WorldWideScience

Sample records for instruments 35-mm camera

  1. New long-zoom lens for 4K super 35mm digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Laurence J.; Usui, Fumiaki; Kamata, Ryuhei

    2015-05-01

    The world of television production is beginning to adopt 4K Super 35 mm (S35) image capture for a widening range of program genres that seek both the unique imaging properties of that large image format and the protection of their program assets in a world anticipating future 4K services. Documentary and natural history production in particular are transitioning to this form of production. The nature of their shooting demands long zoom lenses. In their traditional world of 2/3-inch digital HDTV cameras they have a broad choice in portable lenses - with zoom ranges as high as 40:1. In the world of Super 35mm the longest zoom lens is limited to 12:1 offering a telephoto of 400mm. Canon was requested to consider a significantly longer focal range lens while severely curtailing its size and weight. Extensive computer simulation explored countless combinations of optical and optomechanical systems in a quest to ensure that all operational requests and full 4K performance could be met. The final lens design is anticipated to have applications beyond entertainment production, including a variety of security systems.

  2. Magnetometer Data recovered from 35mm film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The L57 CDMP recovery project takes magnetometer data on 35mm film stored at the archive's climate controlled warehouse and digitizes them.

  3. Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuefer, Martin [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Bailey, J. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) takes 9- to 37-micron resolution stereographic photographs of free-falling hydrometers from three angles, while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Information about hydrometeor size, shape orientation, and aspect ratio is derived from MASC photographs. The instrument consists of three commercial cameras separated by angles of 36º. Each camera field of view is aligned to have a common single focus point about 10 cm distant from the cameras. Two near-infrared emitter pairs are aligned with the camera’s field of view within a 10-angular ring and detect hydrometeor passage, with the lower emitters configured to trigger the MASC cameras. The sensitive IR motion sensors are designed to filter out slow variations in ambient light. Fall speed is derived from successive triggers along the fall path. The camera exposure times are extremely short, in the range of 1/25,000th of a second, enabling the MASC to capture snowflake sizes ranging from 30 micrometers to 3 cm.

  4. Stereo Cameras for Clouds (STEREOCAM) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romps, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Oktem, Rusen [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The three pairs of stereo camera setups aim to provide synchronized and stereo calibrated time series of images that can be used for 3D cloud mask reconstruction. Each camera pair is positioned at approximately 120 degrees from the other pair, with a 17o-19o pitch angle from the ground, and at 5-6 km distance from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Central Facility at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) observatory to cover the region from northeast, northwest, and southern views. Images from both cameras of the same stereo setup can be paired together to obtain 3D reconstruction by triangulation. 3D reconstructions from the ring of three stereo pairs can be combined together to generate a 3D mask from surrounding views. This handbook delivers all stereo reconstruction parameters of the cameras necessary to make 3D reconstructions from the stereo camera images.

  5. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

  6. Modification of commercial briquetting machine to produce 35mm diameter briquettes suitable for gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R.N.; Bhoi, P.R.; Patel, S.R. [Thermo chemical Conversion Division, Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (SPRERI), Vallabh Vidyanagar, 388 120 Gujarat (India)

    2007-03-15

    This paper describes an experience on producing 35mm dia briquettes with a modified commercial briquetting machine and the results of studies on the combustion and gasification behavior of briquettes. Study reveals that at 12% (w.b.) moisture content of groundnut shell powder (1180-150{mu}m), good quality briquettes can be made, but it reduces the production rate and increases the power requirement. Combustion as well as gasification studies revealed that biomass briquettes of 35mm diameter do not crumble or disintegrate during the conversion process, therefore these are suitable as feedstock for gasifiers. (author)

  7. Heat transfer through He II in a 9.6 m long 35 mm ID tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Schafer, R.V.

    1984-07-01

    The limiting heat flux at the onset of He I was measured in a 9.6 m long tube of 35 mm ID at a bath temperature between 1.8 K and T/sub lambda/ and a pressure of 1 atm. The measured limiting heat flux during axial heating is 50% more than end heating at the same bath temperature. Both cases agrees with the Gorter-Mellink mutual friction theory

  8. Digital tomosynthesis using a 35 mm X-ray cinematogram during an isocentric rotational motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hirofumi; Aikawa, Hisayuki; Maeda, Tohru; Miyake, Hidetoshi; Sugahara, Tetsuo.

    1988-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis is performed using a 35 mm X-ray cinematogram obtained during an isocentric rotational motion of the cineangiographic apparatus. Formula of image shift for digital tomosynthesis using an isocentric rotational motion is induced by perspective projection and affine transformation. Images of desired layer are aligned at the same point in the image processor and summed. Resultant final image is displayed in sharp focus. We can set tomosynthetic factors on any desired projection, sweep angle and depth as concerns digital tomosynthesis using an isocentric rotational motion. Especially we emphasize that tomosynthesis tilted for central axis of isocentric rotational motion can be obtained, using shear transformation of image in the image processor. (author)

  9. DICOM to print, 35-mm slides, web, and video projector: tutorial using Adobe Photoshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Jud W

    2002-10-01

    Preparing images for publication has dealt with film and the photographic process. With picture archiving and communications systems, many departments will no longer produce film. This will change how images are produced for publication. DICOM, the file format for radiographic images, has to be converted and then prepared for traditional publication, 35-mm slides, the newest techniques of video projection, and the World Wide Web. Tagged image file format is the common format for traditional print publication, whereas joint photographic expert group is the current file format for the World Wide Web. Each medium has specific requirements that can be met with a common image-editing program such as Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). High-resolution images are required for print, a process that requires interpolation. However, the Internet requires images with a small file size for rapid transmission. The resolution of each output differs and the image resolution must be optimized to match the output of the publishing medium.

  10. Radio brightness distribution of M 17 and Orion A at 3.5-mm wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Yasuo; Iguchi, Tetsuo.

    1977-01-01

    Two bright galactic H-2 regions, M 17 and Ori A, have been mapped at 3.5 mm wave length (87 GHz) with resolution of 2 min. The features were found, which are not seen in centimeter- and longer millimeter-wave maps. It is possible that these components are very compact H-2 regions with the emission measure of about 10 11 pc cm -6 . Observations were made from December 1974 to March 1975 with the 6-m millimeter-wave telescope at Tokyo Astronomic Observatory. The data were taken in beam switching mode. Strip maps were made from a set of right ascension scans at 1 min-intervals in declination, and 50 to 150 scans were made at each declination. The scanned area was from -16 deg. 5 min. to -16 deg. 19 min. in the declination for M 17 and from -5 deg. 21 min. to -5 deg. 30 min. for Orion A. The central right ascension was 18 h 17 m 30 s for M 17 and 5 h 32 m 50 s for Orion A, the distance scanned was 100 s in right ascension. In discussion, the dust hypothesis was abandoned, but the thermal bremsstrahlung was adopted as the most probable explanation. In this case, it is possible that M 17 E is a high density ''cocoon star'' though this explanation is not free from difficulty. At the position of M 17 E, no H 2 O or OH maser emission has been detected. The exciting star must be very massive and young according to the theoretical consideration. As for the elongation N in Orion A, similar consideration can be applied. (Iwakiri, K.)

  11. The Infrared Camera for RATIR, a Rapid Response GRB Followup Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapchun, David A.; Alardin, W.; Bigelow, B. C.; Bloom, J.; Butler, N.; Farah, A.; Fox, O. D.; Gehrels, N.; Gonzalez, J.; Klein, C.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Lotkin, G.; Morisset, C.; Moseley, S. H.; Richer, M.; Robinson, F. D.; Samuel, M. V.; Sparr, L. M.; Tucker, C.; Watson, A.

    2011-01-01

    RATIR (Reionization and Transients Infrared instrument) will be a hybrid optical/near IR imager that will utilize the "J-band dropout" to rapidly identify very high redshift (VHR) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from a sample of all observable Swift bursts. Our group at GSFC is developing the instrument in collaboration with UC Berkeley (UCB) and University of Mexico (UNAM). RATIR has both a visible and IR camera, which give it access to 8 bands spanning visible and IR wavelengths. The instrument implements a combination of filters and dichroics to provide the capability of performing photometry in 4 bands simultaneously. The GSFC group leads the design and construction of the instrument's IR camera, equipped with two HgCdTe 2k x 2k Teledyne detectors. The cryostat housing these detectors is cooled by a mechanical cryo-compressor, which allows uninterrupted operation on the telescope. The host 1.5-m telescope, located at the UNAM San Pedro Martir Observatory, Mexico, has recently undergone robotization, allowing for fully automated, continuous operation. After commissioning in the spring of 2011, RATIR will dedicate its time to obtaining prompt follow-up observations of GRBs and identifying VHR GRBs, thereby providing a valuable tool for studying the epoch of reionization.

  12. Development of intelligent control system for X-ray streak camera in diagnostic instrument manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wu, Shengli, E-mail: slwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Tian, Jinshou [Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Liu, Zhen [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Fang, Yuman [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Gao, Guilong; Liang, Lingliang [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wen, Wenlong [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-11-01

    An intelligent control system for an X ray streak camera in a diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIM) is proposed and implemented, which can control time delay, electric focusing, image gain adjustment, switch of sweep voltage, acquiring environment parameters etc. The system consists of 16 A/D converters and 16 D/A converters, a 32-channel general purpose input/output (GPIO) and two sensors. An isolated DC/DC converter with multi-outputs and a single mode fiber were adopted to reduce the interference generated by the common ground among the A/D, D/A and I/O. The software was designed using graphical programming language and can remotely access the corresponding instrument from a website. The entire intelligent control system can acquire the desirable data at a speed of 30 Mb/s and store it for later analysis. The intelligent system was implemented on a streak camera in a DIM and it shows a temporal resolution of 11.25 ps, spatial distortion of less than 10% and dynamic range of 279:1. The intelligent control system has been successfully used in a streak camera to verify the synchronization of multi-channel laser on the Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility.

  13. Development of intelligent control system for X-ray streak camera in diagnostic instrument manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Zhen; Fang, Yuman; Gao, Guilong; Liang, Lingliang; Wen, Wenlong

    2015-01-01

    An intelligent control system for an X ray streak camera in a diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIM) is proposed and implemented, which can control time delay, electric focusing, image gain adjustment, switch of sweep voltage, acquiring environment parameters etc. The system consists of 16 A/D converters and 16 D/A converters, a 32-channel general purpose input/output (GPIO) and two sensors. An isolated DC/DC converter with multi-outputs and a single mode fiber were adopted to reduce the interference generated by the common ground among the A/D, D/A and I/O. The software was designed using graphical programming language and can remotely access the corresponding instrument from a website. The entire intelligent control system can acquire the desirable data at a speed of 30 Mb/s and store it for later analysis. The intelligent system was implemented on a streak camera in a DIM and it shows a temporal resolution of 11.25 ps, spatial distortion of less than 10% and dynamic range of 279:1. The intelligent control system has been successfully used in a streak camera to verify the synchronization of multi-channel laser on the Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility

  14. The use of hand-held 35 mm color infrared imagery for estimates of suspended solids - A progress report. [in water pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. F.; Whisler, F. D.; Robinette, H. R.; Finnie, D.; Cannon, T.

    1975-01-01

    A cost-effective aerial surveillance technique is proposed for detection and identification of suspended solids which would be operational for both governmental monitoring organizations and private individuals operating catfish farms. Sixteen catfish ponds were flown daily for seven days using two hand-held 35 mm cameras with both Kodachrome X and Ektachrome infrared film. Hue, value, and chroma designations were recorded for each pond on each date by three interpreters, and the accepted color was that recorded by at least two of the interpreters, or if there was a three hue range, the median was accepted. Relations between suspended solids and color designations were analyzed graphically, and chroma was discarded due to an apparent lack of correlation. The data obtained were then analyzed by multiple regression. Significant correlations were revealed between hue and value and total and inorganic suspended solids. If perfected, this technique could be developed to sufficent accuracy for large-scale reconnaissance surveys to monitor the quality of rivers and streams.

  15. Mechanical Design of HD2, a 15 T Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet with a 35 mm Bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferracin, P.; Bartlett, S.E.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.L.

    2006-06-01

    After the fabrication and test of HD1, a 16 T Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole magnet based on flat racetrack coil configuration, the Superconducting Magnet Program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is developing the Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole HD2. With a dipole field above 15 T, a 35 mm clear bore, and nominal field harmonics within a fraction of one unit, HD2 represents a further step towards the application of block-type coils to high-field accelerator magnets. The design features tilted racetrack-type ends, to avoid obstructing the beam path, and a 4 mm thick stainless steel tube, to support the coil during the preloading operation. The mechanical structure, similar to the one used for HD1, is based on an external aluminum shell pretensioned with pressurized bladders. Axial rods and stainless steel plates provide longitudinal support to the coil ends during magnet excitation. A 3D finite element analysis has been performed to evaluate stresses and deformations from assembly to excitation, with particular emphasis on conductor displacements due to Lorentz forces. Numerical results are presented and discussed.

  16. Adaptation of the Camera Link Interface for Flight-Instrument Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David P.; Mahoney, John C.

    2010-01-01

    COTS (commercial-off-the-shelf) hard ware using an industry-standard Camera Link interface is proposed to accomplish the task of designing, building, assembling, and testing electronics for an airborne spectrometer that would be low-cost, but sustain the required data speed and volume. The focal plane electronics were designed to support that hardware standard. Analysis was done to determine how these COTS electronics could be interfaced with space-qualified camera electronics. Interfaces available for spaceflight application do not support the industry standard Camera Link interface, but with careful design, COTS EGSE (electronics ground support equipment), including camera interfaces and camera simulators, can still be used.

  17. Feasibility of converting hi-speed processor for processing Kodak film types 7381/7271 (16mm) and 5381/5271 (35mm) using Kodak ECP chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    Testing conducted to determine the feasibility of converting the 16/35/70 hi-speed processor to process Kodak film types 7381/7271 (16mm) and 5381/5271 (35mm) color negative films using Kodak ECP chemistry is described.

  18. Space telescope phase B definition study. Volume 2A: Science instruments, f24 field camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, R. P.; Mccarthy, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The analysis and design of the F/24 field camera for the space telescope are discussed. The camera was designed for application to the radial bay of the optical telescope assembly and has an on axis field of view of 3 arc-minutes by 3 arc-minutes.

  19. Biomechanical comparison of 3.0 mm headless compression screw and 3.5 mm cortical bone screw in a canine humeral condylar fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Mishka N; Jankovits, Daniel A; Huber, Michael L; Strom, Adam M; Garcia, Tanya C; Stover, Susan M

    2016-09-20

    To compare the biomechanical properties of simulated humeral condylar fractures reduced with one of two screw fixation methods: 3.0 mm headless compression screw (HCS) or 3.5 mm cortical bone screw (CBS) placed in lag fashion. Bilateral humeri were collected from nine canine cadavers. Standardized osteotomies were stabilized with 3.0 mm HCS in one limb and 3.5 mm CBS in the contralateral limb. Condylar fragments were loaded to walk, trot, and failure loads while measuring construct properties and condylar fragment motion. The 3.5 mm CBS-stabilized constructs were 36% stiffer than 3.0 mm HCS-stabilized constructs, but differences were not apparent in quality of fracture reduction nor in yield loads, which exceeded expected physiological loads during rehabilitation. Small residual fragment displacements were not different between CBS and HCS screws. Small fragment rotation was not significantly different between screws, but was weakly correlated with moment arm length (R² = 0.25). A CBS screw placed in lag fashion provides stiffer fixation than an HCS screw, although both screws provide similar anatomical reduction and yield strength to condylar fracture fixation in adult canine humeri.

  20. Action Sport Cameras as an Instrument to Perform a 3D Underwater Motion Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardina, Gustavo R D; Cerveri, Pietro; Barros, Ricardo M L; Marins, João C B; Silvatti, Amanda P

    2016-01-01

    Action sport cameras (ASC) are currently adopted mainly for entertainment purposes but their uninterrupted technical improvements, in correspondence of cost decreases, are going to disclose them for three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis in sport gesture study and athletic performance evaluation quantitatively. Extending this technology to sport analysis however still requires a methodologic step-forward to making ASC a metric system, encompassing ad-hoc camera setup, image processing, feature tracking, calibration and 3D reconstruction. Despite traditional laboratory analysis, such requirements become an issue when coping with both indoor and outdoor motion acquisitions of athletes. In swimming analysis for example, the camera setup and the calibration protocol are particularly demanding since land and underwater cameras are mandatory. In particular, the underwater camera calibration can be an issue affecting the reconstruction accuracy. In this paper, the aim is to evaluate the feasibility of ASC for 3D underwater analysis by focusing on camera setup and data acquisition protocols. Two GoPro Hero3+ Black (frequency: 60Hz; image resolutions: 1280×720/1920×1080 pixels) were located underwater into a swimming pool, surveying a working volume of about 6m3. A two-step custom calibration procedure, consisting in the acquisition of one static triad and one moving wand, carrying nine and one spherical passive markers, respectively, was implemented. After assessing camera parameters, a rigid bar, carrying two markers at known distance, was acquired in several positions within the working volume. The average error upon the reconstructed inter-marker distances was less than 2.5mm (1280×720) and 1.5mm (1920×1080). The results of this study demonstrate that the calibration of underwater ASC is feasible enabling quantitative kinematic measurements with accuracy comparable to traditional motion capture systems.

  1. Action Sport Cameras as an Instrument to Perform a 3D Underwater Motion Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R D Bernardina

    Full Text Available Action sport cameras (ASC are currently adopted mainly for entertainment purposes but their uninterrupted technical improvements, in correspondence of cost decreases, are going to disclose them for three-dimensional (3D motion analysis in sport gesture study and athletic performance evaluation quantitatively. Extending this technology to sport analysis however still requires a methodologic step-forward to making ASC a metric system, encompassing ad-hoc camera setup, image processing, feature tracking, calibration and 3D reconstruction. Despite traditional laboratory analysis, such requirements become an issue when coping with both indoor and outdoor motion acquisitions of athletes. In swimming analysis for example, the camera setup and the calibration protocol are particularly demanding since land and underwater cameras are mandatory. In particular, the underwater camera calibration can be an issue affecting the reconstruction accuracy. In this paper, the aim is to evaluate the feasibility of ASC for 3D underwater analysis by focusing on camera setup and data acquisition protocols. Two GoPro Hero3+ Black (frequency: 60Hz; image resolutions: 1280×720/1920×1080 pixels were located underwater into a swimming pool, surveying a working volume of about 6m3. A two-step custom calibration procedure, consisting in the acquisition of one static triad and one moving wand, carrying nine and one spherical passive markers, respectively, was implemented. After assessing camera parameters, a rigid bar, carrying two markers at known distance, was acquired in several positions within the working volume. The average error upon the reconstructed inter-marker distances was less than 2.5mm (1280×720 and 1.5mm (1920×1080. The results of this study demonstrate that the calibration of underwater ASC is feasible enabling quantitative kinematic measurements with accuracy comparable to traditional motion capture systems.

  2. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mast cameras and Descent imager: Investigation and instrument descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Michal C.; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Tony Ghaemi, F.; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Maki, Justin N.; Bell, James F.; Cameron, James F.; Dietrich, William E.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Garvin, James B.; Hallet, Bernard; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sletten, Ron; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Aileen Yingst, R.; Duston, Brian M.; McNair, Sean; Jensen, Elsa H.

    2017-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mast camera and Descent Imager investigations were designed, built, and operated by Malin Space Science Systems of San Diego, CA. They share common electronics and focal plane designs but have different optics. There are two Mastcams of dissimilar focal length. The Mastcam-34 has an f/8, 34 mm focal length lens, and the M-100 an f/10, 100 mm focal length lens. The M-34 field of view is about 20° × 15° with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 218 μrad; the M-100 field of view (FOV) is 6.8° × 5.1° with an IFOV of 74 μrad. The M-34 can focus from 0.5 m to infinity, and the M-100 from 1.6 m to infinity. All three cameras can acquire color images through a Bayer color filter array, and the Mastcams can also acquire images through seven science filters. Images are ≤1600 pixels wide by 1200 pixels tall. The Mastcams, mounted on the 2 m tall Remote Sensing Mast, have a 360° azimuth and 180° elevation field of regard. Mars Descent Imager is fixed-mounted to the bottom left front side of the rover at 66 cm above the surface. Its fixed focus lens is in focus from 2 m to infinity, but out of focus at 66 cm. The f/3 lens has a FOV of 70° by 52° across and along the direction of motion, with an IFOV of 0.76 mrad. All cameras can acquire video at 4 frames/second for full frames or 720p HD at 6 fps. Images can be processed using lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group and predictive lossless compression.

  3. Telescope and mirrors development for the monolithic silicon carbide instrument of the osiris narrow angle camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvel, Bertrand; Castel, Didier; Standarovski, Eric; Rousset, Gérard; Bougoin, Michel

    2017-11-01

    The international Rosetta mission, now planned by ESA to be launched in January 2003, will provide a unique opportunity to directly study the nucleus of comet 46P/Wirtanen and its activity in 2013. We describe here the design, the development and the performances of the telescope of the Narrow Angle Camera of the OSIRIS experiment et its Silicon Carbide telescope which will give high resolution images of the cometary nucleus in the visible spectrum. The development of the mirrors has been specifically detailed. The SiC parts have been manufactured by BOOSTEC, polished by STIGMA OPTIQUE and ion figured by IOM under the prime contractorship of ASTRIUM. ASTRIUM was also in charge of the alignment. The final optical quality of the aligned telescope is 30 nm rms wavefront error.

  4. Investigation on microstructure and properties of narrow-gap laser welding on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel CLF-1 with a thickness of 35 mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shikai; Zhang, Jianchao; Yang, Jiaoxi; Lu, Junxia; Liao, Hongbin; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2018-05-01

    Reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel is chosen as a structural material for test blanket modules (TBMs) to be constructed in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). Chinese specific RAFM steel named with CLF-1 has been developed for CFETR. In this paper, a narrow-gap groove laser multi-pass welding of CLF-1 steel with thickness of 35 mm is conduced by YLS-15000 fiber laser. Further, the microstructures of different regions in the weld joint were characterized, and tensile impact and micro-hardness tests were carried out for evaluating the mecharical properties. The results show that the butt weld joint of CLF-1 steel with a thickness of 35 mm was well-formed using the optimal narrow-gap laser filler wire welding and no obvious defects was found such as incomplete fusion cracks and pores. The microstructures of backing layer is dominated by lath martensites and the Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ) was mainly filled with two-phase hybrid structures of secondary-tempering sorbites and martensites. The filler layer is similar to the backing layer in microstructures. In tensile tests, the tensile samples from different parts of the joint all fractured at base metal (BM). The micro-hardness of weld metal (WM) was found to be higher than that of BM and the Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ) exhibited no obvious softening. After post weld heat treatment (PWHT), it can be observed that the fusion zone of the autogenous welding bead and the upper filling beads mainly consist of lath martensites which caused the lower impact absorbing energy. The HAZ mainly included two-phase hybrid structures of secondary-tempering sorbites and martensites and exhibited favorable impact toughness.

  5. Management of the camera electronics programme for the World Space Observatory ultraviolet WUVS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Gayatri; Clapp, Matthew; Salter, Mike; Waltham, Nick; Beardsley, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a major international collaboration led by Russia and will study the universe at ultraviolet wavelengths between 115 nm and 320 nm. The WSO Ultraviolet Spectrograph (WUVS) subsystem is led by a consortium of Russian institutes and consists of three spectrographs. RAL Space is contracted by e2v technologies Ltd to provide the CCD readout electronics for each of the three WUVS channels. The programme involves the design, manufacturing, assembly and testing of each Camera Electronics Box (CEB), its associated Interconnection Module (ICM), Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) and harness. An overview of the programme will be presented, from the initial design phase culminating in the development of an Engineering Model (EM) through qualification whereby an Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) will undergo environmental testing to characterize the performance of the CEB against the space environment, to the delivery of the Flight Models (FMs). The paper will discuss the challenges faced managing a large, dynamic project. This includes managing significant changes in fundamental requirements mid-programme as a result of external political issues which forced a complete re-design of an existing CEB with extensive space heritage but containing many ITAR controlled electronic components to a new, more efficient solution, free of ITAR controlled parts. The methodology and processes used to ensure the demanding schedule is maintained through each stage of the project will be presented including an insight into planning, decision-making, communication, risk management, and resource management; all essential to the continued success of the programme.

  6. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, C., E-mail: cecile.fabre@g2r.uhp-nancy.fr [G2R, Nancy Universite (France); Maurice, S.; Cousin, A. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Wiens, R.C. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forni, O. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sautter, V. [MNHN, Paris (France); Guillaume, D. [GET, Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-15

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD < 5% for concentration variations > 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and < 10% for concentration variations > 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor

  7. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, C.; Maurice, S.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C.; Forni, O.; Sautter, V.; Guillaume, D.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor elements.

  8. Slab fractures of the third tarsal bone: Minimally invasive repair using a single 3.5 mm cortex screw placed in lag fashion in 17 Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, W H J; Wright, I M

    2017-03-01

    A technique for minimally invasive repair of slab fractures of the third tarsal bone has not previously been reported. Results of third tarsal bone slab fracture repair in Thoroughbred racehorses are lacking. To report the outcomes of repair of uniplanar frontal slab factures of the third tarsal bone using a single 3.5 mm cortex screw in lag fashion. Retrospective case series. Case records of horses that had undergone this procedure were reviewed. Seventeen horses underwent surgery. Eighteen percent of cases had wedge shaped third tarsal bones. A point midway between the long and lateral digital extensor tendons and centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints created a suitable entry site for implants. The fracture location, configuration and curvature of the third tarsal bone and associated joints requires a dorsolateral proximal-plantaromedial distal trajectory for the screw, which was determined by preplaced needles. There were no complications and fractures healed in all cases at 4-6 months post surgery. Seventy-nine percent of horses returned to racing and, at the time of reporting, 3 are in post operative rehabilitation programmes. The technique reported provides a safe, appropriate and repeatable means of repairing slab fractures of the third tarsal bone. Surgical repair is a viable alternative to conservative management. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Polarizing aperture stereoscopic cinema camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Lenny

    2012-07-01

    The art of stereoscopic cinematography has been held back because of the lack of a convenient way to reduce the stereo camera lenses' interaxial to less than the distance between the eyes. This article describes a unified stereoscopic camera and lens design that allows for varying the interaxial separation to small values using a unique electro-optical polarizing aperture design for imaging left and right perspective views onto a large single digital sensor, the size of the standard 35 mm frame, with the means to select left and right image information. Even with the added stereoscopic capability, the appearance of existing camera bodies will be unaltered.

  10. Space telescope phase B definition study. Volume 2A: Science instruments, f48/96 planetary camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, R. P.; Mccarthy, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of the f48/96 planetary camera for the space telescope are discussed. The camera design is for application to the axial module position of the optical telescope assembly.

  11. Systems approach to the design of the CCD sensors and camera electronics for the AIA and HMI instruments on solar dynamics observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, N.; Beardsley, S.; Clapp, M.; Lang, J.; Jerram, P.; Pool, P.; Auker, G.; Morris, D.; Duncan, D.

    2017-11-01

    Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is imaging the Sun in many wavelengths near simultaneously and with a resolution ten times higher than the average high-definition television. In this paper we describe our innovative systems approach to the design of the CCD cameras for two of SDO's remote sensing instruments, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Both instruments share use of a custom-designed 16 million pixel science-grade CCD and common camera readout electronics. A prime requirement was for the CCD to operate with significantly lower drive voltages than before, motivated by our wish to simplify the design of the camera readout electronics. Here, the challenge lies in the design of circuitry to drive the CCD's highly capacitive electrodes and to digitize its analogue video output signal with low noise and to high precision. The challenge is greatly exacerbated when forced to work with only fully space-qualified, radiation-tolerant components. We describe our systems approach to the design of the AIA and HMI CCD and camera electronics, and the engineering solutions that enabled us to comply with both mission and instrument science requirements.

  12. Development and clinical evaluation of an ionization chamber array with 3.5 mm pixel pitch for quality assurance in advanced radiotherapy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togno, M; Wilkens, J J; Menichelli, D; Oechsner, M; Perez-Andujar, A; Morin, O

    2016-05-01

    To characterize a new air vented ionization chamber technology, suitable to build detector arrays with small pixel pitch and independence of sensitivity on dose per pulse. The prototype under test is a linear array of air vented ionization chambers, consisting of 80 pixels with 3.5 mm pixel pitch distance and a sensitive volume of about 4 mm(3). The detector has been characterized with (60)Co radiation and MV x rays from different linear accelerators (with flattened and unflattened beam qualities). Sensitivity dependence on dose per pulse has been evaluated under MV x rays by changing both the source to detector distance and the beam quality. Bias voltage has been varied in order to evaluate the charge collection efficiency in the most critical conditions. Relative dose profiles have been measured for both flattened and unflattened distributions with different field sizes. The reference detectors were a commercial array of ionization chambers and an amorphous silicon flat panel in direct conversion configuration. Profiles of dose distribution have been measured also with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) patient plans. Comparison has been done with a commercial diode array and with Gafchromic EBT3 films. Repeatability and stability under continuous gamma irradiation are within 0.3%, in spite of low active volume and sensitivity (∼200 pC/Gy). Deviation from linearity is in the range [0.3%, -0.9%] for a dose of at least 20 cGy, while a worsening of linearity is observed below 10 cGy. Charge collection efficiency with 2.67 mGy/pulse is higher than 99%, leading to a ±0.9% sensitivity change in the range 0.09-2.67 mGy/pulse (covering all flattened and unflattened beam qualities). Tissue to phantom ratios show an agreement within 0.6% with the reference detector up to 34 cm depth. For field sizes in the range 2 × 2 to 15 × 15 cm(2), the output factors are in agreement with a thimble chamber within 2%, while with 25 × 25 cm(2) field size, an underestimation of 4.0% was found. Agreement of field and penumbra width measurements with the flat panel is of the order of 1 mm down to 1 × 1 cm(2) field size. Flatness and symmetry values measured with the 1D array and the reference detectors are comparable, and differences are always smaller than 1%. Angular dependence of the detector, when compared to measurements taken with a cylindrical chamber in the same phantom, is as large as 16%. This includes inhomogeneity and asymmetry of the design, which during plan verification are accounted for by the treatment planning system (TPS). The detector is capable to reproduce the dose distributions of IMRT and VMAT plans with a maximum deviation from TPS of 3.0% in the target region. In the case of VMAT and SRS plans, an average (maximum) deviation of the order of 1% (4%) from films has been measured. The investigated technology appears to be useful both for Linac QA and patient plan verification, especially in treatments with steep dose gradients and nonuniform dose rates such as VMAT and SRS. Major limitations of the present prototype are the linearity at low dose, which can be solved by optimizing the readout electronics, and the underestimation of output factors with large field sizes. The latter problem is presently not completely understood and will require further investigations.

  13. Development and clinical evaluation of an ionization chamber array with 3.5 mm pixel pitch for quality assurance in advanced radiotherapy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togno, M., E-mail: michele.togno@iba-group.com [Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Munich 85748 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Technische Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich 81675 (Germany); IBA Dosimetry GmbH, Schwarzenbruck 90592 (Germany); Wilkens, J. J. [Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Munich 85748, Germany and Department of Radiation Oncology, Technische Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich 81675 (Germany); Menichelli, D. [IBA Dosimetry GmbH, Schwarzenbruck 90592 (Germany); Oechsner, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Technische Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich 81675 (Germany); Perez-Andujar, A.; Morin, O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To characterize a new air vented ionization chamber technology, suitable to build detector arrays with small pixel pitch and independence of sensitivity on dose per pulse. Methods: The prototype under test is a linear array of air vented ionization chambers, consisting of 80 pixels with 3.5 mm pixel pitch distance and a sensitive volume of about 4 mm{sup 3}. The detector has been characterized with {sup 60}Co radiation and MV x rays from different linear accelerators (with flattened and unflattened beam qualities). Sensitivity dependence on dose per pulse has been evaluated under MV x rays by changing both the source to detector distance and the beam quality. Bias voltage has been varied in order to evaluate the charge collection efficiency in the most critical conditions. Relative dose profiles have been measured for both flattened and unflattened distributions with different field sizes. The reference detectors were a commercial array of ionization chambers and an amorphous silicon flat panel in direct conversion configuration. Profiles of dose distribution have been measured also with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) patient plans. Comparison has been done with a commercial diode array and with Gafchromic EBT3 films. Results: Repeatability and stability under continuous gamma irradiation are within 0.3%, in spite of low active volume and sensitivity (∼200 pC/Gy). Deviation from linearity is in the range [0.3%, −0.9%] for a dose of at least 20 cGy, while a worsening of linearity is observed below 10 cGy. Charge collection efficiency with 2.67 mGy/pulse is higher than 99%, leading to a ±0.9% sensitivity change in the range 0.09–2.67 mGy/pulse (covering all flattened and unflattened beam qualities). Tissue to phantom ratios show an agreement within 0.6% with the reference detector up to 34 cm depth. For field sizes in the range 2 × 2 to 15 × 15 cm{sup 2}, the output factors are in agreement with a thimble chamber within 2%, while with 25 × 25 cm{sup 2} field size, an underestimation of 4.0% was found. Agreement of field and penumbra width measurements with the flat panel is of the order of 1 mm down to 1 × 1 cm{sup 2} field size. Flatness and symmetry values measured with the 1D array and the reference detectors are comparable, and differences are always smaller than 1%. Angular dependence of the detector, when compared to measurements taken with a cylindrical chamber in the same phantom, is as large as 16%. This includes inhomogeneity and asymmetry of the design, which during plan verification are accounted for by the treatment planning system (TPS). The detector is capable to reproduce the dose distributions of IMRT and VMAT plans with a maximum deviation from TPS of 3.0% in the target region. In the case of VMAT and SRS plans, an average (maximum) deviation of the order of 1% (4%) from films has been measured. Conclusions: The investigated technology appears to be useful both for Linac QA and patient plan verification, especially in treatments with steep dose gradients and nonuniform dose rates such as VMAT and SRS. Major limitations of the present prototype are the linearity at low dose, which can be solved by optimizing the readout electronics, and the underestimation of output factors with large field sizes. The latter problem is presently not completely understood and will require further investigations.

  14. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  15. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  16. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  17. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  18. Caliste-SO X-ray micro-camera for the STIX instrument on-board Solar Orbiter space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuris, A.; Hurford, G.; Bednarzik, M.; Limousin, O.; Gevin, O.; Le Mer, I.; Martignac, J.; Horeau, B.; Grimm, O.; Resanovic, R.; Krucker, S.; Orleański, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is an instrument on the Solar-Orbiter space mission that performs hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy of solar flares. It consists of 32 collimators with grids and 32 spectrometer units called Caliste-SO for indirect Fourier-transform imaging. Each Caliste-SO device integrates a 1 cm 2 CdTe pixel sensor with a low-noise low-power analog front-end ASIC and circuits for supply regulation and filtering. The ASIC named IDeF-X HD is designed by CEA/Irfu (France) whereas CdTe-based semiconductor detectors are provided by the Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). The design of the hybrid, based on 3D Plus technology (France), is well suited for STIX spectroscopic requirements (1 keV FWHM at 6 keV, 4 keV low-level threshold) and system constraints (4 W power and 5 kg mass). The performance of the sub-assemblies and the design of the first Caliste-SO prototype are presented.

  19. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  20. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  1. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  2. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  3. Respiratory-aspirated 35-mm hairpin successfully retrieved with a Teflon® snare system under fluoroscopic guidance via a split endotracheal tube: a useful technique in cases of failed extraction by bronchoscopy and avoiding the need for a thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S S; Pease, R A; Ashwin, C J; Gill, S S; Tait, N P

    2012-09-01

    Respiratory foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common global health problem requiring prompt recognition and early treatment to prevent potentially fatal complications. The majority of FBAs are due to organic objects and treatment is usually via either endoscopic or surgical extraction. FBA of a straight hairpin has been described as a unique entity in the literature, occurring most commonly in females, particularly during adolescence. In the process of inserting hairpins, the pins will typically be between the teeth with the head tilted backwards, while tying their hair with both hands. This position increases the risk of aspiration, particularly if there is any sudden coughing or laughing. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a 35-mm straight metallic hairpin foreign body that has been successfully retrieved by a radiological snare system under fluoroscopic guidance. This was achieved with the use of a split endotracheal tube, and therefore avoided the need for a thoracotomy in an adolescent female patient.

  4. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  5. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  6. Influence of the composition and microstructure on the mechanical properties of single pass weld metal obtained with two-run multipower submerged arc welding of 35 MM Fe 510 quality steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, C.F.; Sipkes, M.P.

    1977-01-01

    For three 35 mm Fe 510 quality steels (with and without niobium) experiments have been carried out to establish a relationship between composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of weldmetal obtained with two-run multipower submerged arc welding. The most striking aspects are summarized in the following. The weldmental composition can influence the toughness both, directly by matrix alloying or indirectly through the grainsize and constituents of the microstructure such as the perlite-cementite and martensite fraction. In the range of compositions investigated Mn for instance has a beneficial, while Nb and N have a detrimental effect on notch toughness. For nitrogen the concentration in the weldmetal is determined by the type of weldingflux used. The unfavourable effect of Nb in the weldmetal depends mainly on the Nb content of the plate material (dilution effect). Niobium introduced by the flux is not active and in all probability only present as non metallic inclusions. Remarkable is the strong interaction found between Nb and N. The influence of Nb decreases when the N content of the weldmetal increases. This effect may probably also be an explanation for the great differences in the interpretation of the influence of Nb on weldmetal ductility as mentioned in the literature. A change in the concentration of these elements does not have any influence on the grainsize of the weldmetal. The influence of Mo is quite remarkable. In the first place it has a grain-refining effect, which strongly predominates its detrimental effect in promoting the martensite formation. From quantitative measurements it also appears that Mo reduces the amount of perlite in the weldmetal and suppresses entirely the influence of Mn on the Charpy-V transition temperature and the uppershelf-energy level

  7. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, Ul; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is replaceably mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. Supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other

  8. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  9. Picosecond camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decroisette, Michel

    A Kerr cell activated by infrared pulses of a model locked Nd glass laser, acts as an ultra-fast and periodic shutter, with a few p.s. opening time. Associated with a S.T.L. camera, it gives rise to a picosecond camera allowing us to study very fast effects [fr

  10. Meteor Film Recording with Digital Film Cameras with large CMOS Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slansky, P. C.

    2016-12-01

    In this article the author combines his professional know-how about cameras for film and television production with his amateur astronomy activities. Professional digital film cameras with high sensitivity are still quite rare in astronomy. One reason for this may be their costs of up to 20 000 and more (camera body only). In the interim, however,consumer photo cameras with film mode and very high sensitivity have come to the market for about 2 000 EUR. In addition, ultra-high sensitive professional film cameras, that are very interesting for meteor observation, have been introduced to the market. The particular benefits of digital film cameras with large CMOS sensors, including photo cameras with film recording function, for meteor recording are presented by three examples: a 2014 Camelopardalid, shot with a Canon EOS C 300, an exploding 2014 Aurigid, shot with a Sony alpha7S, and the 2016 Perseids, shot with a Canon ME20F-SH. All three cameras use large CMOS sensors; "large" meaning Super-35 mm, the classic 35 mm film format (24x13.5 mm, similar to APS-C size), or full format (36x24 mm), the classic 135 photo camera format. Comparisons are made to the widely used cameras with small CCD sensors, such as Mintron or Watec; "small" meaning 12" (6.4x4.8 mm) or less. Additionally, special photographic image processing of meteor film recordings is discussed.

  11. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, U.; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. The supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other through about 90 0 to a collimator exchange position. Each of the separate supports is swingable to a vertically aligned position, with limiting of the swinging movement and positioning of the support at the desired exchange position. The collimators are carried on the supports by means of a series of vertically disposed coil springs. Projections on the camera are movable from above into grooves of the collimator at the exchange position, whereupon the collimator is turned so that it is securely prevented from falling out of the camera head

  12. Scintillating camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasbloem, H.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a scintillating camera and in particular to an apparatus for determining the position coordinates of a light pulse emitting point on the anode of an image intensifier tube which forms part of a scintillating camera, comprising at least three photomultipliers which are positioned to receive light emitted by the anode screen on their photocathodes, circuit means for processing the output voltages of the photomultipliers to derive voltages that are representative of the position coordinates; a pulse-height discriminator circuit adapted to be fed with the sum voltage of the output voltages of the photomultipliers for gating the output of the processing circuit when the amplitude of the sum voltage of the output voltages of the photomultipliers lies in a predetermined amplitude range, and means for compensating the distortion introduced in the image on the anode screen

  13. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, K.H.; Kotschak, O.; Conrad, B.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera with a simplified setup as compared with the state of engineering is described permitting, apart from good localization, also energy discrimination. Behind the usual vacuum image amplifier a multiwire proportional chamber filled with trifluorine bromium methane is connected in series. Localizing of the signals is achieved by a delay line, energy determination by means of a pulse height discriminator. With the aid of drawings and circuit diagrams, the setup and mode of operation are explained. (ORU) [de

  14. Development of a portable X-ray and gamma-ray detector instrument and imaging camera for use in radioactive and hazardous materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scyoc, J.M. van; James, R.B.; Anderson, R.J.

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this LDRD project was to develop instruments for use in the management of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Devices for identifying and imaging such wastes are critical to developing environmental remediation strategies. Field portable units are required to enable the on-site analysis of solids, liquids, and gas effluents. Red mercuric iodide (α-HgI 2 ) is a semiconductor material that can be operated as a high-energy-resolution radiation detector at ambient temperatures. This property provides the needed performance of conventional germanium- and silicon-based devices, while eliminating the need for the cryogenic cooling of such instruments. The first year of this project focused on improving the materials properties of the mercuric iodide to enable the new sensor technology; in particular the charge carrier traps limiting device performance were determined and eliminated. The second year involved the development of a field portable x-ray fluorescence analyzer for compositional analyses. The third and final year of the project focused on the development of imaging sensors to provide the capability for mapping the composition of waste masses. This project resulted in instruments useful not only for managing hazardous and radioactive wastes, but also in a variety of industrial and national security applications

  15. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The light pulse output of a scintillator, on which incident collimated gamma rays impinge, is detected by an array of photoelectric tubes each having a convexly curved photocathode disposed in close proximity to the scintillator. Electronic circuitry connected to outputs of the phototubes develops the scintillation event position coordinate electrical signals with good linearity and with substantial independence of the spacing between the scintillator and photocathodes so that the phototubes can be positioned as close to the scintillator as is possible to obtain less distortion in the field of view and improved spatial resolution as compared to conventional planar photocathode gamma cameras

  16. Radioisotope camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tausch, L.M.; Kump, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The electronic ciruit corrects distortions caused by the distance between the individual photomultiplier tubes of the multiple radioisotope camera on one hand and between the tube configuration and the scintillator plate on the other. For this purpose the transmission characteristics of the nonlinear circuits are altered as a function of the energy of the incident radiation. By this means the threshold values between lower and higher amplification are adjusted to the energy level of each scintillation. The correcting circuit may be used for any number of isotopes to be measured. (DG) [de

  17. High-speed holographic camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaro, Marc

    The high-speed holographic camera is a disgnostic instrument using holography as an information storing support. It allows us to take 10 holograms, of an object, with exposures times of 1,5ns, separated in time by 1 or 2ns. In order to get these results easily, no mobile part is used in the set-up [fr

  18. Modeling of the 35-mm Rarefaction Wave Gun

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coffee, Terence P

    2006-01-01

    .... The opening of the breech creates a rarefaction wave that travels down the bore of the gun. If the timing is done correctly, the rarefaction wave will not reach the projectile until at or after muzzle exit...

  19. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, B.; Heinzelmann, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    A gamma camera is described which obviates the distortion of locating signals generally caused by the varied light conductive capacities of the light conductors in that the flow of light through each light conductor may be varied by means of a shutter. A balancing of the flow of light through each of the individual light conductors, in effect, collective light conductors may be balanced on the basis of their light conductive capacities or properties, so as to preclude a distortion of the locating signals caused by the varied light conductive properties of the light conductors. Each light conductor has associated therewith two, relative to each other, independently adjustable shutters, of which one forms a closure member and the other an adjusting shutter. In this embodiment of the invention it is thus possible to block all of the light conductors leading to a photoelectric transducer, with the exception of those light conductors which are to be balanced. The balancing of the individual light conductors may then be obtained on the basis of the output signals of the photoelectric transducer. (auth)

  20. Scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zioni, J.; Klein, Y.; Inbar, D.

    1975-01-01

    The scintillation camera is to make pictures of the density distribution of radiation fields created by the injection or administration radioactive medicaments into the body of the patient. It contains a scintillation crystal, several photomultipliers and computer circuits to obtain an analytical function at the exits of the photomultiplier which is dependent on the position of the scintillations at the time in the crystal. The scintillation crystal is flat and spatially corresponds to the production site of radiation. The photomultipliers form a pattern whose basic form consists of at least three photomultipliers. They are assigned to at least two crossing parallel series groups where a vertical running reference axis in the crystal plane belongs to each series group. The computer circuits are each assigned to a reference axis. Each series of a series group assigned to one of the reference axes in the computer circuit has an adder to produce a scintillation dependent series signal. Furthermore, the projection of the scintillation on this reference axis is calculated. A series signal is used for this which originates from a series chosen from two neighbouring photomultiplier series of this group. The scintillation must have appeared between these chosen series. They are termed as basic series. The photomultiplier can be arranged hexagonally or rectangularly. (GG/LH) [de

  1. Photographic zoom fisheye lens design for DSLR cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yufeng; Sasian, Jose

    2017-09-01

    Photographic fisheye lenses with fixed focal length for cameras with different sensor formats have been well developed for decades. However, photographic fisheye lenses with variable focal length are rare on the market due in part to the greater design difficulty. This paper presents a large aperture zoom fisheye lens for DSLR cameras that produces both circular and diagonal fisheye imaging for 35-mm sensors and diagonal fisheye imaging for APS-C sensors. The history and optical characteristics of fisheye lenses are briefly reviewed. Then, a 9.2- to 16.1-mm F/2.8 to F/3.5 zoom fisheye lens design is presented, including the design approach and aberration control. Image quality and tolerance performance analysis for this lens are also presented.

