are produced by most electric home appliance, electric power transmission and distribution lines. For the last ten years mobile phones have been widely used all around the world. They operate on the EMF frequencies from 400 MHz to 1900 MHz. The effects of EMFs on living organisms have been the subject of debate and research for the last thirty years. The instrumentation for generation of EMFs have been designed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, and can be used for controlled exposure to different EMFs. To study the effect of extremely low-frequency EMF, duckweed (Lemna minor) - the model plant in biological measurement, test setup was made for magnetic field in Helmholtz coil and for electric field between two parallel circle electrodes. For the effect of mobile phones frequencies, test setup with exposition to the electromagnetic field was done with Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode (GTEM) cell. The research confirmed that instrumentation used in these experiments is suitable for evaluation of biological effects of EMFs. The effect of different field strengths, exposure times and modulation can be tested with these instrumentation.(author)

  5. Servo-controlled pneumatic pressure oscillator for respiratory impedance measurements and high-frequency ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczka, David W; Lutchen, Kenneth R

    2004-04-01

    The ability to provide forced oscillatory excitation of the respiratory system can be useful in mechanical impedance measurements as well as high frequency ventilation (HFV). Experimental systems currently used for generating forced oscillations are limited in their ability to provide high amplitude flows or maintain the respiratory system at a constant mean pressure during excitation. This paper presents the design and implementation of a pneumatic pressure oscillator based on a proportional solenoid valve. The device is capable of providing forced oscillatory excitations to the respiratory system over a bandwidth suitable for mechanical impedance measurements and HVF. It delivers high amplitude flows (> 1.4 l/s) and utilizes a servo-control mechanism to maintain a load at a fixed mean pressure during simultaneous oscillation. Under open-loop conditions, the device exhibited a static hysteresis of approximately 7%, while its dynamic magnitude and phase responses were flat out to 10 Hz. Broad-band measurement of total harmonic distortion was approximately 19%. Under closed-loop conditions, the oscillator was able to maintain a mechanical test load at both positive and negative mean pressures during oscillatory excitations from 0.1 to 10.0 Hz. Impedance of the test load agreed closely with theoretical predictions. We conclude that this servo-controlled oscillator can be a useful tool for respiratory impedance measurements as well as HFV.

  6. New methods for the calculation and for the definition of thermal loads e.g. for the pressurizer including the connected pipes and nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlicht, Gerhard; Roloff-Bock, Iris; Schenk, Ulrike [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Until now the thermal loads for the pressurizer and the spray line were constructed in a very conservative way using abrupt temperature changes. This leads to overestimated thermal loads. To have a better rating of these thermal loads of the pressurizer, it is necessary to describe the phenomena of phase change (boiling and condensation) with sufficient accuracy. For this purpose we have added the phase change phenomena to the fluid code STADRU. This code can analyze time dependent thermal loads in components or systems. Furthermore the temperature course over the wall thickness is determined leading to a realistic description of thermal loads. (orig.)

  7. The Karen instruments for measuring quality of nursing care: construct validity and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Margareta; Andersson, Inger S

    2011-06-01

    Valid and reliable instruments for measuring the quality of care are needed for evaluation and improvement of nursing care. Previously developed and evaluated instruments, the Karen-patient and the Karen-personnel based on Donabedian's Structure-Process-Outcome triad (S-P-O triad) had promising content validity, discriminative power and internal consistency. The objective of this study was to further develop the instruments with regard to construct validity and internal consistency. This prospective study was carried out in medical and surgical wards at a hospital in Sweden. A total of 95 patients and 120 personnel were included. The instruments were tested for construct validity by performing factor analyses in two steps and for internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The first confirmatory factor analyses, with a pre-determined three-factor solution did not load well according to the S-P-O triad, but the second exploratory factor analysis with a six-factor solution appeared to be more coherent and the distribution of variables seemed to be logical. The reliability, i.e. internal consistency, was good in both factor analyses. The Karen-patient and the Karen-personnel instruments have achieved acceptable levels of construct validity. The internal consistency of the instruments is good. This indicates that the instruments may be suitable to use in clinical practice for measuring the quality of nursing care.

  8. Intra-Ocular Pressure Measurement in a Patient with a Thin, Thick or Abnormal Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Colin I; Parker, Douglas G A; Goldberg, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate measurement of intra-ocular pressure is a fundamental component of the ocular examination. The most common method of measuring IOP is by Goldmann applanation tonometry, the accuracy of which is influenced by the thickness and biomechanical properties of the cornea. Algorithms devised to correct for corneal thickness to estimate IOP oversimplify the effects of corneal biomechanics. The viscous and elastic properties of the cornea influence IOP measurements in unpredictable ways, a finding borne out in studies of patients with inherently abnormal and surgically altered corneal biomechanics. Dynamic contour tonometry, rebound tonometry and the ocular response analyzer provide useful alternatives to GAT in patients with abnormal corneas, such as those who have undergone laser vision correction or keratoplasty. This article reviews the various methods of intra-ocular pressure measurement available to the clinician and the ways in which their utility is influenced by variations in corneal thickness and biomechanics.

  9. Seed drill instrumentation for spatial coulter depth measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    coulter depth varied up to ±5 mm between the blocks. In addition, significant depth variations between the individual coulters were found. The mean depths varied between −14.2 and −25.9 mm for the eleven coulters. The mean shallowest coulter depth (−14.2 mm) was measured for the coulter running...... in the wheel track of the tractor. The power spectral densities (distribution) of the coulter depth oscillation frequencies showed that the majority of oscillations occurred below 0.5 Hz without any natural vibration frequency. The study concluded that the instrumentation concept was functional for on...

  10. Development and optimization of a device for diferencial pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarine, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The measurements of reduced values of diferencial pressure, are studied. Several situations are described where the diferencial pressure accurate measurement is necessary in routine works in the Thermohydraulic Laboratory, as well as, the major pressure measurement devices and their respective range are studied. The development of a device for diferencial pressure measurement followed by the design development of the calibration bench covering the foreseen range, start up tests realization, optimization, calibration, performance analysis and conclusions, is showed. (Author) [pt

  11. Assessing information needs and instrument availability for a pressurized water reactor during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Duane J. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)); Arcieri, William C. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)); Ward, Leonard W. (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States))

    1994-07-01

    A five-step methodology was developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information that personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and severe accident conditions, to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information. This methodology was applied to a pressurized water reactor with a large dry containment and the results are presented. A companion article describes application of the methodology to a boiling water reactor with a Mark I containment. ((orig.))

  12. Assessing information needs and instrument availability for a pressurized water reactor during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Duane J.; Arcieri, William C.; Ward, Leonard W.

    1994-01-01

    A five-step methodology was developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information that personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and severe accident conditions, to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information. This methodology was applied to a pressurized water reactor with a large dry containment and the results are presented. A companion article describes application of the methodology to a boiling water reactor with a Mark I containment. ((orig.))

  13. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    surfaces in use have changed - for instance to road surface types with less noise from wheel passages. Because of this, a co-operation between the road administrations of the Nordic countries (abbreviated NMF) decided to construct a portable instrument to be used on selections of traffic roads within......Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  14. Evaluation of load case ''switch-off of the high pressure pump of the emergency core cooling system'', measures of verification and in situ-test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trobitz, M.; Mattheis, A.; Kerkhof, K.; Hippelein, K.; Hofstoetter, P.

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of periodic safety inspection of the Gundremmingen power station (RWE-Bayernwerk - KRB II), the load collectives used for the design of safety-relevant systems and components were checked for their consistency with latest updates of the design basis. It was found that there was no analytical information or study available describing a particular process and its effects, namely switch-off of the high-pressure feedwater pump of the emergency core cooling system. The paper reports the work performed for closing the gap, including preparatory analyses, accompanying measures such as vibration measurements during plant shut-down, as well as the preparation and performance of the in-situ test. The experimental results and the comparative evaluation of calculated and experimental data are presented. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  16. Applicability of hydraulic dynamometer for measuring load mass on forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandur Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, with the start of wood biomass production from wood residues, the need for determining the quantity of extracted wood residuals on a landing site has appeared. The beginning of intensive usage of wood residues for wood biomass starts in lowland forest where all wood residues are extracted with forwarders. There are several ways to determine load mass on a forwarder, first and probably most accurate is the use of load cells which are installed between forwarder undercarriage and loading space. In Croatia, as far as it is known, there is no forwarder with such equipment, although manufacturers offer the installation of such equipment when buying a new forwarder. The second option is using a portable measuring platform (axle scale which was already used for research of axle loads of trucks and forwarders. The data obtained with the measuring platform are very accurate, while its deficiency is relatively great mass, large dimensions and high price. The third option is determining mass by using hydraulic dynamometer which is installed on crane between the rotator and the telescopic boom. The production and installation of such a system is very simple, and with the price it can easily compete with previously described measuring systems. The main deficiency of this system is its unsatisfying accuracy. The results of assortment mass measuring with hydraulic dynamometer installed on a hydraulic crane and discussion on factors influencing obtained results will be presented in this paper.

  17. Evaluation of the measurement properties of symptom measurement instruments for atopic eczema: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbens, L A A; Prinsen, C A C; Chalmers, J R; Drucker, A M; von Kobyletzki, L B; Limpens, J; Nankervis, H; Svensson, Å; Terwee, C B; Zhang, J; Apfelbacher, C J; Spuls, P I

    2017-01-01

    Symptoms have been identified as a core outcome domain for atopic eczema (AE) trials. Various instruments exist to measure symptoms in AE, but they vary in quality and there is a lack of standardization between clinical trials. Our objective was to systematically evaluate the quality of the evidence on the measurement properties of AE symptom instruments, thereby informing consensus discussions within the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative regarding the most appropriate instruments for the core outcome domain symptoms. Using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist and predefined criteria for good measurement properties on identified development and validation studies of AE symptom instruments, a best evidence synthesis was performed to draw an overall conclusion on quality of the instruments and to provide recommendations. Eighteen instruments were identified and evaluated. When the quality and results of the studies were considered, only five of these instruments had sufficient validation data to consider them for the core outcome set for the core outcome domain symptoms. These were the paediatric Itch Severity Scale (ISS), Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM), Patient-Oriented SCOring Atopic Dermatitis (PO-SCORAD), Self-Administered Eczema Area and Severity Index (SA-EASI) and adapted SA-EASI. ISS (paediatric version), POEM, PO-SCORAD, SA-EASI and adapted SA-EASI are currently the most appropriate instruments and therefore have the potential to be recommended as core symptom instrument in future clinical trials. These findings will be utilized for the development of a core outcome set for AE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Analysis of the Elastic Large Deflection Behavior for Metal Plates under Nonuniformly Distributed Lateral Pressure with In-Plane Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeom Kee Paik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Galerkin method is applied to analyze the elastic large deflection behavior of metal plates subject to a combination of in-plane loads such as biaxial loads, edge shear and biaxial inplane bending moments, and uniformly or nonuniformly distributed lateral pressure loads. The motive of the present study was initiated by the fact that metal plates of ships and ship-shaped offshore structures at sea are often subjected to non-uniformly distributed lateral pressure loads arising from cargo or water pressure, together with inplane axial loads or inplane bending moments, but the current practice of the maritime industry usually applies some simplified design methods assuming that the non-uniform pressure distribution in the plates can be replaced by an equivalence of uniform pressure distribution. Applied examples are presented, demonstrating that the current plate design methods of the maritime industry may be inappropriate when the non-uniformity of lateral pressure loads becomes more significant.

  19. Development and evaluation of a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese sleep apnea patients receiving continuous positive airway pressure treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayako Saito,1 Shigeko Kojima,2 Fumihiko Sasaki,3 Masamichi Hayashi,4 Yuki Mieno,4 Hiroki Sakakibara,5 Shuji Hashimoto1 1Department of Hygiene, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan; 2Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nihon Fukushi University, Handa, Japan; 3SDB Research Laboratory, Takaoka Clinic, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine and Clinical Allergy, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan; 5Tokushige Kokyuki Clinic, Nagoya, Japan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP. Analyzed subjects were 653 Japanese OSA patients (619 males and 34 females treated with CPAP at a sleep laboratory in a respiratory clinic in a Japanese city. Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, the CPAP Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Sleep Apnea in Japanese (CSESA-J was developed by a focus group of experts, using a group interview of OSA patients for the items of two previous self-efficacy scales for Western sleep apnea patients receiving CPAP treatment. CSESA-J has two subscales, one for self-efficacy and the other for outcome expectancy, and consists of a total of 15 items. Content validity was confirmed by the focus group. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor loadings of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy were 0.47–0.76 and 0.41–0.92, respectively, for the corresponding items. CSESA-J had a significant but weak positive association with the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and a strong positive association with “Self-efficacy scale on health behavior in patients with chronic disease.” Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.85 for the self-efficacy subscale and 0.89 for the outcome expectancy subscale. The intraclass correlation coefficient using data from the first and second measurements with

  20. Different Relevance of Peripheral, Central or Nighttime Blood Pressure Measurements in the Prediction of Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Patients with Mild or No-Proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, Piotr; Kwiecień, Katarzyna; Adamczak, Marcin; Bączkowska, Teresa; Gozdowska, Jolanta; Madziarska, Katarzyna; Augustyniak-Bartosik, Hanna; Klinger, Marian; Durlik, Magdalena; Ritz, Eberhard; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2018-05-10

    Arterial hypertension is one of the leading factors aggravating the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD). It seems that the novel parameters used in the assessment of the blood pressure (BP) load (i.e. central blood pressure, nighttime blood pressure) may be more precise in predicting the cardiovascular risk and the progression of CKD in comparison with the traditional peripheral blood pressure measurements in the office conditions. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the central, or nighttime blood pressure on the progression of CKD in patients with mild or no-proteinuria (autosomal, dominant polycystic kidney disease or IgA nephropathy). In each of the enrolled 46 patients with CKD stage 3 or 4, serum creatinine concentration was assessed, eGFR (MDRD) was calculated, also central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity (PWV) was assessed and the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was conducted at the beginning of the study and then repeated after one-year observation period. During the observation period mean eGFR decreased from 44.1 (33.2-50.6) mL/min to 36.7 (29.7-46.3) mL/min. No significant differences were observed in the peripheral blood pressure or central blood pressure parameters. After one-year observation period the values of diastolic blood pressure dipping during the night significantly decreased from 16 (13-19) mmHg to 12 (10-15) mmHg; pblood pressure did not change significantly during a one-year observation period despite the significant decline of eGFR and seems not to participate in the CKD progression. 2. Reduced magnitude of the diastolic dipping, which reflects the increase of diastolic blood pressure load during the nighttime, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of deterioration of kidney function in these patients. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Liquid crystalline fiber optic colorimeter for hydrostatic pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Tomasz R.; Bajdecki, Waldemar K.; Domanski, Andrzej W.; Karpierz, Miroslaw A.; Konopka, Witold; Nasilowski, T.; Sierakowski, Marek W.; Swillo, Marcin; Dabrowski, Roman S.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, Edward; Wasowski, Janusz

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents results of tests performed on a fiber optic system of liquid crystalline transducer for hydrostatic pressure monitoring based on properties of colorimetry. The system employs pressure-induced deformations occurring in liquid crystalline (LC) cells configured in a homogeneous Frederiks geometry. The sensor is compared of a round LC cell placed inside a specially designed pressure chamber. As a light source we used a typical diode operating at red wavelength and modulated using standard techniques. The pressure transducer was connected to a computer with a specially designed interface built on the bas of advanced ADAM modules. Results indicate that the system offers high response to pressure with reduced temperature sensitivity and, depending on the LC cell used, can be adjusted for monitoring of low hydrostatic pressures up to 6 MPa. These studies have demonstrated the feasibility of fiber optic liquid crystal colorimeter for hydrostatic pressure sensing specially dedicated to pipe- lines, mining instrumentation, and process-control technologies.

  2. Radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1985-01-01

    A highly sensitive and compactly structured radiation measuring instrument for detecting ionizing radiation, in particular for measuring dose rates and contamination. The laminar structure of the associated counter tube, using only a few, simple plastic parts and a highly elastic counter wire, makes it possible to use the simplest manufacturing techniques. The service life of the counter tube construction, which is completely and permanently sealed and filled with gas, is expected to be more than 12 years. The described counter tube can be adapted in optimal fashion to the available space in a pocket instrument if it is used in combination with a specialized high-voltage generator which is low in interference voltage and with a pulse evaluation circuit having a means of compensating for interference voltage

  3. Metrological Array of Cyber-Physical Systems. Part 7. Additive Error Correction for Measuring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy YATSUK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since during design it is impossible to use the uncertainty approach because the measurement results are still absent and as noted the error approach that can be successfully applied taking as true the nominal value of instruments transformation function. Limiting possibilities of additive error correction of measuring instruments for Cyber-Physical Systems are studied basing on general and special methods of measurement. Principles of measuring circuit maximal symmetry and its minimal reconfiguration are proposed for measurement or/and calibration. It is theoretically justified for the variety of correction methods that minimum additive error of measuring instruments exists under considering the real equivalent parameters of input electronic switches. Terms of self-calibrating and verification the measuring instruments in place are studied.

  4. Piezosurgery or conventional rotatory instruments for inferior third molar extractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersanti, Luigi; Dilorenzo, Matteo; Monaco, Giuseppe; Marchetti, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the discomfort and surgical outcomes of a piezosurgery device with those of rotatory instruments in lower third molar extraction. A split-mouth, randomized, unblinded clinical study was designed; the 2 molars had to have the same extraction difficulty score. The test side was extracted using a piezosurgery technique and the control side was extracted using a conventional handpiece. The primary endpoint was patient discomfort evaluated with the Postoperative Symptom Severity (PoSSe) scale, which was administered to each patient; secondary endpoints were pain, trismus, swelling, and surgical time evaluation. Paired-samples t test and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to compare outcomes within patients. Ten consecutive patients (6 female, 4 male; mean age, 22.4 ± 2.3 yr) were recruited. The total score on the PoSSe scale was significantly lower for piezosurgery compared with the conventional rotating handpiece (24.7 ± 10.3 vs 36.0 ± 7.6; t = -4.27; P = .002). Moreover, postoperative swelling 1 week after surgery was significantly lower for piezosurgery than for the conventional rotating handpiece (2.75 ± 0.23 vs 3.1 ± 0.39 cm; t = -2.63; P = .027). Piezosurgery was associated with less postoperative discomfort and yielded better results for swelling. Piezosurgery seems to be a good technique in daily surgical practice, especially if applied in the critical steps in which safety and respect for soft tissue, bone, and nerves are necessary. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An instrumented mixer setup for making tackifier dispersions used to make pressure-sensitive adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Daoyun; Zhang, Wu; Gupta, Rakesh K; Melby, Earl G

    2008-01-01

    Water-based pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are made by combining a tackifier dispersion and a polymer latex. During the process of making the tackifier dispersion, the system initially forms a water-in-oil emulsion, and then inverts to an oil-in-water one as more water is continuously added with constant agitation. To better understand the process, an instrumented mixer setup was constructed to simulate the manufacturing process, and agitation was provided by an inner impeller and an outer impeller. Several variables were monitored in situ. They are the electrical resistance of the emulsion, torque exerted on the inner impeller, agitation speeds of both impellers, power consumption of both impellers and the flow rate of feeding water. Our measurements showed that torque reached a maximum at phase inversion, and this was verified by direct measurements of viscosity during the process. Simultaneously electrical resistance measurements monitored the chemical changes as well as phase inversion. Experiments showed that under a certain low water feeding flow rate, there appeared to be an intermediate agitation speed at which the phase inversion occurred the earliest. This, from the industrial standpoint, is really favorable due to both time and energy efficiency. Furthermore, this intermediate agitation speed also corresponded to a better quality product. All this information may be used for optimizing this process in the future

  6. Pressure Load Analysis during Severe Accidents for the Evaluation of Late Containment Failure in OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. Y.; Ahn, K. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The MAAP code is a system level computer code capable of performing integral analyses of potential severe accident progressions in nuclear power plants, whose main purpose is to support a level 2 probabilistic safety assessment or severe accident management strategy developments. The code employs lots of user-options for supporting a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The present application is mainly focused on determining an estimate of the containment building pressure load caused by severe accident sequences. Key modeling parameters and phenomenological models employed for the present uncertainty analysis are closely related to in-vessel hydrogen generation, gas combustion in the containment, corium distribution in the containment after a reactor vessel failure, corium coolability in the reactor cavity, and molten-corium interaction with concrete. The phenomenology of severe accidents is extremely complex. In this paper, a sampling-based phenomenological uncertainty analysis was performed to statistically quantify uncertainties associated with the pressure load of a containment building for a late containment failure evaluation, based on the key modeling parameters employed in the MAAP code and random samples for those parameters. Phenomenological issues surrounding the late containment failure mode are highly complex. Included are the pressurization owing to steam generation in the cavity, molten corium-concrete interaction, late hydrogen burn in the containment, and the secondary heat removal availability. The methodology and calculation results can be applied for the optimum assessment of a late containment failure model. The accident sequences considered were a loss of coolant accidents and loss of offsite accidents expected in the OPR-1000 plant. As a result, uncertainties addressed in the pressure load of the containment building were quantified as a function of time. A realistic evaluation of the mean and variance estimates provides a more complete

  7. Instrumentation for Structure Measurements on Highly Non-equilibrium Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Benmore, Chris J [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Wilding, Martin C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Containerless techniques (levitation) completely eliminate contact with the sample. This unique sample environment allows deep supercooling of many liquids and avoids contamination of high temperature melts. Recent experiments at the APS high energy beamline 11 ID-C used aerodynamic levitation with laser beam heating and acoustic levitation with cryogenic cooling. By using these two methods, liquids were studied over much of the temperature range from -40 to +2500 C. This paper briefly describes the instrumentation and its use with an -Si area detector that allows fast, in-situ measurements. Use of the instruments is illustrated with examples of measurements on molten oxides and aqueous materials.

  8. Measurement properties of adult quality-of-life measurement instruments for eczema: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, Christian J; Heinl, Daniel; Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Deckert, Stefanie; Chalmers, Joanne; Ofenloch, Robert; Humphreys, Rosemary; Sach, Tracey; Chamlin, Sarah; Schmitt, Jochen

    2015-04-16

    Eczema is a common chronic or chronically relapsing skin disease that has a substantial impact on quality of life (QoL). By means of a consensus-based process, the Harmonising Outcome Measures in Eczema (HOME) initiative has identified QoL as one of the four core outcome domains to be assessed in all eczema trials (Allergy 67(9):1111-7, 2012). Various measurement instruments exist to measure QoL in adults with eczema, but there is a great variability in both content and quality (for example, reliability and validity) of the instruments used, and it is not always clear if the best instrument is being used. Therefore, the aim of the proposed research is a comprehensive systematic assessment of the measurement properties of the existing measurement instruments that were developed and/or validated for the measurement of patient-reported QoL in adults with eczema. This study is a systematic review of the measurement properties of patient-reported measures of QoL developed and/or validated for adults with eczema. Medline via PubMed and EMBASE will be searched using a selection of relevant search terms. Eligible studies will be primary empirical studies evaluating, describing, or comparing measurement properties of QoL instruments for adult patients with eczema. Eligibility assessment and data abstraction will be performed independently by two reviewers. Evidence tables will be generated for study characteristics, instrument characteristics, measurement properties, and interpretability. The quality of the measurement properties will be assessed using predefined criteria. Methodological quality of studies will be assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. A best evidence synthesis will be undertaken if more than one study has investigated a particular measurement property. The proposed systematic review will produce a comprehensive assessment of measurement properties of existing QoL instruments in

  9. Instrument for benzene and toluene emission measurements of glycol regenerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyecz, Veronika; Szabó, Gábor; Mohácsi, Árpád; Puskás, Sándor; Vágó, Árpád

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an in-field and in-explosive atmosphere useable instrument, which can measure the benzene and toluene concentration in two gas and two glycol samples produced by natural gas dehydration units. It is a two-phase, on-line gas chromatograph with a photoacoustic spectroscopy based detector. The time resolution is 10 min per cycle and the minimum detectable concentrations are 2 mg m −3 for benzene, 3 mg m −3 for toluene in natural gas, and 5 g m −3 for benzene and 6 g m −3 for toluene in glycol. Test measurements were carried out at a dehydration plant belonging to MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company. Benzene and toluene emissions of gas dehydration unit are calculated from the measured values based on mass balance of a glycol regenerator. The relationship between the outdoor temperature and the measured concentration was observed which is caused by temperature-dependent operation of the whole dehydration unit. Emission decreases with increase of outdoor temperature. (paper)

  10. Pressure Measurement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    System 8400 is an advanced system for measurement of gas and liquid pressure, along with a variety of other parameters, including voltage, frequency and digital inputs. System 8400 offers exceptionally high speed data acquisition through parallel processing, and its modular design allows expansion from a relatively inexpensive entry level system by the addition of modular Input Units that can be installed or removed in minutes. Douglas Juanarena was on the team of engineers that developed a new technology known as ESP (electronically scanned pressure). The Langley ESP measurement system was based on miniature integrated circuit pressure-sensing transducers that communicated pressure information to a minicomputer. In 1977, Juanarena formed PSI to exploit the NASA technology. In 1978 he left Langley, obtained a NASA license for the technology, introduced the first commercial product, the 780B pressure measurement system. PSI developed a pressure scanner for automation of industrial processes. Now in its second design generation, the DPT-6400 is capable of making 2,000 measurements a second and has 64 channels by addition of slave units. New system 8400 represents PSI's bid to further exploit the 600 million U.S. industrial pressure measurement market. It is geared to provide a turnkey solution to physical measurement.

  11. Does the Position or Contact Pressure of the Stethoscope Make Any Difference to Clinical Blood Pressure Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fan; Zheng, Dingchang; He, Peiyu; Murray, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on auscultatory blood pressure (BP) measurement. Thirty healthy subjects were studied. Two identical stethoscopes (one under the cuff, the other outside the cuff) were used to simultaneously and digitally record 2 channels of Korotkoff sounds during linear cuff pressure deflation. For each subject, 3 measurements with different contact pressures (0, 50, and 100 mm Hg) on the stethoscope outside the cuff were each recorded at 3 repeat sessions. The Korotkoff sounds were replayed twice on separate days to each of 2 experienced listeners to determine systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP). Variance analysis was performed to study the measurement repeatability and the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on BPs. There was no significant BP difference between the 3 repeat sessions, between the 2 determinations from each listener, between the 2 listeners and between the 3 stethoscope contact pressures (all P > 0.06). There was no significant SBP difference between the 2 stethoscope positions at the 2 lower stethoscope pressures (P = 0.23 and 0.45), but there was a small (0.4 mm Hg, clinically unimportant) significant difference (P = 0.005) at the highest stethoscope pressure. The key result was that, DBP from the stethoscope under the cuff was significantly lower than that from outside the cuff by 2.8 mm Hg (P stethoscope outside the cuff, tends to give a higher DBP than the true intra-arterial pressure, this study could suggest that the stethoscope position under the cuff, and closer to the arterial occlusion, might yield measurements closer to the actual invasive DBP. PMID:25546675

  12. Does the position or contact pressure of the stethoscope make any difference to clinical blood pressure measurements: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fan; Zheng, Dingchang; He, Peiyu; Murray, Alan

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on auscultatory blood pressure (BP) measurement. Thirty healthy subjects were studied. Two identical stethoscopes (one under the cuff, the other outside the cuff) were used to simultaneously and digitally record 2 channels of Korotkoff sounds during linear cuff pressure deflation. For each subject, 3 measurements with different contact pressures (0, 50, and 100 mm Hg) on the stethoscope outside the cuff were each recorded at 3 repeat sessions. The Korotkoff sounds were replayed twice on separate days to each of 2 experienced listeners to determine systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP). Variance analysis was performed to study the measurement repeatability and the effect of stethoscope position and contact pressure on BPs. There was no significant BP difference between the 3 repeat sessions, between the 2 determinations from each listener, between the 2 listeners and between the 3 stethoscope contact pressures (all P > 0.06). There was no significant SBP difference between the 2 stethoscope positions at the 2 lower stethoscope pressures (P = 0.23 and 0.45), but there was a small (0.4 mm Hg, clinically unimportant) significant difference (P = 0.005) at the highest stethoscope pressure. The key result was that, DBP from the stethoscope under the cuff was significantly lower than that from outside the cuff by 2.8 mm Hg (P stethoscope outside the cuff, tends to give a higher DBP than the true intra-arterial pressure, this study could suggest that the stethoscope position under the cuff, and closer to the arterial occlusion, might yield measurements closer to the actual invasive DBP.

  13. Organic Electroluminescent Sensor for Pressure Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Niimi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed a novel concept of a pressure sensor called electroluminescent pressure sensor (ELPS based on oxygen quenching of electroluminescence. The sensor was fabricated as an organic light-emitting device (OLED with phosphorescent dyes whose phosphorescence can be quenched by oxygenmolecules, and with a polymer electrode which permeates oxygen molecules. The sensor was a single-layer OLED with Platinum (II octaethylporphine (PtOEP doped into poly(vinylcarbazole (PVK as an oxygen sensitive emissive layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS as an oxygen permeating polymer anode. The pressure sensitivity of the fabricated ELPS sample was equivalent to that of the sensor excited by an illumination light source. Moreover, the pressure sensitivity of the sensor is equivalent to that of conventional pressure-sensitive paint (PSP, which is an optical pressure sensor based on photoluminescence.

  14. Measurement properties of quality-of-life measurement instruments for infants, children and adolescents with eczema: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinl, D; Prinsen, C A C; Sach, T; Drucker, A M; Ofenloch, R; Flohr, C; Apfelbacher, C

    2017-04-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is one of the core outcome domains identified by the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative to be assessed in every eczema trial. There is uncertainty about the most appropriate QoL instrument to measure this domain in infants, children and adolescents. To systematically evaluate the measurement properties of existing measurement instruments developed and/or validated for the measurement of QoL in infants, children and adolescents with eczema. A systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase, complemented by a thorough hand search of reference lists, retrieved studies on measurement properties of eczema QoL instruments for infants, children and adolescents. For all eligible studies, we judged the adequacy of the measurement properties and the methodological study quality with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. Results from different studies were summarized in a best-evidence synthesis and formed the basis to assign four degrees of recommendation. Seventeen articles, three of which were found by hand search, were included. These 17 articles reported on 24 instruments. No instrument can be recommended for use in all eczema trials because none fulfilled all required adequacy criteria. With adequate internal consistency, reliability and hypothesis testing, the U.S. version of the Childhood Atopic Dermatitis Impact Scale (CADIS), a proxy-reported instrument, has the potential to be recommended depending on the results of further validation studies. All other instruments, including all self-reported ones, lacked significant validation data. Currently, no QoL instrument for infants, children and adolescents with eczema can be highly recommended. Future validation research should primarily focus on the CADIS, but also attempt to broaden the evidence base for the validity of self-reported instruments. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Towards a measurement instrument for determinants of innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, M.A.H.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; van Dommelen, P.; van Buuren, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To develop a short instrument to measure determinants of innovations that may affect its implementation. Design. We pooled the original data from eight empirical studies of the implementation of evidence-based innovations. The studies used a list of 60 potentially relevant determinants

  16. Instruments to measure radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. Interlaboratory comparison 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Elisabeth; Beck, Thomas; Buchroeder, Helmut; Doering, Joachim; Schmidt, Volkmar

    2011-10-01

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices 1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by BfS. A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organizational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the website www.bfs.de/de/ion/radon/fachinfomessung/vergleichspruefungen.html and from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (eptis) available in the internet. (orig.)

  17. Instruments to measure radon-222 activity concentration or exposure to radon-222. Intercomparison 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Elisabeth; Beck, Thomas; Buchroeder, Helmut; Doering, Joachim; Schmidt, Volkmar

    2014-10-01

    According to the Directive 96/29/EURATOM the monitoring of occupational radiation exposures shall base on individual measurements carried out by an approved dosimetric service. Pursuant to the European Directive an approved dosimetric service is a body responsible for the calibration, reading or interpretation of individual monitoring devices.., whose capacity to act in this respect is recognized by the competent authorities. This concept will also be applied to radon services issuing passive radon measurement devices. Passive radon measurement devices 1 using solid state nuclear track detectors or electrets are recommended for individual monitoring of exposures to radon. German regulations lay down that radon measuring devices are appropriate for purposes of occupational radiation monitoring if the devices are issued by recognized radon measurement services, and the measurement service submits devices of the same type issued for radon monitoring to regular intercomparisons conducted by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS). A radon measuring service is recognized by the competent authority if it proves its organisational and technical competence, e. g. by accreditation. These regulations have been introduced in the area of occupational radiation exposures. Nevertheless, it is recommended that radon measuring services which carry out radon measurements in other areas (e.g. dwellings) should subject themselves to these measures voluntarily. The interlaboratory comparisons comprise the organization, exposure, and evaluation of measurements of radon activity concentration or exposure to radon. The comparisons only concern radon-222; radon-220 is not in the scope. Radon services being interested can get further information from the European Information System on Proficiency Testing Schemes (EPTIS) and from the BfS websites.