  2. Principle of some gamma cameras (efficiencies, limitations, development)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allemand, R.; Bourdel, J.; Gariod, R.; Laval, M.; Levy, G.; Thomas, G.

    1975-01-01

    The quality of scintigraphic images is shown to depend on the efficiency of both the input collimator and the detector. Methods are described by which the quality of these images may be improved by adaptations to either the collimator (Fresnel zone camera, Compton effect camera) or the detector (Anger camera, image amplification camera). The Anger camera and image amplification camera are at present the two main instruments whereby acceptable space and energy resolutions may be obtained. A theoretical comparative study of their efficiencies is carried out, independently of their technological differences, after which the instruments designed or under study at the LETI are presented: these include the image amplification camera, the electron amplifier tube camera using a semi-conductor target CdTe and HgI 2 detector [fr

  3. Development and characterization of a CCD camera system for use on six-inch manipulator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logory, L.M.; Bell, P.M.; Conder, A.D.; Lee, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed, constructed, and fielded a compact CCD camera system for use on the Six Inch Manipulator (SIM) at the Nova laser facility. The camera system has been designed to directly replace the 35 mm film packages on all active SIM-based diagnostics. The unit's electronic package is constructed for small size and high thermal conductivity using proprietary printed circuit board technology, thus reducing the size of the overall camera and improving its performance when operated within the vacuum environment of the Nova laser target chamber. The camera has been calibrated and found to yield a linear response, with superior dynamic range and signal-to-noise levels as compared to T-Max 3200 optic film, while providing real-time access to the data. Limiting factors related to fielding such devices on Nova will be discussed, in addition to planned improvements of the current design

  4. The fly's eye camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, L.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.; Jaskó, A.; Vida, K.; Oláh, K.; Mezö, G.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the Fly's Eye Camera System, an all-sky monitoring device intended to perform time domain astronomy. This camera system design will provide complementary data sets for other synoptic sky surveys such as LSST or Pan-STARRS. The effective field of view is obtained by 19 cameras arranged in a spherical mosaic form. These individual cameras of the device stand on a hexapod mount that is fully capable of achieving sidereal tracking for the subsequent exposures. This platform has many advantages. First of all it requires only one type of moving component and does not include unique parts. Hence this design not only eliminates problems implied by unique elements, but the redundancy of the hexapod allows smooth operations even if one or two of the legs are stuck. In addition, it can calibrate itself by observed stars independently from both the geographical location (including northen and southern hemisphere) and the polar alignment of the full mount. All mechanical elements and electronics are designed within the confines of our institute Konkoly Observatory. Currently, our instrument is in testing phase with an operating hexapod and reduced number of cameras.

  5. Compact Optical Technique for Streak Camera Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curt Allen; Terence Davies; Frans Janson; Ronald Justin; Bruce Marshall; Oliver Sweningsen; Perry Bell; Roger Griffith; Karla Hagans; Richard Lerche

    2004-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation. To accurately reduce data from the streak cameras a temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for generating trains of precisely timed short-duration optical pulses that are suitable for temporal calibrations

  6. Making Ceramic Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squibb, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make a clay camera. This idea of creating functional cameras from clay allows students to experience ceramics, photography, and painting all in one unit. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

  7. Adapting Virtual Camera Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment aspects such as narrative and interaction completely depend on the camera since the camera defines the player’s point of view. Most research works in automatic camera control aim to take the control of this aspect from the player to automatically gen- er...

  8. The MVACS Robotic Arm Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H. U.; Hartwig, H.; Kramm, R.; Koschny, D.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Thomas, N.; Fernades, M.; Smith, P. H.; Reynolds, R.; Lemmon, M. T.; Weinberg, J.; Marcialis, R.; Tanner, R.; Boss, B. J.; Oquest, C.; Paige, D. A.

    2001-08-01

    The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) is one of the key instruments newly developed for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor payload of the Mars Polar Lander. This lightweight instrument employs a front lens with variable focus range and takes images at distances from 11 mm (image scale 1:1) to infinity. Color images with a resolution of better than 50 μm can be obtained to characterize the Martian soil. Spectral information of nearby objects is retrieved through illumination with blue, green, and red lamp sets. The design and performance of the camera are described in relation to the science objectives and operation. The RAC uses the same CCD detector array as the Surface Stereo Imager and shares the readout electronics with this camera. The RAC is mounted at the wrist of the Robotic Arm and can characterize the contents of the scoop, the samples of soil fed to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer, the Martian surface in the vicinity of the lander, and the interior of trenches dug out by the Robotic Arm. It can also be used to take panoramic images and to retrieve stereo information with an effective baseline surpassing that of the Surface Stereo Imager by about a factor of 3.

  9. Explosive Transient Camera (ETC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, George

    1991-01-01

    Since the inception of the ETC program, a wide range of new technologies was developed to support this astronomical instrument. The prototype unit was installed at ETC Site 1. The first partially automated observations were made and some major renovations were later added to the ETC hardware. The ETC was outfitted with new thermoelectrically-cooled CCD cameras and a sophisticated vacuum manifold, which, together, made the ETC a much more reliable unit than the prototype. The ETC instrumentation and building were placed under full computer control, allowing the ETC to operate as an automated, autonomous instrument with virtually no human intervention necessary. The first fully-automated operation of the ETC was performed, during which the ETC monitored the error region of the repeating soft gamma-ray burster SGR 1806-21.

  10. Radiation camera exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, R.J.; Yarsawich, M.; Wolczek, W.

    1976-01-01

    A system and method for governing the exposure of an image generated by a radiation camera to an image sensing camera is disclosed. The exposure is terminated in response to the accumulation of a predetermined quantity of radiation, defining a radiation density, occurring in a predetermined area. An index is produced which represents the value of that quantity of radiation whose accumulation causes the exposure termination. The value of the predetermined radiation quantity represented by the index is sensed so that the radiation camera image intensity can be calibrated to compensate for changes in exposure amounts due to desired variations in radiation density of the exposure, to maintain the detectability of the image by the image sensing camera notwithstanding such variations. Provision is also made for calibrating the image intensity in accordance with the sensitivity of the image sensing camera, and for locating the index for maintaining its detectability and causing the proper centering of the radiation camera image

  11. GRACE star camera noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Nate

    2016-08-01

    Extending results from previous work by Bandikova et al. (2012) and Inacio et al. (2015), this paper analyzes Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) star camera attitude measurement noise by processing inter-camera quaternions from 2003 to 2015. We describe a correction to star camera data, which will eliminate a several-arcsec twice-per-rev error with daily modulation, currently visible in the auto-covariance function of the inter-camera quaternion, from future GRACE Level-1B product releases. We also present evidence supporting the argument that thermal conditions/settings affect long-term inter-camera attitude biases by at least tens-of-arcsecs, and that several-to-tens-of-arcsecs per-rev star camera errors depend largely on field-of-view.

  12. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  13. First results from the TOPSAT camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Paul; Tosh, Ian; Morris, Nigel; Burton, Gary; Cawley, Steve

    2017-11-01

    The TopSat camera is a low cost remote sensing imager capable of producing 2.5 metre resolution panchromatic imagery, funded by the British National Space Centre's Mosaic programme. The instrument was designed and assembled at the Space Science & Technology Department of the CCLRC's Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK, and was launched on the 27th October 2005 from Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Northern Russia on a Kosmos-3M. The camera utilises an off-axis three mirror system, which has the advantages of excellent image quality over a wide field of view, combined with a compactness that makes its overall dimensions smaller than its focal length. Keeping the costs to a minimum has been a major design driver in the development of this camera. The camera is part of the TopSat mission, which is a collaboration between four UK organisations; QinetiQ, Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), RAL and Infoterra. Its objective is to demonstrate provision of rapid response high resolution imagery to fixed and mobile ground stations using a low cost minisatellite. The paper "Development of the TopSat Camera" presented by RAL at the 5th ICSO in 2004 described the opto-mechanical design, assembly, alignment and environmental test methods implemented. Now that the spacecraft is in orbit and successfully acquiring images, this paper presents the first results from the camera and makes an initial assessment of the camera's in-orbit performance.

  14. Cameras in mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummela, Ville; Viinikanoja, Jarkko; Alakarhu, Juha

    2006-04-01

    One of the fastest growing markets in consumer markets today are camera phones. During past few years total volume has been growing fast and today millions of mobile phones with camera will be sold. At the same time resolution and functionality of the cameras has been growing from CIF towards DSC level. From camera point of view the mobile world is an extremely challenging field. Cameras should have good image quality but in small size. They also need to be reliable and their construction should be suitable for mass manufacturing. All components of the imaging chain should be well optimized in this environment. Image quality and usability are the most important parameters to user. The current trend of adding more megapixels to cameras and at the same time using smaller pixels is affecting both. On the other hand reliability and miniaturization are key drivers for product development as well as the cost. In optimized solution all parameters are in balance but the process of finding the right trade-offs is not an easy task. In this paper trade-offs related to optics and their effects to image quality and usability of cameras are discussed. Key development areas from mobile phone camera point of view are also listed.

  15. Photogrammetry of the Map Instrument in a Cryogenic Vacuum Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Packard, E.; Pazar, R.

    2000-01-01

    MAP Instrument requirements dictated that the instruments Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) and Thermal Reflector System (TRS) maintain a high degree of structural integrity at operational temperatures (photogrammetry camera. This paper will discuss MAP's Instrument requirements, how those requirements were verified using photogrammetry, and the test setup used to provide the environment and camera movement needed to verify the instrument's requirements.

  16. Thermal Cameras and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal cameras are passive sensors that capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero. This type of camera was originally developed as a surveillance and night vision tool for the military, but recently the price has dropped, significantly opening up...... a broader field of applications. Deploying this type of sensor in vision systems eliminates the illumination problems of normal greyscale and RGB cameras. This survey provides an overview of the current applications of thermal cameras. Applications include animals, agriculture, buildings, gas detection......, industrial, and military applications, as well as detection, tracking, and recognition of humans. Moreover, this survey describes the nature of thermal radiation and the technology of thermal cameras....

  17. A wide field X-ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, M.; Turner, M.J.L.; Willingale, R.

    1980-01-01

    A wide field of view X-ray camera based on the Dicke or Coded Mask principle is described. It is shown that this type of instrument is more sensitive than a pin-hole camera, or than a scanning survey of a given region of sky for all wide field conditions. The design of a practical camera is discussed and the sensitivity and performance of the chosen design are evaluated by means of computer simulations. The Wiener Filter and Maximum Entropy methods of deconvolution are described and these methods are compared with each other and cross-correlation using data from the computer simulations. It is shown that the analytic expressions for sensitivity used by other workers are confirmed by the simulations, and that ghost images caused by incomplete coding can be substantially eliminated by the use of the Wiener Filter and the Maximum Entropy Method, with some penalty in computer time for the latter. The cyclic mask configuration is compared with the simple mask camera. It is shown that when the diffuse X-ray background dominates, the simple system is more sensitive and has the better angular resolution. When sources dominate the simple system is less sensitive. It is concluded that the simple coded mask camera is the best instrument for wide field imaging of the X-ray sky. (orig.)

  18. Periscope-camera system for visible and infrared imaging diagnostics on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Dimock, D.L.; Hayes, S.; Long, D.; Lowrence, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Young, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    An optical diagnostic consisting of a periscope which relays images of the torus interior to an array of cameras is used on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to view plasma discharge phenomena and inspect vacuum vessel internal structures in both visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Three periscopes view through 20-cm-diameter fused-silica windows which are spaced around the torus midplane to provide a viewing coverage of approximately 75% of the vacuum vessel internal surface area. The periscopes have f/8 optics and motor-driven controls for focusing, magnification selection (5 0 , 20 0 , and 60 0 field of view), elevation and azimuth setting, mast rotation, filter selection, iris aperture, and viewing port selection. The four viewing ports on each periscope are equipped with multiple imaging devices which include: (1) an inspection eyepiece, (2) standard (RCA TC2900) and fast (RETICON) framing rate television cameras, (3) a PtSi CCD infrared imaging camera, (4) a 35 mm Nikon F3 still camera, or (5) a 16 mm Locam II movie camera with variable framing up to 500 fps. Operation of the periscope-camera system is controlled either locally or remotely through a computer-CAMAC interface. A description of the equipment and examples of its application are presented

  19. Periscope-camera system for visible and infrared imaging diagnostics on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Dimock, D.L.; Hayes, S.; Long, D.; Lowrance, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Young, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    An optical diagnostic consisting of a periscope which relays images of the torus interior to an array of cameras is used on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to view plasma discharge phenomena and inspect the vacuum vessel internal structures in both the visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Three periscopes view through 20-cm-diam fused-silica windows which are spaced around the torus midplane to provide a viewing coverage of approximately 75% of the vacuum vessel internal surface area. The periscopes have f/8 optics and motor-driven controls for focusing, magnification selection (5 0 , 20 0 , and 60 0 field of view), elevation and azimuth setting, mast rotation, filter selection, iris aperture, and viewing port selection. The four viewing ports on each periscope are equipped with multiple imaging devices which include: (1) an inspection eyepiece, (2) standard (RCA TC2900) and fast (RETICON) framing rate television cameras, (3) a PtSi CCD infrared imaging camera, (4) a 35-mm Nikon F3 still camera, or (5) a 16-mm Locam II movie camera with variable framing rate up to 500 fps. Operation of the periscope-camera system is controlled either locally or remotely through a computer-CAMAC interface. A description of the equipment and examples of its application are presented

  20. Imacon 600 ultrafast streak camera evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, T.C.; Coleman, L.W.

    1975-01-01

    The Imacon 600 has a number of designed in disadvantages for use as an ultrafast diagnostic instrument. The unit is physically large (approximately 5' long) and uses an external power supply rack for the image intensifier. Water cooling is required for the intensifier; it is quiet but not conducive to portability. There is no interlock on the cooling water. The camera does have several switch selectable sweep speeds. This is desirable if one is working with both slow and fast events. The camera can be run in a framing mode. (MOW)

  1. Advanced CCD camera developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condor, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  2. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.; Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed description is given of a novel gamma camera which is designed to produce superior images than conventional cameras used in nuclear medicine. The detector consists of a solid state detector (e.g. germanium) which is formed to have a plurality of discrete components to enable 2-dimensional position identification. Details of the electronic processing circuits are given and the problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

  3. Neutron cameras for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.C.; Barnes, C.W.; Batistoni, P.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron cameras with horizontal and vertical views have been designed for ITER, based on systems used on JET and TFTR. The cameras consist of fan-shaped arrays of collimated flight tubes, with suitably chosen detectors situated outside the biological shield. The sight lines view the ITER plasma through slots in the shield blanket and penetrate the vacuum vessel, cryostat, and biological shield through stainless steel windows. This paper analyzes the expected performance of several neutron camera arrangements for ITER. In addition to the reference designs, the authors examine proposed compact cameras, in which neutron fluxes are inferred from 16 N decay gammas in dedicated flowing water loops, and conventional cameras with fewer sight lines and more limited fields of view than in the reference designs. It is shown that the spatial sampling provided by the reference designs is sufficient to satisfy target measurement requirements and that some reduction in field of view may be permissible. The accuracy of measurements with 16 N-based compact cameras is not yet established, and they fail to satisfy requirements for parameter range and time resolution by large margins

  4. Application of single-image camera calibration for ultrasound augmented laparoscopic visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Su, He; Kang, Sukryool; Kane, Timothy D; Shekhar, Raj

    2015-03-01

    Accurate calibration of laparoscopic cameras is essential for enabling many surgical visualization and navigation technologies such as the ultrasound-augmented visualization system that we have developed for laparoscopic surgery. In addition to accuracy and robustness, there is a practical need for a fast and easy camera calibration method that can be performed on demand in the operating room (OR). Conventional camera calibration methods are not suitable for the OR use because they are lengthy and tedious. They require acquisition of multiple images of a target pattern in its entirety to produce satisfactory result. In this work, we evaluated the performance of a single-image camera calibration tool ( rdCalib ; Percieve3D, Coimbra, Portugal) featuring automatic detection of corner points in the image, whether partial or complete, of a custom target pattern. Intrinsic camera parameters of a 5-mm and a 10-mm standard Stryker ® laparoscopes obtained using rdCalib and the well-accepted OpenCV camera calibration method were compared. Target registration error (TRE) as a measure of camera calibration accuracy for our optical tracking-based AR system was also compared between the two calibration methods. Based on our experiments, the single-image camera calibration yields consistent and accurate results (mean TRE = 1.18 ± 0.35 mm for the 5-mm scope and mean TRE = 1.13 ± 0.32 mm for the 10-mm scope), which are comparable to the results obtained using the OpenCV method with 30 images. The new single-image camera calibration method is promising to be applied to our augmented reality visualization system for laparoscopic surgery.

  5. Application of single-image camera calibration for ultrasound augmented laparoscopic visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Su, He; Kang, Sukryool; Kane, Timothy D.; Shekhar, Raj

    2015-03-01

    Accurate calibration of laparoscopic cameras is essential for enabling many surgical visualization and navigation technologies such as the ultrasound-augmented visualization system that we have developed for laparoscopic surgery. In addition to accuracy and robustness, there is a practical need for a fast and easy camera calibration method that can be performed on demand in the operating room (OR). Conventional camera calibration methods are not suitable for the OR use because they are lengthy and tedious. They require acquisition of multiple images of a target pattern in its entirety to produce satisfactory result. In this work, we evaluated the performance of a single-image camera calibration tool (rdCalib; Percieve3D, Coimbra, Portugal) featuring automatic detection of corner points in the image, whether partial or complete, of a custom target pattern. Intrinsic camera parameters of a 5-mm and a 10-mm standard Stryker® laparoscopes obtained using rdCalib and the well-accepted OpenCV camera calibration method were compared. Target registration error (TRE) as a measure of camera calibration accuracy for our optical tracking-based AR system was also compared between the two calibration methods. Based on our experiments, the single-image camera calibration yields consistent and accurate results (mean TRE = 1.18 ± 0.35 mm for the 5-mm scope and mean TRE = 1.13 ± 0.32 mm for the 10-mm scope), which are comparable to the results obtained using the OpenCV method with 30 images. The new single-image camera calibration method is promising to be applied to our augmented reality visualization system for laparoscopic surgery.

  6. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  7. Long wavelength infrared camera (LWIRC): a 10 micron camera for the Keck Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wishnow, E.H.; Danchi, W.C.; Tuthill, P.; Wurtz, R.; Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.F.

    1998-05-01

    The Long Wavelength Infrared Camera (LWIRC) is a facility instrument for the Keck Observatory designed to operate at the f/25 forward Cassegrain focus of the Keck I telescope. The camera operates over the wavelength band 7-13 {micro}m using ZnSe transmissive optics. A set of filters, a circular variable filter (CVF), and a mid-infrared polarizer are available, as are three plate scales: 0.05``, 0.10``, 0.21`` per pixel. The camera focal plane array and optics are cooled using liquid helium. The system has been refurbished with a 128 x 128 pixel Si:As detector array. The electronics readout system used to clock the array is compatible with both the hardware and software of the other Keck infrared instruments NIRC and LWS. A new pre-amplifier/A-D converter has been designed and constructed which decreases greatly the system susceptibility to noise.

  8. Commercialization of radiation tolerant camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Sun Ku; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Bung Hun; Lee, Nam Ho; Byun, Eiy Gyo; Yoo, Seun Wook; Choi, Bum Ki; Yoon, Sung Up; Kim, Hyun Gun; Sin, Jeong Hun; So, Suk Il

    1999-12-01

    In this project, radiation tolerant camera which tolerates 10{sup 6} - 10{sup 8} rad total dose is developed. In order to develop radiation tolerant camera, radiation effect of camera components was examined and evaluated, and camera configuration was studied. By the result of evaluation, the components were decided and design was performed. Vidicon tube was selected to use by image sensor and non-browning optics and camera driving circuit were applied. The controller needed for CCTV camera system, lens, light, pan/tilt controller, was designed by the concept of remote control. And two type of radiation tolerant camera were fabricated consider to use in underwater environment or normal environment. (author)

  9. Commercialization of radiation tolerant camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Sun Ku; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Bung Hun; Lee, Nam Ho; Byun, Eiy Gyo; Yoo, Seun Wook; Choi, Bum Ki; Yoon, Sung Up; Kim, Hyun Gun; Sin, Jeong Hun; So, Suk Il

    1999-12-01

    In this project, radiation tolerant camera which tolerates 10 6 - 10 8 rad total dose is developed. In order to develop radiation tolerant camera, radiation effect of camera components was examined and evaluated, and camera configuration was studied. By the result of evaluation, the components were decided and design was performed. Vidicon tube was selected to use by image sensor and non-browning optics and camera driving circuit were applied. The controller needed for CCTV camera system, lens, light, pan/tilt controller, was designed by the concept of remote control. And two type of radiation tolerant camera were fabricated consider to use in underwater environment or normal environment. (author)

  10. Soft x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the development and of the current state of the art in picosecond soft x-ray streak camera technology. Accomplishments from a number of institutions are discussed. X-ray streak cameras vary from standard visible streak camera designs in the use of an x-ray transmitting window and an x-ray sensitive photocathode. The spectral sensitivity range of these instruments includes portions of the near UV and extends from the subkilovolt x- ray region to several tens of kilovolts. Attendant challenges encountered in the design and use of x-ray streak cameras include the accommodation of high-voltage and vacuum requirements, as well as manipulation of a photocathode structure which is often fragile. The x-ray transmitting window is generally too fragile to withstand atmospheric pressure, necessitating active vacuum pumping and a vacuum line of sight to the x-ray signal source. Because of the difficulty of manipulating x-ray beams with conventional optics, as is done with visible light, the size of the photocathode sensing area, access to the front of the tube, the ability to insert the streak tube into a vacuum chamber and the capability to trigger the sweep with very short internal delay times are issues uniquely relevant to x-ray streak camera use. The physics of electron imaging may place more stringent limitations on the temporal and spatial resolution obtainable with x-ray photocathodes than with the visible counterpart. Other issues which are common to the entire streak camera community also concern the x-ray streak camera users and manufacturers

  11. Selective-imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Landa, Joseph; Cha, Jae H.; Krapels, Keith A.

    2015-05-01

    How can we design cameras that image selectively in Full Electro-Magnetic (FEM) spectra? Without selective imaging, we cannot use, for example, ordinary tourist cameras to see through fire, smoke, or other obscurants contributing to creating a Visually Degraded Environment (VDE). This paper addresses a possible new design of selective-imaging cameras at firmware level. The design is consistent with physics of the irreversible thermodynamics of Boltzmann's molecular entropy. It enables imaging in appropriate FEM spectra for sensing through the VDE, and displaying in color spectra for Human Visual System (HVS). We sense within the spectra the largest entropy value of obscurants such as fire, smoke, etc. Then we apply a smart firmware implementation of Blind Sources Separation (BSS) to separate all entropy sources associated with specific Kelvin temperatures. Finally, we recompose the scene using specific RGB colors constrained by the HVS, by up/down shifting Planck spectra at each pixel and time.

  12. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector rings positioned side-by-side or offset by one-half of the detector cross section around a patient area to detect radiation therefrom. Each detector ring or offset ring includes a plurality of photomultiplier tubes and a plurality of scintillation crystals are positioned relative to the photomultiplier tubes whereby each tube is responsive to more than one crystal. Each alternate crystal in the ring is offset by one-half or less of the thickness of the crystal such that the staggered crystals are seen by more than one photomultiplier tube. This sharing of crystals and photomultiplier tubes allows identification of the staggered crystal and the use of smaller detectors shared by larger photomultiplier tubes thereby requiring less photomultiplier tubes, creating more scanning slices, providing better data sampling, and reducing the cost of the camera. The offset detector ring geometry reduces the costs of the positron camera and improves its performance

  13. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...

  14. The world's fastest camera

    CERN Multimedia

    Piquepaille, Roland

    2006-01-01

    This image processor is not your typical digital camera. It took 6 years to 20 people and $6 million to build the "Regional Calorimeter Trigger"(RCT) which will be a component of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, one of the detectors on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland (1 page)

  15. Camera network video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rameswar; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K.

    2017-05-01

    Networks of vision sensors are deployed in many settings, ranging from security needs to disaster response to environmental monitoring. Many of these setups have hundreds of cameras and tens of thousands of hours of video. The difficulty of analyzing such a massive volume of video data is apparent whenever there is an incident that requires foraging through vast video archives to identify events of interest. As a result, video summarization, that automatically extract a brief yet informative summary of these videos, has attracted intense attention in the recent years. Much progress has been made in developing a variety of ways to summarize a single video in form of a key sequence or video skim. However, generating a summary from a set of videos captured in a multi-camera network still remains as a novel and largely under-addressed problem. In this paper, with the aim of summarizing videos in a camera network, we introduce a novel representative selection approach via joint embedding and capped l21-norm minimization. The objective function is two-fold. The first is to capture the structural relationships of data points in a camera network via an embedding, which helps in characterizing the outliers and also in extracting a diverse set of representatives. The second is to use a capped l21-norm to model the sparsity and to suppress the influence of data outliers in representative selection. We propose to jointly optimize both of the objectives, such that embedding can not only characterize the structure, but also indicate the requirements of sparse representative selection. Extensive experiments on standard multi-camera datasets well demonstrate the efficacy of our method over state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Camera Traps Can Be Heard and Seen by Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Paul D.; Ballard, Guy-Anthony; Fleming, Peter J. S.; Schaefer, Michael; Williams, Warwick; Falzon, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps are electrical instruments that emit sounds and light. In recent decades they have become a tool of choice in wildlife research and monitoring. The variability between camera trap models and the methods used are considerable, and little is known about how animals respond to camera trap emissions. It has been reported that some animals show a response to camera traps, and in research this is often undesirable so it is important to understand why the animals are disturbed. We conducted laboratory based investigations to test the audio and infrared optical outputs of 12 camera trap models. Camera traps were measured for audio outputs in an anechoic chamber; we also measured ultrasonic (n = 5) and infrared illumination outputs (n = 7) of a subset of the camera trap models. We then compared the perceptive hearing range (n = 21) and assessed the vision ranges (n = 3) of mammals species (where data existed) to determine if animals can see and hear camera traps. We report that camera traps produce sounds that are well within the perceptive range of most mammals’ hearing and produce illumination that can be seen by many species. PMID:25354356

  17. Camera traps can be heard and seen by animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Meek

    Full Text Available Camera traps are electrical instruments that emit sounds and light. In recent decades they have become a tool of choice in wildlife research and monitoring. The variability between camera trap models and the methods used are considerable, and little is known about how animals respond to camera trap emissions. It has been reported that some animals show a response to camera traps, and in research this is often undesirable so it is important to understand why the animals are disturbed. We conducted laboratory based investigations to test the audio and infrared optical outputs of 12 camera trap models. Camera traps were measured for audio outputs in an anechoic chamber; we also measured ultrasonic (n = 5 and infrared illumination outputs (n = 7 of a subset of the camera trap models. We then compared the perceptive hearing range (n = 21 and assessed the vision ranges (n = 3 of mammals species (where data existed to determine if animals can see and hear camera traps. We report that camera traps produce sounds that are well within the perceptive range of most mammals' hearing and produce illumination that can be seen by many species.

  18. Characterization of SWIR cameras by MRC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, M.; Schlemmer, H.; Haan, Hubertus A.; Siemens, Christofer; Münzberg, M.

    2014-05-01

    Cameras for the SWIR wavelength range are becoming more and more important because of the better observation range for day-light operation under adverse weather conditions (haze, fog, rain). In order to choose the best suitable SWIR camera or to qualify a camera for a given application, characterization of the camera by means of the Minimum Resolvable Contrast MRC concept is favorable as the MRC comprises all relevant properties of the instrument. With the MRC known for a given camera device the achievable observation range can be calculated for every combination of target size, illumination level or weather conditions. MRC measurements in the SWIR wavelength band can be performed widely along the guidelines of the MRC measurements of a visual camera. Typically measurements are performed with a set of resolution targets (e.g. USAF 1951 target) manufactured with different contrast values from 50% down to less than 1%. For a given illumination level the achievable spatial resolution is then measured for each target. The resulting curve is showing the minimum contrast that is necessary to resolve the structure of a target as a function of spatial frequency. To perform MRC measurements for SWIR cameras at first the irradiation parameters have to be given in radiometric instead of photometric units which are limited in their use to the visible range. In order to do so, SWIR illumination levels for typical daylight and twilight conditions have to be defined. At second, a radiation source is necessary with appropriate emission in the SWIR range (e.g. incandescent lamp) and the irradiance has to be measured in W/m2 instead of Lux = Lumen/m2. At third, the contrast values of the targets have to be calibrated newly for the SWIR range because they typically differ from the values determined for the visual range. Measured MRC values of three cameras are compared to the specified performance data of the devices and the results of a multi-band in-house designed Vis-SWIR camera

  19. Construction of a frameless camera-based stereotactic neuronavigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, A; Algorri, M E

    2004-01-01

    We built an infrared vision system to be used as the real time 3D motion sensor in a prototype low cost, high precision, frameless neuronavigator. The objective of the prototype is to develop accessible technology for increased availability of neuronavigation systems in research labs and small clinics and hospitals. We present our choice of technology including camera and IR emitter characteristics. We describe the methodology for setting up the 3D motion sensor, from the arrangement of the cameras and the IR emitters on surgical instruments, to triangulation equations from stereo camera pairs, high bandwidth computer communication with the cameras and real time image processing algorithms. We briefly cover the issues of camera calibration and characterization. Although our performance results do not yet fully meet the high precision, real time requirements of neuronavigation systems we describe the current improvements being made to the 3D motion sensor that will make it suitable for surgical applications.

  20. Use of a color CMOS camera as a colorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, William J.; Roehrig, Hans; Redford, Gary R.

    2006-08-01

    In radiology diagnosis, film is being quickly replaced by computer monitors as the display medium for all imaging modalities. Increasingly, these monitors are color instead of monochrome. It is important to have instruments available to characterize the display devices in order to guarantee reproducible presentation of image material. We are developing an imaging colorimeter based on a commercially available color digital camera. The camera uses a sensor that has co-located pixels in all three primary colors.

  1. ARNICA, the Arcetri near-infrared camera: Astronomical performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. K.; Lisi, F.; Testi, L.; Baffa, C.; Borelli, S.; Maiolino, R.; Moriondo, G.; Stanga, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    The Arcetri near-infrared camera ARNICA was built as a users' instrument for the Infrared Telescope at Gornergrat (TIRGO), and is based on a 256x256 NICMOS 3 detector. In this paper, we discuss ARNICA's optical and astronomical performance at the TIRGO and at the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma. Optical performance is evaluated in terms of plate scale, distortion, point spread function, and ghosting. Astronomical performance is characterized by camera efficiency, sensitivity, and spatial uniformity of the photometry.

  2. Dual cameras acquisition and display system of retina-like sensor camera and rectangular sensor camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Cao, Fengmei; Lin, Yabin; Bai, Tingzhu; Song, Shengyu

    2015-04-01

    For a new kind of retina-like senor camera and a traditional rectangular sensor camera, dual cameras acquisition and display system need to be built. We introduce the principle and the development of retina-like senor. Image coordinates transformation and interpolation based on sub-pixel interpolation need to be realized for our retina-like sensor's special pixels distribution. The hardware platform is composed of retina-like senor camera, rectangular sensor camera, image grabber and PC. Combined the MIL and OpenCV library, the software program is composed in VC++ on VS 2010. Experience results show that the system can realizes two cameras' acquisition and display.

  3. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector rings positioned side-by-side or offset by one-half of the detector cross section around a patient area to detect radiation therefrom. Each ring contains a plurality of scintillation detectors which are positioned around an inner circumference with a septum ring extending inwardly from the inner circumference along each outer edge of each ring. An additional septum ring is positioned in the middle of each ring of detectors and parallel to the other septa rings, whereby the inward extent of all the septa rings may be reduced by one-half and the number of detectors required in each ring is reduced. The additional septa reduces the costs of the positron camera and improves its performance

  4. Gamma ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-H.; Robbins, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    An Anger gamma ray camera is improved by the substitution of a gamma ray sensitive, proximity type image intensifier tube for the scintillator screen in the Anger camera. The image intensifier tube has a negatively charged flat scintillator screen, a flat photocathode layer, and a grounded, flat output phosphor display screen, all of which have the same dimension to maintain unit image magnification; all components are contained within a grounded metallic tube, with a metallic, inwardly curved input window between the scintillator screen and a collimator. The display screen can be viewed by an array of photomultipliers or solid state detectors. There are two photocathodes and two phosphor screens to give a two stage intensification, the two stages being optically coupled by a light guide. (author)

  5. NSTX Tangential Divertor Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquemore, A.L.; Ted Biewer; Johnson, D.; Zweben, S.J.; Nobuhiro Nishino; Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Strong magnetic field shear around the divertor x-point is numerically predicted to lead to strong spatial asymmetries in turbulence driven particle fluxes. To visualize the turbulence and associated impurity line emission near the lower x-point region, a new tangential observation port has been recently installed on NSTX. A reentrant sapphire window with a moveable in-vessel mirror images the divertor region from the center stack out to R 80 cm and views the x-point for most plasma configurations. A coherent fiber optic bundle transmits the image through a remotely selected filter to a fast camera, for example a 40500 frames/sec Photron CCD camera. A gas puffer located in the lower inboard divertor will localize the turbulence in the region near the x-point. Edge fluid and turbulent codes UEDGE and BOUT will be used to interpret impurity and deuterium emission fluctuation measurements in the divertor

  6. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  7. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  8. Comparison of polarimetric cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget , Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188...polarimetric camera, remote sensing, space systems 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 93 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18...2016. Hermann Hall, Monterey, CA. The next data in Figure 37. were collected on 01 December 2016 at 1226 PST on the rooftop of the Marriot Hotel in

  9. The AOTF-Based NO2 Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekemper, E.; Fussen, D.; Vanhellemont, F.; Vanhamel, J.; Pieroux, D.; Berkenbosch, S.

    2017-12-01

    In an urban environment, nitrogen dioxide is emitted by a multitude of static and moving point sources (cars, industry, power plants, heating systems,…). Air quality models generally rely on a limited number of monitoring stations which do not capture the whole pattern, neither allow for full validation. So far, there has been a lack of instrument capable of measuring NO2 fields with the necessary spatio-temporal resolution above major point sources (power plants), or more extended ones (cities). We have developed a new type of passive remote sensing instrument aiming at the measurement of 2-D distributions of NO2 slant column densities (SCDs) with a high spatial (meters) and temporal (minutes) resolution. The measurement principle has some similarities with the popular filter-based SO2 camera (used in volcanic and industrial sulfur emissions monitoring) as it relies on spectral images taken at wavelengths where the molecule absorption cross section is different. But contrary to the SO2 camera, the spectral selection is performed by an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) capable of resolving the target molecule's spectral features. A first prototype was successfully tested with the plume of a coal-firing power plant in Romania, revealing the dynamics of the formation of NO2 in the early plume. A lighter version of the NO2 camera is now being tested on other targets, such as oil refineries and urban air masses.

  10. Radiation-resistant camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Takao; Manabe, Sohei; Makishima, Yasuhiro

    1982-01-01

    It was a long time ago that Toshiba launched on manufacturing black-and-white radiation-resistant camera tubes employing nonbrowning face-plate glass for ITV cameras used in nuclear power plants. Now in compliance with the increasing demand in nuclear power field, the Company is at grips with the development of radiation-resistant single color-camera tubes incorporating a color-stripe filter for color ITV cameras used under radiation environment. Herein represented are the results of experiments on characteristics of materials for single color-camera tubes and prospects for commercialization of the tubes. (author)

  11. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    section unearths what characterizes the literature on camera movement. The second section of the dissertation delineates the history of camera movement itself within narrative cinema. Several organizational principles subtending the on-screen effect of camera movement are revealed in section two...... but they are not organized into a coherent framework. This is the task that section three meets in proposing a functional taxonomy for camera movement in narrative cinema. Two presumptions subtend the taxonomy: That camera movement actively contributes to the way in which we understand the sound and images on the screen......, commentative or valuative manner. 4) Focalization: associating the movement of the camera with the viewpoints of characters or entities in the story world. 5) Reflexive: inviting spectators to engage with the artifice of camera movement. 6) Abstract: visualizing abstract ideas and concepts. In order...

  12. Automatic inference of geometric camera parameters and inter-camera topology in uncalibrated disjoint surveillance cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Eendebak, Pieter T.; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.

    2015-10-01

    Person tracking across non-overlapping cameras and other types of video analytics benefit from spatial calibration information that allows an estimation of the distance between cameras and a relation between pixel coordinates and world coordinates within a camera. In a large environment with many cameras, or for frequent ad-hoc deployments of cameras, the cost of this calibration is high. This creates a barrier for the use of video analytics. Automating the calibration allows for a short configuration time, and the use of video analytics in a wider range of scenarios, including ad-hoc crisis situations and large scale surveillance systems. We show an autocalibration method entirely based on pedestrian detections in surveillance video in multiple non-overlapping cameras. In this paper, we show the two main components of automatic calibration. The first shows the intra-camera geometry estimation that leads to an estimate of the tilt angle, focal length and camera height, which is important for the conversion from pixels to meters and vice versa. The second component shows the inter-camera topology inference that leads to an estimate of the distance between cameras, which is important for spatio-temporal analysis of multi-camera tracking. This paper describes each of these methods and provides results on realistic video data.

  13. World's fastest and most sensitive astronomical camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The next generation of instruments for ground-based telescopes took a leap forward with the development of a new ultra-fast camera that can take 1500 finely exposed images per second even when observing extremely faint objects. The first 240x240 pixel images with the world's fastest high precision faint light camera were obtained through a collaborative effort between ESO and three French laboratories from the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (CNRS/INSU). Cameras such as this are key components of the next generation of adaptive optics instruments of Europe's ground-based astronomy flagship facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). ESO PR Photo 22a/09 The CCD220 detector ESO PR Photo 22b/09 The OCam camera ESO PR Video 22a/09 OCam images "The performance of this breakthrough camera is without an equivalent anywhere in the world. The camera will enable great leaps forward in many areas of the study of the Universe," says Norbert Hubin, head of the Adaptive Optics department at ESO. OCam will be part of the second-generation VLT instrument SPHERE. To be installed in 2011, SPHERE will take images of giant exoplanets orbiting nearby stars. A fast camera such as this is needed as an essential component for the modern adaptive optics instruments used on the largest ground-based telescopes. Telescopes on the ground suffer from the blurring effect induced by atmospheric turbulence. This turbulence causes the stars to twinkle in a way that delights poets, but frustrates astronomers, since it blurs the finest details of the images. Adaptive optics techniques overcome this major drawback, so that ground-based telescopes can produce images that are as sharp as if taken from space. Adaptive optics is based on real-time corrections computed from images obtained by a special camera working at very high speeds. Nowadays, this means many hundreds of times each second. The new generation instruments require these

  14. Compact Optical Technique for Streak Camera Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P; Griffith, R; Hagans, K; Lerche, R; Allen, C; Davies, T; Janson, F; Justin, R; Marshall, B; Sweningsen, O

    2004-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation. To accurately reduce data from the streak cameras a temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for generating trains of precisely timed short-duration optical pulses1 (optical comb generators) that are suitable for temporal calibrations. These optical comb generators (Figure 1) are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced, optical pulses. Comb generators have been produced with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, and 10-GHz pulse trains of 780-nm wavelength light with individual pulse durations of ∼25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector. Signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fibers. At the NIF, ultra-fast streak-cameras are used by the Laser Fusion Program experimentalists to record fast transient optical signals. Their temporal resolution is unmatched by any other transient recorder. Their ability to spatially discriminate an image along the input slit allows them to function as a one-dimensional image recorder, time-resolved spectrometer, or multichannel transient recorder. Depending on the choice of photocathode, they can be made sensitive to photon energies from 1.1 eV to 30 keV and beyond. Comb generators perform two important functions for LLNL streak-camera users. First, comb generators are used as a precision time-mark generator for calibrating streak camera sweep rates. Accuracy is achieved by averaging many streak camera images of comb generator signals. Time-base calibrations with portable comb generators are easily done in both the calibration laboratory and in situ. Second, comb signals are applied

  15. Video Chat with Multiple Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    MacCormick, John

    2012-01-01

    The dominant paradigm for video chat employs a single camera at each end of the conversation, but some conversations can be greatly enhanced by using multiple cameras at one or both ends. This paper provides the first rigorous investigation of multi-camera video chat, concentrating especially on the ability of users to switch between views at either end of the conversation. A user study of 23 individuals analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of permitting a user to switch between views at...

  16. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  17. A Motionless Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Omniview, a motionless, noiseless, exceptionally versatile camera was developed for NASA as a receiving device for guiding space robots. The system can see in one direction and provide as many as four views simultaneously. Developed by Omniview, Inc. (formerly TRI) under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, the system's image transformation electronics produce a real-time image from anywhere within a hemispherical field. Lens distortion is removed, and a corrected "flat" view appears on a monitor. Key elements are a high resolution charge coupled device (CCD), image correction circuitry and a microcomputer for image processing. The system can be adapted to existing installations. Applications include security and surveillance, teleconferencing, imaging, virtual reality, broadcast video and military operations. Omniview technology is now called IPIX. The company was founded in 1986 as TeleRobotics International, became Omniview in 1995, and changed its name to Interactive Pictures Corporation in 1997.

  18. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma camera system having control components operating in conjunction with a solid state detector is described. The detector is formed of a plurality of discrete components which are associated in geometrical or coordinate arrangement defining a detector matrix to derive coordinate signal outputs. These outputs are selectively filtered and summed to form coordinate channel signals and corresponding energy channel signals. A control feature of the invention regulates the noted summing and filtering performance to derive data acceptance signals which are addressed to further treating components. The latter components include coordinate and enery channel multiplexers as well as energy-responsive selective networks. A sequential control is provided for regulating the signal processing functions of the system to derive an overall imaging cycle

  19. Positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of detector planes positioned side-by-side around a patient area to detect radiation. Each plane includes a plurality of photomultiplier tubes and at least two rows of scintillation crystals on each photomultiplier tube extend across to adjacent photomultiplier tubes for detecting radiation from the patient area. Each row of crystals on each photomultiplier tube is offset from the other rows of crystals, and the area of each crystal on each tube in each row is different than the area of the crystals on the tube in other rows for detecting which crystal is actuated and allowing the detector to detect more inter-plane slides. The crystals are offset by an amount equal to the length of the crystal divided by the number of rows. The rows of crystals on opposite sides of the patient may be rotated 90 degrees relative to each other

  20. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... repeatedly to convey the feeling of a man and a woman falling in love. This raises the question of why producers and directors choose certain stylistic features to narrate certain categories of content. Through the analysis of several short film and TV clips, this article explores whether...... or not there are perceptual aspects related to specific stylistic features that enable them to be used for delimited narrational purposes. The article further attempts to reopen this particular stylistic debate by exploring the embodied aspects of visual perception in relation to specific stylistic features...

  1. Automatic locking radioisotope camera lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosauer, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The lock of the present invention secures the isotope source in a stored shielded condition in the camera until a positive effort has been made to open the lock and take the source outside of the camera and prevents disconnection of the source pigtail unless the source is locked in a shielded condition in the camera. It also gives a visual indication of the locked or possible exposed condition of the isotope source and prevents the source pigtail from being completely pushed out of the camera, even when the lock is released. (author)

  2. Diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases by means of a scintillation camera with radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domeki, Kin-ichi [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1975-01-01

    Hemodynamic studies of cardiovascular disease were made on 318 patients ranging in age from 2 months to 87 years, and the diagnostic usefulness of the scinatillation camera with radioistope was evaluated forty five of the patients (aged 5 to 24), considered to be normal, were used for computing normal values. Equipment consisted of a Pho/Gamma III type scintillation camera, a 35 mm time lapse camera and a 1600 word memory sytem. Radio-pharmaceuticals used for the study were sup(113m)In and sup(99m)-Tc. Administration of the isotope was by arm injection, allowing it to pass through the heart chamber and major blood vessels as a large bolus of radioactivity. For children 3 years and under, a pinhole collimater was employed to magnify cardiac images and enhance resolution. In septal defects, right left shunting was easier to demonstrate than was left right. Atrial and/or ventricular changes in valvular disease were readily observed on the radio-angiogram and corresponded to the degree of damage. Increased blood pooling was also demonstrable. Hemodynamic changes in each chamber were established by the drafting of an isotope dilution curve, and the C/sub 2/ C, ratio, expressed as a percentage, was obtained from the curve. This safe, low risk radionuclide evaluation of the heart and major blood vessels was found to be an excellent method for use in making diagnoses of congenital heart disease, aneurysmss and obstructure arterial disease as well as for evaluating their severity.

  3. The "All Sky Camera Network"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Andy

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the "All Sky Camera Network" came to life as an outreach program to connect the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS) exhibit "Space Odyssey" with Colorado schools. The network is comprised of cameras placed strategically at schools throughout Colorado to capture fireballs--rare events that produce meteorites.…

  4. The Eye of the Camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Vonk, Dorette J.; Fransen, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the effects of security cameras on prosocial behavior. Results from previous studies indicate that the presence of others can trigger helping behavior, arising from the need for approval of others. Extending these findings, the authors propose that security cameras can likewise

  5. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The invention provides a composite solid state detector for use in deriving a display, by spatial coordinate information, of the distribution or radiation emanating from a source within a region of interest, comprising several solid state detector components, each having a given surface arranged for exposure to impinging radiation and exhibiting discrete interactions therewith at given spatially definable locations. The surface of each component and the surface disposed opposite and substantially parallel thereto are associated with impedence means configured to provide for each opposed surface outputs for signals relating the given location of the interactions with one spatial coordinate parameter of one select directional sense. The detector components are arranged to provide groupings of adjacently disposed surfaces mutually linearly oriented to exhibit a common directional sense of the spatial coordinate parameter. Means interconnect at least two of the outputs associated with each of the surfaces within a given grouping for collecting the signals deriving therefrom. The invention also provides a camera system for imaging the distribution of a source of gamma radiation situated within a region of interest

  6. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  7. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  8. X-Ray Powder Diffraction with Guinier - Haegg Focusing Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Allan

    1970-12-15

    The Guinier - Haegg focusing camera is discussed with reference to its use as an instrument for rapid phase analysis. An actual camera and the alignment procedure employed in its setting up are described. The results obtained with the instrument are compared with those obtained with Debye - Scherrer cameras and powder diffractometers. Exposure times of 15 - 30 minutes with compounds of simple structure are roughly one-sixth of those required for Debye - Scherrer patterns. Coupled with the lower background resulting from the use of a monochromatic X-ray beam, the shorter exposure time gives a ten-fold increase in sensitivity for the detection of minor phases as compared with the Debye - Scherrer camera. Attention is paid to the precautions taken to obtain reliable Bragg angles from Guinier - Haegg film measurements, with particular reference to calibration procedures. The evaluation of unit cell parameters from Guinier - Haegg data is discussed together with the application of tests for the presence of angle-dependent systematic errors. It is concluded that with proper calibration procedures and least squares treatment of the data, accuracies of the order of 0.005% are attainable. A compilation of diffraction data for a number of compounds examined in the Active Central Laboratory at Studsvik is presented to exemplify the scope of this type of powder camera.

  9. X-Ray Powder Diffraction with Guinier - Haegg Focusing Cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Allan

    1970-12-01

    The Guinier - Haegg focusing camera is discussed with reference to its use as an instrument for rapid phase analysis. An actual camera and the alignment procedure employed in its setting up are described. The results obtained with the instrument are compared with those obtained with Debye - Scherrer cameras and powder diffractometers. Exposure times of 15 - 30 minutes with compounds of simple structure are roughly one-sixth of those required for Debye - Scherrer patterns. Coupled with the lower background resulting from the use of a monochromatic X-ray beam, the shorter exposure time gives a ten-fold increase in sensitivity for the detection of minor phases as compared with the Debye - Scherrer camera. Attention is paid to the precautions taken to obtain reliable Bragg angles from Guinier - Haegg film measurements, with particular reference to calibration procedures. The evaluation of unit cell parameters from Guinier - Haegg data is discussed together with the application of tests for the presence of angle-dependent systematic errors. It is concluded that with proper calibration procedures and least squares treatment of the data, accuracies of the order of 0.005% are attainable. A compilation of diffraction data for a number of compounds examined in the Active Central Laboratory at Studsvik is presented to exemplify the scope of this type of powder camera

  10. Development of underwater camera using high-definition camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kenji; Watanabe, Masato; Takashima, Masanobu; Kawamura, Shingo; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the time for core verification or visual inspection of BWR fuels, the underwater camera using a High-Definition camera has been developed. As a result of this development, the underwater camera has 2 lights and 370 x 400 x 328mm dimensions and 20.5kg weight. Using the camera, 6 or so spent-fuel IDs are identified at 1 or 1.5m distance at a time, and 0.3mmφ pin-hole is recognized at 1.5m distance and 20 times zoom-up. Noises caused by radiation less than 15 Gy/h are not affected the images. (author)

  11. Underwater television camera for monitoring inner side of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Kazuhiko.

    1997-01-01

    An underwater television support device equipped with a rotatable and vertically movable underwater television camera and an underwater television camera controlling device for monitoring images of the inside of the reactor core photographed by the underwater television camera to control the position of the underwater television camera and the underwater light are disposed on an upper lattice plate of a reactor pressure vessel. Both of them are electrically connected with each other by way of a cable to rapidly observe the inside of the reactor core by the underwater television camera. The reproducibility is extremely satisfactory by efficiently concentrating the position of the camera and image information upon inspection and observation. As a result, the steps for periodical inspection can be reduced to shorten the days for the periodical inspection. Since there is no requirement to withdraw fuel assemblies over a wide reactor core region, and the device can be used with the fuel assemblies being left as they are in the reactor, it is suitable for inspection of detectors for nuclear instrumentation. (N.H.)

  12. Control system for gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    An improved gamma camera arrangement is described which utilizing a solid state detector, formed of high purity germanium. the central arrangement of the camera operates to effect the carrying out of a trapezoidal filtering operation over antisymmetrically summed spatial signals through gated integration procedures utilizing idealized integrating intervals. By simultaneously carrying out peak energy evaluation of the input signals, a desirable control over pulse pile-up phenomena is achieved. Additionally, through the use of the time derivative of incoming pulse or signal energy information to initially enable the control system, a low level information evaluation is provided serving to enhance the signal processing efficiency of the camera

  13. Advances in pediatric gastroenterology: introducing video camera capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Emmanuel O

    2006-04-01

    The video camera capsule endoscope is a gastrointestinal endoscope approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2001 for use in diagnosing gastrointestinal disorders in adults. In 2003, the agency approved the device for use in children ages 10 and older, and the endoscope is currently in use at Arkansas Children's Hospital. A capsule camera, lens, battery, transmitter and antenna together record images of the small intestine as the endoscope makes its way through the bowel. The instrument is used with minimal risk to the patient while offering a high degree of accuracy in diagnosing small intestine disorders.

  14. Modeling and simulation of gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Kataria, S.K.; Samuel, A.M.

    2002-08-01

    Simulation techniques play a vital role in designing of sophisticated instruments and also for the training of operating and maintenance staff. Gamma camera systems have been used for functional imaging in nuclear medicine. Functional images are derived from the external counting of the gamma emitting radioactive tracer that after introduction in to the body mimics the behavior of native biochemical compound. The position sensitive detector yield the coordinates of the gamma ray interaction with the detector and are used to estimate the point of gamma ray emission within the tracer distribution space. This advanced imaging device is thus dependent on the performance of algorithm for coordinate computing, estimation of point of emission, generation of image and display of the image data. Contemporary systems also have protocols for quality control and clinical evaluation of imaging studies. Simulation of this processing leads to understanding of the basic camera design problems. This report describes a PC based package for design and simulation of gamma camera along with the options of simulating data acquisition and quality control of imaging studies. Image display and data processing the other options implemented in SIMCAM will be described in separate reports (under preparation). Gamma camera modeling and simulation in SIMCAM has preset configuration of the design parameters for various sizes of crystal detector with the option to pack the PMT on hexagon or square lattice. Different algorithm for computation of coordinates and spatial distortion removal are allowed in addition to the simulation of energy correction circuit. The user can simulate different static, dynamic, MUGA and SPECT studies. The acquired/ simulated data is processed for quality control and clinical evaluation of the imaging studies. Results show that the program can be used to assess these performances. Also the variations in performance parameters can be assessed due to the induced

  15. Analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work was carried out to develop an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic. It is composed of an electronic system that includes hardware and software capabilities, and operates from the acquisition of the 4 head position signals of a gamma camera detector. The result is the spectrum of the energy delivered by nuclear radiation coming from the camera detector head. This system includes analog processing of position signals from the camera, digitization and the subsequent processing of the energy signal in a multichannel analyzer, sending data to a computer via a standard USB port and processing of data in a personal computer to obtain the final histogram. The circuits are composed of an analog processing board and a universal kit with micro controller and programmable gate array. (Author)

  16. Development of nuclear imaging instrument and software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Hee; Chung Jae Myung; Nam, Sang Won; Chang, Hyung Uk

    1999-03-01

    In the medical diagnosis, the nuclear medical instrument using the radioactive isotope are commonly utilized. In the foreign countries, the medical application and development of the most advanced nuclear medical instrument such as Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) and position emission tomograph (PET), have been extensively carried out. However, in Korea, such highly expensive instruments have been all, imported, paying foreign currency. Since 1997, much efforts, the development of the radio nuclide medical instrument, the drive of the domestic production, etc. have been made to establish our own technologies and to balance the international payments under the support of the Ministry of Science and Technology. At present time, 180 nuclear imaging instruments are now in operation and 60 of them are analog camera. In analog camera, the vector X-Y monitor is need for are image display. Since the analog camera, signal can not be process in the digital form, we have difficulties to transfer and store the image data. The image displayed at the monitor must be stored in the form of polaroid or X ray film. In order to discard these disadvantages, if we developed the computer interface system, the performance analog camera will be comparable with that of the digital camera. The final objective of the research is that using the interface system developed in this research, we reconstruct the image data transmitted to the personal computer in the form of the generalized data file

  17. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  18. Astronomy and the camera obscura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, M.

    2000-02-01

    The camera obscura (from Latin meaning darkened chamber) is a simple optical device with a long history. In the form considered here, it can be traced back to 1550. It had its heyday during the Victorian era when it was to be found at the seaside as a tourist attraction or sideshow. It was also used as an artist's drawing aid and, in 1620, the famous astronomer-mathematician, Johannes Kepler used a small tent camera obscura to trace the scenery.

  19. The future of consumer cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Moltisanti, Marco

    2015-03-01

    In the last two decades multimedia, and in particular imaging devices (camcorders, tablets, mobile phones, etc.) have been dramatically diffused. Moreover the increasing of their computational performances, combined with an higher storage capability, allows them to process large amount of data. In this paper an overview of the current trends of consumer cameras market and technology will be given, providing also some details about the recent past (from Digital Still Camera up today) and forthcoming key issues.

  20. Science, conservation, and camera traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; O'Connel, Allan F.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Biologists commonly perceive camera traps as a new tool that enables them to enter the hitherto secret world of wild animals. Camera traps are being used in a wide range of studies dealing with animal ecology, behavior, and conservation. Our intention in this volume is not to simply present the various uses of camera traps, but to focus on their use in the conduct of science and conservation. In this chapter, we provide an overview of these two broad classes of endeavor and sketch the manner in which camera traps are likely to be able to contribute to them. Our main point here is that neither photographs of individual animals, nor detection history data, nor parameter estimates generated from detection histories are the ultimate objective of a camera trap study directed at either science or management. Instead, the ultimate objectives are best viewed as either gaining an understanding of how ecological systems work (science) or trying to make wise decisions that move systems from less desirable to more desirable states (conservation, management). Therefore, we briefly describe here basic approaches to science and management, emphasizing the role of field data and associated analyses in these processes. We provide examples of ways in which camera trap data can inform science and management.

  1. Computing camera heading: A study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, John Jiaxiang

    2000-08-01

    An accurate estimate of the motion of a camera is a crucial first step for the 3D reconstruction of sites, objects, and buildings from video. Solutions to the camera heading problem can be readily applied to many areas, such as robotic navigation, surgical operation, video special effects, multimedia, and lately even in internet commerce. From image sequences of a real world scene, the problem is to calculate the directions of the camera translations. The presence of rotations makes this problem very hard. This is because rotations and translations can have similar effects on the images, and are thus hard to tell apart. However, the visual angles between the projection rays of point pairs are unaffected by rotations, and their changes over time contain sufficient information to determine the direction of camera translation. We developed a new formulation of the visual angle disparity approach, first introduced by Tomasi, to the camera heading problem. Our new derivation makes theoretical analysis possible. Most notably, a theorem is obtained that locates all possible singularities of the residual function for the underlying optimization problem. This allows identifying all computation trouble spots beforehand, and to design reliable and accurate computational optimization methods. A bootstrap-jackknife resampling method simultaneously reduces complexity and tolerates outliers well. Experiments with image sequences show accurate results when compared with the true camera motion as measured with mechanical devices.

  2. Evaluation of the geometric stability and the accuracy potential of digital cameras — Comparing mechanical stabilisation versus parameterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke-Zapp, D.; Tecklenburg, W.; Peipe, J.; Hastedt, H.; Haig, Claudia

    Recent tests on the geometric stability of several digital cameras that were not designed for photogrammetric applications have shown that the accomplished accuracies in object space are either limited or that the accuracy potential is not exploited to the fullest extent. A total of 72 calibrations were calculated with four different software products for eleven digital camera models with different hardware setups, some with mechanical fixation of one or more parts. The calibration procedure was chosen in accord to a German guideline for evaluation of optical 3D measuring systems [VDI/VDE, VDI/VDE 2634 Part 1, 2002. Optical 3D Measuring Systems-Imaging Systems with Point-by-point Probing. Beuth Verlag, Berlin]. All images were taken with ringflashes which was considered a standard method for close-range photogrammetry. In cases where the flash was mounted to the lens, the force exerted on the lens tube and the camera mount greatly reduced the accomplished accuracy. Mounting the ringflash to the camera instead resulted in a large improvement of accuracy in object space. For standard calibration best accuracies in object space were accomplished with a Canon EOS 5D and a 35 mm Canon lens where the focusing tube was fixed with epoxy (47 μm maximum absolute length measurement error in object space). The fixation of the Canon lens was fairly easy and inexpensive resulting in a sevenfold increase in accuracy compared with the same lens type without modification. A similar accuracy was accomplished with a Nikon D3 when mounting the ringflash to the camera instead of the lens (52 μm maximum absolute length measurement error in object space). Parameterisation of geometric instabilities by introduction of an image variant interior orientation in the calibration process improved results for most cameras. In this case, a modified Alpa 12 WA yielded the best results (29 μm maximum absolute length measurement error in object space). Extending the parameter model with Fi

  3. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Robert J.; Atacama Cosmology Telescope Team

    2010-01-01

    The 6-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is making detailed maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background at Cerro Toco in northern Chile. In this talk, I focus on the design and operation of the telescope and its commissioning instrument, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera. The camera contains three independent sets of optics that operate at 148 GHz, 217 GHz, and 277 GHz with arcminute resolution, each of which couples to a 1024-element array of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. I will report on the camera performance, including the beam patterns, optical efficiencies, and detector sensitivities. Under development for ACT is a new polarimeter based on feedhorn-coupled TES devices that have improved sensitivity and are planned to operate at 0.1 K.

  4. Convolutional Neural Network-Based Shadow Detection in Images Using Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Seop Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in intelligence surveillance camera systems have enabled more research on the detection, tracking, and recognition of humans. Such systems typically use visible light cameras and images, in which shadows make it difficult to detect and recognize the exact human area. Near-infrared (NIR light cameras and thermal cameras are used to mitigate this problem. However, such instruments require a separate NIR illuminator, or are prohibitively expensive. Existing research on shadow detection in images captured by visible light cameras have utilized object and shadow color features for detection. Unfortunately, various environmental factors such as illumination change and brightness of background cause detection to be a difficult task. To overcome this problem, we propose a convolutional neural network-based shadow detection method. Experimental results with a database built from various outdoor surveillance camera environments, and from the context-aware vision using image-based active recognition (CAVIAR open database, show that our method outperforms previous works.

  5. OCAMS: The OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, B.; Drouet d'Aubigny, C.; Golish, D.; Fellows, C.; Merrill, C.; Smith, P.; Walker, M. S.; Hendershot, J. E.; Hancock, J.; Bailey, S. H.; DellaGiustina, D. N.; Lauretta, D. S.; Tanner, R.; Williams, M.; Harshman, K.; Fitzgibbon, M.; Verts, W.; Chen, J.; Connors, T.; Hamara, D.; Dowd, A.; Lowman, A.; Dubin, M.; Burt, R.; Whiteley, M.; Watson, M.; McMahon, T.; Ward, M.; Booher, D.; Read, M.; Williams, B.; Hunten, M.; Little, E.; Saltzman, T.; Alfred, D.; O'Dougherty, S.; Walthall, M.; Kenagy, K.; Peterson, S.; Crowther, B.; Perry, M. L.; See, C.; Selznick, S.; Sauve, C.; Beiser, M.; Black, W.; Pfisterer, R. N.; Lancaster, A.; Oliver, S.; Oquest, C.; Crowley, D.; Morgan, C.; Castle, C.; Dominguez, R.; Sullivan, M.

    2018-02-01

    The OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite (OCAMS) will acquire images essential to collecting a sample from the surface of Bennu. During proximity operations, these images will document the presence of satellites and plumes, record spin state, enable an accurate model of the asteroid's shape, and identify any surface hazards. They will confirm the presence of sampleable regolith on the surface, observe the sampling event itself, and image the sample head in order to verify its readiness to be stowed. They will document Bennu's history as an example of early solar system material, as a microgravity body with a planetesimal size-scale, and as a carbonaceous object. OCAMS is fitted with three cameras. The MapCam will record color images of Bennu as a point source on approach to the asteroid in order to connect Bennu's ground-based point-source observational record to later higher-resolution surface spectral imaging. The SamCam will document the sample site before, during, and after it is disturbed by the sample mechanism. The PolyCam, using its focus mechanism, will observe the sample site at sub-centimeter resolutions, revealing surface texture and morphology. While their imaging requirements divide naturally between the three cameras, they preserve a strong degree of functional overlap. OCAMS and the other spacecraft instruments will allow the OSIRIS-REx mission to collect a sample from a microgravity body on the same visit during which it was first optically acquired from long range, a useful capability as humanity reaches out to explore near-Earth, Main-Belt and Jupiter Trojan asteroids.

  6. Gamma camera based FDG PET in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography(PET) was introduced as a research tool in the 1970s and it took about 20 years before PET became an useful clinical imaging modality. In the USA, insurance coverage for PET procedures in the 1990s was the turning point, I believe, for this progress. Initially PET was used in neurology but recently more than 80% of PET procedures are in oncological applications. I firmly believe, in the 21st century, one can not manage cancer patients properly without PET and PET is very important medical imaging modality in basic and clinical sciences. PET is grouped into 2 categories; conventional (c) and gamma camera based ( CB ) PET. CB PET is more readily available utilizing dual-head gamma cameras and commercially available FDG to many medical centers at low cost to patients. In fact there are more CB PET in operation than cPET in the USA. CB PET is inferior to cPET in its performance but clinical studies in oncology is feasible without expensive infrastructures such as staffing, rooms and equipments. At Ajou university Hospital, CBPET was installed in late 1997 for the first time in Korea as well as in Asia and the system has been used successfully and effectively in oncological applications. Our was the fourth PET operation in Korea and I believe this may have been instrumental for other institutions got interested in clinical PET. The following is a brief description of our clinical experience of FDG CBPET in oncology

  7. Sub-Camera Calibration of a Penta-Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, K.; Gerke, M.

    2016-03-01

    Penta cameras consisting of a nadir and four inclined cameras are becoming more and more popular, having the advantage of imaging also facades in built up areas from four directions. Such system cameras require a boresight calibration of the geometric relation of the cameras to each other, but also a calibration of the sub-cameras. Based on data sets of the ISPRS/EuroSDR benchmark for multi platform photogrammetry the inner orientation of the used IGI Penta DigiCAM has been analyzed. The required image coordinates of the blocks Dortmund and Zeche Zollern have been determined by Pix4Dmapper and have been independently adjusted and analyzed by program system BLUH. With 4.1 million image points in 314 images respectively 3.9 million image points in 248 images a dense matching was provided by Pix4Dmapper. With up to 19 respectively 29 images per object point the images are well connected, nevertheless the high number of images per object point are concentrated to the block centres while the inclined images outside the block centre are satisfying but not very strongly connected. This leads to very high values for the Student test (T-test) of the finally used additional parameters or in other words, additional parameters are highly significant. The estimated radial symmetric distortion of the nadir sub-camera corresponds to the laboratory calibration of IGI, but there are still radial symmetric distortions also for the inclined cameras with a size exceeding 5μm even if mentioned as negligible based on the laboratory calibration. Radial and tangential effects of the image corners are limited but still available. Remarkable angular affine systematic image errors can be seen especially in the block Zeche Zollern. Such deformations are unusual for digital matrix cameras, but it can be caused by the correlation between inner and exterior orientation if only parallel flight lines are used. With exception of the angular affinity the systematic image errors for corresponding

  8. Event detection intelligent camera development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szappanos, A.; Kocsis, G.; Molnar, A.; Sarkozi, J.; Zoletnik, S.

    2008-01-01

    A new camera system 'event detection intelligent camera' (EDICAM) is being developed for the video diagnostics of W-7X stellarator, which consists of 10 distinct and standalone measurement channels each holding a camera. Different operation modes will be implemented for continuous and for triggered readout as well. Hardware level trigger signals will be generated from real time image processing algorithms optimized for digital signal processor (DSP) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) architectures. At full resolution a camera sends 12 bit sampled 1280 x 1024 pixels with 444 fps which means 1.43 Terabyte over half an hour. To analyse such a huge amount of data is time consuming and has a high computational complexity. We plan to overcome this problem by EDICAM's preprocessing concepts. EDICAM camera system integrates all the advantages of CMOS sensor chip technology and fast network connections. EDICAM is built up from three different modules with two interfaces. A sensor module (SM) with reduced hardware and functional elements to reach a small and compact size and robust action in harmful environment as well. An image processing and control unit (IPCU) module handles the entire user predefined events and runs image processing algorithms to generate trigger signals. Finally a 10 Gigabit Ethernet compatible image readout card functions as the network interface for the PC. In this contribution all the concepts of EDICAM and the functions of the distinct modules are described

  9. Video camera use at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, M.L.; Langan, M.O.; Owen, D.E.

    1990-08-01

    A survey of US nuclear power plants was conducted to evaluate video camera use in plant operations, and determine equipment used and the benefits realized. Basic closed circuit television camera (CCTV) systems are described and video camera operation principles are reviewed. Plant approaches for implementing video camera use are discussed, as are equipment selection issues such as setting task objectives, radiation effects on cameras, and the use of disposal cameras. Specific plant applications are presented and the video equipment used is described. The benefits of video camera use --- mainly reduced radiation exposure and increased productivity --- are discussed and quantified. 15 refs., 6 figs

  10. High spatial resolution infrared camera as ISS external experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckehard, Lorenz; Frerker, Hap; Fitch, Robert Alan

    High spatial resolution infrared camera as ISS external experiment for monitoring global climate changes uses ISS internal and external resources (eg. data storage). The optical experiment will consist of an infrared camera for monitoring global climate changes from the ISS. This technology was evaluated by the German small satellite mission BIRD and further developed in different ESA projects. Compared to BIRD the presended instrument uses proven sensor advanced technologies (ISS external) and ISS on board processing and storage capabili-ties (internal). The instrument will be equipped with a serial interfaces for TM/TC and several relay commands for the power supply. For data processing and storage a mass memory is re-quired. The access to actual attitude data is highly desired to produce geo referenced maps-if possible by an on board processing.

  11. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  12. The GISMO-2 Bolometer Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Hilton, Gene; Irwin, Kent D.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kovacs, Attila; Leclercq, Samuel; Maher, Stephen F.; Miller, Timothy M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present the concept for the GISMO-2 bolometer camera) which we build for background-limited operation at the IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain. GISM0-2 will operate Simultaneously in the 1 mm and 2 mm atmospherical windows. The 1 mm channel uses a 32 x 40 TES-based Backshort Under Grid (BUG) bolometer array, the 2 mm channel operates with a 16 x 16 BUG array. The camera utilizes almost the entire full field of view provided by the telescope. The optical design of GISM0-2 was strongly influenced by our experience with the GISMO 2 mm bolometer camera which is successfully operating at the 30m telescope. GISMO is accessible to the astronomical community through the regular IRAM call for proposals.

  13. Dark Energy Camera for Blanco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Gary A.; /Caltech /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    In order to make accurate measurements of dark energy, a system is needed to monitor the focus and alignment of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to be located on the Blanco 4m Telescope for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey. One new approach under development is to fit out-of-focus star images to a point spread function from which information about the focus and tilt of the camera can be obtained. As a first test of a new algorithm using this idea, simulated star images produced from a model of DECam in the optics software Zemax were fitted. Then, real images from the Mosaic II imager currently installed on the Blanco telescope were used to investigate the algorithm's capabilities. A number of problems with the algorithm were found, and more work is needed to understand its limitations and improve its capabilities so it can reliably predict camera alignment and focus.

  14. Perceptual Color Characterization of Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vazquez-Corral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Color camera characterization, mapping outputs from the camera sensors to an independent color space, such as \\(XYZ\\, is an important step in the camera processing pipeline. Until now, this procedure has been primarily solved by using a \\(3 \\times 3\\ matrix obtained via a least-squares optimization. In this paper, we propose to use the spherical sampling method, recently published by Finlayson al., to perform a perceptual color characterization. In particular, we search for the \\(3 \\times 3\\ matrix that minimizes three different perceptual errors, one pixel based and two spatially based. For the pixel-based case, we minimize the CIE \\(\\Delta E\\ error, while for the spatial-based case, we minimize both the S-CIELAB error and the CID error measure. Our results demonstrate an improvement of approximately 3for the \\(\\Delta E\\ error, 7& for the S-CIELAB error and 13% for the CID error measures.

  15. EDICAM (Event Detection Intelligent Camera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoletnik, S. [Wigner RCP RMI, EURATOM Association, Budapest (Hungary); Szabolics, T., E-mail: szabolics.tamas@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP RMI, EURATOM Association, Budapest (Hungary); Kocsis, G.; Szepesi, T.; Dunai, D. [Wigner RCP RMI, EURATOM Association, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We present EDICAM's hardware modules. ► We present EDICAM's main design concepts. ► This paper will describe EDICAM firmware architecture. ► Operation principles description. ► Further developments. -- Abstract: A new type of fast framing camera has been developed for fusion applications by the Wigner Research Centre for Physics during the last few years. A new concept was designed for intelligent event driven imaging which is capable of focusing image readout to Regions of Interests (ROIs) where and when predefined events occur. At present these events mean intensity changes and external triggers but in the future more sophisticated methods might also be defined. The camera provides 444 Hz frame rate at full resolution of 1280 × 1024 pixels, but monitoring of smaller ROIs can be done in the 1–116 kHz range even during exposure of the full image. Keeping space limitations and the harsh environment in mind the camera is divided into a small Sensor Module and a processing card interconnected by a fast 10 Gbit optical link. This camera hardware has been used for passive monitoring of the plasma in different devices for example at ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS with the first version of its firmware. The new firmware and software package is now available and ready for testing the new event processing features. This paper will present the operation principle and features of the Event Detection Intelligent Camera (EDICAM). The device is intended to be the central element in the 10-camera monitoring system of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator.

  16. The Sydney University PAPA camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Peter R.

    1994-04-01

    The Precision Analog Photon Address (PAPA) camera is a photon-counting array detector that uses optical encoding to locate photon events on the output of a microchannel plate image intensifier. The Sydney University camera is a 256x256 pixel detector which can operate at speeds greater than 1 million photons per second and produce individual photon coordinates with a deadtime of only 300 ns. It uses a new Gray coded mask-plate which permits a simplified optical alignment and successfully guards against vignetting artifacts.

  17. Streak cameras and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernet, J.M.; Imhoff, C.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last several years, development of various measurement techniques in the nanosecond and pico-second range has led to increased reliance on streak cameras. This paper will present the main electronic and optoelectronic performances of the Thomson-CSF TSN 506 cameras and their associated devices used to build an automatic image acquisition and processing system (NORMA). A brief survey of the diversity and the spread of the use of high speed electronic cinematography will be illustrated by a few typical applications [fr

  18. Remote removal of an obstruction from FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] in-service inspection camera track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, P.W.

    1990-11-01

    Remote techniques and special equipment were used to clear the path of a closed-circuit television camera system that travels on a monorail track around the reactor vessel support arm structure. A tangle of wire-wrapped instrumentation tubing had been inadvertently inserted through a dislocated guide-tube expansion joint and into the camera track area. An externally driven auger device, mounted on the track ahead of the camera to view the procedure, was used to retrieve the tubing. 6 figs

  19. The Camera Comes to Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, Leola

    After the Lindbergh kidnapping trial in 1935, the American Bar Association sought to eliminate electronic equipment from courtroom proceedings. Eventually, all but two states adopted regulations applying that ban to some extent, and a 1965 Supreme Court decision encouraged the banning of television cameras at trials as well. Currently, some states…

  20. Gamma camera with reflectivity mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a radiographic camera comprising: a scintillator; a plurality of photodectors positioned to face said scintillator; a plurality of masked regions formed upon a face of said scintillator opposite said photdetectors and positioned coaxially with respective ones of said photodetectors for decreasing the amount of internal reflection of optical photons generated within said scintillator. (auth)

  1. Multiple Sensor Camera for Enhanced Video Capturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Hajime; Kanki, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yoshio; Yachida, Masahiko

    A resolution of camera has been drastically improved under a current request for high-quality digital images. For example, digital still camera has several mega pixels. Although a video camera has the higher frame-rate, the resolution of a video camera is lower than that of still camera. Thus, the high-resolution is incompatible with the high frame rate of ordinary cameras in market. It is difficult to solve this problem by a single sensor, since it comes from physical limitation of the pixel transfer rate. In this paper, we propose a multi-sensor camera for capturing a resolution and frame-rate enhanced video. Common multi-CCDs camera, such as 3CCD color camera, has same CCD for capturing different spectral information. Our approach is to use different spatio-temporal resolution sensors in a single camera cabinet for capturing higher resolution and frame-rate information separately. We build a prototype camera which can capture high-resolution (2588×1958 pixels, 3.75 fps) and high frame-rate (500×500, 90 fps) videos. We also proposed the calibration method for the camera. As one of the application of the camera, we demonstrate an enhanced video (2128×1952 pixels, 90 fps) generated from the captured videos for showing the utility of the camera.

  2. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  3. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  4. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  5. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  6. Instrumentation optimization for positron emission mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, William W.; Qi, Jinyi

    2003-01-01

    The past several years have seen designs for PET cameras optimized to image the breast, commonly known as Positron Emission Mammography or PEM cameras. The guiding principal behind PEM instrumentation is that a camera whose field of view is restricted to a single breast has higher performance and lower cost than a conventional PET camera. The most common geometry is a pair of parallel planes of detector modules, although geometries that encircle the breast have also been proposed. The ability of the detector modules to measure the depth of interaction (DOI) is also a relevant feature. This paper finds that while both the additional solid angle coverage afforded by encircling the breast and the decreased blurring afforded by the DOI measurement improve performance, the ability to measure DOI is more important than the ability to encircle the breast

  7. Touch And Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) for the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, B. J.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M.; Schaffner, J. A.; Ladewig, J. V.; Olds, R. D.; Norman, C. D.; Huish, D.; Hughes, M.; Anderson, S. K.; Lorenz, D. A.; May, A.; Jackman, C. D.; Nelson, D.; Moreau, M.; Kubitschek, D.; Getzandanner, K.; Gordon, K. E.; Eberhardt, A.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft includes the Touch And Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) three camera-head instrument. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample, and document asteroid sample stowage. The cameras were designed and constructed by Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) based on requirements developed by Lockheed Martin and NASA. All three of the cameras are mounted to the spacecraft nadir deck and provide images in the visible part of the spectrum, 400-700 nm. Two of the TAGCAMS cameras, NavCam 1 and NavCam 2, serve as fully redundant navigation cameras to support optical navigation and natural feature tracking. Their boresights are aligned in the nadir direction with small angular offsets for operational convenience. The third TAGCAMS camera, StowCam, provides imagery to assist with and confirm proper stowage of the asteroid sample. Its boresight is pointed at the OSIRIS-REx sample return capsule located on the spacecraft deck. All three cameras have at their heart a 2592 × 1944 pixel complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detector array that provides up to 12-bit pixel depth. All cameras also share the same lens design and a camera field of view of roughly 44° × 32° with a pixel scale of 0.28 mrad/pixel. The StowCam lens is focused to image features on the spacecraft deck, while both NavCam lens focus positions are optimized for imaging at infinity. A brief description of the TAGCAMS instrument and how it is used to support critical OSIRIS-REx operations is provided.

  8. Architectural Design Document for Camera Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta

    1998-01-01

    Architecture of camera simulator models and data interface for the Maneuvering of Inspection/Servicing Vehicle (MIV) study.......Architecture of camera simulator models and data interface for the Maneuvering of Inspection/Servicing Vehicle (MIV) study....

  9. Selecting a digital camera for telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricoski, Chris; Ferguson, A Stewart

    2009-06-01

    The digital camera is an essential component of store-and-forward telemedicine (electronic consultation). There are numerous makes and models of digital cameras on the market, and selecting a suitable consumer-grade camera can be complicated. Evaluation of digital cameras includes investigating the features and analyzing image quality. Important features include the camera settings, ease of use, macro capabilities, method of image transfer, and power recharging. Consideration needs to be given to image quality, especially as it relates to color (skin tones) and detail. It is important to know the level of the photographer and the intended application. The goal is to match the characteristics of the camera with the telemedicine program requirements. In the end, selecting a digital camera is a combination of qualitative (subjective) and quantitative (objective) analysis. For the telemedicine program in Alaska in 2008, the camera evaluation and decision process resulted in a specific selection based on the criteria developed for our environment.

  10. 21 CFR 886.1120 - Opthalmic camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1120 Opthalmic camera. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic camera is an AC-powered device intended to take photographs of the eye and the surrounding area...

  11. Improved positron emission tomography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullani, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    A positron emission tomography camera having a plurality of rings of detectors positioned side-by-side or offset by one-half of the detector cross section around a patient area to detect radiation therefrom, and a plurality of scintillation crystals positioned relative to the photomultiplier tubes whereby each tube is responsive to more than one crystal. Each alternate crystal in the ring may be offset by one-half or less of the thickness of the crystal such that the staggered crystals are seen by more than one photomultiplier tube. This sharing of crystals and photomultiplier tubes allows identification of the staggered crystal and the use of smaller detectors shared by larger photomultiplier tubes thereby requiring less photomultiplier tubes, creating more scanning slices, providing better data sampling, and reducing the cost of the camera. (author)

  12. Vehicular camera pedestrian detection research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiahui

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology, it has made great development, but at the same time of highway traffic more convenient in highway traffic and transportation. However, in the meantime, traffic safety accidents occur more and more frequently in China. In order to deal with the increasingly heavy traffic safety. So, protecting the safety of people's personal property and facilitating travel has become a top priority. The real-time accurate pedestrian and driving environment are obtained through a vehicular camera which are used to detection and track the preceding moving targets. It is popular in the domain of intelligent vehicle safety driving, autonomous navigation and traffic system research. Based on the pedestrian video obtained by the Vehicular Camera, this paper studies the trajectory of pedestrian detection and its algorithm.

  13. Evaluation of tomographic ISOCAM Park II gamma camera parameters using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, Ivón

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the evaluation of tomographic ISOCAM Park II gamma camera parameters was performed using the Monte Carlo code SIMIND. The parameters uniformity, resolution and contrast were evaluated by Jaszczak phantom simulation. In addition the qualitative assessment of the center of rotation was performed. The results of the simulation are compared and evaluated against the specifications of the manufacturer of the gamma camera and taking into account the National Protocol for Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments of the Cuban Medical Equipment Control Center. A computational Jaszczak phantom model with three different distributions of activity was obtained. They can be used to perform studies with gamma cameras. (author)

  14. Graphic design of pinhole cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. B.; Chu, W. P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a graphic technique for the analysis and optimization of pinhole size and focal length. The technique is based on the use of the transfer function of optical elements described by Scott (1959) to construct the transfer function of a circular pinhole camera. This transfer function is the response of a component or system to a pattern of lines having a sinusoidally varying radiance at varying spatial frequencies. Some specific examples of graphic design are presented.

  15. Coaxial fundus camera for opthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Luciana; Castro, Guilherme; Castro Neto, Jarbas C.

    2015-09-01

    A Fundus Camera for ophthalmology is a high definition device which needs to meet low light illumination of the human retina, high resolution in the retina and reflection free image1. Those constraints make its optical design very sophisticated, but the most difficult to comply with is the reflection free illumination and the final alignment due to the high number of non coaxial optical components in the system. Reflection of the illumination, both in the objective and at the cornea, mask image quality, and a poor alignment make the sophisticated optical design useless. In this work we developed a totally axial optical system for a non-midriatic Fundus Camera. The illumination is performed by a LED ring, coaxial with the optical system and composed of IR of visible LEDs. The illumination ring is projected by the objective lens in the cornea. The Objective, LED illuminator, CCD lens are coaxial making the final alignment easily to perform. The CCD + capture lens module is a CCTV camera with autofocus and Zoom built in, added to a 175 mm focal length doublet corrected for infinity, making the system easily operated and very compact.

  16. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the net... should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk still...

  17. An Open Standard for Camera Trap Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrester, Tavis; O'Brien, Tim; Fegraus, Eric; Jansen, P.A.; Palmer, Jonathan; Kays, Roland; Ahumada, Jorge; Stern, Beth; McShea, William

    2016-01-01

    Camera traps that capture photos of animals are a valuable tool for monitoring biodiversity. The use of camera traps is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need for standardization to facilitate data management, reporting and data sharing. Here we offer the Camera Trap Metadata Standard as an

  18. A camera specification for tendering purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunt, M.J.; Davies, M.D.; Kenyon, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    A standardized document is described which is suitable for sending to companies which are being invited to tender for the supply of a gamma camera. The document refers to various features of the camera, the performance specification of the camera, maintenance details, price quotations for various options and delivery, installation and warranty details. (U.K.)

  19. Safeguards instrumentation: past, present, future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Instruments are essential for accounting, for surveillance and for protection of nuclear materials. The development and application of such instrumentation is reviewed, with special attention to international safeguards applications. Active and passive nondestructive assay techniques are some 25 years of age. The important advances have been in learning how to use them effectively for specific applications, accompanied by major advances in radiation detectors, electronics, and, more recently, in mini-computers. The progress in seals has been disappointingly slow. Surveillance cameras have been widely used for many applications other than safeguards. The revolution in TV technology will have important implications. More sophisticated containment/surveillance equipment is being developed but has yet to be exploited. On the basis of this history, some expectations for instrumentation in the near future are presented

  20. A new high-speed IR camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Jeffrey W.; Shu, Peter K.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Kasten, Michael S.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Casey, Sean C.; Mcgovern, Lawrence K.; Luers, Philip J.; Dabney, Philip W.; Kaipa, Ravi C.

    1994-01-01

    A multi-organizational team at the Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a new far infrared (FIR) camera system which furthers the state of the art for this type of instrument by the incorporating recent advances in several technological disciplines. All aspects of the camera system are optimized for operation at the high data rates required for astronomical observations in the far infrared. The instrument is built around a Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detector array which exhibits responsivity over a broad wavelength band and which is capable of operating at 1000 frames/sec, and consists of a focal plane dewar, a compact camera head electronics package, and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP)-based data system residing in a standard 486 personal computer. In this paper we discuss the overall system architecture, the focal plane dewar, and advanced features and design considerations for the electronics. This system, or one derived from it, may prove useful for many commercial and/or industrial infrared imaging or spectroscopic applications, including thermal machine vision for robotic manufacturing, photographic observation of short-duration thermal events such as combustion or chemical reactions, and high-resolution surveillance imaging.

  1. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  2. New Sensors for Cultural Heritage Metric Survey: The ToF Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto Chiabrando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ToF cameras are new instruments based on CCD/CMOS sensors which measure distances instead of radiometry. The resulting point clouds show the same properties (both in terms of accuracy and resolution of the point clouds acquired by means of traditional LiDAR devices. ToF cameras are cheap instruments (less than 10.000 € based on video real time distance measurements and can represent an interesting alternative to the more expensive LiDAR instruments. In addition, the limited weight and dimensions of ToF cameras allow a reduction of some practical problems such as transportation and on-site management. Most of the commercial ToF cameras use the phase-shift method to measure distances. Due to the use of only one wavelength, most of them have limited range of application (usually about 5 or 10 m. After a brief description of the main characteristics of these instruments, this paper explains and comments the results of the first experimental applications of ToF cameras in Cultural Heritage 3D metric survey.  The possibility to acquire more than 30 frames/s and future developments of these devices in terms of use of more than one wavelength to overcome the ambiguity problem allow to foresee new interesting applications.

  3. Relative camera localisation in non-overlapping camera networks using multiple trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John, V.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present an automatic camera calibration algorithm using multiple trajectories in a multiple camera network with non-overlapping field-of-views (FOV). Visible trajectories within a camera FOV are assumed to be measured with respect to the camera local co-ordinate system.

  4. Innovative instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all

  5. Innovative instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1983-11-15

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all.

  6. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  7. Stereo Pinhole Camera: Assembly and experimental activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmário Barbosa Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the assembling of a stereo pinhole camera for capturing stereo-pairs of images and proposes experimental activities with it. A pinhole camera can be as sophisticated as you want, or so simple that it could be handcrafted with practically recyclable materials. This paper describes the practical use of the pinhole camera throughout history and currently. Aspects of optics and geometry involved in the building of the stereo pinhole camera are presented with illustrations. Furthermore, experiments are proposed by using the images obtained by the camera for 3D visualization through a pair of anaglyph glasses, and the estimation of relative depth by triangulation is discussed.

  8. Single Camera Calibration in 3D Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caius SULIMAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Camera calibration is a necessary step in 3D vision in order to extract metric information from 2D images. A camera is considered to be calibrated when the parameters of the camera are known (i.e. principal distance, lens distorsion, focal length etc.. In this paper we deal with a single camera calibration method and with the help of this method we try to find the intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters. The method was implemented with succes in the programming and simulation environment Matlab.

  9. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  10. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  11. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  12. Digital quality control of the camera computer interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd-Pokropek, A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief description is given of how the gamma camera-computer interface works and what kind of errors can occur. Quality control tests of the interface are then described which include 1) tests of static performance e.g. uniformity, linearity, 2) tests of dynamic performance e.g. basic timing, interface count-rate, system count-rate, 3) tests of special functions e.g. gated acquisition, 4) tests of the gamma camera head, and 5) tests of the computer software. The tests described are mainly acceptance and routine tests. Many of the tests discussed are those recommended by an IAEA Advisory Group for inclusion in the IAEA control schedules for nuclear medicine instrumentation. (U.K.)

  13. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaugher, Brenna L.; Abbott, Timothy M.C.; Angstadt, Robert; Annis, Jim; Antonik, Michelle, L.; Bailey, Jim; Ballester, Otger.; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Bernstein, Rebbeca; Bonati, Marco; Bremer, Gale; /Fermilab /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /ANL /Texas A-M /Michigan U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Ohio State U. /University Coll. London /LBNL /SLAC /IFAE

    2012-06-29

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  14. Star camera aspect system suitable for use in balloon experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.D.; Baker, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    A balloon-borne experiment containing a star camera aspect system was designed, built, and flown. This system was designed to provide offset corrections to the magnetometer and inclinometer readings used to control an azimuth and elevation pointed experiment. The camera is controlled by a microprocessor, including commendable exposure and noise rejection threshold, as well as formatting the data for telemetry to the ground. As a background program, the microprocessor runs the aspect program to analyze a fraction of the pictures taken so that aspect information and offset corrections are available to the experiment in near real time. The analysis consists of pattern recognition of the star field with a star catalog in ROM memory and a least squares calculation. The performance of this system in ground based tests is described. It is part of the NASA/GSFC High Energy Gamma-Ray Balloon Instrument (2)

  15. Picosecond X-ray streak camera dynamic range measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, C., E-mail: celine.zuber@cea.fr; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Gontier, D.; Raimbourg, J.; Rubbelynck, C.; Trosseille, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fronty, J.-P.; Goulmy, C. [Photonis SAS, Avenue Roger Roncier, BP 520, 19106 Brive Cedex (France)

    2016-09-15

    Streak cameras are widely used to record the spatio-temporal evolution of laser-induced plasma. A prototype of picosecond X-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to answer the Laser MegaJoule specific needs. The dynamic range of this instrument is measured with picosecond X-ray pulses generated by the interaction of a laser beam and a copper target. The required value of 100 is reached only in the configurations combining the slowest sweeping speed and optimization of the streak tube electron throughput by an appropriate choice of high voltages applied to its electrodes.