  18. Measurement properties of quality of life measurement instruments for infants, children and adolescents with eczema: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinl, Daniel; Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Drucker, Aaron M; Ofenloch, Robert; Humphreys, Rosemary; Sach, Tracey; Flohr, Carsten; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2016-02-09

    Eczema is a common chronic or chronically relapsing, inflammatory skin disease that exerts a substantial negative impact on quality of life (QoL). The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative has used a consensus-based process which identified QoL as one of the four core outcome domains to be assessed in all eczema clinical trials. A number of measurement instruments exist to measure QoL in infants, children, and adolescents with eczema, and there is a great variability in both content and quality of the instruments used. Therefore, the objective of the proposed research is to comprehensively and systematically assess the measurement properties of the existing measurement instruments that were developed and/or validated for the measurement of patient-reported QoL in infants, children, and adolescents with eczema. This study is a systematic review of the measurement properties of patient-reported measures of QoL developed and/or validated for infants, children, and adolescents with eczema. A systematic literature search will be carried out in MEDLINE via PubMed and EMBASE using a selection of relevant search terms. Eligible studies will be primary empirical studies evaluating, describing, or comparing measurement properties of QoL instruments for infants, children, and adolescents with eczema. Two reviewers will independently perform eligibility assessment and data abstraction. Evidence tables will be used to record study characteristics, instrument characteristics, measurement properties, and interpretability. The adequacy of the measurement properties will be assessed using predefined criteria. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist will be used to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies. A best evidence synthesis will be undertaken if more than one study has examined a particular measurement property. The proposed systematic review will yield a comprehensive assessment

  19. Research study of pressure instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, L.; Hull-Allen, G.

    1984-01-01

    To obtain a more vibration resistant pressure sensor for use on the Space Shuttle Main Engine, a proximity probe based, diaphragm type pressure sensor breadboard was developed. A fiber optic proximity probe was selected as the sensor. In combination with existing electronics, a thermal stability evaluation of the entire probe system was made. Based upon the results, a breadboard design of the pressure sensor and electronics was made and fabricated. A brief series of functional experiments was made with the breadboard to calibrate, thermally compensate, and linearize its response. In these experiments, the performance obtained in the temperature range of -320 F (liquid N2) to +200 F was comparable to that of the strain gage based sensor presently in use on the engine. In tests at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), after some time at or near liquid nitrogen temperatures, the sensor output varied over the entire output range. These large spurious signals were attributed to condensation of air in the sensing gap. In the next phase of development of this sensor, an evaluation of fabrication techniques toward greater thermal and mechanical stability of the fiber probe assembly must be made. In addition to this, a positive optics to metal seal must be developed to withstand the pressure that would result from a diaphragm failure.

  20. Measurement, instrumentation, and sensors handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Eren, Halit

    2014-01-01

    The Second Edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes. Organized acco

  1. Instrumentation for localized measurements in two-phase flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, G.G.; Averill, R.H.; Shurts, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Three types of instrumentation that have been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and its predecessor, Aerojet Nuclear company, at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to investigate two-phase flow phenomenon in a nuclear reactor at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility are discussed: (a) a combination drag disc-turbine transducer (DTT), (b) a multibeam nuclear hardened gamma densitometer system, and (c) a conductivity sensitive liquid level transducer (LLT). The DTT obtains data on the complex problem of two-phase flow conditions in the LOFT primary coolant system during a loss-os-coolant experiment (LOCE). The discussion of the DTT describes how a turbine, measuring coolant velocity, and a drag disc, measuring coolant momentum flux, can provide valuable mass flow data. The nuclear hardened gamma densitometer is used to obtain density and flow regime information for two-phase flow in the LOFT primary coolant system during a LOCE. The LLT is used to measure water and steam conditions within the LOFT reactor core during a LOCE. The LLT design and the type of data obtained are described

  2. Piston cylinder cell for high pressure ultrasonic pulse echo measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepa, M. W., E-mail: mkepa@staffmail.ed.ac.uk; Huxley, A. D. [SUPA, Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Ridley, C. J.; Kamenev, K. V. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Ultrasonic techniques such as pulse echo, vibrating reed, or resonant ultrasound spectroscopy are powerful probes not only for studying elasticity but also for investigating electronic and magnetic properties. Here, we report on the design of a high pressure ultrasonic pulse echo apparatus, based on a piston cylinder cell, with a simplified electronic setup that operates with a single coaxial cable and requires sample lengths of mm only. The design allows simultaneous measurements of ultrasonic velocities and attenuation coefficients up to a pressure of 1.5 GPa. We illustrate the performance of the cell by probing the phase diagram of a single crystal of the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe{sub 2}.

  3. Fluvial sediment transport: Analytical techniques for measuring sediment load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    Sediment transport data are often used for the evaluation of land surface erosion, reservoir sedimentation, ecological habitat quality and coastal sediment budgets. Sediment transport by rivers is usually considered to occur in two major ways: (1) in the flow as a suspended load and (2) along the bed as a bed load. This publication provides guidance on selected techniques for the measurement of particles moving in both modes in the fluvial environment. The relative importance of the transport mode is variable and depends on the hydraulic and sedimentary conditions. The potential user is directed in the selection of an appropriate technique through the presentation of operating principles, application guidelines and estimated costs. Techniques which require laboratory analysis are grab sample, pump sample, depth sample, point integrated and radioactive tracers. Techniques which will continuously record data are optical backscattering, nuclear transmission, single frequency acoustic and laser diffraction

  4. Electric field measurement in an atmospheric or higher pressure gas by coherent Raman scattering of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Kobayashi, Kazunobu; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Mueller, Sarah; Luggenhoelscher, Dirk; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of electric field measurement based on field-induced coherent Raman scattering is demonstrated for the first time in a nitrogen containing gas at atmospheric or higher pressure, including open air. The technique is especially useful for the determination of temporal and spatial profiles of the electric field in air-based microdischarges, where nitrogen is abundant. In our current experimental setup, the minimum detectable field strength in open air is about 100 V mm -1 , which is sufficiently small compared with the average field present in typical microdischarges. No further knowledge of other gas/plasma parameters such as the nitrogen density is required. (fast track communication)

  5. Effect of error in crack length measurement on maximum load fracture toughness of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bind, A.K.; Sunil, Saurav; Singh, R.N.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2016-03-01

    Recently it was found that maximum load toughness (J max ) for Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material was practically unaffected by error in Δ a . To check the sensitivity of the J max to error in Δ a measurement, the J max was calculated assuming no crack growth up to the maximum load (P max ) for as received and hydrogen charged Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material. For load up to the P max , the J values calculated assuming no crack growth (J NC ) were slightly higher than that calculated based on Δ a measured using DCPD technique (JDCPD). In general, error in the J calculation found to be increased exponentially with Δ a . The error in J max calculation was increased with an increase in Δ a and a decrease in J max . Based on deformation theory of J, an analytic criterion was developed to check the insensitivity of the J max to error in Δ a . There was very good linear relation was found between the J max calculated based on Δ a measured using DCPD technique and the J max calculated assuming no crack growth. This relation will be very useful to calculate J max without measuring the crack growth during fracture test especially for irradiated material. (author)

  6. Impact of tire loading and tire pressure on measured 3D contact stresses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hernandez, JA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pavement 2013 D ow nl oa de d fro m a sc el ib ra ry .o rg b y G RA IN G ER E N G IN EE RI N G L IB E o n 10 /1 4/ 13 . C op yr ig ht A SC E. F or p er so na l u se o nl y; a ll rig ht s r es er ve d. 2 composed of a measuring mechanism... a v e m e n t 2 0 1 3 : S u s t a i n a b l e a n d E f f i c i e n t P a v e m e n t s © A S C E 2 0 1 3 A i r f i e l d a n d H i g h w a y P a v e m e n t 2 0 1 3 D ow nl oa de d fro m a sc el ib ra ry .o rg b y G RA IN G ER...

  7. Stress Rupture Life Reliability Measures for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Thesken, John C.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie

    2007-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases onboard spacecraft. Kevlar (DuPont), glass, carbon and other more recent fibers have all been used as overwraps. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads for an extended period during a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is therefore important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since the testing of each flight design cannot be completed on a practical time scale. The present paper examines specifically a Weibull statistics based stress rupture model and considers the various uncertainties associated with the model parameters. The paper also examines several reliability estimate measures that would be of use for the purpose of recertification and for qualifying flight worthiness of these vessels. Specifically, deterministic values for a point estimate, mean estimate and 90/95 percent confidence estimates of the reliability are all examined for a typical flight quality vessel under constant stress. The mean and the 90/95 percent confidence estimates are computed using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques by assuming distribution statistics of model parameters based also on simulation and on the available data, especially the sample sizes represented in the data. The data for the stress rupture model are obtained from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) stress rupture testing program, carried out for the past 35 years. Deterministic as well as probabilistic sensitivities are examined.

  8. Standard practice of calibration of force-measuring instruments for verifying the force indication of testing machines

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this practice is to specify procedures for the calibration of force-measuring instruments. Procedures are included for the following types of instruments: 1.1.1 Elastic force-measuring instruments, and 1.1.2 Force-multiplying systems, such as balances and small platform scales. Note 1Verification by deadweight loading is also an acceptable method of verifying the force indication of a testing machine. Tolerances for weights for this purpose are given in Practices E 4; methods for calibration of the weights are given in NIST Technical Note 577, Methods of Calibrating Weights for Piston Gages. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Other metric and inch-pound values are regarded as equivalent when required. 1.3 This practice is intended for the calibration of static force measuring instruments. It is not applicable for dynamic or high speed force calibrations, nor can the results of calibrations performed in accordance with this practice be assumed valid for...

  9. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Instrumentation and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstl, S.; Voutta, R.; Casalbuoni, S.; Grau, A. W.; Holubek, T.; de Jauregui, D. Saez; Bartolini, R.; Cox, M. P.; Longhi, E. C.; Rehm, G.; Schouten, J. C.; Walker, R. P.; Sikler, G.; Migliorati, M.; Spataro, B.

    2014-10-01

    For a proper design of the cryogenic layout of superconducting insertion devices it is necessary to take into account the heat load from the beam to the cold beam tube. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) has been built. COLDDIAG is designed in a flexible way, to allow its installation in different light sources. In order to study the beam heat load and the influence of the cryosorbed gas layer, the instrumentation comprises temperature sensors, pressure gauges, and mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers with which it is possible to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. In this paper we describe the experimental equipment, the installation of COLDDIAG in the Diamond Light Source and selected examples of the measurements performed to show the capabilities of this unique instrument.

  10. Pico gauges for minimally invasive intracellular hydrostatic pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, Jan; Mullendore, Daniel L.; Jensen, Kaare Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pressure has a multitude of functions in cells surrounded by a cell wall or similar matrix in all kingdoms of life. The functions include cell growth, nastic movements, and penetration of tissue by parasites. The precise measurement of intracellular pressure in the majority of cells......, however, remains difficult or impossible due to their small size and/or sensitivity to manipulation. Here, we report on a method that allows precise measurements in basically any cell type over all ranges of pressure. It is based on the compression of nanoliter and picoliter volumes of oil entrapped...... in the tip of microcapillaries, which we call pico gauges. The production of pico gauges can be accomplished with standard laboratory equipment, and measurements are comparably easy to conduct. Example pressure measurements are performed on cells that are difficult or impossible to measure with other methods....

  11. New calibration method for I-scan sensors to enable the precise measurement of pressures delivered by 'pressure garments'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the pressure delivered by medical compression products is highly desirable both in monitoring treatment and in developing new pressure inducing garments or products. There are several complications in measuring pressure at the garment/body interface and at present no ideal pressure measurement tool exists for this purpose. This paper summarises a thorough evaluation of the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements taken following both of Tekscan Inc.'s recommended calibration procedures for I-scan sensors; and presents an improved method for calibrating and using I-scan pressure sensors. The proposed calibration method enables accurate (±2.1 mmHg) measurement of pressures delivered by pressure garments to body parts with a circumference ≥30 cm. This method is too cumbersome for routine clinical use but is very useful, accurate and reproducible for product development or clinical evaluation purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope MeasuringInstruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2007-08-01

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 {micro}rad (rms).

  13. Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope Measuring Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2007-01-01

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 (micro)rad (rms)

  14. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - a fully automated, miniaturized instrument for measuring gene expression in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio; Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kianoosh

    2012-07-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecrafts opens the doors to a large number of experiments on the influence of space environment on biological systems that will profoundly impact our ability to conduct safe and effective space travel, and might also shed light on terrestrial physiology or biological function and human disease and aging processes. Measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, determine metabolic basis of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance, test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration, and monitor both the spacecraft environment and crew health. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology and medicine. Accordingly, supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measuring microbial expression of thousands of genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing bacterial cell walls, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing it on a microarray and (4) providing electrochemical readout, all in a microfluidics cartridge. The prototype under development is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by the NASA Small Spacecraft Office. The first target application is to cultivate and measure gene expression of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, i.e. a cyanobacterium known to exhibit remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions

  15. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  16. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  17. A low-power tool for measuring acceleration, pressure, and temperature (APT) with wide dynamic range and bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesemann, Martin; Davis, Earl E.; Paros, Jerome; Johnson, Greg; Meldrum, Robert; Scherwath, Martin; Mihaly, Steven

    2017-04-01

    We present a new tool that facilitates the study of inter-related geodetic, geodynamic, seismic, and oceanographic phenomena. It incorporates a temperature compensated tri-axial accelerometer developed by Quartz Seismic Sensors, Inc., a pressure sensor built by Paroscientific Inc., and a low-power, high-precision frequency counter developed by Bennest Enterprises Ltd. and built by RBR, Ltd. The sensors are housed in a 7 cm o.d. titanium pressure case designed for use to full ocean depths (withstands more than 20 km of water pressure). Sampling intervals are programmable from 0.08 s to 1 hr; standard memory can store up to 130 million samples; total power consumption is roughly 115 mW when operating continuously and proportionately lower when operating intermittently (e.g., 2 mW average at 1 sample per min). Serial and USB communications protocols allow a variety of autonomous and cable-connection options. Measurement precision of the order of 10-8 of full scale (e.g., pressure equivalent to 4000 m water depth, acceleration = +/- 3 g) allows observations of pressure and acceleration variations of 0.4 Pa and 0.3 μm s-2. Long-term variations in vertical acceleration are sensitive to displacement through the gravity gradient down to a level of roughly 2 cm, and variations in horizontal acceleration are sensitive to tilt down to a level of 0.03 μrad. With the large dynamic ranges, high sensitivities and broad bandwidth (6 Hz to DC), ground motion associated with microseisms, strong and weak seismic ground motion, tidal loading, and slow and rapid geodynamic deformation - all normally studied using disparate instruments - can be observed with a single tool. Installation in the marine environment is accomplished by pushing the tool roughly 1 m vertically below the seafloor with a submersible or remotely operated vehicle, with no profile remaining above the seafloor to cause current-induced noise. The weight of the tool is designed to match the sediment it displaces to

  18. Filament wound pressure vessels with load sharing liners for space shuttle orbiter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecord, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Early in the development of orbiter propulsion and environmental control subsystems it was recognized that use of overwrapped pressure vessels with load sharing liners may provide significant weight savings for high pressure gas containment. A program is described which was undertaken by Rockwell International to assess the utility for orbiter applications of titanium 6Al--4V and Inconel 718 liners overwrapped with Kevlar fibers. Also briefly described are programs administered by the NASA Lewis Research Center to evaluate cryoformed steel liners overwrapped with Kevlar fibers and to establish a method that can guarantee cyclic life of the vessels

  19. Advanced Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques for Near Surface Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadel, Daniel R.

    The development of aerodynamic boundary layers on wind turbine blades is an important consideration in their performance. It can be quite challenging to replicate full scale conditions in laboratory experiments, and advanced diagnostics become valuable in providing data not available from traditional means. A new variant of Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) known as cross-correlation DGV is developed to measure boundary layer profiles on a wind turbine blade airfoil in the large scale Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel. The instrument provides mean velocity vectors with reduced sensitivity to external conditions, a velocity measurement range from 0 ms-1 to over 3000 ms-1, and an absolute uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulations with synthetic signals reveal that the processing routine approaches the Cramer-Rao lower bound in optimized conditions. A custom probe-beam technique is implanted to eliminate laser flare for measuring boundary layer profiles on a DU96-W-180 wind turbine airfoil model. Agreement is seen with laser Doppler velocimetry data within the uncertainty estimated for the DGV profile. Lessons learned from the near-wall flow diagnostics development were applied to a novel benchmark model problem incorporating the relevant physical mechanisms of the high amplitude periodic turbulent flow experienced by turbine blades in the field. The model problem is developed for experimentally motivated computational model development. A circular cylinder generates a periodic turbulent wake, in which a NACA 63215b airfoil with a chord Reynolds number Rec = 170,000 is embedded for a reduced frequency k = pi f c/V = 1.53. Measurements are performed with particle image velocimetry on the airfoil suction side and in highly magnified planes within the boundary layer. Outside of the viscous region, the Reynolds stress profile is consistent with the prediction of Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT), confirming that the redistribution of normal stresses is an inviscid effect. The

  20. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  1. Technology qualification of an ambient pressure subsea cryogenic pipeline for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Afzal; Viteri, Martha; D' Angelo, Luis [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Prescott, Neal; Zhang, Jeff [Fluor Corporation, Irving, TX (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A project that deploys new technologies need to be confident that the technology can be implemented successfully and will perform reliably as designed. New technology is critical to industry, especially where such technology is a project enable without the existence of a backup solution, but also for projects where such technologies bring potential benefits such as technical, economic, schedule, and environmental improvements. DNV developed and has been implementing for many years a systematic, risk based technology qualification process as described in DNV RP-A203, qualification procedures for new technology. One of the major objectives of a formal technology qualification process is to ensure that risks are properly addressed. The DNV process includes several levels of technology qualification and review, starting with a statement of feasibility and concluding with a Certificate of Fitness for Service. Fluor Corporation (Fluor) has developed a new subsea cryogenic pipe-in-pipe configuration for offshore LNG loading and receiving terminals. The configuration uses a highly efficient thermal nano-porous insulation in the annular space between the inner and outer pipes. This material is kept in an ambient pressure environment, which is produced through sealing by metal bulkheads. The bulkheads transfer the contraction induced axial compression load on the inner cryogenic carrier pipe to the external jacket pipe. The resulting pipeline bundle is a structural element, which addresses the thermal contraction and expansion loads without the use of expansion bellows or ultra-low thermal contraction alloys. Fluor has followed the DNV technology qualification process to achieve the defined milestones therein which culminated in DNV issuing a certificate of fitness for service. Particular focus was put on the new aspects of the design. The certificate of fitness for service for the Fluor subsea LNG pipe technology provides project management with the confidence that this

  2. Instrumentation for Measurement of Gas Permeability of Polymeric Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Burns, Karen S.

    1993-01-01

    A mass spectrometric 'Dynamic Delta' method for the measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes has been developed. The method is universally applicable for measurement of the permeability of any gas through polymeric membrane materials. The usual large sample size of more than 100 square centimeters required for other methods is not necessary for this new method which requires a size less than one square centimeter. The new method should fulfill requirements and find applicability for industrial materials such as food packaging, contact lenses and other commercial materials where gas permeability or permselectivity properties are important.

  3. Savannah River Site delayed neutron instruments for safeguards measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studley, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) includes a variety of nuclear production facilities that, since 1953, have processed special nuclear materials (SNM) including highly-enriched uranium (>90% 235 U), recycled enriched uranium (∼50% 235 U + 40% 236 U), low burnup plutonium (> 90% 239 Pu + 240 Pu ) and several other nuclear materials such as heat source plutonium ( 238 Pu). DOE Orders, primarily 5633.3, require all nuclear materials to be safeguarded through accountability and material control. Accountability measurements determine the total amount of material in a facility, balancing inventory changes against receipts and shipments, to provide assurance (delayed) that all material was present. Material control immediately detects or deters theft or diversion by assuring materials remain in assigned locations or by impeding unplanned movement of materials within or from a material access area. Goals for accountability or material control, and, therefore, the design of measurement systems, are distinctly different. Accountability measurements are optimized for maximum precision and accuracy, usually for large amounts of special nuclear material. Material control measurements are oriented more toward security features and often must be optimized for sensitivity, to detect small amounts of materials where none should be

  4. Portable instrumentation for quantitatively measuring radioactive surface contaminations, including 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of decontamination efforts, a quantitative analysis of the radiocontamination is necessary, both before and after decontamination. Since it is desirable to release the decontaminated material for unrestricted use or disposal, the assay equipment must provide adequate sensitivity to measure the radioactivity at or below the release limit. In addition, the instrumentation must be capable of measuring all kinds of radiocontaminants including fission products, activation products, and transuranic materials. Finally, the survey instrumentation must be extremely versatile in order to assay the wide variety of contaminated surfaces in many environments, some of which may be extremely hostile or remote. This communication describes the development and application of portable instrumentation capable of quantitatively measuring most transuranics, activation products, and fission products, including 90 Sr, on almost any contaminated surface in nearly any location

  5. Instrumentation measurement and testing complex for detection and identification of radioactive materials using the emitted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samossadny, V.T.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Kadlin, V.V.; Kolesnikov, S.V.; Ulin, S.E.; Grachev, V.M.; Vlasik, K.F.; Dedenko, G.L.; Novikov, D.V.; Uteshev, Z.M.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron and gamma radiation is a very usefull method for effective nuclear materials identification and control. The gamma-ray-neutron complex described in the paper is based on two multi-layer 3 He neutrons detectors and two High Pressure Xenon gamma-ray spectrometers assembled in one unit. All these detectors were callibrated on neutron and gamma-ray sources. The main characteristics of the instrumentation , its testing results and gamma-ray and neutron radiation parameters, which have been measured are represented in the paper. The gamma-neutron sources and fissile materials reliable detection and identification capability was demonstrated

  6. An instrumented implant for in vivo measurement of contact forces and contact moments in the shoulder joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, P; Graichen, F; Bender, A; Rohlmann, A; Bergmann, G

    2009-03-01

    To improve implant design, fixation and preclinical testing, implant manufacturers depend on realistic data of loads acting on the shoulder joint. Furthermore, these data can help to optimize physiotherapeutic treatment and to advise patients in their everyday living conditions. Calculated shoulder joint loads vary extremely among different authors [Anglin C, Wyss UP, Pichora DR. Glenohumeral contact forces. Proc Inst Mech Eng [H] 2000;214:637-44]. Additionally the moments acting in the joint caused by friction or incongruent articular surfaces, for example, are not implemented in most models. An instrumented shoulder joint implant was developed to measure the contact forces and the contact moments acting in the glenohumeral joint. This article provides a detailed description of the implant, containing a nine-channel telemetry unit, six load sensors and an inductive power supply, all hermetically sealed inside the implant. The instrumented implant is based on a clinically proven BIOMET Biomodular shoulder replacement and was calibrated before implantation by using complex mathematical calculation routines in order to achieve an average measuring precision of approximately 2%.

  7. 77 FR 2982 - Request for Measures and Domains To Use in Development of a Standardized Instrument for Use in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Measures and Domains To Use in Development of a Standardized Instrument for Use in Public Reporting of... Department of Health and Human Services with improving pediatric health care quality measures. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is soliciting the submission of instruments or domains (for example...

  8. Development of volumetric methane measurement instrument for laboratory scale anaerobic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a newly developed VMMI (volumetric Methane-Measuring Instrument) for laboratory scale anaerobic reactors is presented. The VMMI is a reliable, inexpensive, easy to construct, easy to use, corrosion resistant device that does not need maintenance, can measure a wide flow range of gas at varying pressure and temperature. As per the results of the error analysis, the accuracy of the VMMI is unilateral, i.e. -6.91 %. The calibration of VMMI was investigated and a linear variation was found; hence, in situ calibration is recommended for this type of instrument. As per chromatographic analysis, it absorbs almost 100% of the carbon dioxide present in the biogas, results only the methane, and thus eliminates the need of cost intensive composition analysis of biogas through gas chromatograph. (author)

  9. Stress index development for piping with trunnion attachment under pressure and moment loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. H.; Kim, J. M.; Park, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    A finite element analysis of a trunnion pipe anchor is presented. The structure is analyzed for the case of internal pressure and moment loadings. The stress results are categorized into the average (membrane) stress, the linearly varying (bending) stress and the peak stress through the thickness. The resulting stresses are interpreted per section III of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code from which the Primary (B 1 ), Secondary (C 1 ) and Peak (K 1 ) stress indices for pressure, the Primary (B 2 ), Secondary (C 2 ) and Peak (K 2 ) stress indices for moment are developed. Based on the comparison between stress value by stress indices derived in this paper and stress value represented by the ASME Code Case N-391-1, the empirical equations for stress indices are effectively used in the piping stress analysis. Therefore, the use of empirical equations can simplify the procedure of evaluating the local stress in the piping design stage. (author)

  10. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.

  11. Triaxial extensometer for volumetric strain measurement in a hydro-compression loading test for foam materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Bo; Xu, Ming-long; Zhao, Tian-fei; Zhang, Zhi-jun; Lu, Tian-jian

    2010-01-01

    A new strain gauge-based triaxial extensometer (radial extensometers x, y and axial extensometer z) is presented to improve the volumetric strain measurement in a hydro-compression loading test for foam materials. By the triaxial extensometer, triaxial deformations of the foam specimen can be measured directly, from which the volumetric strain is determined. Sensitivities of the triaxial extensometer are predicted using a finite-element model, and verified through experimental calibrations. The axial extensometer is validated by conducting a uniaxial compression test in aluminium foam and comparing deformation measured by the axial extensometer to that by the advanced optical 3D deformation analysis system ARAMIS; the result from the axial extensometer agrees well with that from ARAMIS. A new modus of two-wire measurement and transmission in a hydrostatic environment is developed to avoid the punching and lead sealing techniques on the pressure vessel for the hydro-compression test. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the triaxial extensometer is determined through an experimental test. An application in an aluminium foam hydrostatic compression test shows that the triaxial extensometer is effective for volumetric strain measurement in a hydro-compression loading test for foam materials

  12. An Integrated Monitoring System Through 3d Laser Scanner and Traditional Instruments for Load Test on Arch Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, D.; Ferrando, I.

    2017-05-01

    The experimental campaign represents an example of how the careful design of the different test phases and the choice of the needed instrumentation are fundamental aspects to obtain a proper interpretation of the results, for future application on the real structures. Additionally, the present work represents a successful example of a combined monitoring system, integrating the traditional and innovative technical instrumentation for loading tests and geomatics survey techniques. The monitoring system has been designed with the aim of defining the load carrying capacity of a masonry arch bridge scaled model and to test the performances of a new retrofitting method. In particular, two different configuration have been considered: a first one with isolated arch and a second one with gravel fill on the arch.

  13. AN INTEGRATED MONITORING SYSTEM THROUGH 3D LASER SCANNER AND TRADITIONAL INSTRUMENTS FOR LOAD TEST ON ARCH BRIDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The experimental campaign represents an example of how the careful design of the different test phases and the choice of the needed instrumentation are fundamental aspects to obtain a proper interpretation of the results, for future application on the real structures. Additionally, the present work represents a successful example of a combined monitoring system, integrating the traditional and innovative technical instrumentation for loading tests and geomatics survey techniques. The monitoring system has been designed with the aim of defining the load carrying capacity of a masonry arch bridge scaled model and to test the performances of a new retrofitting method. In particular, two different configuration have been considered: a first one with isolated arch and a second one with gravel fill on the arch.

  14. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Peili

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI. The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  15. Experimental Method for Measuring Dust Load on Surfaces in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, Philip; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, Alfred

    A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms, there is a n......A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms......, there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension. With the presented experimental setup, the dust load on surfaces in a channel can be measured as a function of the environmental and surface conditions and the type of particles under controlled laboratory conditions....

  16. An instrument for measuring the momentum flux from atomic and charged particle jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; Zonca, F.; Timberlake, J.; Bennett, T.; Cuthbertson, J.; Langer, W.; Motley, R.

    1990-07-01

    We have developed an instrument to measure the momentum flux from an intense plasma stream for which the standard techniques used for low pressure gases ( -5 - 10 -3 Newtons with a response time of 10 12 cm -3 ). Such forces are transmitted predominantly by ionic and neutral species, with 10's of eV's of kinetic energy, are accompanied by high heat fluxes, and are pulsed. The momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer, a capacitance-type pressure gauge. This protects the transducer from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering. An absolute force calibration of the PMM to 1% accuracy has been made is described. A flat carbon target has been used in measurements of the momentum flux of He, Ne, Ar, and Kr, plasmas produced in a magnetized linear plasma device. 7 refs., 7 figs

  17. Image processing system for the measurement of timber truck loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Correia, Bento A. B.; Davies, Roger; Rodrigues, Fernando C.; Freitas, Jose C. A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper industry uses wood as its raw material. To know the quantity of wood in the pile of sawn tree trunks, every truck load entering the plant is measured to determine its volume. The objective of this procedure is to know the solid volume of wood stocked in the plant. Weighing the tree trunks has its own problems, due to their high capacity for absorbing water. Image processing techniques were used to evaluate the volume of a truck load of logs of wood. The system is based on a PC equipped with an image processing board using data flow processors. Three cameras allow image acquisition of the sides and rear of the truck. The lateral images contain information about the sectional area of the logs, and the rear image contains information about the length of the logs. The machine vision system and the implemented algorithms are described. The results being obtained with the industrial prototype that is now installed in a paper mill are also presented.

  18. Measuring systolic arterial blood pressure. Possible errors from extension tubes or disposable transducer domes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, C F; Kim, K C

    1980-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of possible error in the measurement of systolic blood pressure if disposable, built-in diaphragm, transducer domes or long extension tubes between the patient and pressure transducer are used. Sinusoidal or arterial pressure patterns were generated with specially designed equipment. With a long extension tube or trapped air bubbles, the resonant frequency of the catheter system was reduced so that the arterial pulse was amplified as it acted on the transducer and, thus, gave an erroneously high systolic pressure measurement. The authors found this error to be as much as 20 mm Hg. Trapped air bubbles, not stopcocks or connections, per se, lead to poor fidelity. The utility of a continuous catheter flush system (Sorenson, Intraflow) to estimate the resonant frequency and degree of damping of a catheter-transducer system is described, as are possibly erroneous conclusions. Given a rough estimate of the resonant frequency of a catheter-transducer system and the magnitude of overshoot in response to a pulse, the authors present a table to predict the magnitude of probable error. These studies confirm the variability and unreliability of static calibration that may occur using some safety diaphragm domes and show that the system frequency response is decreased if air bubbles are trapped between the diaphragms. The authors conclude that regular procedures should be established to evaluate the accuracy of the pressure measuring systems in use, the transducer should be placed as close to the patient as possible, the air bubbles should be assiduously eliminated from the system.

  19. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  20. Modelling of pressure loads in a pressure suppression pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timperi, A.; Chauhan, M.; Paettikangas, T.; Niemi, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2013-06-15

    Rapid collapse of a large steam bubble is analyzed by using CFD and FEM calculations. In addition, a 1D code is written which takes into account the finite condensation rate. The 1D simulations are compared with the PPOOLEX experiment COL-01. By adjusting the condensation rate, the calculated pressure peak near the vent outlet could be made same as in the experiment. Scaling of the measured pressure loads to full-scale is studied by dimensional analyses and by review of the analysis of Sonin (1981). The structural response of containment during chugging is studied by using an FEM of containment with simplified geometry and loading which was created based on experimental data. The results are compared to the case in which desynchronization is absent, and chugging occurs simultaneously in every vent pipe. The desynchronized loading is created by giving random initiation times for chugs out of distribution corresponding to the desynchronization time presented by Kukita and Namatame (1985). CFD simulations of the PPOOLEX experiment MIX-03 were performed. In the experiment, clear chugging behavior was observed. In the simulation, the interphasial surface was much more stable and oscillation occurred at a higher frequency than in the experiment. The differences are likely caused by the turbulence model and too coarse numerical mesh, which causes numerical diffusion. (Author)

  1. Modelling of pressure loads in a pressure suppression pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timperi, A.; Chauhan, M.; Paettikangas, T.; Niemi, J.

    2013-06-01

    Rapid collapse of a large steam bubble is analyzed by using CFD and FEM calculations. In addition, a 1D code is written which takes into account the finite condensation rate. The 1D simulations are compared with the PPOOLEX experiment COL-01. By adjusting the condensation rate, the calculated pressure peak near the vent outlet could be made same as in the experiment. Scaling of the measured pressure loads to full-scale is studied by dimensional analyses and by review of the analysis of Sonin (1981). The structural response of containment during chugging is studied by using an FEM of containment with simplified geometry and loading which was created based on experimental data. The results are compared to the case in which desynchronization is absent, and chugging occurs simultaneously in every vent pipe. The desynchronized loading is created by giving random initiation times for chugs out of distribution corresponding to the desynchronization time presented by Kukita and Namatame (1985). CFD simulations of the PPOOLEX experiment MIX-03 were performed. In the experiment, clear chugging behavior was observed. In the simulation, the interphasial surface was much more stable and oscillation occurred at a higher frequency than in the experiment. The differences are likely caused by the turbulence model and too coarse numerical mesh, which causes numerical diffusion. (Author)

  2. Assessment of Customer Service in Academic Health Care Libraries (ACSAHL): an instrument for measuring customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossno, J E; Berkins, B; Gotcher, N; Hill, J L; McConoughey, M; Walters, M

    2001-04-01

    In a pilot study, the library had good results using SERVQUAL, a respected and often-used instrument for measuring customer satisfaction. The SERVQUAL instrument itself, however, received some serious and well-founded criticism from the respondents to our survey. The purpose of this study was to test the comparability of the results of SERVQUAL with a revised and shortened instrument modeled on SERVQUAL. The revised instrument, the Assessment of Customer Service in Academic Health Care Libraries (ACSAHL), was designed to better assess customer service in academic health care libraries. Surveys were sent to clients who had used the document delivery services at three academic medical libraries in Texas over the previous twelve to eighteen months. ACSAHL surveys were sent exclusively to clients at University of Texas (UT) Southwestern, while the client pools at the two other institutions were randomly divided and provided either SERVQUAL or ACSAHL surveys. Results indicated that more respondents preferred the shorter ACSAHL instrument to the longer and more complex SERVQUAL instrument. Also, comparing the scores from both surveys indicated that ACSAHL elicited comparable results. ACSAHL appears to measure the same type of data in similar settings, but additional testing is recommended both to confirm the survey's results through data replication and to investigate whether the instrument applies to different service areas.

  3. Pressure and Relative Humidity Measurement Devices for Mars 2020 Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieta, M.; Genzer, M.; Nikkanen, T.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    One of the scientific payloads onboard the NASA Mars 2020 rover mission is Mars Environmental Dynamic Analyzer (MEDA): a set of environmental sensors for Mars surface weather measurements. Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) provides a pressure measurement device (MEDA PS) and a relative humidity measurement device (MEDA HS) for MEDA.

  4. Development of an instrument for direct ozone production rate measurements: measurement reliability and current limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaveniti, Sofia; Locoge, Nadine; Stevens, Philip S.; Wood, Ezra; Kundu, Shuvashish; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) is an important pollutant that affects both global climate change and regional air quality, with the latter linked to detrimental effects on both human health and ecosystems. Ozone is not directly emitted in the atmosphere but is formed from chemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and sunlight. The photochemical nature of ozone makes the implementation of reduction strategies challenging and a good understanding of its formation chemistry is fundamental in order to develop efficient strategies of ozone reduction from mitigation measures of primary VOCs and NOx emissions. An instrument for direct measurements of ozone production rates (OPRs) was developed and deployed in the field as part of the IRRONIC (Indiana Radical, Reactivity and Ozone Production Intercomparison) field campaign. The OPR instrument is based on the principle of the previously published MOPS instrument (Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor) but using a different sampling design made of quartz flow tubes and a different Ox (O3 and NO2) conversion-detection scheme composed of an O3-to-NO2 conversion unit and a cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (CAPS) NO2 monitor. Tests performed in the laboratory and in the field, together with model simulations of the radical chemistry occurring inside the flow tubes, were used to assess (i) the reliability of the measurement principle and (ii) potential biases associated with OPR measurements. This publication reports the first field measurements made using this instrument to illustrate its performance. The results showed that a photo-enhanced loss of ozone inside the sampling flow tubes disturbs the measurements. This issue needs to be solved to be able to perform accurate ambient measurements of ozone production rates with the instrument described in this study. However, an attempt was made to investigate the OPR sensitivity to NOx by adding NO inside the instrument

  5. Review of current practices and requirements for the inspection of prestressed concrete pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, K.J.

    1980-12-01

    Code requirements for pre- and in-service inspection of prestressed concrete pressure vessels as utilized in gas-cooled reactors are reviewed and compared with practices and experiences during construction, commissioning, and operation of such reactors. The pre-service inspection relies heavily on embedded instrumentation for measurements of stresses, temperatures, and displacements. The same instrumentation is later used for in-service surveillance, which additionally includes visual examination of exposed surfaces, monitoring of tendon conditions, and measurement of tendon loads. Improvement of present monitoring instrumentation and/or techniques, rather than development of new in-service inspection methods, is recommended

  6. Pressurizer /Auxiliary Spray Piping Stress Analysis For Determination Of Lead Shielding Maximum Allow Able Load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setjo, Renaningsih

    2000-01-01

    Piping stress analysis for PZR/Auxiliary Spray Lines Nuclear Power Plant AV Unit I(PWR Type) has been carried out. The purpose of this analysis is to establish a maximum allowable load that is permitted at the time of need by placing lead shielding on the piping system on class 1 pipe, Pressurizer/Auxiliary Spray Lines (PZR/Aux.) Reactor Coolant Loop 1 and 4 for NPP AV Unit one in the mode 5 and 6 during outage. This analysis is intended to reduce the maximum amount of radiation dose for the operator during ISI ( In service Inspection) period.The result shown that the maximum allowable loads for 4 inches lines for PZR/Auxiliary Spray Lines is 123 lbs/feet

  7. Standard practice for evaluating performance characteristics of ultrasonic Pulse-Echo testing instruments and systems without the use of electronic measurement instruments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes procedures for evaluating the following performance characteristics of ultrasonic pulse-echo examination instruments and systems: Horizontal Limit and Linearity; Vertical Limit and Linearity; Resolution - Entry Surface and Far Surface; Sensitivity and Noise; Accuracy of Calibrated Gain Controls. Evaluation of these characteristics is intended to be used for comparing instruments and systems or, by periodic repetition, for detecting long-term changes in the characteristics of a given instrument or system that may be indicative of impending failure, and which, if beyond certain limits, will require corrective maintenance. Instrument characteristics measured in accordance with this practice are expressed in terms that relate to their potential usefulness for ultrasonic testing. Instrument characteristics expressed in purely electronic terms may be measured as described in E1324. 1.2 Ultrasonic examination systems using pulsed-wave trains and A-scan presentation (rf or video) may be ev...

  8. Proposal for a Universal Test Mirror for Characterization of Slope Measuring Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Warwick, Tony; Noll, Tino; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas; Geckeler, Ralf D.

    2007-01-01

    The development of third generation light sources like the Advanced Light Source (ALS) or BESSY II brought to a focus the need for high performance synchrotron optics with unprecedented tolerances for slope error and micro roughness. Proposed beam lines at Free Electron Lasers (FEL) require optical elements up to a length of one meter, characterized by a residual slope error in the range of 0.1mu rad (rms),and rms values of 0.1 nm for micro roughness. These optical elements must be inspected by highly accurate measuring instruments, providing a measurement uncertainty lower than the specified accuracy of the surface under test. It is essential that metrology devices in use at synchrotron laboratories be precisely characterized and calibrated to achieve this target. In this paper we discuss a proposal for a Universal Test Mirror (UTM) as a realization of a high performance calibration instrument. The instrument would provide an ideal calibration surface to replicate a redundant surface under test of redundant figure. The application of a sophisticated calibration instrument will allow the elimination of the majority of the systematic error from the error budget of an individual measurement of a particular optical element. We present the limitations of existing methods, initial UTM design considerations, possible calibration algorithms, and an estimation of the expected accuracy

  9. Assessment of Embedded Conjugated Polymer Sensor Arrays for Potential Load Transmission Measurement in Orthopaedic Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Micolini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Load transfer through orthopaedic joint implants is poorly understood. The longer-term outcomes of these implants are just starting to be studied, making it imperative to monitor contact loads across the entire joint implant interface to elucidate the force transmission and distribution mechanisms exhibited by these implants in service. This study proposes and demonstrates the design, implementation, and characterization of a 3D-printed smart polymer sensor array using conductive polyaniline (PANI structures embedded within a polymeric parent phase. The piezoresistive characteristics of PANI were investigated to characterize the sensing behaviour inherent to these embedded pressure sensor arrays, including the experimental determination of the stable response of PANI to continuous loading, stability throughout the course of loading and unloading cycles, and finally sensor repeatability and linearity in response to incremental loading cycles. This specially developed multi-material additive manufacturing process for PANI is shown be an attractive approach for the fabrication of implant components having embedded smart-polymer sensors, which could ultimately be employed for the measurement and analysis of joint loads in orthopaedic implants for in vitro testing.

  10. Development of instrumentation systems for severe accidents. 4. New accident tolerant in-containment pressure transducer for containment pressure monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Masato; Teruya, Kuniyuki; Yoshitsugu, Makoto; Ikeuchi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (TF-1 accident) caused severe situations and resulted in a difficulty in measuring important parameters for monitoring plant conditions. Therefore, we have studied the TF-1 accident to select the important parameters that should be monitored at the severe accident and are developing the Severe Accident Instrumentations and Monitoring Systems that could measure the parameters in severe accident conditions. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD (MHI) developed a new accident tolerant containment pressure monitoring system and demonstrated that the monitoring system could endure extremely harsh environmental conditions that envelop severe accident environmental conditions inside a containment such as maximum operating temperature of up to 300degC and total integrated dose (TID) of 1 MGy gamma. The new containment pressure monitoring system comprises of a strain gage type pressure transducer and a mineral insulated (MI) cable with ceramic connectors, which are located in the containment, and a strain measuring amplifier located outside the containment. Less thermal and radiation degradation is achieved because of minimizing use of organic materials for in-containment equipment such as the transducer and connectors. Several tests were performed to demonstrate the performance and capability of the in-containment equipment under severe accident environmental conditions and the major steps in this testing were run in the following test sequences: (1) the baseline functional tests (e.g., repeatability, non-linearity, hysteresis, and so on) under normal conditions, (2) accident radiation testing, (3) seismic testing, and (4) steam/temperature test exposed to simulated severe accident environmental conditions. The test results demonstrate that the new pressure transducer can endure the simulated severe accident conditions. (author)

  11. Measuring fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for measuring the pressure of a fluid having characteristics that make it unsuitable for connection directly to a pressure gauge. The method is particularly suitable for the periodic measurement of the pressure of a supply of liquid Na to Na-lubricated bearings of pumps for pumping Na from a reservoir to the bearing via a filter, the reservoir being contained in a closed vessel containing an inert blanket gas, such as Ar, above the Na. (UK)

  12. Comparison of three protocols for measuring the maximal respiratory pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Maria B. Sclauser Pessoa

    Full Text Available Introduction To avoid the selection of submaximal efforts during the assessment of maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP, some reproducibility criteria have been suggested. Criteria that stand out are those proposed by the American Thoracic Society (ATS and European Respiratory Society (ERS and by the Brazilian Thoracic Association (BTA. However, no studies were found that compared these criteria or assessed the combination of both protocols. Objectives To assess the pressure values selected and the number of maneuvers required to achieve maximum performance using the reproducibility criteria proposed by the ATS/ERS, the BTA and the present study. Materials and method 113 healthy subjects (43.04 ± 16.94 years from both genders were assessed according to the criteria proposed by the ATS/ERS, BTA and the present study. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis, followed by ANOVA for repeated measures and post hoc LSD or by Friedman test and post hoc Wilcoxon, according to the data distribution. Results The criterion proposed by the present study resulted in a significantly higher number of maneuvers (MIP and MEP – median and 25%-75% interquartile range: 5[5-6], 4[3-5] and 3[3-4] for the present study criterion, BTA and ATS/ERS, respectively; p < 0.01 and higher pressure values (MIP – mean and 95% confidence interval: 103[91.43-103.72], 100[97.19-108.83] and 97.6[94.06-105.95]; MEP: median and 25%-75% interquartile range: 124.2[101.4-165.9], 123.3[95.4-153.8] and 118.4[95.5-152.7]; p < 0.05. Conclusion The proposed criterion resulted in the selection of pressure values closer to the individual’s maximal capacity. This new criterion should be considered in future studies concerning MIP and MEP measurements.

  13. Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick DL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability, the requirements, the burden for subjects, and costs of the available instruments. As far as measurement properties are concerned, there are no sufficiently specific standards for the evaluation of measurement properties of instruments to measure health status, and also no explicit criteria for what constitutes good measurement properties. In this paper we describe the protocol for the COSMIN study, the objective of which is to develop a checklist that contains COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, including explicit criteria for satisfying these standards. We will focus on evaluative health related patient-reported outcomes (HR-PROs, i.e. patient-reported health measurement instruments used in a longitudinal design as an outcome measure, excluding health care related PROs, such as satisfaction with care or adherence. The COSMIN standards will be made available in the form of an easily applicable checklist. Method An international Delphi study will be performed to reach consensus on which and how measurement properties should be assessed, and on criteria for good measurement properties. Two sources of input will be used for the Delphi study: (1 a systematic review of properties, standards and criteria of measurement properties found in systematic reviews of measurement instruments, and (2 an additional literature search of methodological articles presenting a comprehensive checklist of standards and criteria. The Delphi study will consist of four (written Delphi rounds, with approximately 30 expert panel members with different backgrounds in clinical medicine, biostatistics, psychology, and epidemiology. The final checklist will

  14. A New Instrument for the Measurement of the Waveform in X-Ray Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Jimenez, Francisco J.; Martinez-Hernandez, Marco A.

    2004-01-01

    The experience gained in the quality control in X-ray units used in Radiology has demonstrated that the measurement of the waveform of the X-ray beam, measured as the response of a radiation detector is very helpful to decide if the unit fulfills the quality control requirements and also has been useful to define some kind of faults in the unit. Several instruments are available on the market to make this measurement but they need in general a storage or digital oscilloscope to see the waveform. In this work a stand alone new instrument is proposed in which the waveform is seen in a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). The instrument is based in the X-ray response of a photo diode. The analog response depending on time is converted to digital numbers that are stored sequentially in a memory. The stored information is recovered with a microcontroller and reconstructed in the screen of the LCD. The instrument is able to measure in the mammographic range from 22 kV to 35 kV and in the conventional range from 40 kV to 120 kV in the different settings of current encountered on practical applications, the time range for the measurement of the X-ray shot is from 100 ms to 3 s. The instrument can be useful in quality control practices and in the verification and maintenance of X-ray units

  15. Instrumented figure skating blade for measuring on-ice skating forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, S. A.; Smith, D. M.; Robinson, J. M.; Hawks, J. C.; Starbuck, P.; King, D. L.; Ridge, S. T.; Charles, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Competitive figure skaters experience substantial, repeated impact loading during jumps and landings. Although these loads, which are thought to be as high as six times body weight, can lead to overuse injuries, it is not currently possible to measure these forces on-ice. Consequently, efforts to improve safety for skaters are significantly limited. Here we present the development of an instrumented figure skating blade for measuring forces on-ice. The measurement system consists of strain gauges attached to the blade, Wheatstone bridge circuit boards, and a data acquisition device. The system is capable of measuring forces in the vertical and horizontal directions (inferior-superior and anterior-posterior directions, respectively) in each stanchion with a sampling rate of at least 1000 Hz and a resolution of approximately one-tenth of body weight. The entire system weighs 142 g and fits in the space under the boot. Calibration between applied and measured force showed excellent agreement (R > 0.99), and a preliminary validation against a force plate showed good predictive ability overall (R ≥ 0.81 in vertical direction). The system overestimated the magnitude of the first and second impact peaks but detected their timing with high accuracy compared to the force plate.

  16. Thickness measuring instrument for rubber cord calender production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Songfeng

    1988-01-01

    The thickness measuring gauge has been used to measure the rubber film thickness on the coating of textile cord at tire four cord calenders. Combined with micro-computer it completes the automatic control system and acheives automatic thickness measurement and adjustment. The fundamentals, construction, specifications, characteristic and application results are described. Prominent economic benefit has been gained for tire production

  17. Pressure measurements and high speed visualizations of the cavitation phenomena at deep part load condition in a Francis turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K; Müller, A; Favrel, A; Landry, C; Avellan, F

    2014-01-01

    In a hydraulic power plant, it is essential to provide a reliable, sustainable and flexible energy supply. In recent years, in order to cover the variations of the renewable electricity production, hydraulic power plants are demanded to operate with more extended operating range. Under these off-design conditions, a hydraulic turbine is subject to cavitating swirl flow at the runner outlet. It is well-known that the helically/symmetrically shaped cavitation develops at the runner outlet in part load/full load condition, and it gives severe damage to the hydraulic systems under certain conditions. Although there have been many studies about partial and full load conditions, contributions reporting the deep part load condition are limited, and the cavitation behaviour at this condition is not yet understood. This study aims to unveil the cavitation phenomena at deep part load condition by high speed visualizations focusing on the draft tube cone as well as the runner blade channel, and pressure fluctuations associated with the phenomena were also investigated

  18. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Ha-Duong; Mukhopadhyay, Biswaijit; Ehrmann, Oswin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-08-18

    In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a "one-sensor-one-packaging_technology" concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a "floating-concept", capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load) with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO). A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane) transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process). A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not "floating" but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA.

  19. Advanced Liquid-Free, Piezoresistive, SOI-Based Pressure Sensors for Measurements in Harsh Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-Duong Ngo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and discuss two innovative liquid-free SOI sensors for pressure measurements in harsh environments. The sensors are capable of measuring pressures at high temperatures. In both concepts media separation is realized using a steel membrane. The two concepts represent two different strategies for packaging of devices for use in harsh environments and at high temperatures. The first one is a “one-sensor-one-packaging_technology” concept. The second one uses a standard flip-chip bonding technique. The first sensor is a “floating-concept”, capable of measuring pressures at temperatures up to 400 °C (constant load with an accuracy of 0.25% Full Scale Output (FSO. A push rod (mounted onto the steel membrane transfers the applied pressure directly to the center-boss membrane of the SOI-chip, which is placed on a ceramic carrier. The chip membrane is realized by Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE or Bosch Process. A novel propertied chip housing employing a sliding sensor chip that is fixed during packaging by mechanical preloading via the push rod is used, thereby avoiding chip movement, and ensuring optimal push rod load transmission. The second sensor can be used up to 350 °C. The SOI chips consists of a beam with an integrated centre-boss with was realized using KOH structuring and DRIE. The SOI chip is not “floating” but bonded by using flip-chip technology. The fabricated SOI sensor chip has a bridge resistance of 3250 Ω. The realized sensor chip has a sensitivity of 18 mV/µm measured using a bridge current of 1 mA.

  20. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Felix C P; Davy, Martin H; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  1. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Felix C. P.; Davy, Martin H.; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  2. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael D; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 microN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  3. Design and construction of an instrument for measuring thermistor electrical characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiono; Yudi Herdiana

    2007-01-01

    In this work an instrument for measuring the electrical characteristic of thermistor has been designed and constructed. The instrument was constructed from main components i.e. a micro controller AT89C51, 3 ADC-0804, a LM35 temperature sensor and IC MAX 232. The IC MAX 232 component is used to connect the micro controller to the personal computer serially by using RS-232 standard. While ADC-0804 was used to convert the analog data (DC voltage) to the digital one so that the data was readable by the micro controller. Digital data from 3 ADC-0804 circuit which have been read by the micro controller was sent directly to the personal computer. The data from the measurement which have been stored in the personal computer was then processed to know the value of temperature and measured thermistor resistance. The processed data could be either stored in a data base or displayed in a monitor or printed in the form of table data and in the form a graph of thermistor resistance as the function of temperature. The result of measurement from measuring instrument of the characteristic of thermistor electric's had been made, being compared by measuring calibrated instrument, the deviation is about 0.33 %. (author)

  4. Core outcome measurement instruments for clinical trials in nonspecific low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarotto, Alessandro; Boers, Maarten; Deyo, Richard A.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Corbin, Terry P.; Costa, Leonardo O.P.; Foster, Nadine E.; Grotle, Margreth; Koes, Bart W.; Kovacs, Francisco M.; Lin, C.-W. Christine; Maher, Chris G.; Pearson, Adam M.; Peul, Wilco C.; Schoene, Mark L.; Turk, Dennis C.; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Terwee, Caroline B.; Ostelo, Raymond W.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract To standardize outcome reporting in clinical trials of patients with nonspecific low back pain, an international multidisciplinary panel recommended physical functioning, pain intensity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as core outcome domains. Given the lack of a consensus on measurement instruments for these 3 domains in patients with low back pain, this study aimed to generate such consensus. The measurement properties of 17 patient-reported outcome measures for physical functioning, 3 for pain intensity, and 5 for HRQoL were appraised in 3 systematic reviews following the COSMIN methodology. Researchers, clinicians, and patients (n = 207) were invited in a 2-round Delphi survey to generate consensus (≥67% agreement among participants) on which instruments to endorse. Response rates were 44% and 41%, respectively. In round 1, consensus was achieved on the Oswestry Disability Index version 2.1a for physical functioning (78% agreement) and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for pain intensity (75% agreement). No consensus was achieved on any HRQoL instrument, although the Short Form 12 (SF12) approached the consensus threshold (64% agreement). In round 2, a consensus was reached on an NRS version with a 1-week recall period (96% agreement). Various participants requested 1 free-to-use instrument per domain. Considering all issues together, recommendations on core instruments were formulated: Oswestry Disability Index version 2.1a or 24-item Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire for physical functioning, NRS for pain intensity, and SF12 or 10-item PROMIS Global Health form for HRQoL. Further studies need to fill the evidence gaps on the measurement properties of these and other instruments. PMID:29194127

  5. Combining Unsteady Blade Pressure Measurements and a Free-Wake Vortex Model to Investigate the Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in Wind Turbine Aerodynamic Blade Loads in Yaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutaz Elgammi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomenon on wind turbines is challenging and still subject to considerable uncertainty. Under yawed rotor conditions, the wind turbine blades are subjected to unsteady flow conditions as a result of the blade advancing and retreating effect and the development of a skewed vortical wake created downstream of the rotor plane. Blade surface pressure measurements conducted on the NREL Phase VI rotor in yawed conditions have shown that dynamic stall causes the wind turbine blades to experience significant cycle-to-cycle variations in aerodynamic loading. These effects were observed even though the rotor was subjected to a fixed speed and a uniform and steady wind flow. This phenomenon is not normally predicted by existing dynamic stall models integrated in wind turbine design codes. This paper couples blade pressure measurements from the NREL Phase VI rotor to a free-wake vortex model to derive the angle of attack time series at the different blade sections over multiple rotor rotations and three different yaw angles. Through the adopted approach it was possible to investigate how the rotor self-induced aerodynamic load fluctuations influence the unsteady variations in the blade angles of attack and induced velocities. The hysteresis loops for the normal and tangential load coefficients plotted against the angle of attack were plotted over multiple rotor revolutions. Although cycle-to-cycle variations in the angles of attack at the different blade radial locations and azimuth positions are found to be relatively small, the corresponding variations in the normal and tangential load coefficients may be significant. Following a statistical analysis, it was concluded that the load coefficients follow a normal distribution at the majority of blade azimuth angles and radial locations. The results of this study provide further insight on how existing engineering models for dynamic stall may be improved through

  6. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  7. Designing Chemistry Practice Exams for Enhanced Benefits: An Instrument for Comparing Performance and Mental Effort Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Karen J.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The design and use of a chemistry practice exam instrument that includes a measure for student mental effort is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument can beneficial to chemistry students and chemistry educators as well as chemical education researchers from both a content and cognitive science perspective. The method for calculating…

  8. Use of the mathematical modelling method for the investigation of dynamic characteristics of acoustical measuring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Y. M.; Lagunov, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    The schematic diagram of a noise measuring device is presented that uses pulse expansion modeling according to the peak or any other measured values, to obtain instrument readings at a very low noise error.

  9. Time Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at a Wind Tunnel Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, Bil; Streett, Craig L; Glass, Christopher E.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics code, an unsteady, time-accurate flow field about a Space Launch System configuration was simulated at a transonic wind tunnel condition (Mach = 0.9). Delayed detached eddy simulation combined with Reynolds Averaged Naiver-Stokes and a Spallart-Almaras turbulence model were employed for the simulation. Second order accurate time evolution scheme was used to simulate the flow field, with a minimum of 0.2 seconds of simulated time to as much as 1.4 seconds. Data was collected at 480 pressure taps at locations, 139 of which matched a 3% wind tunnel model, tested in the Transonic Dynamic Tunnel (TDT) facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed agreement within 5% in terms of location for peak RMS levels, and 20% for frequency and magnitude of power spectral densities. Grid resolution and time step sensitivity studies were performed to identify methods for improved accuracy comparisons to wind tunnel data. With limited computational resources, accurate trends for reduced vibratory loads on the vehicle were observed. Exploratory methods such as determining minimized computed errors based on CFL number and sub-iterations, as well as evaluating frequency content of the unsteady pressures and evaluation of oscillatory shock structures were used in this study to enhance computational efficiency and solution accuracy. These techniques enabled development of a set of best practices, for the evaluation of future flight vehicle designs in terms of vibratory loads.

  10. Foldable micro coils for a transponder system measuring intraocular pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullerich, S.; Schnakenberg, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Materials in Electrical Engineering 1; Mokwa, W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Materials in Electrical Engineering 1]|[Fraunhofer Inst. of Microelectronic Circuits and Systems, Duisburg (Germany); Boegel, G. vom [Fraunhofer Inst. of Microelectronic Circuits and Systems, Duisburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A foldable transponder system consisting of a chip and a micro coil for measuring intraocular pressure continuously is presented. The system will be integrated in the haptic of a soft artificial intraocular lens. Calculations of planar micro coils with 6 mm and 10.3 mm in diameter show the limits for planar coils with an outer diameter of 6 mm. For the realisation of the transponder system a 20 {mu}m thick coil with an outer diameter of 10.3 mm, an inner diameter of 7.7 mm, 16 turns and a gap of 20 {mu}m between the windings was selected. Measurements show a good agreement between calculated and measured values. Wireless pressure measurements were carried out showing a linear behaviour of the output signal with respect to the applied pressure. (orig.)

  11. Isotope-equipped measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Kazuo; Amano, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    In the steel industry, though the investment in isotope-equipped measuring instruments is small as compared with that in machinery, they play important role in the moisture measurement in sintering and blast furnaces, the thickness measurement in rolling process and others in automatic control systems. The economic aspect of the isotope-equipped measuring instruments is described on the basis of the practices in Kimitsu Works of Nippon Steel Corporation: distribution of such instruments, evaluation of economic effects, usefulness evaluation in view of raising the accuracy, and usefulness evaluation viewed from the failure of the isotope instruments. The evaluation of economic effects was made under the premise that the isotope-equipped measuring instruments are not employed. Then, the effects of raising the accuracy are evaluated for a γ-ray plate thickness gauge and a neutron moisture gauge for coke in a blast furnace. Finally, the usefulness was evaluated, assuming possible failure of the isotope-equipped measuring instruments. (J.P.N.)

  12. Measuring element for determining the internal pressure in fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckers, H.; Drexler, H.; Reiser, H.

    1983-01-01

    A pressure cell is situated inside the fuel rod, which contains a magnetic core or a core influenced by magnetism, whose position relative to an outer front surface of an end stopper of the fuel rod can vary. The fuel rod contains a pressure cell directly above the lower end stopper or connected to it. This can consist of closed bellows, where if the internal pressure in the fuel rod rises, a ferrite core moves axially. When the pressure drops, this returns to the initial position, which is precisely defined by a stop. To detect a rod defect, the position of the soft iron core relative to the lower edge of the end stopper is scanned by a special measuring device. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Instrumentation of dynamic gas pulse loading system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohaupt, H.

    1992-04-14

    The overall goal of this work is to further develop and field test a system of stimulating oil and gas wells, which increases the effective radius of the well bore so that more oil can flow into it, by recording pressure during the gas generation phase in real time so that fractures can be induced more predictably in the producing formation. Task 1: Complete the laboratory studies currently underway with the prototype model of the instrumentation currently being studied. Task 2: Perform field tests of the model in the Taft/Bakersfield area, utilizing operations closest to the engineers working on the project, and optimize the unit for various conditions encountered there. Task 3: Perform field test of the model in DGPL jobs which are scheduled in the mid-continent area, and optimize the unit for downhole conditions encountered there. Task 4: Analyze and summarize the results achieved during the complete test series, documenting the steps for usage of downhole instrumentation in the field, and compile data specifying use of the technology by others. Task 5: Prepare final report for DOE, and include also a report on the field tests completed. Describe and estimate the probability of the technology being commercialized and in what time span. The project has made substantial technical progress, though we are running about a month behind schedule. Expenditures are in line with the schedule. Increased widespread interest in the use of DGPL stimulation has kept us very busy. The computer modeling and test instrumentation developed under this program is already being applied to commercial operations.

  14. Transgressive or Instrumental?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary practices that connect the arts with learning are widespread at all level of educational systems and in organisations, but they include very diverse approaches, multiple methods and background values. Regardless of explicit learning benefits, the arts/learning partnerships bring about...... creativity and the other on practices of arts-integration. My final point rests on the belief that the opposition of transgression and instrumentality is a deceiving perspective on the arts, against the background of the aesthetic plurality and hybridity....

  15. Office blood pressure or ambulatory blood pressure for the prediction of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-11-21

    To determine the added value of (i) 24-h ambulatory blood pressure relative to office blood pressure and (ii) night-time ambulatory blood pressure relative to daytime ambulatory blood pressure for 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. A total of 7927 participants were included from the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. We used cause-specific Cox regression to predict 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Discrimination of 10-year outcomes was assessed by time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). No differences in predicted risks were observed when comparing office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure. The median difference in 10-year risks (1st; 3rd quartile) was -0.01% (-0.3%; 0.1%) for cardiovascular mortality and -0.1% (-1.1%; 0.5%) for cardiovascular events. The difference in AUC (95% confidence interval) was 0.65% (0.22-1.08%) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.33% (0.83-1.84%) for cardiovascular events. Comparing daytime and night-time blood pressure, the median difference in 10-year risks was 0.002% (-0.1%; 0.1%) for cardiovascular mortality and -0.01% (-0.5%; 0.2%) for cardiovascular events. The difference in AUC was 0.10% (-0.08 to 0.29%) for cardiovascular mortality and 0.15% (-0.06 to 0.35%) for cardiovascular events. Ten-year predictions obtained from ambulatory blood pressure are similar to predictions from office blood pressure. Night-time blood pressure does not improve 10-year predictions obtained from daytime measurements. For an otherwise healthy population sufficient prognostic accuracy of cardiovascular risks can be achieved with office blood pressure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Concurrent validation of CHIRP, a new instrument for measuring healthcare student attitudes towards interdisciplinary teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, David; Hobgood, Cherri; Foster, Beverly; Aleman, Marco; Sawning, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Positive attitudes towards teamwork among health care professionals are critical to patient safety. The purpose of this study is to describe the development and concurrent validation of a new instrument to measure attitudes towards healthcare teamwork that is generalizable across various populations of healthcare students. The Collaborative Healthcare Interdisciplinary Planning (CHIRP) scale was validated against the Readiness for Inter-Professional Learning Scale (RIPLS). Analyses included student (n = 266) demographics, ANOVA, internal consistency, factor analysis, and Rasch analysis. The two instruments correlated at r = .582. The CHIRP showed a multifactorial structure having excellent internal consistency (alpha = .850), with 25 of the 36 scale items loading onto a single Teamwork Attitudes factor. The RIPLS likewise had strong internal consistency (alpha = .796) and a three-factor structure, supporting previous studies of the instrument. However, Rasch analyses showed 14 (38.9%) of the 36 CHIRP items, but only four (21.1%) of the 19 RIPLS items remaining within the satisfactory standardized OUTFIT zone of 2.0 standard deviation units. We propose the 14 fitting items as a new, validated teamwork attitudes scale.

  17. Evaluative pressure overcomes perceptual load effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Alice; Autin, Frédérique; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2015-06-01

    Perceptual load has been found to be a powerful bottom-up determinant of distractibility, with high perceptual load preventing distraction by any irrelevant information. However, when under evaluative pressure, individuals exert top-down attentional control by giving greater weight to task-relevant features, making them more distractible from task-relevant distractors. One study tested whether the top-down modulation of attention under evaluative pressure overcomes the beneficial bottom-up effect of high perceptual load on distraction. Using a response-competition task, we replicated previous findings that high levels of perceptual load suppress task-relevant distractor response interference, but only for participants in a control condition. Participants under evaluative pressure (i.e., who believed their intelligence was assessed) showed interference from task-relevant distractor at all levels of perceptual load. This research challenges the assumptions of the perceptual load theory and sheds light on a neglected determinant of distractibility: the self-relevance of the performance situation in which attentional control is solicited.

  18. The rhesus measurement system: A new instrument for space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Julie E.; Hines, John W.

    1993-01-01

    The Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) is a research environment designed to study the effects of microgravity using rhesus primates as human surrogates. This experimental model allows investigators to study numerous aspects of microgravity exposure without compromising crew member activities. Currently, the RRF is slated for two missions to collect its data, the first mission is SLS-3, due to fly in late 1995. The RRF is a joint effort between the United States and France. The science and hardware portions of the project are being shared between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and France's Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The RRF is composed of many different subsystems in order to acquire data, provide life support, environmental enrichment, computer facilities and measurement capabilities for two rhesus primates aboard a nominal sixteen day mission. One of these subsystems is the Rhesus Measurement System (RMS). The RMS is designed to obtain in-flight physiological measurements from sensors interfaced with the subject. The RMS will acquire, preprocess, and transfer the physiologic data to the Flight Data System (FDS) for relay to the ground during flight. The measurements which will be taken by the RMS during the first flight will be respiration, measured at two different sites; electromyogram (EMG) at three different sites; electroencephalogram (EEG); electrocardiogram (ECG); and body temperature. These measurements taken by the RMS will assist the research team in meeting the science objectives of the RRF project.