  16. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaugher, Brenna L.; McLean, Ian S.; Ramsay, Suzanne K.; Abbott, Timothy M. C.; Angstadt, Robert; Takami, Hideki; Annis, Jim; Antonik, Michelle L.; Bailey, Jim; Ballester, Otger; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Bonati, Marco; Bremer, Gale; Briones, Jorge; Brooks, David; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Campa, Juila; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castander, Francisco; Castilla, Javier; Cease, Herman; Chappa, Steve; Chi, Edward C.; da Costa, Luis; DePoy, Darren L.; Derylo, Gregory; de Vincente, Juan; Diehl, H. Thomas; Doel, Peter; Estrada, Juan; Eiting, Jacob; Elliott, Anne E.; Finley, David A.; Flores, Rolando; Frieman, Josh; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Gerdes, David; Gladders, Mike; Guarino, V.; Gutierrez, G.; Grudzinski, Jim; Hanlon, Bill; Hao, Jiangang; Holland, Steve; Honscheid, Klaus; Huffman, Dave; Jackson, Cheryl; Jonas, Michelle; Karliner, Inga; Kau, Daekwang; Kent, Steve; Kozlovsky, Mark; Krempetz, Kurt; Krider, John; Kubik, Donna; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuhlmann, Steve E.; Kuk, Kevin; Lahav, Ofer; Langellier, Nick; Lathrop, Andrew; Lewis, Peter M.; Lin, Huan; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Martinez, Gustavo; McKay, Timothy; Merritt, Wyatt; Meyer, Mark; Miquel, Ramon; Morgan, Jim; Moore, Peter; Moore, Todd; Neilsen, Eric; Nord, Brian; Ogando, Ricardo; Olson, Jamieson; Patton, Kenneth; Peoples, John; Plazas, Andres; Qian, Tao; Roe, Natalie; Roodman, Aaron; Rossetto, B.; Sanchez, E.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Scarpine, Vic; Schalk, Terry; Schindler, Rafe; Schmidt, Ricardo; Schmitt, Richard; Schubnell, Mike; Schultz, Kenneth; Selen, M.; Serrano, Santiago; Shaw, Terri; Simaitis, Vaidas; Slaughter, Jean; Smith, R. Christopher; Spinka, Hal; Stefanik, Andy; Stuermer, Walter; Sypniewski, Adam; Talaga, R.; Tarle, Greg; Thaler, Jon; Tucker, Doug; Walker, Alistair R.; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Wester, William; Woods, Robert J.; Worswick, Sue; Zhao, Allen

    2012-09-24

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  17. Mechatronic design of a fully integrated camera for mini-invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzarini, C C; Patete, P; Baroni, G; Cerveri, P

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the design features of an innovative fully integrated camera candidate for mini-invasive abdominal surgery with single port or transluminal access. The apparatus includes a CMOS imaging sensor, a light-emitting diode (LED)-based unit for scene illumination, a photodiode for luminance detection, an optical system designed according to the mechanical compensation paradigm, an actuation unit for enabling autofocus and optical zoom, and a control logics based on microcontroller. The bulk of the apparatus is characterized by a tubular shape with a diameter of 10 mm and a length of 35 mm. The optical system, composed of four lens groups, of which two are mobile, has a total length of 13.46 mm and an effective focal length ranging from 1.61 to 4.44 mm with a zoom factor of 2.75×, with a corresponding angular field of view ranging from 16° to 40°. The mechatronics unit, devoted to move the zoom and the focus lens groups, is implemented adopting miniature piezoelectric motors. The control logics implements a closed-loop mechanism, between the LEDs and photodiode, to attain automatic control light. Bottlenecks of the design and some potential issues of the realization are discussed. A potential clinical scenario is introduced.

  18. Collimator changer for scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jupa, E.C.; Meeder, R.L.; Richter, E.K.

    1976-01-01

    A collimator changing assembly mounted on the support structure of a scintillation camera is described. A vertical support column positioned proximate the detector support column with a plurality of support arms mounted thereon in a rotatable cantilevered manner at separate vertical positions. Each support arm is adapted to carry one of the plurality of collimators which are interchangeably mountable on the underside of the detector and to transport the collimator between a store position remote from the detector and a change position underneath said detector

  19. Robot Tracer with Visual Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar Lubis, Abdul; Dwi Lestari, Yuyun; Dafitri, Haida; Azanuddin

    2017-12-01

    Robot is a versatile tool that can function replace human work function. The robot is a device that can be reprogrammed according to user needs. The use of wireless networks for remote monitoring needs can be utilized to build a robot that can be monitored movement and can be monitored using blueprints and he can track the path chosen robot. This process is sent using a wireless network. For visual robot using high resolution cameras to facilitate the operator to control the robot and see the surrounding circumstances.

  20. Counting neutrons with a commercial S-CMOS camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Van Esch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to detect individual flashes from thermal neutron impacts in a ZnS scintillator using a CMOS camera looking at the scintillator screen, and off line image processing. Some preliminary results indicated that the efficiency of recognition could be improved by optimizing the light collection and the image processing. We will report on this ongoing work which is a result from the collaboration between ESS Bilbao and the ILL. The main progress to be reported is situated on the level of the on-line treatment of the imaging data. If this technology is to work on a genuine scientific instrument, it is necessary that all the processing happens on line, to avoid the accumulation of large amounts of image data to be analyzed off line. An FPGA-based real-time full-deca mode VME-compatible CameraLink board has been developed at the SCI of the ILL, which is able to manage the data flow from the camera and convert it in a reasonable “neutron impact” data flow like from a usual neutron counting detector. The main challenge of the endeavor is the optical light collection from the scintillator. While the light yield of a ZnS scintillator is a priori rather important, the amount of light collected with a photographic objective is small. Different scintillators and different light collection techniques have been experimented with and results will be shown for different setups improving upon the light recuperation on the camera sensor. Improvements on the algorithm side will also be presented. The algorithms have to be at the same time efficient in their recognition of neutron signals, in their rejection of noise signals (internal and external to the camera but also have to be simple enough to be easily implemented in the FPGA. The path from the idea of detecting individual neutron impacts with a CMOS camera to a practical working instrument detector is challenging, and in this paper we will give an overview of the part of the road that has

  1. Counting neutrons with a commercial S-CMOS camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Van Esch; Paolo, Mutti; Emilio, Ruiz-Martinez; Estefania, Abad Garcia; Marita, Mosconi; Jon, Ortega

    2018-01-01

    It is possible to detect individual flashes from thermal neutron impacts in a ZnS scintillator using a CMOS camera looking at the scintillator screen, and off line image processing. Some preliminary results indicated that the efficiency of recognition could be improved by optimizing the light collection and the image processing. We will report on this ongoing work which is a result from the collaboration between ESS Bilbao and the ILL. The main progress to be reported is situated on the level of the on-line treatment of the imaging data. If this technology is to work on a genuine scientific instrument, it is necessary that all the processing happens on line, to avoid the accumulation of large amounts of image data to be analyzed off line. An FPGA-based real-time full-deca mode VME-compatible CameraLink board has been developed at the SCI of the ILL, which is able to manage the data flow from the camera and convert it in a reasonable "neutron impact" data flow like from a usual neutron counting detector. The main challenge of the endeavor is the optical light collection from the scintillator. While the light yield of a ZnS scintillator is a priori rather important, the amount of light collected with a photographic objective is small. Different scintillators and different light collection techniques have been experimented with and results will be shown for different setups improving upon the light recuperation on the camera sensor. Improvements on the algorithm side will also be presented. The algorithms have to be at the same time efficient in their recognition of neutron signals, in their rejection of noise signals (internal and external to the camera) but also have to be simple enough to be easily implemented in the FPGA. The path from the idea of detecting individual neutron impacts with a CMOS camera to a practical working instrument detector is challenging, and in this paper we will give an overview of the part of the road that has already been walked.

  2. Performance and quality control of nuclear medicine instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paras, P.

    1981-01-01

    The status and the recent developments of nuclear medicine instrumentation performance, with an emphasis on gamma-camera performance, are discussed as the basis for quality control. New phantoms and techniques for the measurement of gamma-camera performance parameters are introduced and their usefulness for quality control is discussed. Tests and procedures for dose calibrator quality control are included. Also, the principles of quality control, tests, equipment and procedures for each type of instrument are reviewed, and minimum requirements for an effective quality assurance programme for nuclear medicine instrumentation are suggested. (author)

  3. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  4. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  5. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  6. Using DSLR cameras in digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié-Zuluaga, Diego; Herrera-Ramírez, Jorge; García-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2017-08-01

    In Digital Holography (DH), the size of the bidimensional image sensor to record the digital hologram, plays a key role on the performance of this imaging technique; the larger the size of the camera sensor, the better the quality of the final reconstructed image. Scientific cameras with large formats are offered in the market, but their cost and availability limit their use as a first option when implementing DH. Nowadays, DSLR cameras provide an easy-access alternative that is worthwhile to be explored. The DSLR cameras are a wide, commercial, and available option that in comparison with traditional scientific cameras, offer a much lower cost per effective pixel over a large sensing area. However, in the DSLR cameras, with their RGB pixel distribution, the sampling of information is different to the sampling in monochrome cameras usually employed in DH. This fact has implications in their performance. In this work, we discuss why DSLR cameras are not extensively used for DH, taking into account the problem reported by different authors of object replication. Simulations of DH using monochromatic and DSLR cameras are presented and a theoretical deduction for the replication problem using the Fourier theory is also shown. Experimental results of DH implementation using a DSLR camera show the replication problem.

  7. Human tracking over camera networks: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Wan, Wanggen; Hwang, Jenq-Neng; Muhammad, Rizwan; Yang, Mingyang; Han, Kang

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, automated human tracking over camera networks is getting essential for video surveillance. The tasks of tracking human over camera networks are not only inherently challenging due to changing human appearance, but also have enormous potentials for a wide range of practical applications, ranging from security surveillance to retail and health care. This review paper surveys the most widely used techniques and recent advances for human tracking over camera networks. Two important functional modules for the human tracking over camera networks are addressed, including human tracking within a camera and human tracking across non-overlapping cameras. The core techniques of human tracking within a camera are discussed based on two aspects, i.e., generative trackers and discriminative trackers. The core techniques of human tracking across non-overlapping cameras are then discussed based on the aspects of human re-identification, camera-link model-based tracking and graph model-based tracking. Our survey aims to address existing problems, challenges, and future research directions based on the analyses of the current progress made toward human tracking techniques over camera networks.

  8. Image compensation for camera and lighting variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Wayne D.; Britton, Douglas F.

    1996-12-01

    With the current trend of integrating machine vision systems in industrial manufacturing and inspection applications comes the issue of camera and illumination stabilization. Unless each application is built around a particular camera and highly controlled lighting environment, the interchangeability of cameras of fluctuations in lighting become a problem as each camera usually has a different response. An empirical approach is proposed where color tile data is acquired using the camera of interest, and a mapping is developed to some predetermined reference image using neural networks. A similar analytical approach based on a rough analysis of the imaging systems is also considered for deriving a mapping between cameras. Once a mapping has been determined, all data from one camera is mapped to correspond to the images of the other prior to performing any processing on the data. Instead of writing separate image processing algorithms for the particular image data being received, the image data is adjusted based on each particular camera and lighting situation. All that is required when swapping cameras is the new mapping for the camera being inserted. The image processing algorithms can remain the same as the input data has been adjusted appropriately. The results of utilizing this technique are presented for an inspection application.

  9. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  10. Optimising camera traps for monitoring small mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair S Glen

    Full Text Available Practical techniques are required to monitor invasive animals, which are often cryptic and occur at low density. Camera traps have potential for this purpose, but may have problems detecting and identifying small species. A further challenge is how to standardise the size of each camera's field of view so capture rates are comparable between different places and times. We investigated the optimal specifications for a low-cost camera trap for small mammals. The factors tested were 1 trigger speed, 2 passive infrared vs. microwave sensor, 3 white vs. infrared flash, and 4 still photographs vs. video. We also tested a new approach to standardise each camera's field of view. We compared the success rates of four camera trap designs in detecting and taking recognisable photographs of captive stoats (Mustelaerminea, feral cats (Felis catus and hedgehogs (Erinaceuseuropaeus. Trigger speeds of 0.2-2.1 s captured photographs of all three target species unless the animal was running at high speed. The camera with a microwave sensor was prone to false triggers, and often failed to trigger when an animal moved in front of it. A white flash produced photographs that were more readily identified to species than those obtained under infrared light. However, a white flash may be more likely to frighten target animals, potentially affecting detection probabilities. Video footage achieved similar success rates to still cameras but required more processing time and computer memory. Placing two camera traps side by side achieved a higher success rate than using a single camera. Camera traps show considerable promise for monitoring invasive mammal control operations. Further research should address how best to standardise the size of each camera's field of view, maximise the probability that an animal encountering a camera trap will be detected, and eliminate visible or audible cues emitted by camera traps.

  11. First Test Of A New High Resolution Positron Camera With Four Area Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laethem, E.; Kuijk, M.; Deconinck, Frank; van Miert, M.; Defrise, Michel; Townsend, D.; Wensveen, M.

    1989-10-01

    A PET camera consisting of two pairs of parallel area detectors has been installed at the cyclotron unit of VUB. The detectors are High Density Avalanche Chambers (HIDAC) wire-chambers with a stack of 4 or 6 lead gamma-electron converters, the sensitive area being 30 by 30 cm. The detectors are mounted on a commercial gantry allowing a 180 degree rotation during acquisition, as needed for a fully 3D image reconstruction. The camera has been interfaced to a token-ring computer network consisting of 5 workstations among which the various tasks (acquisition, reconstruction, display) can be distributed. Each coincident event is coded in 48 bits and is transmitted to the computer bus via a 512 kbytes dual ported buffer memory allowing data rates of up to 50 kHz. Fully 3D image reconstruction software has been developed, and includes new reconstruction algorithms allowing a better utilization of the available projection data. Preliminary measurements and imaging of phantoms and small animals (with 18FDG) have been performed with two of the four detectors mounted on the gantry. They indicate the expected 3D isotropic spatial resolution of 3.5 mm (FWHM, line source in air) and a sensitivity of 4 cps/μCi for a centred point source in air, corresponding to typical data rates of a few kHz. This latter figure is expected to improve by a factor of 4 after coupling of the second detector pair, since the coincidence sensitivity of this second detector pair is a factor 3 higher than that of the first one.

  12. Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to ov...

  13. Movement-based Interaction in Camera Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....

  14. Performance analysis for gait in camera networks

    OpenAIRE

    Michela Goffredo; Imed Bouchrika; John Carter; Mark Nixon

    2008-01-01

    This paper deploys gait analysis for subject identification in multi-camera surveillance scenarios. We present a new method for viewpoint independent markerless gait analysis that does not require camera calibration and works with a wide range of directions of walking. These properties make the proposed method particularly suitable for gait identification in real surveillance scenarios where people and their behaviour need to be tracked across a set of cameras. Tests on 300 synthetic and real...

  15. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  16. Approximations to camera sensor noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaodan; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2013-02-01

    Noise is present in all image sensor data. Poisson distribution is said to model the stochastic nature of the photon arrival process, while it is common to approximate readout/thermal noise by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Other sources of signal-dependent noise such as Fano and quantization also contribute to the overall noise profile. Question remains, however, about how best to model the combined sensor noise. Though additive Gaussian noise with signal-dependent noise variance (SD-AWGN) and Poisson corruption are two widely used models to approximate the actual sensor noise distribution, the justification given to these types of models are based on limited evidence. The goal of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive characterization of random noise. We concluded by presenting concrete evidence that Poisson model is a better approximation to real camera model than SD-AWGN. We suggest further modification to Poisson that may improve the noise model.

  17. Multi-spectral CCD camera system for ocean water color and seacoast observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Shiping; Wu, Yanlin; Huang, Qiaolin; Jin, Weiqi

    2001-10-01

    One of the earth observing instruments on HY-1 Satellite which will be launched in 2001, the multi-spectral CCD camera system, is developed by Beijing Institute of Space Mechanics & Electricity (BISME), Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST). In 798 km orbit, the system can provide images with 250 m ground resolution and a swath of 500 km. It is mainly used for coast zone dynamic mapping and oceanic watercolor monitoring, which include the pollution of offshore and coast zone, plant cover, watercolor, ice, terrain underwater, suspended sediment, mudflat, soil and vapor gross. The multi- spectral camera system is composed of four monocolor CCD cameras, which are line array-based, 'push-broom' scanning cameras, and responding for four spectral bands. The camera system adapts view field registration; that is, each camera scans the same region at the same moment. Each of them contains optics, focal plane assembly, electrical circuit, installation structure, calibration system, thermal control and so on. The primary features on the camera system are: (1) Offset of the central wavelength is better than 5 nm; (2) Degree of polarization is less than 0.5%; (3) Signal-to-noise ratio is about 1000; (4) Dynamic range is better than 2000:1; (5) Registration precision is better than 0.3 pixel; (6) Quantization value is 12 bit.

  18. Comparative evaluation of consumer grade cameras and mobile phone cameras for close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikatsu, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Yoji

    2009-08-01

    The authors have been concentrating on developing convenient 3D measurement methods using consumer grade digital cameras, and it was concluded that consumer grade digital cameras are expected to become a useful photogrammetric device for the various close range application fields. On the other hand, mobile phone cameras which have 10 mega pixels were appeared on the market in Japan. In these circumstances, we are faced with alternative epoch-making problem whether mobile phone cameras are able to take the place of consumer grade digital cameras in close range photogrammetric applications. In order to evaluate potentials of mobile phone cameras in close range photogrammetry, comparative evaluation between mobile phone cameras and consumer grade digital cameras are investigated in this paper with respect to lens distortion, reliability, stability and robustness. The calibration tests for 16 mobile phone cameras and 50 consumer grade digital cameras were conducted indoors using test target. Furthermore, practability of mobile phone camera for close range photogrammetry was evaluated outdoors. This paper presents that mobile phone cameras have ability to take the place of consumer grade digital cameras, and develop the market in digital photogrammetric fields.

  19. Decision about buying a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganatra, R D

    1993-12-31

    A large part of the referral to a nuclear medicine department is usually for imaging studies. Sooner or later, the nuclear medicine specialist will be called upon to make a decision about when and what type of gamma camera to buy. There is no longer an option of choosing between a rectilinear scanner and a gamma camera as the former is virtually out of the market. The decision that one has to make is when to invest in a gamma camera, and then on what basis to select the gamma camera 1 tab., 1 fig

  20. Object tracking using multiple camera video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Rojas, Diego; McLauchlan, Lifford

    2010-05-01

    Two synchronized cameras are utilized to obtain independent video streams to detect moving objects from two different viewing angles. The video frames are directly correlated in time. Moving objects in image frames from the two cameras are identified and tagged for tracking. One advantage of such a system involves overcoming effects of occlusions that could result in an object in partial or full view in one camera, when the same object is fully visible in another camera. Object registration is achieved by determining the location of common features in the moving object across simultaneous frames. Perspective differences are adjusted. Combining information from images from multiple cameras increases robustness of the tracking process. Motion tracking is achieved by determining anomalies caused by the objects' movement across frames in time in each and the combined video information. The path of each object is determined heuristically. Accuracy of detection is dependent on the speed of the object as well as variations in direction of motion. Fast cameras increase accuracy but limit the speed and complexity of the algorithm. Such an imaging system has applications in traffic analysis, surveillance and security, as well as object modeling from multi-view images. The system can easily be expanded by increasing the number of cameras such that there is an overlap between the scenes from at least two cameras in proximity. An object can then be tracked long distances or across multiple cameras continuously, applicable, for example, in wireless sensor networks for surveillance or navigation.

  1. Scintillation camera for high activity sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arseneau, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    The invention described relates to a scintillation camera used for clinical medical diagnosis. Advanced recognition of many unacceptable pulses allows the scintillation camera to discard such pulses at an early stage in processing. This frees the camera to process a greater number of pulses of interest within a given period of time. Temporary buffer storage allows the camera to accommodate pulses received at a rate in excess of its maximum rated capability due to statistical fluctuations in the level of radioactivity of the radiation source measured. (U.K.)

  2. Decision about buying a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A large part of the referral to a nuclear medicine department is usually for imaging studies. Sooner or later, the nuclear medicine specialist will be called upon to make a decision about when and what type of gamma camera to buy. There is no longer an option of choosing between a rectilinear scanner and a gamma camera as the former is virtually out of the market. The decision that one has to make is when to invest in a gamma camera, and then on what basis to select the gamma camera

  3. Streak camera recording of interferometer fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.L.; Chau, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The use of an electronic high-speed camera in the streaking mode to record interference fringe motion from a velocity interferometer is discussed. Advantages of this method over the photomultiplier tube-oscilloscope approach are delineated. Performance testing and data for the electronic streak camera are discussed. The velocity profile of a mylar flyer accelerated by an electrically exploded bridge, and the jump-off velocity of metal targets struck by these mylar flyers are measured in the camera tests. Advantages of the streak camera include portability, low cost, ease of operation and maintenance, simplified interferometer optics, and rapid data analysis

  4. Determining the timeline of ultra-high speed images of the Cordin 550-32 camera

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available diagnostic instrumentation. In such cases the synchronisation of the diagnostics is paramount. Here, the camera generated into an info.txt file is utilised to determine the time of each frame with respect to the system trigger, enabling synchronisation...

  5. Quantifying geological processes on Mars - Results of the high resolution stereo camera (HRSC) on Mars express

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaumann, R.; Tirsch, D.; Hauber, E.; Ansan, V.; Di Achille, G.; Erkeling, G.; Fueten, F.; Head, J.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Mangold, N.; Michael, G. G.; Neukum, G.; Pacifici, A.; Platz, T.; Pondrelli, M.; Raack, J.; Reiss, D.; Williams, D. A.; Adeli, S.; Baratoux, D.; De Villiers, G.; Foing, B.; Gupta, S.; Gwinner, K.; Hiesinger, H.; Hoffmann, H.; Deit, L. Le; Marinangeli, L.; Matz, K. D.; Mertens, V.; Muller, J. P.; Pasckert, J. H.; Roatsch, T.; Rossi, A. P.; Scholten, F.; Sowe, M.; Voigt, J.; Warner, N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review summarizes the use of High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) data as an instrumental tool and its application in the analysis of geological processes and landforms on Mars during the last 10 years of operation. High-resolution digital elevations models on a local to regional scale

  6. Effects of Camera Arrangement on Perceptual-Motor Performance in Minimally Invasive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucia, Patricia R.; Griswold, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is performed for a growing number of treatments. Whereas open surgery requires large incisions, MIS relies on small incisions through which instruments are inserted and tissues are visualized with a camera. MIS results in benefits for patients compared with open surgery, but degrades the surgeon's perceptual-motor…

  7. Lock-in thermography using a cellphone attachment infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, Marjan; Parkhimchyk, Artur; Tabatabaei, Nima

    2018-03-01

    Lock-in thermography (LIT) is a thermal-wave-based, non-destructive testing, technique which has been widely utilized in research settings for characterization and evaluation of biological and industrial materials. However, despite promising research outcomes, the wide spread adaptation of LIT in industry, and its commercialization, is hindered by the high cost of the infrared cameras used in the LIT setups. In this paper, we report on the feasibility of using inexpensive cellphone attachment infrared cameras for performing LIT. While the cost of such cameras is over two orders of magnitude less than their research-grade counterparts, our experimental results on block sample with subsurface defects and tooth with early dental caries suggest that acceptable performance can be achieved through careful instrumentation and implementation of proper data acquisition and image processing steps. We anticipate this study to pave the way for development of low-cost thermography systems and their commercialization as inexpensive tools for non-destructive testing of industrial samples as well as affordable clinical devices for diagnostic imaging of biological tissues.

  8. Using a Smartphone Camera for Nanosatellite Attitude Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmin, R.

    2014-09-01

    The PhoneSat project at NASA Ames Research Center has repeatedly flown a commercial cellphone in space. As this project continues, additional utility is being extracted from the cell phone hardware to enable more complex missions. The camera in particular shows great potential as an instrument for position and attitude determination, but this requires complex image processing. This paper outlines progress towards that image processing capability. Initial tests on a small collection of sample images have demonstrated the determination of a Moon vector from an image by automatic thresholding and centroiding, allowing the calibration of existing attitude control systems. Work has been undertaken on a further set of sample images towards horizon detection using a variety of techniques including thresholding, edge detection, applying a Hough transform, and circle fitting. Ultimately it is hoped this will allow calculation of an Earth vector for attitude determination and an approximate altitude. A quick discussion of work towards using the camera as a star tracker is then presented, followed by an introduction to further applications of the camera on space missions.

  9. Lock-in thermography using a cellphone attachment infrared camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Razani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lock-in thermography (LIT is a thermal-wave-based, non-destructive testing, technique which has been widely utilized in research settings for characterization and evaluation of biological and industrial materials. However, despite promising research outcomes, the wide spread adaptation of LIT in industry, and its commercialization, is hindered by the high cost of the infrared cameras used in the LIT setups. In this paper, we report on the feasibility of using inexpensive cellphone attachment infrared cameras for performing LIT. While the cost of such cameras is over two orders of magnitude less than their research-grade counterparts, our experimental results on block sample with subsurface defects and tooth with early dental caries suggest that acceptable performance can be achieved through careful instrumentation and implementation of proper data acquisition and image processing steps. We anticipate this study to pave the way for development of low-cost thermography systems and their commercialization as inexpensive tools for non-destructive testing of industrial samples as well as affordable clinical devices for diagnostic imaging of biological tissues.

  10. Quality assurance of imaging instruments for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, T.; Csernay, L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced quality control and assurance techniques for imaging instrumentation used in medical diagnosis are overviewed. The measurement systems for the homogeneity, linearity, geometrical resolution, energy resolution, sensitivity and pulse yield output of gamma camera detectors are presented in detail. The two most important quality control standards, the National Electrical Manufacturers' Association (NEMA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency standards and tests are described. Their use in gamma camera calibration is proposed. (R.P.) 22 refs.; 1 tabs

  11. Status of MUSIC, the MUltiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golwala, Sunil R.; Bockstiegel, Clint; Brugger, Spencer; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran; Gao, Jiansong; Gill, Amandeep K.; Glenn, Jason; Hollister, Matthew I.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; McHugh, Sean G.; Miller, David; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sayers, Jack; Schlaerth, James A.; Siegel, Seth; Vayonakis, Anastasios K.; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2012-09-01

    We present the status of MUSIC, the MUltiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera, a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. MUSIC is designed to have a 14', diffraction-limited field-of-view instrumented with 2304 detectors in 576 spatial pixels and four spectral bands at 0.87, 1.04, 1.33, and 1.98 mm. MUSIC will be used to study dusty star-forming galaxies, galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and star formation in our own and nearby galaxies. MUSIC uses broadband superconducting phased-array slot-dipole antennas to form beams, lumpedelement on-chip bandpass filters to define spectral bands, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors to sense incoming light. The focal plane is fabricated in 8 tiles consisting of 72 spatial pixels each. It is coupled to the telescope via an ambient-temperature ellipsoidal mirror and a cold reimaging lens. A cold Lyot stop sits at the image of the primary mirror formed by the ellipsoidal mirror. Dielectric and metal-mesh filters are used to block thermal infrared and out-ofband radiation. The instrument uses a pulse tube cooler and 3He/ 3He/4He closed-cycle cooler to cool the focal plane to below 250 mK. A multilayer shield attenuates Earth's magnetic field. Each focal plane tile is read out by a single pair of coaxes and a HEMT amplifier. The readout system consists of 16 copies of custom-designed ADC/DAC and IF boards coupled to the CASPER ROACH platform. We focus on recent updates on the instrument design and results from the commissioning of the full camera in 2012.

  12. Improving Situational Awareness in camera surveillance by combining top-view maps with camera images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Zeeders, R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the experiment described is to improve today's camera surveillance in public spaces. Three designs with the camera images combined on a top-view map were compared to each other and to the current situation in camera surveillance. The goal was to test which design makes spatial

  13. Automatic inference of geometric camera parameters and intercamera topology in uncalibrated disjoint surveillance cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, R.J.M. den; Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Eendebak, P.T.; Rest, J.H.C. van

    2015-01-01

    Person tracking across non-overlapping cameras and other types of video analytics benefit from spatial calibration information that allows an estimation of the distance between cameras and a relation between pixel coordinates and world coordinates within a camera. In a large environment with many

  14. CARMENES instrument overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The

  15. Active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation (SINDE) camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simova, E.; Rochefort, P.A., E-mail: eli.simova@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    A proof-of-concept video camera for active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation has been demonstrated. An active multispectral imaging technique has been implemented in the visible and near infrared by using light emitting diodes with wavelengths spanning from 400 to 970 nm. This shows how the camera can be used in nondestructive evaluation to inspect surfaces and spectrally identify materials and corrosion. (author)

  16. High resolution RGB color line scan camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Theodore E.; Huettig, Fred

    1998-04-01

    A color line scan camera family which is available with either 6000, 8000 or 10000 pixels/color channel, utilizes off-the-shelf lenses, interfaces with currently available frame grabbers, includes on-board pixel by pixel offset correction, and is configurable and controllable via RS232 serial port for computer controlled or stand alone operation is described in this paper. This line scan camera is based on an available 8000 element monochrome line scan camera designed by AOA for OEM use. The new color version includes improvements such as better packaging and additional user features which make the camera easier to use. The heart of the camera is a tri-linear CCD sensor with on-chip color balancing for maximum accuracy and pinned photodiodes for low lag response. Each color channel is digitized to 12 bits and all three channels are multiplexed together so that the resulting camera output video is either a 12 or 8 bit data stream at a rate of up to 24Megpixels/sec. Conversion from 12 to 8 bit, or user-defined gamma, is accomplished by on board user-defined video look up tables. The camera has two user-selectable operating modes; lows speed, high sensitivity mode or high speed, reduced sensitivity mode. The intended uses of the camera include industrial inspection, digital archiving, document scanning, and graphic arts applications.

  17. Ultra fast x-ray streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.; McConaghy, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    A unique ultrafast x-ray sensitive streak camera, with a time resolution of 50psec, has been built and operated. A 100A thick gold photocathode on a beryllium vacuum window is used in a modified commerical image converter tube. The X-ray streak camera has been used in experiments to observe time resolved emission from laser-produced plasmas. (author)

  18. An Open Standard for Camera Trap Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavis Forrester

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps that capture photos of animals are a valuable tool for monitoring biodiversity. The use of camera traps is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need for standardization to facilitate data management, reporting and data sharing. Here we offer the Camera Trap Metadata Standard as an open data standard for storing and sharing camera trap data, developed by experts from a variety of organizations. The standard captures information necessary to share data between projects and offers a foundation for collecting the more detailed data needed for advanced analysis. The data standard captures information about study design, the type of camera used, and the location and species names for all detections in a standardized way. This information is critical for accurately assessing results from individual camera trapping projects and for combining data from multiple studies for meta-analysis. This data standard is an important step in aligning camera trapping surveys with best practices in data-intensive science. Ecology is moving rapidly into the realm of big data, and central data repositories are becoming a critical tool and are emerging for camera trap data. This data standard will help researchers standardize data terms, align past data to new repositories, and provide a framework for utilizing data across repositories and research projects to advance animal ecology and conservation.

  19. Laser scanning camera inspects hazardous area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryatt, A.; Miprode, C.

    1985-01-01

    Main operational characteristics of a new laser scanning camera are presented. The camera is intended primarily for low level high resolution viewing inside nuclear reactors. It uses a He-Ne laser beam raster; by detecting the reflected light by means of a phomultiplier, the subject under observation can be reconstructed in an electronic video store and reviewed on a conventional monitor screen

  20. Single chip camera active pixel sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Timothy (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Olson, Brita (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Panicacci, Roger A. (Inventor); Mansoorian, Barmak (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A totally digital single chip camera includes communications to operate most of its structure in serial communication mode. The digital single chip camera include a D/A converter for converting an input digital word into an analog reference signal. The chip includes all of the necessary circuitry for operating the chip using a single pin.

  1. Securing Embedded Smart Cameras with Trusted Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Camera systems are used in many applications including video surveillance for crime prevention and investigation, traffic monitoring on highways or building monitoring and automation. With the shift from analog towards digital systems, the capabilities of cameras are constantly increasing. Today's smart camera systems come with considerable computing power, large memory, and wired or wireless communication interfaces. With onboard image processing and analysis capabilities, cameras not only open new possibilities but also raise new challenges. Often overlooked are potential security issues of the camera system. The increasing amount of software running on the cameras turns them into attractive targets for attackers. Therefore, the protection of camera devices and delivered data is of critical importance. In this work we present an embedded camera prototype that uses Trusted Computing to provide security guarantees for streamed videos. With a hardware-based security solution, we ensure integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of videos. Furthermore, we incorporate image timestamping, detection of platform reboots, and reporting of the system status. This work is not limited to theoretical considerations but also describes the implementation of a prototype system. Extensive evaluation results illustrate the practical feasibility of the approach.

  2. Centering mount for a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkhodzhaev, A.Kh.; Kuznetsov, N.K.; Ostryj, Yu.E.

    1988-01-01

    A device for centering a γ-camera detector in case of radionuclide diagnosis is described. It permits the use of available medical coaches instead of a table with a transparent top. The device can be used for centering a detector (when it is fixed at the low end of a γ-camera) on a required area of the patient's body

  3. Digital airborne camera introduction and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sandau, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has seen great innovations on the airborne camera. This book is the first ever written on the topic and describes all components of a digital airborne camera ranging from the object to be imaged to the mass memory device.

  4. Adapting virtual camera behaviour through player modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2015-01-01

    Research in virtual camera control has focused primarily on finding methods to allow designers to place cameras effectively and efficiently in dynamic and unpredictable environments, and to generate complex and dynamic plans for cinematography in virtual environments. In this article, we propose...

  5. Driving with head-slaved camera system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oving, A.B.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2001-01-01

    In a field experiment, we tested the effectiveness of a head-slaved camera system for driving an armoured vehicle under armour. This system consists of a helmet-mounted display (HMD), a headtracker, and a motion platform with two cameras. Subjects performed several driving tasks on paved and in

  6. Rosetta Star Tracker and Navigation Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta

    1998-01-01

    Proposal in response to the Invitation to Tender (ITT) issued by Matra Marconi Space (MSS) for the procurement of the ROSETTA Star Tracker and Navigation Camera.......Proposal in response to the Invitation to Tender (ITT) issued by Matra Marconi Space (MSS) for the procurement of the ROSETTA Star Tracker and Navigation Camera....

  7. CCD Camera Lens Interface for Real-Time Theodolite Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Shane; Scott, V. Stanley, III

    2012-01-01

    Theodolites are a common instrument in the testing, alignment, and building of various systems ranging from a single optical component to an entire instrument. They provide a precise way to measure horizontal and vertical angles. They can be used to align multiple objects in a desired way at specific angles. They can also be used to reference a specific location or orientation of an object that has moved. Some systems may require a small margin of error in position of components. A theodolite can assist with accurately measuring and/or minimizing that error. The technology is an adapter for a CCD camera with lens to attach to a Leica Wild T3000 Theodolite eyepiece that enables viewing on a connected monitor, and thus can be utilized with multiple theodolites simultaneously. This technology removes a substantial part of human error by relying on the CCD camera and monitors. It also allows image recording of the alignment, and therefore provides a quantitative means to measure such error.

  8. Wavefront analysis for plenoptic camera imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Yin-Sen; Xu Bing; Yang Ping; Tang Guo-Mao

    2017-01-01

    The plenoptic camera is a single lens stereo camera which can retrieve the direction of light rays while detecting their intensity distribution. In this paper, to reveal more truths of plenoptic camera imaging, we present the wavefront analysis for the plenoptic camera imaging from the angle of physical optics but not from the ray tracing model of geometric optics. Specifically, the wavefront imaging model of a plenoptic camera is analyzed and simulated by scalar diffraction theory and the depth estimation is redescribed based on physical optics. We simulate a set of raw plenoptic images of an object scene, thereby validating the analysis and derivations and the difference between the imaging analysis methods based on geometric optics and physical optics are also shown in simulations. (paper)

  9. Modelling Virtual Camera Behaviour Through Player Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    industry and game AI research focus on the devel- opment of increasingly sophisticated systems to automate the control of the virtual camera integrating artificial intel- ligence algorithms within physical simulations. However, in both industry and academia little research has been carried out......In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...

  10. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolster, A.A. [West Glasgow Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Physics; Waddington, W.A. [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Nuclear Medicine

    1996-12-31

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera`s computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author).

  11. Development of high-speed video cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoh, Takeharu G.; Takehara, Kohsei; Okinaka, Tomoo; Takano, Yasuhide; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Poggemann, Dirk

    2001-04-01

    Presented in this paper is an outline of the R and D activities on high-speed video cameras, which have been done in Kinki University since more than ten years ago, and are currently proceeded as an international cooperative project with University of Applied Sciences Osnabruck and other organizations. Extensive marketing researches have been done, (1) on user's requirements on high-speed multi-framing and video cameras by questionnaires and hearings, and (2) on current availability of the cameras of this sort by search of journals and websites. Both of them support necessity of development of a high-speed video camera of more than 1 million fps. A video camera of 4,500 fps with parallel readout was developed in 1991. A video camera with triple sensors was developed in 1996. The sensor is the same one as developed for the previous camera. The frame rate is 50 million fps for triple-framing and 4,500 fps for triple-light-wave framing, including color image capturing. Idea on a video camera of 1 million fps with an ISIS, In-situ Storage Image Sensor, was proposed in 1993 at first, and has been continuously improved. A test sensor was developed in early 2000, and successfully captured images at 62,500 fps. Currently, design of a prototype ISIS is going on, and, hopefully, will be fabricated in near future. Epoch-making cameras in history of development of high-speed video cameras by other persons are also briefly reviewed.

  12. Cloud Computing with Context Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, A. J.; Rosing, W. E.

    2016-05-01

    We summarize methods and plans to monitor and calibrate photometric observations with our autonomous, robotic network of 2m, 1m and 40cm telescopes. These are sited globally to optimize our ability to observe time-variable sources. Wide field "context" cameras are aligned with our network telescopes and cycle every ˜2 minutes through BVr'i'z' filters, spanning our optical range. We measure instantaneous zero-point offsets and transparency (throughput) against calibrators in the 5-12m range from the all-sky Tycho2 catalog, and periodically against primary standards. Similar measurements are made for all our science images, with typical fields of view of ˜0.5 degrees. These are matched against Landolt, Stetson and Sloan standards, and against calibrators in the 10-17m range from the all-sky APASS catalog. Such measurements provide pretty good instantaneous flux calibration, often to better than 5%, even in cloudy conditions. Zero-point and transparency measurements can be used to characterize, monitor and inter-compare sites and equipment. When accurate calibrations of Target against Standard fields are required, monitoring measurements can be used to select truly photometric periods when accurate calibrations can be automatically scheduled and performed.

  13. Towards Adaptive Virtual Camera Control In Computer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2011-01-01

    Automatic camera control aims to define a framework to control virtual camera movements in dynamic and unpredictable virtual environments while ensuring a set of desired visual properties. We inves- tigate the relationship between camera placement and playing behaviour in games and build a user...... model of the camera behaviour that can be used to control camera movements based on player preferences. For this purpose, we collect eye gaze, camera and game-play data from subjects playing a 3D platform game, we cluster gaze and camera information to identify camera behaviour profiles and we employ...... camera control in games is discussed....

  14. A quantitative preliminary evaluation of nuclear medicine instruments in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Caseria, E.S.; Lopez, L.B.; Pasion, I.S.; Linilitan, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is the result of a survey conducted on several nuclear medicine centers in Metro Manila including one in Baguio City to assess the performance of nuclear medicine instruments and the extent of quality procedures being carried out. It was revealed that prompt and competent service seems to be a major problem. Of the eleven sites visited, 4 have cameras only, 4 with cameras with computers, 3 with rectilinear scanners only and 1 with cameras + rectilinear scanners. (ELC) 8 figs

  15. Reducing the Variance of Intrinsic Camera Calibration Results in the ROS Camera_Calibration Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Geoffrey Nelson

    The intrinsic calibration of a camera is the process in which the internal optical and geometric characteristics of the camera are determined. If accurate intrinsic parameters of a camera are known, the ray in 3D space that every point in the image lies on can be determined. Pairing with another camera allows for the position of the points in the image to be calculated by intersection of the rays. Accurate intrinsics also allow for the position and orientation of a camera relative to some world coordinate system to be calculated. These two reasons for having accurate intrinsic calibration for a camera are especially important in the field of industrial robotics where 3D cameras are frequently mounted on the ends of manipulators. In the ROS (Robot Operating System) ecosystem, the camera_calibration package is the default standard for intrinsic camera calibration. Several researchers from the Industrial Robotics & Automation division at Southwest Research Institute have noted that this package results in large variances in the intrinsic parameters of the camera when calibrating across multiple attempts. There are also open issues on this matter in their public repository that have not been addressed by the developers. In this thesis, we confirm that the camera_calibration package does indeed return different results across multiple attempts, test out several possible hypothesizes as to why, identify the reason, and provide simple solution to fix the cause of the issue.

  16. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  17. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  18. Autonomous Multicamera Tracking on Embedded Smart Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischof Horst

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a strong trend towards the deployment of advanced computer vision methods on embedded systems. This deployment is very challenging since embedded platforms often provide limited resources such as computing performance, memory, and power. In this paper we present a multicamera tracking method on distributed, embedded smart cameras. Smart cameras combine video sensing, processing, and communication on a single embedded device which is equipped with a multiprocessor computation and communication infrastructure. Our multicamera tracking approach focuses on a fully decentralized handover procedure between adjacent cameras. The basic idea is to initiate a single tracking instance in the multicamera system for each object of interest. The tracker follows the supervised object over the camera network, migrating to the camera which observes the object. Thus, no central coordination is required resulting in an autonomous and scalable tracking approach. We have fully implemented this novel multicamera tracking approach on our embedded smart cameras. Tracking is achieved by the well-known CamShift algorithm; the handover procedure is realized using a mobile agent system available on the smart camera network. Our approach has been successfully evaluated on tracking persons at our campus.

  19. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoughton, R.S.; Martin, H.L.; Bentz, R.R.

    1984-04-01

    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2 0 deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  20. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoughton, R.S.; Martin, H.L.; Bentz, R.R.

    1984-07-01

    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2-deg deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  1. New camera systems for fuel services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, W.; Beck, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    AREVA NP Fuel Services have many years of experience in visual examination and measurements on fuel assemblies and associated core components by using state of the art cameras and measuring technologies. The used techniques allow the surface and dimensional characterization of materials and shapes by visual examination. New enhanced and sophisticated technologies for fuel services f. e. are two shielded color camera systems for use under water and close inspection of a fuel assembly. Nowadays the market requirements for detecting and characterization of small defects (lower than the 10th of one mm) or cracks and analyzing surface appearances on an irradiated fuel rod cladding or fuel assembly structure parts have increased. Therefore it is common practice to use movie cameras with higher resolution. The radiation resistance of high resolution CCD cameras is in general very low and it is not possible to use them unshielded close to a fuel assembly. By extending the camera with a mirror system and shielding around the sensitive parts, the movie camera can be utilized for fuel assembly inspection. AREVA NP Fuel Services is now equipped with such kind of movie cameras. (orig.)

  2. State of art in radiation tolerant camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi; Young Soo; Kim, Seong Ho; Cho, Jae Wan; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Young Chil

    2002-02-01

    Working in radiation environment such as nuclear power plant, RI facility, nuclear fuel fabrication facility, medical center has to be considered radiation exposure, and we can implement these job by remote observation and operation. However the camera used for general industry is weakened at radiation, so radiation-tolerant camera is needed for radiation environment. The application of radiation-tolerant camera system is nuclear industry, radio-active medical, aerospace, and so on. Specially nuclear industry, the demand is continuous in the inspection of nuclear boiler, exchange of pellet, inspection of nuclear waste. In the nuclear developed countries have been an effort to develop radiation-tolerant cameras. Now they have many kinds of radiation-tolerant cameras which can tolerate to 10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} rad total dose. In this report, we examine into the state-of-art about radiation-tolerant cameras, and analyze these technology. We want to grow up the concern of developing radiation-tolerant camera by this paper, and upgrade the level of domestic technology.

  3. Renovation of PARR instrumentation and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, A.; Haq, I.; Akhtar, K.M.; Alam, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Pakistan research reactor (PARR) was commissioned in 1965 and operated since then in accordance with the requirements. In the first instance, it was proposed that the controls and instrumentation be modernized according to the state of current technology and for meeting the more stringent safety, and operational needs. A computer has been added for data acquisition, logging and analysis. A closed circuit television system has been installed to monitor access of personnel to the reactor building and for viewing the reactor core with an underwater camera. This report gives a brief account of the old instrumentation and some details of the new replacements. (orig./A.B)

  4. Quality control of nuclear medicine instruments 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This document gives detailed guidance on the quality control of various instruments used in nuclear medicine. A first preliminary document was drawn up in 1979. A revised and extended version, incorporating recommended procedures, test schedules and protocols was prepared in 1982. The first edition of ''Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments'', IAEA-TECDOC-317, was printed in late 1984. Recent advances in the field of nuclear medicine imaging made it necessary to add a chapter on Camera-Computer Systems and another on SPECT Systems. Figs and tabs

  5. Quality control of nuclear medicine instruments, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This document gives detailed guidance on the quality control of various instruments used in nuclear medicine. A first preliminary document was drawn up in 1979. A revised and extended version, incorporating recommended procedures, test schedules and protocols was prepared in 1982. The first edition of 'Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments', IAEA-TECDOC-317, was printed in late 1984. Recent advances in the field of nuclear medicine imaging made it necessary to add a chapter on Camera-Computer Systems and another on SPECT Systems

  6. Radiological instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material

  7. High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, J.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Chang, C. S.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Pistone, K.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Fahey, L.