  19. HTGR Measurements and Instrumentation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Sydney J.; Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an integrated overview of measurements and instrumentation for near-term future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Instrumentation technology has undergone revolutionary improvements since the last HTGR was constructed in the United States. This report briefly describes the measurement and communications needs of HTGRs for normal operations, maintenance and inspection, fuel fabrication, and accident response. The report includes a description of modern communications technologies and also provides a potential instrumentation communications architecture designed for deployment at an HTGR. A principal focus for the report is describing new and emerging measurement technologies with high potential to improve operations, maintenance, and accident response for the next generation of HTGRs, known as modular HTGRs, which are designed with passive safety features. Special focus is devoted toward describing the failure modes of the measurement technologies and assessing the technology maturity.

  20. Nurse-measured or ambulatory blood pressure in routine hypertension care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, D. P.; van Montfrans, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Nurses are considered to evoke less white-coat hypertension, and might therefore be able to estimate average blood pressure as well as and more conveniently than ambulatory monitoring. The objective of the present study was to determine the correspondence between blood pressure measured by a doctor

  1. Indications for portal pressure measurement in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Lise; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Portal hypertension leads to development of serious complications such as esophageal varices, ascites, renal and cardiovascular dysfunction. The importance of the degree of portal hypertension has been substantiated within recent years. Measurement of the portal pressure is simple and safe...... and the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) independently predicts survival and development of complications such as ascites, HCC and bleeding from esophageal varices. Moreover, measurements of HVPG can be used to guide pharmacotherapy for primary and secondary prophylaxis for variceal bleeding. Assessment...... of HVPG should therefore be considered as a part of the general characterization of patients with portal hypertension in departments assessing and treating this condition....

  2. Dynamic pressure measures for long pipeline leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likun Wang; Hongchao Wang; Min Xiong; Bin Xu; Dongjie Tan; Hengzhang Zhou [PetroChina Pipeline Company, Langfang (China). R and D Center

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline leak detection method based on dynamic pressure is studied. The feature of dynamic pressure which is generated by the leakage of pipeline is analyzed. The dynamic pressure method is compared with the static pressure method for the advantages and disadvantages in pipeline leak detection. The dynamic pressure signal is suitable for pipeline leak detection for quick-change of pipeline internal pressure. Field tests show that the dynamic pressure method detects pipeline leak rapidly and precisely. (author)

  3. Measuring Instruments Control Methodology Performance for Analog Electronics Remote Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai Hernandez-Jayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the work that has been developed in parallel to the VISIR project. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the validations processes that have been carried out to check the control methodology. This method has been developed with the aim of being independent of the instruments of the labs.

  4. Time-Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at Wind Tunnel Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, William L.; Glass, Christopher E.; Streett, Craig L.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A transonic flow field about a Space Launch System (SLS) configuration was simulated with the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code at wind tunnel conditions. Unsteady, time-accurate computations were performed using second-order Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) for up to 1.5 physical seconds. The surface pressure time history was collected at 619 locations, 169 of which matched locations on a 2.5 percent wind tunnel model that was tested in the 11 ft. x 11 ft. test section of the NASA Ames Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed that the peak surface pressure RMS level occurs behind the forward attach hardware, and good agreement for frequency and power was obtained in this region. Computational domain, grid resolution, and time step sensitivity studies were performed. These included an investigation of pseudo-time sub-iteration convergence. Using these sensitivity studies and experimental data comparisons, a set of best practices to date have been established for FUN3D simulations for SLS launch vehicle analysis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time DDES has been used in a systematic approach and establish simulation time needed, to analyze unsteady pressure loads on a space launch vehicle such as the NASA SLS.

  5. Ratcheting of pressurized piping subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scavuzzo, R.J.; Lam, P.C.; Gau, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    The ABAQUS finite element code was used to model a pressurized pipe and subjected to cyclic bending loads to investigate ratcheting. A 1-in. schedule 40 pipe was loaded with a slow (static) cyclic load. The pipe internal pressure was varied from 0 to 6000 psi. In this paper, two types of materials were considered: an elastic perfectly plastic and a bilinear elastic-plastic material. Two types of finite elements of the ABAQUS program were compared to analytical solutions to evaluate the element accuracy in the plastic regime. Depending upon loading conditions and specified material properties, three different responses were observed from the finite element analyses: cyclic plasticity, ratcheting of the hoop strain, or shakedown. These analytical results are compared to some experimental measurements

  6. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science and education, instrumentation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, D; Dittrich, P-G; Duentsch, E [Senior Network Manager NEMO SpectroNet, Technologie- und Innovationspark Jena GmbH, Wildenbruchstrasse 15, D-07745 Jena (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science and education, instrumentation and training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  7. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science and education, instrumentation and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, D; Dittrich, P-G; Duentsch, E

    2010-01-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science and education, instrumentation and training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  8. Calibration procedures for improved accuracy of wind turbine blade load measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Johansson, Hjalmar [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    External loads acting on wind turbine blades are mainly transferred via the hub to the rest of the structure. It is therefore a normal approach to measure the loads acting on the turbine by load measurements in the blade roots. The load measurement is often accomplished by measurements of strain on the surface of the blade or the hub. The strain signals are converted to loads by applying calibration factors to the measurements. This paper deals with difficulties associated with load measurements on two different wind turbines; one with strain gauges applied to a steel hub where a linear stress-load relationship is expected and the other with strain gauges applied to the GFRP blade close to the bearings where strong non-linearity`s and temperature effects are expected. This paper suggests calibration methods to overcome these problems. 2 refs, 11 figs

  9. A method enabling simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement using a single piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantlović, Miloš; Stanković, Srđan; Jokić, Ivana; Lazić, Žarko; Smiljanić, Milče; Obradov, Marko; Vukelić, Branko; Jakšić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-performance, simple and low-cost method for simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature using a single piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor. The proposed measurement method utilizes the parasitic temperature sensitivity of the sensing element for both pressure measurement correction and temperature measurement. A parametric mathematical model of the sensor was established and its parameters were calculated using the obtained characterization data. Based on the model, a real-time sensor correction for both pressure and temperature measurements was implemented in a target measurement system. The proposed method was verified experimentally on a group of typical industrial-grade piezoresistive sensors. The obtained results indicate that the method enables the pressure measurement performance to exceed that of typical digital industrial pressure transmitters, achieving at the same time the temperature measurement performance comparable to industrial-grade platinum resistance temperature sensors. The presented work is directly applicable in industrial instrumentation, where it can add temperature measurement capability to the existing pressure measurement instruments, requiring little or no additional hardware, and without adverse effects on pressure measurement performance. (paper)

  10. Instrumentation for determining rock mass permeability by hydro-pneumatic pressure testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.

    1981-01-01

    In order to eliminate the problems encountered with existing pressure test equipment, a downhole control unit was designed for conducting tests in NX boreholes. The unit maintains a preset minimum differential pressure between the packers and the test section, and controls inflation and deflation of the packers. The packer response to inflation and deflation commands is greatly increased in deep borings since the control unit is located downhole, and inflation is accomplished with the testing fluid (which is normally either water or air). For increased flexibility, the control unit was designed with the capacity for operating as either a single- or double-packer system by the use of simple ground surface control commands

  11. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  12. Plan for the testing of radiation measurement instrumentation intended for use at an excavation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.

    1994-11-01

    This plan describes performance tests to be made with ionizing radiation measurement instrumentation designed and built for in-field assay at an excavation site. One instrument measures gross gamma-ray and neutron fields and the other identifies gamma-ray emitting radionuclides and also is capable of assaying for selected hazardous materials. These instruments will be operationally tested to verify that original specifications have been met and performance tested to establish and verify that they have the potential to function as intended at an excavation site

  13. Heat pump control method based on direct measurement of evaporation pressure to improve energy efficiency and indoor air temperature stability at a low cooling load condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Sung; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Ahn, Byoung Ha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New heat pump control method was developed. • Experimental investigation on performance of heat pump with various control method. • New control method appeared to improve the stability of indoor air temperature. • New control method appeared to have a potential to reduce power consumption. - Abstract: The control systems of conventional heat pumps have an input of refrigerant temperature at the evaporator outlet to maintain superheat at proper level. In order to develop a control method that can be used to achieve better indoor thermal comfort and energy efficiency at a low cooling load condition than the current control method, a new method of the evaporation pressure control based on the evaporator outlet pressure reading (EPCP) was developed. The changes in the stability of indoor air temperature and power consumption were measured while changing the compressor frequency in accordance with the new control method. Compared with the evaporation pressure control based on the evaporator outlet temperature reading, the EPCP control method appeared to improve the stability of room air temperature or occupant thermal comfort significantly

  14. New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding Yulong; Pitt, Kendal G.

    2007-01-01

    During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as ∼100 μm impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact

  15. Self-administered health literacy instruments for people with diabetes: systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Lee, Jiyeon; Moon, Seung Hei

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify all available self-administered instruments measuring health literacy in people with diabetes and to determine the current instrument that is the most appropriate for applying to this population in both practice and research. A systematic review of measurement properties. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL electronic databases from their inception up to 28 March 2016. The methodological quality of each included study was assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. The reported results for measurement properties in the studies were assessed according to Terwee's quality criteria. Thirteen self-administered instruments measuring health literacy in people with diabetes were identified, of which six (44%) were diabetes-specific instruments. The instruments that covered the broadest contents of health literacy were the Health Literacy Scale and Health Literacy Questionnaire. The (test-retest) reliability, measurement error and responsiveness were not evaluated for any instrument, while internal consistency and hypothesis testing validity were the most frequently assessed measurement properties. With the current evidence, the Health Literacy Scale may be the most appropriate instrument for patients with diabetes in practice and research. However, the structural validity of this scale needs to be further established, particularly in other language versions. It is also recommended to use the Diabetes Numeracy Test-15 along with the Health Literacy Scale to complement the lack of numeracy measures in the Health Literacy Scale. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - A Fully Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kia; Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecraft opens the door to a large number of high-value experiments on the influence of the space environment on biological systems. For example, measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and determine the metabolic bases of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology, and medicine. Supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measurement of expression of several hundreds of microbial genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing cell walls of bacteria sampled from cultures grown in space, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing the RNA on a microarray and (4) providing readout of the microarray signal, all in a single microfluidics cartridge. The device is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by NASA Ames' Small Spacecraft Division. To meet space and other technical constraints imposed by these platforms, a number of technical innovations are being implemented. The integration and end-to-end technological and biological validation of the instrument are carried out using as a model the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, known for its remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions. Each step in the measurement process-lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification, and hybridization to an array-is assessed through comparison of the results obtained using the instrument with

  17. Pressure ulcers: development and psychometric evaluation of the attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention instrument (APuP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeckman, D; Defloor, T; Demarré, L; Van Hecke, A; Vanderwee, K

    2010-11-01

    Pressure ulcers continue to be a significant problem in hospitals, nursing homes and community care settings. Pressure ulcer incidence is widely accepted as an indicator for the quality of care. Negative attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention may result in suboptimal preventive care. A reliable and valid instrument to assess attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention is lacking. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Attitude towards Pressure ulcer Prevention instrument (APuP). Prospective psychometric instrument validation study. A literature review was performed to design the instrument. Content validity was evaluated by nine European pressure ulcer experts and five experts in psychometric instrument validation in a double Delphi procedure. A convenience sample of 258 nurses and 291 nursing students from Belgium and The Netherlands participated in order to evaluate construct validity and stability reliability of the instrument. The data were collected between February and May 2008. A factor analysis indicated the construct of a 13 item instrument in a five factor solution: (1) attitude towards personal competency to prevent pressure ulcers (three items); (2) attitude towards the priority of pressure ulcer prevention (three items); (3) attitude towards the impact of pressure ulcers (three items); (4) attitude towards personal responsibility in pressure ulcer prevention (two items); and (5) attitude towards confidence in the effectiveness of prevention (two items). This five factor solution accounted for 61.4% of the variance in responses related to attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention. All items demonstrated factor loadings over 0.60. The instrument produced similar results during stability testing [ICC=0.88 (95% CI=0.84-0.91, Ppressure ulcer prevention in patient care, education, and research. In further research, the association between attitude, knowledge and clinical performance should be explored. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. New portable hand-held radiation instruments for measurements and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Hand-held radiation monitors are often used to search pedestrians and motor vehicles for special nuclear material (SNM) as part of a physical protection plan for nuclear materials. Recently, the Los Alamos Advanced Nuclear Technology group has commercialized an improved hand-held monitor that can be used for both physical-protection monitoring and verification measurements in nuclear material control and waste management. The new monitoring instruments are smaller and lighter; operate much longer on a battery charge; are available with NaI(Tl) or neutron and gamma-ray sensitive plastic scintillation detectors; and are less expensive than other comparable instruments. They also have a second operating mode for making precise measurements over counting times as long as 99 s. This mode permits making basic verification measurements that may be needed before transporting nuclear material or waste outside protected areas. Improved verification measurements can be made with a second new hand-held instrument that has a stabilized detector and three separate gamma-ray energy windows to obtain spectral information for SNM quantity, enrichment, or material-type verification

  19. Innovations for In-Pile Measurements in the Framework of the CEA-SCK•CEN Joint Instrumentation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Jean-Francois; Schyns, Marc

    2010-12-01

    Optimizing the life cycle of nuclear systems under safety constraints requires high-performance experimental programs to reduce uncertainties on margins and limits. In addition to improvement in modeling and simulation, innovation in instrumentation is crucial for analytical and integral experiments conducted in research reactors. The quality of nuclear research programs relies obviously on an excellent knowledge of their experimental environment which constantly calls for better online determination of neutron and gamma flux. But the combination of continuously increasing scientific requirements and new experimental domains -brought for example by Generation IV programsnecessitates also major innovations for in-pile measurements of temperature, dimensions, pressure or chemical analysis in innovative mediums. At the same time, the recent arising of a European platform around the building of the Jules Horowitz Reactor offers new opportunities for research institutes and organizations to pool their resources in order to face these technical challenges. In this situation, CEA (French Nuclear Energy Commission) and SCK'CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre) have combined their efforts and now share common developments through a Joint Instrumentation Laboratory. Significant progresses have thus been obtained recently in the field of in-pile measurements, on one hand by improvement of existing measurement methods, and on the other hand by introduction in research reactors of original measurement techniques. This paper highlights the state-of-the-art and the main requirements regarding in-pile measurements, particularly for the needs of current and future irradiation programs performed in material testing reactors. Some of the main on-going developments performed in the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory are also described, such as: - a unique fast neutron flux measurement system using fission chambers with 242Pu deposit and a specific online data processing

  20. Simultaneous loading patterns optimization for two successive cycles of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Sugimura, Erina; Kitamura, Yasunori; Yamane, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, simultaneous optimization is carried out for successive two cycles of pressurized water reactors. At first, a simplified problem of the simultaneous optimization was studied by assuming the batch-wise power sharing as independent variable, i.e., batch-wise power sharing was optimized without considering corresponding loading patterns. The optimization of the batch-wise power sharing was carried out for the conventional single cycle, the equilibrium cycle and the two successive (tandem) cycles. The analysis indicated that the tandem cycle optimization well reproduce that of the equilibrium cycle optimization, which is considered as a typical case of the true multicycle optimization. Next, simultaneous optimization of loading patterns for tandem cycles is carried out using the simulated annealing method. Since the design space of the tandem cycles optimization is much larger than that of the conventional single cycle optimization, the optimization condition (i.e., number of calculated patterns) are established through sensitivity study. The optimization results are compared with those obtained by the successive single cycle optimizations and it is clarified that the successive single cycle optimization well reproduces the optimization results obtained by the simultaneous optimization if objective functions are appropriately chosen. The above result will be encouraging for the current in-core optimization method since single cycle optimization is utilized due to limitation of computation time. (author)

  1. The max–min ant system and tabu search for pressurized water reactor loading pattern design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chaung; Chen, Ying-Hsiu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An automatic loading pattern design tool for a pressurized water reactor is developed. • The design method consists of max–min ant system and tabu search. • The heuristic rules are developed to generate the candidates for tabu search. • The initial solution of tabu search is provided by max–min ant system. • The new algorithm shows very satisfactory results compared to the old one. - Abstract: An automatic loading pattern (LP) design tool for a pressurized water reactor is developed. The design procedure consists of two steps: first, a LP is generated using max–min ant system (MMAS) and then tabu search (TS) is adopted to search the satisfactory LP. The MMAS is previously developed and the TS process is newly-developed. The heuristic rules are implemented to generate the candidate LP in TS process. The heuristic rules are comprised of two kinds of action, i.e., a single swap in the location of two fuel assemblies and rotation of fuel assembly. Since developed TS process is a local search algorithm, it is efficient for the minor change of LP. It means that a proper initial LP should be provided by the first step, i.e., by MMAS. The design requirements such as hot channel factor, the hot zero power moderator temperature coefficient, and cycle length are formulated in the objective function. The results show that the developed tool can obtain the satisfactory LP and dramatically reduce the computation time compared with previous tool using ant system alone

  2. Laser interferometer system for the measurement of creep in pressurized tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, T.L.

    1976-07-01

    A laser interferometer measurement system was developed to measure the length, diameter, and radius of various pressurized tube specimens. The machine measures and records profilometric data of the pressurized tubes prior to insertion in the reactor and then again after a predetermined fluence has been reached to determine the amount of creep which has occurred. This data provides a statistical basis for the description of steady-state in-reactor creep and creep rupture behavior of the reference fuel cladding and structural materials for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). In addition, this data will be used to determine the relative in-reactor creep and creep rupture behavior of candidate alloys for advanced cladding and structural materials. The laser interferometer system, referred to as the Biaxial Creep Measurement Machine (BCMM), was built to meet or exceed design criteria such as: automatic measurement of the five biaxial creep specimens varying in size; complete automation of the machine using a mini-computer; complete specimen loading, unloading, and data processing in less than five minutes; storage of data on magnetic cassette tapes; quick-look data readout and error checking during each run to determine proper machine operation; and remote operation in a radioactive environment

  3. Heat transfer and pressure measurements for the SSME fuel-side turbopump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    A measurement program is currently underway at the Calspan-UB Research Center (CUBRC) which utilizes the Rocketdyne two-state fuel-side turbine with the engine geometric configuration reproduced. This is a full two-state turbine for which the vane rows and the blades are the engine hardware currently used on the Space Shuttle turbopump. A status report is provided for the experimental program and a description of the instrumentation and the measurements to be performed. The specific items that will be illustrated and described are as follows: (1) the gas flow path, (2) the heat-flux instrumentation, (3) the surface-pressure instrumentation, (4) the experimental conditions for which data will be obtained, and (5) the specific measurements that will be performed.

  4. Catalase measurement: A new field procedure for rapidly estimating microbial loads in fuels and water-bottoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passman, F.J. [Biodeterioration Control Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Daniels, D.A. [Basic Fuel Services, Dover, NJ (United States); Chesneau, H.F.

    1995-05-01

    Low-grade microbial infections of fuel and fuel systems generally go undetected until they cause major operational problems. Three interdependent factors contribute to this: mis-diagnosis, incorrect or inadequate sampling procedures and perceived complexity of microbiological testing procedures. After discussing the first two issues, this paper describes a rapid field test for estimating microbial loads in fuels and associated water. The test, adapted from a procedure initially developed to measure microbial loads in metalworking fluids, takes advantage of the nearly universal presence of the enzyme catalase in the microbes that contaminated fuel systems. Samples are reacted with a peroxide-based reagent; liberating oxygen gas. The gas generates a pressure-head in a reaction tube. At fifteen minutes, a patented, electronic pressure-sensing device is used to measure that head-space pressure. The authors present both laboratory and field data from fuels and water-bottoms, demonstrating the excellent correlation between traditional viable test data (acquired after 48-72 hours incubation) and catalase test data (acquired after 15 min.-4 hours). We conclude by recommending procedures for developing a failure analysis data-base to enhance our industry`s understanding of the relationship between uncontrolled microbial contamination and fuel performance problems.

  5. Nanocomposite-Based Microstructured Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Low-Pressure Measurement Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Mitrakos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoresistive pressure sensors capable of detecting ranges of low compressive stresses have been successfully fabricated and characterised. The 5.5 × 5 × 1.6 mm3 sensors consist of a planar aluminium top electrode and a microstructured bottom electrode containing a two-by-two array of truncated pyramids with a piezoresistive composite layer sandwiched in-between. The responses of two different piezocomposite materials, a Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT-elastomer composite and a Quantum Tunneling Composite (QTC, have been characterised as a function of applied pressure and effective contact area. The MWCNT piezoresistive composite-based sensor was able to detect pressures as low as 200 kPa. The QTC-based sensor was capable of detecting pressures as low as 50 kPa depending on the contact area of the bottom electrode. Such sensors could find useful applications requiring the detection of small compressive loads such as those encountered in haptic sensing or robotics.

  6. The method of measurement and synchronization control for large-scale complex loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Min; Li Pengyuan; Hou Binglin; Chi Chengfang; Zhang Bo

    2012-01-01

    With the development of modern industrial technology, measurement and control system was widely used in high precision, complex industrial control equipment and large-tonnage loading device. The measurement and control system is often used to analyze the distribution of stress and displacement in the complex bearing load or the complex nature of the mechanical structure itself. In ITER GS mock-up with 5 flexible plates, for each load combination, detect and measure potential slippage between the central flexible plate and the neighboring spacers is necessary as well as the potential slippage between each pre-stressing bar and its neighboring plate. The measurement and control system consists of seven sets of EDC controller and board, computer system, 16-channel quasi-dynamic strain gauge, 25 sets of displacement sensors, 7 sets of load and displacement sensors in the cylinders. This paper demonstrates the principles and methods of EDC220 digital controller to achieve synchronization control, and R and D process of multi-channel loading control software and measurement software. (authors)

  7. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1320-90 Gas meter or flow..., methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to determine...

  8. A Manganin Thin Film Ultra-High Pressure Sensor for Microscale Detonation Pressure Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of energetic materials (EMs and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS initiating explosive devices, the measurement of detonation pressure generated by EMs in the microscale has become a pressing need. This paper develops a manganin thin film ultra-high pressure sensor based on MEMS technology for measuring the output pressure from micro-detonator. A reliable coefficient is proposed for designing the sensor’s sensitive element better. The sensor employs sandwich structure: the substrate uses a 0.5 mm thick alumina ceramic, the manganin sensitive element with a size of 0.2 mm × 0.1 mm × 2 μm and copper electrodes of 2 μm thick are sputtered sequentially on the substrate, and a 25 μm thick insulating layer of polyimide is wrapped on the sensitive element. The static test shows that the piezoresistive coefficient of manganin thin film is 0.0125 GPa−1. The dynamic experiment indicates that the detonation pressure of micro-detonator is 12.66 GPa, and the response time of the sensor is 37 ns. In a word, the sensor developed in this study is suitable for measuring ultra-high pressure in microscale and has a shorter response time than that of foil-like manganin gauges. Simultaneously, this study could be beneficial to research on ultra-high-pressure sensors with smaller size.

  9. The stress and stress intensity factors computation by BEM and FEM combination for nozzle junction under pressure and thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Q.; Cen, Z.; Zhu, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports linear elastic fracture analysis based upon the stress intensity factor evaluation successfully applied to safety assessments of cracked structures. The nozzle junction are usually subjected to high pressure and thermal loads simultaneously. In validity of linear elastic fracture analysis, K can be decomposed into K P (caused by mechanic loads) and K τ (caused by thermal loads). Under thermal transient loading, explicit analysis (say by the FEM or BEM) of K tracing an entire history respectively for a range of crack depth may be much more time consuming. The techniques of weight function provide efficient means for transforming the problem into the stress computation of the uncracked structure and generation of influence function (for the given structure and size of crack). In this paper, a combination of BE-FEM has been used for the analysis of the cracked nozzle structure by techniques of weight function. The influence functions are obtained by coupled BE-FEM and the uncracked structure stress are computed by finite element methods

  10. Tolerance of Artemia to static and shock pressure loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, B. C.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Painter, J. D.; Ono, F.; McMillan, P. F.; Hazael, R.; Meersman, F.

    2017-10-01

    Hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure loading has been applied to unicellular organisms for a number of years due to interest from food technology and extremophile communities. There is also an emerging interest in the response of multicellular organisms to high pressure conditions. Artemia salina is one such organism. Previous experiments have shown a marked difference in the hatching rate of these organisms after exposure to different magnitudes of pressure, with hydrostatic tests showing hatching rates at pressures up to several GPa, compared to dynamic loading that resulted in comparatively low survival rates at lower pressure magnitudes. In order to begin to investigate the origin of this difference, the work presented here has focussed on the response of Artemia salina to (quasi) one-dimensional shock loading. Such experiments were carried out using the plate-impact technique in order to create a planar shock front. Artemia cysts were investigated in this manner along with freshly hatched larvae (nauplii). The nauplii and cysts were observed post-shock using optical microscopy to detect motility or hatching, respectively. Hatching rates of 18% were recorded at pressures reaching 1.5 GPa, as determined with the aid of numerical models. Subjecting Artemia to quasi-one-dimensional shock loading offers a way to more thoroughly explore the shock pressure ranges these organisms can survive.

  11. Seat pressure measurement technologies: considerations for their evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyi, D E; Porter, J M; Robertson, N K

    1998-04-01

    Interface pressure measurement has generated interest in the automotive industry as a technique which could be used in the prediction of driver discomfort for various car seat designs, and provide designers and manufacturers with rapid information early on in the design process. It is therefore essential that the data obtained are of the highest quality, relevant and have some quantitative meaning. Exploratory experimental work carried out with the commercially available Talley Pressure Monitor is outlined. This led to a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of this system and the re-design of the sensor matrix. Such evaluation, in the context of the actual experimental environment, is considered essential.

  12. NDE Evidence for the Damage Arrestment Performance of PRSEUS Composite Cube During High-Pressure Load Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick H.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2013-01-01

    As an approach to light-weight, cost-effective and manufacturable structures required to enable the hybrid wing body aircraft, The Boeing Company, Inc. and NASA have developed the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. A PRSEUS pressure cube was developed as a risk reduction test article to examine a new integral cap joint concept as part of a building block approach for technology development of the PRSEUS concept. The overall specimen strength exceeded the 18.4 psi load requirement as testing resulted in the cube reaching a final pressure load of around 48 psi prior to catastrophic failure. The cube pressure test verified that the joints and structure were capable of sustaining the required loads, and represented the first testing of joined PRSEUS structure. This paper will address the damage arrestment performance of the stitched PRSEUS structure. Following catastrophic failure of the cube, ultrasonic pulse-echo inspection found that the localized damage, surrounding a barely-visible impact damage site, did not change noticeably between just after impact and catastrophic failure of the cube, and did not play a role in the catastrophic failure event. Ultrasonic inspection of the remaining intact cube panels presented three basic types of indications: delaminations between laminae parallel to the face sheets, lying between face sheet and tear strap layers, or between tear strap and flange layers; delaminations above the noodles of stringers, frames or integral caps, lying within face sheet or tear strap layers; and delaminations between the laminae in the inner fillets of the integral caps, where pulloff stresses were expected to be highest. Delaminations of all three types were predominantly contained by the first row of stitches encountered. For the small fraction of delaminations extending beyond the first row of stitches, all were contained by the second stitch row.

  13. The "Intentionality Measurement Instrument" [or "IMI"]: A Comprehensive Psychometric Instrument Based upon the Dual Quadrant Scalar Model of Intentionality That Is Designed to Measure Intent, Motive Type, and Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, James Edward, II

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to provide an epistemological rational for the measurement of intentionality. The purpose of this narrative is to identify "Intentionality" as an arena of action in the dispositional learning domain can be measured using an "Intentionality Measurement Instrument" [also referred by the acronym…

  14. Software Sub-system in Loading Automatic Test System for the Measurement of Power Line Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The loading automatic test system for measurement of power line filters are in urgent demand. So the software sub-system of the whole test system was proposed. Methods: structured the test system based on the virtual instrument framework, which consisted of lower and up computer and adopted the top down approach of design to perform the system and its modules, according to the measurement principle of the test system. Results: The software sub-system including human machine interface, data analysis and process software, expert system, communication software, control software in lower computer, etc. had been designed. Furthermore, it had been integrated into the entire test system. Conclusion: This sub-system provided a fiendly software platform for the whole test system, and had many advantages such as strong functions, high performances, low prices. It not only raises the test efficiency of EMI filters, but also renders some creativities.

  15. Measurement and instrumentation techniques for monitoring plutonium and uranium particulates released from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1976-08-01

    The purpose of this work has been an analysis and evaluation of the state-of-the-art of measurement and instrumentation techniques for monitoring plutonium and uranium particulates released from nuclear facilities. The occurrence of plutonium and uranium in the nuclear fuel cycle, the corresponding potential for releases, associated radiological protection standards and monitoring objectives are discussed. Techniques for monitoring via decay radiation from plutonium and uranium isotopes are presented in detail, emphasizing air monitoring, but also including soil sampling and survey methods. Additionally, activation and mass measurement techniques are discussed. The availability and prevalence of these various techniques are summarized. Finally, possible improvements in monitoring capabilities due to alterations in instrumentation, data analysis, or programs are presented

  16. Models for ductile crack initiation and tearing resistance under mode 1 loading in pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.R.

    1988-06-01

    Micromechanistic models are presented which aim to predict plane strain ductile initiation toughness, tearing resistance and notched bar fracture strains in pressure vessel steels under monotonically increasing tensile (mode 1) loading. The models for initiation toughness and tearing resistance recognize that ductile fracture proceeds by the growth and linkage of voids with the crack-tip. The models are shown to predict the trend of initiation toughness with inclusion spacing/size ratio and can bound the available experimental data. The model for crack growth can reproduce the tearing resistance of a pressure vessel steel up to and just beyond crack growth initiation. The fracture strains of notched bars pulled in tension are shown to correspond to the achievement of a critical volume fraction of voids. This criterion is combined with the true stress - true strain history of a material point ahead of a blunting crack-tip to predict the initiation toughness. An attempt was made to predict the fracture strains of notched tensile bars by adopting a model which predicts the onset of a shear localization phenomenon. Fracture strains of the correct order are computed only if a ''secondary'' void nucleation event at carbide precipitates is taken into account. (author)

  17. Instrument for evaluation of sedentary lifestyle in patients with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; da Silva, Viviane Martins; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Martins, Larissa Castelo Guedes; Teixeira, Iane Ximenes

    2015-01-01

    this article describes the diagnostic accuracy of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to identify the nursing diagnosis of sedentary lifestyle. a diagnostic accuracy study was developed with 240 individuals with established high blood pressure. The analysis of diagnostic accuracy was based on measures of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, efficiency, diagnostic odds ratio, Youden index, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve. statistical differences between genders were observed for activities of moderate intensity and for total physical activity. Age was negatively correlated with activities of moderate intensity and total physical activity. the analysis of area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for moderate intensity activities, walking, and total physical activity showed that the International Physical Activity Questionnaire present moderate capacity to correctly classify individuals with and without sedentary lifestyle.

  18. Pressure Measurement Techniques for Abdominal Hypertension: Conclusions from an Experimental Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Sascha Santosh; Wolf, Stefan; Rohde, Veit; Freimann, Florian Baptist

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement is an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of abdominal hypertension. Different techniques have been described in the literature and applied in the clinical setting. Methods. A porcine model was created to simulate an abdominal compartment syndrome ranging from baseline IAP to 30 mmHg. Three different measurement techniques were applied, comprising telemetric piezoresistive probes at two different sites (epigastric and pelvic) for direct pressure measurement and intragastric and intravesical probes for indirect measurement. Results. The mean difference between the invasive IAP measurements using telemetric pressure probes and the IVP measurements was -0.58 mmHg. The bias between the invasive IAP measurements and the IGP measurements was 3.8 mmHg. Compared to the realistic results of the intraperitoneal and intravesical measurements, the intragastric data showed a strong tendency towards decreased values. The hydrostatic character of the IAP was eliminated at high-pressure levels. Conclusion. We conclude that intragastric pressure measurement is potentially hazardous and might lead to inaccurately low intra-abdominal pressure values. This may result in missed diagnosis of elevated abdominal pressure or even ACS. The intravesical measurements showed the most accurate values during baseline pressure and both high-pressure plateaus.

  19. Joint Live Fire (JLF) Final Report for Instrumentation for Local Accelerative Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-22

    Eddy current damping; however, they were not used for this particular project. The Wheel Mount can be mounted directly to the standard LOFFI mount...Mount ..................................... 28 Figure 25 – TCU Smack Bar Machine ...29 Figure 26 – TCU Smack Bar Machine with Programmer ............................................................ 30 Figure 27

  20. Serial blood pressure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Koehler

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study the effects of a 60-s interval of venous congestion between two noninvasive measurements of arterial blood pressure (ABP on the fluctuation of ABP, assessed by the standard deviation of the differences between two readings. ABP was measured in 345 successive patients, at rest, four times each. For 269 participants, one pair of readings was obtained with a 60-s interval and the other pair without an interval. For 76 patients, the first pair was read at the same interval, and the second pair had venous congestion interposed and there was no waiting interval. There was no increased ABP oscillation, either when there was no interval between ABP readings, or when venous congestion was interposed compared to pairs of ABP measurements performed with a 60-s interval. There was no increase in ABP oscillations when successive ABP readings were taken without an interval or even with venous congestion interposed. Contrary to the present belief, there seems to be no loss of reliability when blood pressure recordings are taken immediately one after another, in the clinical setting.

  1. Instruments used to measure or check α, β, γ activity and neutron emission in the course of processing ore or irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, A.; Brunet, M.; Kermagoret, M.; Labeyrie, J.; Roux, G.; Vasseur, J.; Weil, J.

    1959-01-01

    One of the methods checking ores in the course of treatment is the rapid quantitative determination of thorium. This measurement is carried out by means of a scintillation instrument which shows the β and α coincidences of ThC and ThC'. The treatment of irradiated fuel is accompanied by a large number of radioactive checks relative to the performance of the fixation and elution operations of uranium in the ion exchangers, to the concentration of radioactivity of effluent sent from the plant into watercourses. The operations of fixation and elution of the uranium are checked automatically by an instrument which takes a sample of 5 cm 3 of solution, evaporates it and measures its activity every 10 or 20 minutes. Plutonium concentrations are measured: - in the presence of strong β γ activities, by means of rotating cylinder detectors; - in the presence of weak β γ activities, by means of α detectors scanning a constant level liquid surface; - by means of fission chambers relatively insensitive to γ. Fission product concentrations are measured by chambers, counters or scintillators, according to the amount of γ activity present. Finally, the activity of effluent to be emptied into watercourses is checked by means of a scintillation instrument, which measures the α activity on the one hand, and on the other hand the β γ activity of residue from a 100 cm 3 sample taken and evaporated in 20 minutes. (author) [fr

  2. A measurement instrument for bone mineral content of adult and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaofang

    1996-01-01

    The γ radiation source was used in bone mineral content measurement analysis of adult and children and a new instrument is developed successfully. It's precision is +2%. The advantage of this instrument is light, cheap and reliable. It can be used widely in medical science and clinic for diagnosis on certain diseases and research work

  3. WISM - A Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement: Past Accomplishments, Current Status, and Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Quenton; Racette, Paul; Durham, Tim (Principal Investigator)

    2016-01-01

    Presented are the prior accomplishments, current status and path forward for GSFC's Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM). This work is a high level overview of the project, presented via Webinar to the IEEE young professionals.

  4. Apparatus for measuring static coefficient of friction under compressive loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehner, C. L.; Tarpley, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Device includes load cell attached to rigid structure. Crosshead directly beneath cell is connected to constant-speed electrical motor. Crossarm supported by crosshead serves as platform on which bodies are tested. Test data are recorded on X-Y recorder which is connected to load cell and motor.

  5. An Instrument for the Measurement of Parental Authority Prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.

    Baumrind (1971) proposed three distinct patterns of parental authority (permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness) and measured these parenting styles through interviews with parents and their children and through observations of parents interacting with their children. This study was undertaken to develop a readily-accessible,…

  6. Slow loaded breathing training improves blood pressure, lung capacity and arm exercise endurance for older people with treated and stable isolated systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ublosakka-Jones, Chulee; Tongdee, Phailin; Pachirat, Orathai; Jones, David A

    2018-03-28

    Hypertension and reduced lung function are important features of aging. Slow loaded breathing training reduces resting blood pressure and the question is whether this can also improve lung function. Thirty-two people (67 ± 5 years, 16 male) with controlled isolated systolic hypertension undertook an eight weeks randomised controlled training trial with an inspiratory load of 25% maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) at 6 breaths per minute (slow loaded breathing; SLB) or deep breathing control (CON). Outcome measures were resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate; MIP; lung capacity; chest and abdominal expansion; arm cranking exercise endurance at 50% heart rate reserve. Home based measurement of resting systolic BP decreased by 20 mm Hg (15 to 25) (Mean and 95%CI) for SLB and by 5 mm Hg (1 to 7) for CON. Heart rate and diastolic BP also decreased significantly for SLB but not CON. MIP increased by 15.8 cm H 2 O (11.8 to 19.8) and slow vital capacity by 0.21 L (0.15 to 0.27) for SLB but not for CON. Chest and abdominal expansion increased by 2.3 cm (2.05 to 2.55) and 2.5 cm (2.15 to 2.85), respectively for SLB and by 0.5 cm (0.26 to 0.74) and 1.7 cm (1.32 to 2.08) for CON. Arm exercise time increased by 4.9 min (3.65 to 5.15) for SLB with no significant change for CON. Slow inspiratory muscle training is not only effective in reducing resting BP, even in older people with well controlled isolated systolic hypertension but also increases inspiratory muscle strength, lung capacity and arm exercise duration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Developing and validating an instrument for measuring mobile computing self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Wang, Hsiu-Yuan

    2008-08-01

    IT-related self-efficacy has been found to have a critical influence on system use. However, traditional measures of computer self-efficacy and Internet-related self-efficacy are perceived to be inapplicable in the context of mobile computing and commerce because they are targeted primarily at either desktop computer or wire-based technology contexts. Based on previous research, this study develops and validates a multidimensional instrument for measuring mobile computing self-efficacy (MCSE). This empirically validated instrument will be useful to researchers in developing and testing the theories of mobile user behavior, and to practitioners in assessing the mobile computing self-efficacy of users and promoting the use of mobile commerce systems.

  8. Simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure without specialized equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin-Peng; Ji, Zhong-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Ting; Chang, Xue-Fang; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2013-09-01

    We present a simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure in a magneto-optical trap. The vacuum pressure is verified to be proportional to the collision rate constant between cold atoms and the background gas with a coefficient k, which can be calculated by means of the simple ideal gas law. The rate constant for loss due to collisions with all background gases can be derived from the total collision loss rate by a series of loading curves of cold atoms under different trapping laser intensities. The presented method is also applicable for other cold atomic systems and meets the miniaturization requirement of commercial applications.

  9. Optical measurements on hydrogen at ultrahigh static pressures. Summary report for NRIP W233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, R.L.; Liebenberg, D.H.

    1979-02-01

    The results of a two-year New Research Initiatives Program (NRIP) aimed at developing apparatus and techniques for studying hydrogen and other gases under ultrahigh static pressure in diamond--anvil cells are summarized. The following goals were achieved: A facility was established in which precision optical measurements can be made; special diamond cells for use at low temperatures were built; procedures were devised for loading cells with gases at high density; preliminary visual, x-ray, and spectral studies on various gases at pressures up to 50 kbar were conducted; and having demonstrated the feasibility of NRIP, other sponsorship on a continuing basis was obtained

  10. Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: Probing atomic structure in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Fanelli, Victor R.; Reiche, Helmut M.; Larson, Eric; Taylor, Mark A.; Siewenie, Joan [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Xu, Hongwu [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Zhu, Jinlong [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, USA and National Lab for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Page, Katharine, E-mail: pagekl@ornl.gov [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO{sub 2} measurements. The new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H{sub 2} and natural gas uptake/storage.

  11. Cognitive Load of Learner Control: Extraneous or Germane Load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Vandewaetere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based learning environments become more tailored when learners can exert control over one or more parts of the learning process. Learner control (LC demands additional efforts of learners because, in addition to learning, they also have to monitor that learning. As a consequence, LC may cause additional cognitive load and even cognitive overload. The central question in this study is what type of cognitive load is induced by LC and whether the experienced load is related to learning outcomes. For this study, half of the students had control over task selection, while the other half had not. Within each condition, students were assigned to a single treatment, with the primary task to solely focus on the learning content, and a dual treatment, comprising a primary task and a secondary task. The results indicate that LC did not impose higher cognitive load as measured by secondary task scores and mental effort ratings.

  12. EDITORIAL: Advances in Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments for Production Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Gao, Yongsheng; Krystek, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Measurement and instrumentation have long played an important role in Production Engineering, through supporting both the traditional field of manufacturing and the new field of micro/nano-technology. Papers published in this special feature were selected and updated from those presented at The 8th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2007) held at Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, on 24-27 September 2007. ISMTII 2007 was organized by ICMI (The International Committee on Measurements and Instrumentation), Japan Society for Precision Engineering (JSPE, Technical Committee of Intelligent Measurement with Nanoscale), Korean Society for Precision Engineering (KSPE), Chinese Society for Measurement (CSM) and Tohoku University. The conference was also supported by Center for Precision Metrology of UNC Charlotte and Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology. A total of 220 papers, including four keynote papers, were presented at ISMTII 2007, covering a wide range of topics, including micro/nano-metrology, precision measurement, online & in-process measurement, surface metrology, optical metrology & image processing, biomeasurement, sensor technology, intelligent measurement & instrumentation, uncertainty, traceability & calibration, and signal processing algorithms. The guest editors recommended publication of updated versions of some of the best ISMTII 2007 papers in this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology. The first two papers were presented in ISMTII 2007 as keynote papers. Takamasu et al from The University of Tokyo report uncertainty estimation for coordinate metrology, in which methods of estimating uncertainties using the coordinate measuring system after calibration are formulated. Haitjema, from Mitutoyo Research Center Europe, treats the most often used interferometric measurement techniques (displacement interferometry and surface interferometry) and their major sources of errors. Among

  13. Progress in the specification of optical instruments for the measurement of surface form and texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    Specifications for confocal microscopes, optical interferometers and other methods of measuring areal surface topography can be confusing and misleading. The emerging ISO 25178 standards, together with the established international vocabulary of metrology, provide a foundation for improved specifications for 3D surface metrology instrumentation. The approach in this paper links instrument specifications to metrological characteristics that can influence a measurement, using consistent definitions of terms, and reference to verification procedures.

  14. Space qualification of an automotive microcontroller for the DREAMS-P/H pressure and humidity instrument on board the ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkanen, T.; Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Genzer, M.; Hieta, M.; Haukka, H.; Kemppinen, O.

    2015-10-01

    Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has developed a novel kind of pressure and humidity instrument for the Schiaparelli Mars lander, which is a part of the ExoMars 2016 mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) [1]. The DREAMS-P pressure instrument and DREAMS-H humidity instrument are part of the DREAMS science package on board the lander. DREAMS-P (seen in Fig. 1 and DREAMS-H were evolved from earlier planetary pressure and humidity instrument designs by FMI with a completely redesigned control and data unit. Instead of using the conventional approach of utilizing a space grade processor component, a commercial off the shelf microcontroller was selected for handling the pressure and humidity measurements. The new controller is based on the Freescale MC9S12XEP100 16-bit automotive microcontroller. Coordinated by FMI, a batch of these microcontroller units (MCUs) went through a custom qualification process in order to accept the component for spaceflight on board a Mars lander.

  15. ALADIN: an atmospheric laser Doppler wind lidar instrument for wind velocity measurements from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, R.; Ghibaudo, JB.; Labandibar, JY.; Willetts, D.; Vaughan, M.; Pearson, G.; Harris, M.; Flamant, P. H.; Salamitou, P.; Dabas, A.; Charasse, R.; Midavaine, T.; Royer, M.; Heimel, H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "ALADIN: an atmospheric laser Doppler wind lidar instrument for wind velocity measurements from space," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  16. The response of pressure vessel steel specimens on drop weight loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, S.; Kalthoff, J.F.; Gerscha, A.

    1979-01-01

    Load records obtained in instrumented impact tests in general are disturbed by inertia effects. The influence of mechanical damping provisions on these disturbing inertia effects is investigated. Precracked bend specimens are dynamically loaded in a drop weight testing system. The specimens of size 620 mm x 150 mm (25 mm or 50 mm thick) were machined from the pressure vessel steel 22 NiMoCr 37 which was heat treated to achieve a specially hardened condition. The tests were performed at two different low temperatures. The impact velocity was about 4 m/s. As it is usual in instrumented impact testing, the load at the tup of the impining striker is recorded as a function of time during the impact process. In addition the specimen is instrumented by a strain gage close to the crack tip in order to directly measure the stress intensification. Experiments were performed under pure and damped impact conditions. Damping was achieved by utilizing a soft aluminum plate between the striker and the specimen. (orig.)

  17. The MSA: An Instrument for Measuring Motivation to Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Philip H.; Lawton, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    While there is a growing body of research on study abroad programs, as Li, Olson, and Frieze (2013) observed, "Research on study abroad has primarily focused on the effects or outcomes of study abroad participation on the students involved in these programs…Very limited attention has been devoted to studying factors affecting students'…

  18. Design of an 8-40 GHz Antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.; Trent, Christopher R.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This poster describes the implementation of a 6x6 element, dual linear polarized array with beamformer that operates from about 8-40 GHz. It is implemented using a relatively new multi-layer microfabrication process. The beamformer includes baluns that feed dual-polarized differential antenna elements and reactive splitters that cover the full frequency range of operation. This fixed beam array (FBA) serves as the feed for a multi-band instrument designed to measure snow water equivalent (SWE) from an airborne platform known as the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM).

  19. D-Catch instrument : development and psychometric testing of a measurement instrument for nursing documentation in hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; van der Schans, Cees P.

    AIM: This paper is a report of the development and testing of the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure the accuracy of nursing documentation in general hospitals. BACKGROUND: Little information is available about the accuracy of nursing documentation. None of the existing instruments

  20. New Platforms for Suborbital Astronomical Observations and In Situ Atmospheric Measurements: Spacecraft, Instruments, and Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway, K.; DeForest, C. E.; Diller, J.; Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.; Reyes, M. F.; Filo, A. S.; Anderson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. The new commercial space industry is developing suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV's) to provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space at ~100 km altitude. In the case of XCOR Aerospace's Lynx spacecraft, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a customized mission. Some of the first-generation instruments and facilities that will conduct solar observations on dedicated Lynx science missions include the SwRI Solar Instrument Pointing Platform (SSIPP) and Atsa Suborbital Observatory, as well as KickSat sprites, which are picosatellites for in situ atmospheric and solar phenomena measurements. The SSIPP is a demonstration two-stage pointed solar observatory that operates inside the Lynx cockpit. The coarse pointing stage includes the pilot in the feedback loop, and the fine stage stabilizes the solar image to achieve arcsecond class pointing. SSIPP is a stepping-stone to future external instruments that can operate with larger apertures and shorter wavelengths in the solar atmosphere. The Planetary Science Institute's Atsa Suborbital Observatory combines the strengths of ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with either in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. The Atsa prototype is a proof of concept, hand-guided camera that mounts on the interior of the Lynx cockpit to test target acquisition and tracking for human-operated suborbital astronomy. KickSat sprites are mass-producible, one inch printed circuit boards (PCBs) populated by programmable off the shelf microprocessors and radios for real time data transmission. The sprite PCBs can integrate chip-based radiometers, magnetometers

  1. Field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of large-span spatial cable-truss system under strong wind or typhoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhihong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure wind-resistance safety of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in southeast coast area of China,and to prepare something for revising of current codes of practice or technical standards,the present paper conducts field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of a practical and typical large-span spatial cable-truss system-lunar stadium in Yueqing city.Wind loading and wind effects on full-scale structure under strong wind or typhoon in real architectural environment can be obtained directly and effectively.Field measurement is the best way to investigate the wind loading property,wind effects,and wind-structure interactions of large-span flexible system.Measured data will be highly valuable for scientific research and practical design.On the other hand,it also provides the basis of wind-resistance safety design of this kind of tension structures.If any creative development,it would dramatically improve the research level of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in our country.

  2. Measuring instruments of corporate reputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Grgić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is focused on the instruments for the measurement of corporate reputation. Recent research of the elements which influence the success of a company shows a growing interest in intangible values. Corporate reputation itself has been identified as one of the key intangible assets which create the company’s added value. Understanding of the importance of corporate reputation has been determined as a significant component of the company’s competitiveness, that is, of its competitive edge. Reputation is a normal part of our life and an integral part of our society. Our interest in the honesty and integrity of others is firmly established in all cultures and nowadays the focus of this interest is switching increasingly on companies. Corporate reputation can be acquired by means of strong, well-developed strategies, which are crucial for the opinion of stakeholders regarding future stability and competitive sustainability of the company. On the other hand, it should be emphasized that in order to manage it, corporate reputation has to be measured first. However, although the concept of corporate reputation is universally accepted and its significance has been recognized especially in the last two decades, the process of its measurement is still at an early stage and there is no universally accepted instrument for its measurement. Therefore, the author of this paper gives an overview of the instruments used for the measurement of corporate reputation which have gained a foothold through former practical usage.

  3. Muzzle Blast Pressure Loadings upon Aircraft Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    0.02 m Aluminum plate. The plate is instrumented with a linear array of ten piezoelectric pressure transducers, Kistler Model 201B5. The plate is...maintained to insure compatibility of the various sets of 7. E. M. Schmidt, E. J. Gion, and D. D. Shear, "Acoustic Thermometric Measurements of...s -’-’»VA»’ ^I*T^^,*^^T^7.^ MVV-V-VV VV-V-V’-T-^ *7»T REFERENCES 7. E. M. Schmidt, E. J. Gion, and D. D. Shear, "Acoustic Thermometric

  4. Evaluation of the constant pressure panel method (CPM) for unsteady air loads prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appa, Kari; Smith, Michael J. C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper evaluates the capability of the constant pressure panel method (CPM) code to predict unsteady aerodynamic pressures, lift and moment distributions, and generalized forces for general wing-body configurations in supersonic flow. Stability derivatives are computed and correlated for the X-29 and an Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, and a flutter analysis is carried out for a wing wind tunnel test example. Most results are shown to correlate well with test or published data. Although the emphasis of this paper is on evaluation, an improvement in the CPM code's handling of intersecting lifting surfaces is briefly discussed. An attractive feature of the CPM code is that it shares the basic data requirements and computational arrangements of the doublet lattice method. A unified code to predict unsteady subsonic or supersonic airloads is therefore possible.

  5. Instrument for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Materials at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Johnson, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    With the advance of polymer and other non-metallic material sciences, whole new series of polymeric materials and composites are being created. These materials are being optimized for many different applications including cryogenic and low-temperature industrial processes. Engineers need these data to perform detailed system designs and enable new design possibilities for improved control, reliability, and efficiency in specific applications. One main area of interest is cryogenic structural elements and fluid handling components and other parts, films, and coatings for low-temperature application. An important thermal property of these new materials is the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value).

  6. Construction and Validation of a Measurement Instrument for Attitudes towards Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendo-Lázaro, Santiago; Polo-del-Río, María I.; Iglesias-Gallego, Damián; Felipe-Castaño, Elena; León-del-Barco, Benito

    2017-01-01

    Cooperative, collaborative learning and other forms of group learning methods are increasingly used in classrooms. Knowing students’ attitudes toward teamwork has great value since they influence the students’ learning results as well as their social development. So it is necessary to have robust instruments to provide a better understanding of these attitudes and preferences concerning teamwork. Such instruments also help to identify the factors that promote positive or negative attitudes within the context of group activities. Using a sample of 750 first and second year university students studying a degree in Kindergarten, Primary and Social Education, an instrument measuring attitudes toward team learning has been developed. Two distinct factors were obtained through various factorial analyses and structural equations: Academic attitudes and Social and emotional attitudes. Our study reveals that the instrument is both valid and reliable. Its application is both simple and fast and it has important implications for planning teaching and learning activities that contribute to an improvement in attitudes as well as the practice of teaching in the context of learning through teamwork. PMID:28676775

  7. Construction and Validation of a Measurement Instrument for Attitudes towards Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Mendo-Lázaro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative, collaborative learning and other forms of group learning methods are increasingly used in classrooms. Knowing students’ attitudes toward teamwork has great value since they influence the students’ learning results as well as their social development. So it is necessary to have robust instruments to provide a better understanding of these attitudes and preferences concerning teamwork. Such instruments also help to identify the factors that promote positive or negative attitudes within the context of group activities. Using a sample of 750 first and second year university students studying a degree in Kindergarten, Primary and Social Education, an instrument measuring attitudes toward team learning has been developed. Two distinct factors were obtained through various factorial analyses and structural equations: Academic attitudes and Social and emotional attitudes. Our study reveals that the instrument is both valid and reliable. Its application is both simple and fast and it has important implications for planning teaching and learning activities that contribute to an improvement in attitudes as well as the practice of teaching in the context of learning through teamwork.

  8. The 2010 calibration campaign for radon gas measuring instruments at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterweck, G.; Schuler, Ch.; Mayer, S.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty radon measurement services or the respective analytical laboratories participated in the 2010 Radon Intercomparison Exercise performed at the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) from August 27 th to August 31 st , 2010 on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH). Twelve of these laboratories were approved by the FOPH and their participation in the intercomparison exercise was a requirement to warrant quality of measurement. Radon gas dosemeters (track-etch, electronic and electret) and instruments (ionisation chambers) were exposed in the PSI Radon Chamber in a reference atmosphere with an average radon gas concentration of 595 Bq m -3 leading to a radon gas exposure of 57 kBq h m -3 . The exposure of 57 kBq h m -3 was close to the lower value of the measuring range defined in the Radon Measurement Ordinance ('Radon-Messmittelverordnung'). (authors)

  9. 093 Measurement Instrument for Determinants of Innovations (MIDI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, M.; Paulussen, T.; van Dommelen, P.; van Buuren, S.

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundIn 2002, we developed a list of 60 potential relevant determinants that are critical for a successful implementation of innovations in health care, such as guidelines. This list was a result of a review of empirical studies and a Delphi study among implementation experts. Since 2002, we

  10. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength

    OpenAIRE

    Schans, van der, C.P.; Zijlstra, W.; Regterschot, G.R.H.; Krijnen, W.P.; Douma, K.W.; Slager, G.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to monitor changes over time, instruments and procedures with a sufficient reliability are needed. The Q Force is an innovative mobile muscle strength measurement instrument suitable to measure in various d...

  11. A measuring instrument for telecommunication and application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Ju Gi; Lee, Gi Hack

    2006-08-01

    This is a guide book for an engineer in IT. It is divided two parts. The first part is composed with basic equipment such as power supply, multimeter, LCR-meter, function generator, an oscilloscope, frequency counter, level meter and an attenuator. The second part contains RF signal generator, spectrum analyzer and logic analyzer. This part introduces HC-G220S, vector signal generator, Agilent spectrum analyzer and HC 7802 model, 54620A logic analyzer and TA4000 model.

  12. Development of an instrument for measuring moisture deep into solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, R.; Walletun, H.

    1993-01-01

    It is of value in some applications to be able to detect humidity rather deep into a solid material, for example when determining the moisture content in the frame of buildings, in insulation or in biofuels. Common to these measurement problems is that it is difficult to measure moisture in the bulk of a solid, in contrast to the surface layers. In this report is described the principle and the functioning of an instrument to measure moisture at larger depths than other instruments that are available today. It is intended for use primarily on solid materials, not on gases or liquids. Field experience is also reported here. The principle of the measuring technique is nuclear: we have utilized the ability of hydrogen atoms to moderate (or brake) high energy neutrons. If there is hydrogen in the sample, fast neutrons will interact with the hydrogen atoms and one may detect and count low energy, so called thermal neutrons. The intensity of the slow neutron flux is proportional to the water content, if one assumes that hydrogen atoms are water, i.e. moisture

  13. Why use Finapres or Portapres rather than intra-arterial or intermittent non-invasive techniques of blood pressure measurement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langewouters, G. J.; Settels, J. J.; Roelandt, R.; Wesseling, K. H.

    1998-01-01

    In the clinic, blood pressure is measured almost exclusively using non-invasive intermittent techniques, of which the auscultatory (Riva-Rocci/Korotkoff, RRK) and the computerized oscillometric method are most often used. However, both methods only provide a momentary value. In addition, the

  14. Office blood pressure or ambulatory blood pressure for the prediction of cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To determine the added value of (i) 24-h ambulatory blood pressure relative to office blood pressure and (ii) night-time ambulatory blood pressure relative to daytime ambulatory blood pressure for 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Methods...... and results: A total of 7927 participants were included from the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. We used cause-specific Cox regression to predict 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events....... Discrimination of 10-year outcomes was assessed by time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). No differences in predicted risks were observed when comparing office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure. The median difference in 10-year risks (1st; 3rd quartile) was -0...

  15. Variable flaw shape analysis for a reactor vessel under pressurized thermal shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; Bamford, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    A study has been conducted to characterize the response of semi-elliptic surface flaws to thermal shock conditions which can result from safety injection actuation in nuclear reactor vessels. A methodology was developed to predict the behavior of a flaw during sample pressurized thermal shock events. The effects of a number of key variables on the flaw propagation were studied, including fracture toughness of the material and its gradient through the thickness, irradiation effects, effects of warm prestressing, and effects of the stainless steel cladding. The results of these studies show that under thermal shock loading conditions the flaw always tends to elongate along the vessel inside surface from the initial aspect ratio. However, the flaw shape always remains finite rather than becoming continuously long, as has often been assumed in earlier analyses. The final shape and size of the flaws were found to be rather strongly dependent on the effects of warm prestressing and the distribution of neutron flux. The improved methodology results in a more accurate and more realistic treatment of flaw shape changes during thermal shock events and provides the potential for quantifying additional margins for reactor vessel integrity analyses

  16. Custom ultrasonic instrumentation for flow measurement and real-time binary gas analysis in the CERN ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhroob, M.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Boyd, G.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Degeorge, C.; Deterre, C.; Di Girolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Favre, G.; Hallewell, G.; Katunin, S.; Lombard, D.; Madsen, A.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; O'Rourke, A.; Pearson, B.; Robinson, D.; Rossi, C.; Rozanov, A.; Stanecka, E.; Strauss, M.; Vacek, V.; Vaglio, R.; Young, J.; Zwalinski, L.

    2017-01-01

    The development of custom ultrasonic instrumentation was motivated by the need for continuous real-time monitoring of possible leaks and mass flow measurement in the evaporative cooling systems of the ATLAS silicon trackers. The instruments use pairs of ultrasonic transducers transmitting sound bursts and measuring transit times in opposite directions. The gas flow rate is calculated from the difference in transit times, while the sound velocity is deduced from their average. The gas composition is then evaluated by comparison with a molar composition vs. sound velocity database, based on the direct dependence between sound velocity and component molar concentration in a gas mixture at a known temperature and pressure. The instrumentation has been developed in several geometries, with five instruments now integrated and in continuous operation within the ATLAS Detector Control System (DCS) and its finite state machine. One instrument monitors C3F8 coolant leaks into the Pixel detector N2 envelope with a molar resolution better than 2ṡ 10-5, and has indicated a level of 0.14 % when all the cooling loops of the recently re-installed Pixel detector are operational. Another instrument monitors air ingress into the C3F8 condenser of the new C3F8 thermosiphon coolant recirculator, with sub-percent precision. The recent effect of the introduction of a small quantity of N2 volume into the 9.5 m3 total volume of the thermosiphon system was clearly seen with this instrument. Custom microcontroller-based readout has been developed for the instruments, allowing readout into the ATLAS DCS via Modbus TCP/IP on Ethernet. The instrumentation has many potential applications where continuous binary gas composition is required, including in hydrocarbon and anaesthetic gas mixtures.

  17. Prediction method for cavitation erosion based on measurement of bubble collapse impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, S; Hirose, T; Sugiyama, K

    2009-01-01

    The prediction of cavitation erosion rates is important in order to evaluate the exact life of components. The measurement of impact loads in bubble collapses helps to predict the life under cavitation erosion. In this study, we carried out erosion tests and the measurements of impact loads in bubble collapses with a vibratory apparatus. We evaluated the incubation period based on a cumulative damage rule by measuring the impact loads of cavitation acting on the specimen surface and by using the 'constant impact load - number of impact loads curve' similar to the modified Miner's rule which is employed for fatigue life prediction. We found that the parameter Σ(F i α xn i ) (F i : impact load, n i : number of impacts and α: constant) is suitable for the evaluation of the erosion life. Moreover, we propose a new method that can predict the incubation period under various cavitation conditions.

  18. Discarding the first of three nurse-auscultatory or oscillometric blood pressure measurements does not improve the association of office blood pressure with ABPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, John W; Grossardt, Brandon R

    2010-06-01

    Guidelines for office blood pressure (BP) measurements recommend two or more readings at each visit. It has been suggested that discarding the first reading may improve the diagnostic utility of office readings. We compare two methods of office BP measurement to determine whether discarding the first BP affects their association with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) readings. We studied measurements in 313 mildly hypertensive patients (181 men, median age 51 years) at the end of the washout phase of a hypertension treatment trial. All patients had three auscultatory readings by a trained nurse using a mercury manometer before a 24-h ABPM and three automated readings (Omron 705 CP) to American Heart Association standards after ABPM. Daytime ABPM (09:00-21:00) of systolic BP and diastolic BP were compared with office methods using first only, second and third only, and all three readings. Associations were assessed using Bland-Altman plots and Pearson's correlations. Bland-Altman plots revealed no differences between office methods and daytime ABPM regardless of whether the first reading was included or discarded. Results were similar for both systolic BP and diastolic BP. The Pearson correlations of office method readings with ABPM readings were lowest using the first measurement alone; however, discarding the first measurement did not improve the correlation compared with using all three readings. Discarding the first office BP reading does not change the association of office BP with ABPM or improve the correlation with ABPM values in hypertensive patients.

  19. A digital, constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop instrument for real-time, absolute ultrasonic phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldren, H. A.; Perey, D. F.; Yost, W. T.; Cramer, K. E.; Gupta, M. C.

    2018-05-01

    A digitally controlled instrument for conducting single-frequency and swept-frequency ultrasonic phase measurements has been developed based on a constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop (CFPPLL) design. This instrument uses a pair of direct digital synthesizers to generate an ultrasonically transceived tone-burst and an internal reference wave for phase comparison. Real-time, constant-frequency phase tracking in an interrogated specimen is possible with a resolution of 0.000 38 rad (0.022°), and swept-frequency phase measurements can be obtained. Using phase measurements, an absolute thickness in borosilicate glass is presented to show the instrument's efficacy, and these results are compared to conventional ultrasonic pulse-echo time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. The newly developed instrument predicted the thickness with a mean error of -0.04 μm and a standard deviation of error of 1.35 μm. Additionally, the CFPPLL instrument shows a lower measured phase error in the absence of changing temperature and couplant thickness than high-resolution cross-correlation ToF measurements at a similar signal-to-noise ratio. By showing higher accuracy and precision than conventional pulse-echo ToF measurements and lower phase errors than cross-correlation ToF measurements, the new digitally controlled CFPPLL instrument provides high-resolution absolute ultrasonic velocity or path-length measurements in solids or liquids, as well as tracking of material property changes with high sensitivity. The ability to obtain absolute phase measurements allows for many new applications than possible with previous ultrasonic pulsed phase-locked loop instruments. In addition to improved resolution, swept-frequency phase measurements add useful capability in measuring properties of layered structures, such as bonded joints, or materials which exhibit non-linear frequency-dependent behavior, such as dispersive media.

  20. Limit loads for pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending based on finite element limit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, approximate plastic limit load solutions for pipe bends under combined internal pressure and bending are obtained from detailed three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses based on elastic-perfectly plastic materials with the small geometry change option. The present FE results show that existing limit load solutions for pipe bends are lower bounds but can be very different from the present FE results in some cases, particularly for bending. Accordingly closed-form approximations are proposed for pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending based on the present FE results. The proposed limit load solutions would be a basis of defective pipe bends and be useful to estimate non-linear fracture mechanics parameters based on the reference stress approach

  1. Measuring Instrument Constructs of Return Factors for Green Office Building Investments Variables Using Rasch Measurement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Mona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a preliminary study on rationalising green office building investments in Malaysia. The aim of this paper is attempt to introduce the application of Rasch measurement model analysis to determine the validity and reliability of each construct in the questionnaire. In achieving this objective, a questionnaire survey was developed consists of 6 sections and a total of 106 responses were received from various investors who own and lease office buildings in Kuala Lumpur. The Rasch Measurement analysis is used to measure the quality control of item constructs in the instrument by measuring the specific objectivity within the same dimension, to reduce ambiguous measures, and a realistic estimation of precision and implicit quality. The Rasch analysis consists of the summary statistics, item unidimensionality and item measures. A result shows the items and respondent (person reliability is at 0.91 and 0.95 respectively.

  2. Idealized digital models for conical reed instruments, with focus on the internal pressure waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergomard, J; Guillemain, P; Silva, F; Karkar, S

    2016-02-01

    Two models for the generation of self-oscillations of reed conical woodwinds are presented. The models use the fewest parameters (of either the resonator or the exciter), whose influence can be quickly explored. The formulation extends iterated maps obtained for lossless cylindrical pipes without reed dynamics. It uses spherical wave variables in idealized resonators, with one parameter more than for cylinders: the missing length of the cone. The mouthpiece volume equals that of the missing part of the cone, and is implemented as either a cylindrical pipe (first model) or a lumped element (second model). Only the first model adds a length parameter for the mouthpiece and leads to the solving of an implicit equation. For the second model, any shape of nonlinear characteristic can be directly considered. The complex characteristic impedance for spherical waves requires sampling times smaller than a round trip in the resonator. The convergence of the two models is shown when the length of the cylindrical mouthpiece tends to zero. The waveform is in semi-quantitative agreement with experiment. It is concluded that the oscillations of the positive episode of the mouthpiece pressure are related to the length of the missing part, not to the reed dynamics.