    2016-12-01

    High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera TrackingThe NASA Ames Sun-photometer-Satellite Group, DOE, PNNL Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, and NASA Goddard's AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) team recently collaborated on the development of a new airborne sunphotometry instrument that provides information on gases and aerosols extending far beyond what can be derived from discrete-channel direct-beam measurements, while preserving or enhancing many of the desirable AATS features (e.g., compactness, versatility, automation, reliability). The enhanced instrument combines the sun-tracking ability of the current 14-Channel NASA Ames AATS-14 with the sky-scanning ability of the ground-based AERONET Sun/sky photometers, while extending both AATS-14 and AERONET capabilities by providing full spectral information from the UV (350 nm) to the SWIR (1,700 nm). Strengths of this measurement approach include many more wavelengths (isolated from gas absorption features) that may be used to characterize aerosols and detailed (oversampled) measurements of the absorption features of specific gas constituents. The Sky Scanning Sun Tracking Airborne Radiometer (3STAR) replicates the radiometer functionality of the AATS-14 instrument but incorporates modern COTS technologies for all instruments subsystems. A 19-channel radiometer bundle design is borrowed from a commercial water column radiance instrument manufactured by Biospherical Instruments of San Diego California (ref, Morrow and Hooker)) and developed using NASA funds under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The 3STAR design also incorporates the latest in robotic motor technology embodied in Rotary actuators from Oriental motor Corp. having better than 15 arc seconds of positioning accuracy. Control system was designed, tested and simulated using a Hybrid-Dynamical modeling methodology. The design also replaces the classic quadrant detector tracking sensor with a

  8. Fuzzy logic control for camera tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.; Fritz, R. H.; Giarratano, J.; Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    A concept utilizing fuzzy theory has been developed for a camera tracking system to provide support for proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic based reasoning are used in a control system which utilizes images from a camera and generates required pan and tilt commands to track and maintain a moving target in the camera's field of view. This control system can be implemented on a fuzzy chip to provide an intelligent sensor for autonomous operations. Capabilities of the control system can be expanded to include approach, handover to other sensors, caution and warning messages.

  9. A Benchmark for Virtual Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2015-01-01

    Automatically animating and placing the virtual camera in a dynamic environment is a challenging task. The camera is expected to maximise and maintain a set of properties — i.e. visual composition — while smoothly moving through the environment and avoiding obstacles. A large number of different....... For this reason, in this paper, we propose a benchmark for the problem of virtual camera control and we analyse a number of different problems in different virtual environments. Each of these scenarios is described through a set of complexity measures and, as a result of this analysis, a subset of scenarios...

  10. Scintillation camera with second order resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.

    1976-01-01

    A scintillation camera for use in radioisotope imaging to determine the concentration of radionuclides in a two-dimensional area is described in which means is provided for second order positional resolution. The phototubes, which normally provide only a single order of resolution, are modified to provide second order positional resolution of radiation within an object positioned for viewing by the scintillation camera. The phototubes are modified in that multiple anodes are provided to receive signals from the photocathode in a manner such that each anode is particularly responsive to photoemissions from a limited portion of the photocathode. Resolution of radioactive events appearing as an output of this scintillation camera is thereby improved

  11. Advantages of computer cameras over video cameras/frame grabbers for high-speed vision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gaylord G.; Walker, Jo N.

    1997-09-01

    Cameras designed to work specifically with computers can have certain advantages in comparison to the use of cameras loosely defined as 'video' cameras. In recent years the camera type distinctions have become somewhat blurred, with a great presence of 'digital cameras' aimed more at the home markets. This latter category is not considered here. The term 'computer camera' herein is intended to mean one which has low level computer (and software) control of the CCD clocking. These can often be used to satisfy some of the more demanding machine vision tasks, and in some cases with a higher rate of measurements than video cameras. Several of these specific applications are described here, including some which use recently designed CCDs which offer good combinations of parameters such as noise, speed, and resolution. Among the considerations for the choice of camera type in any given application would be such effects as 'pixel jitter,' and 'anti-aliasing.' Some of these effects may only be relevant if there is a mismatch between the number of pixels per line in the camera CCD and the number of analog to digital (A/D) sampling points along a video scan line. For the computer camera case these numbers are guaranteed to match, which alleviates some measurement inaccuracies and leads to higher effective resolution.

  12. Distributed Framework for Dynamic Telescope and Instrument Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Troy J.; Case, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been developed specifically for a single instrument. Such solutions are frequently expensive and are inflexible to support the next instrument development effort. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an extensible framework, known as Instrument Remote Control (IRC) that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. IRC combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A key aspect of the architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). IML is an XML dialect used to describe graphical user interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, communication mechanisms, and data processing algorithms. The IRC framework provides the ability to communicate to components anywhere on a network using the JXTA protocol for dynamic discovery of distributed components. JXTA (see httD://www.jxta.org,) is a generalized protocol that allows any devices connected by a network to communicate in a peer-to-peer manner. IRC uses JXTA to advertise a device's IML and discover devices of interest on the network. Devices can join or leave the network and thus join or leave the instrument control environment of IRC. Currently, several astronomical instruments are working with the IRC development team to develop custom components for IRC to control their instruments. These instruments include: High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC), a first light instrument for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA); Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE), a Principal Investigator instrument for SOFIA; and Fabry-Perot Interferometer Bolometer Research Experiment (FIBRE), a prototype of the SAFIRE instrument, used at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). Most recently, we have

  13. In-air versus underwater comparison of 3D reconstruction accuracy using action sport cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardina, Gustavo R D; Cerveri, Pietro; Barros, Ricardo M L; Marins, João C B; Silvatti, Amanda P

    2017-01-25

    Action sport cameras (ASC) have achieved a large consensus for recreational purposes due to ongoing cost decrease, image resolution and frame rate increase, along with plug-and-play usability. Consequently, they have been recently considered for sport gesture studies and quantitative athletic performance evaluation. In this paper, we evaluated the potential of two ASCs (GoPro Hero3+) for in-air (laboratory) and underwater (swimming pool) three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis as a function of different camera setups involving the acquisition frequency, image resolution and field of view. This is motivated by the fact that in swimming, movement cycles are characterized by underwater and in-air phases what imposes the technical challenge of having a split volume configuration: an underwater measurement volume observed by underwater cameras and an in-air measurement volume observed by in-air cameras. The reconstruction of whole swimming cycles requires thus merging of simultaneous measurements acquired in both volumes. Characterizing and optimizing the instrumental errors of such a configuration makes mandatory the assessment of the instrumental errors of both volumes. In order to calibrate the camera stereo pair, black spherical markers placed on two calibration tools, used both in-air and underwater, and a two-step nonlinear optimization were exploited. The 3D reconstruction accuracy of testing markers and the repeatability of the estimated camera parameters accounted for system performance. For both environments, statistical tests were focused on the comparison of the different camera configurations. Then, each camera configuration was compared across the two environments. In all assessed resolutions, and in both environments, the reconstruction error (true distance between the two testing markers) was less than 3mm and the error related to the working volume diagonal was in the range of 1:2000 (3×1.3×1.5m 3 ) to 1:7000 (4.5×2.2×1.5m 3 ) in agreement with the

  14. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.

    2008-09-01

    Camera trajectory estimation, which is closely related to the structure from motion computation, is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. Reliable camera trajectory estimation plays an important role in 3D reconstruction, self localization, and object recognition. There are essential issues for a reliable camera trajectory estimation, for instance, choice of the camera and its geometric projection model, camera calibration, image feature detection and description, and robust 3D structure computation. Most of approaches rely on classical perspective cameras because of the simplicity of their projection models and ease of their calibration. However, classical perspective cameras offer only a limited field of view, and thus occlusions and sharp camera turns may cause that consecutive frames look completely different when the baseline becomes longer. This makes the image feature matching very difficult (or impossible) and the camera trajectory estimation fails under such conditions. These problems can be avoided if omnidirectional cameras, e.g. a fish-eye lens convertor, are used. The hardware which we are using in practice is a combination of Nikon FC-E9 mounted via a mechanical adaptor onto a Kyocera Finecam M410R digital camera. Nikon FC-E9 is a megapixel omnidirectional addon convertor with 180° view angle which provides images of photographic quality. Kyocera Finecam M410R delivers 2272×1704 images at 3 frames per second. The resulting combination yields a circular view of diameter 1600 pixels in the image. Since consecutive frames of the omnidirectional camera often share a common region in 3D space, the image feature matching is often feasible. On the other hand, the calibration of these cameras is non-trivial and is crucial for the accuracy of the resulting 3D reconstruction. We calibrate omnidirectional cameras off-line using the state-of-the-art technique and Mičušík's two-parameter model, that links the radius of the image point r to the

  15. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolster, A.A.; Waddington, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera's computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author)

  16. Camera Based Navigation System with Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marcu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays smart mobile devices have enough processing power, memory, storage and always connected wireless communication bandwidth that makes them available for any type of application. Augmented reality (AR proposes a new type of applications that tries to enhance the real world by superimposing or combining virtual objects or computer generated information with it. In this paper we present a camera based navigation system with augmented reality integration. The proposed system aims to the following: the user points the camera of the smartphone towards a point of interest, like a building or any other place, and the application searches for relevant information about that specific place and superimposes the data over the video feed on the display. When the user moves the camera away, changing its orientation, the data changes as well, in real-time, with the proper information about the place that is now in the camera view.

  17. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES ON OBLIQUE CAMERA SETUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kemper

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beside the creation of virtual animated 3D City models, analysis for homeland security and city planning, the accurately determination of geometric features out of oblique imagery is an important task today. Due to the huge number of single images the reduction of control points force to make use of direct referencing devices. This causes a precise camera-calibration and additional adjustment procedures. This paper aims to show the workflow of the various calibration steps and will present examples of the calibration flight with the final 3D City model. In difference to most other software, the oblique cameras are used not as co-registered sensors in relation to the nadir one, all camera images enter the AT process as single pre-oriented data. This enables a better post calibration in order to detect variations in the single camera calibration and other mechanical effects. The shown sensor (Oblique Imager is based o 5 Phase One cameras were the nadir one has 80 MPIX equipped with a 50 mm lens while the oblique ones capture images with 50 MPix using 80 mm lenses. The cameras are mounted robust inside a housing to protect this against physical and thermal deformations. The sensor head hosts also an IMU which is connected to a POS AV GNSS Receiver. The sensor is stabilized by a gyro-mount which creates floating Antenna –IMU lever arms. They had to be registered together with the Raw GNSS-IMU Data. The camera calibration procedure was performed based on a special calibration flight with 351 shoots of all 5 cameras and registered the GPS/IMU data. This specific mission was designed in two different altitudes with additional cross lines on each flying heights. The five images from each exposure positions have no overlaps but in the block there are many overlaps resulting in up to 200 measurements per points. On each photo there were in average 110 well distributed measured points which is a satisfying number for the camera calibration. In a first

  18. Portable mini gamma camera for medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Porras, E; Benlloch, J M; El-Djalil-Kadi-Hanifi, M; López, S; Pavon, N; Ruiz, J A; Sánchez, F; Sebastiá, A

    2002-01-01

    A small, portable and low-cost gamma camera for medical applications has been developed and clinically tested. This camera, based on a scintillator crystal and a Position Sensitive Photo-Multiplier Tube, has a useful field of view of 4.6 cm diameter and provides 2.2 mm of intrinsic spatial resolution. Its mobility and light weight allow to reach the patient from any desired direction. This camera images small organs with high efficiency and so addresses the demand for devices of specific clinical applications. In this paper, we present the camera and briefly describe the procedures that have led us to choose its configuration and the image reconstruction method. The clinical tests and diagnostic capability are also presented and discussed.

  19. An imaging system for a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Gerber, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed description is given of a novel gamma camera which is designed to produce superior images than conventional cameras used in nuclear medicine. The detector consists of a solid state detector (e.g. germanium) which is formed to have a plurality of discrete components to enable 2-dimensional position identification. Details of the electronic processing circuits are given and the problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

  20. Semiotic Analysis of Canon Camera Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    INDRAWATI, SUSAN

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Semiotic Analysis, Canon Camera, Advertisement. Advertisement is a medium to deliver message to people with the goal to influence the to use certain products. Semiotics is applied to develop a correlation within element used in an advertisement. In this study, the writer chose the Semiotic analysis of canon camera advertisement as the subject to be analyzed using semiotic study based on Peirce's theory. Semiotic approach is employed in interpreting the sign, symbol, icon, and index ...

  1. Imaging camera with multiwire proportional chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Votruba, J.

    1980-01-01

    The camera for imaging radioisotope dislocations for use in nuclear medicine or for other applications, claimed in the patent, is provided by two multiwire lattices for the x-coordinate connected to a first coincidence circuit, and by two multiwire lattices for the y-coordinate connected to a second coincidence circuit. This arrangement eliminates the need of using a collimator and increases camera sensitivity while reducing production cost. (Ha)

  2. Imaging capabilities of germanium gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steidley, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative methods of analysis based on the use of a computer simulation were developed and used to investigate the imaging capabilities of germanium gamma cameras. The main advantage of the computer simulation is that the inherent unknowns of clinical imaging procedures are removed from the investigation. The effects of patient scattered radiation were incorporated using a mathematical LSF model which was empirically developed and experimentally verified. Image modifying effects of patient motion, spatial distortions, and count rate capabilities were also included in the model. Spatial domain and frequency domain modeling techniques were developed and used in the simulation as required. The imaging capabilities of gamma cameras were assessed using low contrast lesion source distributions. The results showed that an improvement in energy resolution from 10% to 2% offers significant clinical advantages in terms of improved contrast, increased detectability, and reduced patient dose. The improvements are of greatest significance for small lesions at low contrast. The results of the computer simulation were also used to compare a design of a hypothetical germanium gamma camera with a state-of-the-art scintillation camera. The computer model performed a parametric analysis of the interrelated effects of inherent and technological limitations of gamma camera imaging. In particular, the trade-off between collimator resolution and collimator efficiency for detection of a given low contrast lesion was directly addressed. This trade-off is an inherent limitation of both gamma cameras. The image degrading effects of patient motion, camera spatial distortions, and low count rate were shown to modify the improvements due to better energy resolution. Thus, based on this research, the continued development of germanium cameras to the point of clinical demonstration is recommended

  3. Europe's space camera unmasks a cosmic gamma-ray machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The new-found neutron star is the visible counterpart of a pulsating radio source, Pulsar 1055-52. It is a mere 20 kilometres wide. Although the neutron star is very hot, at about a million degrees C, very little of its radiant energy takes the form of visible light. It emits mainly gamma-rays, an extremely energetic form of radiation. By examining it at visible wavelengths, astronomers hope to figure out why Pulsar 1055-52 is the most efficient generator of gamma-rays known so far, anywhere the Universe. The Faint Object Camera found Pulsar 1055-52 in near ultraviolet light at 3400 angstroms, a little shorter in wavelength than the violet light at the extremity of the human visual range. Roberto Mignani, Patrizia Caraveo and Giovanni Bignami of the Istituto di Fisica Cosmica in Milan, Italy, report its optical identification in a forthcoming issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters (1 January 1997). The formal name of the object is PSR 1055-52. Evading the glare of an adjacent star The Italian team had tried since 1988 to spot Pulsar 1055-52 with two of the most powerful ground-based optical telescopes in the Southern Hemisphere. These were the 3.6-metre Telescope and the 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope of the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile. Unfortunately an ordinary star 100,000 times brighter lay in almost the same direction in the sky, separated from the neutron star by only a thousandth of a degree. The Earth's atmosphere defocused the star's light sufficiently to mask the glimmer from Pulsar 1055-52. The astronomers therefore needed an instrument in space. The Faint Object Camera offered the best precision and sensitivity to continue the hunt. Devised by European astronomers to complement the American wide field camera in the Hubble Space Telescope, the Faint Object Camera has a relatively narrow field of view. It intensifies the image of a faint object by repeatedly accelerating electrons from photo-electric films, so as to produce

  4. Review of Calibration Methods for Scheimpflug Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Scheimpflug camera offers a wide range of applications in the field of typical close-range photogrammetry, particle image velocity, and digital image correlation due to the fact that the depth-of-view of Scheimpflug camera can be greatly extended according to the Scheimpflug condition. Yet, the conventional calibration methods are not applicable in this case because the assumptions used by classical calibration methodologies are not valid anymore for cameras undergoing Scheimpflug condition. Therefore, various methods have been investigated to solve the problem over the last few years. However, no comprehensive review exists that provides an insight into recent calibration methods of Scheimpflug cameras. This paper presents a survey of recent calibration methods of Scheimpflug cameras with perspective lens, including the general nonparametric imaging model, and analyzes in detail the advantages and drawbacks of the mainstream calibration models with respect to each other. Real data experiments including calibrations, reconstructions, and measurements are performed to assess the performance of the models. The results reveal that the accuracies of the RMM, PLVM, PCIM, and GNIM are basically equal, while the accuracy of GNIM is slightly lower compared with the other three parametric models. Moreover, the experimental results reveal that the parameters of the tangential distortion are likely coupled with the tilt angle of the sensor in Scheimpflug calibration models. The work of this paper lays the foundation of further research of Scheimpflug cameras.

  5. The Use of Camera Traps in Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Uçarlı

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Camera traps are increasingly used in the abundance and density estimates of wildlife species. Camera traps are very good alternative for direct observation in case, particularly, steep terrain, dense vegetation covered areas or nocturnal species. The main reason for the use of camera traps is eliminated that the economic, personnel and time loss in a continuous manner at the same time in different points. Camera traps, motion and heat sensitive, can take a photo or video according to the models. Crossover points and feeding or mating areas of the focal species are addressed as a priority camera trap set locations. The population size can be finding out by the images combined with Capture-Recapture methods. The population density came out the population size divided to effective sampling area size. Mating and breeding season, habitat choice, group structures and survival rates of the focal species can be achieved from the images. Camera traps are very useful to obtain the necessary data about the particularly mysterious species with economically in planning and conservation efforts.

  6. Towards next generation 3D cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mohit

    2017-03-01

    We are in the midst of a 3D revolution. Robots enabled by 3D cameras are beginning to autonomously drive cars, perform surgeries, and manage factories. However, when deployed in the real-world, these cameras face several challenges that prevent them from measuring 3D shape reliably. These challenges include large lighting variations (bright sunlight to dark night), presence of scattering media (fog, body tissue), and optically complex materials (metal, plastic). Due to these factors, 3D imaging is often the bottleneck in widespread adoption of several key robotics technologies. I will talk about our work on developing 3D cameras based on time-of-flight and active triangulation that addresses these long-standing problems. This includes designing `all-weather' cameras that can perform high-speed 3D scanning in harsh outdoor environments, as well as cameras that recover shape of objects with challenging material properties. These cameras are, for the first time, capable of measuring detailed (robotic inspection and assembly systems.

  7. Development, characterization, and modeling of a tunable filter camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Mark Alan

    1999-10-01

    This paper describes the development, characterization, and modeling of a Tunable Filter Camera (TFC). The TFC is a new multispectral instrument with electronically tuned spectral filtering and low-light-level sensitivity. It represents a hybrid between hyperspectral and multispectral imaging spectrometers that incorporates advantages from each, addressing issues such as complexity, cost, lack of sensitivity, and adaptability. These capabilities allow the TFC to be applied to low- altitude video surveillance for real-time spectral and spatial target detection and image exploitation. Described herein are the theory and principles of operation for the TFC, which includes a liquid crystal tunable filter, an intensified CCD, and a custom apochromatic lens. The results of proof-of-concept testing, and characterization of two prototype cameras are included, along with a summary of the design analyses for the development of a multiple-channel system. A significant result of this effort was the creation of a system-level model, which was used to facilitate development and predict performance. It includes models for the liquid crystal tunable filter and intensified CCD. Such modeling was necessary in the design of the system and is useful for evaluation of the system in remote-sensing applications. Also presented are characterization data from component testing, which included quantitative results for linearity, signal to noise ratio (SNR), linearity, and radiometric response. These data were used to help refine and validate the model. For a pre-defined source, the spatial and spectral response, and the noise of the camera, system can now be predicted. The innovation that sets this development apart is the fact that this instrument has been designed for integrated, multi-channel operation for the express purpose of real-time detection/identification in low- light-level conditions. Many of the requirements for the TFC were derived from this mission. In order to provide

  8. Calibration Procedures in Mid Format Camera Setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnicka, F.; Kemper, G.; Geissler, S.

    2012-07-01

    A growing number of mid-format cameras are used for aerial surveying projects. To achieve a reliable and geometrically precise result also in the photogrammetric workflow, awareness on the sensitive parts is important. The use of direct referencing systems (GPS/IMU), the mounting on a stabilizing camera platform and the specific values of the mid format camera make a professional setup with various calibration and misalignment operations necessary. An important part is to have a proper camera calibration. Using aerial images over a well designed test field with 3D structures and/or different flight altitudes enable the determination of calibration values in Bingo software. It will be demonstrated how such a calibration can be performed. The direct referencing device must be mounted in a solid and reliable way to the camera. Beside the mechanical work especially in mounting the camera beside the IMU, 2 lever arms have to be measured in mm accuracy. Important are the lever arms from the GPS Antenna to the IMU's calibrated centre and also the lever arm from the IMU centre to the Camera projection centre. In fact, the measurement with a total station is not a difficult task but the definition of the right centres and the need for using rotation matrices can cause serious accuracy problems. The benefit of small and medium format cameras is that also smaller aircrafts can be used. Like that, a gyro bases stabilized platform is recommended. This causes, that the IMU must be mounted beside the camera on the stabilizer. The advantage is, that the IMU can be used to control the platform, the problematic thing is, that the IMU to GPS antenna lever arm is floating. In fact we have to deal with an additional data stream, the values of the movement of the stabiliser to correct the floating lever arm distances. If the post-processing of the GPS-IMU data by taking the floating levers into account, delivers an expected result, the lever arms between IMU and camera can be applied

  9. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES IN MID FORMAT CAMERA SETUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pivnicka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of mid-format cameras are used for aerial surveying projects. To achieve a reliable and geometrically precise result also in the photogrammetric workflow, awareness on the sensitive parts is important. The use of direct referencing systems (GPS/IMU, the mounting on a stabilizing camera platform and the specific values of the mid format camera make a professional setup with various calibration and misalignment operations necessary. An important part is to have a proper camera calibration. Using aerial images over a well designed test field with 3D structures and/or different flight altitudes enable the determination of calibration values in Bingo software. It will be demonstrated how such a calibration can be performed. The direct referencing device must be mounted in a solid and reliable way to the camera. Beside the mechanical work especially in mounting the camera beside the IMU, 2 lever arms have to be measured in mm accuracy. Important are the lever arms from the GPS Antenna to the IMU's calibrated centre and also the lever arm from the IMU centre to the Camera projection centre. In fact, the measurement with a total station is not a difficult task but the definition of the right centres and the need for using rotation matrices can cause serious accuracy problems. The benefit of small and medium format cameras is that also smaller aircrafts can be used. Like that, a gyro bases stabilized platform is recommended. This causes, that the IMU must be mounted beside the camera on the stabilizer. The advantage is, that the IMU can be used to control the platform, the problematic thing is, that the IMU to GPS antenna lever arm is floating. In fact we have to deal with an additional data stream, the values of the movement of the stabiliser to correct the floating lever arm distances. If the post-processing of the GPS-IMU data by taking the floating levers into account, delivers an expected result, the lever arms between IMU and

  10. Development of an integrated response generator for Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Sugimoto, Soichiro; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Katsuta, Junichiro; Koseki, Yuu; Fukuyama, Taro; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Rie; Sato, Goro; Watanabe, Shin

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an integrated response generator based on Monte Carlo simulation for Compton cameras composed of silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor detectors. In order to construct an accurate detector response function, the simulation is required to include a comprehensive treatment of the semiconductor detector devices and the data processing system in addition to simulating particle tracking. Although CdTe is an excellent semiconductor material for detection of soft gamma rays, its ineffective charge transport property distorts its spectral response. We investigated the response of CdTe pad detectors in the simulation and present our initial results here. We also performed the full simulation of prototypes of Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton cameras and report on the reproducibility of detection efficiencies and angular resolutions of the cameras, both of which are essential performance parameters of astrophysical instruments.

  11. The Bering Target Tracking Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    The key science instrument on the Bering satellite mission is a relative small telescope with an entrance aperture of 300 mm and a focal length between 500 and 1000 mm. The detection of potential targets is performed by one of the target scanning advanced stellar compasses (ASCs). This procedure...... results in a simple prioritized list of right ascension, declination, proper motion and intensity of each prospective target. The telescope itself has a dedicated ASC Camera Head Unit (CHU) mounted on the secondary mirror, largely co-aligned with the telescope. This CHU accurately determines the telescope......'s pointing direction. To achieve fast tracking over a large solid angle, the telescope pointing is achieved by means of a folding mirror in the optical pathway. When a prospective target approaches the telescope FOV, the ASC on the secondary will guide the folding mirror into position such that the target...

  12. Teen drivers' awareness of vehicle instrumentation in naturalistic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, J P; Haynie, D; Ouimet, M C; Zhu, C; Guillaume, C; Klauer, S G; Dingus, T; Simons-Morton, B G

    2017-12-01

    Naturalistic driving methods require the installation of instruments and cameras in vehicles to record driving behavior. A critical, yet unexamined issue in naturalistic driving research is the extent to which the vehicle instruments and cameras used for naturalistic methods change human behavior. We sought to describe the degree to which teenage participants' self-reported awareness of vehicle instrumentation changes over time, and whether that awareness was associated with driving behaviors. Forty-two newly-licensed teenage drivers participated in an 18-month naturalistic driving study. Data on driving behaviors including crash/near-crashes and elevated gravitational force (g-force) events rates were collected over the study period. At the end of the study, participants were asked to rate the extent to which they were aware of instruments in the vehicle at four time points. They were also asked to describe their own and their passengers' perceptions of the instrumentation in the vehicle during an in-depth interview. The number of critical event button presses was used as a secondary measure of camera awareness. The association between self-reported awareness of the instrumentation and objectively measured driving behaviors was tested using correlations and linear mixed models. Most participants' reported that their awareness of vehicle instrumentation declined across the duration of the 18-month study. Their awareness increased in response to their passengers' concerns about the cameras or if they were involved in a crash. The number of the critical event button presses was initially high and declined rapidly. There was no correlation between driver's awareness of instrumentation and their crash and near-crash rate or elevated g-force events rate. Awareness was not associated with crash and near-crash rates or elevated g-force event rates, consistent with having no effect on this measure of driving performance. Naturalistic driving studies are likely to yield

  13. Force Limited Random Vibration Test of TESS Camera Mass Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlicek, Alexandra; Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Rey, Justin J.

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a spaceborne instrument consisting of four wide field-of-view-CCD cameras dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets around the brightest stars. As part of the environmental testing campaign, force limiting was used to simulate a realistic random vibration launch environment. While the force limit vibration test method is a standard approach used at multiple institutions including Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), it is still difficult to find an actual implementation process in the literature. This paper describes the step-by-step process on how the force limit method was developed and applied on the TESS camera mass model. The process description includes the design of special fixtures to mount the test article for properly installing force transducers, development of the force spectral density using the semi-empirical method, estimation of the fuzzy factor (C2) based on the mass ratio between the supporting structure and the test article, subsequent validating of the C2 factor during the vibration test, and calculation of the C.G. accelerations using the Root Mean Square (RMS) reaction force in the spectral domain and the peak reaction force in the time domain.

  14. Behavioral Model of High Performance Camera for NIF Optics Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackel, B M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop software that will model the behavior of the high performance Spectral Instruments 1000 series Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera located in the Final Optics Damage Inspection (FODI) system on the National Ignition Facility. NIF's target chamber will be mounted with 48 Final Optics Assemblies (FOAs) to convert the laser light from infrared to ultraviolet and focus it precisely on the target. Following a NIF shot, the optical components of each FOA must be carefully inspected for damage by the FODI to ensure proper laser performance during subsequent experiments. Rapid image capture and complex image processing (to locate damage sites) will reduce shot turnaround time; thus increasing the total number of experiments NIF can conduct during its 30 year lifetime. Development of these rapid processes necessitates extensive offline software automation -- especially after the device has been deployed in the facility. Without access to the unique real device or an exact behavioral model, offline software testing is difficult. Furthermore, a software-based behavioral model allows for many instances to be running concurrently; this allows multiple developers to test their software at the same time. Thus it is beneficial to construct separate software that will exactly mimic the behavior and response of the real SI-1000 camera

  15. The opto-cryo-mechanical design of the short wavelength camera for the CCAT Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshley, Stephen C.; Adams, Joseph; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.

    2014-07-01

    The CCAT observatory is a 25-m class Gregorian telescope designed for submillimeter observations that will be deployed at Cerro Chajnantor (~5600 m) in the high Atacama Desert region of Chile. The Short Wavelength Camera (SWCam) for CCAT is an integral part of the observatory, enabling the study of star formation at high and low redshifts. SWCam will be a facility instrument, available at first light and operating in the telluric windows at wavelengths of 350, 450, and 850 μm. In order to trace the large curvature of the CCAT focal plane, and to suit the available instrument space, SWCam is divided into seven sub-cameras, each configured to a particular telluric window. A fully refractive optical design in each sub-camera will produce diffraction-limited images. The material of choice for the optical elements is silicon, due to its excellent transmission in the submillimeter and its high index of refraction, enabling thin lenses of a given power. The cryostat's vacuum windows double as the sub-cameras' field lenses and are ~30 cm in diameter. The other lenses are mounted at 4 K. The sub-cameras will share a single cryostat providing thermal intercepts at 80, 15, 4, 1 and 0.1 K, with cooling provided by pulse tube cryocoolers and a dilution refrigerator. The use of the intermediate temperature stage at 15 K minimizes the load at 4 K and reduces operating costs. We discuss our design requirements, specifications, key elements and expected performance of the optical, thermal and mechanical design for the short wavelength camera for CCAT.

  16. Design of Microwave Camera for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2008-01-01

    is then used to reconstruct an image, which consists of a spatial distribution of the complex permittivity in the imaging domain. Using this image the cancer tissue can be detected due to its dielectric property contrast compared to normal tissue. The instrument employs a multichannel high sensitive...... superheterodyne architecture, enabling parallel coherent measurements. In this way, mechanical scanning, which is commonly used in measurements of an electromagnetic field distribution, is avoided. The system presented is the first reported 3D microwave breast imaging camera with parallel signal detection....... The hardware operates in the frequency range 0.3 – 3 GHz. The noise floor is below -140 dBm over the bandwidth of the system. The dynamic range depends on the available incident power range and is limited by the channel to channel isolation of 140 dB. The work presented in this thesis encompasses a wide range...

  17. General Astrophysics with the HabEx Workhorse Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel; Clarke, John; Gaudi, B. Scott; Kiessling, Alina; Krause, Oliver; Martin, Stefan; Scowen, Paul; Somerville, Rachel; HabEx STDT

    2018-01-01

    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) concept has been designed to enable an extensive suite of science, broadly put under the rubric of General Astrophysics, in addition to its exoplanet direct imaging science. General astrophysics directly addresses multiple NASA programmatic branches, and HabEx will enable investigations ranging from cosmology, to galaxy evolution, to stellar population studies, to exoplanet transit spectroscopy, to Solar System studies. This poster briefly describes one of the two primary HabEx General Astrophysics instruments, the HabEx Workhorse Camera (HWC). HWC will be a dual-detector UV-to-near-IR imager and multi-object grism spectrometer with a microshutter array and a moderate (3' x 3') field-of-view. We detail some of the key science we expect HWC to undertake, emphasizing unique capabilities enabled by a large-aperture, highly stable space-borne platform at these wavelengths.

  18. Dust-gas interaction deduced from Halley multicolour camera observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.; Delamere, W.A.; Keller, H.U.; Reitsema, H.J.; Schmidt, H.U.; Whipple, F.L.; Wilhelm, K.

    1986-01-01

    The dust and gas productions of Comet Halley were measured by the dust counter and the mass spectrometers on the Giotto spacecraft. These instruments give only little information about the spatial asymmetry of the activity. The asymmetry in the dust production is clearly evident from the dust jets seen in the Halley Multicolour Camera images. Since the dust is entrained by the gas, production must be similarly asymmetric. The intensity profiles along and across several dust jets are related to their source regions on the nucleus. Properties of the dust jets are investigated. A few compact, but highly active source regions on the nucleus produce most of the visible dust and can account for most of the gas produced by the comet. 2 refs

  19. Inter-laboratory comparison study of gamma cameras in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Mumtaz-ul-Haq

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of the performance of both instrument and the physician are important in any quality assurance programme in nuclear medicine imaging. The IAEA launched a similar program in 1984 under its Regional Cooperation Agreement program in South Asian Countries. The first part of the study consisted of the evaluation of imaging equipment by imaging IAEA-WHO Simulated Anatomic Liver Phantom (SALP) and its interpretation by the physician. From Pakistan, 8 gamma cameras from 7 laboratories were used for the study and 16 physician interpreted in the SALP images. This paper reports the results of SALP images from Pakistan and shows the efficacy of 80 to 100% as regards the quality of image obtained and the interpretation done by the physicians. (author)

  20. Intercomparison of SO2 camera systems for imaging volcanic gas plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Christoph; Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Campion, Robin; Mori, Toshiya; Smekens, Jean-François; Stebel, Kerstin; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Burton, Mike; Platt, Ulrich; Prata, Fred

    2015-07-01

    SO2 camera systems are increasingly being used to image volcanic gas plumes. The ability to derive SO2 emission rates directly from the acquired imagery at high time resolution allows volcanic process studies that incorporate other high time-resolution datasets. Though the general principles behind the SO2 camera have remained the same for a number of years, recent advances in CCD technology and an improved understanding of the physics behind the measurements have driven a continuous evolution of the camera systems. Here we present an intercomparison of seven different SO2 cameras. In the first part of the experiment, the various technical designs are compared and the advantages and drawbacks of individual design options are considered. Though the ideal design was found to be dependent on the specific application, a number of general recommendations are made. Next, a time series of images recorded by all instruments at Stromboli Volcano (Italy) is compared. All instruments were easily able to capture SO2 clouds emitted from the summit vents. Quantitative comparison of the SO2 load in an individual cloud yielded an intra-instrument precision of about 12%. From the imagery, emission rates were then derived according to each group's standard retrieval process. A daily average SO2 emission rate of 61 ± 10 t/d was calculated. Due to differences in spatial integration methods and plume velocity determination, the time-dependent progression of SO2 emissions varied significantly among the individual systems. However, integration over distinct degassing events yielded comparable SO2 masses. Based on the intercomparison data, we find an approximate 1-sigma precision of 20% for the emission rates derived from the various SO2 cameras. Though it may still be improved in the future, this is currently within the typical accuracy of the measurement and is considered sufficient for most applications.

  1. Intercomparison of SO2 camera systems for imaging volcanic gas plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Christoph; Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Campion, Robin; Mori, Toshiya; Smekens, Jean-Francois; Stebel, Kerstin; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Burton, Mike; Platt, Ulrich; Prata, Fred

    2015-01-01

    SO2 camera systems are increasingly being used to image volcanic gas plumes. The ability to derive SO2 emission rates directly from the acquired imagery at high time resolution allows volcanic process studies that incorporate other high time-resolution datasets. Though the general principles behind the SO2 camera have remained the same for a number of years, recent advances in CCD technology and an improved understanding of the physics behind the measurements have driven a continuous evolution of the camera systems. Here we present an intercomparison of seven different SO2 cameras. In the first part of the experiment, the various technical designs are compared and the advantages and drawbacks of individual design options are considered. Though the ideal design was found to be dependent on the specific application, a number of general recommendations are made. Next, a time series of images recorded by all instruments at Stromboli Volcano (Italy) is compared. All instruments were easily able to capture SO2 clouds emitted from the summit vents. Quantitative comparison of the SO2 load in an individual cloud yielded an intra-instrument precision of about 12%. From the imagery, emission rates were then derived according to each group's standard retrieval process. A daily average SO2 emission rate of 61 ± 10 t/d was calculated. Due to differences in spatial integration methods and plume velocity determination, the time-dependent progression of SO2 emissions varied significantly among the individual systems. However, integration over distinct degassing events yielded comparable SO2 masses. Based on the intercomparison data, we find an approximate 1-sigma precision of 20% for the emission rates derived from the various SO2 cameras. Though it may still be improved in the future, this is currently within the typical accuracy of the measurement and is considered sufficient for most applications.

  2. Advanced system for Gamma Cameras modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Arista Romeu, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Analog and digital gamma cameras still largely used in developing countries. Many of them rely in old hardware electronics, which in many cases limits their use in actual nuclear medicine diagnostic studies. Consequently, there are different worldwide companies that produce medical equipment engaged into a partial or total Gamma Cameras modernization. Present work has demonstrated the possibility of substitution of almost entire signal processing electronics placed at inside a Gamma Camera detector head by a digitizer PCI card. this card includes four 12 Bits Analog-to-Digital-Converters of 50 MHz speed. It has been installed in a PC and controlled through software developed in Lab View. Besides, there were done some changes to the hardware inside the detector head including redesign of the Orientation Display Block (ODA card). Also a new electronic design was added to the Microprocessor Control Block (MPA card) which comprised a PIC micro controller acting as a tuning system for individual Photomultiplier Tubes. The images, obtained by measurement of 99m Tc point radioactive source, using modernized camera head demonstrate its overall performance. The system was developed and tested in an old Gamma Camera ORBITER II SIEMENS GAMMASONIC at National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology (INOR) under CAMELUD project supported by National Program PNOULU and IAEA . (Author)

  3. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.

  4. [Analog gamma camera digitalization computer system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, G M; Quintana, J C; Jer, J; Astudillo, S; Arenas, L; Araya, H

    2004-01-01

    Digitalization of analogue gamma cameras systems, using special acquisition boards in microcomputers and appropriate software for acquisition and processing of nuclear medicine images is described in detail. Microcomputer integrated systems interconnected by means of a Local Area Network (LAN) and connected to several gamma cameras have been implemented using specialized acquisition boards. The PIP software (Portable Image Processing) was installed on each microcomputer to acquire and preprocess the nuclear medicine images. A specialized image processing software has been designed and developed for these purposes. This software allows processing of each nuclear medicine exam, in a semiautomatic procedure, and recording of the results on radiological films. . A stable, flexible and inexpensive system which makes it possible to digitize, visualize, process, and print nuclear medicine images obtained from analogue gamma cameras was implemented in the Nuclear Medicine Division. Such a system yields higher quality images than those obtained with analogue cameras while keeping operating costs considerably lower (filming: 24.6%, fixing 48.2% and developing 26%.) Analogue gamma camera systems can be digitalized economically. This system makes it possible to obtain optimal clinical quality nuclear medicine images, to increase the acquisition and processing efficiency, and to reduce the steps involved in each exam.

  5. Calibration of action cameras for photogrammetric purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balletti, Caterina; Guerra, Francesco; Tsioukas, Vassilios; Vernier, Paolo

    2014-09-18

    The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a) easy to handle, (b) capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c) able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution.

  6. Calibration of Action Cameras for Photogrammetric Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Balletti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a easy to handle, (b capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution.

  7. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  8. Gamma cameras - a method of evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, L.; Bibbo, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: With the sophistication and longevity of the modern gamma camera it is not often that the need arises to evaluate a gamma camera for purchase. We have recently been placed in the position of retiring our two single headed cameras of some vintage and replacing them with a state of the art dual head variable angle gamma camera. The process used for the evaluation consisted of five parts: (1) Evaluation of the technical specification as expressed in the tender document; (2) A questionnaire adapted from the British Society of Nuclear Medicine; (3) Site visits to assess gantry configuration, movement, patient access and occupational health, welfare and safety considerations; (4) Evaluation of the processing systems offered; (5) Whole of life costing based on equally configured systems. The results of each part of the evaluation were expressed using a weighted matrix analysis with each of the criteria assessed being weighted in accordance with their importance to the provision of an effective nuclear medicine service for our centre and the particular importance to paediatric nuclear medicine. This analysis provided an objective assessment of each gamma camera system from which a purchase recommendation was made. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  9. Computer vision camera with embedded FPGA processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerf, Antoine; Ouellet, Denis; Arias-Estrada, Miguel

    2000-03-01

    Traditional computer vision is based on a camera-computer system in which the image understanding algorithms are embedded in the computer. To circumvent the computational load of vision algorithms, low-level processing and imaging hardware can be integrated in a single compact module where a dedicated architecture is implemented. This paper presents a Computer Vision Camera based on an open architecture implemented in an FPGA. The system is targeted to real-time computer vision tasks where low level processing and feature extraction tasks can be implemented in the FPGA device. The camera integrates a CMOS image sensor, an FPGA device, two memory banks, and an embedded PC for communication and control tasks. The FPGA device is a medium size one equivalent to 25,000 logic gates. The device is connected to two high speed memory banks, an IS interface, and an imager interface. The camera can be accessed for architecture programming, data transfer, and control through an Ethernet link from a remote computer. A hardware architecture can be defined in a Hardware Description Language (like VHDL), simulated and synthesized into digital structures that can be programmed into the FPGA and tested on the camera. The architecture of a classical multi-scale edge detection algorithm based on a Laplacian of Gaussian convolution has been developed to show the capabilities of the system.

  10. Designing Camera Networks by Convex Quadratic Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-05-04

    ​In this paper, we study the problem of automatic camera placement for computer graphics and computer vision applications. We extend the problem formulations of previous work by proposing a novel way to incorporate visibility constraints and camera-to-camera relationships. For example, the placement solution can be encouraged to have cameras that image the same important locations from different viewing directions, which can enable reconstruction and surveillance tasks to perform better. We show that the general camera placement problem can be formulated mathematically as a convex binary quadratic program (BQP) under linear constraints. Moreover, we propose an optimization strategy with a favorable trade-off between speed and solution quality. Our solution is almost as fast as a greedy treatment of the problem, but the quality is significantly higher, so much so that it is comparable to exact solutions that take orders of magnitude more computation time. Because it is computationally attractive, our method also allows users to explore the space of solutions for variations in input parameters. To evaluate its effectiveness, we show a range of 3D results on real-world floorplans (garage, hotel, mall, and airport). ​

  11. Hidden cameras everything you need to know about covert recording, undercover cameras and secret filming

    CERN Document Server

    Plomin, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Providing authoritative information on the practicalities of using hidden cameras to expose abuse or wrongdoing, this book is vital reading for anyone who may use or encounter secret filming. It gives specific advice on using phones or covert cameras and unravels the complex legal and ethical issues that need to be considered.

  12. Mobile phone camera benchmarking: combination of camera speed and image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2014-01-01

    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. For example, ISO 15781 defines several measurements to evaluate various camera system delays. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system have not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. Firstly, the most important image quality metrics are collected from the standards and papers. Secondly, the speed related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and also novel speed metrics are identified. Thirdly, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones in the market. The measurements are done towards application programming interface of different operating system. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The result of this work gives detailed benchmarking results of mobile phone camera systems in the market. The paper defines also a proposal of combined benchmarking metrics, which includes both quality and speed parameters.

  13. The eye of the camera: effects of security cameras on pro-social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, T.J.L.; Vonk, D.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the effects of security cameras on prosocial behavior. Results from previous studies indicate that the presence of others can trigger helping behavior, arising from the need for approval of others. Extending these findings, the authors propose that security cameras can likewise

  14. Winter precipitation particle size distribution measurement by Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gwo-Jong; Kleinkort, Cameron; Bringi, V. N.; Notaroš, Branislav M.

    2017-12-01

    From the radar meteorology viewpoint, the most important properties for quantitative precipitation estimation of winter events are 3D shape, size, and mass of precipitation particles, as well as the particle size distribution (PSD). In order to measure these properties precisely, optical instruments may be the best choice. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) is a relatively new instrument equipped with three high-resolution cameras to capture the winter precipitation particle images from three non-parallel angles, in addition to measuring the particle fall speed using two pairs of infrared motion sensors. However, the results from the MASC so far are usually presented as monthly or seasonally, and particle sizes are given as histograms, no previous studies have used the MASC for a single storm study, and no researchers use MASC to measure the PSD. We propose the methodology for obtaining the winter precipitation PSD measured by the MASC, and present and discuss the development, implementation, and application of the new technique for PSD computation based on MASC images. Overall, this is the first study of the MASC-based PSD. We present PSD MASC experiments and results for segments of two snow events to demonstrate the performance of our PSD algorithm. The results show that the self-consistency of the MASC measured single-camera PSDs is good. To cross-validate PSD measurements, we compare MASC mean PSD (averaged over three cameras) with the collocated 2D Video Disdrometer, and observe good agreements of the two sets of results.

  15. Studies on a silicon-photomultiplier-based camera for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, C.; Corti, D.; De Angelis, A.; Doro, M.; Manea, C.; Mariotti, M.; Rando, R.; Reichardt, I.; Tescaro, D.

    2017-12-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) represent a class of instruments which are dedicated to the ground-based observation of cosmic VHE gamma ray emission based on the detection of the Cherenkov radiation produced in the interaction of gamma rays with the Earth atmosphere. One of the key elements of such instruments is a pixelized focal-plane camera consisting of photodetectors. To date, photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have been the common choice given their high photon detection efficiency (PDE) and fast time response. Recently, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are emerging as an alternative. This rapidly evolving technology has strong potential to become superior to that based on PMTs in terms of PDE, which would further improve the sensitivity of IACTs, and see a price reduction per square millimeter of detector area. We are working to develop a SiPM-based module for the focal-plane cameras of the MAGIC telescopes to probe this technology for IACTs with large focal plane cameras of an area of few square meters. We will describe the solutions we are exploring in order to balance a competitive performance with a minimal impact on the overall MAGIC camera design using ray tracing simulations. We further present a comparative study of the overall light throughput based on Monte Carlo simulations and considering the properties of the major hardware elements of an IACT.

  16. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) science instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R.; Hing, S.M.; Leidich, C.A.; Fazio, G.; Houck, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Concepts of scientific instruments designed to perform infrared astronomical tasks such as imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy are discussed as part of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) project under definition study at NASA/Ames Research Center. The instruments are: the multiband imaging photometer, the infrared array camera, and the infrared spectograph. SIRTF, a cryogenically cooled infrared telescope in the 1-meter range and wavelengths as short as 2.5 microns carrying multiple instruments with high sensitivity and low background performance, provides the capability to carry out basic astronomical investigations such as deep search for very distant protogalaxies, quasi-stellar objects, and missing mass; infrared emission from galaxies; star formation and the interstellar medium; and the composition and structure of the atmospheres of the outer planets in the solar sytem. 8 refs

  17. The development of large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingwen; Geng, Anbing; Wang, Bo; Wang, Haitao; Wu, Yanying

    2015-10-01

    Infrared camera and CCD camera dual-band imaging system is used in many equipment and application widely. If it is tested using the traditional infrared camera test system and visible CCD test system, 2 times of installation and alignment are needed in the test procedure. The large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera uses the common large-aperture reflection collimator, target wheel, frame-grabber, computer which reduces the cost and the time of installation and alignment. Multiple-frame averaging algorithm is used to reduce the influence of random noise. Athermal optical design is adopted to reduce the change of focal length location change of collimator when the environmental temperature is changing, and the image quality of the collimator of large field of view and test accuracy are also improved. Its performance is the same as that of the exotic congener and is much cheaper. It will have a good market.

  18. VUV testing of science cameras at MSFC: QE measurement of the CLASP flight cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, P.; Kobayashi, K.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Hyde, D.; Robertson, B.; Beabout, B.; Beabout, D.; Stewart, M.

    2015-08-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras were built and tested for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint MSFC, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) and Institut D'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS) sounding rocket mission. The CLASP camera design includes a frame-transfer e2v CCD57-10 512 × 512 detector, dual channel analog readout and an internally mounted cold block. At the flight CCD temperature of -20C, the CLASP cameras exceeded the low-noise performance requirements (UV, EUV and X-ray science cameras at MSFC.

  19. Acceptance/Operational Test Report for Tank 241-AN-104 camera and camera purge control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleberry, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    This Acceptance/Operational Test Procedure (ATP/OTP) will document the satisfactory operation of the camera purge panel, purge control panel, color camera system and associated control components destined for installation. The final acceptance of the complete system will be performed in the field. The purge panel and purge control panel will be tested for its safety interlock which shuts down the camera and pan-and-tilt inside the tank vapor space during loss of purge pressure and that the correct purge volume exchanges are performed as required by NFPA 496. This procedure is separated into seven sections. This Acceptance/Operational Test Report documents the successful acceptance and operability testing of the 241-AN-104 camera system and camera purge control system

  20. Temperature resolution enhancing of commercially available THz passive cameras due to computer processing of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Kuchik, Igor E.

    2014-06-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. Efficiency of using the passive THz camera depends on its temperature resolution. This characteristic specifies possibilities of the detection of concealed object: minimal size of the object, maximal distance of the detection, image detail. One of probable ways for a quality image enhancing consists in computer processing of image. Using computer processing of the THz image of objects concealed on the human body, one may improve it many times. Consequently, the instrumental resolution of such device may be increased without any additional engineering efforts. We demonstrate new possibilities for seeing the clothes details, which raw images, produced by the THz cameras, do not allow to see. We achieve good quality of the image due to applying various spatial filters with the aim to demonstrate independence of processed images on math operations. This result demonstrates a feasibility of objects seeing. We consider images produced by THz passive cameras manufactured by Microsemi Corp., and ThruVision Corp., and Capital Normal University (Beijing, China).

  1. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  2. Multi-view collimators for scintillation cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, J.; Grenier, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    This patent specification describes a collimator for obtaining multiple images of a portion of a body with a scintillation camera comprises a body of radiation-impervious material defining two or more groups of channels each group comprising a plurality of parallel channels having axes intersecting the portion of the body being viewed on one side of the collimator and intersecting the input surface of the camera on the other side of the collimator to produce a single view of said body, a number of different such views of said body being provided by each of said groups of channels, each axis of each channel lying in a plane approximately perpendicular to the plane of the input surface of the camera and all of such planes containing said axes being approximately parallel to each other. (author)

  3. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The objects of this invention are first to reduce the time required to obtain statistically significant data in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning using a scintillation camera. Secondly, to provide a scintillation camera system to increase the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable from a known radiation source without sacrificing spatial resolution. Thirdly to reduce the scanning time without loss of image clarity. The system described comprises a scintillation camera detector, means for moving this in orbit about a cranial-caudal axis relative to a patient and a collimator having septa defining apertures such that gamma rays perpendicular to the axis are admitted with high spatial resolution, parallel to the axis with low resolution. The septa may be made of strips of lead. Detailed descriptions are given. (U.K.)

  4. Gate Simulation of a Gamma Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidi, Sana; Mlaouhi, Zohra

    2008-01-01

    Medical imaging is a very important diagnostic because it allows for an exploration of the internal human body. The nuclear imaging is an imaging technique used in the nuclear medicine. It is to determine the distribution in the body of a radiotracers by detecting the radiation it emits using a detection device. Two methods are commonly used: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and the Positrons Emission Tomography (PET). In this work we are interested on modelling of a gamma camera. This simulation is based on Monte-Carlo language and in particular Gate simulator (Geant4 Application Tomographic Emission). We have simulated a clinical gamma camera called GAEDE (GKS-1) and then we validate these simulations by experiments. The purpose of this work is to monitor the performance of these gamma camera and the optimization of the detector performance and the the improvement of the images quality. (Author)

  5. Ultra-fast framing camera tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

  6. Camera systems for crash and hyge testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreppers, Frederik

    1995-05-01

    Since the beginning of the use of high speed cameras for crash and hyge- testing substantial changements have taken place. Both the high speed cameras and the electronic control equipment are more sophisticated nowadays. With regard to high speed equipment, a short historical retrospective view will show that concerning high speed cameras, the improvements are mainly concentrated in design details, where as the electronic control equipment has taken full advantage of the rapid progress in electronic and computer technology in the course of the last decades. Nowadays many companies and institutes involved in crash and hyge-testing wish to perform this testing, as far as possible, as an automatic computer controlled routine in order to maintain and improve security and quality. By means of several in practice realize solutions, it will be shown how their requirements could be met.

  7. Mechanical Design of the LSST Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordby, Martin; Bowden, Gordon; Foss, Mike; Guiffre, Gary; /SLAC; Ku, John; /Unlisted; Schindler, Rafe; /SLAC

    2008-06-13

    The LSST camera is a tightly packaged, hermetically-sealed system that is cantilevered into the main beam of the LSST telescope. It is comprised of three refractive lenses, on-board storage for five large filters, a high-precision shutter, and a cryostat that houses the 3.2 giga-pixel CCD focal plane along with its support electronics. The physically large optics and focal plane demand large structural elements to support them, but the overall size of the camera and its components must be minimized to reduce impact on the image stability. Also, focal plane and optics motions must be minimized to reduce systematic errors in image reconstruction. Design and analysis for the camera body and cryostat will be detailed.

  8. Temperature measurement with industrial color camera devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidradler, Dieter J.; Berndorfer, Thomas; van Dyck, Walter; Pretschuh, Juergen

    1999-05-01

    This paper discusses color camera based temperature measurement. Usually, visual imaging and infrared image sensing are treated as two separate disciplines. We will show, that a well selected color camera device might be a cheaper, more robust and more sophisticated solution for optical temperature measurement in several cases. Herein, only implementation fragments and important restrictions for the sensing element will be discussed. Our aim is to draw the readers attention to the use of visual image sensors for measuring thermal radiation and temperature and to give reasons for the need of improved technologies for infrared camera devices. With AVL-List, our partner of industry, we successfully used the proposed sensor to perform temperature measurement for flames inside the combustion chamber of diesel engines which finally led to the presented insights.

  9. Scintillation camera with second order resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation camera is described for use in radioisotope imaging to determine the concentration of radionuclides in a two-dimensional area in which means is provided for second-order positional resolution. The phototubes which normally provide only a single order of resolution, are modified to provide second-order positional resolution of radiation within an object positioned for viewing by the scintillation camera. The phototubes are modified in that multiple anodes are provided to receive signals from the photocathode in a manner such that each anode is particularly responsive to photoemissions from a limited portion of the photocathode. Resolution of radioactive events appearing as an output of this scintillation camera is thereby improved

  10. PEOPLE REIDENTIFCATION IN A DISTRIBUTED CAMERA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icaro Oliveira de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to the object reidentification problem in a distributed camera network system. The reidentification or reacquisition problem consists essentially on the matching process of images acquired from different cameras. This work is applied in a monitored environment by cameras. This application is important to modern security systems, in which the targets presence identification in the environment expands the capacity of action by security agents in real time and provides important parameters like localization for each target. We used target’s interest points and target’s color with features for reidentification. The satisfactory results were obtained from real experiments in public video datasets and synthetic images with noise.

  11. Video Sharing System Based on Wi-Fi Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Qidi Lin; Hewei Yu; Jinbin Huang; Weile Liang

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a video sharing platform based on WiFi, which consists of camera, mobile phone and PC server. This platform can receive wireless signal from the camera and show the live video on the mobile phone captured by camera. In addition, it is able to send commands to camera and control the camera's holder to rotate. The platform can be applied to interactive teaching and dangerous area's monitoring and so on. Testing results show that the platform can share ...

  12. Optimum color filters for CCD digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Kai; Kunz, Rino E.; Seitz, Peter; Brunner, Harald; Knop, Karl

    1993-12-01

    As part of the ESPRIT II project No. 2103 (MASCOT) a high performance prototype color CCD still video camera was developed. Intended for professional usage such as in the graphic arts, the camera provides a maximum resolution of 3k X 3k full color pixels. A high colorimetric performance was achieved through specially designed dielectric filters and optimized matrixing. The color transformation was obtained by computer simulation of the camera system and non-linear optimization which minimized the perceivable color errors as measured in the 1976 CIELUV uniform color space for a set of about 200 carefully selected test colors. The color filters were designed to allow perfect colorimetric reproduction in principle and at the same time with imperceptible color noise and with special attention to fabrication tolerances. The camera system includes a special real-time digital color processor which carries out the color transformation. The transformation can be selected from a set of sixteen matrices optimized for different illuminants and output devices. Because the actual filter design was based on slightly incorrect data the prototype camera showed a mean colorimetric error of 2.7 j.n.d. (CIELUV) in experiments. Using correct input data in the redesign of the filters, a mean colorimetric error of only 1 j.n.d. (CIELUV) seems to be feasible, implying that it is possible with such an optimized color camera to achieve such a high colorimetric performance that the reproduced colors in an image cannot be distinguished from the original colors in a scene, even in direct comparison.

  13. Phase camera experiment for Advanced Virgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agatsuma, Kazuhiro, E-mail: agatsuma@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beuzekom, Martin van; Schaaf, Laura van der [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brand, Jo van den [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-07-11

    We report on a study of the phase camera, which is a frequency selective wave-front sensor of a laser beam. This sensor is utilized for monitoring sidebands produced by phase modulations in a gravitational wave (GW) detector. Regarding the operation of the GW detectors, the laser modulation/demodulation method is used to measure mirror displacements and used for the position controls. This plays a significant role because the quality of controls affect the noise level of the GW detector. The phase camera is able to monitor each sideband separately, which has a great benefit for the manipulation of the delicate controls. Also, overcoming mirror aberrations will be an essential part of Advanced Virgo (AdV), which is a GW detector close to Pisa. Especially low-frequency sidebands can be affected greatly by aberrations in one of the interferometer cavities. The phase cameras allow tracking such changes because the state of the sidebands gives information on mirror aberrations. A prototype of the phase camera has been developed and is currently tested. The performance checks are almost completed and the installation of the optics at the AdV site has started. After the installation and commissioning, the phase camera will be combined to a thermal compensation system that consists of CO{sub 2} lasers and compensation plates. In this paper, we focus on the prototype and show some limitations from the scanner performance. - Highlights: • The phase camera is being developed for a gravitational wave detector. • A scanner performance limits the operation speed and layout design of the system. • An operation range was found by measuring the frequency response of the scanner.

  14. Phase camera experiment for Advanced Virgo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Beuzekom, Martin van; Schaaf, Laura van der; Brand, Jo van den

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study of the phase camera, which is a frequency selective wave-front sensor of a laser beam. This sensor is utilized for monitoring sidebands produced by phase modulations in a gravitational wave (GW) detector. Regarding the operation of the GW detectors, the laser modulation/demodulation method is used to measure mirror displacements and used for the position controls. This plays a significant role because the quality of controls affect the noise level of the GW detector. The phase camera is able to monitor each sideband separately, which has a great benefit for the manipulation of the delicate controls. Also, overcoming mirror aberrations will be an essential part of Advanced Virgo (AdV), which is a GW detector close to Pisa. Especially low-frequency sidebands can be affected greatly by aberrations in one of the interferometer cavities. The phase cameras allow tracking such changes because the state of the sidebands gives information on mirror aberrations. A prototype of the phase camera has been developed and is currently tested. The performance checks are almost completed and the installation of the optics at the AdV site has started. After the installation and commissioning, the phase camera will be combined to a thermal compensation system that consists of CO 2 lasers and compensation plates. In this paper, we focus on the prototype and show some limitations from the scanner performance. - Highlights: • The phase camera is being developed for a gravitational wave detector. • A scanner performance limits the operation speed and layout design of the system. • An operation range was found by measuring the frequency response of the scanner.

  15. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, L.; Bryan, T.; MacLeod, T.

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASAs Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  16. A study of effects of scattered reaction on physical parameters of a new gamma camera used in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, Martine.

    1979-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of the performance of a new gamma camera. This camera is characterized by the introduction of an image amplifier between the crystal detector and the localization system which compound four photomultipliers. The appreciation of performances of this new instrument is based on the measure of the physical parameters usually studied in this purpose: energy resolution, spatial resolution, modulation transfert fonction and contrast, sensitivity and deadtime. Furthermore, we have studied the influence of scattered radiation on the value of these parameters. Two studies complete this work: the artificial deterioration of the energy resolution of the camera inserting a noise, to estimate the importance of the energy resolution on the image contrast; the scanning of pulse amplitude spectra obtained from brain of patients in order to evaluate the participation of scattered radiation in the peak's constitution. We present, at last, a quality control programm for scintillation camera [fr

  17. PANIC: A General-purpose Panoramic Near-infrared Camera for the Calar Alto Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Vázquez, M.-C.; Dorner, B.; Huber, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Alter, M.; Rodríguez Gómez, J. F.; Bizenberger, P.; Naranjo, V.; Ibáñez Mengual, J.-M.; Panduro, J.; García Segura, A. J.; Mall, U.; Fernández, M.; Laun, W.; Ferro Rodríguez, I. M.; Helmling, J.; Terrón, V.; Meisenheimer, K.; Fried, J. W.; Mathar, R. J.; Baumeister, H.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Storz, C.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Bouy, H.; Ubierna, M.; Fopp, P.; Funke, B.

    2018-02-01

    PANIC7 is the new PAnoramic Near-Infrared Camera for Calar Alto and is a project jointly developed by the MPIA in Heidelberg, Germany, and the IAA in Granada, Spain, for the German-Spanish Astronomical Center at Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA; Almería, Spain). This new instrument works with the 2.2 m and 3.5 m CAHA telescopes covering a field of view of 30 × 30 arcmin and 15 × 15 arcmin, respectively, with a sampling of 4096 × 4096 pixels. It is designed for the spectral bands from Z to K S , and can also be equipped with narrowband filters. The instrument was delivered to the observatory in 2014 October and was commissioned at both telescopes between 2014 November and 2015 June. Science verification at the 2.2 m telescope was carried out during the second semester of 2015 and the instrument is now at full operation. We describe the design, assembly, integration, and verification process, the final laboratory tests and the PANIC instrument performance. We also present first-light data obtained during the commissioning and preliminary results of the scientific verification. The final optical model and the theoretical performance of the camera were updated according to the as-built data. The laboratory tests were made with a star simulator. Finally, the commissioning phase was done at both telescopes to validate the camera real performance on sky. The final laboratory test confirmed the expected camera performances, complying with the scientific requirements. The commissioning phase on sky has been accomplished.

  18. Performance assessment of gamma cameras. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, A.T.; Short, M.D.; Potter, D.C.; Barnes, K.J.

    1980-11-01

    The Dept. of Health and Social Security and the Scottish Home and Health Dept. has sponsored a programme of measurements of the important performance characteristics of 15 leading types of gamma cameras providing a routine radionuclide imaging service in hospitals throughout the UK. Measurements have been made of intrinsic resolution, system resolution, non-uniformity, spatial distortion, count rate performance, sensitivity, energy resolution and shield leakage. The main aim of this performance assessment was to provide sound information to the NHS to ease the task of those responsible for the purchase of gamma cameras. (U.K.)

  19. Analysis of Brown camera distortion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Artur; Skarbek, Władysław

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary image acquisition devices introduce optical distortion into image. It results in pixel displacement and therefore needs to be compensated for many computer vision applications. The distortion is usually modeled by the Brown distortion model, which parameters can be included in camera calibration task. In this paper we describe original model, its dependencies and analyze orthogonality with regard to radius for its decentering distortion component. We also report experiments with camera calibration algorithm included in OpenCV library, especially a stability of distortion parameters estimation is evaluated.

  20. Camera-enabled techniques for organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven V. Ley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of time is spent within synthetic chemistry laboratories on non-value-adding activities such as sample preparation and work-up operations, and labour intensive activities such as extended periods of continued data collection. Using digital cameras connected to computer vision algorithms, camera-enabled apparatus can perform some of these processes in an automated fashion, allowing skilled chemists to spend their time more productively. In this review we describe recent advances in this field of chemical synthesis and discuss how they will lead to advanced synthesis laboratories of the future.

  1. Results with the UKIRT infrared camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mclean, I.S.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in focal plane array technology have made an immense impact on infrared astronomy. Results from the commissioning of the first infrared camera on UKIRT (the world's largest IR telescope) are presented. The camera, called IRCAM 1, employs the 62 x 58 InSb DRO array from SBRC in an otherwise general purpose system which is briefly described. Several imaging modes are possible including staring, chopping and a high-speed snapshot mode. Results to be presented include the first true high resolution images at IR wavelengths of the entire Orion nebula

  2. A holographic color camera for recording artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jith, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    Advent of 3D televisions has created a new wave of public interest in images with depth. Though these technologies create moving pictures with apparent depth, it lacks the visual appeal and a set of other positive aspects of color holographic images. The above new wave of interest in 3D will definitely help to fuel popularity of holograms. In view of this, a low cost and handy color holography camera is designed for recording color holograms of artifacts. It is believed that such cameras will help to record medium format color holograms outside conventional holography laboratories and to popularize color holography. The paper discusses the design and the results obtained.

  3. Nonmedical applications of a positron camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkesworth, M.R.; Parker, D.J.; Fowles, P.; Crilly, J.F.; Jefferies, N.L.; Jonkers, G.

    1991-01-01

    The positron camera in the School on Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, is based on position-sensitive multiwire γ-ray detectors developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The current characteristics of the camera are discussed with particular reference to its suitability for flow mapping in industrial subjects. The techniques developed for studying the dynamics of processes with time scales ranging from milliseconds to days are described, and examples of recent results from a variety of industrial applications are presented. (orig.)

  4. CBF tomographic measurement with the scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayayan, R.; Philippon, B.; Pehlivanian, E.

    1989-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) allows calculation of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in multiple cross-sections of the human brain. The methods of Kanno and Lassen is utilized and a study of reproductibility in terms of integration numbers and period of integrations is performed by computer simulation and experimental study with a Gamma-camera. Finally, the possibility of calculating the regional cerabral blood flow with a double headed rotating Gamma-camera by inert gas inhalation, like the Xenon-133 is discussed [fr

  5. Spectroscopic instrumentation fundamentals and guidelines for astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Eversberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In order to analyze the light of cosmic objects, particularly at extremely great distances, spectroscopy is the workhorse of astronomy. In the era of very large telescopes, long-term investigations are mainly performed with small professional instruments. Today they can be done using self-designed spectrographs and highly efficient CCD cameras, without the need for large financial investments.   This book explains the basic principles of spectroscopy, including the fundamental optical constraints and all mathematical aspects needed to understand the working principles in detail. It covers the complete theoretical and practical design of standard and Echelle spectrographs. Readers are guided through all necessary calculations, enabling them to engage in spectrograph design. The book also examines data acquisition with CCD cameras and fiber optics, as well as the constraints of specific data reduction and possible sources of error. In closing it briefly highlights some main aspects of the research on massive s...

  6. Note: Tormenta: An open source Python-powered control software for camera based optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabas, Federico M; Masullo, Luciano A; Stefani, Fernando D

    2016-12-01

    Until recently, PC control and synchronization of scientific instruments was only possible through closed-source expensive frameworks like National Instruments' LabVIEW. Nowadays, efficient cost-free alternatives are available in the context of a continuously growing community of open-source software developers. Here, we report on Tormenta, a modular open-source software for the control of camera-based optical microscopes. Tormenta is built on Python, works on multiple operating systems, and includes some key features for fluorescence nanoscopy based on single molecule localization.

  7. SALTICAM: $0.5M acquisition camera: every big telescope should have one

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Bauermeister, Etienne; Carter, David B.; Evans, Geoffrey P.; Koorts, Willie P.; O'Connor, James; Osman, Faranah; van der Merwe, Stan; Bigelow, Bruce C.

    2003-03-01

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) is a 10-m class telescope presently under construction at Sutherland in South Africa. It is designed along the lines of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) at McDonald Observatory in West Texas. SALTICAM will be the Acquisition Camera and simple Science Imager (ACSI) for this telescope. It will also function as the Verification Instrument (VI) to check the performance of the telescope during commissioning. In VI mode, SALTICAM will comprise a filter unit, shutter and cryostat with a 2x1 mosaic of 2k x 4k x 15 micron pixel CCDs. It will be mounted at the f/4.2 corrected prime focus of the telescope. In ACSI mode it will be fed by a folding flat located close to the exit pupil of the telescope. ACSI mode will have the same functional components as VI mode but it will in addition be garnished with focal conversion lenses to re-image the corrected prime focal plane at f/2. The lenses will be made from UV transmitting crystals as the wavelength range for which the instrument is designed will span 320 to 950 nm. In addition to acting as Verification Instrument and Acquisition Camera, SALTICAM will perform simple science imaging in support of other instruments, but will also have a high time resolution capability which is not widely available on large telescopes. This paper will describe the design of the instrument, emphasizing features of particular interest.

  8. The Wide Field Imager instrument for Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Barbera, Marco; Emberger, Valentin; Fürmetz, Maria; Manhart, Markus; Müller-Seidlitz, Johannes; Nandra, Kirpal; Plattner, Markus; Rau, Arne; Treberspurg, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    ESA's next large X-ray mission ATHENA is designed to address the Cosmic Vision science theme 'The Hot and Energetic Universe'. It will provide answers to the two key astrophysical questions how does ordinary matter assemble into the large-scale structures we see today and how do black holes grow and shape the Universe. The ATHENA spacecraft will be equipped with two focal plane cameras, a Wide Field Imager (WFI) and an X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU). The WFI instrument is optimized for state-of-the-art resolution spectroscopy over a large field of view of 40 amin x 40 amin and high count rates up to and beyond 1 Crab source intensity. The cryogenic X-IFU camera is designed for high-spectral resolution imaging. Both cameras share alternately a mirror system based on silicon pore optics with a focal length of 12 m and large effective area of about 2 m2 at an energy of 1 keV. Although the mission is still in phase A, i.e. studying the feasibility and developing the necessary technology, the definition and development of the instrumentation made already significant progress. The herein described WFI focal plane camera covers the energy band from 0.2 keV to 15 keV with 450 μm thick fully depleted back-illuminated silicon active pixel sensors of DEPFET type. The spatial resolution will be provided by one million pixels, each with a size of 130 μm x 130 μm. The time resolution requirement for the WFI large detector array is 5 ms and for the WFI fast detector 80 μs. The large effective area of the mirror system will be completed by a high quantum efficiency above 90% for medium and higher energies. The status of the various WFI subsystems to achieve this performance will be described and recent changes will be explained here.

  9. Robotic-surgical instrument wrist pose estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabel, Stephan; Baek, Kyungim; Berkelman, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Lightweight Surgery Robot from the University of Hawaii includes two teleoperated instruments and one endoscope manipulator which act in accord to perform assisted interventional medicine. The relative positions and orientations of the robotic instruments and endoscope must be known to the teleoperation system so that the directions of the instrument motions can be controlled to correspond closely to the directions of the motions of the master manipulators, as seen by the the endoscope and displayed to the surgeon. If the manipulator bases are mounted in known locations and all manipulator joint variables are known, then the necessary coordinate transformations between the master and slave manipulators can be easily computed. The versatility and ease of use of the system can be increased, however, by allowing the endoscope or instrument manipulator bases to be moved to arbitrary positions and orientations without reinitializing each manipulator or remeasuring their relative positions. The aim of this work is to find the pose of the instrument end effectors using the video image from the endoscope camera. The P3P pose estimation algorithm is used with a Levenberg-Marquardt optimization to ensure convergence. The correct transformations between the master and slave coordinate frames can then be calculated and updated when the bases of the endoscope or instrument manipulators are moved to new, unknown, positions at any time before or during surgical procedures.

  10. Evaluation of mobile phone camera benchmarking using objective camera speed and image quality metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2014-11-01

    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of image quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system has not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become a more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. First, the most important image quality and speed-related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and, also, novel speed metrics are identified. Second, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones on the market. The measurements are done toward application programming interface of different operating systems. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The paper defines a solution to combine different image quality and speed metrics to a single benchmarking score. A proposal of the combined benchmarking metric is evaluated using measurements of 25 mobile phone cameras on the market. The paper is a continuation of a previous benchmarking work expanded with visual noise measurement and updates of the latest mobile phone versions.

  11. Tamper indicating radiation surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, W.H.; Ney, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Prototype personnel and shipping dock portal monitors suitable for unattended use were fabricated and tested. The requirement for continuous operation with only periodic inspection along with a desire for minimum costs and minimum interference with normal plant operation imposed unique design constraints. The design, operation, and performance of the detection and data recording instrumentation are described, as well as the tamper indicating techniques required to protect the collected data. The essential elements of either of the two instruments include a gamma detector array, signal conditioning electronics, digital alarm logic circuitry, power supplies, a microwave occupancy monitor, surveillance camera, irreversible electromechanical counters, and the appropriate tamper indicating envelope protecting these elements. Attempts to penetrate the tamper indicating envelope require material removal, and undetectable repair is very difficult, if not impossible. The techniques for joining major subassemblies and providing unique seals are also described. The personnel doorway uses a double pole array of NaI(Tl) detectors, and outputs are taken from a single channel pulse height analyzer with a window set at 60 to 250 keV and the lower level discriminator at greater than 60 keV. A sliding interval counter is used to make comparisons to an accumulated background at the 4sigma level. Logic design, sensitivity for special nuclear materials, false alarm data, and test procedures are described in detail. The shipping dock monitor had different design constraints and therefore uses a single, long, cylindrical plastic scintillator. Some differences in signal conditioning and processing are also described. (auth)

  12. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  13. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  14. Astronomical Instruments in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  15. The LLL compact 10-ps streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.W.; Houghton, J.W.; Tripp, G.R.; Coleman, L.W.

    1975-01-01

    The 10-ps streak camera has been redesigned to simplify its operation, reduce manufacturing costs, and improve its appearance. The electronics have been simplified, a film indexer added, and a contacted slit has been evaluated. Data support a 10-ps resolution. (author)

  16. Toward standardising gamma camera quality control procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhorayef, M.A.; Alnaaimi, M.A.; Alduaij, M.A.; Mohamed, M.O.; Ibahim, S.Y.; Alkandari, F.A.; Bradley, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Attaining high standards of efficiency and reliability in the practice of nuclear medicine requires appropriate quality control (QC) programs. For instance, the regular evaluation and comparison of extrinsic and intrinsic flood-field uniformity enables the quick correction of many gamma camera problems. Whereas QC tests for uniformity are usually performed by exposing the gamma camera crystal to a uniform flux of gamma radiation from a source of known activity, such protocols can vary significantly. Thus, there is a need for optimization and standardization, in part to allow direct comparison between gamma cameras from different vendors. In the present study, intrinsic uniformity was examined as a function of source distance, source activity, source volume and number of counts. The extrinsic uniformity and spatial resolution were also examined. Proper standard QC procedures need to be implemented because of the continual development of nuclear medicine imaging technology and the rapid expansion and increasing complexity of hybrid imaging system data. The present work seeks to promote a set of standard testing procedures to contribute to the delivery of safe and effective nuclear medicine services. - Highlights: • Optimal parameters for quality control of the gamma camera are proposed. • For extrinsic and intrinsic uniformity a minimum of 15,000 counts is recommended. • For intrinsic flood uniformity the activity should not exceed 100 µCi (3.7 MBq). • For intrinsic uniformity the source to detector distance should be at least 60 cm. • The bar phantom measurement must be performed with at least 15 million counts.

  17. Increased Automation in Stereo Camera Calibration Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi House

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Robotic vision has become a very popular field in recent years due to the numerous promising applications it may enhance. However, errors within the cameras and in their perception of their environment can cause applications in robotics to fail. To help correct these internal and external imperfections, stereo camera calibrations are performed. There are currently many accurate methods of camera calibration available; however, most or all of them are time consuming and labor intensive. This research seeks to automate the most labor intensive aspects of a popular calibration technique developed by Jean-Yves Bouguet. His process requires manual selection of the extreme corners of a checkerboard pattern. The modified process uses embedded LEDs in the checkerboard pattern to act as active fiducials. Images are captured of the checkerboard with the LEDs on and off in rapid succession. The difference of the two images automatically highlights the location of the four extreme corners, and these corner locations take the place of the manual selections. With this modification to the calibration routine, upwards of eighty mouse clicks are eliminated per stereo calibration. Preliminary test results indicate that accuracy is not substantially affected by the modified procedure. Improved automation to camera calibration procedures may finally penetrate the barriers to the use of calibration in practice.

  18. Thermoplastic film camera for holographic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liegeois, C.; Meyrueis, P.

    1982-01-01

    The design thermoplastic-film recording camera and its performance for holography of extended objects are reported. Special corona geometry and accurate control of development heat by constant current heating and high resolution measurement of the develop temperature make easy recording of reproducible, large aperture holograms possible. The experimental results give the transfer characteristics, the diffraction efficiency characteristics and the spatial frequency response. (orig.)

  19. A novel super-resolution camera model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yi; Xu, Jie; Wang, Lin; Liu, Fei; Luo, Qiuhua; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Xiangli

    2015-05-01

    Aiming to realize super resolution(SR) to single image and video reconstruction, a super resolution camera model is proposed for the problem that the resolution of the images obtained by traditional cameras behave comparatively low. To achieve this function we put a certain driving device such as piezoelectric ceramics in the camera. By controlling the driving device, a set of continuous low resolution(LR) images can be obtained and stored instantaneity, which reflect the randomness of the displacements and the real-time performance of the storage very well. The low resolution image sequences have different redundant information and some particular priori information, thus it is possible to restore super resolution image factually and effectively. The sample method is used to derive the reconstruction principle of super resolution, which analyzes the possible improvement degree of the resolution in theory. The super resolution algorithm based on learning is used to reconstruct single image and the variational Bayesian algorithm is simulated to reconstruct the low resolution images with random displacements, which models the unknown high resolution image, motion parameters and unknown model parameters in one hierarchical Bayesian framework. Utilizing sub-pixel registration method, a super resolution image of the scene can be reconstructed. The results of 16 images reconstruction show that this camera model can increase the image resolution to 2 times, obtaining images with higher resolution in currently available hardware levels.

  20. Scintillation camera for high activity sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arseneau, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A scintillation camera is provided with electrical components which expand the intrinsic maximum rate of acceptance for processing of pulses emanating from detected radioactive events. Buffer storage is provided to accommodate temporary increases in the level of radioactivity. An early provisional determination of acceptability of pulses allows many unacceptable pulses to be discarded at an early stage

  1. Novel computer-based endoscopic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitz, R.; Hai, N.; Abraham, Martin D.; Adler, Doron; Nissani, M.; Fridental, Ron; Vitsnudel, Ilia

    1995-05-01

    We have introduced a computer-based endoscopic camera which includes (a) unique real-time digital image processing to optimize image visualization by reducing over exposed glared areas and brightening dark areas, and by accentuating sharpness and fine structures, and (b) patient data documentation and management. The image processing is based on i Sight's iSP1000TM digital video processor chip and Adaptive SensitivityTM patented scheme for capturing and displaying images with wide dynamic range of light, taking into account local neighborhood image conditions and global image statistics. It provides the medical user with the ability to view images under difficult lighting conditions, without losing details `in the dark' or in completely saturated areas. The patient data documentation and management allows storage of images (approximately 1 MB per image for a full 24 bit color image) to any storage device installed into the camera, or to an external host media via network. The patient data which is included with every image described essential information on the patient and procedure. The operator can assign custom data descriptors, and can search for the stored image/data by typing any image descriptor. The camera optics has extended zoom range of f equals 20 - 45 mm allowing control of the diameter of the field which is displayed on the monitor such that the complete field of view of the endoscope can be displayed on all the area of the screen. All these features provide versatile endoscopic camera with excellent image quality and documentation capabilities.

  2. FPS camera sync and reset chassis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    The sync and reset chassis provides all the circuitry required to synchronize an event to be studied, a remote free-running focus projection and scanning (FPS) data-acquisition TV camera, and a video signal recording system. The functions, design, and operation of this chassis are described in detail

  3. Lessons Learned from Crime Caught on Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Bernasco, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The widespread use of camera surveillance in public places offers criminologists the opportunity to systematically and unobtrusively observe crime, their main subject matter. The purpose of this essay is to inform the reader of current developments in research on crimes caught on came...

  4. Terrain mapping camera for Chandrayaan-1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The camera will have four gain settings to cover the varying illumination conditions of the Moon. Additionally, a provision of imaging with reduced resolution, for improving Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) in polar regions, which have poor illumination conditions throughout, has been made. SNR of better than 100 is expected in ...

  5. Fog camera to visualize ionizing charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo A, L.; Rodriguez R, N. I.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The human being can not perceive the different types of ionizing radiation, natural or artificial, present in the nature, for what appropriate detection systems have been developed according to the sensibility to certain radiation type and certain energy type. The objective of this work was to build a fog camera to visualize the traces, and to identify the trajectories, produced by charged particles with high energy, coming mainly of the cosmic rays. The origin of the cosmic rays comes from the solar radiation generated by solar eruptions where the protons compose most of this radiation. It also comes, of the galactic radiation which is composed mainly of charged particles and gamma rays that comes from outside of the solar system. These radiation types have energy time millions higher that those detected in the earth surface, being more important as the height on the sea level increases. These particles in their interaction produce secondary particles that are detectable by means of this cameras type. The camera operates by means of a saturated atmosphere of alcohol vapor. In the moment in that a charged particle crosses the cold area of the atmosphere, the medium is ionized and the particle acts like a condensation nucleus of the alcohol vapor, leaving a visible trace of its trajectory. The built camera was very stable, allowing the detection in continuous form and the observation of diverse events. (Author)

  6. The Legal Implications of Surveillance Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steketee, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of school security has changed dramatically over the last decade. Schools employ various measures, from metal detectors to identification badges to drug testing, to promote the safety and security of staff and students. One of the increasingly prevalent measures is the use of security cameras. In fact, the U.S. Department of Education…

  7. Divergence-ratio axi-vision camera (Divcam): A distance mapping camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2006-01-01

    A novel distance mapping camera the divergence-ratio axi-vision camera (Divcam) is proposed. The decay rate of the illuminating light with distance due to the divergence of the light is used as means of mapping the distance. Resolutions of 10 mm over a range of meters and 0.5 mm over a range of decimeters were achieved. The special features of this camera are its high resolution real-time operation, simplicity, compactness, light weight, portability, and yet low fabrication cost. The feasibility of various potential applications is also included

  8. Integrating Gigabit ethernet cameras into EPICS at Diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, T.

    2012-01-01

    At Diamond Light Source a range of cameras are used to provide images for diagnostic purposes in both the accelerator and photo beamlines. The accelerator and existing beamlines use Point Grey Flea and Flea2 Firewire cameras. We have selected Gigabit Ethernet cameras supporting GigE Vision for our new photon beamlines. GigE Vision is an interface standard for high speed Ethernet cameras which encourages inter-operability between manufacturers. This paper describes the challenges encountered while integrating GigE Vision cameras from a range of vendors into EPICS. GigE Vision cameras appear to be more reliable than the Firewire cameras, and the simple cabling makes much easier to move the cameras to different positions. Upcoming power over Ethernet versions of the cameras will reduce the number of cables still further

  9. New nuclear medicine gamma camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villacorta, Edmundo V.

    1997-01-01

    The acquisition of the Open E.CAM and DIACAM gamma cameras by Makati Medical Center is expected to enhance the capabilities of its nuclear medicine facilities. When used as an aid to diagnosis, nuclear medicine entails the introduction of a minute amount of radioactive material into the patient; thus, no reaction or side-effect is expected. When it reaches the particular target organ, depending on the radiopharmaceutical, a lesion will appear as a decrease (cold) area or increase (hot) area in the radioactive distribution as recorded byu the gamma cameras. Gamma camera images in slices or SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography), increase the sensitivity and accuracy in detecting smaller and deeply seated lesions, which otherwise may not be detected in the regular single planar images. Due to the 'open' design of the equipment, claustrophobic patients will no longer feel enclosed during the procedure. These new gamma cameras yield improved resolution and superb image quality, and the higher photon sensitivity shortens imaging acquisition time. The E.CAM, which is the latest generation gamma camera, is featured by its variable angle dual-head system, the only one available in the Philipines, and the excellent choice for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI). From the usual 45 minutes, the acquisition time for gated SPECT imaging of the heart has now been remarkably reduced to 12 minutes. 'Gated' infers snap-shots of the heart in selected phases of its contraction and relaxation as triggered by ECG. The DIACAM is installed in a room with access outside the main entrance of the department, intended specially for bed-borne patients. Both systems are equipped with a network of high performance Macintosh ICOND acquisition and processing computers. Added to the hardware is the ICON processing software which allows total simultaneous acquisition and processing capabilities in the same operator's terminal. Video film and color printers are also provided. Together

  10. Troubleshooting in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report on troubleshooting of nuclear instruments is the product of several scientists and engineers, who are closely associated with nuclear instrumentation and with the IAEA activities in the field. The text covers the following topics: Preamplifiers, amplifiers, scalers, timers, ratemeters, multichannel analyzers, dedicated instruments, tools, instruments, accessories, components, skills, interfaces, power supplies, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting in systems, radiation detectors. The troubleshooting and repair of instruments is illustrated by some real examples

  11. X-ray imaging using digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Nicola M.; Edgar, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    The possibility of using the combination of a computed radiography (storage phosphor) cassette and a semiprofessional grade digital camera for medical or dental radiography is investigated. We compare the performance of (i) a Canon 5D Mk II single lens reflex camera with f1.4 lens and full-frame CMOS array sensor and (ii) a cooled CCD-based camera with a 1/3 frame sensor and the same lens system. Both systems are tested with 240 x 180 mm cassettes which are based on either powdered europium-doped barium fluoride bromide or needle structure europium-doped cesium bromide. The modulation transfer function for both systems has been determined and falls to a value of 0.2 at around 2 lp/mm, and is limited by light scattering of the emitted light from the storage phosphor rather than the optics or sensor pixelation. The modulation transfer function for the CsBr:Eu2+ plate is bimodal, with a high frequency wing which is attributed to the light-guiding behaviour of the needle structure. The detective quantum efficiency has been determined using a radioisotope source and is comparatively low at 0.017 for the CMOS camera and 0.006 for the CCD camera, attributed to the poor light harvesting by the lens. The primary advantages of the method are portability, robustness, digital imaging and low cost; the limitations are the low detective quantum efficiency and hence signal-to-noise ratio for medical doses, and restricted range of plate sizes. Representative images taken with medical doses are shown and illustrate the potential use for portable basic radiography.

  12. Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

    2014-05-01

    The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.

  13. A novel fully integrated handheld gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative, fully integrated handheld gamma camera, namely designed to gather in the same device the gamma ray detector with the display and the embedded computing system. The low power consumption allows the prototype to be battery operated. To be useful in radioguided surgery, an intraoperative gamma camera must be very easy to handle since it must be moved to find a suitable view. Consequently, we have developed the first prototype of a fully integrated, compact and lightweight gamma camera for radiopharmaceuticals fast imaging. The device can operate without cables across the sterile field, so it may be easily used in the operating theater for radioguided surgery. The prototype proposed consists of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) array coupled with a proprietary scintillation structure based on CsI(Tl) crystals. To read the SiPM output signals, we have developed a very low power readout electronics and a dedicated analog to digital conversion system. One of the most critical aspects we faced designing the prototype was the low power consumption, which is mandatory to develop a battery operated device. We have applied this detection device in the lymphoscintigraphy technique (sentinel lymph node mapping) comparing the results obtained with those of a commercial gamma camera (Philips SKYLight). The results obtained confirm a rapid response of the device and an adequate spatial resolution for the use in the scintigraphic imaging. This work confirms the feasibility of a small gamma camera with an integrated display. This device is designed for radioguided surgery and small organ imaging, but it could be easily combined into surgical navigation systems.

  14. A novel fully integrated handheld gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C. [Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute (IBB), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, F. [University of Rome “La Sapienza”, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Soluri, A., E-mail: alessandro.soluri@ibb.cnr.it [Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute (IBB), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Rome (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative, fully integrated handheld gamma camera, namely designed to gather in the same device the gamma ray detector with the display and the embedded computing system. The low power consumption allows the prototype to be battery operated. To be useful in radioguided surgery, an intraoperative gamma camera must be very easy to handle since it must be moved to find a suitable view. Consequently, we have developed the first prototype of a fully integrated, compact and lightweight gamma camera for radiopharmaceuticals fast imaging. The device can operate without cables across the sterile field, so it may be easily used in the operating theater for radioguided surgery. The prototype proposed consists of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) array coupled with a proprietary scintillation structure based on CsI(Tl) crystals. To read the SiPM output signals, we have developed a very low power readout electronics and a dedicated analog to digital conversion system. One of the most critical aspects we faced designing the prototype was the low power consumption, which is mandatory to develop a battery operated device. We have applied this detection device in the lymphoscintigraphy technique (sentinel lymph node mapping) comparing the results obtained with those of a commercial gamma camera (Philips SKYLight). The results obtained confirm a rapid response of the device and an adequate spatial resolution for the use in the scintigraphic imaging. This work confirms the feasibility of a small gamma camera with an integrated display. This device is designed for radioguided surgery and small organ imaging, but it could be easily combined into surgical navigation systems.

  15. On-Line High Dose-Rate Gamma Ray Irradiation Test of the CCD/CMOS Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, test results of gamma ray irradiation to CCD/CMOS cameras are described. From the CAMS (containment atmospheric monitoring system) data of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant station, we found out that the gamma ray dose-rate when the hydrogen explosion occurred in nuclear reactors 1{approx}3 is about 160 Gy/h. If assumed that the emergency response robot for the management of severe accident of the nuclear power plant has been sent into the reactor area to grasp the inside situation of reactor building and to take precautionary measures against releasing radioactive materials, the CCD/CMOS cameras, which are loaded with the robot, serve as eye of the emergency response robot. In the case of the Japanese Quince robot system, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras are used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. In the preceding assumptions, a major problem which arises when dealing with CCD/CMOS cameras in the severe accident situations of the nuclear power plant is the presence of high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. In the case of the DBA (design basis accident) situations of the nuclear power plant, in order to use a CCD/CMOS camera as an ad-hoc monitoring unit in the vicinity of high radioactivity structures and components of the nuclear reactor area, a robust survivability of this camera in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore should be verified. The CCD/CMOS cameras of various types were gamma irradiated at a

  16. Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Ipatov, Sergei; Li Jianyang; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Wellnitz, Dennis; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Thomas, Peter; Hampton, Donald; Lisse, Carey

    2008-01-01

    Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [∼1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of ∼9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is ∼1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to ∼1%. Spectrometer read noise is ∼2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to ∼10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of ∼2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to ∼0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

  17. Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaasen, Kenneth P; A'Hearn, Michael F; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Ipatov, Sergei; Li, Jianyang; Lisse, Carey; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

    2008-09-01

    Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [ approximately 1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of approximately 9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is approximately 1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to approximately 1%. Spectrometer read noise is approximately 2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to approximately 10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of approximately 2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to approximately 0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

  18. TIFR Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II on the 3.6 m Devasthal Optical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baug, T.; Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Sharma, S.; Pandey, A. K.; Kumar, Brijesh; Ghosh, Arpan; Ninan, J. P.; Naik, M. B.; D’Costa, S. L. A.; Poojary, S. S.; Sandimani, P. R.; Shah, H.; Krishna Reddy, B.; Pandey, S. B.; Chand, H.

    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II (TIRCAM2) is a closed-cycle Helium cryo-cooled imaging camera equipped with a Raytheon 512×512 pixels InSb Aladdin III Quadrant focal plane array (FPA) having sensitivity to photons in the 1-5μm wavelength band. In this paper, we present the performance of the camera on the newly installed 3.6m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) based on the calibration observations carried out during 2017 May 11-14 and 2017 October 7-31. After the preliminary characterization, the camera has been released to the Indian and Belgian astronomical community for science observations since 2017 May. The camera offers a field-of-view (FoV) of ˜86.5‧‧×86.5‧‧ on the DOT with a pixel scale of 0.169‧‧. The seeing at the telescope site in the near-infrared (NIR) bands is typically sub-arcsecond with the best seeing of ˜0.45‧‧ realized in the NIR K-band on 2017 October 16. The camera is found to be capable of deep observations in the J, H and K bands comparable to other 4m class telescopes available world-wide. Another highlight of this camera is the observational capability for sources up to Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) W1-band (3.4μm) magnitudes of 9.2 in the narrow L-band (nbL; λcen˜ 3.59μm). Hence, the camera could be a good complementary instrument to observe the bright nbL-band sources that are saturated in the Spitzer-Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) ([3.6] ≲ 7.92 mag) and the WISE W1-band ([3.4] ≲ 8.1 mag). Sources with strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 3.3μm are also detected. Details of the observations and estimated parameters are presented in this paper.

  19. Quality control of nuclear medicine instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    1983-09-01

    The proceedings of a conference held by the Hospital Physicists' Association in London 1983 on the quality control of nuclear medicine instrumentation are presented. Section I deals with the performance of the Anger gamma camera including assessment during manufacture, acceptance testing, routine testing and long-term assessment of results. Section II covers interfaces, computers, the quality control problems of emission tomography and the quality of software. Section III deals with radionuclide measurement and impurity assessment and Section IV the presentation of images and the control of image quality. (U.K.)

  20. VUV Testing of Science Cameras at MSFC: QE Measurement of the CLASP Flight Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, Patrick R.; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Hyde, D.; Robertson, B.; Beabout, B.; Beabout, D.; Stewart, M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras were built and tested for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and MSFC sounding rocket mission. The CLASP camera design includes a frame-transfer e2v CCD57-10 512x512 detector, dual channel analog readout electronics and an internally mounted cold block. At the flight operating temperature of -20 C, the CLASP cameras achieved the low-noise performance requirements (less than or equal to 25 e- read noise and greater than or equal to 10 e-/sec/pix dark current), in addition to maintaining a stable gain of approximately equal to 2.0 e-/DN. The e2v CCD57-10 detectors were coated with Lumogen-E to improve quantum efficiency (QE) at the Lyman- wavelength. A vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) monochromator and a NIST calibrated photodiode were employed to measure the QE of each camera. Four flight-like cameras were tested in a high-vacuum chamber, which was configured to operate several tests intended to verify the QE, gain, read noise, dark current and residual non-linearity of the CCD. We present and discuss the QE measurements performed on the CLASP cameras. We also discuss the high-vacuum system outfitted for testing of UV and EUV science cameras at MSFC.

  1. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    can empower performers by producing super instrument works that allow the concert instrument to become an ensemble controlled by a single player. The existing instrumental skills of the performer can be multiplied and the qualities of regular acoustic instruments extended or modified. Such a situation......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...

  2. Notes on the IMACON 500 streak camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The notes provided are intended to supplement the instruction manual for the IMACON 500 streak camera system. The notes cover the streak analyzer, instructions for timing the streak camera, and calibration

  3. Dynamic gamma camera scintigraphy in primary hypoovarism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshev, N.; Mladenov, B.; Topalov, I.; Tsanev, Ts.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with primary hypoovarism and 10 controls were examined. After intravenous injection of 111 to 175 MBq 99m Tc pertechnetate, dynamic gamma camera scintigraphy for 15 minutes was carried out. In the patients with primary amenorrhea no functioning ovarial tissue was visualized or the ovaries were diminished in size, strongly reduced and non-homogenous accumulation of the radionuclide with unclear and uneven delineation were observed. In the patients with primary infertility, the gamma camera investigation gave information not only about the presence of ovarial parenchyma, but about the extent of the inflammatory process, too. In the patients after surgical intervention, the dynamic radioisotope investigation gave information about the volume and the site of the surgical intervention, as well as about the conditions of the residual parenchyma

  4. Advanced EVA Suit Camera System Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a new extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit known as the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit. All of the improvements to the EVA Suit provide the opportunity to update the technology of the video imagery. My summer internship project involved improving the video streaming capabilities of the cameras that will be used on the Z2 Suit for data acquisition. To accomplish this, I familiarized myself with the architecture of the camera that is currently being tested to be able to make improvements on the design. Because there is a lot of benefit to saving space, power, and weight on the EVA suit, my job was to use Altium Design to start designing a much smaller and simplified interface board for the camera's microprocessor and external components. This involved checking datasheets of various components and checking signal connections to ensure that this architecture could be used for both the Z2 suit and potentially other future projects. The Orion spacecraft is a specific project that may benefit from this condensed camera interface design. The camera's physical placement on the suit also needed to be determined and tested so that image resolution can be maximized. Many of the options of the camera placement may be tested along with other future suit testing. There are multiple teams that work on different parts of the suit, so the camera's placement could directly affect their research or design. For this reason, a big part of my project was initiating contact with other branches and setting up multiple meetings to learn more about the pros and cons of the potential camera placements we are analyzing. Collaboration with the multiple teams working on the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit is absolutely necessary and these comparisons will be used as further progress is made for the overall suit design. This prototype will not be finished in time for the scheduled Z2 Suit testing, so my time was

  5. Declarative camera control for automatic cinematography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianson, D.B.; Anderson, S.E.; Li-wei He [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Animations generated by interactive 3D computer graphics applications are typically portrayed either from a particular character`s point of view or from a small set of strategically-placed viewpoints. By ignoring camera placement, such applications fail to realize important storytelling capabilities that have been explored by cinematographers for many years. In this paper, we describe several of the principles of cinematography and show how they can be formalized into a declarative language, called the Declarative Camera Control Language (DCCL). We describe the application of DCCL within the context of a simple interactive video game and argue that DCCL represents cinematic knowledge at the same level of abstraction as expert directors by encoding 16 idioms from a film textbook. These idioms produce compelling animations, as demonstrated on the accompanying videotape.

  6. Cervical SPECT Camera for Parathyroid Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-08-31

    Primary hyperparathyroidism characterized by one or more enlarged parathyroid glands has become one of the most common endocrine diseases in the world affecting about 1 per 1000 in the United States. Standard treatment is highly invasive exploratory neck surgery called Parathyroidectomy. The surgery has a notable mortality rate because of the close proximity to vital structures. The move to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is hampered by the lack of high resolution pre-surgical imaging techniques that can accurately localize the parathyroid with respect to surrounding structures. We propose to develop a dedicated ultra-high resolution (~ 1 mm) and high sensitivity (10x conventional camera) cervical scintigraphic imaging device. It will be based on a multiple pinhole-camera SPECT system comprising a novel solid state CZT detector that offers the required performance. The overall system will be configured to fit around the neck and comfortably image a patient.

  7. Methods of correcting Anger camera deadtime losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Three different methods of correcting for Anger camera deadtime loss were investigated. These included analytic methods (mathematical modeling), the marker-source method, and a new method based on counting ''pileup'' events appearing in a pulseheight analyzer window positioned above the photopeak of interest. The studies were done with /sup 99m/Tc on a Searle Radiographics camera with a measured deadtime of about 6 μsec. Analytic methods were found to be unreliable because of unpredictable changes in deadtime with changes in radiation scattering conditions. Both the marker-source method and the pileup-counting method were found to be accurate to within a few percent for true counting rates of up to about 200 K cps, with the pileup-counting method giving better results. This finding applied to sources at depths ranging up to 10 cm of pressed wood. The relative merits of the two methods are discussed

  8. Instrumentation for Infrared Airglow Clutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-10

    gain, and filter position to the Camera Head, and monitors these parameters as well as preamp video. GAZER is equipped with a Lenzar wide angle, low...Specifications/Parameters VIDEO SENSOR: Camera ...... . LENZAR Intensicon-8 LLLTV using 2nd gen * micro-channel intensifier and proprietary camera tube

  9. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  10. Gamma camera scatter suppression unit WAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Haruo; Shibahara, Noriyuki; Hirose, Yoshiharu; Shimonishi, Yoshihiro; Oumura, Masahiro; Ikeda, Hozumi; Hamada, Kunio; Ochi, Hironobu; Itagane, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    In gamma camera imaging, scattered radiation is one of big factors to decrease image contrast. Simply, scatter suppression makes signal to noise ratio larger, but it makes statistics error because of radionuclide injection limit to the human body. EWA is a new method that suppresses scattered radiation and improves image contrast. In this article, WAM which is commercialized EWA method by Siemens Gammasonics Inc. is presented. (author)

  11. Quality assessment of gamma camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindler, M.

    1985-01-01

    There are methods and equipment in nuclear medical diagnostics that allow selective visualisation of the functioning of organs or organ systems, using radioactive substances for labelling and demonstration of metabolic processes. Following a previous contribution on fundamentals and systems components of a gamma camera system, the article in hand deals with the quality characteristics of such a system and with practical quality control and its significance for clinical applications. [de

  12. Combining local and global optimisation for virtual camera control

    OpenAIRE

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2010 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games

    2010-01-01

    Controlling a virtual camera in 3D computer games is a complex task. The camera is required to react to dynamically changing environments and produce high quality visual results and smooth animations. This paper proposes an approach that combines local and global search to solve the virtual camera control problem. The automatic camera control problem is described and it is decomposed into sub-problems; then a hierarchical architecture that solves each sub-problem using the most appropriate op...

  13. Can Camera Traps Monitor Komodo Dragons a Large Ectothermic Predator?

    OpenAIRE

    Ariefiandy, Achmad; Purwandana, Deni; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S.

    2013-01-01

    Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor...

  14. Poster: A Software-Defined Multi-Camera Network

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Po-Yen; Chen, Chien; Selvaraj, Parthiban; Claesen, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The widespread popularity of OpenFlow leads to a significant increase in the number of applications developed in SoftwareDefined Networking (SDN). In this work, we propose the architecture of a Software-Defined Multi-Camera Network consisting of small, flexible, economic, and programmable cameras which combine the functions of the processor, switch, and camera. A Software-Defined Multi-Camera Network can effectively reduce the overall network bandwidth and reduce a large amount of the Capex a...

  15. Indoor calibration for stereoscopic camera STC: a new method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, E.; Re, C.; Da Deppo, V.; Naletto, G.; Borrelli, D.; Dami, M.; Ficai Veltroni, I.; Cremonese, G.

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of the ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury, the global mapping of the planet will be performed by the on-board Stereo Camera (STC), part of the SIMBIO-SYS suite [1]. In this paper we propose a new technique for the validation of the 3D reconstruction of planetary surface from images acquired with a stereo camera. STC will provide a three-dimensional reconstruction of Mercury surface. The generation of a DTM of the observed features is based on the processing of the acquired images and on the knowledge of the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the optical system. The new stereo concept developed for STC needs a pre-flight verification of the actual capabilities to obtain elevation information from stereo couples: for this, a stereo validation setup to get an indoor reproduction of the flight observing condition of the instrument would give a much greater confidence to the developed instrument design. STC is the first stereo satellite camera with two optical channels converging in a unique sensor. Its optical model is based on a brand new concept to minimize mass and volume and to allow push-frame imaging. This model imposed to define a new calibration pipeline to test the reconstruction method in a controlled ambient. An ad-hoc indoor set-up has been realized for validating the instrument designed to operate in deep space, i.e. in-flight STC will have to deal with source/target essentially placed at infinity. This auxiliary indoor setup permits on one side to rescale the stereo reconstruction problem from the operative distance in-flight of 400 km to almost 1 meter in lab; on the other side it allows to replicate different viewing angles for the considered targets. Neglecting for sake of simplicity the Mercury curvature, the STC observing geometry of the same portion of the planet surface at periherm corresponds to a rotation of the spacecraft (SC) around the observed target by twice the 20° separation of each channel with respect to nadir

  16. Theory and applications of smart cameras

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an overview of smart camera systems, considering practical applications but also reviewing fundamental aspects of the underlying technology.  It introduces in a tutorial style the principles of sensing and signal processing, and also describes topics such as wireless connection to the Internet of Things (IoT) which is expected to be the biggest market for smart cameras. It is an excellent guide to the fundamental of smart camera technology, and the chapters complement each other well as the authors have worked as a team under the auspice of GFP(Global Frontier Project), the largest-scale funded research in Korea.  This is the third of three books based on the Integrated Smart Sensors research project, which describe the development of innovative devices, circuits, and system-level enabling technologies.  The aim of the project was to develop common platforms on which various devices and sensors can be loaded, and to create systems offering significant improvements in information processi...

  17. Improvement of passive THz camera images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Marcin; Piszczek, Marek; Palka, Norbert; Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw

    2012-10-01

    Terahertz technology is one of emerging technologies that has a potential to change our life. There are a lot of attractive applications in fields like security, astronomy, biology and medicine. Until recent years, terahertz (THz) waves were an undiscovered, or most importantly, an unexploited area of electromagnetic spectrum. The reasons of this fact were difficulties in generation and detection of THz waves. Recent advances in hardware technology have started to open up the field to new applications such as THz imaging. The THz waves can penetrate through various materials. However, automated processing of THz images can be challenging. The THz frequency band is specially suited for clothes penetration because this radiation does not point any harmful ionizing effects thus it is safe for human beings. Strong technology development in this band have sparked with few interesting devices. Even if the development of THz cameras is an emerging topic, commercially available passive cameras still offer images of poor quality mainly because of its low resolution and low detectors sensitivity. Therefore, THz image processing is very challenging and urgent topic. Digital THz image processing is a really promising and cost-effective way for demanding security and defense applications. In the article we demonstrate the results of image quality enhancement and image fusion of images captured by a commercially available passive THz camera by means of various combined methods. Our research is focused on dangerous objects detection - guns, knives and bombs hidden under some popular types of clothing.

  18. Remote hardware-reconfigurable robotic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Estrada, Miguel; Torres-Huitzil, Cesar; Maya-Rueda, Selene E.

    2001-10-01

    In this work, a camera with integrated image processing capabilities is discussed. The camera is based on an imager coupled to an FPGA device (Field Programmable Gate Array) which contains an architecture for real-time computer vision low-level processing. The architecture can be reprogrammed remotely for application specific purposes. The system is intended for rapid modification and adaptation for inspection and recognition applications, with the flexibility of hardware and software reprogrammability. FPGA reconfiguration allows the same ease of upgrade in hardware as a software upgrade process. The camera is composed of a digital imager coupled to an FPGA device, two memory banks, and a microcontroller. The microcontroller is used for communication tasks and FPGA programming. The system implements a software architecture to handle multiple FPGA architectures in the device, and the possibility to download a software/hardware object from the host computer into its internal context memory. System advantages are: small size, low power consumption, and a library of hardware/software functionalities that can be exchanged during run time. The system has been validated with an edge detection and a motion processing architecture, which will be presented in the paper. Applications targeted are in robotics, mobile robotics, and vision based quality control.

  19. Linearity correction device for a scintillation camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Kai

    1978-06-16

    This invention concerns the scintillation cameras still called gamma ray camera. The invention particularly covers the improvement in the resolution and the uniformity of these cameras. Briefly, in the linearity correction device of the invention, the sum is made of the voltage signals of different amplitudes produced by the preamplifiers of all the photomultiplier tubes and the signal obtained is employed to generate bias voltages which represent predetermined percentages of the sum signal. In one design mode, pairs of transistors are blocked when the output signal of the corresponding preamplifier is under a certain point on its gain curve. When the summation of the energies of a given scintillation exceeds this level which corresponds to a first percentage of the total signal, the first transistor of each pair of each line is unblocked, thereby modifying the gain and curve slop. When the total energy of an event exceeds the next preset level, the second transistor is unblocked to alter the shape again, so much so that the curve shows two break points. If needs be, the device can be designed so as to obtain more break points for the increasingly higher levels of energy. Once the signals have been processed as described above, they may be used for calculating the co-ordinates of the scintillation by one of the conventional methods.

  20. The influence of distrubing effects on the performance of a wide field coded mask X-ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, M.R.; Turner, M.J.L.; Willingale, R.

    1985-01-01

    The coded aperture telescope, or Dicke camera, is seen as an instrument suitable for many applications in X-ray and gamma ray imaging. In this paper the effects of a partially obscuring window mask support or collimator, a detector with limited spatial resolution, and motion of the camera during image integration are considered using a computer simulation of the performance of such a camera. Cross correlation and the Wiener filter are used to deconvolve the data. It is shown that while these effects cause a degradation in performance this is in no case catastrophic. Deterioration of the image is shown to be greatest where strong sources are present in the field of view and is quite small (proportional 10%) when diffuse background is the major element. A comparison between the cyclic mask camera and the single mask camera is made under various conditions and it is shown the single mask camera has a moderate advantage particularly when imaging a wide field of view. (orig.)

  1. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  2. Nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; McGonigal, G.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described which has an equal number of fuel sub-assemblies and sensing instruments. Each instrument senses temperature and rate of coolant flow of a coolant derived from a group of three sub-assemblies so that an abnormal value for one sub-assembly will be indicated on three instruments thereby providing for redundancy of up to two of the three instruments. The abnormal value may be a precurser to unstable boiling of coolant

  3. Optical Comb Generation for Streak Camera Calibration for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald Justin; Terence Davies; Frans Janson; Bruce Marshall; Perry Bell; Daniel Kalantar; Joseph Kimbrough; Stephen Vernon; Oliver Sweningsen

    2008-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is coming on-line to support physics experimentation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and Stockpile Stewardship (SS). Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation at NIF. To accurately reduce streak camera data a highly accurate temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for simultaneously generating a precise +/- 2 ps optical marker pulse (fiducial reference) and trains of precisely timed, short-duration optical pulses (so-called 'comb' pulse trains) that are suitable for the timing calibrations. These optical pulse generators are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that, in the comb mode, produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced optical pulses, using a laser diode source. Comb generators have been produced with pulse-train repetition rates up to 10 GHz at 780 nm, and somewhat lower frequencies at 664 nm. Individual pulses can be as short as 25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector on the front panel of the generator box. The optical signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fiber

  4. Characterization results from several commercial soft X-ray streak cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradling, G. L.; Studebaker, J. K.; Cavailler, C.; Launspach, J.; Planes, J.

    The spatio-temporal performance of four soft X-ray streak cameras has been characterized. The objective in evaluating the performance capability of these instruments is to enable us to optimize experiment designs, to encourage quantitative analysis of streak data and to educate the ultra high speed photography and photonics community about the X-ray detector performance which is available. These measurements have been made collaboratively over the space of two years at the Forge pulsed X-ray source at Los Alamos and at the Ketjak laser facility an CEA Limeil-Valenton. The X-ray pulse lengths used for these measurements at these facilities were 150 psec and 50 psec respectively. The results are presented as dynamically-measured modulation transfer functions. Limiting temporal resolution values were also calculated. Emphasis is placed upon shot noise statistical limitations in the analysis of the data. Space charge repulsion in the streak tube limits the peak flux at ultra short experiments duration times. This limit results in a reduction of total signal and a decrease in signal to no ise ratio in the streak image. The four cameras perform well with 20 1p/mm resolution discernable in data from the French C650X, the Hadland X-Chron 540 and the Hamamatsu C1936X streak cameras. The Kentech X-ray streak camera has lower modulation and does not resolve below 10 1p/mm but has a longer photocathode.

  5. An ebCMOS camera system for marine bioluminescence observation: The LuSEApher prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominjon, A., E-mail: a.dominjon@ipnl.in2p3.fr [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Ageron, M. [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille, F-13288 (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Billault, M.; Brunner, J. [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille, F-13288 (France); Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Calabria, P. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Chabanat, E. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Chaize, D.; Doan, Q.T.; Guerin, C.; Houles, J.; Vagneron, L. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France)

    2012-12-11

    The ebCMOS camera, called LuSEApher, is a marine bioluminescence recorder device adapted to extreme low light level. This prototype is based on the skeleton of the LUSIPHER camera system originally developed for fluorescence imaging. It has been installed at 2500 m depth off the Mediterranean shore on the site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The LuSEApher camera is mounted on the Instrumented Interface Module connected to the ANTARES network for environmental science purposes (European Seas Observatory Network). The LuSEApher is a self-triggered photo detection system with photon counting ability. The presentation of the device is given and its performances such as the single photon reconstruction, noise performances and trigger strategy are presented. The first recorded movies of bioluminescence are analyzed. To our knowledge, those types of events have never been obtained with such a sensitivity and such a frame rate. We believe that this camera concept could open a new window on bioluminescence studies in the deep sea.

  6. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rácz, R., E-mail: rracz@atomki.hu; Biri, S.; Pálinkás, J. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Caliri, C.; Gammino, S. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.

  7. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Pálinkás, J; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Caliri, C; Romano, F P; Gammino, S

    2016-02-01

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.

  8. The status of MUSIC: the multiwavelength sub-millimeter inductance camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Jack; Bockstiegel, Clint; Brugger, Spencer; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran P.; Gao, Jiansong; Gill, Amandeep K.; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; Hollister, Matthew I.; Lam, Albert; LeDuc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; McHugh, Sean G.; Miller, David A.; Mroczkowski, Anthony K.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien Trong; Schlaerth, James A.; Siegel, Seth R.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2014-08-01

    The Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC) is a four-band photometric imaging camera operating from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). MUSIC is designed to utilize 2304 microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs), with 576 MKIDs for each observing band centered on 150, 230, 290, and 350 GHz. MUSIC's field of view (FOV) is 14' square, and the point-spread functions (PSFs) in the four observing bands have 45'', 31'', 25'', and 22'' full-widths at half maximum (FWHM). The camera was installed in April 2012 with 25% of its nominal detector count in each band, and has subsequently completed three short sets of engineering observations and one longer duration set of early science observations. Recent results from on-sky characterization of the instrument during these observing runs are presented, including achieved map- based sensitivities from deep integrations, along with results from lab-based measurements made during the same period. In addition, recent upgrades to MUSIC, which are expected to significantly improve the sensitivity of the camera, are described.

  9. German activities in optical space instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G.

    2018-04-01

    In the years of space exploration since the mid-sixties, a wide experience in optical space instrumentation has developed in Germany. This experience ranges from large telescopes in the 1 m and larger category with the accompanying focal plane detectors and spectrometers for all regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum (infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays), to miniature cameras for cometary and planetary explorations. The technologies originally developed for space science. are now also utilized in the fields of earth observation and even optical telecommunication. The presentation will cover all these areas, with examples for specific technological or scientific highlights. Special emphasis will be given to the current state-of-the-art instrumentation technologies in scientific institutions and industry, and to the future perspective in approved and planned projects.

  10. Automatic multi-camera calibration for deployable positioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Maria; Karlsson, Mikael; Rudner, Staffan

    2012-06-01

    Surveillance with automated positioning and tracking of subjects and vehicles in 3D is desired in many defence and security applications. Camera systems with stereo or multiple cameras are often used for 3D positioning. In such systems, accurate camera calibration is needed to obtain a reliable 3D position estimate. There is also a need for automated camera calibration to facilitate fast deployment of semi-mobile multi-camera 3D positioning systems. In this paper we investigate a method for automatic calibration of the extrinsic camera parameters (relative camera pose and orientation) of a multi-camera positioning system. It is based on estimation of the essential matrix between each camera pair using the 5-point method for intrinsically calibrated cameras. The method is compared to a manual calibration method using real HD video data from a field trial with a multicamera positioning system. The method is also evaluated on simulated data from a stereo camera model. The results show that the reprojection error of the automated camera calibration method is close to or smaller than the error for the manual calibration method and that the automated calibration method can replace the manual calibration.

  11. Camera Network Coverage Improving by Particle Swarm Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.C.; Lei, B.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies how to improve the field of view (FOV) coverage of a camera network. We focus on a special but practical scenario where the cameras are randomly scattered in a wide area and each camera may adjust its orientation but cannot move in any direction. We propose a particle swarm

  12. A generic model for camera based intelligent road crowd control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research proposes a model for intelligent traffic flow control by implementing camera based surveillance and feedback system. A series of cameras are set minimum three signals ahead from the target junction. The complete software system is developed to help integrating the multiple camera on road as feedback to ...

  13. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, Abraham; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  14. Improving the off-axis spatial resolution and dynamic range of the NIF X-ray streak cameras (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPhee, A. G., E-mail: macphee2@llnl.gov; Hatch, B. W.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Datte, P. S.; Landen, O. L.; Palmer, N. E.; Piston, K. W.; Rekow, V. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.; Hares, J. D. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Isis Building, Howbery Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BD (United Kingdom); Hassett, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Meadowcroft, A. L. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.

  15. Evaluation of dynamic range for LLNL streak cameras using high contrast pulsed and pulse podiatry on the Nova laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.B.; Weiland, T.L.; Prior, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a standard LLNL streak camera that has been used to analyze high contrast pulses on the Nova laser facility. These pulses have a plateau at their leading edge (foot) with an amplitude which is approximately 1% of the maximum pulse height. Relying on other features of the pulses and on signal multiplexing, we were able to determine how accurately the foot amplitude was being represented by the camera. Results indicate that the useful single channel dynamic range of the instrument approaches 100:1

  16. Improving the off-axis spatial resolution and dynamic range of the NIF X-ray streak cameras (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, A G; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L; Hares, J D; Hassett, J; Hatch, B W; Meadowcroft, A L; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Datte, P S; Landen, O L; Palmer, N E; Piston, K W; Rekow, V V; Hilsabeck, T J; Kilkenny, J D

    2016-11-01

    We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.

  17. MISR L1B3 Radiometric Camera-by-camera Cloud Mask Product subset for the RICO region V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the Radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask dataset over the RICO region. It is used to determine whether a scene is classified as clear or...

  18. Performance Characterization of the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) CCD Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, R. K.; Kobayashi, K.; Winebarger, A. R.; Champey, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding rocket instrument which is currently being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The goal of this instrument is to observe and detect the Hanle effect in the scattered Lyman-Alpha UV (121.6nm) light emitted by the Sun's Chromosphere to make measurements of the magnetic field in this region. In order to make accurate measurements of this effect, the performance characteristics of the three on-board charge-coupled devices (CCDs) must meet certain requirements. These characteristics include: quantum efficiency, gain, dark current, noise, and linearity. Each of these must meet predetermined requirements in order to achieve satisfactory performance for the mission. The cameras must be able to operate with a gain of no greater than 2 e-/DN, a noise level less than 25e-, a dark current level which is less than 10e-/pixel/s, and a residual non-linearity of less than 1%. Determining these characteristics involves performing a series of tests with each of the cameras in a high vacuum environment. Here we present the methods and results of each of these performance tests for the CLASP flight cameras.

  19. SOFIA science instruments: commissioning, upgrades and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin C.; Miles, John W.; Helton, L. Andrew; Sankrit, Ravi; Andersson, B. G.; Becklin, Eric E.; De Buizer, James M.; Dowell, C. D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Güsten, Rolf; Harper, Doyal A.; Herter, Terry L.; Keller, Luke D.; Klein, Randolf; Krabbe, Alfred; Logsdon, Sarah; Marcum, Pamela M.; McLean, Ian S.; Reach, William T.; Richter, Matthew J.; Roellig, Thomas L.; Sandell, Göran; Savage, Maureen L.; Temi, Pasquale; Vacca, William D.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Young, Erick T.

    2014-07-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is the world's largest airborne observatory, featuring a 2.5 meter effective aperture telescope housed in the aft section of a Boeing 747SP aircraft. SOFIA's current instrument suite includes: FORCAST (Faint Object InfraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope), a 5-40 μm dual band imager/grism spectrometer developed at Cornell University; HIPO (High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations), a 0.3-1.1μm imager built by Lowell Observatory; GREAT (German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies), a multichannel heterodyne spectrometer from 60-240 μm, developed by a consortium led by the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy; FLITECAM (First Light Infrared Test Experiment CAMera), a 1-5 μm wide-field imager/grism spectrometer developed at UCLA; FIFI-LS (Far-Infrared Field-Imaging Line Spectrometer), a 42-200 μm IFU grating spectrograph completed by University Stuttgart; and EXES (Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrograph), a 5-28 μm highresolution spectrometer designed at the University of Texas and being completed by UC Davis and NASA Ames Research Center. HAWC+ (High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera) is a 50-240 μm imager that was originally developed at the University of Chicago as a first-generation instrument (HAWC), and is being upgraded at JPL to add polarimetry and new detectors developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). SOFIA will continually update its instrument suite with new instrumentation, technology demonstration experiments and upgrades to the existing instrument suite. This paper details the current instrument capabilities and status, as well as the plans for future instrumentation.

  20. Design and development of the 2m resolution camera for ROCSAT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguen, Gilbert; Luquet, Philippe; Chassat, François

    2017-11-01

    EADS-Astrium has recently completed the development of a 2m-resolution camera, so-called RSI (Remote Sensing Instrument), for the small-satellite ROCSAT-2, which is the second component of the long-term space program of the Republic of China. The National Space Program Office of Taïwan selected EADS-Astrium as the Prime Contractor for the development of the spacecraft, including the bus and the main instrument RSI. The main challenges for the RSI development were: - to introduce innovative technologies in order to meet the high performance requirements while achieving the design simplicity necessary for the mission (low mass, low power) - to have a development approach and verification compatible with the very tight development schedule This paper describes the instrument design together with the development and verification logic that were implemented to successfully meet these objectives.

  1. Radiation Dose-Rate Extraction from the Camera Image of Quince 2 Robot System using Optical Character Recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min

    2012-01-01

    In the case of the Japanese Quince 2 robot system, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras were used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. The Quince 2 robot measured radiation in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The CCD camera with wide field-of-view (fisheye) lens reads indicator of the dosimeter loaded on the Quince 2 robot, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation. The camera image with gamma ray dose-rate information is transmitted to the remote control site via VDSL communication line. At the remote control site, the radiation information in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor can be perceived by monitoring the camera image. To make up the radiation profile in the surveyed refueling floor, the gamma ray dose-rate information in the image should be converted to numerical value. In this paper, we extract the gamma ray dose-rate value in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor using optical character recognition method

  2. Radiation Dose-Rate Extraction from the Camera Image of Quince 2 Robot System using Optical Character Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In the case of the Japanese Quince 2 robot system, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras were used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. The Quince 2 robot measured radiation in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The CCD camera with wide field-of-view (fisheye) lens reads indicator of the dosimeter loaded on the Quince 2 robot, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation. The camera image with gamma ray dose-rate information is transmitted to the remote control site via VDSL communication line. At the remote control site, the radiation information in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor can be perceived by monitoring the camera image. To make up the radiation profile in the surveyed refueling floor, the gamma ray dose-rate information in the image should be converted to numerical value. In this paper, we extract the gamma ray dose-rate value in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor using optical character recognition method

  3. Status of safeguards instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is performing safeguards at some nuclear power reactors, 50 bulk processing facilities, and 170 research facilities. Its verification activities require the use of instruments to measure nuclear materials and of surveillance instruments to maintain continuity of knowledge of the locations of nuclear materials. Instruments that are in use and under development to measure weight, volume, concentration, and isotopic composition of nuclear materials, and the major surveillance instruments, are described in connection with their uses at representative nuclear facilities. The current status of safeguards instrumentation and the needs for future development are discussed

  4. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  5. Use and maintenance of nuclear medicine instruments in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    Nuclear medicine instruments are rather sophisticated. They are difficult to maintain in effective working condition, especially in developing countries. The present document describes a survey conducted in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand from October 1977 to March 1978, on the use and maintenance of nuclear medicine equipment. The survey evaluated the existing problems of instrument maintenance in the 8 countries visited. The major instruments in use were (1) scintillation probe counters, (2) well scintillation counters and (3) rectilinear cameras. Gamma camera was not widely available in the region at the time of the survey. Most of the surveyed instruments were kept in a detrimental environment resulting in a high failure rate, that caused the relatively high instrument unavailability of 11%. Insufficient bureaucratic handling of repair cases, difficulties with the supply of spare- and replacement parts and lack of training proved to be the main reasons for long periods of instrument inoperation. Remedial actions, based on the survey data, have been initiated

  6. Traveling wave deflector design for femtosecond streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli; Luo, Duan; Wen, Wenlong; Xu, Junkai; Tian, Jinshou; Zhang, Minrui; Chen, Pin; Chen, Jianzhong; Liu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a traveling wave deflection deflector (TWD) with a slow-wave property induced by a microstrip transmission line is proposed for femtosecond streak cameras. The pass width and dispersion properties were simulated. In addition, the dynamic temporal resolution of the femtosecond camera was simulated by CST software. The results showed that with the proposed TWD a femtosecond streak camera can achieve a dynamic temporal resolution of less than 600 fs. Experiments were done to test the femtosecond streak camera, and an 800 fs dynamic temporal resolution was obtained. Guidance is provided for optimizing a femtosecond streak camera to obtain higher temporal resolution.

  7. Traveling wave deflector design for femtosecond streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Luo, Duan [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wen, Wenlong [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Xu, Junkai [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tian, Jinshou, E-mail: tianjs@opt.ac.cn [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China); Zhang, Minrui; Chen, Pin [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jianzhong [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Liu, Rong [Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an 710021 (China)

    2017-05-21

    In this paper, a traveling wave deflection deflector (TWD) with a slow-wave property induced by a microstrip transmission line is proposed for femtosecond streak cameras. The pass width and dispersion properties were simulated. In addition, the dynamic temporal resolution of the femtosecond camera was simulated by CST software. The results showed that with the proposed TWD a femtosecond streak camera can achieve a dynamic temporal resolution of less than 600 fs. Experiments were done to test the femtosecond streak camera, and an 800 fs dynamic temporal resolution was obtained. Guidance is provided for optimizing a femtosecond streak camera to obtain higher temporal resolution.

  8. Using a laser scanning camera for reactor inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, I.A.; Adrain, R.S.; Klewe, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Inspection of nuclear reactors is normally carried out using TV or film cameras. There are, however, several areas where these cameras show considerable shortcomings. To overcome these difficulties, laser scanning cameras have been developed. This type of camera can be used for general visual inspection as well as the provision of high resolution video images with high ratio on and off-axis zoom capability. In this paper, we outline the construction and operation of a laser scanning camera and give examples of how it has been used in various power stations, and indicate future potential developments. (author)

  9. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices

  10. Initial laboratory evaluation of color video cameras: Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, P.L.

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video cameras used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. The monochrome cameras were selected over color cameras because they have greater sensitivity and resolution. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color camera technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories has established an on-going program to evaluate the newest color solid-state cameras. Phase One of the Sandia program resulted in the SAND91-2579/1 report titled: Initial Laboratory Evaluation of Color Video Cameras. The report briefly discusses imager chips, color cameras, and monitors, describes the camera selection, details traditional test parameters and procedures, and gives the results reached by evaluating 12 cameras. Here, in Phase Two of the report, we tested 6 additional cameras using traditional methods. In addition, all 18 cameras were tested by newly developed methods. This Phase 2 report details those newly developed test parameters and procedures, and evaluates the results.

  11. Presence capture cameras - a new challenge to the image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2016-04-01

    Commercial presence capture cameras are coming to the markets and a new era of visual entertainment starts to get its shape. Since the true presence capturing is still a very new technology, the real technical solutions are just passed a prototyping phase and they vary a lot. Presence capture cameras have still the same quality issues to tackle as previous phases of digital imaging but also numerous new ones. This work concentrates to the quality challenges of presence capture cameras. A camera system which can record 3D audio-visual reality as it is has to have several camera modules, several microphones and especially technology which can synchronize output of several sources to a seamless and smooth virtual reality experience. Several traditional quality features are still valid in presence capture cameras. Features like color fidelity, noise removal, resolution and dynamic range create the base of virtual reality stream quality. However, co-operation of several cameras brings a new dimension for these quality factors. Also new quality features can be validated. For example, how the camera streams should be stitched together with 3D experience without noticeable errors and how to validate the stitching? The work describes quality factors which are still valid in the presence capture cameras and defines the importance of those. Moreover, new challenges of presence capture cameras are investigated in image and video quality point of view. The work contains considerations how well current measurement methods can be used in presence capture cameras.

  12. Quantization error of CCD cameras and their influence on phase calculation in fringe pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skydan, Oleksandr A; Lilley, Francis; Lalor, Michael J; Burton, David R

    2003-09-10

    We present an investigation into the phase errors that occur in fringe pattern analysis that are caused by quantization effects. When acquisition devices with a limited value of camera bit depth are used, there are a limited number of quantization levels available to record the signal. This may adversely affect the recorded signal and adds a potential source of instrumental error to the measurement system. Quantization effects also determine the accuracy that may be achieved by acquisition devices in a measurement system. We used the Fourier fringe analysis measurement technique. However, the principles can be applied equally well for other phase measuring techniques to yield a phase error distribution that is caused by the camera bit depth.

  13. Qualification Tests of Micro-camera Modules for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shinichi; Miyasaka, Akira

    Visual capability is very important for space-based activities, for which small, low-cost space cameras are desired. Although cameras for terrestrial applications are continually being improved, little progress has been made on cameras used in space, which must be extremely robust to withstand harsh environments. This study focuses on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) CMOS digital cameras because they are very small and are based on an established mass-market technology. Radiation and ultrahigh-vacuum tests were conducted on a small COTS camera that weighs less than 100 mg (including optics). This paper presents the results of the qualification tests for COTS cameras and for a small, low-cost COTS-based space camera.

  14. The making of analog module for gamma camera interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulinarsari, Leli; Rl, Tjutju; Susila, Atang; Sukandar

    2003-01-01

    The making of an analog module for gamma camera has been conducted. For computerization of planar gamma camera 37 PMT it has been developed interface hardware technology and software between the planar gamma camera with PC. With this interface gamma camera image information (Originally analog signal) was changed to digital single, therefore processes of data acquisition, image quality increase and data analysis as well as data base processing can be conducted with the help of computers, there are three gamma camera main signals, i.e. X, Y and Z . This analog module makes digitation of analog signal X and Y from the gamma camera that conveys position information coming from the gamma camera crystal. Analog conversion to digital was conducted by 2 converters ADC 12 bit with conversion time 800 ns each, conversion procedure for each coordinate X and Y was synchronized using suitable strobe signal Z for information acceptance

  15. Using XML and Java Technologies for Astronomical Instrument Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Troy; Case, Lynne; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been highly specialized, consisting mostly of custom code that is difficult to develop, maintain, and extend. Such solutions are initially very costly and are inflexible to subsequent engineering change requests, increasing software maintenance costs. Instrument description is too tightly coupled with details of implementation. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, under the Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project, is developing a general and highly extensible framework that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. The software architecture combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML), a human readable and machine understandable way to describe structured data. A key aspect of the object-oriented architecture is that the software is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML), a dialect of XML. IML is used to describe the command sets and command formats of the instrument, communication mechanisms, format of the data coming from the instrument, and characteristics of the graphical user interface to control and monitor the instrument. The IRC framework allows the users to define a data analysis pipeline which converts data coming out of the instrument. The data can be used in visualizations in order for the user to assess the data in real-time, if necessary. The data analysis pipeline algorithms can be supplied by the user in a variety of forms or programming languages. Although the current integration effort is targeted for the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE), first-light instruments of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), the framework is designed to be generic and extensible so that it can be applied to any instrument. Plans are underway to test the framework

  16. Use of cameras for monitoring visibility impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, William; Cismoski, Scott; Prenni, Anthony; Peters, Melanie

    2018-02-01

    Webcams and automated, color photography cameras have been routinely operated in many U.S. national parks and other federal lands as far back as 1988, with a general goal of meeting interpretive needs within the public lands system and communicating effects of haze on scenic vistas to the general public, policy makers, and scientists. Additionally, it would be desirable to extract quantifiable information from these images to document how visibility conditions change over time and space and to further reflect the effects of haze on a scene, in the form of atmospheric extinction, independent of changing lighting conditions due to time of day, year, or cloud cover. Many studies have demonstrated a link between image indexes and visual range or extinction in urban settings where visibility is significantly degraded and where scenes tend to be gray and devoid of color. In relatively clean, clear atmospheric conditions, clouds and lighting conditions can sometimes affect the image radiance field as much or more than the effects of haze. In addition, over the course of many years, cameras have been replaced many times as technology improved or older systems wore out, and therefore camera image pixel density has changed dramatically. It is shown that gradient operators are very sensitive to image resolution while contrast indexes are not. Furthermore, temporal averaging and time of day restrictions allow for developing quantitative relationships between atmospheric extinction and contrast-type indexes even when image resolution has varied over time. Temporal averaging effectively removes the variability of visibility indexes associated with changing cloud cover and weather conditions, and changes in lighting conditions resulting from sun angle effects are best compensated for by restricting averaging to only certain times of the day.

  17. Thermal imaging cameras characteristics and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ability to see through smoke and mist and the ability to use the variances in temperature to differentiate between targets and their backgrounds are invaluable in military applications and have become major motivators for the further development of thermal imagers. As the potential of thermal imaging is more clearly understood and the cost decreases, the number of industrial and civil applications being exploited is growing quickly. In order to evaluate the suitability of particular thermal imaging cameras for particular applications, it is important to have the means to specify and measur

  18. Compact optical technique for streak camera calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Perry; Griffith, Roger; Hagans, Karla; Lerche, Richard; Allen, Curt; Davies, Terence; Janson, Frans; Justin, Ronald; Marshall, Bruce; Sweningsen, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    To produce accurate data from optical streak cameras requires accurate temporal calibration sources. We have reproduced an older technology for generating optical timing marks that had been lost due to component availability. Many improvements have been made which allow the modern units to service a much larger need. Optical calibrators are now available that produce optical pulse trains of 780 nm wavelength light at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 GHz, with individual pulse widths of approximately 25 ps full width half maximum. Future plans include the development of single units that produce multiple frequencies to cover a wide temporal range, and that are fully controllable via an RS232 interface

  19. Compact optical technique for streak camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Perry; Griffith, Roger; Hagans, Karla; Lerche, Richard; Allen, Curt; Davies, Terence; Janson, Frans; Justin, Ronald; Marshall, Bruce; Sweningsen, Oliver

    2004-10-01

    To produce accurate data from optical streak cameras requires accurate temporal calibration sources. We have reproduced an older technology for generating optical timing marks that had been lost due to component availability. Many improvements have been made which allow the modern units to service a much larger need. Optical calibrators are now available that produce optical pulse trains of 780 nm wavelength light at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 GHz, with individual pulse widths of approximately 25 ps full width half maximum. Future plans include the development of single units that produce multiple frequencies to cover a wide temporal range, and that are fully controllable via an RS232 interface.

  20. Exact optics - III. Schwarzschild's spectrograph camera revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willstrop, R. V.

    2004-03-01

    Karl Schwarzschild identified a system of two mirrors, each defined by conic sections, free of third-order spherical aberration, coma and astigmatism, and with a flat focal surface. He considered it impractical, because the field was too restricted. This system was rediscovered as a quadratic approximation to one of Lynden-Bell's `exact optics' designs which have wider fields. Thus the `exact optics' version has a moderate but useful field, with excellent definition, suitable for a spectrograph camera. The mirrors are strongly aspheric in both the Schwarzschild design and the exact optics version.

  1. Collimator trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A collimator is provided for a scintillation camera system in which a detector precesses in an orbit about a patient. The collimator is designed to have high resolution and lower sensitivity with respect to radiation traveling in paths laying wholly within planes perpendicular to the cranial-caudal axis of the patient. The collimator has high sensitivity and lower resolution to radiation traveling in other planes. Variances in resolution and sensitivity are achieved by altering the length, spacing or thickness of the septa of the collimator

  2. Picosecond x-ray streak cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averin, V. I.; Bryukhnevich, Gennadii I.; Kolesov, G. V.; Lebedev, Vitaly B.; Miller, V. A.; Saulevich, S. V.; Shulika, A. N.

    1991-04-01

    The first multistage image converter with an X-ray photocathode (UMI-93 SR) was designed in VNIIOFI in 1974 [1]. The experiments carried out in IOFAN pointed out that X-ray electron-optical cameras using the tube provided temporal resolution up to 12 picoseconds [2]. The later work has developed into the creation of the separate streak and intensifying tubes. Thus, PV-003R tube has been built on base of UMI-93SR design, fibre optically connected to PMU-2V image intensifier carrying microchannel plate.

  3. Computational cameras for moving iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Scott; Venkatesha, Sharath

    2015-05-01

    Iris-based biometric identification is increasingly used for facility access and other security applications. Like all methods that exploit visual information, however, iris systems are limited by the quality of captured images. Optical defocus due to a small depth of field (DOF) is one such challenge, as is the acquisition of sharply-focused iris images from subjects in motion. This manuscript describes the application of computational motion-deblurring cameras to the problem of moving iris capture, from the underlying theory to system considerations and performance data.

  4. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: The Receiver and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, D. S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Burger, B.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fisher, R. P.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope was designed to measure small-scale anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background and detect galaxy clusters through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. The instrument is located on Cerro Taco in the Atacama Desert, at an altitude of 5190 meters. A six-met.er off-axis Gregorian telescope feeds a new type of cryogenic receiver, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera. The receiver features three WOO-element arrays of transition-edge sensor bolometers for observations at 148 GHz, 218 GHz, and 277 GHz. Each detector array is fed by free space mm-wave optics. Each frequency band has a field of view of approximately 22' x 26'. The telescope was commissioned in 2007 and has completed its third year of operations. We discuss the major components of the telescope, camera, and related systems, and summarize the instrument performance.

  5. Expanded opportunities of THz passive camera for the detection of concealed objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Kuchik, Igor E.

    2013-10-01

    Among the security problems, the detection of object implanted into either the human body or animal body is the urgent problem. At the present time the main tool for the detection of such object is X-raying only. However, X-ray is the ionized radiation and therefore can not be used often. Other way for the problem solving is passive THz imaging using. In our opinion, using of the passive THz camera may help to detect the object implanted into the human body under certain conditions. The physical reason of such possibility arises from temperature trace on the human skin as a result of the difference in temperature between object and parts of human body. Modern passive THz cameras have not enough resolution in temperature to see this difference. That is why, we use computer processing to enhance the passive THz camera resolution for this application. After computer processing of images captured by passive THz camera TS4, developed by ThruVision Systems Ltd., we may see the pronounced temperature trace on the human body skin from the water, which is drunk by person, or other food eaten by person. Nevertheless, there are many difficulties on the way of full soution of this problem. We illustrate also an improvement of quality of the image captured by comercially available passive THz cameras using computer processing. In some cases, one can fully supress a noise on the image without loss of its quality. Using computer processing of the THz image of objects concealed on the human body, one may improve it many times. Consequently, the instrumental resolution of such device may be increased without any additional engineering efforts.

  6. Applying UV cameras for SO2 detection to distant or optically thick volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Christoph; Werner, Cynthia; Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff; Lübcke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) camera systems represent an exciting new technology for measuring two dimensional sulfur dioxide (SO2) distributions in volcanic plumes. The high frame rate of the cameras allows the retrieval of SO2 emission rates at time scales of 1 Hz or higher, thus allowing the investigation of high-frequency signals and making integrated and comparative studies with other high-data-rate volcano monitoring techniques possible. One drawback of the technique, however, is the limited spectral information recorded by the imaging systems. Here, a framework for simulating the sensitivity of UV cameras to various SO2 distributions is introduced. Both the wavelength-dependent transmittance of the optical imaging system and the radiative transfer in the atmosphere are modeled. The framework is then applied to study the behavior of different optical setups and used to simulate the response of these instruments to volcanic plumes containing varying SO2 and aerosol abundances located at various distances from the sensor. Results show that UV radiative transfer in and around distant and/or optically thick plumes typically leads to a lower sensitivity to SO2 than expected when assuming a standard Beer–Lambert absorption model. Furthermore, camera response is often non-linear in SO2 and dependent on distance to the plume and plume aerosol optical thickness and single scatter albedo. The model results are compared with camera measurements made at Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii) and a method for integrating moderate resolution differential optical absorption spectroscopy data with UV imagery to retrieve improved SO2 column densities is discussed.

  7. Bridging research with innovative products: a compact hyperspectral camera for investigating artworks: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucci, Costanza; Casini, Andrea; Stefani, Lorenzo; Picollo, Marcello; Jussila, Jouni

    2017-07-01

    For more than a decade, a number of studies and research projects have been devoted to customize hyperspectral imaging techniques to the specific needs of conservation and applications in museum context. A growing scientific literature definitely demonstrated the effectiveness of reflectance hyperspectral imaging for non-invasive diagnostics and highquality documentation of 2D artworks. Additional published studies tackle the problems of data-processing, with a focus on the development of algorithms and software platforms optimised for visualisation and exploitation of hyperspectral bigdata sets acquired on paintings. This scenario proves that, also in the field of Cultural Heritage (CH), reflectance hyperspectral imaging has nowadays reached the stage of mature technology, and is ready for the transition from the R&D phase to the large-scale applications. In view of that, a novel concept of hyperspectral camera - featuring compactness, lightness and good usability - has been developed by SPECIM, Spectral Imaging Ltd. (Oulu, Finland), a company in manufacturing products for hyperspectral imaging. The camera is proposed as new tool for novel applications in the field of Cultural Heritage. The novelty of this device relies in its reduced dimensions and weight and in its user-friendly interface, which make this camera much more manageable and affordable than conventional hyperspectral instrumentation. The camera operates in the 400-1000nm spectral range and can be mounted on a tripod. It can operate from short-distance (tens of cm) to long distances (tens of meters) with different spatial resolutions. The first release of the prototype underwent a preliminary in-depth experimentation at the IFAC-CNR laboratories. This paper illustrates the feasibility study carried out on the new SPECIM hyperspectral camera, tested under different conditions on laboratory targets and artworks with the specific aim of defining its potentialities and weaknesses in its use in the

  8. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  9. Instrumentation for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and coordinate nuclear instrumentation standards with resulting economies for the nuclear and radiation fields. There was particular emphasis on coordination and management of the Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) System, U.S. activity involving the CAMAC international standard dataway system, the FASTBUS modular high-speed data acquisition and control system and processing and management of national nuclear instrumentation and detector standards, as well as a modest amount of assistance and consultation services to the Pollutant Characterization and Safety Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The principal accomplishments were the development and maintenance of the NIM instrumentation system that is the predominant instrumentation system in the nuclear and radiation fields worldwide, the CAMAC digital interface system in coordination with the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories, the FASTBUS high-speed system and numerous national and international nuclear instrumentation standards

  10. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  11. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  12. Hubble Space Telescope, Faint Object Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This drawing illustrates Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's), Faint Object Camera (FOC). The FOC reflects light down one of two optical pathways. The light enters a detector after passing through filters or through devices that can block out light from bright objects. Light from bright objects is blocked out to enable the FOC to see background images. The detector intensifies the image, then records it much like a television camera. For faint objects, images can be built up over long exposure times. The total image is translated into digital data, transmitted to Earth, and then reconstructed. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  13. Color correction pipeline optimization for digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Bruna, Arcangelo R.; Naccari, Filippo; Schettini, Raimondo

    2013-04-01

    The processing pipeline of a digital camera converts the RAW image acquired by the sensor to a representation of the original scene that should be as faithful as possible. There are mainly two modules responsible for the color-rendering accuracy of a digital camera: the former is the illuminant estimation and correction module, and the latter is the color matrix transformation aimed to adapt the color response of the sensor to a standard color space. These two modules together form what may be called the color correction pipeline. We design and test new color correction pipelines that exploit different illuminant estimation and correction algorithms that are tuned and automatically selected on the basis of the image content. Since the illuminant estimation is an ill-posed problem, illuminant correction is not error-free. An adaptive color matrix transformation module is optimized, taking into account the behavior of the first module in order to alleviate the amplification of color errors. The proposed pipelines are tested on a publicly available dataset of RAW images. Experimental results show that exploiting the cross-talks between the modules of the pipeline can lead to a higher color-rendition accuracy.

  14. Scalable IC Platform for Smart Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Broers

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Smart cameras are among the emerging new fields of electronics. The points of interest are in the application areas, software and IC development. In order to reduce cost, it is worthwhile to invest in a single architecture that can be scaled for the various application areas in performance (and resulting power consumption. In this paper, we show that the combination of an SIMD (single-instruction multiple-data processor and a general-purpose DSP is very advantageous for the image processing tasks encountered in smart cameras. While the SIMD processor gives the very high performance necessary by exploiting the inherent data parallelism found in the pixel crunching part of the algorithms, the DSP offers a friendly approach to the more complex tasks. The paper continues to motivate that SIMD processors have very convenient scaling properties in silicon, making the complete, SIMD-DSP architecture suitable for different application areas without changing the software suite. Analysis of the changes in power consumption due to scaling shows that for typical image processing tasks, it is beneficial to scale the SIMD processor to use the maximum level of parallelism available in the algorithm if the IC supply voltage can be lowered. If silicon cost is of importance, the parallelism of the processor should be scaled to just reach the desired performance given the speed of the silicon.

  15. Performance and quality control of scintillation cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.; Iachetti, D.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptance testing, quality and control assurance of gamma-cameras are a part of diagnostic quality in clinical practice. Several parameters are required to achieve a good diagnostic reliability: intrinsic spatial resolution, spatial linearity, uniformities, energy resolution, count-rate characteristics, multiple window spatial analysis. Each parameter was measured and also estimated by a test easy to implement in routine practice. Material required was a 4028 multichannel analyzer linked to a microcomputeur, mini-computers and a set of phantoms (parallel slits, diffusing phantom, orthogonal hole transmission pattern). Gamma-cameras on study were:CGR 3400, CGR 3420, G.E.4000. Siemens ZLC 75 and large field Philips. Several tests proposed by N.E.M.A. and W.H.O. have to be improved concerning too punctual spatial determinations during distortion measurements with multiple window. Contrast control of image need to be monitored with high counting rate. This study shows the need to avoid punctual determinations and the interest to give sets of values of the same parameter on the whole field and to report mean values with their standard variation [fr

  16. Vertically Integrated Edgeless Photon Imaging Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, Farah [Fermilab; Deptuch, Grzegorz [Fermilab; Shenai, Alpana [Fermilab; Maj, Piotr [AGH-UST, Cracow; Kmon, Piotr [AGH-UST, Cracow; Grybos, Pawel [AGH-UST, Cracow; Szczygiel, Robert [AGH-UST, Cracow; Siddons, D. Peter [Brookhaven; Rumaiz, Abdul [Brookhaven; Kuczewski, Anthony [Brookhaven; Mead, Joseph [Brookhaven; Bradford, Rebecca [Argonne; Weizeorick, John [Argonne

    2017-01-01

    The Vertically Integrated Photon Imaging Chip - Large, (VIPIC-L), is a large area, small pixel (65μm), 3D integrated, photon counting ASIC with zero-suppressed or full frame dead-time-less data readout. It features data throughput of 14.4 Gbps per chip with a full frame readout speed of 56kframes/s in the imaging mode. VIPIC-L contain 192 x 192 pixel array and the total size of the chip is 1.248cm x 1.248cm with only a 5μm periphery. It contains about 120M transistors. A 1.3M pixel camera module will be developed by arranging a 6 x 6 array of 3D VIPIC-L’s bonded to a large area silicon sensor on the analog side and to a readout board on the digital side. The readout board hosts a bank of FPGA’s, one per VIPIC-L to allow processing of up to 0.7 Tbps of raw data produced by the camera.

  17. Optical camera system for radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Koichi; Senoo, Makoto; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Shibata, Keiichiro; Honda, Takuro.

    1995-01-01

    An infrared-ray camera comprises a transmitting filter used exclusively for infrared-rays at a specific wavelength, such as far infrared-rays and a lens used exclusively for infrared rays. An infrared ray emitter-incorporated photoelectric image converter comprising an infrared ray emitting device, a focusing lens and a semiconductor image pick-up plate is disposed at a place of low gamma-ray dose rate. Infrared rays emitted from an objective member are passed through the lens system of the camera, and real images are formed by way of the filter. They are transferred by image fibers, introduced to the photoelectric image converter and focused on the image pick-up plate by the image-forming lens. Further, they are converted into electric signals and introduced to a display and monitored. With such a constitution, an optical material used exclusively for infrared rays, for example, ZnSe can be used for the lens system and the optical transmission system. Accordingly, it can be used in a radiation field of high gamma ray dose rate around the periphery of the reactor container. (I.N.)

  18. Process simulation in digital camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toadere, Florin

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to simulate the functionality of a digital camera system. The simulations cover the conversion from light to numerical signal and the color processing and rendering. We consider the image acquisition system to be linear shift invariant and axial. The light propagation is orthogonal to the system. We use a spectral image processing algorithm in order to simulate the radiometric properties of a digital camera. In the algorithm we take into consideration the transmittances of the: light source, lenses, filters and the quantum efficiency of a CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) sensor. The optical part is characterized by a multiple convolution between the different points spread functions of the optical components. We use a Cooke triplet, the aperture, the light fall off and the optical part of the CMOS sensor. The electrical part consists of the: Bayer sampling, interpolation, signal to noise ratio, dynamic range, analog to digital conversion and JPG compression. We reconstruct the noisy blurred image by blending different light exposed images in order to reduce the photon shot noise, also we filter the fixed pattern noise and we sharpen the image. Then we have the color processing blocks: white balancing, color correction, gamma correction, and conversion from XYZ color space to RGB color space. For the reproduction of color we use an OLED (organic light emitting diode) monitor. The analysis can be useful to assist students and engineers in image quality evaluation and imaging system design. Many other configurations of blocks can be used in our analysis.

  19. Collimator trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, Ronald J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved collimator is provided for a scintillation camera system that employs a detector head for transaxial tomographic scanning. One object of this invention is to significantly reduce the time required to obtain statistically significant data in radioisotope scanning using a scintillation camera. Another is to increase the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable from a radiation source of known strength without sacrificing spatial resolution. A further object is to reduce the necessary scanning time without degrading the images obtained. The collimator described has apertures defined by septa of different radiation transparency. The septa are aligned to provide greater radiation shielding from gamma radiation travelling within planes perpendicular to the cranial-caudal axis and less radiation shielding from gamma radiation travelling within other planes. Septa may also define apertures such that the collimator provides high spatial resolution of gamma rays traveling within planes perpendicular to the cranial-caudal axis and directed at the detector and high radiation sensitivity to gamma radiation travelling other planes and indicated at the detector. (LL)

  20. Camera-cinematography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.E.; Meyer, G.; Bitter, F.; Kampmann, H.; Bargon, G.; Stauch, M.; Ulm Univ.

    1975-01-01

    By 'camera-cinematography' of the heart, we mean an isotope method which permits detailed observation of cardiac mechanics without the use of a catheter. All that is necessary is an intravenous injection of 10 to 15 mCisup(99m)Tc human serum albumin followed after ten minutes by a five to ten minute period of observation with a scintillation camera. At this time the isotope has become distributed in the blood. Variations in the precordial impulses correspond with intra-cardiac changes of blood volume during a cardiac cycle. Analysis of the R-wave provides adequate information of cyclical volume changes in limited portions of the heart. This is achieved by a monitor with a pseudo-3-dimensional display; contraction and relaxation of the myocardium can be shown for any chosen longitudinal or horizontal diameter of the heart. Our programme allows simultaneous presentation of the movement of any point on the myocardium as a time-activity curve. The method is recommended as an addition to chest radiography, heart screening or cardiac kymography before carrying out cardiac catheterisation. (orig.) [de

  1. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  2. Instrument validation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells

  3. Instrument performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program

  4. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  5. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  6. Evaluation of Red Light Camera Enforcement at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman AlJanahi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to find the effectiveness of adopting red light cameras in reducing red light violators. An experimental approach was adopted to investigate the use of red light cameras at signalized intersections in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The study locations were divided into three groups. The first group was related to the approaches monitored with red light cameras. The second group was related to approaches without red light cameras, but located within an intersection that had one of its approaches monitored with red light cameras. The third group was related to intersection approaches located at intersection without red light cameras (controlled sites. A methodology was developed for data collection. The data were then tested statistically by Z-test using proportion methods to compare the proportion of red light violations occurring at different sites. The study found that the proportion of red light violators at approaches monitored with red light cameras was significantly less than those at the controlled sites for most of the time. Approaches without red light cameras located within intersections having red light cameras showed, in general, fewer violations than controlled sites, but the results were not significant for all times of the day. The study reveals that red light cameras have a positive effect on reducing red light violations. However, these conclusions need further evaluations to justify their safe and economic use.

  7. Analysis of Camera Parameters Value in Various Object Distances Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusoff, Ahmad Razali; Ariff, Mohd Farid Mohd; Idris, Khairulnizam M; Majid, Zulkepli; Setan, Halim; Chong, Albert K

    2014-01-01

    In photogrammetric applications, good camera parameters are needed for mapping purpose such as an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that encompassed with non-metric camera devices. Simple camera calibration was being a common application in many laboratory works in order to get the camera parameter's value. In aerial mapping, interior camera parameters' value from close-range camera calibration is used to correct the image error. However, the causes and effects of the calibration steps used to get accurate mapping need to be analyze. Therefore, this research aims to contribute an analysis of camera parameters from portable calibration frame of 1.5 × 1 meter dimension size. Object distances of two, three, four, five, and six meters are the research focus. Results are analyzed to find out the changes in image and camera parameters' value. Hence, camera calibration parameter's of a camera is consider different depend on type of calibration parameters and object distances

  8. Photometric Calibration of Consumer Video Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Robert; Swift, Wesley, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Equipment and techniques have been developed to implement a method of photometric calibration of consumer video cameras for imaging of objects that are sufficiently narrow or sufficiently distant to be optically equivalent to point or line sources. Heretofore, it has been difficult to calibrate consumer video cameras, especially in cases of image saturation, because they exhibit nonlinear responses with dynamic ranges much smaller than those of scientific-grade video cameras. The present method not only takes this difficulty in stride but also makes it possible to extend effective dynamic ranges to several powers of ten beyond saturation levels. The method will likely be primarily useful in astronomical photometry. There are also potential commercial applications in medical and industrial imaging of point or line sources in the presence of saturation.This development was prompted by the need to measure brightnesses of debris in amateur video images of the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The purpose of these measurements is to use the brightness values to estimate relative masses of debris objects. In most of the images, the brightness of the main body of Columbia was found to exceed the dynamic ranges of the cameras. A similar problem arose a few years ago in the analysis of video images of Leonid meteors. The present method is a refined version of the calibration method developed to solve the Leonid calibration problem. In this method, one performs an endto- end calibration of the entire imaging system, including not only the imaging optics and imaging photodetector array but also analog tape recording and playback equipment (if used) and any frame grabber or other analog-to-digital converter (if used). To automatically incorporate the effects of nonlinearity and any other distortions into the calibration, the calibration images are processed in precisely the same manner as are the images of meteors, space-shuttle debris, or other objects that one seeks to

  9. Motorcycle detection and counting using stereo camera, IR camera, and microphone array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bo; Gibson, David R. P.; Middleton, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Detection, classification, and characterization are the key to enhancing motorcycle safety, motorcycle operations and motorcycle travel estimation. Average motorcycle fatalities per Vehicle Mile Traveled (VMT) are currently estimated at 30 times those of auto fatalities. Although it has been an active research area for many years, motorcycle detection still remains a challenging task. Working with FHWA, we have developed a hybrid motorcycle detection and counting system using a suite of sensors including stereo camera, thermal IR camera and unidirectional microphone array. The IR thermal camera can capture the unique thermal signatures associated with the motorcycle's exhaust pipes that often show bright elongated blobs in IR images. The stereo camera in the system is used to detect the motorcyclist who can be easily windowed out in the stereo disparity map. If the motorcyclist is detected through his or her 3D body recognition, motorcycle is detected. Microphones are used to detect motorcycles that often produce low frequency acoustic signals. All three microphones in the microphone array are placed in strategic locations on the sensor platform to minimize the interferences of background noises from sources such as rain and wind. Field test results show that this hybrid motorcycle detection and counting system has an excellent performance.

  10. A real-time networked camera system : a scheduled distributed camera system reduces the latency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karatoy, H.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of a Real-time Networked Camera System, com-missioned by the SAN Group in TU/e. Distributed Systems are motivated by two reasons, the first reason is the physical environment as a requirement and the second reason is to provide a better Quality of Service (QoS). This

  11. Mobile device-based optical instruments for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2013-05-01

    Realizing that a current smart-mobile device such as a cell phone and a tablet can be considered as a pocket-size computer embedded with a built-in digital camera, this paper reviews and demonstrates on how a mobile device can be specifically functioned as a portable optical instrument for agricultural applications. The paper highlights several mobile device-based optical instruments designed for searching small pests, measuring illumination level, analyzing spectrum of light, identifying nitrogen status in the rice field, estimating chlorine in water, and determining ripeness level of the fruit. They are suitable for individual use as well as for small and medium enterprises.

  12. Calibration grooming and alignment for LDUA High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System (HRSVS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System (HRSVS) was designed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to provide routine and troubleshooting views of tank interiors during characterization and remediation phases of underground storage tank (UST) processing. The HRSVS is a dual color camera system designed to provide stereo viewing of the interior of the tanks including the tank wall in a Class 1, Division 1, flammable atmosphere. The HRSVS was designed with a modular philosophy for easy maintenance and configuration modifications. During operation of the system with the LDUA, the control of the camera system will be performed by the LDUA supervisory data acquisition system (SDAS). Video and control status 1458 will be displayed on monitors within the LDUA control center. All control functions are accessible from the front panel of the control box located within the Operations Control Trailer (OCT). The LDUA will provide all positioning functions within the waste tank for the end effector. Various electronic measurement instruments will be used to perform CG and A activities. The instruments may include a digital volt meter, oscilloscope, signal generator, and other electronic repair equipment. None of these instruments will need to be calibrated beyond what comes from the manufacturer. During CG and A a temperature indicating device will be used to measure the temperature of the outside of the HRSVS from initial startup until the temperature has stabilized. This device will not need to be in calibration during CG and A but will have to have a current calibration sticker from the Standards Laboratory during any acceptance testing. This sensor will not need to be in calibration during CG and A but will have to have a current calibration sticker from the Standards Laboratory during any acceptance testing

  13. Networked web-cameras monitor congruent seasonal development of birches with phenological field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Aurela, Mika; Böttcher, Kristin; Kolari, Pasi; Loehr, John; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Melih Tanis, Cemal; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystems' potential to provide services, e.g. to sequester carbon is largely driven by the phenological cycle of vegetation. Timing of phenological events is required for understanding and predicting the influence of climate change on ecosystems and to support various analyses of ecosystem functioning. We established a network of cameras for automated monitoring of phenological activity of vegetation in boreal ecosystems of Finland. Cameras were mounted on 14 sites, each site having 1-3 cameras. In this study, we used cameras at 11 of these sites to investigate how well networked cameras detect phenological development of birches (Betula spp.) along the latitudinal gradient. Birches are interesting focal species for the analyses as they are common throughout Finland. In our cameras they often appear in smaller quantities within dominant species in the images. Here, we tested whether small scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of color indices and changes therein. We compared automatically derived phenological dates from these birch image elements to visually determined dates from the same image time series, and to independent observations recorded in the phenological monitoring network from the same region. Automatically extracted season start dates based on the change of green color fraction in the spring corresponded well with the visually interpreted start of season, and field observed budburst dates. During the declining season, red color fraction turned out to be superior over green color based indices in predicting leaf yellowing and fall. The latitudinal gradients derived using automated phenological date extraction corresponded well with gradients based on phenological field observations from the same region. We conclude that already small and scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of key phenological dates for birch species. Devising cameras for species specific analyses of phenological timing will be useful for

  14. An ordinary camera in an extraordinary location: Outreach with the Mars Webcam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormston, T.; Denis, M.; Scuka, D.; Griebel, H.

    2011-09-01

    The European Space Agency's Mars Express mission was launched in 2003 and was Europe's first mission to Mars. On-board was a small camera designed to provide ‘visual telemetry’ of the separation of the Beagle-2 lander. After achieving its goal it was shut down while the primary science mission of Mars Express got underway. In 2007 this camera was reactivated by the flight control team of Mars Express for the purpose of providing public education and outreach—turning it into the ‘Mars Webcam’.The camera is a small, 640×480 pixel colour CMOS camera with a wide-angle 30°×40° field of view. This makes it very similar in almost every way to the average home PC webcam. The major difference is that this webcam is not in an average location but is instead in orbit around Mars. On a strict basis of non-interference with the primary science activities, the camera is turned on to provide unique wide-angle views of the planet below.A highly automated process ensures that the observations are scheduled on the spacecraft and then uploaded to the internet as rapidly as possible. There is no intermediate stage, so that visitors to the Mars Webcam blog serve as ‘citizen scientists’. Full raw datasets and processing instructions are provided along with a mechanism to allow visitors to comment on the blog. Members of the public are encouraged to use this in either a personal or an educational context and work with the images. We then take their excellent work and showcase it back on the blog. We even apply techniques developed by them to improve the data and webcam experience for others.The accessibility and simplicity of the images also makes the data ideal for educational use, especially as educational projects can then be showcased on the site as inspiration for others. The oft-neglected target audience of space enthusiasts is also important as this allows them to participate as part of an interplanetary instrument team.This paper will cover the history of the

  15. A Refrigerated Web Camera for Photogrammetric Video Measurement inside Biomass Boilers and Combustion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Granada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

  16. A refrigerated web camera for photogrammetric video measurement inside biomass boilers and combustion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteiro, Jacobo; Riveiro, Belén; Granada, Enrique; Armesto, Julia; Eguía, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD) web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

  17. Volcano monitoring with an infrared camera: first insights from Villarrica Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas Sotomayor, Florencia; Amigo Ramos, Alvaro; Velasquez Vargas, Gabriela; Medina, Roxana; Thomas, Helen; Prata, Fred; Geoffroy, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    This contribution focuses on the first trials of the, almost 24/7 monitoring of Villarrica volcano with an infrared camera. Results must be compared with other SO2 remote sensing instruments such as DOAS and UV-camera, for the ''day'' measurements. Infrared remote sensing of volcanic emissions is a fast and safe method to obtain gas abundances in volcanic plumes, in particular when the access to the vent is difficult, during volcanic crisis and at night time. In recent years, a ground-based infrared camera (Nicair) has been developed by Nicarnica Aviation, which quantifies SO2 and ash on volcanic plumes, based on the infrared radiance at specific wavelengths through the application of filters. Three Nicair1 (first model) have been acquired by the Geological Survey of Chile in order to study degassing of active volcanoes. Several trials with the instruments have been performed in northern Chilean volcanoes, and have proven that the intervals of retrieved SO2 concentration and fluxes are as expected. Measurements were also performed at Villarrica volcano, and a location to install a ''fixed'' camera, at 8km from the crater, was discovered here. It is a coffee house with electrical power, wifi network, polite and committed owners and a full view of the volcano summit. The first measurements are being made and processed in order to have full day and week of SO2 emissions, analyze data transfer and storage, improve the remote control of the instrument and notebook in case of breakdown, web-cam/GoPro support, and the goal of the project: which is to implement a fixed station to monitor and study the Villarrica volcano with a Nicair1 integrating and comparing these results with other remote sensing instruments. This works also looks upon the strengthen of bonds with the community by developing teaching material and giving talks to communicate volcanic hazards and other geoscience topics to the people who live "just around the corner" from one of the most active volcanoes

  18. MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) on board the TARANIS satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, T.; Hébert, P.; Le Mer-Dachard, F.; Ravel, K.; Gaillac, S.

    2017-12-01

    TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of Radiations from lightNing and Sprites) is a CNES micro satellite. Its main objective is to study impulsive transfers of energy between the Earth atmosphere and the space environment. It will be sun-synchronous at an altitude of 700 km. It will be launched in 2019 for at least 2 years. Its payload is composed of several electromagnetic instruments in different wavelengths (from gamma-rays to radio waves including optical). TARANIS instruments are currently in calibration and qualification phase. The purpose is to present the MicroCameras and Photometers (MCP) design, to show its performances after its recent characterization and at last to discuss the scientific objectives and how we want to answer it with the MCP observations. The MicroCameras, developed by Sodern, are dedicated to the spatial description of TLEs and their parent lightning. They are able to differentiate sprite and lightning thanks to two narrow bands ([757-767 nm] and [772-782 nm]) that provide simultaneous pairs of images of an Event. Simulation results of the differentiation method will be shown. After calibration and tests, the MicroCameras are now delivered to the CNES for integration on the payload. The Photometers, developed by Bertin Technologies, will provide temporal measurements and spectral characteristics of TLEs and lightning. There are key instrument because of their capability to detect on-board TLEs and then switch all the instruments of the scientific payload in their high resolution acquisition mode. Photometers use four spectral bands in the [170-260 nm], [332-342 nm], [757-767 nm] and [600-900 nm] and have the same field of view as cameras. The on-board TLE detection algorithm remote-controlled parameters have been tuned before launch using the electronic board and simulated or real events waveforms. After calibration, the Photometers are now going through the environmental tests. They will be delivered to the CNES for integration on the

  19. Automatic Camera Calibration Using Multiple Sets of Pairwise Correspondences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Francisco; Barreto, Joao P; Boyer, Edmond

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new method to add an uncalibrated node into a network of calibrated cameras using only pairwise point correspondences. While previous methods perform this task using triple correspondences, these are often difficult to establish when there is limited overlap between different views. In such challenging cases we must rely on pairwise correspondences and our solution becomes more advantageous. Our method includes an 11-point minimal solution for the intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a camera from pairwise correspondences with other two calibrated cameras, and a new inlier selection framework that extends the traditional RANSAC family of algorithms to sampling across multiple datasets. Our method is validated on different application scenarios where a lack of triple correspondences might occur: addition of a new node to a camera network; calibration and motion estimation of a moving camera inside a camera network; and addition of views with limited overlap to a Structure-from-Motion model.

  20. A SPECT demonstrator—revival of a gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valastyán, I.; Kerek, A.; Molnár, J.; Novák, D.; Végh, J.; Emri, M.; Trón, L.

    2006-07-01

    A gamma camera has been updated and converted to serve as a demonstrator for educational purposes. The gantry and the camera head were the only part of the system that remained untouched. The main reason for this modernization was to increase the transparency of the gamma camera by partitioning the different logical building blocks of the system and thus providing access for inspection and improvements throughout the chain. New data acquisition and reconstruction software has been installed. By taking these measures, the camera is now used in education and also serves as a platform for tests of new hardware and software solutions. The camera is also used to demonstrate 3D (SPECT) imaging by collecting 2D projections from a rotatable cylindrical phantom. Since the camera head is not attached mechanically to the phantom, the effect of misalignment between the head and the rotation axis of the phantom can be studied.

  1. A SPECT demonstrator-revival of a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valastyan, I.; Kerek, A.; Molnar, J.; Novak, D.; Vegh, J.; Emri, M.; Tron, L.

    2006-01-01

    A gamma camera has been updated and converted to serve as a demonstrator for educational purposes. The gantry and the camera head were the only part of the system that remained untouched. The main reason for this modernization was to increase the transparency of the gamma camera by partitioning the different logical building blocks of the system and thus providing access for inspection and improvements throughout the chain. New data acquisition and reconstruction software has been installed. By taking these measures, the camera is now used in education and also serves as a platform for tests of new hardware and software solutions. The camera is also used to demonstrate 3D (SPECT) imaging by collecting 2D projections from a rotatable cylindrical phantom. Since the camera head is not attached mechanically to the phantom, the effect of misalignment between the head and the rotation axis of the phantom can be studied

  2. Overview of LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed

  3. Standardization of test conditions for gamma camera performance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.

    1982-02-01

    The way of measuring gamma camera performance is to use point sources or flood sources in air, often in combination with bar phantoms. This method has nothing in common with the use of a camera in clinical practice. Particularly in the case of low energy emitters, like Tc-99m, the influence of scattered radiation over the performance of cameras is very high. The IEC document 'Characteristics and test conditions of radionuclide imaging devices' is discussed

  4. Digital dental photography. Part 4: choosing a camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I

    2009-06-13

    With so many cameras and systems on the market, making a choice of the right one for your practice needs is a daunting task. As described in Part 1 of this series, a digital single reflex (DSLR) camera is an ideal choice for dental use in enabling the taking of portraits, close-up or macro images of the dentition and study casts. However, for the sake of completion, some other cameras systems that are used in dentistry are also discussed.

  5. An image-tube camera for cometary spectrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadov, O.

    The paper discusses the mounting of an image tube camera. The cathode is of antimony, sodium, potassium, and cesium. The parts used for mounting are of acrylic plastic and a fabric-based laminate. A mounting design that does not include cooling is presented. The aperture ratio of the camera is 1:27. Also discussed is the way that the camera is joined to the spectrograph.

  6. IR Camera Report for the 7 Day Production Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-22

    The following report gives a summary of the IR camera performance results and data for the 7 day production run that occurred from 10 Sep 2015 thru 16 Sep 2015. During this production run our goal was to see how well the camera performed its task of monitoring the target window temperature with our improved alignment procedure and emissivity measurements. We also wanted to see if the increased shielding would be effective in protecting the camera from damage and failure.

  7. New Stereo Vision Digital Camera System for Simultaneous Measurement of Cloud Base Height and Atmospheric Visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeiro, F. M.; Carretas, F.; Palma, N.; Ramos, P. M.; Wagner, F.

    2013-12-01

    Clouds play an important role in many aspects of everyday life. They affect both the local weather as well as the global climate and are an important parameter on climate change studies. Cloud parameters are also important for weather prediction models which make use of actual measurements. It is thus important to have low-cost instrumentation that can be deployed in the field to measure those parameters. This kind of instruments should also be automated and robust since they may be deployed in remote places and be subject to adverse weather conditions. Although clouds are very important in environmental systems, they are also an essential component of airplane safety when visual flight rules (VFR) are enforced, such as in most small aerodromes where it is not economically viable to install instruments for assisted flying. Under VFR there are strict limits on the height of the cloud base, cloud cover and atmospheric visibility that ensure the safety of the pilots and planes. Although there are instruments, available in the market, to measure those parameters, their relatively high cost makes them unavailable in many local aerodromes. In this work we present a new prototype which has been recently developed and deployed in a local aerodrome as proof of concept. It is composed by two digital cameras that capture photographs of the sky and allow the measurement of the cloud height from the parallax effect. The new developments consist on having a new geometry which allows the simultaneous measurement of cloud base height, wind speed at cloud base height and atmospheric visibility, which was not previously possible with only two cameras. The new orientation of the cameras comes at the cost of a more complex geometry to measure the cloud base height. The atmospheric visibility is calculated from the Lambert-Beer law after the measurement of the contrast between a set of dark objects and the background sky. The prototype includes the latest hardware developments that

  8. SAAO's new robotic telescope and WiNCam (Wide-field Nasmyth Camera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worters, Hannah L.; O'Connor, James E.; Carter, David B.; Loubser, Egan; Fourie, Pieter A.; Sickafoose, Amanda; Swanevelder, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    The South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) is designing and manufacturing a wide-field camera for use on two of its telescopes. The initial concept was of a Prime focus camera for the 74" telescope, an equatorial design made by Grubb Parsons, where it would employ a 61mmx61mm detector to cover a 23 arcmin diameter field of view. However, while in the design phase, SAAO embarked on the process of acquiring a bespoke 1-metre robotic alt-az telescope with a 43 arcmin field of view, which needs a homegrown instrument suite. The Prime focus camera design was thus adapted for use on either telescope, increasing the detector size to 92mmx92mm. Since the camera will be mounted on the Nasmyth port of the new telescope, it was dubbed WiNCam (Wide-field Nasmyth Camera). This paper describes both WiNCam and the new telescope. Producing an instrument that can be swapped between two very different telescopes poses some unique challenges. At the Nasmyth port of the alt-az telescope there is ample circumferential space, while on the 74 inch the available envelope is constrained by the optical footprint of the secondary, if further obscuration is to be avoided. This forces the design into a cylindrical volume of 600mm diameter x 250mm height. The back focal distance is tightly constrained on the new telescope, shoehorning the shutter, filter unit, guider mechanism, a 10mm thick window and a tip/tilt mechanism for the detector into 100mm depth. The iris shutter and filter wheel planned for prime focus could no longer be accommodated. Instead, a compact shutter with a thickness of less than 20mm has been designed in-house, using a sliding curtain mechanism to cover an aperture of 125mmx125mm, while the filter wheel has been replaced with 2 peripheral filter cartridges (6 filters each) and a gripper to move a filter into the beam. We intend using through-vacuum wall PCB technology across the cryostat vacuum interface, instead of traditional hermetic connector-based wiring. This

  9. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The principal problem in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning is the length of time required to obtain meaningful data. Patient movement and radioisotope migration during the scanning period can cause distortion of the image. The object of this invention is to reduce the scanning time without degrading the images obtained. A system is described in which a scintillation camera detector is moved to an orbit about the cranial-caudal axis relative to the patient. A collimator is used in which lead septa are arranged so as to admit gamma rays travelling perpendicular to this axis with high spatial resolution and those travelling in the direction of the axis with low spatial resolution, thus increasing the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable without sacrificing spatial resolution. (author)

  10. Camera System MTF: combining optic with detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Torben B.; Granger, Zachary A.

    2017-08-01

    MTF is one of the most common metrics used to quantify the resolving power of an optical component. Extensive literature is dedicated to describing methods to calculate the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for stand-alone optical components such as a camera lens or telescope, and some literature addresses approaches to determine an MTF for combination of an optic with a detector. The formulations pertaining to a combined electro-optical system MTF are mostly based on theory, and assumptions that detector MTF is described only by the pixel pitch which does not account for wavelength dependencies. When working with real hardware, detectors are often characterized by testing MTF at discrete wavelengths. This paper presents a method to simplify the calculation of a polychromatic system MTF when it is permissible to consider the detector MTF to be independent of wavelength.

  11. Applications of iQID cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ling; Miller, Brian W.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Barber, H. Bradford; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2017-09-01

    iQID is an intensified quantum imaging detector developed in the Center for Gamma-Ray Imaging (CGRI). Originally called BazookaSPECT, iQID was designed for high-resolution gamma-ray imaging and preclinical gamma-ray single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). With the use of a columnar scintillator, an image intensifier and modern CCD/CMOS sensors, iQID cameras features outstanding intrinsic spatial resolution. In recent years, many advances have been achieved that greatly boost the performance of iQID, broadening its applications to cover nuclear and particle imaging for preclinical, clinical and homeland security settings. This paper presents an overview of the recent advances of iQID technology and its applications in preclinical and clinical scintigraphy, preclinical SPECT, particle imaging (alpha, neutron, beta, and fission fragment), and digital autoradiography.

  12. Detector construction for a scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    An improved transducer construction for a scintillation camera in which a light conducting element is equipped with a layer of moisture impervious material is described. A scintillation crystal is thereafter positioned in optical communication with the moisture impervious layer and the remaining surfaces of the scintillation crystal are encompassed by a moisture shield. Affixing the moisture impervious layer to the light conducting element prior to attachment of the scintillation crystal reduces the requirement for mechanical strength in the moisture impervious layer and thereby allows a layer of reduced thickness to be utilized. Preferably, photodetectors are also positioned in optical communication with the light conducting element prior to positioning the scintillation crystal in contact with the impervious layer. 13 claims, 4 figures

  13. Scintillation camera with improved output means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, K.; Wiesen, E.J.; Woronowicz, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    In a scintillation camera system, the output pulse signals from an array of photomultiplier tubes are coupled to the inputs of individual preamplifiers. The preamplifier output signals are coupled to circuitry for computing the x and y coordinates of the scintillations. A cathode ray oscilloscope is used to form an image corresponding with the pattern in which radiation is emitted by a body. Means for improving the uniformity and resolution of the scintillations are provided. The means comprise biasing means coupled to the outputs of selected preamplifiers so that output signals below a predetermined amplitude are not suppressed and signals falling within increasing ranges of amplitudes are increasingly suppressed. In effect, the biasing means make the preamplifiers non-linear for selected signal levels

  14. 100-ps framing-camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalibjian, R.

    1978-01-01

    The optoelectronic framing-camera tube described is capable of recording two-dimensional image frames with high spatial resolution in the <100-ps range. Framing is performed by streaking a two-dimensional electron image across narrow slits. The resulting dissected electron line images from the slits are restored into framed images by a restorer deflector operating synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen equals the number of dissecting slits in the tube. Performance has been demonstrated in a prototype tube by recording 135-ps-duration framed images of 2.5-mm patterns at the cathode. The limitation in the framing speed is in the external drivers for the deflectors and not in the tube design characteristics. Faster frame speeds in the <100-ps range can be obtained by use of faster deflection drivers

  15. Photometric Characterization of the Dark Energy Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, G. M.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Armstrong, R.; Burke, D. L.; Diehl, H. T.; Gruendl, R. A.; Johnson, M. D.; Li, T. S.; Rykoff, E. S.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.

    2018-05-01

    We characterize the variation in photometric response of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) across its 520 Mpix science array during 4 years of operation. These variations are measured using high signal-to-noise aperture photometry of >107 stellar images in thousands of exposures of a few selected fields, with the telescope dithered to move the sources around the array. A calibration procedure based on these results brings the rms variation in aperture magnitudes of bright stars on cloudless nights down to 2–3 mmag, with color corrections; and the use of an aperture-correction proxy. The DECam response pattern across the 2° field drifts over months by up to ±9 mmag, in a nearly wavelength-independent low-order pattern. We find no fundamental barriers to pushing global photometric calibrations toward mmag accuracy.

  16. Sweep time performance of optic streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhebin; Yang Dong; Zhang Huige

    2012-01-01

    The sweep time performance of the optic streak camera (OSC) is of critical importance to its application. The systematic analysis of full-screen sweep velocity shows that the traditional method based on the averaged velocity and its nonlinearity would increase the uncertainty of sweep time and can not reflect the influence of the spatial distortion of OSC. A elaborate method for sweep time has been developed with the aid of full-screen sweep velocity and its uncertainty. It is proved by the theoretical analysis and experimental study that the method would decrease the uncertainty of sweep time within 1%, which would improve the accuracy of sweep time and the reliability of OSC application. (authors)

  17. Gain attenuation of gated framing camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shali; Liu Shenye; Cao Zhurong; Li Hang; Zhang Haiying; Yuan Zheng; Wang Liwei

    2009-01-01

    The theoretic model of framing camera's gain attenuation is analyzed. The exponential attenuation curve of the gain along the pulse propagation time is simulated. An experiment to measure the coefficient of gain attenuation based on the gain attenuation theory is designed. Experiment result shows that the gain follows an exponential attenuation rule with a quotient of 0.0249 nm -1 , the attenuation coefficient of the pulse is 0.00356 mm -1 . The loss of the pulse propagation along the MCP stripline is the leading reason of gain attenuation. But in the figure of a single stripline, the gain dose not follow the rule of exponential attenuation completely, instead, there is a gain increase at the stripline bottom. That is caused by the reflection of the pulse. The reflectance is about 24.2%. Combining the experiment and theory, which design of the stripline MCP can improved the gain attenuation. (authors)

  18. Permanent automatic recalibration system for scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auphan, Michel.

    1974-01-01

    A permanent automatic recalibration system for a scintillation camera, of the type consisting chiefly of a collimator if necessary, a scintillator, a light guide and a network of n photomultipliers coupled to a display system, is described. It uses a device to form a single reference light signal common to all the photomultiplication lines, integrated to these latter and associated with a periodic calibration control generator. By means of associated circuits governed by the control generator the gain in each line is brought to and/or maintained at a value between fixed upper and lower limits. Steps are taken so that any gain variation in a given line is adjusted with respect to the reference light signal common to all the lines. The light signal falls preferably in the same part of the spectrum as the scintillations formed in the scintillator [fr

  19. Using XML and Java for Astronomical Instrumentation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Troy; Koons, Lisa; Sall, Ken; Warsaw, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been highly specialized, consisting mostly of custom code that is difficult to develop, maintain, and extend. Such solutions are initially very costly and are inflexible to subsequent engineering change requests, increasing software maintenance costs. Instrument description is too tightly coupled with details of implementation. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a general and highly extensible framework that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. The software architecture combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML), a human readable and machine understandable way to describe structured data. A key aspect of the object-oriented architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). ]ML is used to describe graphical user interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, and communication mechanisms. Although the current effort is targeted for the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera, a first-light instrument of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, the framework is designed to be generic and extensible so that it can be applied to any instrument.

  20. a Spatio-Spectral Camera for High Resolution Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livens, S.; Pauly, K.; Baeck, P.; Blommaert, J.; Nuyts, D.; Zender, J.; Delauré, B.

    2017-08-01

    Imaging with a conventional frame camera from a moving remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS) is by design very inefficient. Less than 1 % of the flying time is used for collecting light. This unused potential can be utilized by an innovative imaging concept, the spatio-spectral camera. The core of the camera is a frame sensor with a large number of hyperspectral filters arranged on the sensor in stepwise lines. It combines the advantages of frame cameras with those of pushbroom cameras. By acquiring images in rapid succession, such a camera can collect detailed hyperspectral information, while retaining the high spatial resolution offered by the sensor. We have developed two versions of a spatio-spectral camera and used them in a variety of conditions. In this paper, we present a summary of three missions with the in-house developed COSI prototype camera (600-900 nm) in the domains of precision agriculture (fungus infection monitoring in experimental wheat plots), horticulture (crop status monitoring to evaluate irrigation management in strawberry fields) and geology (meteorite detection on a grassland field). Additionally, we describe the characteristics of the 2nd generation, commercially available ButterflEYE camera offering extended spectral range (475-925 nm), and we discuss future work.