  3. To IO-3 type instrument for measuring relative deviation of mean frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albats, Ya.Eh.; Bitite, Ya.A.; Ivanov, G.M.; Karpel'tseva, L.P.; Tesnavs, Eh.R.; Shuvtsan, Ya.V.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of the 10-3 instrument intended for automatic measurement of a relative deviation of the pulse flow mean frequency from the preset value with digital presentation of measurement results, and also for the conversion of this relative deviation into an electric coded signal and in an analogue voltage signal. The 10-3 instrument comprises a master pulse generator, two preliminary scalers, two electronic switches, two storage pulse counters, control devices, a counter digital volume setter, a rewriting device, an internal storage, a digital display, and a digital-to-analog converter. The principle of the instrument operation consists in counting the pulses of measured and reference pulse flows by two storage counters. Basic performances of the instrument are given. The main advantage of the 10-3 instrument lies in the fact that it presents the results of measuring by a digital radioisotope instrument directly in physical units of the measured parameter, and that, in turn, obviates the necessity for additional mathematical operations when data processing [ru

  4. Stress concentration factors for integral and pad reinforced nozzles in spherical pressure vessels subjected to radial load and moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.F.; Gill, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    Charts are presented giving the elastic stress concentration factors in spherical pressure vessels with pad and integral reinforcement for radial branches subjected to radial load and moment. The effect of all the geometrical parameters is discussed, including the limitations of thin shell theory on the validity of the results. (author)

  5. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A. (CP Industries, McKeesport, PA)

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  6. Fast pressure measurements for the TMX-U fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A.L.; Coffield, F.E.; Pickles, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The pressure on the boundary of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) tandem mirror (TMX-U) plasma experiment is difficult to trace for several reasons: (1) the TMX-U boundary is in the high vacuum range (10 -5 to 10 -6 Pa) and requires an ionization gauge; (2) the boundary includes high-energy neutral particles and radiation, so the gauge must be optically baffled from the plasma; (3) the gauge must be shielded from the magnetic flux density of 0.03 T; (4) maximum conductance to the gauge must be preserved so that the time response remains about 1 ms; (5) a fast electrical circuit is required to measure the small ion-current changes at a rate consistent with the geometrical and experimental time constant of 1 ms. We have developed solutions to these limitations, including fast ionization gauge (FIG) circuitry for the remote gauge operation and the CAMAC system for recording the pressure-time history in the TMX-U computer data base. We also give some examples of actual fast pressure histories during plasma operation

  7. Static and cyclic performance evaluation of sensors for human interface pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabling, Jeffrey G; Filatov, Anton; Wheeler, Jason W

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians often desire to monitor pressure distributions on soft tissues at interfaces to mechanical devices such as prosthetics, orthotics or shoes. The most common type of sensor used for this type of applications is a Force Sensitive Resistor (FSR) as these are convenient to use and inexpensive. Several other types of sensors exist that may have superior sensing performance but are less ubiquitous or more expensive, such as optical or capacitive sensors. We tested five sensors (two FSRs, one optical, one capacitive and one fluid pressure) in a static drift and cyclic loading configuration. The results show that relative to the important performance characteristics for soft tissue pressure monitoring (i.e. hysteresis, drift), many of the sensors tested have significant limitations. The FSRs exhibited hysteresis, drift and loss of sensitivity under cyclic loading. The capacitive sensor had substantial drift. The optical sensor had some hysteresis and temperature-related drift. The fluid pressure sensor performed well in these tests but is not as flat as the other sensors and is not commercially available. Researchers and clinicians should carefully consider the convenience and performance trade-offs when choosing a sensor for soft-tissue pressure monitoring.

  8. Optical Performance of Breadboard Amon-Ra Imaging Channel Instrument for Deep Space Albedo Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hyun Park

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The AmonRa instrument, the primary payload of the international EARTHSHINE mission, is designed for measurement of deep space albedo from L1 halo orbit. We report the optical design, tolerance analysis and the optical performance of the breadborad AmonRa imaging channel instrument optimized for the mission science requirements. In particular, an advanced wavefront feedback process control technique was used for the instrumentation process including part fabrication, system alignment and integration. The measured performances for the complete breadboard system are the RMS 0.091 wave(test wavelength: 632.8 nm in wavefront error, the ensquared energy of 61.7%(in 14 μ m and the MTF of 35.3%(Nyquist frequency: 35.7 mm^{-1} at the center field. These resulting optical system performances prove that the breadboard AmonRa instrument, as built, satisfies the science requirements of the EARTHSHINE mission.

  9. How important is the recommended slow cuff pressure deflation rate for blood pressure measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Amoore, John N; Mieke, Stephan; Murray, Alan

    2011-10-01

    Cuff pressure deflation rate influences blood pressure (BP) measurement. However, there is little quantitative clinical evidence on its effect. Oscillometric pulses recorded from 75 subjects at the recommended deflation rate of 2-3 mmHg per second were analyzed. Some pulses were removed to realize six faster rates (2-7 times faster than the original). Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP) were determined from the original and six reconstructed oscillometric waveforms. Manual measurement was based on the appearance of oscillometric pulse peaks, and automatic measurement on two model envelopes (linear and polynomial) fitted to the sequence of oscillometric pulse amplitudes. The effects of deflation rate on BP determination and within-subject BP variability were analyzed. For SBP and DBP determined from the manual measurement, different deflation rates resulted in significant changes (both p deflation rate effect (all p > 0.3). Faster deflation increased the within-subject BP variability (all p deflation rate, and for the automatic model-based techniques, the deflation rate had little effect.

  10. Instruments Measuring Integrated Care: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Mary Ann C; Nurjono, Milawaty; Lim, Yee Wei; Dessers, Ezra; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Jm

    2016-12-01

    -centered care (49%); fewer studies measured care continuity/comprehensive care (15%) and care coordination/case management (3%). We mapped 84% of the measured constructs to the clinical integration domain of the RMIC, with fewer constructs related to the domains of professional (3.7%), organizational (3.4%), and functional (0.5%) integration. Only 8% of the instruments were mapped to a combination of domains; none were mapped exclusively to the system or normative integration domains. The majority of instruments were administered to either patients (60%) or health care providers (20%). Of the measurement properties, responsiveness (4%), measurement error (7%), and criterion (12%) and cross-cultural validity (14%) were less commonly reported. We found measurement properties. Only a minority of index instruments showed strong evidence of positive findings for internal consistency (15%), content validity (19%), and structural validity (7%); with moderate evidence of positive findings for internal consistency (14%) and construct validity (14%). Our results suggest that the quality of measurement properties of instruments measuring integrated care is in need of improvement with the less-studied constructs and domains to become part of newly developed instruments. © 2016 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  11. Instruments Measuring Integrated Care: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAUTISTA, MARY ANN C.; NURJONO, MILAWATY; DESSERS, EZRA; VRIJHOEF, HUBERTUS JM

    2016-01-01

    integration (33%) and patient‐centered care (49%); fewer studies measured care continuity/comprehensive care (15%) and care coordination/case management (3%). We mapped 84% of the measured constructs to the clinical integration domain of the RMIC, with fewer constructs related to the domains of professional (3.7%), organizational (3.4%), and functional (0.5%) integration. Only 8% of the instruments were mapped to a combination of domains; none were mapped exclusively to the system or normative integration domains. The majority of instruments were administered to either patients (60%) or health care providers (20%). Of the measurement properties, responsiveness (4%), measurement error (7%), and criterion (12%) and cross‐cultural validity (14%) were less commonly reported. We found measurement properties. Only a minority of index instruments showed strong evidence of positive findings for internal consistency (15%), content validity (19%), and structural validity (7%); with moderate evidence of positive findings for internal consistency (14%) and construct validity (14%). Conclusions Our results suggest that the quality of measurement properties of instruments measuring integrated care is in need of improvement with the less‐studied constructs and domains to become part of newly developed instruments. PMID:27995711

  12. Instrumentation for the follow-up of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Sanchez, A.; Nino Perote, R.

    2000-01-01

    During severe accidents, it is foreseeable that the instrumentation installed in a plant is subjected to conditions which are more hostile than those for which the instrumentation was designed and qualified. Moreover, new, specific instrumentation is required to monitor variables which have not been considered until now, and to control systems which lessen the consequences of severe accidents. Both existing instrumentation used to monitor critical functions in design basis accident conditions and additional instrumentation which provides the information necessary to control and mitigate the consequences of severe accidents, have to be designed to withstand such conditions, especially in terms of measurements range, functional characteristics and qualification to withstand pressure and temperature loads resulting from steam explosion, hydrogen combustion/explosion and high levels of radiation over long periods of time. (Author)

  13. Patient perspective: choosing or developing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, John R; Fries, James F; Hewlett, Sarah; Osborne, Richard H

    2011-08-01

    Previous Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) meetings recognized that patients view outcomes of intervention from a different perspective. This preconference position paper briefly sets out 2 patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument approaches, the PROMISE computer adaptive testing (CAT) system and development of a rheumatoid arthritis-specific questionnaire to measure fatigue; a tentative proposal for a PRO instrument development pathway is also made.

  14. Quantifying the Influence of Lightning Strike Pressure Loading on Composite Specimen Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, P.; Abdelal, G.; Murphy, A.

    2018-04-01

    Experimental work has shown that a component of lightning strike damage is caused by a mechanical loading. As the profile of the pressure loading is unknown a number of authors propose different pressure loads, varying in form, application area and magnitude. The objective of this paper is to investigate the potential contribution of pressure loading to composite specimen damage. This is achieved through a simulation study using an established modelling approach for composite damage prediction. The study examines the proposed shockwave loads from the literature. The simulation results are compared with measured test specimen damage examining the form and scale of damage. The results for the first time quantify the significance of pressure loading, demonstrating that although a pressure load can cause damage consistent with that measured experimentally, it has a negligible contribution to the overall scale of damage. Moreover the requirements for a pressure to create the damage behaviours typically witnessed in testing requires that the pressure load be within a very precise window of magnitude and loading area.

  15. Developing a TPACK measurement instrument for 21st century pre-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Valtonen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Future skills, so-called 21st century skills, emphasise collaboration, creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving and especially ICT skills (Voogt & Roblin, 2012. Teachers have to be able to use various pedagogical approaches and ICT in order to support the development of their students’ 21st century skills (Voogt & Roblin, 2012. These skills, particularly ICT skills, pose challenges for teachers and teacher education. This paper focuses on developing an instrument for measuring pre-service teachers’ knowledge related to ICT in the context of 21st century skills.Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK; Mishra & Kohler, 2006 was used as a theoretical framework for designing the instrument. While the TPACK framework is actively used, the instruments used to measure it have proven challenging. This paper outlines the results of the development process of the TPACK-21 instrument. A new assessment instrument was compiled and tested on pre-service teachers in Study1 (N=94. Based on these results, the instrument was further developed and tested in Study2 (N=267. The data of both studies were analysed using multiple quantitative methods in order to evaluate the psychometric properties of the instruments. The results provide insight into the challenges of the development process itself and also suggest new solutions to overcome these difficulties.

  16. Simulations of piezoelectric pressure sensor for radial artery pulse measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Abhay B. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Kalange, Ashok E. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Tuljaram Chaturchand College, Baramati 413 102 (India); Bodas, Dhananjay, E-mail: dhananjay.bodas@gmail.co [Center for Nanobio Sciences, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune 411 004 (India); Gangal, S.A. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2010-04-15

    A radial artery pulse is used to diagnose human body constitution (Prakruti) in Ayurveda. A system consisting of piezoelectric sensor (22 mm x 12 mm), data acquisition card and LabView software was used to record the pulse data. The pulse obtained from the sensor was noisy, even though signal processing was done. Moreover due to large sized senor accurate measurements were not possible. Hence, a need was felt to develop a sensor of the size of the order of finger tip with a resonant frequency of the order of 1 Hz. A micromachined pressure sensor based on piezoelectric sensing mechanism was designed and simulated using CoventorWare. Simulations were carried out by varying dimensions of the sensor to optimize the resonant frequency, stresses and voltage generated as a function of applied pressure. All simulations were done with pressure ranging of 1-30 kPa, which is the range used by Ayurvedic practitioners for diagnosis. Preliminary work on fabrication of such a sensor was carried out successfully.

  17. Simulations of piezoelectric pressure sensor for radial artery pulse measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Abhay B.; Kalange, Ashok E.; Bodas, Dhananjay; Gangal, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    A radial artery pulse is used to diagnose human body constitution (Prakruti) in Ayurveda. A system consisting of piezoelectric sensor (22 mm x 12 mm), data acquisition card and LabView software was used to record the pulse data. The pulse obtained from the sensor was noisy, even though signal processing was done. Moreover due to large sized senor accurate measurements were not possible. Hence, a need was felt to develop a sensor of the size of the order of finger tip with a resonant frequency of the order of 1 Hz. A micromachined pressure sensor based on piezoelectric sensing mechanism was designed and simulated using CoventorWare. Simulations were carried out by varying dimensions of the sensor to optimize the resonant frequency, stresses and voltage generated as a function of applied pressure. All simulations were done with pressure ranging of 1-30 kPa, which is the range used by Ayurvedic practitioners for diagnosis. Preliminary work on fabrication of such a sensor was carried out successfully.

  18. Novel instrument for high-pressure research at ultra-high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiferl, D.; Katz, A.I.; Mills, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A resistively heated diamond-anvil cell has been used to achieve pressures of 110 kbar at temperatures exceeding 1200 0 C for periods long enough to collect x-ray powder diffraction data with energy-dispersive techniques using ''white'' x-radiation produced at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig

  19. Study and development of an airborne instrument for collecting aerosols and for measuring radon 222 by its active deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    The study and development of an airborne instrument designed to collect aerosols and measure radon 222 is detailed in this thesis. Having discussed the context of radon and introduced the methods of the measurement of radon 222 by its natural active deposition, the measurement of aerosols with the Sextant Avionique/LSCE dynamic iso-kinetic probe is quantified. These estimations of the efficiency of the probe were obtained during iso-axial simulations of the flow around the probe at different sub-sonic speeds, then by the calculation of trajectories of particles at the entrance to the probe for several debit coefficients. The effect of the attack angle is discussed along with the iso-kinetic criteria of pressure necessary for the functioning of this probe. To conclude this theoretical study, the author has estimated the deposits during aerosol transport in pipes. The instrument once constructed, (dubbed A VIRAD), is then itself presented, along with the technological aspects adopted for its use. The instrument was validated during an experimental aerial study STAAARTE 99. The measures obtained during these flights are presented in the conclusions. (author) [fr

  20. Instrumentation for two-phase flow measurements in code verification experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Arave, A.E.; Deason, V.A.; Lassahn, G.D.; Goodrich, L.D.; Colson, J.B.; Fickas, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    The development of instrumentation and techniques for the measurement of mass flow rate in two-phase flows conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the past year is briefly described. Instruments discussed are the modular drag-disc turbine transducer, the gamma densitometers, the ultrasonic densitometer, Pitot tubes, and full-flow drag screens. Steady state air-water and transient steam-water data are presented

  1. Using Maximal Isometric Force to Determine the Optimal Load for Measuring Dynamic Muscle Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason R.; Nash, Roxanne E.; Sinka, Joseph; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2009-01-01

    Maximal power output occurs when subjects perform ballistic exercises using loads of 30-50% of one-repetition maximum (1-RM). However, performing 1-RM testing prior to power measurement requires considerable time, especially when testing involves multiple exercises. Maximal isometric force (MIF), which requires substantially less time to measure than 1-RM, might be an acceptable alternative for determining the optimal load for power testing. PURPOSE: To determine the optimal load based on MIF for maximizing dynamic power output during leg press and bench press exercises. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers (12 men and 8 women; mean +/- SD age: 31+/-6 y; body mass: 72 +/- 15 kg) performed isometric leg press and bench press movements, during which MIF was measured using force plates. Subsequently, subjects performed ballistic leg press and bench press exercises using loads corresponding to 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% of MIF presented in randomized order. Maximal instantaneous power was calculated during the ballistic exercise tests using force plates and position transducers. Repeated-measures ANOVA and Fisher LSD post hoc tests were used to determine the load(s) that elicited maximal power output. RESULTS: For the leg press power test, six subjects were unable to be tested at 20% and 30% MIF because these loads were less than the lightest possible load (i.e., the weight of the unloaded leg press sled assembly [31.4 kg]). For the bench press power test, five subjects were unable to be tested at 20% MIF because these loads were less than the weight of the unloaded aluminum bar (i.e., 11.4 kg). Therefore, these loads were excluded from analysis. A trend (p = 0.07) for a main effect of load existed for the leg press exercise, indicating that the 40% MIF load tended to elicit greater power output than the 60% MIF load (effect size = 0.38). A significant (p . 0.05) main effect of load existed for the bench press exercise; post hoc analysis indicated that the effect of

  2. Pressure measurements in magnetic-fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dylla, H.F.

    1981-11-01

    Accurate pressure measurements are important in magnetic fusion devices for: (1) plasma diagnostic measurements of particle balance and ion temperature; (2) discharge cleaning optimization; (3) vacuum system performance; and (4) tritium accountability. This paper reviews the application, required accuracy, and suitable instrumentation for these measurements. Demonstrated uses of ionization-type and capacitance-diaphragm gauges for various pressure and gas-flow measurements in tokamaks are presented, with specific reference to the effects of magnetic fields on gauge performance and the problems associated with gauge calibration

  3. Pressure measurements in magnetic-fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dylla, H.F.

    1981-11-01

    Accurate pressure measurements are important in magnetic fusion devices for: (1) plasma diagnostic measurements of particle balance and ion temperature; (2) discharge cleaning optimization; (3) vacuum system performance; and (4) tritium accountability. This paper reviews the application, required accuracy, and suitable instrumentation for these measurements. Demonstrated uses of ionization-type and capacitance-diaphragm gauges for various pressure and gas-flow measurements in tokamaks are presented, with specific reference to the effects of magnetic fields on gauge performance and the problems associated with gauge calibration.

  4. A leak-detection instrument for long buried pipelines based on radioactive tracer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qingqian; Zhou Shuxuan; Tang Yonghua; Sun Xiaolei; Hu Xusheng; Li Deyi; Yin Liqiang

    1987-01-01

    The instrument introduced provides a means for leak detection of long buried pipelines based on the radioactive tracer technique. The principle, block diagram and performances for the instrument are described. The leak-detecting method and the determination of some related parameters are also presented. Leak-detection sensitivity of the instrument is 185 kBq (5 μCi). Accuracy for leak localization is within 2.5 m (per km). It is suitable for the buried light oil (gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil) and industrial water pipelines with a diameter of 15 or 20 cm. The detection length for a single operation reaches up to 50 km

  5. Validation of a new micro-manometer pressure sensor for cardiovascular measurements in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Rodolfo J; Jones, Douglas L; Escobedo, Daniel; Porterfield, John; Larson, Erik; Chisholm, Gary B; Barton, Amanda; Feldman, Marc D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Scisense (London, ON, Canada) micro-manometer pressure sensor is currently being used by investigators to evaluate cardiovascular physiology in mice, but has not been validated to date. The purpose of the current study is to compare the 1.2 F Scisense pressure sensor to the current gold standard produced by Millar Instruments (Houston, TX) (1.4 F). In vitro comparisons were preformed including temperature drift, frequency response analysis up to 250 Hz, and damping coefficient and natural frequency determined via a pop test. The authors also performed in vivo comparisons including pressure drift, dose-response studies to IV isoproterenol, maximum adrenergic stimulation with IV dobutamine, and simultaneous placement of both micro-manometer pressure sensors in the same intact murine hearts. The authors conclude that both sensors are equivalent, and that the Scisense pressure sensor represents an alternative to the current gold standard, the Millar micro-manometer pressure sensor for in vivo pressure measurements in the mouse.

  6. Acoustic signal propagation and measurement in natural stream channels for application to surrogate bed load measurements: Halfmoon Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring sediment-generated noise using submerged hydrophones is a surrogate method for measuring bed load transport in streams with the potential for improving estimates of bed load transport through widespread, inexpensive monitoring. Understanding acoustic signal propagation in natural stream e...

  7. A framework and a measurement instrument for sustainability of work practices in long-term care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaghuis Sarah S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In health care, many organizations are working on quality improvement and/or innovation of their care practices. Although the effectiveness of improvement processes has been studied extensively, little attention has been given to sustainability of the changed work practices after implementation. The objective of this study is to develop a theoretical framework and measurement instrument for sustainability. To this end sustainability is conceptualized with two dimensions: routinization and institutionalization. Methods The exploratory methodological design consisted of three phases: a framework development; b instrument development; and c field testing in former improvement teams in a quality improvement program for health care (N teams = 63, N individual = 112. Data were collected not until at least one year had passed after implementation. Underlying constructs and their interrelations were explored using Structural Equation Modeling and Principal Component Analyses. Internal consistency was computed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. A long and a short version of the instrument are proposed. Results The χ2- difference test of the -2 Log Likelihood estimates demonstrated that the hierarchical two factor model with routinization and institutionalization as separate constructs showed a better fit than the one factor model (p Conclusions The theoretical framework offers a valuable starting point for the analysis of sustainability on the level of actual changed work practices. Even though the two dimensions routinization and institutionalization are related, they are clearly distinguishable and each has distinct value in the discussion of sustainability. Finally, the subscales conformed to psychometric properties defined in literature. The instrument can be used in the evaluation of improvement projects.

  8. Measuring decision quality: psychometric evaluation of a new instrument for breast cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Clara N; Wetschler, Matthew H; Chang, Yuchiao; Belkora, Jeffrey K; Moy, Beverly; Partridge, Ann; Sepucha, Karen R

    2014-08-20

    Women diagnosed with early stage (I or II) breast cancer face a highly challenging decision - whether or not to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy. We developed a decision quality instrument for chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer and sought to evaluate its performance. Cross-sectional, mailed survey of recent breast cancer survivors, providers, and healthy controls and a retest survey of survivors. The decision quality instrument includes questions on knowledge and personal goals. It results in a knowledge score and concordance score, which reflects the percentage of patients who received treatments that match their goals. Hypotheses related to acceptability, feasibility, validity, and reliability of the survey instrument were examined. Responses were received from 352 patients, 89 providers and 35 healthy controls. The decision quality instrument was feasible to implement with few missing data. The knowledge scores had good retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) =0.75). Knowledge scores discriminated between providers and patients (mean difference 31.1%, 95% CI 26.9, 35.3) and between patients and healthy controls (mean difference 11.2, 95% CI 5.4, 17.1). Most providers reported that the knowledge items covered essential content. Two of the five goal items had a ceiling effect, and one goal had low content validity. The goal items had moderate retest reliability (ICC's 0.57 to 0.78). In the multivariable model of treatment, none of the patient goals was associated with receipt of chemotherapy. Age and hormone receptor status were the only variables independently associated with chemotherapy. Most patients (77.6%) had treatment concordant with that predicted by the model. Patients who had concordant treatment had similar levels of confidence and regret as those who did not. The Decision Quality Instrument is a reliable and valid measure of patient knowledge about chemotherapy, but its ability to measure concordance with patient goals is

  9. Improved methods for signal processing in measurements of mercury by Tekran® 2537A and 2537B instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Jesse L.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric Hg measurements are commonly carried out using Tekran® Instruments Corporation's model 2537 Hg vapor analyzers, which employ gold amalgamation preconcentration sampling and detection by thermal desorption (TD) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). A generally overlooked and poorly characterized source of analytical uncertainty in those measurements is the method by which the raw Hg atomic fluorescence (AF) signal is processed. Here I describe new software-based methods for processing the raw signal from the Tekran® 2537 instruments, and I evaluate the performances of those methods together with the standard Tekran® internal signal processing method. For test datasets from two Tekran® instruments (one 2537A and one 2537B), I estimate that signal processing uncertainties in Hg loadings determined with the Tekran® method are within ±[1 % + 1.2 pg] and ±[6 % + 0.21 pg], respectively. I demonstrate that the Tekran® method can produce significant low biases (≥ 5 %) not only at low Hg sample loadings (< 5 pg) but also at tropospheric background concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and total mercury (THg) (˜ 1 to 2 ng m-3) under typical operating conditions (sample loadings of 5-10 pg). Signal processing uncertainties associated with the Tekran® method can therefore represent a significant unaccounted for addition to the overall ˜ 10 to 15 % uncertainty previously estimated for Tekran®-based GEM and THg measurements. Signal processing bias can also add significantly to uncertainties in Tekran®-based gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) measurements, which often derive from Hg sample loadings < 5 pg. In comparison, estimated signal processing uncertainties associated with the new methods described herein are low, ranging from within ±0.053 pg, when the Hg thermal desorption peaks are defined manually, to within ±[2 % + 0.080 pg] when peak definition is automated. Mercury limits of detection (LODs

  10. Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, G.T.; Sliemers, F.A.; Deringer, G.C.; Wood, V.E.; Wilkes, K.E.; Gaines, G.B.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1978-01-15

    The validation of a service life of 20 years for low-cost photovoltaic arrays must be accomplished through accelerated life-prediction tests. A methodology for such tests has been developed in a preceding study. The results discussed consist of the initial identification and assessment of all known measurement techniques and instruments that might be used in these life-prediction tests. Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories--chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and ''other physicals''. Using specified evaluation criteria, the most promising techniques and instruments for use in life-prediction tests of arrays are then selected. These recommended techniques and their characteristics are described. Recommendations are made regarding establishment of the adequacy, particularly with respect to precision, of the more fully developed techniques for this application, and regarding the experimental evaluation of promising developmental techniques. Measurement needs not satisfied by presently available techniques/instruments are also identified.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water (approximately40 Im), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, the Advanced Technologies Group of Thermo Power Corporation (a Thermo Electron company) is developing a real-time, field-deployable alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (US Patent 5,652,013 and pending, assigned to the US Department of Energy). The Thermo Water Alpha Monitor will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste, Plutonium, and D and D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This report details the program's accomplishments to date. Most significantly, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument was successfully field demonstrated on water 100X below the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed safe drinking water limit--down to under 1 pCi/1. During the Field Test, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument successfully analyzed isotopic uranium levels on a total of five different surface water, process water, and

  12. Evaluation of the monitor cursor-line method for measuring pulmonary artery and central venous pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, Editha; Good, Levell; Tizon, Jisebelle; Krieger, Staci; O'Kier, Catherine; Taylor, Nicole; Johnson, Jennifer; Horton, Carrie M; Peterson, Mary

    2010-11-01

    To determine if the monitor cursor-line feature on bedside monitors is accurate for measuring central venous and pulmonary artery pressures in cardiac surgery patients. Central venous and pulmonary artery pressures were measured via 3 methods (end-expiratory graphic recording, monitor cursor-line display, and monitor digital display) in a convenience sample of postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Pressures were measured twice during both mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences between measurement methods and the percentage of monitor pressures that differed by 4 mm Hg or more from the measurement obtained from the graphic recording. Significance level was set at P less than .05. Twenty-five patients were studied during mechanical ventilation (50 measurements) and 21 patients during spontaneous breathing (42 measurements). Measurements obtained via the 3 methods did not differ significantly for either type of pressure (P > .05). Graphically recorded pressures and measurements obtained via the monitor cursor-line or digital display methods differed by 4 mm Hg or more in 4% and 6% of measurements, respectively, during mechanical ventilation and 4% and 11%, respectively, during spontaneous breathing. The monitor cursor-line method for measuring central venous and pulmonary artery pressures may be a reasonable alternative to the end-expiratory graphic recording method in hemodynamically stable, postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Use of the digital display on the bedside monitor may result in larger discrepancies from the graphically recorded pressures than when the cursor-line method is used, particularly in spontaneously breathing patients.

  13. Evaluation of the Automatic Density Compensation for Pressurizer Level Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Insoo; Min, Seohong; Ahn, Myunghoon

    2014-01-01

    When using two transmitters, it is difficult for the operators to identify the correct level of the pressurizer (PZR) upon failure of one of the two transmitters. For this reason, Korean Utility Requirements Document (KURD) requires that the operators to use three independent level indicators. Two hot calibrated transmitters and one cold calibrated transmitter compose PZR level transmitters in APR1400. In this paper, the deviation between cold calibration and hot calibration is evaluated, and the application of compensated PZR level measurement and uncompen-sated PZR level measurement during the normal operation of APR1400 are introduced. The PZR level signals for APR1400 come in three channels. To satisfy the KURD requirements for PZR level measurement, and at the same time to accomplish correction design and implementation, applicability and differences between hot calibration and cold calibration, compensated level and uncompensated level were evaluated as follows: For proper indication of PZR levels under normal operating condition, two of the three transmitters went through hot calibration and the remaining one transmitter went through cold calibration. This was to allow indicating entire regions of PZR regardless of the plant operation modes. For automatic density compensation per KURD requirements, the algorithm of the density compensated PZR level implemented in the DCS controller and PRV logic is adopted as a signal validation method

  14. The out-of-pile test for internal pressure measurement of nuclear fuel rod using LVDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, J. M.; Kim, B. K.; Kim, D. S.; Joo, K. N.; Park, S. J.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Yeum, K. I. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the development of instrumentation technologies for the nuclear fuel irradiation test in HANARO(High-flux Advanced Nuclear Application Reactor), the internal pressure measurement technique of the nuclear fuel rod is being developed using LVDT(Linear Variable Differential Transformer). The objectives of this test were to understand the LVDT's characteristics and to study its application techniques for fuel irradiation technology. It will be required to analyze the acquired internal pressure of fuel rod during fuel irradiation test in HANARO. Therefore, the out of pile test system for pressure measurement was developed, and the test with the LVDT at room temperature were performed. This test were implemented in 1 kg/cm{sup 2} increment from 1 kg/cm{sup 2} to 30 kg/cm{sup 2}, and repeated 6 times at same condition. The LVDT's sensitivities were obtained by following two ways, the one by test and the other by calculation from characteristics data. These two sensitivities were compared and analyzed. The calculation method for internal pressure of nuclear fuel rod at specified temperature was also established. The results of the out-of-pile test will be used to predict accurately the internal pressure of fuel rod during irradiation test. And, the well qualified out-of-pile tests are needed to understand the LVDT's detail characteristics at high temperature for the detail design of the fuel irradiation capsule.

  15. The out-of-pile test for internal pressure measurement of nuclear fuel rod using LVDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Sohn Jae; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G. [and others

    2001-11-01

    As a part of the development of instrumentation technologies for the nuclear fuel irradiation test in HANARO, the internal pressure measurement technique of the nuclear fuel rod is being developed using LVDT. The objectives of this test were to understand the LVDT's characteristics and to study its application techniques for fuel irradiation technology. It will be required to analyze the acquired internal pressure of fuel rod during fuel irradiation test in HANARO. The out-of-pile test system for pressure measurement was developed, and the test with the LVDT at room temperature(19 .deg. C) were performed. A out-of-pile test were implemented in 1 kg/cm{sup 2} increment from 1 kg/cm{sup 2} to 30 kg/cm{sup 2} and repeated 6 times at each condition. The LVDT's sensitivities were obtained by following two ways, the one by test and the other by calculation from characteristics data. These two sensitivities were compared and analyzed. The calculation method for internal pressure of nuclear fuel rod at specified temperature was also established. This report describes the system configuration, the out-of-pile test procedures, and the results. The results of the out-of-pile test will be used to predict accurately the internal pressure of fuel rod during irradiation test. And, the well qualified out-of-pile tests are needed to understand the LVDT's detail characteristics for the detail design of the fuel irradiation capsule.

  16. Validating an instrument for measuring brand equity of CSR driven organizations in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Dara Singh Karpal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop and propose a valid and reliable instrument to measure brand equity of CSR driven organizations in Malaysia. An instrument to measure brand equity was constructed with adaptations from two key sources, namely Yew Leh and Lee (2011 and Yoo and Donthu (2001. As such the study only focuses on the development and validation of an instrument to measure brand equity of CSR driven organizations. The usable sample population included 909 respondents from 12 states of West Malaysia which were selected using a quota sampling plan. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and reliability analysis were carried out to test and validate the proposed brand equity instrument containing four components (brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and brand loyalty with a total of 13 items. Results from the CFA and reliability analysis indicated that all the items representing the four components were valid and can be used to measure the brand equity of organizations that are practicing CSR. The study tried to set an empirical basis for brand equity and CSR related research which could be used by future researchers in different industries and geographical locations. The study also implies the need for organizations to assess the success of their CSR efforts through the use of the proposed instrument in order to gauge whether all their CSR efforts translate to improved brand equity.

  17. QNOTE: an instrument for measuring the quality of EHR clinical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Harry B; Hoang, Albert; Becher, Dorothy; Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Stephens, Mark; Pangaro, Louis N; Sessums, Laura L; O'Malley, Patrick; Baxi, Nancy S; Bunt, Christopher W; Capaldi, Vincent F; Chen, Julie M; Cooper, Barbara A; Djuric, David A; Hodge, Joshua A; Kane, Shawn; Magee, Charles; Makary, Zizette R; Mallory, Renee M; Miller, Thomas; Saperstein, Adam; Servey, Jessica; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2014-01-01

    The outpatient clinical note documents the clinician's information collection, problem assessment, and patient management, yet there is currently no validated instrument to measure the quality of the electronic clinical note. This study evaluated the validity of the QNOTE instrument, which assesses 12 elements in the clinical note, for measuring the quality of clinical notes. It also compared its performance with a global instrument that assesses the clinical note as a whole. Retrospective multicenter blinded study of the clinical notes of 100 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had been seen in clinic on at least three occasions. The 300 notes were rated by eight general internal medicine and eight family medicine practicing physicians. The QNOTE instrument scored the quality of the note as the sum of a set of 12 note element scores, and its inter-rater agreement was measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Global instrument scored the note in its entirety, and its inter-rater agreement was measured by the Fleiss κ. The overall QNOTE inter-rater agreement was 0.82 (CI 0.80 to 0.84), and its note quality score was 65 (CI 64 to 66). The Global inter-rater agreement was 0.24 (CI 0.19 to 0.29), and its note quality score was 52 (CI 49 to 55). The QNOTE quality scores were consistent, and the overall QNOTE score was significantly higher than the overall Global score (p=0.04). We found the QNOTE to be a valid instrument for evaluating the quality of electronic clinical notes, and its performance was superior to that of the Global instrument. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. System for calibration of instruments of x-ray measurement (CIR-X) applying the PGCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaytan G, E.; Rivero G, T.; Cruz E, P.; Tovar M, V.M.; Vergara M, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Metrology of Ionizing Radiations of the ININ carries out calibration of instruments for X-ray measurement that determine the operation parameters in X-ray diagnostic machines of the health and private sectors. To facilitate this task, the Department of Automation and Instrumentation developed a system for acquisition and signals processing coming from a reference voltage divider with traceability at NIST that is connected directly to the X-rays tube. The system is integrated by the X-ray unit, the X-ray measurement equipment Dynalizer IIIU of RADCAL, a data acquisition card, a personal computer and the acquisition software and signals processing. (Author)

  19. A Practitioner's Instrument for Measuring Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs Surrounding Learner-Centered Classroom Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischka, Alyson E; Garner, Mary

    In this paper we present the development and validation of a Mathematics Teaching Pedagogical and Discourse Beliefs Instrument (MTPDBI), a 20 item partial-credit survey designed and analyzed using Rasch measurement theory. Items on the MTPDBI address beliefs about the nature of mathematics, teaching and learning mathematics, and classroom discourse practices. A Rasch partial credit model (Masters, 1982) was estimated from the pilot study data. Results show that item separation reliability is .96 and person separation reliability is .71. Other analyses indicate the instrument is a viable measure of secondary teachers' beliefs about reform-oriented mathematics teaching and learning. This instrument is proposed as a useful measure of teacher beliefs for those working with pre-service and in-service teacher development.

  20. A noncontact intraocular pressure measurement device using a micro reflected air pressure sensor for the prediagnosis of glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hwan; Kim, Byeong Hee; Seo, Young Ho

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates a novel, portable tonometer using a micro reflected air pressure sensor for the prediagnosis of glaucoma. Because glaucoma progresses slowly and is not painful, glaucoma patients require a portable prediagnosis system to periodically measure intraocular pressure at home. Conventionally, intraocular pressure is measured by an air-puff tonometer whereby the cornea is deformed by a short pulse of air pressure and the magnitude of the corneal deformation is measured by optic systems such as a combination of laser- and photodiodes. In this study, a micro reflected air pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, and tested in order to measure the magnitude of corneal deformation without optic systems. In an experimental study, artificial eyes with different internal pressures were fabricated and these pressures were measured by the aforementioned system. (paper)

  1. Kinetic characteristics of the gait of a musician carrying or not his instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bolli Mota

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrity of the locomotor system can be compromised by the transport of certain objects, especially when done in an inadequate manner. Due to their weight and size, the transport of musical instruments can contribute to body dysfunctions in musicians who frequently have to carry their instruments, influencing balance andbody posture. Thus, the soil reaction force was investigated during the gait of a musician carrying or not his instrument. Two AMTI (Advanced Mechanical Technologies, Inc. platforms were used for kinetic data acquisition. A total of 40 measurements were obtainedfor gait and balance: 20 without carrying the instrument and 20 while carrying the instrument. The t test showed significant differences between the two situations for all variables analyzed. The results suggest that the locomotor system suffers alterationswhen carrying any kind of load, as was the case here in which the subject carried 7.75% of his own weight.

  2. Sensor for Measuring Hydrogen Partial Pressure in Parabolic Trough Power Plant Expansion Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cooney, Daniel A.

    2017-06-27

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Acciona Energy North America are working together to design and implement a process system that provides a permanent solution to the issue of hydrogen buildup at parabolic trough power plants. We are pursuing a method that selectively removes hydrogen from the expansion tanks that serve as reservoirs for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) that circulates in the collector field and power block components. Our modeling shows that removing hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a design rate reduces and maintains dissolved hydrogen in the circulating HTF to a selected target level. Our collaborative work consists of several tasks that are needed to advance this process concept to a development stage, where it is ready for implementation at a commercial power plant. Our main effort is to design and evaluate likely process-unit operations that remove hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a specified rate. Additionally, we designed and demonstrated a method and instrumentation to measure hydrogen partial pressure and concentration in the expansion-tank headspace gas. We measured hydrogen partial pressure in the headspace gas mixture using a palladium-alloy membrane, which is permeable exclusively to hydrogen. The membrane establishes a pure hydrogen gas phase that is in equilibrium with the hydrogen in the gas mixture. We designed and fabricated instrumentation, and demonstrated its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen partial pressures over a range of three orders of magnitude. Our goal is to install this instrument at the Nevada Solar One power plant and to demonstrate its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen levels in the expansion tanks under normal plant operating conditions.

  3. Intercomparison of active, passive and continuous instruments for radon and radon progeny measurements in the EML chamber and test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Knutson, E.O.; Tu, K.W.; Fisenne, I.M.

    1995-12-01

    The results from the May 1995 Intercomparison of Active, Passive and Continuous Instruments for Radon and Radon Progeny Measurement conducted in the EML radon exposure and test facility are presented. Represented were 13 participants that measure radon with open faced and diffusion barrier activated carbon collectors, 10 with nuclear alpha track detectors, 9 with short-term and long-term electret/ionization chambers, and 13 with active and passive commercial electronic continuous monitors. For radon progeny, there were four participants that came in person to take part in the grab sampling methodology for measuring individual radon progeny and the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC). There were 11 participants with continuous and integrating commercial electronic instruments that are used for measuring the PAEC. The results indicate that all the tested instruments that measure radon fulfill their intended purpose. All instruments and methods used for grab sampling for radon progeny did very well. However, most of the continuous and integrating electronic instruments used for measuring the PAEC or working level appear to underestimate the potential risk from radon progeny when the concentration of particles onto which the radon progeny are attached is -3

  4. Proposals for investigating instrument tube line breaks in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, C.D.; Charlton, T.R.; Loomis, G.G.; Hall, D.G.; Cozzuol, J.M.

    1985-11-01

    Questions posed by the NRC pertaining to instrument tube critical flow and applicability of the Semiscale experimental facility are evaluated. A program is recommended to investigate the issue of generic PWR safety following hypothetical rupture of instrument tubes due to consequences of seismic events

  5. Standard test method for verifying the alignment of X-Ray diffraction instrumentation for residual stress measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the preparation and use of a flat stress-free test specimen for the purpose of checking the systematic error caused by instrument misalignment or sample positioning in X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, or both. 1.2 This test method is applicable to apparatus intended for X-ray diffraction macroscopic residual stress measurement in polycrystalline samples employing measurement of a diffraction peak position in the high-back reflection region, and in which the θ, 2θ, and ψ rotation axes can be made to coincide (see Fig. 1). 1.3 This test method describes the use of iron powder which has been investigated in round-robin studies for the purpose of verifying the alignment of instrumentation intended for stress measurement in ferritic or martensitic steels. To verify instrument alignment prior to stress measurement in other metallic alloys and ceramics, powder having the same or lower diffraction angle as the material to be measured should be prepared in similar fashion...

  6. A Special Fiber Optic Sensor for Measuring Wheel Loads of Vehicles on Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman W. Garrick

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from an investigation on a special optical fiber as a load sensor for application in Weigh-in-Motion (WIM systems to measure wheel loads of vehicles traveling at normal speed on highways. The fiber used has a unique design with two concentric light guiding regions of different effective optical path lengths, which has the potential to enable direct measurement of magnitudes as well as locations of forces acting at multiple points along a single fiber. The optical characteristic of the fiber for intended sensing purpose was first assessed by a simple fiber bending experiment and by correlating the bend radii with the output light signal intensities. A simple laboratory load transmitting/fiber bending device was then designed and fabricated to appropriately bend the optical fiber under applied loads in order to make the fiber work as load sensor. The device with the optical fiber was tested under a universal loading machine and an actual vehicle wheel in the laboratory. The test results showed a good relationship between the magnitude of the applied load and the output optical signal changes. The results also showed a good correlation between the time delay between the inner and outer core light pulses and the distance of the applied load as measured from the output end of the fiber.

  7. Evaluating performance characteristics of x-ray equipment and film systems without the use of electronic measurement and/or special instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.F.; DeNitto, C.; Liscio, A.; Scala, N.

    2004-01-01

    Measurement and control of characteristics of NDT equipment and system that produce output to be interpreted by inspector is one of the most important tools for NDT reliability. Control activity should be based on: initial accurate measurement and calibration; periodical check to assure maintenance of calibration status; and, immediate verification and corrective action when any malfunctioning is suspected. 'Self-calibration' intended as capability of NDT facility to calibrate and control its own equipment and systems is very important for continuous and reliable activity. Typical approach based on this philosophy is ASTM E317 'Standard Practice for Evaluating Performance Characteristics of Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Examination Instruments and Systems Without the Use of Electronic Measurement Instruments' that is applicable to shop or field conditions. Is 'Self-calibration' applicable to radiographic system too? Many characteristics can be self-determined according to existing practices and methods, but other ones require assistance and cooperation of supplier both for film system and x-ray equipment. A certified film system being controlled by pre-exposed filmstrips can be adopted as 'measurement device' for X-ray output concerning both intensity and contrast. Basically x-ray equipment manufacturer performs initial accurate measurement and calibration using electronic measurement and/or special instrumentation as necessary. Then specific film set on 'low-price' blocks and specimens is produced according to standard practice whose guidelines are supplied by this paper. Film set, blocks, specimens and results referred to specific film system will be the reference kit for periodical check in NDT facility. This paper supplies some guidelines for standard practice based on testing using mainly GE Inspection Technologies radiographic system being available in Avio facilities. (author)

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water (approximately40 Tm), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, Tecogen, a division of Thermo Power Corporation, a Thermo Electron company, is developing a real-time, field-deployable, alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (patent pending, to be assigned to the Department of Energy). The Thermo Alpha Monitor (TAM) will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste Focus Area and D and D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This instrument for direct counting of alpha-emitters in aqueous streams is presently being developed by Thermo Power under a development program funded by the DOE Environmental Management program (DOE-EM), administered by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Under this contract, Thermo Power has demonstrated a solid-state, silicon-based semiconductor instrument, which uses a proprietary film-based collection system to quantitatively extract the

  9. Design and Implementation Content Validity Study: Development of an instrument for measuring Patient-Centered Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The importance of content validity in the instrument psychometric and its relevance with reliability, have made it an essential step in the instrument development. This article attempts to give an overview of the content validity process and to explain the complexity of this process by introducing an example. Methods: We carried out a methodological study conducted to examine the content validity of the patient-centered communication instrument through a two-step process (development and judgment. At the first step, domain determination, sampling (item generation and instrument formation and at the second step, content validity ratio, content validity index and modified kappa statistic was performed. Suggestions of expert panel and item impact scores are used to examine the instrument face validity. Results: From a set of 188 items, content validity process identified seven dimensions includes trust building (eight items, informational support (seven items, emotional support (five items, problem solving (seven items, patient activation (10 items, intimacy/friendship (six items and spirituality strengthening (14 items. Content validity study revealed that this instrument enjoys an appropriate level of content validity. The overall content validity index of the instrument using universal agreement approach was low; however, it can be advocated with respect to the high number of content experts that makes consensus difficult and high value of the S-CVI with the average approach, which was equal to 0.93. Conclusion: This article illustrates acceptable quantities indices for content validity a new instrument and outlines them during design and psychometrics of patient-centered communication measuring instrument.

  10. Global limit load solutions for thick-walled cylinders with circumferential cracks under combined internal pressure, axial force and bending moment − Part II: Finite element validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuebing; Lei, Yuebao; Gao, Zengliang

    2014-01-01

    Global limit load solutions for thick-walled cylinders with circumferential internal/external surface and through-wall defects under combined positive/negative axial force, positive/negative global bending moment and internal pressure have been developed in Part I of this paper. In this Part II, elastic-perfectly plastic 3-D finite element (FE) analyses are performed for selected cases, covering a wide range of geometries and load combinations, to validate the developed limit load solutions. The results show that these limit load solutions can predict the FE data very well for the cases with shallow or deep and short cracks and are conservative. For the cases with very long and deep cracks, the predictions are reasonably accurate and more conservative. -- Highlights: • Elastic-perfectly plastic 3D finite element limiting analyses of cylinders. • Thin/thick-walled cylinders with circumferential surface defects. • Combined loading for pressure, end-force and global bending moment. • Totally 1458 cases analysed and tabulated normalised results provided. • Results used to validate the developed limit load solutions in Part I of this paper

  11. Interferometric 30 m bench for calibrations of 1D scales and optical distance measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unkuri, J; Rantanen, A; Manninen, J; Esala, V-P; Lassila, A

    2012-01-01

    During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for calibrations. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When calibrating optical distance measuring instruments, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for calibrations of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy calibrations is 2.6 µm. (paper)

  12. Acoustic emission measurements at the pressure vessel ZB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirbonod, B.; Hanacek, L.

    1990-01-01

    The work presented here is the Swiss contribution to the project 'Zwischenbehaelter 2 (ZB2)' hosted by the 'Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie' of the Federal Republic of Germany. One of the crack-like defects introduced at the inside surface of the thick-walled pressure vessel ZB2 was locally monitored by acoustic emission. The measurement system was broadband (0.5 - 5 MHz) and allowed a threedimensional location of the source. The vessel was subjected to different tests. Signals were recorded during the second series of hydrotests, fast pressure cycles and fatigue test at 50 C. About 1 signal per hydrotest or cycle was recorded. For the hydrotests the signals were recorded generally at loading in the intermediate range of pressure; the sources were located in the artificial defect. Recurrent and non recurrent signals were recorded during the fatigue test. At loading, signals were captured up to the maximum pressure and for the recurrent signals at well defined pressure ranges. All the sources (except one, located in the base material ahead of the artificial defect) were situated in the artificial defect. The pressure and location depended on the loading phase and on the cycle range. The measurements were discussed by describing the signals by measurement, signal and source parameters. The goal was to identify the source mechanism and to assess the growth of the defect. For the hydrotests the identification of the mechanism at loading remains open. For the fatigue test the source situated in the base material was attributed to a primary mechanism; this source could assess the growth of the defect on the basis of linear elastic fracture mechanics. A secondary mechanism was suggested for recurrent sources active at loading. For all the tests, the sources active at unloading were attributed to a secondary mechanism. (author)

  13. Fibre optical measuring network based on quasi-distributed amplitude sensors for detecting deformation loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kul'chin, Yurii N; Kolchinskiy, V A; Kamenev, O T; Petrov, Yu S

    2013-01-01

    A new design of a sensitive element for a fibre optical sensor of deformation loads is proposed. A distributed fibre optical measuring network, aimed at determining both the load application point and the load mass, has been developed based on these elements. It is shown that neural network methods of data processing make it possible to combine quasi-distributed amplitude sensors of different types into a unified network. The results of the experimental study of a breadboard of a fibre optical measuring network are reported, which demonstrate successful reconstruction of the trajectory of a moving object (load) with a spatial resolution of 8 cm, as well as the load mass in the range of 1 – 10 kg with a sensitivity of 0.043 kg -1 . (laser optics 2012)

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING THE UNDERSTANDING OF PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCCORMICK, FLOYD G.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DEVELOP AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES IN FARM MANAGEMENT WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE. PRINCIPLES WERE IDENTIFIED FROM LITERATURE SELECTED BY AGRICULTURAL ECONOMISTS. FORTY-FIVE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS WERE REFINED ON THE BASIS OF RESULTS OF THREE PRETESTS AND…

  15. Urethral pressure reflectometry. A method for simultaneous measurements of pressure and cross-sectional area in the female urethra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Niels

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique for simultaneous measurements of pressure and cross-sectional area (CA) in the female urethra, denoted Urethral Pressure Reflectometry (UPR), was devised. A very thin and highly flexible polyurethane-bag was placed in the urethra. A pump applied increasing and decreasing pressur...

  16. Limit loads for piping branch junctions under internal pressure and in-plane bending-Extended solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun-Jae; Lee, Kuk-Hee; Park, Chi-Yong

    2008-01-01

    The authors have previously proposed plastic limit load solutions for thin-walled branch junctions under internal pressure and in-plane bending, based on finite element (FE) limit loads resulting from three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials [Kim YJ, Lee KH, Park CY. Limit loads for thin-walled piping branch junctions under internal pressure and in-plane bending. Int J Press Vessels Piping 2006;83:645-53]. The solutions are valid for ratios of the branch-to-run pipe radius and thickness from 0.4 to 1.0, and for the mean radius-to-thickness ratio of the run pipe from 10.0 to 20.0. Moreover, the solutions considered the case of in-plane bending only on the branch pipe. This paper extends the previous solutions in two aspects. Firstly, plastic limit load solutions are given also for in-plane bending on the run pipe. Secondly, the validity of the proposed solutions is extended to ratios of the branch-to-run pipe radius and thickness from 0.0 to 1.0, and the mean radius-to-thickness ratio of the run pipe from 5.0 to 20.0. Comparisons with FE results show good agreement

  17. Mobile CARS - IRS Instrument for Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurement of Multiple Properties in Gaseous Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivolaru, Daniel; Lee, Joseph W.; Jones, Stephen B.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Weikl, M. C.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement system based on the dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) methods. The IRS measurement is performed simultaneously with the CARS measurement using a common green laser beam as a narrow-band light source. The mobile CARS-IRS instrument is designed for the use both in laboratories as well as in ground-based combustion test facilities. Furthermore, it is designed to be easily transported between laboratory and test facility. It performs single-point spatially and temporally resolved simultaneous measurements of temperature, species mole fraction of N2, O2, and H2, and two-components of velocity. A mobile laser system can be placed inside or outside the test facility, while a beam receiving and monitoring system is placed near the measurement location. Measurements in a laboratory small-scale Mach 1.6 H2-air combustion-heated supersonic jet were performed to test the capability of the system. Final setup and pretests of a larger scale reacting jet are ongoing at NASA Langley Research Center s Direct Connect Supersonic Combustor Test Facility (DCSCTF).

  18. Differential pressure distribution measurement for the development of insect-sized wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of the differential pressure distribution over a flat, thin wing using a micro-electro-mechanical systems sensor. Sensors featuring a piezoresistive cantilever were attached to a polyimide/Cu wing. Because the weight of the cantilever element was less than 10 ng, the sensor can measure the differential pressure without interference from inertial forces, such as wing flapping motions. The dimensions of the sensor chips and the wing were 1.0 mm × 1.0 mm × 0.3 mm and 100 mm × 30 mm × 1 mm, respectively. The differential pressure distribution along the wing's chord direction was measured in a wind tunnel at an air velocity of 4.0 m s –1 by changing the angle of attack. It was confirmed that the pressure coefficient calculated by the measured differential pressure distribution was similar to the value measured by a load cell. (paper)

  19. A novel experimental mechanics method for measuring the light pressure acting on a solar sail membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Aiming; Jiang, Li; Dowell, Earl H.; Qin, Zhixuan

    2017-02-01

    Solar sail is a high potential `sailing craft' for interstellar exploration. The area of the first flight solar sail demonstrator named "IKAROS" is 200 square meters. Future interplanetary missions will require solar sails at least on the order of 10000 square meters (or larger). Due to the limitation of ground facilities, the size of experimental sample should not be large. Furthermore the ground experiments have to be conducted in gravitational field, so the gravity effect must be considered in a ground test. To obtain insight into the solar sail membrane dynamics, a key membrane flutter (or limit cycle oscillations) experiment with light forces acting on it must be done. But one big challenge is calibrating such a tiny light force by as a function of the input power. In this paper, a gravity-based measuring method for light pressure acting on membrane is presented. To explain the experimental principle, an ideal example of a laser beam with expanders and a metal film is studied. Based on calculations, this experimental mechanics method for calibrating light pressure with an accuracy of 0.01 micro-Newton may be realized by making the light force balance the gravity force on the metal films. This gravity-based measuring method could not only be applied to study the dynamics characteristics of solar sail membrane structure with different light forces, but could also be used to determine more accurate light forces/loads acting on solar sail films and hence to enhance the determination of the mechanical properties of the solar sail membrane structure.

  20. Radioisotope instrument for measuring the position of interface of two liquid media with similar density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, V.N.; Kolyada, A.N.; Krejndlin, I.I.; Pakhunkov, Yu.I.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma level indicator is developed for automatic and continuous remote measuring the location of the interface of two liquids with close densities in closed and open containers. The density of the upper (light) medium is 1.0-1.2 g/cm 3 . The instrument incorporates a transmitter-receiver unit, a relay regulator, a power amplifier and a secondary instrument. The operating principle of the level indicator is based on the detection of gamma-radiation scattered by a controlled medium; the alternations in gamma radiation flux serve to automatically set the transmitter-receiver unit on the interface of two media. The specially developed small transmitter-receiver with an Am 241 gamma radiation source is very sensible to little medium density changes and stable against perturbing factor action. The level indicator developed may be used to measure and regulate the level of liquid contacting with an air (gas) medium. The specifications of the instrument are presented

  1. Instruments to measure behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Rianne M; Stephan, Blossom C M; Dening, Tom; Brayne, Carol

    2014-03-01

    Reliable and valid measurement of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is important for research and clinical practice. Here we provide an overview of the different instruments and discuss issues involved in the choice of the most appropriate instrument to measure BPSD in research. A list of BPSD instruments was generated. For each instrument Pubmed and SCOPUS were searched for articles that reported on their use or quality. Eighty-three instruments that are used to measure BPSD were identified. Instruments differ in length and detail, whether the interview is with participants, informants or by observation, the target sample and the time frames for use. Reliability and validity is generally good, but reported in few independent samples. When choosing a BPSD instrument for research the research question should be carefully scrutinised and the symptoms of interest, population, quality, detail, time frame and practical issues should be considered. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Trends of reactive hyperaemia responses to repetitive loading on skin tissue of rats - Implications for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapp, Jong-Heng; Kamil, Raja; Rozi, M; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Loqman, M Y; Ezamin, A R; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Abu Bakar, Zuki

    2017-08-01

    Tissue recovery is important in preventing tissue deterioration, which is induced by pressure and may lead to pressure ulcers (PU). Reactive hyperaemia (RH) is an indicator used to identify people at risk of PU. In this study, the effect of different recovery times on RH trend is investigated during repetitive loading. Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats (seven per group), with body weight of 385-485 g, were categorised into three groups and subjected to different recovery times with three repetitive loading cycles. The first, second, and third groups were subjected to short (3 min), moderate (10 min), and prolonged (40 min) recovery, respectively, while fixed loading time and pressure (10 min and 50 mmHg, respectively). Peak hyperaemia was measured in the three cycles to determine trends associated with different recovery times. Three RH trends (increasing, decreasing, and inconsistent) were observed. As the recovery time is increased (3 min vs. 10 min vs. 40 min), the number of samples with increasing RH trend decreases (57% vs. 29% vs. 14%) and the number of samples with inconsistent RH trend increases (29% vs. 57% vs. 72%). All groups consists of one sample with decreasing RH trend (14%). Results confirm that different recovery times affect the RH trend during repetitive loading. The RH trend may be used to determine the sufficient recovery time of an individual to avoid PU development. Copyright © 2017 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Core outcome measurement instruments for clinical trials in non-specific low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiarotto, Alessandro; Boers, Maarten; Deyo, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Disability Index version 2.1a (ODI 2.1a) for physical functioning (78% agreement) and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for pain intensity (75% agreement). No consensus was achieved on any HRQoL instrument, although the Short Form 12 (SF12) approached the consensus threshold (64% agreement). In Round 2...... COSMIN methodology. Researchers, clinicians and patients (n = 207) were invited in a two-round Delphi survey to generate consensus ( ≥ 67% agreement among participants) on which instruments to endorse. Response rates were 44% and 41%, respectively. In Round 1, consensus was achieved on the Oswestry......, consensus was reached on a NRS version with a 1-week recall period (96% agreement). Various participants requested one free-to-use instrument per domain. Considering all issues together, recommendations on core instruments were formulated: ODI 2.1a or 24-item Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire...

  4. Instrument for bone mineral measurement using a microprocessor as the control and arithmetic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.; Hardy, W.H. II.

    1975-11-01

    A self-contained instrument for the determination of bone mineral content by photon absorptometry is described. A high-resolution detection system allows measurements to be made at up to 16 photon energies. Control and arithmetic functions are performed by a microprocessor. Analysis capability and limitations are discussed

  5. A fiber-optic technique for the measurement of contact angle in a clearance-fit pin-loaded hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, R.; Naik, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    A fiber-optic technique for measuring contact angle during pin loading of a specimen is proposed. The experimental design and procedures for loading a 49.8-mm-diameter instrumented pin into an quasi-isotropic graphite-epoxy specimen are described. The optical fiber was located just above the surface of the pin outer diameter in order to obtain accurate pin-hole contact-angle measurements at increasing load levels. The movement of the optical fiber through the no-contact, contact, and no-contact regions is discussed; the photodiode output decreased monotonically as the fiber moved from the no-contact to the contact region and then decreased monotonically as the fiber moved from the contact region to the no-contact region. Variations in the contact angle measurements are examined as function of applied load level. The measurements are compared to contact angle values obtained using a finite element analysis and an electrical technique; it is determined that the data correlate well.

  6. Strategies for Successfully Teaching Students with ADD or ADHD in Instrumental Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melago, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers can easily encounter students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the instrumental lesson setting. Applicable to instrumental lesson settings in the public or private schools, private studios, or college studios, this article focuses on specific strategies ranging from the…

  7. Instrument for ultrasonic measurement of physical quantities of flowing media, especially the flow velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thun, N.; Brown, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    The invention is based on the task to present an instrument for ultrasonic measurement of flow velocities with high accuracy which may be produced substantially cheaper because of the use of a simple circuit design and normal components. The task is solved according to the invention by connecting the output of the first signal level transmitter as main signal and the output of the second signal level transmitter as auxiliary signal with a summing circuit forming a control signal by adding and/or subtracting the auxiliary signal to/from the main signal and providing for a switch, controlled by the transmitting direction, causing alternatingly two different delay times for the reference signal to become effective. (orig./RW) [de

  8. Non-destructive residual pressure self-measurement method for the sensing chip of optical Fabry-Perot pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Xuezhi; Xiao, Mengnan; Xiao, Hai; Liu, Tiegen

    2017-12-11

    We introduce a simple residual pressure self-measurement method for the Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity of optical MEMS pressure sensor. No extra installation is required and the structure of the sensor is unchanged. In the method, the relationship between residual pressure and external pressure under the same diaphragm deflection condition at different temperatures is analyzed by using the deflection formula of the circular plate with clamped edges and the ideal gas law. Based on this, the residual pressure under the flat condition can be obtained by pressure scanning process and calculation process. We carried out the experiment to compare the residual pressures of two batches MEMS sensors fabricated by two kinds of bonding process. The measurement result indicates that our approach is reliable enough for the measurement.

  9. Laminate for use in instrument dials or hands and method of making laminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westland, J.M.; Crowther, A.

    1981-01-01

    A translucent sheet of PVC has a coating e.g. of black ink or luminous material, with apertures and optionally luminous or non-luminous indicia. Behind the apertures there are tritium-activated luminous indicia or markings which are covered by an opaque white sheet. A self-adhesive protective film may be temporarily applied to the coating. The laminated structure may be used for faces or hands in time-pieces or other instruments. The use of the white sheet and protective film prevents operatives coming into contact with luminous materials. (author)

  10. Assessment of Customer Service in Academic Health Care Libraries (ACSAHL): an instrument for measuring customer service*†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossno, Jon E.; Berkins, Brenda; Gotcher, Nancy; Hill, Judith L.; McConoughey, Michelle; Walters, Mitchel

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: In a pilot study, the library had good results using SERVQUAL, a respected and often-used instrument for measuring customer satisfaction. The SERVQUAL instrument itself, however, received some serious and well-founded criticism from the respondents to our survey. The purpose of this study was to test the comparability of the results of SERVQUAL with a revised and shortened instrument modeled on SERVQUAL. The revised instrument, the Assessment of Customer Service in Academic Health Care Libraries (ACSAHL), was designed to better assess customer service in academic health care libraries. Methods: Surveys were sent to clients who had used the document delivery services at three academic medical libraries in Texas over the previous twelve to eighteen months. ACSAHL surveys were sent exclusively to clients at University of Texas (UT) Southwestern, while the client pools at the two other institutions were randomly divided and provided either SERVQUAL or ACSAHL surveys. Results: Results indicated that more respondents preferred the shorter ACSAHL instrument to the longer and more complex SERVQUAL instrument. Also, comparing the scores from both surveys indicated that ACSAHL elicited comparable results. Conclusions: ACSAHL appears to measure the same type of data in similar settings, but additional testing is recommended both to confirm the survey's results through data replication and to investigate whether the instrument applies to different service areas. PMID:11337948

  11. Pressure optimization of an EC-QCL based cavity ring-down spectroscopy instrument for exhaled NO detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Han, Yanling; Li, Bincheng

    2018-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled breath has gained increasing interest in recent years mainly driven by the clinical need to monitor inflammatory status in respiratory disorders, such as asthma and other pulmonary conditions. Mid-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) using an external cavity, widely tunable continuous-wave quantum cascade laser operating at 5.3 µm was employed for NO detection. The detection pressure was reduced in steps to improve the sensitivity, and the optimal pressure was determined to be 15 kPa based on the fitting residual analysis of measured absorption spectra. A detection limit (1σ, or one time of standard deviation) of 0.41 ppb was experimentally achieved for NO detection in human breath under the optimized condition in a total of 60 s acquisition time (2 s per data point). Diurnal measurement session was conducted for exhaled NO. The experimental results indicated that mid-infrared CRDS technique has great potential for various applications in health diagnosis.

  12. Microcontroller based, ore grade measuring portable instruments for uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dheeraj Reddy, J.; Narender Reddy, J.

    2004-01-01

    Ore Face Scanning and Bore Hole Logging are important essential activities which are required to be carried out in any Uranium mining industry. Microcontroller based, portable instruments with built-in powerful embedded code for data acquisition (of Radiation counts) and Ore Grade calculations will become a handy measuring tool for miners. Nucleonix Systems has recently developed and made these two portable instruments available to UCIL, which are under use at Jaduguda and Narvapahar mines. Some of the important features of these systems are compact, light weight, portable, hand held, battery powered. Modes of Data Acquisition: CPS, CPM and ORE GRADE. Detector: Sensitive GM Tube. Choice of Adj. TC (Time Constant) in 'ORE GRADE', acquisition mode. Built-in automatic BG (Background) recording and subtraction provided to indicate net CPS, CPM or ore GRADE in PPM. Can store 1000 readings at users choice. Built-in RS232 serial port facilitates data downloading into PC. This paper focuses on design concepts and technical details for the above two products. (author)

  13. Microprocessor-controlled data-acquisition instrument for neutron-activation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a microprocessor controlled data acquisition instrument designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to provide experimenters with a diagnostic tool for measuring the performance of laser imploded fusion targets via neutron activation techniques. This instrument features the ability to count four independent inputs simultaneously while providing a front panel readout of these inputs, plus a time of day clock. A hardcopy printout of the data is also provided by a built-in thermal printer. All running modes and parameters are user selectable via a front panel keypad, and a complete set of internal self-testing diagnostics are available for debug

  14. An instrument for measurement of 125I with automatic efficiency correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holford, R.M.

    1979-10-01

    Counting efficiencies for 125 I are often uncertain because of self-absorption of the low-energy radiation. A special purpose instrument, AEP-5285, has been designed to simplify the measurement of 125 I activities using a known technique in which the observed counting rate is compensated for self-absorption and any other uncertainties in the counting efficiency by making use of the coicidence properties of the radiation. The instrument contains pulse amplifiers, discriminators to define the energy regions of interest, and operational amplifier circuits to perform the necessary calculations automatically, and it displays an estimate of the source activity in becquerels. (auth)

  15. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 5: Density and liquid level measurement instrumentation for the cryogenic fluids oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    Information is presented on instrumentation for density measurement, liquid level measurement, quantity gauging, and phase measurement. Coverage of existing information directly concerned with oxygen was given primary emphasis. A description of the physical principle of measurement for each instrumentation type is included. The basic materials of construction are listed if available from the source document for each instrument discussed. Cleaning requirements, procedures, and verification techniques are included.

  16. Development of performance assessment instrument based contextual learning for measuring students laboratory skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilaningsih, E.; Khotimah, K.; Nurhayati, S.

    2018-04-01

    The assessment of laboratory skill in general hasn’t specific guideline in assessment, while the individual assessment of students during a performance and skill in performing laboratory is still not been observed and measured properly. Alternative assessment that can be used to measure student laboratory skill is use performance assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the performance assessment instrument that the result of research can be used to assess basic skills student laboratory. This research was conducted by the Research and Development. The result of the data analysis performance assessment instruments developed feasible to implement and validation result 62.5 with very good categories for observation sheets laboratory skills and all of the components with the very good category. The procedure is the preliminary stages of research and development stages. Preliminary stages are divided in two, namely the field studies and literature studies. The development stages are divided into several parts, namely 1) development of the type instrument, 2) validation by an expert, 3) a limited scale trial, 4) large-scale trials and 5) implementation of the product. The instrument included in the category of effective because 26 from 29 students have very high laboratory skill and high laboratory skill. The research of performance assessment instrument is standard and can be used to assess basic skill student laboratory.

  17. Measuring Cognitive Load in Embodied Learning Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulmowski, Alexander; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education) in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1) Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2) recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3) the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4) meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning.

  18. Measuring Cognitive Load in Embodied Learning Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Skulmowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1 Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2 recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3 the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4 meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning.

  19. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Instrumentation and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gerstl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For a proper design of the cryogenic layout of superconducting insertion devices it is necessary to take into account the heat load from the beam to the cold beam tube. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG has been built. COLDDIAG is designed in a flexible way, to allow its installation in different light sources. In order to study the beam heat load and the influence of the cryosorbed gas layer, the instrumentation comprises temperature sensors, pressure gauges, and mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers with which it is possible to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. In this paper we describe the experimental equipment, the installation of COLDDIAG in the Diamond Light Source and selected examples of the measurements performed to show the capabilities of this unique instrument.

  20. Impact of instrument response variations on health physics measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armantrout, G.A.

    1984-10-01

    Uncertainties in estimating the potential health impact of a given radiation exposure include instrument measurement error in determining exposure and difficulty in relating this exposure to an effective dose value. Instrument error can be due to design or manufacturing deficiencies, limitations of the sensing element used, and calibration and maintenance of the instrument. This paper evaluates the errors which can be introduced by design deficiencies and limitations of the sensing element for a wide variety of commonly used survey instruments. The results indicate little difference among sensing element choice for general survey work, with variations among specific instrument designs being the major factor. Ion chamber instruments tend to be the best for all around use, while scintillator-based units should not be used where accurate measurements are required. The need to properly calibrate and maintain an instrument appears to be the most important factor in instrument accuracy. 8 references, 6 tables

  1. Low glycaemic index, or low glycaemic load, diets for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Diana; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2009-01-21

    The aim of diabetes management is to normalise blood glucose levels, since improved blood glucose control is associated with reduction in development, and progression, of complications. Nutritional factors affect blood glucose levels, however there is currently no universal approach to the optimal dietary treatment for diabetes. There is controversy about how useful the glycaemic index (GI) is in diabetic meal planning. Improved glycaemic control through diet could minimise medications, lessen risk of diabetic complications, improve quality of life and increase life expectancy. To assess the effects of low glycaemic index, or low glycaemic load, diets on glycaemic control in people with diabetes. We performed electronic searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL with no language restriction. We assessed randomised controlled trials of four weeks or longer that compared a low glycaemic index, or low glycaemic load, diet with a higher glycaemic index, or load, or other diet for people with either type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, whose diabetes was not already optimally controlled. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study population, intervention and outcomes for each included study, using standardised data extraction forms. Eleven relevant randomised controlled trials involving 402 participants were identified. There was a significant decrease in the glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) parallel group of trials, the weighted mean difference (WMD) was -0.5% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of - 0.9 to -0.1, P = 0.02; and in the cross-over group of trials the WMD was -0.5% with a 95% CI of -1.0 to -0.1, P = 0.03. Episodes of hypoglycaemia were significantly fewer with low compared to high GI diet in one trial (difference of -0.8 episodes per patient per month, P low-GI diet compared to measured carbohydrate exchange diet in another study (35% versus 66%, P = 0.006). No study reported on mortality, morbidity or costs. A low-GI diet can improve

  2. The manometric sorptomat—an innovative volumetric instrument for sorption measurements performed under isobaric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudasik, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    The present paper discusses the concept of measuring the process of sorption by means of the volumetric method, developed in such a way as to allow measurements performed under isobaric conditions. On the basis of the concept in question, a prototype of a sorption instrument was built: the manometric sorptomat. The paper provides a detailed description of the idea of the instrument, and of the way it works. In order to evaluate the usefulness of the device in sorption measurements carried out under laboratory conditions, comparative studies were conducted, during which the results of sorption measurements obtained with the developed instrument were compared with the results Mateusz obtained with a reference device. The objects of comparison were the sorption capacities of hard coal samples, calculated on the basis of the established courses of the methane sorption process. The results were regarded as compatible if the compared values fell within the range of the measurement uncertainty of the two devices. For the sake of the comparative studies, fifteen granular samples of hard coal—representing the 0.20–0.25 mm grain fraction and coming from various mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin—were used. After comparing the results obtained with the original manometric sorptomat with the results obtained with the gravimetric reference device, it was observed that the compatibility of measurements of sorption capacities was over 90%, based on the defined criterion of the measurement compatibility. (paper)

  3. Is playing string or wind musical instruments a risk factor for temporomandibular dysfunction? A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Medical problems specifically affecting professional musicians are commonly mentioned in the literature. The present study is aimed to evaluate, through a systematic review, the possible association between the practice of string with bow and wind musical instruments and the occurrence of Temporomandibular Dysfunction (TMD. Methods. The search for articles was conducted in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Lilacs, Cochrane Library, and Open Gray databases, and there was no restriction on language or date of publication. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines were followed. The MeSH terms used were: “music”; “temporomandibular joint”; “temporomandibular joint disorders”; “temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome”; and “occupational diseases”. Cross-sectional studies, case-control, cohort and clinical trials were included that involved the practice of string with bow and wind musical instruments and the occurrence of Temporomandibular Dysfunction (TMD. Articles were previously selected by title and abstract. Qualitative evaluation was done through the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results. The literature search identified 732 studies, of which 10 met the inclusion criteria, nine of them cross-sectional studies and one a clinical intervention study. The TMD prevalence ranged from 47.0% to 89.0%. Recruitment of participants took place in professional schools and orchestras, and in bands of professional musicians. All studies reported associations between TMD and the practice of musical instruments, and violinists presented higher prevalence rates when compared to other instrument groups. Conclusion. All studies pointed to a possible association between TMD and the practice of string and wind musical instruments. More longitudinal and clinical trials studies are needed to verify any possible interrelationship.

  4. Model for determining the load or carrying capacity of rivers and riverbanks for recreational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero, I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to determine the load or functional carrying capacity for the assimilation and recovery of rivers and riverbanks by compiling information on the environment, and to assess the potential for recreation from the environmental and scenic point of view. We set out to find the most significant basis for analysing the pressures limiting carrying capacity and constraining the demand for recreational use. This methodology will help planners and legislators in their decision-making. We also propose a methodology for assessing the recreational use of riverbanks, tested in a number of sites in the Madrid Region, in terms of the satisfaction the activity produces in the users, and the load or carrying capacity of the surrounding environment. A pilot site assessment is presented as a validation of the proposed methodology.El objetivo de este artículo es, determinar la capacidad de carga o acogida funcional, de asimilación y de recuperación de los márgenes y los cursos fluviales mediante la recopilación de información del medio; el potencial recreativo se evalúa además desde un doble punto de vista: ecológico y paisajístico. La forma en que se enfoca el problema y se presenta la metodología y los resultados puede resultar de gran utilidad para planificadores y legisladores. La metodología propuesta para valorar el uso recreativo de los márgenes fluviales, se aplica a una serie de parcelas en la Comunidad de Madrid, teniendo en cuenta la satisfacción que la actividad produce en los usuarios, y la capacidad de carga o acogida del entorno en el que se desarrollan. Como resultado, se presenta la valoración de parcelas piloto, que servirían para validar la metodología propuesta. [fr] Le but de cet article est, déterminer la capacité de charge ou réception fonctionnelle, l’assimilation et rétablissement des marges et les cours de la rivière par le biais de la collecte d’informations de l’environnement: le

  5. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI: design, execution, and early results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. M. Piters

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI. The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-of-the-art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing, and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent

  6. A minimally invasive in-fiber Bragg grating sensor for intervertebral disc pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, Christopher R; Wild, Peter M; Wilson, David R; Cripton, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    We present an in-fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based intervertebral disc (IVD) pressure sensor that has pressure sensitivity seven times greater than that of a bare fiber, and a major diameter and sensing area of only 400 µm and 0.03 mm 2 , respectively. This is the only optical, the smallest and the most mechanically compliant disc pressure sensor reported in the literature. This is also an improvement over other FBG pressure sensors that achieve increased sensitivity through mechanical amplification schemes, usually resulting in major diameters and sensing lengths of many millimeters. Sensor sensitivity is predicted using numerical models, and the predicted sensitivity is verified through experimental calibrations. The sensor is validated by conducting IVD pressure measurements in porcine discs and comparing the FBG measurements to those obtained using the current standard sensor for IVD pressure. The predicted sensitivity of the FBG sensor matched with that measured experimentally. IVD pressure measurements showed excellent repeatability and agreement with those obtained from the standard sensor. Unlike the current larger sensors, the FBG sensor could be used in discs with small disc height (i.e. cervical or degenerated discs). Therefore, there is potential to conduct new measurements that could lead to new understanding of the biomechanics

  7. A Structured Review of Generic and Specific Instruments for Measuring the Subjectively Assessed Quality of Life of Seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kacmarova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to offer a review of the instruments designed for measuring the subjectively assessed quality of life of seniors. At present it is possible to notice an increase of interest in the issue of the quality of life of specific groups of population; in addition, there is a large number of tools for its measuring. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic review of generic and specific instruments for measuring quality of life of seniors which have been published in peer-reviewed journals and whose psychometric parameters have been verified. The search procedure formed a part of a larger retrieval search in which we analyzed 4829 abstracts in EBSCO and ProQuest Central full-text databases. We found 831 instruments which claimed to be measuring quality of life and were verified their reliability or validity. We identified 3 groups of instruments suitable for use in the senior age-group: generic methodologies applicable to adults in general, 7 generic tools and 9 specific tools designed exclusively for the senior age. The paper presents the measures designed for seniors who were analyzed and compared with regard to their psychometric parameters, purpose and theoretical framework utilized for their construction. In conclusion the authors of the study provide recommendations for the use of the selected methodologies for measuring the subjectively assessed quality of life of seniors.

  8. Acoustic emission measurement during instrumented impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crostack, H.A.; Engelhardt, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Results of instrumented impact tests are discussed. On the one hand the development of the loading process at the hammer tup was recorded by means of a piezoelectric transducer. This instrumentation supplied a better representation of the load versus time than the conventional strain gauges. On the other hand the different types of acoustic emission occurring during a test could be separated. The acoustic emission released at the impact of the hammer onto the specimen is of lower frequency and its spectrum is strongly decreasing with increasing frequency. Plastic deformation also emits signals of lower frequency that are of quasi-continuous character. Both signal types can be discriminated by filtering. As a consequence typical burst signal were received afterwards that can be correlated with crack propagation. Their spectra exhibit considerable portions up to about 1.9 MHz. The development in time of the burst signals points to the kind of crack propagation resp. its sequence of appearance. However, definitive comparison between load and acoustic emission should become possible, only when the disadvantages of the common load measurement can be reduced, e.g. by determining the load directly at the specimen instead of the hammer tup

  9. Portable dynamic light scattering instrument and method for the measurement of blood platelet suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth; Brown, Keddie; Labrie, Audrey; Marziali, Andre; Glatter, Otto

    2006-01-01

    No routine test exists to determine the quality of blood platelet transfusions although every year millions of patients require platelet transfusions to survive cancer chemotherapy, surgery or trauma. A new, portable dynamic light scattering instrument is described that is suitable for the measurement of turbid solutions of large particles under temperature-controlled conditions. The challenges of small sample size, short light path through the sample and accurate temperature control have been solved with a specially designed temperature-controlled sample holder for small diameter, disposable capillaries. Efficient heating and cooling is achieved with Peltier elements in direct contact with the sample capillary. Focusing optical fibres are used for light delivery and collection of scattered light. The practical use of this new technique was shown by the reproducible measurement of latex microspheres and the temperature-induced morphological changes of human blood platelets. The measured parameters for platelet transfusions are platelet size, number of platelet-derived microparticles and the response of platelets to temperature changes. This three-dimensional analysis provides a high degree of confidence for the determination of platelet quality. The experimental data are compared to a matrix and facilitate automated, unbiased quality testing

  10. Introduction to instrumentation and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Weighing in on the growth of innovative technologies, the adoption of new standards, and the lack of educational development as it relates to current and emerging applications, the third edition of Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements uses the authors' 40 years of teaching experience to expound on the theory, science, and art of modern instrumentation and measurements (I&M). What's New in This Edition: This edition includes material on modern integrated circuit (IC) and photonic sensors, micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) and nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) sensors, chemical and radiation sensors, signal conditioning, noise, data interfaces, and basic digital signal processing (DSP), and upgrades every chapter with the latest advancements. It contains new material on the designs of micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) sensors, adds two new chapters on wireless instrumentation and microsensors, and incorporates extensive biomedical examples and problems. Containing 13 chapters, this third edition: Describ...

  11. An evaluation of Brix refractometry instruments for measurement of colostrum quality in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmann, V; Gillan, J; Perkins, N R; Skidmore, A L; Godden, S; Leslie, K E

    2010-08-01

    Acquisition of high quality colostrum is an important factor influencing neonatal calf health. Many methods have been used to assess the Ig concentration of colostrum; however, improved, validated evaluation tools are needed. The aims of this study were to evaluate both optical and digital Brix refractometer instruments for the measurement of Ig concentration of colostrum as compared with the gold standard radial immunodiffusion assay laboratory assessment and to determine the correlation between Ig measurements taken from fresh and frozen colostrum samples for both Brix refractometer instruments. This research was completed using 288 colostrum samples from 3 different farms. It was concluded that the optical and digital Brix refractometers were highly correlated for both fresh and frozen samples (r=0.98 and r=0.97, respectively). Correlation between both refractometer instruments for fresh and frozen samples and the gold standard radial immunodiffusion assay were determined to be very similar, with a correlation coefficient between 0.71 and 0.74. Both instruments exhibited excellent test characteristics, indicating an appropriate cut-off point of 22% Brix score for the identification of good quality colostrum. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Final Report: Wireless Instrument for Automated Measurement of Clean Cookstove Usage and Black Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukac, Martin [Cirrus Sense LLC, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ramanathan, Nithya [Cirrus Sense LLC, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Graham, Eric [Cirrus Sense LLC, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2013-09-10

    Black carbon (BC) emissions from traditional cooking fires and other sources are significant anthropogenic drivers of radiative forcing. Clean cookstoves present a more energy-efficient and cleaner-burning vehicle for cooking than traditional wood-burning stoves, yet many existing cookstoves reduce emissions by only modest amounts. Further research into cookstove use, fuel types, and verification of emissions is needed as adoption rates for such stoves remain low. Accelerated innovation requires techniques for measuring and verifying such cookstove performance. The overarching goal of the proposed program was to develop a low-cost, wireless instrument to provide a high-resolution profile of the cookstove BC emissions and usage in the field. We proposed transferring the complexity of analysis away from the sampling hardware at the measurement site and to software at a centrally located server to easily analyze data from thousands of sampling instruments. We were able to build a low-cost field-based instrument that produces repeatable, low-cost estimates of cookstove usage, fuel estimates, and emission values with low variability. Emission values from our instrument were consistent with published ranges of emissions for similar stove and fuel types.

  13. Software System for the Calibration of X-Ray Measuring Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaytan-Gallardo, E.; Tovar-Munoz, V. M.; Cruz-Estrada, P.; Vergara-Martinez, F. J.; Rivero-Gutierrez, T.

    2006-01-01

    A software system that facilities the calibration of X-ray measuring instruments used in medical applications is presented. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Nuclear Research National Institute in Mexico (ININ in Spanish), supports activities concerning with ionizing radiations in medical area. One of these activities is the calibration of X-ray measuring instruments, in terms of air kerma or exposure by substitution method in an X-ray beam at a point where the rate has been determined by means of a standard ionization chamber. To automatize this process, a software system has been developed, the calibration system is composed by an X-ray unit, a Dynalizer IIIU X-ray meter by RADCAL, a commercial data acquisition card, the software system and the units to be tested and calibrated. A quality control plan has been applied in the development of the software system, ensuring that quality assurance procedures and standards are being followed

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    Thermo Power Corporation has proven the technical viability of an on-line, real-time alpha radionuclide instrument for aqueous sample analysis through laboratory and initial field tests of the instrument. The instrument has been shown to be isotonically sensitive to extremely low (ten parts per trillion, or femto Curies per liter) levels of a broad range of radioisotopes. Performance enhancement and other scaling data obtained during the course of this investigation have shown that on-line, real-time operation is possible, with a sub 30-minute response time analyzing 20 ppb (30 pCi/1) natural uranium. Now that these initial field tests in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have been successfully completed, Thermo Power plans to conduct comprehensive field tests of the instrument. The purpose of these endurance tests will be to determine the endurance characteristics of the Thermo Alpha Monitor for Water when it is used by non-Thermo Power personnel in a series of one or more extended field tests. Such endurance testing is the vital next step towards the commercialization of the Alpha Monitor. Subsequently, it will be possible to provide the DOE with an instrument that has the capability of obtaining rapid feedback about the concentrations of alpha-emitting isotope contamination in effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area). It will also be useful for process control of remediation and D and D operations such as monitoring scrubber/rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste, Plutonium and D and D Focus Areas)

  15. Optical instrument for measurement of vaginal coating thickness by drug delivery formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, Marcus H.; Peters, Jennifer J.; Walmer, David K.; Couchman, Grace M.; Katz, David F.

    2005-01-01

    An optical device has been developed for imaging the human vaginal epithelial surfaces, and quantitatively measuring distributions of coating thickness of drug delivery formulations - such as gels - applied for prophylaxis, contraception or therapy. The device consists of a rigid endoscope contained within a 27-mm-diam hollow, polished-transparent polycarbonate tube (150 mm long) with a hemispherical cap. Illumination is from a xenon arc. The device is inserted into, and remains stationary within the vagina. A custom gearing mechanism moves the endoscope relative to the tube, so that it views epithelial surfaces immediately apposing its outer surface (i.e., 150 mm long by 360 deg. azimuthal angle). Thus, with the tube fixed relative to the vagina, the endoscope sites local regions at distinct and measurable locations that span the vaginal epithelium. The returning light path is split between a video camera and photomultiplier. Excitation and emission filters in the light path enable measurement of fluorescence of the sited region. Thus, the instrument captures video images simultaneously with photometric measurement of fluorescence of each video field [∼10 mm diameter; formulations are labeled with 0.1% w/w United States Pharmacoepia (USP) injectable sodium fluorescein]. Position, time and fluorescence measurements are continuously displayed (on video) and recorded (to a computer database). The photomultiplier output is digitized to quantify fluorescence of the endoscope field of view. Quantification of the thickness of formulation coating of a surface sited by the device is achieved due to the linear relationship between thickness and fluorescence intensity for biologically relevant thin layers (of the order of 0.5 mm). Summary measures of coating have been developed, focusing upon extent, location and uniformity. The device has begun to be applied in human studies of model formulations for prophylaxis against infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted

  16. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation or Conventional Mechanical Ventilation for Neonatal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Badiee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the success rate of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV for treatment of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP failure and prevention of conventional ventilation (CV in preterm neonates. Methods: Since November 2012 to April 2013, a total number of 55 consecutive newborns with gestational ages of 26-35 weeks who had CPAP failure were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. The NIPPV group received NIPPV with the initial peak inspiratory pressure (PIP of 16-20 cmH 2 O and frequency of 40-60 breaths/min. The CV group received PIP of 12-20 cmH 2 O and frequency of 40-60 breaths/min. Results: About 74% of newborns who received NIPPV for management of CPAP failure responded to NIPPV and did not need intubation and mechanical ventilation. Newborns with lower postnatal age at entry to the study and lower 5 min Apgar score more likely had NIPPV failure. In addition, treatment failure was higher in newborns who needed more frequent doses of surfactant. Duration of oxygen therapy was 9.28 days in CV group and 7.77 days in NIPPV group (P = 0.050. Length of hospital stay in CV group and NIPPV groups were 48.7 and 41.7 days, respectively (P = 0.097. Conclusions: NIPPV could decrease the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants with CPAP failure.

  17. Material properties for reactor pressure vessels and containment shells under dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, C.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of high strain rate, dynamic biaxial loading and deformation mode (tension, shear) on the mechanical properties of AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel in as-received and pre-damaged (creep, LCF) conditions are reported. This research was conducted to assess the performances of the containment shell of fast breeder reactors. The results of this research have been utilized to prepare similar investigations for SA 537 Class 1 ferritic steel used for the containment shell of LWR. The first results of these investigations are reported. A programme to study the mechanical properties of plain concrete with real size aggregate at high strain rate is described. (orig.)

  18. DESIGN AND TEST OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING MICROTHERMAL SEEING ON THE MAGDALENA RIDGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, A. M.; Klinglesmith, D. A.; Speights, J.; Clements, A.; Patel, J.

    2009-01-01

    We have constructed and operated an automated instrument for measuring ground-level microthermal seeing at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO). The MRO is located at an altitude of 10500' in the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico, USA. It is the planned site for the MRO Optical Interferometer (MROI) planned for up to 10 collecting elements, each with a diameter of 1.4 m, and baselines eventually up to approximately 400 m. As part of the preparation for construction we deployed a system to characterize the ground-level seeing across the observatory site. The instrument is built largely of off-the-shelf components, with only the sensor head and power supply requiring electronic board assembly. Even in those cases the board architecture is very simple. The first proof-of-concept system was deployed for several weeks in the autumn of 2004, and has since undergone several iterations. The latest configuration operates entirely off batteries, incorporates wireless data acquisition, and is thus able to operate in an area with no shelter, power, or communications. In this paper we present the design of the instrument, and show initial data. The microthermal tower has four sensor pairs at heights from 0.8 to 4.41 m, significantly lower than other microthermal experiments, because of the need to characterize the seeing near the ground. We find significant variation in the contribution of this range of heights to the seeing, contributing up to 0.''3 of the seeing at some times and only 0.''02 at other times. The individual sensor power spectra have a slope in the range of 1.4--1.5, which is lower than the 1.67 slope predicted by Kolmogorov turbulence theory. We measure the well known effect of improved seeing immediately around sunset. While we find significant variation in the microthermal seeing, we did not find a pattern of corresponding variations in weather conditions, suggesting that a complicated set of factors control microthermal turbulence.

  19. Design and Test of an Instrument for Measuring Microthermal Seeing on the Magdalena Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, A. M.; Klinglesmith, D. A., III; Speights, J.; Clements, A.; Patel, J.

    2009-05-01

    We have constructed and operated an automated instrument for measuring ground-level microthermal seeing at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO). The MRO is located at an altitude of 10500' in the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico, USA. It is the planned site for the MRO Optical Interferometer (MROI) planned for up to 10 collecting elements, each with a diameter of 1.4 m, and baselines eventually up to approximately 400 m. As part of the preparation for construction we deployed a system to characterize the ground-level seeing across the observatory site. The instrument is built largely of off-the-shelf components, with only the sensor head and power supply requiring electronic board assembly. Even in those cases the board architecture is very simple. The first proof-of-concept system was deployed for several weeks in the autumn of 2004, and has since undergone several iterations. The latest configuration operates entirely off batteries, incorporates wireless data acquisition, and is thus able to operate in an area with no shelter, power, or communications. In this paper we present the design of the instrument, and show initial data. The microthermal tower has four sensor pairs at heights from 0.8 to 4.41 m, significantly lower than other microthermal experiments, because of the need to characterize the seeing near the ground. We find significant variation in the contribution of this range of heights to the seeing, contributing up to 0farcs3 of the seeing at some times and only 0farcs02 at other times. The individual sensor power spectra have a slope in the range of 1.4--1.5, which is lower than the 1.67 slope predicted by Kolmogorov turbulence theory. We measure the well known effect of improved seeing immediately around sunset. While we find significant variation in the microthermal seeing, we did not find a pattern of corresponding variations in weather conditions, suggesting that a complicated set of factors control microthermal turbulence.

  20. A compact time-of-flight SANS instrument optimised for measurements of small sample volumes at the European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kynde, Søren, E-mail: kynde@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Hewitt Klenø, Kaspar [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Nagy, Gergely [SINQ, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Mortensen, Kell; Lefmann, Kim [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Kohlbrecher, Joachim, E-mail: Joachim.kohlbrecher@psi.ch [SINQ, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Arleth, Lise, E-mail: arleth@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-11-11

    The high flux at European Spallation Source (ESS) will allow for performing experiments with relatively small beam-sizes while maintaining a high intensity of the incoming beam. The pulsed nature of the source makes the facility optimal for time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering (ToF-SANS). We find that a relatively compact SANS instrument becomes the optimal choice in order to obtain the widest possible q-range in a single setting and the best possible exploitation of the neutrons in each pulse and hence obtaining the highest possible flux at the sample position. The instrument proposed in the present article is optimised for performing fast measurements of small scattering volumes, typically down to 2×2×2 mm{sup 3}, while covering a broad q-range from about 0.005 1/Å to 0.5 1/Å in a single instrument setting. This q-range corresponds to that available at a typical good BioSAXS instrument and is relevant for a wide set of biomacromolecular samples. A central advantage of covering the whole q-range in a single setting is that each sample has to be loaded only once. This makes it convenient to use the fully automated high-throughput flow-through sample changers commonly applied at modern synchrotron BioSAXS-facilities. The central drawback of choosing a very compact instrument is that the resolution in terms of δλ/λ obtained with the short wavelength neutrons becomes worse than what is usually the standard at state-of-the-art SANS instruments. Our McStas based simulations of the instrument performance for a set of characteristic biomacromolecular samples show that the resulting smearing effects still have relatively minor effects on the obtained data and can be compensated for in the data analysis. However, in cases where a better resolution is required in combination with the large simultaneous q-range characteristic of the instrument, we show that this can be obtained by inserting a set of choppers.

  1. A novel wearable device for continuous, non-invasion blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qin; Wu, Jianping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we have developed a wearable cuffless device for daily blood pressure (BP) measurement. We incorporated the light based sensor and other hard wares in a small volume for BP detection. With optimized algorithm, the real-time BP reading could be achieved, the data could be presented in the screen and be transmitted by internet of things (IoT) for history data comparison and multi-terminal viewing. Thus, further analysis provides the probability for diet or sports suggestion and alarm. We have measured BP from more than 60 subjects, compare to traditional mercury blood pressure meter, no obvious error in both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are detected. Such device can be used for continues non-invasion BP detection, and further data docking and health analysis could be achieved. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Eddy Covariance Method for CO2 Emission Measurements: CCS Applications, Principles, Instrumentation and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rod; Feese, Kristin

    2013-04-01

    The Eddy Covariance method is a micrometeorological technique for direct high-speed measurements of the transport of gases, heat, and momentum between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. Gas fluxes, emission and exchange rates are carefully characterized from single-point in-situ measurements using permanent or mobile towers, or moving platforms such as automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, etc. Since the early 1990s, this technique has been widely used by micrometeorologists across the globe for quantifying CO2 emission rates from various natural, urban and agricultural ecosystems [1,2], including areas of agricultural carbon sequestration. Presently, over 600 eddy covariance stations are in operation in over 120 countries. In the last 3-5 years, advancements in instrumentation and software have reached the point when they can be effectively used outside the area of micrometeorology, and can prove valuable for geological carbon capture and sequestration, landfill emission measurements, high-precision agriculture and other non-micrometeorological industrial and regulatory applications. In the field of geological carbon capture and sequestration, the magnitude of CO2 seepage fluxes depends on a variety of factors. Emerging projects utilize eddy covariance measurement to monitor large areas where CO2 may escape from the subsurface, to detect and quantify CO2 leakage, and to assure the efficiency of CO2 geological storage [3,4,5,6,7,8]. Although Eddy Covariance is one of the most direct and defensible ways to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes, the method is mathematically complex, and requires careful setup, execution and data processing tailor-fit to a specific site and a project. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions were created to introduce a novice to the conventional Eddy Covariance technique [9], and to assist in further understanding the method through more advanced references such as graduate-level textbooks, flux networks guidelines, journals

  3. Development of a Novel Multispectral Instrument for Handheld and UAS Measurements of Surface Albedo; First Applications for Glaciers in the Peruvian Andes and for Nevada's Black Rock Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, J. M.; Stevens, C.; Arnott, W. P.; Watts, A.; All, J.; Schmitt, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate atmospheric aerosol characteristics derived from satellite measurements are needed over a variety of land surfaces. Nonhomogeneous and bright surface reflectance across California and Nevada may be a contributing factor in the discrepancies observed between ground based and satellite-retrieved atmospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD). We developed and deployed a compact and portable instrument to measure albedo to evaluate a major factor that influences the accuracy of AOD retrievals. The instrument will be operated on an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) to control areal averaging for comparison with satellite derived albedo from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). A handheld version of the instrument was mounted on a trekking pole and used for obtaining in situ glacier albedo measurements in the Cordillera Blanca of Peru during the summer of 2017. The instrument weighs approximately 433 g and consists of two parts, a mountable, payload portion (300 g) which houses the sensors, and a handheld screen (133 g) to display real-time data from the payload portion. Both parts are powered by a 9V battery and run on a Teensy 3.6/3.2 microcontroller. To retrieve albedo, two micro-spectrometers manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics, each with a spectral range of 340 -780 nm, are utilized; one for obtaining the downwelling solar radiation and the other for measuring the solar radiation reflected from the surface. Additional components on the instrument include temperature, pressure and humidity sensors with a one second time response; a GPS for position and altitude; an infrared sensor to measure ground temperature; a digital level and compass for orienting the instrument; a camera for taking photos of the sky and surface; a radio for two-way communication between the screen display and sensor payload; and a micro SD card for recording data. We will present the instrument design along with surface albedo measurements for glaciers of the Peruvian

  4. Pressure (Or No Royal Road)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses how difficult the various problems of pressure, partial pressure, gas laws, and vapor pressure are for students. Outlines the evolution of the concept of pressure, the gas equation for a perfect gas, partial pressures, saturated vapor pressure, Avogadro's hypothesis, Raoult's law, and the vapor pressure of ideal solutions. (JR)

  5. Validation of a wind tunnel testing facility for blade surface pressure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglsang, P.; Antoniou, I.; Soerensen, N.N.; Madsen, H.A.

    1998-04-01

    This report concerns development and validation of a 2d testing facility for airfoil pressure measurements. The VELUX open jet wind tunnel was used with a test stand inserted. Reynolds numbers until 1.3 million were achieved with an airfoil chord of 0.45 m. The aerodynamic load coefficients were found from pressure distribution measurements and the total drag coefficient was calculated from wake rake measurements. Stationary inflow as well as dynamic inflow through pitching motion was possible. Wind tunnel corrections were applied for streamline curvature and down-wash. Even though the wind tunnel is not ideal for 2d testing, the overall quality of the flow was acceptable with a uniform flow field at the test stand position and a turbulence intensity of 1 % at the inlet of the test section. Reference values for free stream static and total pressure were found upstream of the test stand. The NACA 63-215 airfoil was tested and the results were compared with measurements from FFA and NACA. The measurements agreed well except for lift coefficient values at high angles of attack and the drag coefficient values at low angles of attack, that were slightly high. Comparisons of the measured results with numerical predictions from the XFOIL code and the EllipSys2D code showed good agreement. Measurements with the airfoil in pitching motion were carried out to study the dynamic aerodynamic coefficients. Steady inflow measurements at high angles of attack were used to investigate the double stall phenomenon. (au) EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-97. 8 tabs., 82 ills., 16 refs.

  6. Instrumented Glove Measures Positions Of Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Glove instrumented with flat membrane potentiometers to obtain crude measurements of relative positions of fingers. Resistance of each potentiometer varies with position of associated finger; translator circuit connected to each potentiometer converts analog reading to 1 of 10 digital levels. Digitized outputs from all fingers fed to indicating, recording, and/or data-processing equipment. Gloves and circuits intended for use in biomedical research, training in critical manual tasks, and other specialized applications.

  7. Optimal Design of Safety Instrumented Systems for Pressure Control of Methanol Separation Columns in the Bisphenol a Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Bok Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A bisphenol A production plant possesses considerable potential risks in the top of the methanol separation column, as pressurized acetone, methanol, and water are processed at an elevated temperature, especially in the event of an abnormal pressure increase due to a sudden power outage. This study assesses the potential risks in the methanol separation column through hazard and operability assessments and evaluates the damages in the case of fire and explosion accident scenarios. The study chooses three leakage scenarios: a 5-mm puncture on the methanol separation column, a 50-mm diameter fracture of a discharge pipe and a catastrophic rupture, and, simulated using Phast (Ver. 6.531, the concentration distribution of scattered methanol, thermal radiation distribution of fires, and overpressure distribution of vapor cloud explosions. Implementation of a safety-instrumented system equipped with two-out-of-three voting as a safety measure can detect overpressure at the top of the column and shut down the main control valve and the emergency shutoff valve simultaneously. By applying a safety integrity level of three, the maximal release volume of the safety relief valve can be reduced and, therefore, the design capacity of the flare stack can also be reduced. Such integration will lead to improved safety at a reduced cost.

  8. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen

    2014-01-01

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future

  9. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  10. Test - retest reliability of two instruments for measuring public attitudes towards persons with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leufstadius Christel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrac