WorldWideScience

Sample records for instrumented charpy impact

  1. Instrumented charpy impact tests of austenitic and ferritic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, H.; Miyata, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Narui, M.; Kayano, H.

    1985-08-01

    The instrumented Charpy impact test was applied to commercial Mn-steel and ferritic steels before and after JMTR irradiation ( 6.5 × 10 22 n/m 2). The load-deflection curves show typical characteristics of the fracture properties of the specimens; i.e. linear elastic behaviour for the brittle fracture and elastic-plastic behaviour for the ductile fracture. The fracture deflection and the absorption energy (fracture energy) dropped rapidly at the temperature of ductile to brittle transition. The ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTTs) showed shifts of about 30 and 40 K due to the irradiation for 9Cr-1Mo and 9Cr-2Mo steels, respectively. In Mn-steel the transition from ductile to brittle did not appear at temperatures higher than 77 K. The lateral expansions measured from the scanning electron micrographs show good correspondence to the above results.

  2. Evaluation of dynamic fracture mechanics in the AISI 316 stainless steel using instrumented Charpy impact testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Juliano Daniel de [Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: juliano.daniel@embraer.com.br; Rodrigues, Bruno Jardim Franca [Novo Nordisk, Montes Claros, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: brro@novonordisk.com; Vilela, Jefferson Jose; Martins, Geraldo de Paula [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: gpm@cdtn.br; Carneiro, Jose Rubens Goncalves [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: joserub@pucminas.br

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear power plant's surveillance program is based in Charpy test. But, this test could be used to evaluate integrity's secondary circuit. The steel similar to AISI 316 stainless steel could be used in this circuit. Some secondary circuit's components could be failed in dynamic condition. The dynamic fracture mechanics behavior of the AISI 316 was studied by using instrumented Charpy impact testing. The dynamic fracture toughness (J{sub ld}) could be evaluated by four different methods: compliance changing rate, stretching zone, energy revised and maximum load energy. The tests were made in temperature -196 deg C, room and 200 deg C. At each temperature two specimens were tested. The impact energy was 300 J and the impact velocity was 5.12 m/s. The Charpy specimens 10 x 10 x 50 mm were pre-cracked until 5 mm according to ASTM E-23. Stretching zone size was measured and analyzed by observing the fracture surfaces that were obtained in a scanning electron microscope. The dynamic fracture toughness calculated among four different methods showed a large difference. All studied methods did not agree ASTM E1820 (2001) standard that indicated to plane strain did not occurred in the tip crack. (author)

  3. Fracture behaviors of neutron-irradiated ferritic steels studied by the instrumented charpy impact test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, H.; Miyata, K.; Narui, M.; Kayano, H.

    1989-12-01

    The instrumented Charpy impact test for quarter-size specimens was developed and applied to study fracture behavior of ferritic steels and a ferritic-martensitic steel (JFMS) before and after neutron irradiation. The load-deflection curves obtained for U- and V-notched specimens showed typical characteristics of fracture properties of these steels. The temperature dependence of the fracture energy ( Ef) and the failure deflection ( Df) clearly indicates ductile-brittle transition and the DBTT can be determined from the Ef and Df versus temperature curves. The V-notched specimens showed sharper transition at higher temperatures for the JFMS than the U-notched ones, where the former were sensitive to brittle fracture and the latter well demonstrated the behavior of crack propagation. For the ferritic steels the DBTTs showed low values at compositions containing approximate 8-10% Cr and the increase of the DBTT (Δ DBTT) due to irradiation also showed a similar tendency. The Δ DBTT appeared to be relatively larger for the JFMS than the ferritic steels.

  4. Experimental study on the material dynamic fracture properties by Instrumented Charpy Impact test with single specimen method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, F.; Fulian, D.; Chengzhong, W.

    2003-09-01

    With the determination of load-time curve recorded by Amsler/Roell RKP 450 Instrumented Charpy Impact test and based on the Newton's Second Law, Impact character of a single standard V-notch specimen of X70 pipeline steel under the low temperature -70 ^{circ}C was investigated by studying the impact energy distribution. It was revealed that maximum load point (Fm point) was not exact the dynamic crack initiation, which was detected somewhere prior and very close to Fm point by using Compliance Changing Rate method. This fact was also confirmed by Dynamic CTOD method. That is to say, Impact energy related to the Fm point (i.e. Em) consists not only the crack initiation energy Ei, but a small part of crack extension energy as well. Ratio of Ei/Em was found to be 0.90 just applicable to the material used here. Dynamic fracture toughness JJd was then estimated by modified Rice equation. Crack extension behavior and dynamic crack growth resistance curve (J-Δa) during stable crack propagation period was carefully analyzed by Key Curve method. Finally, methods for evaluating tearing module Tmat, and CTOD curve under the impact test were also briefly introduced in the paper.

  5. Charpy Impact Test on Polymeric Molded Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Raicu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Charpy impact tests on the AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS polymeric material parts. The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy V-notch test, is a standardized strain rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. This is a typical method described in ASTM Standard D 6110. We use for testing an Instron - Dynatup equipment which have a fully integrated hardware and software package that let us capture load information at very high speed from the impact tests.

  6. Reconstituted Charpy impact specimens. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, J.S.; Wullaert, R.A.; McConnell, P.; Server, W.L.; Fromm, E.O.

    1982-12-01

    The arc stud welding process was used to produce new, full size Charpy V-notch impact specimens from halves of Charpy specimens which had been previously tested. The apparatus was developed such that it could be used not only for unirradiated specimens, but also so that it could be adapted for in-cell use to produce new reconstituted specimens of irradiated material. The materials studied are of interest in nuclear applications. They include A533B, A36, A516-80, submerged arc weld metal (A508 base metal), HY80, cast duplex stainless steel, irradiated A533B, and irradiated submerged arc weld metal (A508 base metal). Both unirradiated and irradiated specimens were successfully produced and subsequently impact tested. In general, there was excellent agreement when comparing the original curves to the subsequent curves generated with reconstituted specimens. This program has shown that the arc stud welding process is well suited for producing reconstituted specimens at a reasonable cost using either unirradiated or irradiated material.

  7. Dynamic fracture toughness and Charpy impact properties of an AISI 403 martensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, P. R.; Ray, S. K.; Mannan, S. L.; Rodriguez, P.

    1996-04-01

    Dynamic fracture toughness and Charpy impact properties of a normalised and tempered AISI 403 martensitic stainless steel obtained from instrumented impact tests are presented. Procedures for estimating dynamic fracture toughness ( KId) from the load-time traces obtained in instrumented tests of unprecracked Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens are considered. The estimated KId values show reasonable agreement with those obtained from instrumented drop-weight and precracked Charpy tests. Also, except in the upper transition and uppershelf regions, the ASME KIR curve is generally conservative (i.e. gives lower KId values) when compared to the above KId estimates. The conservatism of the ASME KIR at the upper transition and uppershelf temperatures needs verification/validation. The lowest KId values estimated at the lower shelf temperatures for the above steel, namely, 33-42 MPa√m are in good agreement with the reported values of 35-50 MPa√m for the same steel in the literature.

  8. On the Effectiveness of the Dynamic Force Adjustment for Reducing the Scatter of Instrumented Charpy Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.

    2008-09-15

    One of the key factors for obtaining reliable instrumented Charpy results is the calibration of the instrumented striker. An interesting alternative to the conventional static calibration recommended by the standards is the Dynamic Force Adjustment (DFA), in which forces and displacements are iteratively adjusted until equality is achieved between absorbed energies calculated under the test record (Wt) and measured by the machine encoder (KV). In this study, this procedure has been applied to the instrumented data obtained by 10 international laboratories using notched and precracked Charpy specimens, in the framework of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP8) of IAEA. DFA is extremely effective in reducing the between-laboratory scatter for both general yield and maximum forces. The effect is less significant for dynamic reference temperatures measured from precracked Charpy specimens using the Master Curve procedure, but a moderate reduction of the standard deviation is anyway observed. It is shown that striker calibration is a prominent contribution to the interlaboratory variability of instrumented impact forces, particularly in the case of maximum forces.

  9. Quality assurance of absorbed energy in Charpy impact test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C. L. F.; Fabricio, D. A. K.; Costa, V. M.; Reguly, A.

    2016-07-01

    In order to ensure the quality assurance and comply with standard requirements, an intralaboratory study has been performed for impact Charpy tests, involving two operators. The results based on ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and Normalized Error statistical techniques pointed out that the execution of the tests is appropriate, because the implementation of quality assurance methods showed acceptable results.

  10. Microstructural characterization of Charpy-impact-tested nanostructured bainite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Y.T.; Chang, H.T.; Huang, B.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, C.Y. [Iron and Steel R& D Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, J.R., E-mail: jryang@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-09-15

    In this work, a possible cause of the extraordinary low impact toughness of nanostructured bainite has been investigated. The microstructure of nanostructured bainite consisted chiefly of carbide-free bainitic ferrite with retained austenite films. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) measurement indicated that no retained austenite existed in the fractured surface of the Charpy-impact-tested specimens. Fractographs showed that cracks propagated mainly along bainitic ferrite platelet boundaries. The change in microstructure after impact loading was verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, confirming that retained austenite was completely transformed to strain-induced martensite during the Charpy impact test. However, the zone affected by strained-induced martensite was found to be extremely shallow, only to a depth of several micrometers from the fracture surface. It is appropriately concluded that upon impact, as the crack forms and propagates, strain-induced martensitic transformation immediately occurs ahead of the advancing crack tip. The successive martensitic transformation profoundly facilitates the crack propagation, resulting in the extremely low impact toughness of nanostructured bainite. Retained austenite, in contrast to its well-known beneficial role, has a deteriorating effect on toughness during the course of Charpy impact. - Highlights: • The microstructure of nanostructured bainite consisted of nano-sized bainitic ferrite subunits with retained austenite films. • Special sample preparations for SEM, XRD and TEM were made, and the strain-affected structures have been explored. • Retained austenite films were found to transform into martensite after impact loading, as evidenced by XRD and TEM results. • The zone of strain-induced martensite was found to extend to only several micrometers from the fracture surface. • The poor Charpy impact toughness is associated with the fracture of martensite at a high strain rate during

  11. Influence of Striking Edge Radius (2 mm versus 8 mm) on Instrumented Charpy Data and Absorbed Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.

    2008-08-15

    The most commonly used test standards for performing Charpy impact tests (ISO 148 and ASTM E 23) envisage the use of strikers having different radii of the striking edge, i.e. 2 mm (ISO) and 8 mm (ASTM). The effect of striker geometry on Charpy results was extensively studied in the past in terms of absorbed energy measured by the machine encoder, but few investigations are available on the influence of striker configuration on the results of instrumented Charpy tests (characteristic forces, displacements and integrated energy). In this paper, these effects are investigated based on the analysis of published results from three interlaboratory studies and some unpublished Charpy data obtained at SCK-CEN. The instrumented variables which are the most sensitive to the radius of the striking edge are the maximum force and its corresponding displacement, with 8mm-strikers providing systematically higher values. Absorbed energies, obtained both from the instrumented trace and from the pendulum encoder, are almost insensitive to the type of striker up to 200 J. For higher energy levels, the values obtained from 8mm strikers become progressively larger. Data scatter is generally higher for 2mm-strikers.

  12. Evaluation of hydrogen embrittlement and temper embrittlement by key curve method in instrumented Charpy test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makita A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Instrumented Charpy test was conducted on small sized specimen of 21/4Cr-1Mo steel. In the test the single specimen key curve method was applied to determine the value of fracture toughness for the initiation of crack extension with hydrogen free, KIC, and for hydrogen embrittlement cracking, KIH. Also the tearing modulus as a parameter for resistance to crack extension was determined. The role of these parameters was discussed at an upper shelf temperature and at a transition temperature. Then the key curve method combined with instrumented Charpy test was proven to be used to evaluate not only temper embrittlement but also hydrogen embrittlement.

  13. Evaluation of hydrogen embrittlement and temper embrittlement by key curve method in instrumented Charpy test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, N.; Shindo, Y.; Makita, A.

    2010-06-01

    Instrumented Charpy test was conducted on small sized specimen of 21/4Cr-1Mo steel. In the test the single specimen key curve method was applied to determine the value of fracture toughness for the initiation of crack extension with hydrogen free, KIC, and for hydrogen embrittlement cracking, KIH. Also the tearing modulus as a parameter for resistance to crack extension was determined. The role of these parameters was discussed at an upper shelf temperature and at a transition temperature. Then the key curve method combined with instrumented Charpy test was proven to be used to evaluate not only temper embrittlement but also hydrogen embrittlement.

  14. Effect of grain structure on Charpy impact behavior of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningning; Zhao, Yonghao; Wang, Jingtao; Zhu, Yuntian

    2017-03-01

    Nanostructured (NS) and ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials have high strength and relatively low ductility. Their toughness has not been comprehensively investigated. Here we report the Charpy impact behavior and the corresponding microstructural evolutions in UFG Cu with equi-axed and elongated grains which were prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) for 2 and 16 passes at room temperature. It is found that their impact toughness (48 J/cm2) is almost comparable to that of coarse grained (CG) Cu: 55 J/cm2. The high strain rate during the Charpy impact was found to enhance the strain hardening capability of the UFG Cu due to the suppression of dynamic dislocation recovery. The crack in the CG Cu was blunted by dislocation-slip mediated plastic deformation, while the cracks in the UFG Cu were formed at grain boundaries and triple junctions due to their limited plasticity. Near the crack surfaces the elongated grains in ECAP-2 sample were refined by recrystallization, while equi-axed grains in the ECAP-16 sample grew larger.

  15. Effect of grain structure on Charpy impact behavior of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningning; Zhao, Yonghao; Wang, Jingtao; Zhu, Yuntian

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured (NS) and ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials have high strength and relatively low ductility. Their toughness has not been comprehensively investigated. Here we report the Charpy impact behavior and the corresponding microstructural evolutions in UFG Cu with equi-axed and elongated grains which were prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) for 2 and 16 passes at room temperature. It is found that their impact toughness (48 J/cm2) is almost comparable to that of coarse grained (CG) Cu: 55 J/cm2. The high strain rate during the Charpy impact was found to enhance the strain hardening capability of the UFG Cu due to the suppression of dynamic dislocation recovery. The crack in the CG Cu was blunted by dislocation-slip mediated plastic deformation, while the cracks in the UFG Cu were formed at grain boundaries and triple junctions due to their limited plasticity. Near the crack surfaces the elongated grains in ECAP-2 sample were refined by recrystallization, while equi-axed grains in the ECAP-16 sample grew larger. PMID:28303950

  16. The evaluation of tempered martensite embrittlement in 4130 steel by instrumented charpy V-notch testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ebrahimi, F.; Krauss, G.

    1983-06-01

    Tempered martensite embrittlement (TME) was studied in vacuum-melted 4130 steel with either 0.002 or 0.02 wt pct P. TME was observed as a severe decrease in Charpy V-notch impact energy, from 46 ft-lb. at 200 °C to 35 ft-lb. at 300 °C in the low P alloy. The impact energy of the high P alloy was consistently lower than that of the low P alloy in all tempered conditions. Fracture was transgranular for all specimens; therefore, segregation of P to the prior austenitic grain boundaries was not a factor in the o°Currence of TME. Analysis of load-time curves obtained by instrumented Charpy testing revealed that the embrittlement is associated with a drop in the pre-maximum-load and post-unstable-fracture energies. In specimens tempered at 400 °C the deleterious effect of phosphorus on impact energy became pronounced, a result more consistent with classical temper embrittlement rather than TME. A constant decrease in pre-maximum-load energy due to phosphorus content was observed. The pre-maximum-load energy decreases with increasing tempering temperature in the range of 200 °C to 400 °C, a result explained by the change in work hardening rate. Carbon extraction replicas of polished and etched as-quenched specimens revealed the presence of Fe2MoC and/or Fe3C carbides retained after austenitizing. Ductile crack extension close to the notch root was related to the formation of fine micro voids at the retained carbides.

  17. Superior Charpy impact properties of ODS ferritic steel irradiated in JOYO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, T.; Kurishita, H.; Ukai, S.; Narui, M.; Mizuta, S.; Yamazaki, M.; Kayano, H.

    1998-10-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on Charpy impact properties of an ODS ferritic steel developed by PNC was studied. The miniaturized Charpy V-notch (MCVN) specimens (1.5 × 1.5 × 20 mm) of two orientations (longitudinal, called 1DS-L, and transverse, 1DS-T) were irradiated to fluence levels of (0.3-3.8) × 10 26 n/m 2 ( E n > 0.1 MeV) between 646 and 845 K in JOYO. MCVN specimens before and after the irradiation were subjected to instrumented Charpy impact tests. The test results and fracture surface observations showed that in the unirradiated state the steel showed no ductile-to-brittle transition behavior until 153 K regardless of orientation and the upper shelf energy of the steel was as high as that of a high-strength ferritic steel without dispersed oxide. Such excellent impact properties were essentially maintained after the irradiation although an appreciable decrease in absorbed energy occurred by higher temperature irradiations at and above 793 K.

  18. Charpy Impact Energy and Microindentation Hardness of 60-NITINOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2012-01-01

    60-NITINOL (60 wt.% Ni 40 wt.% Ti) is being studied as a material for advanced aerospace components. The Charpy impact energy and microindentation hardness has been studied for this material, fabricated by vacuum induction skull melting (casting) and by hot isostatic pressing. Test specimens were prepared in various hardened and annealed heat treatment conditions. The average impact energy ranged from 0.33 to 0.49J for the hardened specimens while the annealed specimens had impact energies ranging from 0.89 to 1.18J. The average hardness values of the hardened specimens ranged from 590 to 676 HV while that of the annealed specimens ranged from 298 to 366 HV, suggesting an inverse relationship between impact energy and hardness. These results are expected to provide guidance in the selection of heat treatment processes for the design of mechanical components.

  19. Comparison of Impact Duration Between Experiment and Theory From Charpy Impact Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Said N.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the comparison of impact duration between experiment and theory from impact signal through a Charpy test. Recently, the number of accidents on the highway has been increased and it depends on the impact duration of material that have the ability to provide adequate protection to passengers from harmful and improve occupant survivability during crash event. Charpy impact test was implemented on different material and thickness but at the same striker velocity. Impact signal is obtained through the strain gauge that has been installed to striker hammer and connected to frequency data acquisition system. Collected signal is then analysed to identify the time period during impact before fractured. Result from both experiment and theory shows an increment to the impact duration as thickness is increased. Charpy test shows that aluminium 6061-T6 has a higher impact duration compared to carbon steel 1050.

  20. Influence of Loading Rate on the Calibration of Instrumented Charpy Strikers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Scibetta, M.; McColskey, D.; McCowan, C.

    2009-01-15

    One of the key factors for obtaining reliable instrumented Charpy results is the calibration of the instrumented striker. The conventional approach for establishing an analytical relationship between strain gage output and force applied to the transducer is the static calibration, which is preferably performed with the striker installed in the pendulum assembly. However, the response of an instrumented striker under static force application may sometimes differ significantly from its dynamic performance during an actual Charpy test. This is typically reflected in a large difference between absorbed energy returned by the pendulum encoder (KV) and calculated under the instrumented force/displacement test record (Wt). Such difference can be either minimized by optimizing the striker design or analytically removed by adjusting forces and displacements until KV = Wt (the so-called 'Dynamic Force Adjustment'). This study investigates the influence of increasing force application rates on the force/voltage characteristics of two instrumented strikers, one at NIST in Boulder, CO and one at SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium.

  1. Instrumented Impact Testing Using a Hopkinson Bar Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    revert« «Id» II necnnvv *nd identity by ftfoeft number) A technique for conducting instrumented Charpy impact tests using a Hopkin- son bar is...materi- al--; obtained from an instrumented impact test at 54 in/sec (1.37 m/s) and from a standard Charpy impact machine at 135 in/sec (3.43 m/s...arises as to how important wave reflections might be in the interpretation of experimental data from an instrumented Charpy impact test . In

  2. Tensile and charpy impact properties of irradiated reduced-activation ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Tensile tests were conducted on eight reduced-activation Cr-W steels after irradiation to 15-17 and 26-29 dpa, and Charpy impact tests were conducted on the steels irradiated to 26-29 dpa. Irradiation was in the Fast Flux Test Facility at 365{degrees}C on steels containing 2.25-12% Cr, varying amounts of W, V, and Ta, and 0.1%C. Previously, tensile specimens were irradiated to 6-8 dpa and Charpy specimens to 6-8, 15-17, and 20-24 dpa. Tensile and Charpy specimens were also thermally aged to 20000 h at 365{degrees}C. Thermal aging had little effect on the tensile behavior or the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), but several steels showed a slight increase in the upper-shelf energy (USE). After {approx}7 dpa, the strength of the steels increased and then remained relatively unchanged through 26-29 dpa (i.e., the strength saturated with fluence). Post-irradiation Charpy impact tests after 26-29 dpa showed that the loss of impact toughness, as measured by an increase in DBTT and a decrease in the USE, remained relatively unchanged from the values after 20-24 dpa, which had been relatively unchanged from the earlier irradiations. As before, the two 9Cr steels were the most irradiation resistant.

  3. Visual interface for the automation of the instrumented pendulum of Charpy tests used in the surveillance program of reactors vessel of nuclear power plants; Interfase visual para la automatizacion del pendulo instrumentado de pruebas Charpy utilizado en el programa de vigilancia de la vasija de reactores de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Sainz M, E.; Ruiz E, J.A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km.36.5, Mpio. de Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: asrs@nuclear.inin.mx; esm@nuclear.inin.mx; jare@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    Inside the Programs of Surveillance of the nuclear power stations periodic information is required on the state that keep the materials with those that builds the vessel of the reactor. This information is obtained through some samples or test tubes that are introduced inside the core of the reactor and it is observed if its physical characteristics remain after having been subjected to the radiation changes and temperature. The rehearsal with the instrumented Charpy pendulum offers information on the behavior of fracture dynamics of a material. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it has an instrumented Charpy pendulum. The operation of this instrument is manual, having inconveniences to carry out rehearsals with radioactive material, handling of high and low temperatures, to fulfill the normative ones for the realization of the rehearsals, etc. In this work the development of a computational program is presented (virtual instrument), for the automation of the instrumented pendulum. The system has modules like: Card of data acquisition, signal processing, positioning system, tempered system, pneumatic system, compute programs like it is the visual interface for the operation of the instrumented Charpy pendulum and the acquisition of impact signals. This system shows that given the characteristics of the nuclear industry with radioactive environments, the virtual instrumentation and the automation of processes can contribute to diminish the risks to the personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  4. Influence of Stacking Sequence and Notch Angle on the Charpy Impact Behavior of Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia, S.; Daghigh, V.; Nikbin, K.; Fereidoon, A.; Ghorbani, J.

    2016-09-01

    The low-velocity impact behavior of hybrid composite laminates was investigated. The epoxy matrix was reinforced with aramid, glass, basalt, and carbon fabrics using the hand lay-up technique. Different stacking sequences and notch angles were and notch angles considered and tested using a Charpy impact testing machine to study the hybridization and notch angle effects on the impact response of the hybrid composites. The energy absorption capability of specimens with different stacking sequences and notch angles is compared and discussed. It is shown that the hybridization can enhance the mechanical performance of composite materials.

  5. Fracture toughness and Charpy impact properties of several RAFMS before and after irradiation in HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6151 (United States)]. E-mail: sokolovm@ornl.gov; Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Odette, G.R. [University of California-Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5080 (United States); Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Klueh, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6151 (United States)

    2007-08-01

    As part of the development of candidate reduced-activation ferritic steels for fusion applications, several steels, namely F82H, 9Cr-2WVTa steels and F82H weld metal, are being investigated in the joint DOE-JAEA collaboration program. Within this program, three capsules containing a variety of specimen designs were irradiated at two design temperatures in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Two capsules, RB-11J and RB-12J, were irradiated in the HFIR removable beryllium positions with europium oxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thermal neutron shields in place. Specimens were irradiated up to 5 dpa. Capsule JP25 was irradiated in the HFIR target position to 20 dpa. The design temperatures were 300 {sup o}C and 500 {sup o}C. Precracked third-sized V-notch Charpy (3.3 x 3.3 x 25.4 mm) and 0.18 T DC(T) specimens were tested to determine transition and ductile shelf fracture toughness before and after irradiation. The master curve methodology was applied to evaluate the fracture toughness transition temperature, T {sub 0}. Irradiation induced shifts of T {sub 0} and reductions of J {sub Q} were compared with Charpy V-notch impact properties. Fracture toughness and Charpy shifts were also compared to hardening results.

  6. Behavior of Aramid Fiber/Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber Hybrid Composites under Charpy Impact and Ballistic Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The aramid fiber/UHMWPE (ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) fiber hybrid composites (AF/DF) were manufactured. By Charpy impact, the low velocity impact behavior of AF/DF composite was studied. And the high velocity impact behavior under ballistic impact was also investigated. The influence of hybrid ratio on the performances of low and high velocity impact was analyzed, and hybrid structures with good impact properties under low velocity impact and high velocity were optimized. For Charpy impact, the maximal impact load increased with the accretion of the AF layers for AF/DF hybrid composites. The total impact power was reduced with the decrease of DF layers and the delamination can result in the increase of total impact power. For ballistic impact, the DF ballistic performance was better than that of the AF and the hybrid ratio had a crucial influence. The failure morphology of AF/DF hybrid composite under Charpy impact and ballistic impact was analyzed. The AF/DF hybrid composites in suitable hybrid ratio could attain better performance than AF or DF composites.

  7. Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintamaa, R.; Ranka, K.; Wallin, K.; Ikonen, K.; Talja, H.; Kotilainen, H.; Sirkkola, E.

    1984-07-01

    A pendulum-type instrumented Charpy test apparatus based on inverted test geometry was developed. Geometry inversion reduces inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Initial impact energy is double that of standard (300 J) impact testers, allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. The rotation axis in the three point bending is nearly stationary, making COD-measurements possible. Inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared with the conventional tester, and using an analytical finite element model for Charpy V-notch specimens. Better performance for the inverted geometry is reported.

  8. A New Analytical Expression for the Relationship Between the Charpy Impact Energy and Notch Tip Position for Functionally Graded Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Samareh Salavati Pour; F.Berto; Y.Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the distance between the notch tip and the position of the middle phase in the FGSs on the Charpy impact energy is investigated in the present paper.The results show that when the notch apex is close to the middle layer,the Charpy impact energy reaches its maximum value.This is due to the increment of the absorbed energy by plastic deformation ahead of the notch tip.On the other hand,when the notch tip is far from the middle layer,the Charpy impact energy strongly decreases.Another fundamental motivation of the present work is that for crack arrester configuration,no accurate mathematical or analytical modelling is available up to now.By considering the relationship between the Charpy impact energy and the plastic volume size,a new theoretical model has been developed to link the Charpy impact energy with the distance from the notch apex to the middle phase.This model is a simplified one and the effect of different shapes of the layers and the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties and plastic region size will be considered in further investigation.The results of the new developed closed form expression show a sound agreement with some recent experimental results taken from the literature.

  9. Experimental study on variations in Charpy impact energies of low carbon steel, depending on welding and specimen cutting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaorui; Kang, Hansaem; Lee, Young Seog [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper presents an experimental study that examines variations of Charpy impact energy of a welded steel plate, depending upon the welding method and the method for obtaining the Charpy specimens. Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) and Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) were employed to weld an SA516 Gr. 70 steel plate. The methods of wire cutting and water-jet cutting were adopted to take samples from the welded plate. The samples were machined according to the recommendations of ASTM SEC. II SA370, in order to fit the specimen dimension that the Charpy impact test requires. An X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was used to measure the as-weld residual stress and its redistribution after the samples were cut. The Charpy impact energy of specimens was considerably dependent on the cutting methods and locations in the welded plate where the specimens were taken. The specimens that were cut by water jet followed by FCAW have the greatest resistance-to-fracture (Charpy impact energy). Regardless of which welding method was used, redistributed transverse residual stress becomes compressive when the specimens are prepared using water-jet cutting. Meanwhile, redistributed transverse residual stress becomes tensile when the specimens are prepared using wire cutting.

  10. Validation Study of Unnotched Charpy and Taylor-Anvil Impact Experiments using Kayenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamojjala, Krishna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lacy, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chu, Henry S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brannon, Rebecca [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Validation of a single computational model with multiple available strain-to-failure fracture theories is presented through experimental tests and numerical simulations of the standardized unnotched Charpy and Taylor-anvil impact tests, both run using the same material model (Kayenta). Unnotched Charpy tests are performed on rolled homogeneous armor steel. The fracture patterns using Kayenta’s various failure options that include aleatory uncertainty and scale effects are compared against the experiments. Other quantities of interest include the average value of the absorbed energy and bend angle of the specimen. Taylor-anvil impact tests are performed on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The impact speeds of the specimen are 321 m/s and 393 m/s. The goal of the numerical work is to reproduce the damage patterns observed in the laboratory. For the numerical study, the Johnson-Cook failure model is used as the ductile fracture criterion, and aleatory uncertainty is applied to rate-dependence parameters to explore its effect on the fracture patterns.

  11. Unnotched Charpy Impact Energy Transition Behavior of Austempered Engineering Grade Ductile Iron Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisakurek, Sukru Ergin; Ozel, Ahmet

    2014-04-01

    Unnotched Charpy impact energy transition behavior of five different engineering grade ductile iron castings, as specified by EN 1563 Standards, were examined in as-cast, as well as in austempered states. ADIs were produced with the maximum impact energy values permissible for the grades. Austempering treatment detrimented the sub-zero impact properties of the ferritic castings, but considerably enhanced those of the pearlitic-ferritic irons. The impact energy transition behavior of the austempered states of all the grades examined were noted to be determined by the progressive transformation of the unavoidable carbon-unsaturated and untransformed regions of the austenite remaining in the matrix of the austempered ductile iron to martensite with decreasing temperature.

  12. Effect of Cadmium Plating Thickness on the Charpy Impact Energy of Hydrogen-Charged 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Said, O. S.; Alcisto, J.; Guerra, J.; Jones, E.; Dominguez, A.; Hahn, M.; Ula, N.; Zeng, L.; Ramsey, B.; Mulazimoglu, H.; Li, Yong-Jun; Miller, M.; Alrashid, J.; Papakyriakou, M.; Kalnaus, S.; Lee, E. W.; Frazier, W. E.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen was intentionally introduced into ultra-high strength steel by cadmium plating. The purpose was to examine the effect of cadmium plate thickness and hence hydrogen on the impact energy of the steel. The AISI 4340 steel was austenitized at 1000 °C for 1 h, water quenched, and tempered at temperatures between 257 and 593 °C in order to achieve a range of targeted strength levels. The specimens were cadmium plated with 0.00508 mm (0.2 mils), 0.00762 mm (0.3 mils), and 0.0127 mm (0.5 mils). Results demonstrated that the uncharged specimens exhibited higher impact energy values when compared to the plated specimens at all tempering temperatures. The cadmium-plated specimens had very low Charpy impact values irrespective of their ultimate tensile strength values. The model of hydrogen transport by mobile dislocations to the fracture site appears to provide the most suitable explanation of the results.

  13. Ultrahigh Charpy impact toughness (~450J) achieved in high strength ferrite/martensite laminated steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenquan; Zhang, Mingda; Huang, Chongxiang; Xiao, Shuyang; Dong, Han; Weng, Yuqing

    2017-02-02

    Strength and toughness are a couple of paradox as similar as strength-ductility trade-off in homogenous materials, body-centered-cubic steels in particular. Here we report a simple way to get ultrahigh toughness without sacrificing strength. By simple alloying design and hot rolling the 5Mn3Al steels in ferrite/austenite dual phase temperature region, we obtain a series of ferrite/martensite laminated steels that show up-to 400-450J Charpy V-notch impact energy combined with a tensile strength as high as 1.0-1.2 GPa at room temperature, which is nearly 3-5 times higher than that of conventional low alloy steels at similar strength level. This remarkably enhanced toughness is mainly attributed to the delamination between ferrite and martensite lamellae. The current finding gives us a promising way to produce high strength steel with ultrahigh impact toughness by simple alloying design and hot rolling in industry.

  14. Ultrahigh Charpy impact toughness (~450J) achieved in high strength ferrite/martensite laminated steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenquan; Zhang, Mingda; Huang, Chongxiang; Xiao, Shuyang; Dong, Han; Weng, Yuqing

    2017-01-01

    Strength and toughness are a couple of paradox as similar as strength-ductility trade-off in homogenous materials, body-centered-cubic steels in particular. Here we report a simple way to get ultrahigh toughness without sacrificing strength. By simple alloying design and hot rolling the 5Mn3Al steels in ferrite/austenite dual phase temperature region, we obtain a series of ferrite/martensite laminated steels that show up-to 400–450J Charpy V-notch impact energy combined with a tensile strength as high as 1.0–1.2 GPa at room temperature, which is nearly 3–5 times higher than that of conventional low alloy steels at similar strength level. This remarkably enhanced toughness is mainly attributed to the delamination between ferrite and martensite lamellae. The current finding gives us a promising way to produce high strength steel with ultrahigh impact toughness by simple alloying design and hot rolling in industry. PMID:28150692

  15. A reassessment of the effects of helium on Charpy impact properties of ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.; Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hankin, G.L. [Loughborough Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1998-03-01

    To test the effect of helium on Charpy impact properties of ferritic/martensitic steels, two approaches are reviewed: quantification of results of tests performed on specimens irradiated in reactors with very different neutron spectra, and isotopic tailoring experiments. Data analysis can show that if the differences in reactor response are indeed due to helium effects, then irradiation in a fusion machine at 400 C to 100 dpa and 1000 appm He will result in a ductile to brittle transition temperature shift of over 500 C. However, the response as a function of dose and helium level is unlikely to be simply due to helium based on physical reasoning. Shear punch tests and microstructural examinations also support this conclusion based on irradiated samples of a series of alloys made by adding various isotopes of nickel in order to vary the production of helium during irradiation in HFIR. The addition of nickel at any isotopic balance to the Fe-12Cr base alloy significantly increased the shear yield and maximum strengths of the alloys. However, helium itself, up to 75 appm at over 7 dpa appears to have little effect on the mechanical properties of the alloys. This behavior is instead understood to result from complex precipitation response. The database for effects of helium on embrittlement based on nickel additions is therefore probably misleading and experiments should be redesigned to avoid nickel precipitation.

  16. Application of Charpy Impact Absorbed Energy to the Safety Assessment Based on SINTAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The European Structural Integrity Assessment Procedure(SINTAP) was applied to the assessment of welded joints of the APl 5L X65 pipeline steel with an assumed embedded flaw and surface flaw at the weld toe. At default level( level 0), the assessment point was established by estimating fracture toughness value KIc conservatively from Charpy energy test data. At the same time, the analysis level 1 (basic level)was applied based on the fracture toughness CTOD. Then the two assessment levels were compared. The assessment results show that all assessment points are located within the failure lines of analysis levels 0 and 1. So the welded joint of the pipeline is safe. It can be concluded that the assessment based on Charpy absorbed energy is practicable when other fracture toughness data are not available, or cannot be easily obtained. The results are conservative.

  17. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and Charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavenda, D.J.; Michaud, W.F.; Galvin, T.M.; Burke, W.F.; Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 304 and 304/308 SS pipe welds due to thermal aging was studied at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. Upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm{sup 2}. Decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or J{sub IC} is relatively small. Thermal aging had no or little effect on tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds.

  18. An improved correlation procedure for subsize and full-size Charpy impact specimen data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, M.A.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The possibility of using subsize specimens to monitor the properties of reactor pressure vessel steels is receiving increasing attention for light-water reactor plant life extension. This potential results from the possibility of cutting samples of small volume form the internal surface of the pressure vessel for determination of the actual properties of the operating pressure vessel. In addition, plant life extension will require supplemental data that cannot be provided by existing surveillance programs. Testing of subsize specimens manufactured from broken halves of previously tested surveillance Charpy specimens offers an attractive means of extending existing surveillance programs. Using subsize Charpy V-notch-type specimens requires the establishment of a specimen geometry that is adequate to obtain a ductile-to-brittle transition curve similar to that obtained from full-size specimens, and the development of correlations for transition temperature and upper-shelf energy (USE) level between subsize and full-size specimens. Five different geometries of subsize specimens were selected for testing and evaluation. The specimens were made from several types of pressure vessel steels with a wide range of yield strengths, transition temperatures, and USEs. The effects of specimen dimensions, including notch depth, angle, and radius, have been studied. The correlations of transition temperatures determined from different types of subsize specimens and the full-size specimens are presented. A new procedure for transforming data from subsize specimens is developed. The transformed data are in good agreement with data from full-size specimens for materials that have USE levels less than 200 J.

  19. Impact Resistance of Structural Ceramics. Part 1. Instrumented Drop- Weight Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    instrumented Charpy test and the instrumented DWT. The Impact Fracture Energy of a ceramic is determined by its dynamic strength. At room temperature...AFML-TR-76-56 ~I’S PART I 0 IMPACT RESISTANCE OF STRUCTURAL CERAMICS PART I: INSTRUMENTED DROP-WEIGHT TESTS PROCESSING AND HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS...BLAG..OTP ,fIJMED .. TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION PAGE I INTRODUCTION 1 II DROP-WEIGHT TEST (DWT) 3 III EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES FOR THE INSTRUMENTED DWT AT

  20. Low-energy charpy impact of interleaved CF/EP laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Q.; Friedrich, K.; Karger-Kocsis, J.

    1995-03-01

    Carbon fiber (CF) reinforced epoxy (CF/EP) laminates laid up in different ways (cross-ply and quasi-isotropic) with and without various adhesive interlayers (A) were studied under three-point bending using instrumented low-energy impact at single and multiple bounces. Interleaves were a modified EP resin on polyester fabric, a modified EP resin, and a polyethersulphone (PES) film. The impact response depends strongly on whether the CFs are oriented longitudinally (L) or transversely (T) to the hammer edge in the outer bounced ply. The threshold incident energy ( E in,th) associated with severe damage to the laminates was much lower with the longitudinal outer ply. The impact fatigue response of the transverse cross-ply (TCP) and quasi-isotropic (TQI) composite beams showed that stiffness degradation starts at a certain a threshold number of impact (NOI) and follows a logarithmic decay as a function of NOI. This is in close analogy to fatigue tests under usual conditions. Deterioration in stiffness can be assigned to the relative change in the secant slope ( E max/ x max) of the load-displacement ( F-x) traces. The related load-time ( F-t) traces flatten due to impact fatigue so that their load maximum ( F max) shifts toward higher contact time. The efficiency of the interleaving was assessed in both single (at E in,th≈3 J) and repeated impact (at E in=1 J). The first technique allowed us to differentiate between the various interleaves, whereas the latter contributed to finding the optimum stacking and position of the interleaves.

  1. Standard test method for instrumented impact testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This standard establishes the requirements for performing instrumented Charpy V-Notch (CVN) and instrumented Miniaturized Charpy V-Notch (MCVN) impact tests on metallic materials. This method, which is based on experience developed testing steels, provides further information (in addition to the total absorbed energy) on the fracture behavior of the tested materials. Minimum requirements are given for measurement and recording equipment such that similar sensitivity and comparable total absorbed energy measurements to those obtained in Test Methods E 23 and E 2248 are achieved. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Miniature Precracked Charpy Specimens for Measuring the Master Curve Reference Temperature of RPV Steels at Impact Loading Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Scibetta, M.; Puzzolante, L.

    2008-10-15

    In the framework of the 2006 Convention, we investigated the applicability of fatigue precracked miniature Charpy specimens of KLST type (MPCC - B = 3 mm, W = 4 mm and L = 27 mm) for impact toughness measurements, using the well-characterized JRQ RPV steel. In the ductile to-brittle transition region, MPCC tests analyzed using the Master Curve approach and compared to data previously obtained from PCC specimens had shown a more ductile behavior and therefore un conservative results. In the investigation presented in this report, two additional RPV steels have been used to compare the performance of impact-tested MPCC and PCC specimens in the transition regime: the low-toughness JSPS steel and the high-toughness 20MnMoNi55 steel. The results obtained (excellent agreement for 20MnMoNi55 and considerable differences between T0 values for JSPS) are contradictory and do not presently allow qualifying the MPCC specimens as a reliable alternative to PCC samples for impact toughness measurements.

  3. Instrumented Charpy : analysis of the instrumentation and the effect of different metallurgical conditions of an ultra-high strength steel on the dynamic fracture toughness

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: O ensaio Charpy clássico, utilizado desde o início do século XX, permite determinar a energia global de fratura, propriedade mecânica conhecida como tenacidade. Esta energia tem caráter qualitativo e na aplicação no projeto estrutural, reduz-se a comparações entre as curvas de transição dúctil-frágil dos materiais. Com o surgimento da instrumentação do ensaio Charpy clássico é possível determinar a propriedade mecânica, tenacidade à fratura dinâmica, KId, muito utilizada na Mecânica d...

  4. Transferability of Charpy Absorbed Energy to Fracture Toughness Based on Weibull Stress Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyang JING; Lianyong XU; Lixing HUO; Fumiyoshi Minami

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between Charpy absorbed energy and the fracture toughness by means of the (crack tip opening displacement (CTOD)) method was analyzed based on the Weibull stress criterion. The Charpy absorbed energy and the fracture toughness were measured for the SN490B steel under the ductile-brittle transition temperature region. For the instrumented Charpy impact test, the curves between the loading point displacement and the load against time were recorded. The critical Weibull stress was taken as a fracture controlled parameter, and it could not be affected by the specimen configuration and the loading pattern based on the local approach. The parameters controlled brittle fracture are obtained from the Charpy absorbed energy results, then the fracture toughness for the compact tension (CT) specimen is predicted. It is found that the results predicted are in good agreement with the experimental. The fracture toughness could be evaluated by the Charpy absorbed energy, because the local approach gives a good description for the brittle fracture even though the Charpy impact specimen or the CT specimen is used for the given material.

  5. Charpy Impact Response of the Cracked Aluminum Plates Repaired with FML Patches using the Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Ashenai Ghasemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Here, the effect of fiber metal laminate (FMLs patches was studied for repairing of single-sided cracked aluminum plates experimentally to see their response to Charpy impact tests. The main desired parameters were composite patch lay-up, crack length, and crack angle each one in three levels. All experimental attempts generated and followed based on the design of experiments method by using of response surface methodology. The predicted energy absorption values obtained from the model were in good agreement with the experimental results. No matter the specimens were repaired or not, as the crack length was increased the energy absorption of the structure was decreased. The experimental results also showed that for lengthen cracks, increasing of the crack angle had more effect on energy absorption. Also it was observed that the patch lay-up effective on the impact response of the specimens. The more the metal layer was departed from the aluminum plate and the FML patches interfacial surface, the less energy was absorbed in the structure.

  6. Instrumented Charpy Impact Testing and Dynamic Fracture Toughness of 30CrNi2MoV Steel of Frac-pump Fluid Cylinder%压裂泵阀箱用钢的示波冲击性能及动态断裂韧性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国荣; 陈林燕; 肖晓华; 李蓉

    2014-01-01

    对30CrNi2MoV压裂泵阀箱用钢进行880℃淬火+560~650℃回火的调质处理,在室温下进行了CharpyV型缺口示波冲击试验,通过SEM对各个回火温度下的冲击断口形貌进行了对比分析.实验结果表明:30CrNi2MoV阀箱钢的延性断裂韧度、动态断裂韧度、裂纹扩展功、冲击功等关键指标均随回火温度的升高而升高.供货态试样断口为解理形貌;560℃回火断口形貌是准解理+韧窝;590~650℃断口是韧窝形貌.冲击韧度和冲击断口形貌有良好的对应关系.

  7. Effect of low temperatures on charpy impact toughness of austempered ductile irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabov, Mikhail V.; Lerner, Yury S.; Fahmy, Mohammed F.

    2002-10-01

    Impact properties of standard American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) grades of austempered ductile iron (ADI) were evaluated at subzero temperatures in unnotched and V-notched conditions and compared with ferritic and pearlitic grades of ductile irons (DIs). It was determined that there is a decrease in impact toughness for all ADI grades when there is a decrease in content of retained austenite and a decrease in test temperature, from room temperature (RT) to -60 °C. However, the difference in impact toughness values was not so noticeable for low retained austenite containing grade 5 ADI at both room and subzero temperatures as it was for ADI grade 1. Furthermore, the difference in impact toughness values of V-notched specimens of ADI grades 1 and 5 tested at -40 °C was minimal. The impact behaviors of ADI grade 5 and ferritic DI were found to be more stable than those of ADI grades 1, 2, 3, and 4 and pearlitic DI when the testing temperature was decreased. The impact toughness of ferritic DI was higher than that of ADI grades 1 and 2 at both -40 °C and -60 °C. The impact properties of ADI grades 4 and 5 were found to be higher than that of pearlitic DI at both -40 °C and -60 °C. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of fracture surfaces revealed mixed ductile and quasicleavage rupture morphology types in all ADI samples tested at both -40 °C and -60 °C. With decreasing content of retained austenite and ductility, the number of quasicleavage facets increased from ADI grade 1-5. It was also found that fracture morphology of ADI did not experience significant changes when the testing temperature decreased. Evaluation of the bending angle was used to support impact-testing data. Designers and users of ADI castings may use the data developed in this research as a reference.

  8. Charpy impact test results for low activation ferritic alloys irradiated to 30 dpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Miniature specimens of six low activation ferritic alloys have been impact field tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 30 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens and specimens irradiated to 10 dpa indicates that degradation in the impact behavior appears to have saturated by {approx}10 dpa in at least four of these alloys. The 7.5Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X appears most promising for further consideration as a candidate structural material in fusion reactor applications, although the 9Cr-1V alloy may also warrant further investigation.

  9. Effects of Microstructural Inhomogeneity on Charpy Impact Properties for Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokmin; Song, Jaemin; Kim, Min-Chul; Choi, Kwon-Jae; Lee, Bong-Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels are fabricated by vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), and then heat treatment of quenching and tempering is conducted after forging. The through-the-thickness variation of microstructure in RPV can occur due to the cooling rate gradient during quenching and inhomogeneous deformation during forging process. The variation of microstructure in RPV affects the mechanical properties, and inhomogeneity in mechanical properties can occur. The evaluation of mechanical properties of RPV is conducted at thickness of 1/4T. In order to evaluate the safety of RPV more correctly, the research about the through-the-thickness variation of microstructure and mechanical properties in RPV is need. 1. The fine low bainite (LB) is the dominant phase at the inner-surface (0T), but coarse upper bainite (UB) is the dominant phase at the center (1/2T). This is because cooling rate gradient from surface to center occurs during quenching. 2. Inter-lath carbides act as fracture initiation site, and it reduces impact toughness. 3. The upper shelf energy is low and the reference temperatures are high at the 1/4T. Impact properties are poor at 1/4T because of the formation of coarse upper bainite structure and coarse inter-lath carbides.

  10. Charpy impact test of Ti-6Al-4V joints diffusion welded at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, J.M.G. de; Urena, A. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain); Carrion, J.G. [National Inst. of Aeroespatial Technologies, Madrid (Spain). Materials and Structures Div.

    1996-08-15

    The Diffusion Welding (DW) of two or more sheets of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is particularly interesting for aerospace parts manufacturing. In some cases, DW can be carried out together with Superplastic Forming (SPF), because they can share a single facility and the same processing parameters, such as temperature, pressure, time, surface condition and vacuum. The overall manufacturing process is known as SPF/DW, by which it is possible to obtain honeycomb structures in a range of designs. Temperature requirements for industrial SPF of Ti-6Al-4V are very restrictive and a temperature of 1,023 K is needed. However, temperature is not so critical for DW, and the bond can be produced at lower temperatures, when other DW parameters, mainly pressure and time, are changed in a suitable way. The DW parameters for this research were chosen in order to produce DW joints below 1,023 K. The differences between DW at SPF temperatures and other lower temperatures would thus be revealed. Mechanical tests were used as a tool to check DW joints obtained at the temperatures used in the research (1,123 K and 1,023 K), and were complemented with metallographic studies. The results obtained form shear and peel tests have been already discussed. In the present work the results of impact energy tests are also presented.

  11. Evaluation of ageing-induced embrittlement in an austenitic stainless steel by instrumented impact testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, K. G.; Sreenivasan, P. R.; Ray, S. K.; Rodriguez, P.

    1987-09-01

    Fracture properties of a thermally aged Type 316 stainless steel have been investigated at room temperature by an instrumented impact test. The impact energy is found to depend on the heat treatment conditions. Several alternative estimates for toughness are evaluated and compared with the conventional Charpy impact energy, C v, to assess the degree of embrittlement. Sensitivity of these parameters to monitor the ageing-induced embrittlement in comparison with C v is discussed.

  12. A Repeated Impact Method and Instrument to Evaluate the Impact Fatigue Property of Drillpipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanhua; Li, Qiang; Sun, Yongxing; Zhu, Hongjun; Zhou, Ying; Xie, Juan; Shi, Taihe

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that drillpipe failures are a pendent problem in drilling engineering. Most of drillpipe failures are low amplitude-repeated impact fatigue failures. The traditional method is using Charpy impact test to describe the fracture property of drillpipe, but it cannot veritably characterize the impact fatigue property of drillpipe under low amplitude-repeated impact. Based on the Charpy impact and other methods, a repeated impact method and instrument have been proposed to simulate the low amplitude-repeated impact of downhole conditions for drillpipe. Then, a series of tests have been performed using this instrument. Test results demonstrate the drillpipe upset transition area nonhomogeneity is more severe than drillpipe body, which is the key factor that leads to washout and fracture frequently of it. As the one time impact energy increases, the repeated impact times decrease exponentially, therefore, the rotational speed has a great effect on the fatigue life of drillpipe, and it is vital to select a suitable rotational speed for drilling jobs. In addition, based on SEM fractographs we found that the fracture surface of repeated impact is similar to the fatigue fracture, and there are many low cycle fatigue characteristic features on fracture surface that reveal very good agreement with the features of drillpipe fatigue failures in the field.

  13. Impact dynamics instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormck, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    One of the tasks specified in the NASA Langley controlled impact demonstration (CID) work package was to furnish dynamic instrumentation sensors. The types of instrumentation sensors required were accelerometers for aircraft structural loads measurements, seat belt load cells to measure anthropomorphic dummy responses to the aircraft impact, and strain gage bending bridges to measure the aircraft fuselage and wing bending during impact. The objective in the selection of dynamic instrumentation for the CID was to provide 352 of the highest quality transducers and remain within budget allocation. The transducers that were selected for the CID evaluation process were each subjected to rigorous laboratory acceptance tests and to aircraft fuselage section drop tests at the LaRC Impact Dynamics Research Facility. Data compiled from this series of tests showed the selected transducers to be best suited for the CID mission requirement. The transducers installation technique on the airframe proved successful. The transducer quality assurance was guaranteed through rigorous acceptance testing. Data acquired was 97.0%.

  14. Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.

    2008-09-15

    An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.

  15. Impact Disdrometers Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility has been collecting observations of the drop size spectra of rain events since early in 2006. Impact disdrometers were the initial choice due to their reliability, ease of maintenance, and relatively low cost. Each of the two units deployed was accompanied by a nearby tipping bucket. In 2010, the tipping buckets were replaced by weighing buckets rain gauges. Five video disdrometers were subsequently purchased and are described in ARM’s VDIS Handbook.1 As of April 2011, three of the weighing bucket instruments were deployed, one was to travel with the second ARM Mobile Facility, and the fifth was a spare. Two of the video disdrometers were deployed, a third was to be deployed later in the spring of 2011, one was to travel with the second ARM Mobile Facility, and the last was a spare. Detailed descriptions of impact disdrometers and their datastreams are provided in this document.

  16. Correlation between standard Charpy and sub-size Charpy test results of selected steels in upper shelf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopík, P.; Džugan, J.; Bucki, T.; Rzepa, S.; Rund, M.; Procházka, R.

    2017-02-01

    Absorbed energy obtained from impact Charpy tests is one of the most important values in many applications, for example in residual lifetime assessment of components in service. Minimal absorbed energy is often the value crucial for extending components service life, e.g. turbines, boilers and steam lines. Using a portable electric discharge sampling equipment (EDSE), it is possible to sample experimental material non-destructively and subsequently produce mini-Charpy specimens. This paper presents a new approach in correlation from sub-size to standard Charpy test results.

  17. Comparison of microstructural properties and Charpy impact behaviour between different plates of the Eurofer97 steel and effect of isothermal ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratil, Ludek; Hadraba, Hynek; Bursik, Jiri; Dlouhy, Ivo

    2011-09-01

    The microstructure and fracture properties of the Eurofer97 steel plates of thickness 14 mm and 25 mm were investigated in as-received state and in state after long-term thermal ageing (550 °C/5000 h). Detailed microstructure studies were carried out by means of optical light, electron and quantitative electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were evaluated by means of Charpy impact testing and hardness testing and fracture surfaces were fractographically analysed in macro and microscales. The microstructure of the Eurofer97 consisted of tempered martensite with M 23C 6 and MX precipitates. Microstructure of 14 mm plate was more homogenous and fine grained than 25 mm plate. Due to different microstructure the tDBTT of thicker plate was on +10 °C higher than for 14 mm plate for which reached -60 °C. Slight microstructural changes on the level of subgrain consisting of their partial recrystallization and slight carbide coarsening were observed after applied ageing. The isothermal ageing caused evident shift in tDBTT about +5 °C, which was most likely caused by recrystallization of subgrains.

  18. Charpy impact test results of four low activation ferritic alloys irradiated at 370{degrees}C to 15 DPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four low activation ferritic alloys have been impact tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 15 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens indicates that degradation in the impact behavior occurs in each of these four alloys. The 9Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X and the similar alloy F82H with 7.8Cr-2W appear most promising for further consideration as candidate structural materials in fusion energy system applications. These two alloys exhibit a small DBTT shift to higher temperatures but show increased absorbed energy on the upper shelf.

  19. Further Charpy impact test results of low activation ferritic alloys, irradiated at 430{degrees}C to 67 dpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four ferritic alloys, GA3X, F82H, GA4X and HT9, have been impact tested following irradiation at 430{degrees}C to 67 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of the previously tested lower dose irradiation condition indicates that the GA3X and F82H alloys, two primary candidate low activation alloys, exhibit virtually identical behavior following irradiation at 430{degrees}C to {approximately}67 dpa and at 370{degrees}C to {approximately}15 dpa. Very little shift is observed in either DBTT or USE relative to the unirradiated condition. The shifts in DBTT and USE observed in both GA4X and HT9 were smaller after irradiation at 430{degrees}C to {approximately}67 dpa than after irradiation at 370{degrees}C to {approximately}15 dpa.

  20. Impact properties of A356-T6 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivkumar, S.; Wang, L.; Keller, C.

    1994-02-01

    The Charpy impact energy of A356 alloys has been measured. Instrumented Charpy impact tests have been conducted at 25,100,150, and 200 °C. The Charpy specimens were machined from plate castings ortapered cylindrical castings. The plates were produced in sand molds, and tapered cylinders were produced in water-cooled copper molds. Both unmodified and strontium-modified castings were tested. The results indicate that strontium modification improves the impact properties of sand and permanent mold castings. The impact energy increases with solution treatment time. Strontium modification reduces the solution treatment time for attaining a specific impact property level in the casting.

  1. Confocal microscopy-fracture reconstruction and finite element modeling characterization of local cleavage toughness in a ferritic/martensitic steel in subsized Charpy V-notch impact tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T. E-mail: yamataku@fusion.imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.; Matsui, H

    2000-12-01

    The confocal microscopy (CM)-fracture reconstruction (FR) method, coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fractography, was used to measure the critical notch deformation conditions at cleavage initiation for two subsized Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimen geometries of Japan ferritic/martensitic steel (JFMS). A new method was developed to permit FR of notched specimens. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the notch and specimen deformation were used to estimate values of critical micro-cleavage fracture stress, {sigma}{sup *}, and critical stressed area, A{sup *}. Since {sigma}{sup *}-A{sup *} is independent of size and geometry, it provides a fundamental local measure of cleavage toughness.

  2. Correlations between Standard and Miniaturised Charpy-V Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Van Walle, E.; Fabry, A.; Puzzolante, J.-L.; Verstrepen, A.; Vosch, R.; Van de Velde, L

    1998-12-01

    A total of 565 instrumented impact tests (232 performed on full-size and 333 on sub-size Charpy-V specimens) have been analysed in order to derive meaningful assumptions on the correlations existing between test results obtained on specimens of different size. Nine materials (pressure vessel steels) have been considered, in both as-received and irradiated state, for a total of 19 conditions examined. For the analysis of data, conventional as well novel approaches have been investigated; former ones, based on a review of the existing literature, include predictions of USE values by the use of normalization factors (NF), shifts of index temperatures related to energy/lateral expansion/shear fracture levels, and a combination of both approaches (scaling and shifting of energy curves). More original and recent proposals have also been verified, available in the literature but also proposed by SCK-CEN in the frame of enhanced surveillance of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Conclusions have been drawn regarding the applicability and reliability of these methodologies, and recommendations have been given for future developments of the activities on this topic.

  3. Weld investigations by 3D analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Allan

    2005-01-01

    The Charpy impact test is a standard procedure for determining the ductile-brittle transition in welds. The predictions of such tests have been investigated by full three dimensional transient analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens. The material response is characterised by an elastic-viscoplastic ......The Charpy impact test is a standard procedure for determining the ductile-brittle transition in welds. The predictions of such tests have been investigated by full three dimensional transient analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens. The material response is characterised by an elastic...... parameters in the weld material differ from those in the base material, and the heat a®ected zone (HAZ) tends to be more brittle than the other material regions. The effect of weld strength undermatch or overmatch is an important issue. Some specimens, for which the notched surface is rotated relative...

  4. Evaluation of effect of hydrogen on toughness of Zircaloy-2 by instrumented drop weight impact testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, U. K.; Singh, R. N.; Basak, C. B.; Anantharaman, S.; Sahoo, K. C.

    2006-05-01

    Hydride-assisted degradation in fracture toughness of Zircaloy-2 was evaluated by carrying out instrumented drop-weight tests on curved Charpy specimens fabricated from virgin pressure tube. Samples were charged to 60 ppm and 225 ppm hydrogen. Ductile-to-brittle-transition behaviour was exhibited by as-received and hydrided samples. The onset of ductile-to-brittle-transition was at about 130 °C for hydrided samples, irrespective of their hydrogen content. Dynamic fracture toughness ( KID) was estimated based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) approach. For fractures occurring after general yielding, the fracture toughness was derived based on equivalent energy criterion. Results are supplemented with fractography. This simple procedure of impact testing appears to be promising for monitoring service-induced degradation in fracture toughness of pressure tubes.

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of impact assessment instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim; Hilding-Ryedvik, Tuija

    2010-01-01

    in Western countries, demand has increased for evidence that these instruments are effective (however defined). Resurgent interest in evaluation has not, however, been accompanied by the conceptual developments required to redress longstanding theoretical problems associated with such activities. In order......The central role of impact assessment instruments globally in policy integration initiatives has been cemented in recent years. Associated with this trend, but also reflecting political emphasis on greater accountability in certain policy sectors and a renewed focus on economic competitiveness...

  6. The effect of fibre content, fibre size and alkali treatment to Charpy impact resistance of Oil Palm fibre reinforced composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Muhamad; Mahzan, Shahruddin

    2016-11-01

    In this research, the effect of fibre content, fibre size and alkali treatment to the impact resistance of the composite material have been investigated, The composite material employs oil palm fibre as the reinforcement material whereas the matrix used for the composite materials are polypropylene. The Oil Palm fibres are prepared for two conditions: alkali treated fibres and untreated fibres. The fibre sizes are varied in three sizes: 5mm, 7mm and 10mm. During the composite material preparation, the fibre contents also have been varied into 3 different percentages: 5%, 7% and 10%. The statistical approach is used to optimise the variation of specimen determined by using Taguchi method. The results were analyzed also by the Taguchi method and shows that the Oil Palm fibre content is significantly affect the impact resistance of the polymer matrix composite. However, the fibre size is moderately affecting the impact resistance, whereas the fibre treatment is insignificant to the impact resistance of the oil palm fibre reinforced polymer matrix composite.

  7. Study of crack propagation mechanisms during Charpy impact toughness tests on both equiaxed and lamellar microstructures of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buirette, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.buirette@ensiacet.fr [Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Huez, Julitte, E-mail: julitte.huez@ensiacet.fr [Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France); Gey, Nathalie, E-mail: Nathalie.gey@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire d’Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), UMR CNRS 7239, Université de Lorraine, Île du Saulcy, 57045 METZ Cedex 1 (France); DAMAS, Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for Low-Mass Structures, Université de Lorraine (France); Vassel, Alain, E-mail: alain.vassel@titane.asso.fr [Association Française du Titane, 16 quai Ernest Renaud, BP 70515, 44105 Nantes Cedex 4 (France); Andrieu, Eric, E-mail: eric.andrieu@ensiacet.fr [Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, 31030 Toulouse (France)

    2014-11-17

    The impact toughness of two highly textured rolled plates of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with an α equiaxed and an α lamellar microstructures has been investigated. The results show a strong anisotropy of the fracture energy for both materials and underline that a coincidence of the prismatic planes with the shear bands at the notch tip is favorable for higher fracture energies. Moreover, it is pointed out, as it was already done by previous studies, that the α lamellar microstructure presents higher fracture energy than the α equiaxed one. Thanks to electron back scattering diffraction, and tensile tests, local microstructure heterogeneities, called macrozones, have been observed and characterized. Their size depends on microstructure element and is larger for α lamellar microstructure than for the α equiaxed. High strain is localized on the macrozones favorably oriented for prismatic slip with respect to the direction of impact and leads to a particular dimple free zone on the fracture surface. The contribution of these macrozones in the fracture behavior, and more precisely on the crack propagation rate was evaluated; thus the effects of the macroscopic texture and of the microstructure element on the impact toughness are discussed separately.

  8. Certification of Charpy V-notch Reference Test Pieces of 80 J Nominal Absorbed Energy (ERM®-FA015x and ERM®-FA015y)

    OpenAIRE

    LAMBERTY MARIE ANDREE; Dean, Alan; Roebben, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This certification report describes the processing and characterisation of ERM®-FA015x and ERM®-FA015y, two batches of Charpy V-notch certified reference test pieces. Sets of five of these test pieces are used for the verification of pendulum impact test machines according to EN 10045-2 (Charpy impact test on metallic materials, Part 2. Method for the verification of impact testing machines) or according to ISO 148-2 (Metallic materials - Charpy pendulum impact test – Part 2: Verification of ...

  9. Charpy V, an application in Mat lab; Charpy V, una aplicacion en Matlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo M, J.A.; Torres V, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The obtained results with the system Charpy V{sub V}1 designed in Mat lab for the estimate of parameters of three mathematical models are shown. The adjustment of data is used to determine the fracture energy, the lateral expansion and the percentage of ductility of steels coming from the reactor vessels of Laguna Verde, Veracruz. The data come from test tubes type Charpy V of irradiated material and not irradiated. To verify our results they were compared with those obtained by General Electric of data coming from the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. (Author)

  10. Identification of neutron irradiation induced strain rate sensitivity change using inverse FEM analysis of Charpy test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haušild, Petr; Materna, Aleš; Kytka, Miloš

    2015-04-01

    A simple methodology how to obtain additional information about the mechanical behaviour of neutron-irradiated WWER 440 reactor pressure vessel steel was developed. Using inverse identification, the instrumented Charpy test data records were compared with the finite element computations in order to estimate the strain rate sensitivity of 15Ch2MFA steel irradiated with different neutron fluences. The results are interpreted in terms of activation volume change.

  11. Apportion of Charpy energy in API 5L grade X70 pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, Sayyed H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Birjand, PO Box 97175 /615, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: shhashemi@birjand.ac.ir

    2008-12-15

    Conventional Charpy based failure models for gas transportation pipelines recommend the minimum fracture energy for safe performance of these structures. In recent years however, full-scale burst experiments have shown that such models cannot fully guarantee the safety of higher grade pipeline steels. One possible reason for this discrepancy, which is further investigated in this research, is that Charpy energy inherently contains both fracture and non-fracture related energy. To separate this, energy partitioning analysis was used. First, the overall fracture energy of X70 steel is measured experimentally on an instrumented Charpy rig. Next, the measured energy is divided into fracture initiation and propagation parts using load-displacement data. It appeared from test results that a significant amount of energy was consumed in non-fracture related processes. From this, correction factors were suggested for possible use in current industry failure models. Interestingly, these corrections factors agreed well with those reported from full-thickness burst tests for tough pipeline steels.

  12. Certification of Charpy V-Notch Reference Test Pieces of 30 J Nominal Absorbed Energy - Certified Reference Materials ERM®-FA013bg and ERM®-FA013bh

    OpenAIRE

    LAMBERTY MARIE ANDREE; Dean, Alan; Roebben, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This certification report describes the processing and characterisation of ERM®-FA013bg and ERM®-FA013bh, two batches of Charpy V-notch certified reference test pieces. Sets of five of these test pieces are used for the verification of pendulum impact test machines according to EN 10045-2 (Charpy impact test on metallic materials, Part 2. Method for the verification of impact testing machines [1]) or according to ISO 148-2 (Metallic materials - Charpy pendulum impact test - Part 2: Verificati...

  13. A Calibration of the Wierzbicki-Xue Damage Model Using Charpy Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage models are frequently used to predict fractures in large deformation problems such as penetration of a projectile into a target. Though many damage models have been proposed so far, coefficients of each model have been provided for only a few materials. In this study, the coefficients of the Wierzbicki-Xue (2005 damage model for tungsten heavy alloy (DX2HCMF are determined using the Charpy impact test. The Wierzbicki-Xue fracture criterion is implemented into NET3D code in which a node-split algorithm is built in. By comparing the energy absorbed in the Charpy test with the results of finite element analysis, the fracture model coefficients are determined.

  14. Instruments for Assessing the Impact of Technology in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Ten years of instrument development are summarized and placed within a framework for assessing the impact of technology in education. Seven well-validated instruments spanning the areas of attitudes, beliefs, skills, competencies, and technology integration proficiencies are presented, along with data analysis examples. These instruments are…

  15. A study of the fracture process and factors that control toughness variability in Charpy V-notch specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Real

    La presente etude a ete initiee pour developper une comprehension quantitative du processus de rupture avec les facteurs qui controlent la dispersion des mesures de tenacite lorsque des eprouvettes Charpy entaillees en V sont utilisees. Un grand nombre d'essais ont ete realises pour un acier C-Mn: eprouvettes Charpy testees sous impact, eprouvettes Charpy testees en flexion lente, eprouvettes axisymetriques entaillees et sollicitees en traction et essais de tenacite sur eprouvettes prefissurees. Base sur le concept de la statistique de Weibull, l'approche locale developpee par le groupe Beremin a ete utilisee pour decrire la probabilite de rupture par clivage en fonction de la contrainte appliquee aussi bien qu'en fonction de l'energie Charpy obtenue. Le calcul par elements finis a ete realise pour determiner la distribution de la deformation et des contraintes en pointe d'entaille et de fissure. La nouvelle approche introduite decrit bien les resultats experimentaux. Les points d'initiation du clivage ont ete identifies au MEB et par la suite, avec la technique de faisceau d'ions focalise, sectionnes, polis et examines. L'examen de la microstructure sous le point d'initiation revele clairement que le clivage s'initie par un mecanisme d'empilement de dislocations ou les dislocations sont arretees aux joints de grain, aux interfaces de perlite/ferrite ou de perlite qui agissent comme barrieres physiques.

  16. Instrumentation for Spectroscopy of Impact Initiation of Reactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-14

    5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Form Approved OMB NO...Instrumentation for spectroscopy of impact initiation of reactive materials Instrumentation was acquired that allowed for acquisition of emission...will be used to study the emission from small particles of reactive nanomaterials that are initiated by impact with a flyer plate. The emission

  17. The Influence of Instrumented Striker Configuration on the Results of Dynamic Toughness Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.

    2008-09-15

    Several studies are available on the influence of the edge radius of instrumented strikers (ASTM - 8 mm or ISO - 2 mm) on the results of both non instrumented and instrumented Charpy tests. This paper investigates the effect of using either a 2 mm or a 8 mm striker when performing dynamic toughness tests at impact loading rates on precracked Charpy specimens. Existing data from tests run in the ductile-to-brittle region (dynamic Master Curve reference temperature) and in the upper shelf regime (ductile initiation fracture toughness and crack resistance curves) have been analyzed. The results show that 2 mm strikers tend to yield lower cleavage fracture toughness in the transition region (although the effect cannot be considered statistically significant), whereas the influence of striker configuration is negligible in the upper shelf regime when data are generated using the low-blow multiple-specimen technique.

  18. Certification of NIST Room Temperature Low-Energy and High-Energy Charpy Verification Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon, Enrico; McCowan, Chris N; Santoyo, Ray L

    2015-01-01

    The possibility for NIST to certify Charpy reference specimens for testing at room temperature (21 °C ± 1 °C) instead of -40 °C was investigated by performing 130 room-temperature tests from five low-energy and four high-energy lots of steel on the three master Charpy machines located in Boulder, CO. The statistical analyses performed show that in most cases the variability of results (i.e., the experimental scatter) is reduced when testing at room temperature. For eight out of the nine lots considered, the observed variability was lower at 21 °C than at -40 °C. The results of this study will allow NIST to satisfy requests for room-temperature Charpy verification specimens that have been received from customers for several years: testing at 21 °C removes from the verification process the operator's skill in transferring the specimen in a timely fashion from the cooling bath to the impact position, and puts the focus back on the machine performance. For NIST, it also reduces the time and cost for certifying new verification lots. For one of the low-energy lots tested with a C-shaped hammer, we experienced two specimens jamming, which yielded unusually high values of absorbed energy. For both specimens, the signs of jamming were clearly visible. For all the low-energy lots investigated, jamming is slightly more likely to occur at 21 °C than at -40 °C, since at room temperature low-energy samples tend to remain in the test area after impact rather than exiting in the opposite direction of the pendulum swing. In the evaluation of a verification set, any jammed specimen should be removed from the analyses.

  19. Measurement of the dynamic fracture toughness with notched PMMA specimen under impact loading

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In the present study three-point-bend impact experiments were conducted using an instrumented Charpy pendulum with a laser displacement measurement to better understand the correlation between impact velocity and the dynamic effects observed on the load-time curves. The experiments were performed at impact velocities ranging from 1 to 4 m/s. The aim of this work is to measure the dynamic fracture toughness at high impact velocities where the classical method is limited...

  20. Fracture process of a low carbon low alloy steel relevant to charpy toughness at ductile-brittle fracture transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, T.; Nagumo, M.

    1995-02-01

    The fracture process that determines the Charpy energy at the ductile-brittle transition region was investigated by means of the instrumented Charpy test and fractographic analysis with a low carbon low alloy steel subjected to different control-rolling conditions. The decomposition of a Charpy energy into the energies dissipated in the course of the notch-tip blunting, stable crack growth, and brittle crack propagation is unique irrespective of the testing temperatures and specimen series. Toughness level can be divided into four regions according to the pre-dominating fracture process. The temperature dependence of toughness and effects of the an-isotropy of a specimen originates in the brittle fracture initiation stage rather than the resistance against the notch-tip blunting or stable crack growth. From fractographic examination referring to the stress analyses, it is discussed that the brittle fracture initiation is controlled by the local deformation microstructures in the plastic zone together with the stress field ahead of the notch or the stable crack front.

  1. Miniaturized Charpy test for reactor pressure vessel embrittlement characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, M.P. Sr. [MPM Research and Consulting, Lemont, PA (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Modifications were made to a conventional Charpy machine to accommodate the miniaturized Charpy V-Notch (MCVN) specimens which were fabricated from an archived reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel. Over 100 dynamic MCVN tests were performed and compared to the results from conventional Charpy V-Notch (CVN) tests to demonstrate the efficacy of the miniature specimen test. The optimized sidegrooved MCVN specimens exhibit transitional fracture behavior over essentially the same temperature range as the CVN specimens which indicates that the stress fields in the MCVN specimens reasonably simulate those of the CVN specimens and this fact has been observed in finite element calculations. This result demonstrates a significant breakthrough since it is now possible to measure the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) using miniature specimens with only small correction factors, and for some materials as in the present study, without the need for any correction factor at all. This development simplifies data interpretation and will facilitate future regulatory acceptance. The non-sidegrooved specimens yield energy-temperature data which is significantly shifted downward in temperature (non-conservative) as a result of the loss of constraint which accompanies size reduction.

  2. Comparison of Instrumented Impact Standard and Testing Technology between Multiaxial Impact and Charpy Impact%仪器化多轴冲击和简支梁冲击标准与试验技术的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴婷

    2015-01-01

    分析比较了仪器化多轴冲击标准ISO 6603-2和简支梁冲击标准ISO 179-2的异同,着重讨论了这些标准在测试技术上的不同要求,探讨了试验机性能对试验结果的影响,并提出了对试验机测控系统软硬件设计的技术要求.提出实验人员要了解不同类型冲击试验标准的差异,在实际测试过程中根据具体测试目的选择合适的试验方法;测试数据的精确度、曲线的质量保障和测试标准有关,还和试验机的性能有关,要求实验人员熟知试验机的核心技术参数,同时了解所选测试标准对试验机的要求,选择满足测试需求的试验机.

  3. The impact resistance of SiC and other mechanical properties of SiC and Si3N4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Studies focused on the impact and mechanical behavior of SiC and Si3N4 at high temperatures are summarized. Instrumented Charpy impact testing is analyzed by a compliance method and related to strength; slow crack growth is related to processing, and creep is discussed. The transient nature of flaw populations during oxidation under load is emphasized for both SiC and Si3N4.

  4. Fractographic examination of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel charpy specimens irradiated to 30 dpa at 370{degrees}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.; Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schubert, L.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Fractographic examinations are reported for a series of reduced activation ferritic/Martensitic steel Charpy impact specimens tested following irradiation to 30 dpa at 370{degrees}C in FFTF. One-third size specimens of six low activation steels developed for potential application as structural materials in fusion reactors were examined. A shift in brittle fracture appearance from cleavage to grain boundary failure was noted with increasing manganese content. The results are interpreted in light of transmutation induced composition changes in a fusion environment.

  5. Method for Estimating Percent Shear Fracture Appearance of Charpy-V Specimen of Nuclear Pressure Vessel Steel%核压力容器钢冲击断口剪切面积百分比的估算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍晓勇; 冯明全; 崔永海

    2001-01-01

    Percent shear fracture appearance is an important factor to evaluate neutron irradiation embrittlement of nuclear pressure vessel steel.But it is difficult to measure the irregular surface directly,especially for post-irradiation speciments.Depending on Charpy-V instrumented impact tests,characteristic load values can be determined according to load-deflection curve which completely represents the impact failure processes,and percent shear fracture appearance can be estimated using different formula.The estimating method is more effective to calculate irradiation-induced changes in transition temperature,which already successfully applied to the irradiation surveillance test of reactor pressure vessel steel of Daya-bay nuclear power station.%在核压力容器钢的中子辐照脆化评价中,断口剪切面积百分比是一个重要的参数。但此参数不易直接测量,对于辐照后的放射性试样其测量更加困难。本文采用 Charpy-V示波冲击试验,并根据计算机采集得到的完整记录冲击过程的载荷 -位移曲线,即可确定相应的载荷特征值,同时估算出断口剪切面积百分比。该估算方法用于计算核压力容器钢因中子辐照引起的脆性转变温度的变化值,其计算结果较为准确且计算方法也简便,现已成功地应用于大亚湾核电站压力容器的辐照监督试验。

  6. Impact properties of the aircraft cast aluminium alloy Al-7Si0.6Mg (A357

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulos N.D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact mechanical properties of the widely used in the aeronautics A357 cast aluminum alloy were investigated by exploiting experiments on an instrumented Charpy impact testing machine. The evaluated impact properties for 25 different artificial aging heat treatment conditions were analyzed and discussed in conjunction with the respective tensile properties. Correlations are proposed to establish useful relationships between impact resistance and tensile strain energy density properties. The established correlations, which are well supported by the performed experiments, can be used to estimate the tensile ductility and toughness of the A357 cast aluminum alloy from the Charpy impact test. Performed fractographic analyses were supporting the physically arbitrary correlation between tensile strain energy density and impact resistance.

  7. Impact properties of the aircraft cast aluminium alloy Al-7Si0.6Mg (A357)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, N. D.

    2010-06-01

    The impact mechanical properties of the widely used in the aeronautics A357 cast aluminum alloy were investigated by exploiting experiments on an instrumented Charpy impact testing machine. The evaluated impact properties for 25 different artificial aging heat treatment conditions were analyzed and discussed in conjunction with the respective tensile properties. Correlations are proposed to establish useful relationships between impact resistance and tensile strain energy density properties. The established correlations, which are well supported by the performed experiments, can be used to estimate the tensile ductility and toughness of the A357 cast aluminum alloy from the Charpy impact test. Performed fractographic analyses were supporting the physically arbitrary correlation between tensile strain energy density and impact resistance.

  8. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is

  9. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is to provide a platform for the researchers,academicians,

  10. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  11. Investigation of some problems in developing standards for precracked Charpy slow bend tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succop, G.; Bubsey, R. T.; Jones, M. H.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation was undertaken in connection with an attempt to develop procedures which would be useful in standardizing a test method for the precracked Charpy slow bend specimen. A number of alloys was studied for which valid plane-strain fracture toughness values have been established. The investigation shows that useful relations between precracked Charpy slow bend results and crack size factors can be obtained under some circumstances. However, it is not yet known what factors control these circumstances.

  12. Controlled Impact Demonstration instrumented test dummies installed in plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph are seen some of dummies in the passenger cabin of the B-720 aircraft. NASA Langley Research Center instrumented a large portion of the aircraft and the dummies for loads in a crashworthiness research program. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Adimistration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive called Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK) designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the

  13. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  14. Standard Guide for Reconstitution of Irradiated Charpy-Sized Specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures for the reconstitution of ferritic pressure boundary steels used in nuclear power plant applications, Type A Charpy (Test Methods E 23) specimens and specimens suitable for testing in three point bending in accordance with Test Methods E 1921 or E 1820. Materials from irradiation programs (principally broken specimens) are reconstituted by welding end tabs of similar material onto remachined specimen sections that were unaffected by the initial test. Guidelines are given for the selection of suitable specimen halves and end tab materials, for dimensional control, and for avoidance of overheating the notch area. A comprehensive overview of the reconstitution methodologies can be found in Ref (1). 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard...

  15. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  16. Effect of waveform graph of instrumented Charpy impact test on fracture mode with QT400-18L at low temperature%含镍QT400-18L低温断裂方式的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路焱

    2010-01-01

    示波冲击试验可以记录试样在断裂过程中载荷与冲击吸收功的完整信息,反映试样在承受冲击过程时载荷与时间的变化规律.使用示波冲击试验机测试了含镍QT400-18L试样低温环境下的冲击韧性,记录不同含镍量的球铁试样-40℃低温下的裂纹形成功与裂纹扩展功以及冲击载荷与时间的波形图.研究结果表明,不同含镍量QT400-18L试样发生不同形式的断裂,其中,镍的质量分数为0.70%的试样发生弹性变形的过程最长,弹性变形所需能量的消耗最大,断裂方式为韧性、脆性的混合型断裂,因此其低温冲击韧性最大,αkv可达到20.87 J/cm2.

  17. RPSW/A摆锤示波冲击试验机测试系统改造%Modification to the Testing System of RPSW/A Pendulum Instrumented Charpy Impact Testing Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海; 邵建龙; 方淑芳

    2006-01-01

    介绍了RPSW/A摆锤示波冲击试验机的基本组成、工作原理及存在的问题,提出了Windows平台下通过多功能PCI数据采集卡实现高速数据采集的设想.在此基础上用VB编写了数据采集及处理软件,使该试验机恢复正常,并解决了原机测试系统存在的故障率高、试验数据不易保存、操作烦琐等不足.

  18. Laboratory Instrumentation: An Exploration of the Impact of Instrumentation on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Don L.; Brown, Eric C.; Shadle, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Academic programs generally work to make their laboratory curriculum both as instrumentation rich and up to date as possible. However, little is known about the relationship between the use of instrumentation in the curriculum and student learning. As part of our department's ongoing assessment efforts, a project was designed to probe this…

  19. Evaluer l’impact des instruments financiers en faveur des entreprises

    OpenAIRE

    Cadot, Olivier; Disdier, Anne-Celia; Gourdon, Julien; Héricourt, Jérôme; Suwa-Eisenmann, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    This literature review first presents the credit constraints faced by small and medium firms and the instruments that could be implemented to reduce such constraints. In this first part, we also present different impact evaluation methods and describe the ones that could be used for the different instruments above mentioned. We then review three types of instruments which are often implemented: credit lines, guarantee mechanisms and investment funds. For each of these instruments, we present ...

  20. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  1. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal,Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial

  2. EUROFER 97. Tensile, charpy, creep and structural tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M.; Schirra, M.; Falkenstein, A.; Graf, P.; Heger, S.; Kempe, H.; Lindau, R.; Zimmermann, H.

    2003-10-01

    EUROFER 97 - the European reference material for the first wall of a DEMO fusion reactor - was produced as 3.5 t batch of rods and plates. Following the history of the development activities from conventional martensitic 12% Cr steel, MANET and OPTIFER up to the low or reduced activation (RAFM) EUROFER steel, results obtained from experiments on specimens from rods (diameter 100 mm) and plates (14 mm) are presented for a basic characterization. Physical and mechanical properties are compared with those of OPTIFER-1W and the F82H-mod 2% W steel. The transition behaviour was determined by plotting a continuous TTT (time temperature transition) diagram. In addition, extension coefficients were determined from room temperature up to 1000 C. Hardening tests at temperatures from 850 C to 1120 C illustrated the range of maximum hardness as well as grain size development. Tempering tests and additional annealing experiments from 300 C to 875 C allowed characterizing tempering behaviour and stability. Charpy properties were examined for various heat treatments and specimen types between 60 C and -100 C. Further, ductility criteria like FATT, DBTT and 68 J were determined. Particular attention was paid to the influence of grain size and O{sub 2} content. Tensile strength was measured for several heat treatments between room temperature and 700 C. Long-term ageing was investigated by means of stabilization annealing experiments. These were carried out with various temperature/time combinations including tensile tests. In EUROFER tensile strength was hardly affected by the different heat treatments while the ductility criteria showed only a moderate increase in temperature. Therefore, it can be concluded that EUROFER is not susceptible to ageing. Creep and creep rupture properties were investigated in the temperature range of 450 C to 650 C. So far, creep times of up to 15000 h have been covered by the experiments. The status of the test program allows for an extrapolation of

  3. Assessment of Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Behavior of Localized Microstructural Regions in a Friction-Stir Welded X80 Pipeline Steel with Miniaturized Charpy V-Notch Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Julian A.; Lucon, Enrico; Sowards, Jeffrey; Mei, Paulo Roberto; Ramirez, Antonio J.

    2016-06-01

    Friction-stir welding (FSW) is an alternative welding process for pipelines. This technology offers sound welds, good repeatability, and excellent mechanical properties. However, it is of paramount importance to determine the toughness of the welds at low temperatures in order to establish the limits of this technology. Ductile-to-brittle transition curves were generated in the present study by using a small-scale instrumented Charpy machine and miniaturized V-notch specimens (Kleinstprobe, KLST); notches were located in base metal, heat-affected, stirred, and hard zones within a FSW joint of API-5L X80 Pipeline Steel. Specimens were tested at temperatures between 77 K (-196 °C) and 298 K (25 °C). Based on the results obtained, the transition temperatures for the base material and heat-affected zone were below 173 K (-100 °C); conversely, for the stirred and hard zones, it was located around 213 K (-60 °C). Fracture surfaces were characterized and showed a ductile fracture mechanism at high impact energies and a mixture of ductile and brittle mechanisms at low impact energies.

  4. Certification of NIST Room Temperature Low-Energy and High-Energy Charpy Verification Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Lucon, Enrico; McCowan, Chris N.; Santoyo, Ray L.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility for NIST to certify Charpy reference specimens for testing at room temperature (21 °C ± 1 °C) instead of −40 °C was investigated by performing 130 room-temperature tests from five low-energy and four high-energy lots of steel on the three master Charpy machines located in Boulder, CO. The statistical analyses performed show that in most cases the variability of results (i.e., the experimental scatter) is reduced when testing at room temperature. For eight out of the nine lots ...

  5. Instrumentação de um pendulo para ensaio de impacto Charpy

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Resumo: O ensaio de impacto Charpy convencional, possibilita que se determine a energia total ('E IND. T') absorvida para fratura de um corpo de prova entalhado, de dimensões padronizadas. Entretanto, sabe-se que essa energia total, resulta da soma de duas componentes: a energia necessária para iniciar a fratura ('E IND.I') mais a energia necessária para a propagação dessa fratura ('E IND. P'). No presente trabalho, é instrumentado um pêndulo de ensaio de impacto Charpy, utilizando-se técnica...

  6. A Review of Instrumented Equipment to Investigate Head Impacts in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan A. Patton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact, collision, and combat sports have more head impacts as compared to noncontact sports; therefore, such sports are uniquely suited to the investigation of head impact biomechanics. Recent advances in technology have enabled the development of instrumented equipment, which can estimate the head impact kinematics of human subjects in vivo. Literature pertaining to head impact measurement devices was reviewed and usage, in terms of validation and field studies, of such devices was discussed. Over the past decade, instrumented equipment has recorded millions of impacts in the laboratory, on the field, in the ring, and on the ice. Instrumented equipment is not without limitations; however, in vivo head impact data is crucial to investigate head injury mechanisms and further the understanding of concussion.

  7. Material inertia and size effects in the Charpy V-notch test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desandre, D. A.; Benzerga, A. A.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2004-01-01

    The effect of material inertia on the size dependence of the absorbed energy in the Charpy V-notch test is investigated. The material response is characterized by an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, with adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipation and the re......The effect of material inertia on the size dependence of the absorbed energy in the Charpy V-notch test is investigated. The material response is characterized by an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, with adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipation...... and the resulting thermal softening accounted for. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when a critical value of the maximum principal stress is attained over a critical volume. Plane strain dynamic analyses are carried out for geometrically similar specimens of various sizes with all parameters adjusted so...

  8. Impact tests of the tungsten coated stainless steels prepared by using magnetron sputtering with ion beam mixing or electron beam alloying treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Zhan, Chang-Yong; Yang, Bin; Wu, Jian-Chun

    2013-05-01

    Tungsten films were deposited on stainless steel (SS) with ion beam mixing (IBM) or electron beam alloying (EBA) treatment. The ductile-brittle transition behaviors of the specimens were investigated by means of instrumented Charpy impact test at a series of temperature, and SEM was used to observe the morphology of the cross section. Impact tests show that different treatment methods with W films do not have much influence on crack initiation, while EBA treatment with W films can more effectively prevent crack propagation, namely improve the impact toughness of SS than using IBM treatment. The reason that caused this difference was discussed.

  9. Policy instruments to decrease the climate impact of housing, personal transport and food. Detailed instrument descriptions; Ohjauskeinoja asumisen, henkiloeliikenteen ja ruoan ilmastovaikutusten hillintaeaen. Yksityiskohtaiset ohjauskeinokuvaukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, E.; Perrels, A.; Nissinen, A.; Berghaell, E.; Liesimaa, V.; Mattinen, M. (eds.)

    2012-03-15

    Reducing consumption volumes or introducing climate conscious consumption patterns can be efficient ways to mitigate climate change. Twenty existing policy instruments affecting the greenhouse gas emissions of housing, passenger traffic and food are described in this report of the KUILU-project. The policy instruments and the possibilities to develop effective instrument packages were discussed in two expert workshops, the results of which are presented in annexes of this report. There are already several policy instruments that target on housing and passenger traffic. Their differences in estimated emission reductions are large, which can ease the prioritization and selection of the instruments for further development. So far, only one policy instrument exists that aims to reduce the climate impacts of food choices, namely a Council of State Decision of Principle on Promoting Sustainability in Public Purchasing. However, it includes several measures that can be used to influence private companies and citizens, and thus it opens the field of policy instrument for mitigation of climate impacts of food. According to the expert survey, the most effective policy instrument involved in the analysis was building regulations, and the four most effective instruments after this were the following: gradated procurement tax of cars based on emissions, gradation of car tax, taxation of transport fuels, energy taxes of housing, and the effect of ecodesign directive on appliances. The effectiveness of policy instruments related to food was assessed to be on average level. The five least effective instruments were: EU energy label, voluntary energy experts, the tax of beverage packing, energy certificates, and subsidies for energy efficiency reparation in buildings. However, the expert opinions on the effectiveness of the policy instruments varied significantly. After this report, the KUILU project continued with an analysis of the policy instrument packages and with suggestions

  10. Policy instruments to decrease the climate impact of housing, personal transport and food. Detailed instrument descriptions; Ohjauskeinoja asumisen, henkiloeliikenteen ja ruoan ilmastovaikutusten hillintaeaen. Yksityiskohtaiset ohjauskeinokuvaukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, E.; Perrels, A.; Nissinen, A.; Berghaell, E.; Liesmaa, V.; Mattinen, M. (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Reducing consumption volumes or introducing climate conscious consumption patterns can be efficient ways to mitigate climate change. Twenty existing policy instruments affecting the greenhouse gas emissions of housing, passenger traffic and food are described in this report of the KUILU-project. The policy instruments and the possibilities to develop effective instrument packages were discussed in two expert workshops, the results of which are presented in annexes of this report. There are already several policy instruments that target on housing and passenger traffic. Their differences in estimated emission reductions are large, which can ease the prioritization and selection of the instruments for further development. So far, only one policy instrument exists that aims to reduce the climate impacts of food choices, namely a Council of State Decision of Principle on Promoting Sustainability in Public Purchasing. However, it includes several measures that can be used to influence private companies and citizens, and thus it opens the field of policy instrument for mitigation of climate impacts of food. According to the expert survey, the most effective policy instrument involved in the analysis was building regulations, and the four most effective instruments after this were the following: gradated procurement tax of cars based on emissions, gradation of car tax, taxation of transport fuels, energy taxes of housing, and the effect of ecodesign directive on appliances. The effectiveness of policy instruments related to food was assessed to be on average level. The five least effective instruments were: EU energy label, voluntary energy experts, the tax of beverage packing, energy certificates, and subsidies for energy efficiency reparation in buildings. However, the expert opinions on the effectiveness of the policy instruments varied significantly. After this report, the KUILU project continued with an analysis of the policy instrument packages and with suggestions

  11. 基于加速度测量的仪器化冲击试验方法研究%Study on the method of instrumental impact test based on acceleration measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文桂; 吴燕瑞; 陈家权; 赵政飞; 温洁明

    2012-01-01

    为研究摆杆在材料冲击过程的动态响应特性及摆杆的振动对测试结果的影响,本文利用虚拟仪器技术构建了一个仪器化冲击测试系统,将加速度传感器用于仪器化冲击试验.试验结果表明,将加速度传感器用于仪器化冲击试验所得的特征曲线与传统仪器化冲击试验特征曲线一致,用加速度传感器测出的数据计算出的冲击功与试验机表盘读数吻合,因此将加速度传感器用于仪器化冲击试验是可行的.通过测量试验中冲击试验机摆锤的加速度,分析材料的冲击性能与摆锤振动特性的关系.运用欧拉-伯努利梁理论对摆杆进行横向固有频率分析和对试验中加速度信号进行功率谱密度分析,得到摆杆在冲击载荷作用下的动态响应与材料的韧脆性之间的关系.研究结果表明,冲击功中的裂纹扩展功反映材料的韧脆性,冲击功中的裂纹扩展功越大,材料的韧性越好;材料韧性越好,摆杆的振动低频所占的能量就越高.%In order to investigate the dynamic responses of the striker arm in the impact process, an instrumental impact system was built by using virtual instrument technique to apply accelerometers in the impact tests. Testing results showed that the characteristic curves obtained from instrumented impact test by applying accelerometer are consistent with that from the traditional instrumented impact test and the impact energy calculated with the accelerometer signal data agreed well with the panel reading data, showing that applying accelerometers for impact test is feasible. By measuring the acceleration of the pendulum of charpy impact machine, the vibration characteristics of the pendulum were studied. The relationship between the dynamic response of the striker arm and the impact properties of the given material was built by analyzing the natural frequency of transverse vibration of striker arm, which was calculated by Euler Bernoulli beam

  12. The impact of the long-term playing of musical instruments on the stomatognathic system - review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowacka, Arleta; Matthews-Kozanecka, Maja; Kawala, Maciej; Kawala, Beata

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have made a review of the influence of playing musical instruments on the formation of malocclusion and TMJ disorders in musicians. Primary attention was paid to the effects of wind and stringed instruments. The aim of the article was the presentation of research and opinions about this problem in the last 25 years. It is reported that long-term and repetitive playing of musical instruments, particularly stringed (violin and viola) and wind instruments can cause dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system. The impact of wind instruments was assessed in terms of the type of mouthpiece. We studied the possibility of repositioning the front teeth and reducing the width of the upper dental arch and overbite. There were also reports on the use of a specific instrument to improve the child's occlusion. Studies have also been performed on the usefulness of relaxation plates in order to improve, and even prevent, dysfunction caused by the constant stress on the same parts of the stomatognathic system. The experiments were mainly based on interviews, dental cast analyses and cephalometric analyses. Additional methods were dynamometer tests and muscle tension palpation.

  13. Effects of annealing time on the recovery of Charpy V-notch properties of irradiated high-copper weld metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A.; Nanstad, R.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1994-12-31

    One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. An important issue to be resolved is the effect on the toughness properties of reirradiating a vessel that has been annealed. This paper describes the annealing response of irradiated high-copper submerged-arc weld HSSI 73W. For this study, the weld has been annealed at 454 C (850 F) for lengths of time varying between 1 and 14 days. The Charpy V-notch 41-J (30-ft-lb) transition temperature (TT{sub 41J}) almost fully recovered for the longest period studied, but recovered to a lesser degree for the shorter periods. No significant recovery of the TT{sub 41J} was observed for a 7-day anneal at 343 C (650 F). At 454 C for the durations studied, the values of the upper-shelf impact energy of irradiated and annealed weld metal exceeded the values in the unirradiated condition. Similar behavior was observed after aging the unirradiated weld metal at 460 and 490 C for 1 week.

  14. A new instrument for the delivery of the impacted dead fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, M A

    1988-10-01

    When a fetus dies during labor, it is best to deliver the dead fetus with a minimum of maternal trauma. Especially in underdeveloped countries, where obstetric facilities are limited, maternal mortality and morbidity rates associated with cesarean sections are high. The established methods of craniotomy and subsequent delivery often cause destruction of maternal tissue. Thus, a new destructive instrument for the delivery of the dead impacted fetus has been developed at the Groote Schuur Hospital in Capetown, South Africa. Made from stainless steel, it has been named the Groote Schuur Hospital Perforator and Bone Screw. The instrument has so far been used in 3 cases, in operations that caused minimal maternal discomfort and no maternal injury. The instrument is described and instructions are given for its use.

  15. Vitiligo impact scale: An instrument to assess the psychosocial burden of vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurang S Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Vitiligo is a disease that significantly impairs quality of life. Previous studies have shown that vitiligo has an impact that may not correlate with the size and extent of depigmentation, indicating a need for an independent measure of the psychosocial burden. Aims : To develop a rating scale to assess the psychosocial impact of vitiligo. Methods : The study was undertaken in three broad phases: item generation, pre- and pilot testing, and test administration. Items were generated largely from a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of patients. Face and content validity were assessed through pre- and pilot testing in 80 patients and the final version was administered to 100 patients who also received the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI and the Skindex-16. Each patient also underwent a physician global assessment (PGA of the impact of vitiligo. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 20 patients. Results: Of 72 items initially generated for the scale, 27 were retained in the final version. Subjects were able to comprehend the items and took about 5-7 min to complete the instrument. The scale was internally consistent (Cronbach′s α = 0.85. Scores on the scale correlated moderately well with the DLQI and the Skindex (Spearman rank correlation: 0.51 and 0.65, respectively. The scale was able to discriminate between patients having mild and those having moderate and severe impact as assessed by PGA. The test-retest reliability coefficient (Spearman rank correlation was 0.80. Conclusion: The Vitiligo Impact Scale appears to be a valid measure of the psychosocial impact of vitiligo and this instrument may be useful both in the clinic and in clinical trials.

  16. Positive Impact of Art as a Communication Instrument on Economical Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Cereci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that affect economical productivity like climate, or like raw materials or like international relationships or like physchology of employers. Professional organisations or companies use different instruments to increase producticity on economy. Spiritual conditions of employers and employees are especially regarded for economical productivity recently. Though economy is mostly a concrete area, main component of economy is human and human need spiritual support and impacts in his life. It is known that spiritual support always feed human and provide him much energy. Employers or companies who are interested in art and who participate in artistic activities become more productive than others and attract people to their productions.

  17. The practical impact of differential item functioning analyses in a health-related quality of life instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Neil W; Fayers, Peter M; Aaronson, Neil K;

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are commonly used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments. There is, however, a lack of consensus as to how to assess the practical impact of statistically significant DIF results.......Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are commonly used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments. There is, however, a lack of consensus as to how to assess the practical impact of statistically significant DIF results....

  18. Monitoring of Refractory Wall recession using high temperature impact echo instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Dayton

    2004-04-30

    Regression of refractory linings of furnaces occurs due to a variety of mechanisms. The specific mechanism selected for investigation during this program is the regression of refractories which are in direct contact with a liquid corrodant. Examples include the melting of glass, the production of pig iron and steel, and the melting of aluminum. The rates of regression to a wall thickness which requires reline or extensive reconstruction vary widely, from less than a year to over ten years depending on the specific service environment. This program investigated the feasibility of measuring refractory wall thickness with an impact-echo method while at operating temperature (wall temperatures exceeding 500 C). The impact-echo method uses the impact of a small sphere with the surface of the test object to send a stress wave into the object. In a plate-like structure, the stress wave reflects back to the front surface, reverberating in the structure and causing a periodic surface displacement whose frequency is inversely proportional to the thickness of the test object. Impact-echo testing was chosen because it requires access to only one side of the test object and could be performed during the operation of a refractory structure. Commercially-available impact-echo instrumentation is available for room temperature use for a variety of tests on concrete. The enabling technology for this work was to use a high-temperature piezoelectric material, aluminum nitride, as the receiving sensor for the stress waves, allowing its use on refractories during furnace operation.

  19. Impact Toughness of an Isothermally Treated Zeron®100 SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliari, Irene; Breda, Marco; Ramous, Emilio; Brunelli, Katya; Pizzo, Marco; Menapace, Cinzia

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the impact toughness of a UNS 32760 SDSS, in relation to the quantity of secondary phases precipitated after isothermal aging in the range of 850-950 °C and for different exposure times. The impact toughness has been investigated by means of instrumented impact testing, using Charpy V-notched specimens at room temperature. The impact testing results show that, for an amount of about 0.5% volume fraction of intermetallic phase, the impact toughness is reduced by over 50%. For volume fractions higher than 1.5-2%, the impact toughness is definitively compromised, and small entities of plastic deformations are enough to cause a prevailing brittle fracture mechanism. By increasing the precipitates' amounts, the fracture mechanism shows an ever more prominent brittle behavior until 6% volume fraction, exceeding which the ductile component is totally absent.

  20. Environmental impact assessment (EIA): an overlooked instrument for sustainable development in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Rashid; Sattar, Ayesha; Iqbal, Zafar; Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Raziya

    2012-04-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a policy tool used for evaluating a project proposal from physical and socioeconomic environmental perspectives. Its aim is to reduce the impact of development on environment, hence, ensuring environmental sustainability. It is mandatory to submit an Environmental Impact Statement before starting a mega project as required by Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and Environmental Policy of Pakistan. Public consultation plays a key role in an EIA system, identifying the likely aspects and impacts of a development activity. This aspect has been ignored in effective enactment of environmental legislation in Pakistan. Sufficient legislative instruments are there to support EIA system in the country but the agencies responsible for the enforcement of environmental regulations have failed to do so. The current research gives an insight into the actual status of EIA system in Pakistan along with the feedback of EIA specialists and university teachers of the concerned departments. A new index has been devised on the basis of questionnaire response to work out the overall performance of EIA system in Pakistan or any other country. The weaknesses and deficiencies of each EIA stage have been worked out for Pakistan and elaborated with the help of the controversial Zero point Interchange Project in the capital city of Pakistan.

  1. On the Use of the Master Curve based on the Precracked Charpy Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R.; Scibetta, M.; Van Walle, E.; Gerard, R

    1999-08-01

    Recently, worldwide interest has been demonstrated in the evaluation of the use of the Master Curve approach to characterize fracture toughness of ferritic steels in the transition regime. This was acknowledged by the recent release of the ASTM Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, T{sub 0}, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range (E1921). The present work aims to investigate the use of the Charpy specimen along with the Master Curve approach to derive the fracture toughness behaviour of reactor pressure vessel steels. Therefore, four well characterized and documented reactor pressure vessel steels were selected. A large experimental program to measure fracture toughness with Charpy size specimens was carried out. Four important aspects were investigated: (1) the T0 determination as a function of test temperature; (2) the E1921 specimen size requirement (factor M=30); (3) the censoring procedure for specimens not satisfying the E1921 size requirements; (4) the estimation of the fracture toughness lower bound, and its comparison to the ASME KIC curve. It is found that within the experimental and statistical uncertainties, the reference temperature T0 is not affected by the test temperature, even when data are not valid according to E1921 requirements. By application of the censoring procedure, the determination of the reference temperature may lead to non conservative results. Comparison to larger specimen size suggests the use of M=60 rather than 30 to limit the loss of constraint, in agreement with finite element calculations. Nevertheless, the differences are not large enough to be statistically significant. The lower bound based on the Master Curve is very close to the experimental lower bound, while the ASME K{sub IC} curve trends to be over conservative. Replacing RT{sub NDT} by the new index, RT{sub To}, in the ASME KIC equation reduces this over conservatism.

  2. Impact of and correction for instrument sensitivity drift on nanoparticle size measurements by single-particle ICP-MS

    OpenAIRE

    El Hadri, Hind; Petersen, Elijah J.; Winchester, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of ICP-MS instrument sensitivity drift on the accuracy of NP size measurements using single particle (sp)ICP-MS is investigated. Theoretical modeling and experimental measurements of the impact of instrument sensitivity drift are in agreement and indicate that drift can impact the measured size of spherical NPs by up to 25 %. Given this substantial bias in the measured size, a method was developed using an internal standard to correct for the impact of drift and was shown to accura...

  3. Impact Resistance of Short Fibre/Particle Reinforced Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Breidt, C.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the fracture behaviour of epoxy-based composites was studied using an instrumented Charpy impact approach. A series of epoxy reinforced with short carbon fibres (SCF) and additionally filled with various amounts of PTFE and graphite particles was considered in this study. Unnotched specimens were tested at -196°C, 20°C, and 70°C, respectively. It was found that, for specimens with the same matrix content, a proper hybridisation of composites was possible to achieve a better impact performance compared to single-filler/epoxy. For example, 10 vol.%PTFE+10 vol.%SCF/epoxy exhibited a higher impact resistance than that of 20 vol.%SCF/epoxy at all measured temperatures. Failure mechanisms at different temperatures were discussed with SEM fractography.

  4. Impact of and correction for instrument sensitivity drift on nanoparticle size measurements by single-particle ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadri, Hind; Petersen, Elijah J; Winchester, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    The effect of ICP-MS instrument sensitivity drift on the accuracy of nanoparticle (NP) size measurements using single particle (sp)ICP-MS is investigated. Theoretical modeling and experimental measurements of the impact of instrument sensitivity drift are in agreement and indicate that drift can impact the measured size of spherical NPs by up to 25 %. Given this substantial bias in the measured size, a method was developed using an internal standard to correct for the impact of drift and was shown to accurately correct for a decrease in instrument sensitivity of up to 50 % for 30 and 60 nm gold nanoparticles. Graphical Abstract Correction of nanoparticle size measurement by spICP-MS using an internal standard.

  5. Spatial patterns of substantial climate impact from anthropogenic aerosols in the early instrumental period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undorf, Sabine; Bollasina, Massimo; Hegerl, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    While many aspects of climate variation in the early instrumental period (1860-1950) are still unexplained, for instance the early twentieth-century warming from the 1910s to the 1940s, the role of anthropogenic aerosols in this period has been overlooked. Yet, the period is also an interesting case study to isolate aerosol impacts since it is characterised by the increase of North American and especially European aerosol emissions concurrently with negligible Asian emissions and relatively low carbon dioxide concentrations. We thus analyse the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol impact for this period in available observations (NOAA 20th-century reanalysis, etc.) and historical single-forcing and all-forcing experiments with state-of-the-art CMIP5 models. We make use of coupled empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) applied to surface temperature -the most reliable variable in observations- and different aerosol indicating variables such as aerosol optical depth and short-wave downward radiation, some of which include aerosol indirect effects. The principal components of the most important EOFs are then regressed onto sea level pressure, winds, and other variables to identify associated circulation patterns. A decomposition into multi-decadal and longer time scales is performed by filtering the data prior to the analysis. Our analysis reveals both statistically significant local and non-local aerosol impact and identifies circulation states associated with the temperature response. The results are consistent across different aerosol variables, and show a strong non-local response as well as specific differences between time scales. We find a distinctive circulation pattern which strongly resembles observations and might explain the observed early twentieth century warming in the Arctic.

  6. Data-Informed Decision Making on High-Impact Strategies: Developing and Validating an Instrument for Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianping; Cooley, Van E.; Ma, Xin; Reeves, Patricia L.; Burt, Walter L.; Rainey, J. Mark; Yuan, Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors connect 3 streams of literature to develop an instrument for measuring the degree to which principals engage in data-informed decision making on high-impact strategies that are empirically associated with higher student achievement. The 3 literature streams are (a) the importance of data-informed decision making, (b) the…

  7. The impact of clinical use on the torsional behavior of Reciproc and WaveOne instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de MAGALHÃES, Rafael Rodrigues Soares; BRAGA, Lígia Carolina Moreira; PEREIRA, Érika Sales Joviano; PEIXOTO, Isabella Faria da Cunha; BUONO, Vicente Tadeu Lopes; BAHIA, Maria Guiomar de Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Torsional overload is a fracture representative parameter for instruments in single-file techniques. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the influence of clinical use, in vivo, on the torsional behavior of Reciproc and WaveOne instruments considering the possibility that they degraded with use. Material and Methods Diameter at each millimeter, pitch length, and area at 3 mm from the tip were determined for both types of instruments. Twenty-four instruments, size 25, 0.08 taper, of each system were divided into two groups (n=12 each): Control Group (CG), in which new Reciproc (RC) and WaveOne Primary (WO) instruments were tested in torsion until rupture based on ISO 3630-1; and Experimental Group (EG), in which each new instrument was clinically used to clean and shape the root canals of one molar. After clinical use, the instruments were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy and subsequently tested in torsion until fracture. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance at a=.05. Results WO instruments showed significantly higher mean values of cross-sectional area A3 (P=0.000) and smaller pitch lengths than RC instruments with no statistically significant differences in the diameter at D3 (P=0.521). No significant differences in torsional resistance between the RC and WO new instruments (P=0.134) were found. The clinical use resulted in a tendency of reduction in the maximum torque of the analyzed instruments but no statistically significant difference was observed between them (P=0.327). During the preparation of the root canals, two fractured RC instruments and longitudinal and transversal cracks in RC and WO instruments were observed through SEM analysis. Conclusion After clinical use, no statistically significant reduction in the torsional resistance was observed. PMID:27556200

  8. Influence of Heat Input on Martensite Formation and Impact Property of Ferritic-Austenitic Dissimilar Weld Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Mukherjee T.K. Pal

    2012-01-01

    .... The welded joints were evaluated by microstructure and charpy impact toughness. The dependence of weld metal microstructure on heat input and filler wires were determined by dilution calculation, Creq/Nieq ratio, stacking fault energy (SFE...

  9. A Mechanistically-Guided Charpy Embrittlement Correlation For RPV (reactor pressure vessel) Integrity Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T. [EPRI, CHARLOTTE, NC (United States); Server, W.L. [ATI Consulting, Pinehurst, NC (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The current neutron irradiation embrittlement trend equation used in the Usa is contained in Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.99, Revision 2. The equivalent equation for estimating the mean shift in irradiated Charpy properties is used also in ASTM Standard Guide E 900-87. The three chemistry and irradiation parameters in this old correlation are copper (Cu) content, nickel (Ni) content, and irradiation fluence; base and weld metals are separated also, due to the enhanced embrittlement in welds. The database used to establish this old correlation was compiled in the late 1980's. Today, the database has increased by a multiple of about 5. Through the EPRI Materials Reliability Program a new and improved transition temperature shift embrittlement correlation has been developed. The recommended model is mechanistically-guided, statistically robust, and stems from earlier work on a mechanistic/statistical model proposed by the NRC. From the independent reviews performed on the NRC proposed correlation, the evaluations of mechanistic understanding and statistical testing were combined to assess the most appropriate form for a mean correlation model. The process of evaluating and reducing the number of fitting parameters was not a simple decision. Engineering judgment, through the development of gating criteria and value/magnitude considerations, led to the development of the proposed correlation. This paper discusses the proposed embrittlement correlation and its mechanistic/statistical bases. Predictions using the proposed correlation are compared using the current version of the embrittlement database; comparisons with the predictions with Regulatory Guide 1.99, Revision 2, are also made. (authors)

  10. Impact of special aviation gymnastics instruments training on selected hormones in cadets' blood serum and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wochyński, Zbigniew; Sobiech, Krzysztof

    2017-06-19

    This study has aimed at investigating the impact of the Special Aviation Gymnastics Instruments (SAGI) training scheme on the blood serum cortisol, testosterone, insulin, and plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine in comparison with a control group. Fifty-five cadets, aged 20 years old, participated in the study. Cadets were divided into 2 groups: A (N = 41) - the SAGI-trained, and B (N = 14) - the control group. In both groups, blood was the examined material, sampled twice: before the training session (BT) and after the training session (AT), at the beginning (training session I), during (training session II), and after completion of the SAGI training session (training session III). Commercially available kits were used for assaying serum cortisol, testosterone, and insulin as well as plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Cadets' physical fitness was assessed by means of Aero-Synthetic Efficiency Tests. In group A, a significant decrease in serum cortisol (training session III) and insulin in three training sessions AT in comparison with the values BT was seen. A statistically significant increase in testosterone and catecholamines was noted in all 3 training sessions AT in comparison with the values BT. In group B, a statistically significant increase in cortisol (training session II), testosterone, and catecholamines was observed in all 3 training sessions AT vs. the values in training session BT. In group B, serum levels of all assayed hormones were higher in training session III than those in group A. In the examined group, the SAGI training produced fewer hormonal changes dependent on the intensity and exercise type and physical efficiency improvement than in the control group. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):655-664.

  11. Impact toughness improvement of high strength aluminium alloy by intrinsic and extrinsic fracture mechanisms via hot roll bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Cepeda-Jiménez, C.M.; García-Infanta, J.M.; Pozuelo, M.; Ruano, Oscar Antonio; Carreño, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    A multilayer aluminium laminate comprising ten layers of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (82 vol.%) and nine layers of pure aluminium (18 vol.%) has been processed by hot rolling. The rolled laminate was characterized by electron backscattering diffraction, Charpy impact and shear tests. The multilayer laminate showed an outstanding Charpy impact toughness, being eighteen times higher than that for the as-received Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. Damage tolerance improvement was due to the high volume fra...

  12. A model of union participation: the impact of perceived union support, union instrumentality, and union loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrick, Lois E; Shore, Lynn M; McClurg, Lucy Newton; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2007-05-01

    Perceived union support and union instrumentality have been shown to uniquely predict union loyalty. This study was the first to explicitly examine the relation between perceived union support and union instrumentality. Surveys were completed by 273 union members and 29 union stewards. A comparison of 2 models, 1 based on organizational support theory and 1 based on union participation theories, found that the model based on organizational support theory, in which union instrumentality was an antecedent to perceived union support and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, best fit the data. The model based on union participation theories, in which perceived union support was an antecedent of union instrumentality and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, was not supported. Union instrumentality was related to union commitment, but the relation was completely mediated by perceived union support.

  13. Instrumented mouthguard acceleration analyses for head impacts in amateur rugby union players over a season of matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria A; Brughelli, Matt; Gissane, Conor

    2015-03-01

    Direct impacts with the head (linear acceleration or pressure) and inertial loading of the head (rotational acceleration or strain) have been postulated as the 2 major mechanisms of head-related injuries such as concussion. Although data are accumulating for soccer and American football, there are no published data for nonhelmeted collision sports such as rugby union. To quantify head impacts via instrumented mouthguard acceleration analyses for rugby union players over a season of matches. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data on impact magnitude and frequency were collected with molded instrumented mouthguards worn by 38 premier amateur senior rugby players participating in the 2013 domestic season of matches. A total of 20,687 impacts >10g (range, 10.0-164.9g) were recorded over the duration of the study. The mean ± SD number of impacts per player over the duration of the season of matches was 564 ± 618, resulting in a mean ± SD of 95 ± 133 impacts to the head per player, per match over the duration of the season of matches. The impact magnitudes for linear accelerations were skewed to the lower values (Sp = 3.7 ± 0.02; P rugby union players over a season of matches, measured via instrumented mouthguard accelerations, were higher than for most sports previously reported. Mean linear acceleration measured over a season of matches was similar to the mean linear accelerations previously reported for youth, high school, and collegiate American football players but lower than that for female youth soccer players. Mean rotational acceleration measured over a season of matches was similar to mean rotational accelerations for youth, high school, and collegiate American football players but less than those for female youth soccer players, concussed American collegiate players, collegiate American football players, and professional American football players. © 2014 The Author(s).

  14. Impact of Instrument Responses on the Detectability of One-point Statistics from Redshifted 21 cm Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kittiwisit, Piyanat; Jacobs, Daniel C; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Beardsley, Adam P

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact of instrumental systematics on the variance, skewness, and kurtosis of redshifted 21 cm intensity fluctuation observations from the Epoch of Reionization. We simulate realistic 21 cm observations based on the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) Phase I reionization experiment, using the array's point spread function (PSF) and antenna beam patterns, full-sky 21 cm models, and the FHD imaging pipeline. We measure the observed redshift evolution of pixel probability density functions (PDF) and one-point statistics from the simulated maps, comparing them to the measurements derived from simpler simulations that represent the instrument PSFs with Gaussian kernels. We find that both methods yield statistics with similar trends with greater than 80% correlation. We perform additional simulations based on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA), using Gaussian kernels as the instrument PSFs, and study the effect of frequency binning on the statistics. We find that PSF smoothing and sampling va...

  15. An Experimental Technique for Developing Intermediate Strain Rates in Ductile Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Instrumented Charpy tests rely on a strain gage instrumented load cell to col- lect a load-history during impact. However, the same fundamental limitations due...to wave-propagation and inertia effects are inherent in the instrumented Charpy test , as other instrumented impact tests , limiting the velocities at...lower velocities, the instrumentation of the Charpy test has transformed it from an al- most purely subjective impact survivability test to

  16. STUDY ON THE EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES OF DYNAMIC FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF MATERIALS BASED ON INSTRUMENTED CHARPY IMPACT TEST%基于示波冲击实验材料动态断裂韧度测试技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许振琦; 朱世范; 果春焕; 王延春; 姜风春

    2015-01-01

    采用预裂纹Charpy冲击试样,基于示波冲击试验建立了测试材料动态断裂韧度的试验方法.与以往预裂纹试样动态应力强度因子的计算方法不同,采用Timoshenko梁理论,提出了一种简单方法来计算三点弯曲试样的刚度K(a),由此建立了三点弯曲试样动态应力强度因子的计算方法,通过实验测得启裂时间,从而确定动态断裂韧度.采用有限元方法对试样动态应力强度因子的理论计算方法进行了验证.结果表明,建立的计算方法准确、可靠,避免了复杂的数值计算,便于工程应用.

  17. Comparative analysis of the impacts of marketing instruments on the organic market in Austria, the United Kingdom and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Zenner, S.; Foster, C; Padel, S.; Wirthgen, B.

    2000-01-01

    Conclusions: This paper provides a comparative analysis of the impacts of the marketing instruments: The price-level can be identified as an important factor for further development. To promote sustained consumer demand, the premium price-level should be closer to the conventional price, although consumers are willing to pay some premium. Organic produce is associated with healthy food, which may appeal to consumers interested in healthy nutrition. Nevertheless, producers, processors and ...

  18. Development and validation of an instrument to measure the impact of genetic testing on self-concept in Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esplen, M J; Stuckless, N; Gallinger, S

    2011-01-01

    with two dimensions identified through factor analysis: stigma/vulnerability and bowel symptom-related anxiety. The scale showed excellent reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.93), good convergent validity by a high correlation with impact of event scale (r(102) = 0.55, p self-esteem scale......Esplen MJ, Stuckless N, Gallinger S, Aronson M, Rothenmund H, Semotiuk K, Stokes J, Way C, Green J, Butler K, Petersen HV, Wong J. Development and validation of an instrument to measure the impact of genetic testing on self-concept in Lynch syndrome. A positive genetic test result may impact...... on a person's self-concept and affect quality of life. The purpose of the study was to develop a self-concept scale to measure such impact for individuals carrying mutations for a heritable colorectal cancer Lynch syndrome (LS). Two distinct phases were involved: Phase 1 generated specific colorectal self...

  19. Fiber-matrix integrity, micromorphology and flexural strength of glass fiber posts: Evaluation of the impact of rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Lançanova, Mateus; Wandscher, Vinicius Felipe; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Limberger, Inácio; Özcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2015-08-01

    Several rotary instruments have been daily employed on clinic to promote cut aiming to adjust the length of fiber posts to the radicular conduct, but there is no information on the literature about the effects of the different rotary instruments and its impact on the micromorphology of surface and mechanical properties of the glass fiber post. This study aimed the impact of rotary instruments upon fiber-matrix integrity, micromorphology and flexural-strength of glass-fiber posts (GFP). GFP (N=110) were divided into 5 groups: Ctrl: as-received posts, DBc: coarse diamond-bur, DBff: extra-fine diamond-bur, CB: carbide-bur, DD: diamond-disc. Cutting procedures were performed under abundant irrigation. Posts exposed to rotary instruments were then subjected to 2-point inclined loading test (compression 45°) (n=10/group) and 3-point flexural-strength test (n=10/group). Fiber-matrix integrity and micromorphology at the cut surface were analyzed using a SEM (n=2/group). Cutting procedures did not significantly affect the 2-point (51.7±4.3-56.7±5.1 MPa) (p=0.0233) and 3-point flexural-strength (671.5±35.3-709.1±33.1 MPa) (p=0.0968) of the posts (One-way ANOVA and Tukey׳s test). Fiber detachment was observed only at the end point of the cut at the margins of the post. Cut surfaces of the CB group were smoother than those of the other groups. After 3-point flexural strength test, fiber-matrix separation was evident at the tensile side of the post. Rotary instruments tested with simultaneous water-cooling did not affect the resistance of the tested fiber posts but caused disintegration of the fibers from the matrix at the end of the cut, located at the margins.

  20. Does Overweight and Obesity Impact on Self-Rated Health? Evidence Using Instrumental Variables Ordered Probit Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, John; Gillespie, Paddy

    2016-10-01

    This paper, for the first time, presents estimates of the causal impact of overweight and obesity on self-rated health (SRH) using instrumental variables (IV) econometric methods. While a number of previous studies have sought to better understand the determinants of SRH, there is no consensus in relation to the impact of overweight and obesity. Using data from a large nationally representative sample of Irish parents and their children, we estimate a range of ordered probit models to isolate the causal effect of overweight and obesity on SRH. Our data includes independently and objectively recorded weight and height measures for parents and their children and we instrument for parental body mass index (BMI) status using the BMI of a biological child. After controlling for a range of individual, socioeconomic, health and lifestyle related variables, we find that being overweight has a negligible impact on SRH, while being obese has a practically and statistically significant negative impact on SRH, with these effects most pronounced for those who are most obese. We find only minor differences in these effects across gender. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Fracture energy evaluation on 7075-T651 aluminum alloy welds determined by instrumented impact pendulum%采用改进冲击摆锤评价7075-T651合金焊缝的断裂能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. R. AMBRIZ; D. JARAMILLO; C. GARCÍA; F. F. CURIEL

    2016-01-01

    采用改进冲击摆锤,研究7075-T651合金焊缝夏比试样的力−时间曲线。考虑力−时间曲线和恒冲击速率,获得不同区域的断裂能。与焊缝金属(7.88 J)和基体金属(5.37 J(纵向)和7.37 J(横向))的断裂能相比,热影响区的断裂能更高(33.6 J),这是由于焊接过程中,热力学不稳定的η′相发生组织转变。焊缝区的断裂能比基体合金的高,这是由于焊接凝固过程中产生大量孔洞。为从力−时间曲线中获得动态屈服力,对焊缝、热影响区和基体合金的屈服强度进行近似处理。断裂形貌表明,基体合金在纵向方向上呈现晶间断裂,而在横向方向上,主要为脆性(解理)断裂并伴有韧性断裂特征。而焊缝区和热影响区则呈现韧性断裂。%By using an instrumented impact pendulum, the force versus time curves of 7075-T651 aluminum welds were obtained from standard Charpy-V samples. Considering the force−time curves and constant impact velocity, the fracture energies for different zones were quantified. A fracture energy improvement for the HAZ (33.6 J) was observed in comparison with the weld metal (7.88 J), and base metal (5.37 J and 7.37 J for longitudinal and transverse directions, respectively). This toughness increment was attributed to the microstructural transformation caused by the thermodynamic instability of η′ precipitates during the welding. Fracture energy for weld metal was higher than that for base metal, probably due to pores created during solidification. Regarding the dynamic yielding force obtained from the force−time curves, an approximation to the dynamic yield strength for weld, HAZ and base metal was determined. Fracture surfaces revealed an intergranular failure for base metal in longitudinal direction, whereas a predominately brittle failure (cleavage) with some insights of ductile characteristics was observed for the transverse direction. In contrast, a ductile failure

  2. [Impact of the instrumental vaginal delivery on pain perception at two months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weslinck, N; De Jonckheere, J; Storme, L; Logier, R; Appel, M; Thomas, D; Rakza, T

    2014-06-01

    Although instrumental vaginal delivery reduces the risk of neonatal mortality, it increases the risk of specific morbidity including prolonged neonatal discomfort. Previous studies suggest that neonatal exposure to acute pain could have long-term effects on the pain response later in life. The aim of the study was to investigate whether instrumental vaginal delivery may alter the response to a noxious stimulus at the age of two months. Newborn infants were enrolled in this prospective observational study after parental consent. A group of children born by instrumental vaginal delivery (group 2) were compared to matched controls born by vaginal delivery (group 1). Pain was assessed in each newborn infant between two and four hours after birth using the scale of pain and discomfort of the newborn baby (EDIN). These children were reassessed for pain response to immunizations (Infanrix(®) and Prevenar(®)) at two months of age using the DAN scale. Thirteen children were enrolled in this study, six in group 1 and seven in group 2. Gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, and umbilical arterial blood were similar in both groups. The EDIN measured between H2 and H4 was significantly higher in group 2 (median, 4 [IQ, 3] versus 0 [3.25], Pdelivery causes discomfort after birth and increases the pain response to immunization at the age of two months. This study supports the hypothesis that instrumental vaginal delivery may alter pain perception later in life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of Effective Colour Management for Textile Coloration: An Instrumental Way Towards Perfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Khatri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The colour produced by the application of either dyes or pigments on textiles must be close matched with reference (standard provided by buyer. Meeting stringent requirement from Buyer that demands right colour on right time is not a simple task to achieve. The process of colour matching is a lengthy process and needs many trials to get close match. The colour quantification through instruments helps to cut most of the lead time, however, there is a serious need to manage colour during colour approval stage and coloration process. We adopted four different routes for colour approval and compared with the conventional one. The study revealed that out of four instrumental options, the 4th option had shortest route and minimum lead time. We also concluded that by using spectrophotometer, K/S (Colour Strength and colorimetic values are very good to not only communicate colour numerically but also controlling colour during colour approval process.

  4. <> Impact of Apprenticeship Training on Personality Traits, An Instrumental Variable Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bolli, Thomas; Hof, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes how apprenticeship training, i.e., work-based secondary education, affects personality traits compared to full-time school-based vocational or general education. Employing an instrumental variable approach that exploits the regional differences in the relative weight of school- and work-based secondary education across Switzerland and Europe, we determine that apprenticeship training reduces neuroticism and increases agreeableness and conscientiousness, while openness and ...

  5. The impact of instrument-specific musical training on rhythm perception and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Edward Matthews

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown that musical training can improve rhythmic perception and production. These findings tell us that music training can result in rhythm processing advantages but they do not tell us whether practicing a particular instrument could lead to specific effects on rhythm perception or production. The current study used a battery of four rhythm perception and production tasks that were designed to test both higher- and lower-level aspects of rhythm processing. Four groups of musicians (drummers, singers, pianists, string players and a control group of non-musicians were tested. Within-task differences in performance showed that factors such as meter, metrical complexity, tempo and beat phase significantly affected the ability to perceive and synchronize taps to a rhythm or beat. Musicians showed better performance on all rhythm tasks compared to non-musicians. Interestingly, our results revealed no significant differences between musician groups for the vast majority of task measures. This is despite the fact that all musicians were selected to have the majority of their training on the target instrument, had on average more than ten years of experience on their instrument, and were currently practicing. These results suggest that general musical experience is more important than specialized musical experience with regards to perception and production of rhythms.

  6. The Impact of Instrument-Specific Musical Training on Rhythm Perception and Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Tomas E; Thibodeau, Joseph N L; Gunther, Brian P; Penhune, Virginia B

    2016-01-01

    Studies comparing musicians and non-musicians have shown that musical training can improve rhythmic perception and production. These findings tell us that training can result in rhythm processing advantages, but they do not tell us whether practicing a particular instrument could lead to specific effects on rhythm perception or production. The current study used a battery of four rhythm perception and production tasks that were designed to test both higher- and lower-level aspects of rhythm processing. Four groups of musicians (drummers, singers, pianists, string players) and a control group of non-musicians were tested. Within-task differences in performance showed that factors such as meter, metrical complexity, tempo, and beat phase significantly affected the ability to perceive and synchronize taps to a rhythm or beat. Musicians showed better performance on all rhythm tasks compared to non-musicians. Interestingly, our results revealed no significant differences between musician groups for the vast majority of task measures. This was despite the fact that all musicians were selected to have the majority of their training on the target instrument, had on average more than 10 years of experience on their instrument, and were currently practicing. These results suggest that general musical experience is more important than specialized musical experience with regards to perception and production of rhythms.

  7. Impact toughness of tungsten films deposited on martensite stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ning-kang; YANG Bin; WANG De-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Tungsten films were deposited on stainless steel Charpy specimens by magnetron sputtering followed by electron beam heat treatment. Charpy impact tests and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the ductile-brittle transition behavior of the specimens. With decreasing test temperature the fracture mode was transformed from ductile to brittle for both kinds of specimens with and without W films. The data of the crack initiation energy, crack propagation energy, impact absorbing energy, fracture time and deflection as well as the fracture morphologies at test temperature of -70 ℃ show that W films can improve the impact toughness of stainless steel.

  8. A head impact detection system using SVM classification and proximity sensing in an instrumented mouthguard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lyndia C; Zarnescu, Livia; Nangia, Vaibhav; Cam, Bruce; Camarillo, David B

    2014-11-01

    Injury from blunt head impacts causes acute neurological deficits and may lead to chronic neurodegeneration. A head impact detection device can serve both as a research tool for studying head injury mechanisms and a clinical tool for real-time trauma screening. The simplest approach is an acceleration thresholding algorithm, which may falsely detect high-acceleration spurious events such as manual manipulation of the device. We designed a head impact detection system that distinguishes head impacts from nonimpacts through two subsystems. First, we use infrared proximity sensing to determine if the mouthguard is worn on the teeth to filter out all off-teeth events. Second, on-teeth, nonimpact events are rejected using a support vector machine classifier trained on frequency domain features of linear acceleration and rotational velocity. The remaining events are classified as head impacts. In a controlled laboratory evaluation, the present system performed substantially better than a 10-g acceleration threshold in head impact detection (98% sensitivity, 99.99% specificity, 99% accuracy, and 99.98% precision, compared to 92% sensitivity, 58% specificity, 65% accuracy, and 37% precision). Once adapted for field deployment by training and validation with field data, this system has the potential to effectively detect head trauma in sports, military service, and other high-risk activities.

  9. In Their Voice: Lower Secondary School Students' Beliefs about Playing Musical Instruments, and the Impact of the Instrument Lesson upon Those Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    Many young West Australians learn musical instruments through school based elective programs. However, many students drop out from these programs, particularly in lower secondary school. This paper reports on a study I conducted into the motives of 48 lower secondary school students for playing a musical instrument, and the role of the instrument…

  10. Impact of Passive Safety on FHR Instrumentation Systems Design and Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) will rely more extensively on passive safety than earlier reactor classes. 10CFR50 Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum design requirements to provide reasonable assurance of adequate safety. 10CFR50.69, Risk-Informed Categorization and Treatment of Structures, Systems and Components for Nuclear Power Reactors, provides guidance on how the safety significance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) should be reflected in their regulatory treatment. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has provided 10 CFR 50.69 SSC Categorization Guideline (NEI-00-04) that factors in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model insights, as well as deterministic insights, through an integrated decision-making panel. Employing the PRA to inform deterministic requirements enables an appropriately balanced, technically sound categorization to be established. No FHR currently has an adequate PRA or set of design basis accidents to enable establishing the safety classification of its SSCs. While all SSCs used to comply with the general design criteria (GDCs) will be safety related, the intent is to limit the instrumentation risk significance through effective design and reliance on inherent passive safety characteristics. For example, FHRs have no safety-significant temperature threshold phenomena, thus enabling the primary and reserve reactivity control systems required by GDC 26 to be passively, thermally triggered at temperatures well below those for which core or primary coolant boundary damage would occur. Moreover, the passive thermal triggering of the primary and reserve shutdown systems may relegate the control rod drive motors to the control system, substantially decreasing the amount of safety-significant wiring needed. Similarly, FHR decay heat removal systems are intended to be running continuously to minimize the amount of safety-significant instrumentation needed to initiate

  11. Impact of optical distortions on fiber positioning in the dark energy spectroscopic instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephen; Lampton, Michael; Doel, A. Peter; Brooks, David; Miller, Tim; Besuner, Robert; Silber, Joe; Liang, Ming; Sprayberry, David; Baltay, Charles; Rabinowitz, David

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, to be located at the prime focus of the Mayall telescope, includes a wide field corrector, a 5000 fiber positioner system, and a fiber view camera. The mapping of the sky to the focal plane, needed to position the fibers accurately, is described in detail. A major challenge is dealing with the large amount of distortion introduced by the optics (of order 10% scale change), including time-dependent non-axisymmetric distortions introduced by the atmospheric dispersion compensator. Solutions are presented to measure or mitigate these effects.

  12. Impact of Distortions on Fiber Position Location in the dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Stephen [Fermilab; Lampton, Michael [UC, Berkeley, Space Sci. Dept.; Doel, A. Peter [University Coll. London; Brooks, David [University Coll. London; Miller, Tim [UC, Berkeley, Space Sci. Dept.; Besuner, Robert [UC, Berkeley, Space Sci. Dept.; Silber, Joe [LBNL, Berkeley; Liang, Ming [NOAO, Tucson; Sprayberry, David [NOAO, Tucson; Baltay, Charles [Yale U.; Rabinowitz, David [Yale U.

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, to be located at the prime focus of the Mayall telescope, includes a wide field corrector, a 5000 fiber positioner system, and a fiber view camera. The mapping of the sky to the focal plane, needed to position the fibers accurately, is described in detail. A major challenge is dealing with the large amount of distortion introduced by the optics (of order 10% scale change), including time-dependent non-axisymmetric distortions introduced by the atmospheric dispersion compensator. Solutions are presented to measure or mitigate these effects.

  13. Dynamic Toughness Testing of Pre-Cracked Charpy V-Notch Specimens. Convention ELECTRABEL - SCK-CEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E

    1999-04-01

    This document describes the experimental and analytical procedures which have been adopted at the laboratories of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for performing dynamic toughness tests on pre-cracked Charpy-V specimens. Such procedures were chosen on the basis of the existing literature on the subject, with several updates in the data analysis stages which reflect more recent developments in fracture toughness testing. Qualification tests have been carried out on PCCv specimens of JRQ steel, in order to assess the reliability of the results obtained; straightforward comparisons with reference data have been performed, as well as more advanced analyses using the Master Curve approach. Aspects related to machine compliance and dynamic tup calibration have also been addressed.

  14. Educational Impact of a Didactic Instrument That Complements the TADIR for Concepts of Statics in Engineering Students in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Alonso Morales-García

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Observing in school structural designs reviews that students had little conceptual command of Statics, and considering that this was due to the implementation of linear solutions of rote-learning type, there was an effort to establish an educational proposal to raise the level of such knowledge among students. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the educational impact achieved with the implementation of an educational instrument designed according to the sequence established in the TADIR protocol, and complemented with thoughtful activities to organize knowledge to prepare a presentation to the group. Three stages were considered for the implementation: the first one corresponds to the assessment of the level of conceptual knowledge in statics; the second one, a problem solving carried out with the proposed instrument; and the third stage focuses on the preparation of the presentation to the group, and closes with a second conceptual evaluation. The didactic instrument was applied in a group of 23 students from an intermediate level of Architect Engineer studies at the Superior School of Engineering and Architecture (ESIAT of the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN in Mexico. To measure the educational impact, the results were compared with the two conceptual evaluations conducted by using questionnaires that allow answers written within an established format to facilitate the codification and the corresponding analysis, and it was contrasted with school grades for better reference. The main finding was that although the increase in the conceptual command is greater than the school grading, this increase can be very important to improve the school approval rates.

  15. Binary logistic regression-Instrument for assessing museum indoor air impact on exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Elena; Danet, Andrei Florin; Lehr, Carol Blaziu; Lehr, Elena; Nita-Lazar, Mihai

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a new way to assess the environmental impact on historical artifacts using binary logistic regression. The prediction of the impact on the exhibits during certain pollution scenarios (environmental impact) was calculated by a mathematical model based on the binary logistic regression; it allows the identification of those environmental parameters from a multitude of possible parameters with a significant impact on exhibitions and ranks them according to their severity effect. Air quality (NO2, SO2, O3 and PM2.5) and microclimate parameters (temperature, humidity) monitoring data from a case study conducted within exhibition and storage spaces of the Romanian National Aviation Museum Bucharest have been used for developing and validating the binary logistic regression method and the mathematical model. The logistic regression analysis was used on 794 data combinations (715 to develop of the model and 79 to validate it) by a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0). The results from the binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that from six parameters taken into consideration, four of them present a significant effect upon exhibits in the following order: O3>PM2.5>NO2>humidity followed at a significant distance by the effects of SO2 and temperature. The mathematical model, developed in this study, correctly predicted 95.1 % of the cumulated effect of the environmental parameters upon the exhibits. Moreover, this model could also be used in the decisional process regarding the preventive preservation measures that should be implemented within the exhibition space.

  16. Results and Insights on the Impact of Smoke on Digital Instrumentation and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T. J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nowlen, S. P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-01-31

    Smoke can cause interruptions and upsets in active electronics. Because nuclear power plants are replacing analog with digital instrumentation and control systems, qualification guidelines for new systems are being reviewed for severe environments such as smoke and electromagnetic interference. Active digital systems, individual components, and active circuits have been exposed to smoke in a program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The circuits and systems were all monitored during the smoke exposure, indicating any immediate effects of the smoke. The major effect of smoke has been to increase leakage currents (through circuit bridging across contacts and leads) and to cause momentary upsets and failures in digital systems. This report summarizes two previous reports and presents new results from conformal coating, memory chip, and hard drive tests. The report describes practices for mitigation of smoke damage through digital system design, fire barriers, ventilation, fire suppressants, and post fire procedures.

  17. Influence of helium on impact properties of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic Cr-steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, R.; Möslang, A.; Preininger, D.; Rieth, M.; Röhrig, H. D.

    Instrumented Charpy impact tests of the reduced activation type 8Cr2WVTa steel F82H have been performed after homogeneous implantation of 300 appm helium at 250°C. The results are compared with investigations on mixed spectrum neutron irradiated (HFR Petten) specimens. After neutron irradiation at 250°C to the same low damage dose of 0.2 dpa, the ductile-brittle transition temperature shift (ΔDBTT) amounts to 18°C, whereas a much higher ΔDBTT of 42°C has been measured after helium implantation. These results are compared with other neutron irradiated ferritic/martensitic steels having different boron levels and thus different helium contents. A model is proposed which describes the dynamic brittle fracture of martensitic/ferritic steels by a stress-induced propagation of micro-cracks, taking into account radiation induced hardening as well as helium bubble formation.

  18. The Impact II, a Very High-Resolution Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Instrument (QTOF) for Deep Shotgun Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Scarlet; Michalski, Annette; Raether, Oliver; Lubeck, Markus; Kaspar, Stephanie; Goedecke, Niels; Baessmann, Carsten; Hornburg, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Paron, Igor; Kulak, Nils A; Cox, Juergen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry is one of the two major principles used in proteomics. Although based on simple fundamentals, it has over the last decades greatly evolved in terms of achievable resolution, mass accuracy, and dynamic range. The Bruker impact platform of QTOF instruments takes advantage of these developments and here we develop and evaluate the impact II for shotgun proteomics applications. Adaption of our heated liquid chromatography system achieved very narrow peptide elution peaks. The impact II is equipped with a new collision cell with both axial and radial ion ejection, more than doubling ion extraction at high tandem MS frequencies. The new reflectron and detector improve resolving power compared with the previous model up to 80%, i.e. to 40,000 at m/z 1222. We analyzed the ion current from the inlet capillary and found very high transmission (>80%) up to the collision cell. Simulation and measurement indicated 60% transfer into the flight tube. We adapted MaxQuant for QTOF data, improving absolute average mass deviations to better than 1.45 ppm. More than 4800 proteins can be identified in a single run of HeLa digest in a 90 min gradient. The workflow achieved high technical reproducibility (R2 > 0.99) and accurate fold change determination in spike-in experiments in complex mixtures. Using label-free quantification we rapidly quantified haploid against diploid yeast and characterized overall proteome differences in mouse cell lines originating from different tissues. Finally, after high pH reversed-phase fractionation we identified 9515 proteins in a triplicate measurement of HeLa peptide mixture and 11,257 proteins in single measurements of cerebellum-the highest proteome coverage reported with a QTOF instrument so far.

  19. Health impact assessment as an instrument to examine the health implications of education policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, J; Gakh, M; Coughenour, C; Clark, S

    2017-04-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a systematic process that can be used by public health professionals to examine the potential health effects of a policy, plan, program, or project that originates outside of the health sector. This article presents a case study of how an interdisciplinary team utilized an HIA to analyze the potential health impact of full-day kindergarten (FDK) on communities in Nevada. Case study. With stakeholder and community engagement, we conducted a multistage HIA that included qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis, a review of existing literature, and projections. The team considered several pathways through which FDK could impact health in Nevada: (1) school performance; (2) physical development (physical activity and nutrition education); and (3) access to school-based meals and health screenings. Findings indicated that access to FDK could enhance opportunities for Nevada's children to harness school-based services, increase physical activity, and promote nutrition education. In addition, based on existing research that suggests relationships between (1) FDK attendance and 3rd and 5th grade math and reading standardized test scores and (2) 3rd and 5th grade test scores and high school graduation, as well as available state and national data, we estimated that access to FDK could increase high school graduation in Nevada by 499-820 students per year. This HIA demonstrated that access to FDK could impact both student and adult health in Nevada. Our engagement of public health professionals along with stakeholders and the community in the HIA process demonstrated that HIAs can be an important tool for public health professionals to examine the effects on community health of policies, programs, plans or projects that arise outside of the health sector. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physicians' decision process for drug prescription and the impact of pharmaceutical marketing mix instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Katia; De Staebel, Odette; Gijsbrechts, Els; van Waterschoot, Walter

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth, qualitative analysis of the physicians' decision process for drug prescription. Drugs in the considered therapeutic classes are mainly prescribed by specialists, treating patients with obligatory medical insurance, for a prolonged period of time. The research approach is specifically designed to capture the full complexity and sensitive nature of the physician's choice behavior, which appears to be more hybrid and less rational in nature than is often assumed in quantitative, model-based analyses of prescription behavior. Several interesting findings emerge from the analysis: (i) non-compensatory decision rules seem to dominate the decision process, (ii) consideration sets are typically small and change-resistant, (iii) drug cost is not a major issue for most physicians, (iv) detailing remains one of the most powerful pharmaceutical marketing instruments and is highly appreciated as a valuable and quick source of information, and (v) certain types of non-medical marketing incentives (such as free conference participation) may in some situations also influence drug choices.

  1. Interface Effects on the Quasi-Static and Impact Toughness of Discontinuously Reinforced Aluminum Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Todd M.; Hassan, Hala A.; Lewandowski, John J.

    2008-08-01

    Trilayer laminates consisting of two layers of aluminum alloy 7093 surrounding one layer of 7093/SiC/15 p were produced via two roll-bonding techniques as well as by adhesive bonding. The effects of systematic changes in interface characteristics ( i.e., weak bond via roll bonding with a thin ductile interlayer material, stronger bond via roll bonding without a thin ductile interlayer, and strongest bond via adhesive bonding with a semibrittle material) on the subsequent laminate toughness was studied. The fracture resistance of the laminates and the constituent materials was examined via instrumented Charpy notched impact testing in the crack-arrester orientation as well as by fracture-toughness testing of bend bars tested in the crack-divider and the crack-arrester orientations. The notched impact resistance of the trilayer crack-arrester laminates was found to be greater than both monolithic 7093/SiC/15 p and 7093 samples of similar global thickness. The laminated structure promoted crack arrest, deflection, and large-scale deformation of the unreinforced layers, producing R-curve behavior. The tendency for interface delamination was predicted and confirmed based on recent mechanics-based analyses. The trilayer laminate structures tested in the crack-divider orientation exhibited a greater R-curve than either of the 7093/SiC/15 p or 7093 samples tested at similar global thickness. Both types of roll-bonded laminates ( i.e., stronger interface and weak interface containing a thin metal interlayer) exhibited a greater enhancement in Charpy impact toughness and mode I fracture toughness than did the adhesively bonded ( i.e., semibrittle interface) laminates. These relative improvements in toughness were rationalized by estimating the contributions to energy absorption by the delamination and crack bridging in these systems and by the effects of the interface type on these processes. These results are generally relevant to the performance of these materials under

  2. Impact of the disease: acceptability, ceiling and floor effects and reliability of an instrument on heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simey de Lima Lopes Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the acceptability, ceiling/floor effects, and the reliability of the instrument for measuring the Impact of the Disease on the Daily Life of Patients with Valvular Disease (IDCV when applied to 135 patients with heart failure (HF. Acceptability was evaluated by the percentage of unanswered items and by the proportion of patients who responded to all items; the ceiling/floor effects by the percentage of patients who scored in the top of 10% best and worst results of the scale, respectively. Reliability was estimated by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient and stability of the measure (intraclass correlation coefficient - ICC. All patients responded to all items. Ceiling/floor effects evidenced were of moderate magnitude. The Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory for the majority of the domains and ICC> 0.90 in all the domains. The IDCV proved to be an easy to understand questionnaire, with evidence of reliability in patients with HF.

  3. Measuring the impact of health interventions: a review of available instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivens, E; Cunningham, D; Charlton, J; Holland, W W

    1985-01-01

    Interest in the measurement of the impact of health services has been increasing for three main reasons. Policy makers and service providers wish to be reassured that they are: (i) benefitting the public for whom the service is provided; (ii) in times of economic recession and limited resources, achieving the 'best value for money'; and (iii) given the need to make economies in health expenditures, maintaining standards of the health care. Recent developments in information for the evaluation of health services have tended to emphasis the control and monitoring of expenditure in preference to the control and monitoring of quality. There is concern that this might lead to adverse consequences for patients and for the health service as a whole in that the quality of services provided might deteriorate. Health interventions are considered to be successful if they result in a beneficial change in the health of the population for whom they are provided. If the health of the population is not improved, or maintained, questions are raised about either the appropriateness of the intervention in relation to health policies which have been selected, or about the quality of the care which has been provided. Because of this, it is necessary to monitor both the outcome of a heath intervention in terms of the change in the level of health of the population, and also to measure the quality and the effectiveness of the care provided. Health services research has, over the years, developed a number of different types of measures which can be applied to health services and has suggested a number of applications for such measures in terms of the impact on the health of patients and the general population and the quality and effectiveness of health services. The first section of this paper reviews a selection of measures for both health and the effects of health interventions and discusses their applicability as management tools. The use to which such measures are put obviously

  4. The use of instrumented mobile laboratories to determine gaseous pollutant impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnigham, J.E.

    1983-06-01

    Mobile sampling laboratories have been used by the Texas Air Control Board (TACB) to detect and measure the gaseous pollutant impacts from point sources. Mobile sampling enables one to locate zones of relatively high levels of air contaminants and take measurements for any desirable time period. Two types of measurements can be made. The first type is the determination of plume cross-section concentration profile. These measurements are taken while driving the van at a constant speed on a road perpendicular to the direction of plume transport. The second type of measurement is a stationary sample made by monitoring the pollutant concentrations for some time period with the van located at one point. A plume cross-section measurement is made to locate the local point of maximum concentration where stationary sampling may be done most efficaciously.

  5. Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for geochemical analyses of terrestrial impact structures: Current analytical procedures at the University of Vienna Geochemistry Activation Analysis Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, Dieter [Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: dieter.mader@univie.ac.at; Koeberl, Christian [Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: christian.koeberl@univie.ac.at

    2009-12-15

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory at the Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, has been upgraded in the year 2006. This paper describes the sample preparation, new instrumentation and data evaluation for hundreds of rock samples of two terrestrial impact structures. The measurement and data evaluation are done by using Genie{sup TM} 2000 and a custom-made batch software for the used analysis sequences.

  6. Determinación de la tenacidad a la fractura de muestras de Acero 45 fundido, empleando las correlaciones entre el KIC y la energía de impacto medida en el ensayo de Charpy. // Determination of the fracture tenacity of cast Steel grade 45 samples, using th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramos Morales

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinan los valores de tenacidad a la fractura (KIC de muestras de Acero 45 fundido,empleando las correlaciones entre la tenacidad a la fractura y la energía de impacto (CVN obtenida del ensayo de Charpy.Se hace una discusión sobre las correlaciones que más se ajustan en la región de transición y en upper shelf. Se comparanlos valores obtenidos de estas correlaciones a valores de tenacidad a la fractura establecidos en la literatura.Palabras claves: Fractura, energía de impacto, acero fundido.______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper, the values of fracture toughness (KIC are determined on specimens of cast steel grade 45, using thecorrelations among the fracture toughness (KIC and the impact energy (CVN obtained from a Charpy test. A discussion ismade on the correlations that are better adjusted in the transition region and in upper shelf region. The obtained values arecompared from these correlations to values of fracture toughness (KIC settled down in the literature.Key words. Fracture, impact energy, cast steel.

  7. Developing a theory-based instrument to assess the impact of continuing professional development activities on clinical practice: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau Michel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuing professional development (CPD is one of the principal means by which health professionals (i.e. primary care physicians and specialists maintain, improve, and broaden the knowledge and skills required for optimal patient care and safety. However, the lack of a widely accepted instrument to assess the impact of CPD activities on clinical practice thwarts researchers' comparisons of the effectiveness of CPD activities. Using an integrated model for the study of healthcare professionals' behaviour, our objective is to develop a theory-based, valid, reliable global instrument to assess the impact of accredited CPD activities on clinical practice. Methods Phase 1: We will analyze the instruments identified in a systematic review of factors influencing health professionals' behaviours using criteria that reflect the literature on measurement development and CPD decision makers' priorities. The outcome of this phase will be an inventory of instruments based on social cognitive theories. Phase 2: Working from this inventory, the most relevant instruments and their related items for assessing the concepts listed in the integrated model will be selected. Through an e-Delphi process, we will verify whether these instruments are acceptable, what aspects need revision, and whether important items are missing and should be added. The outcome of this phase will be a new global instrument integrating the most relevant tools to fit our integrated model of healthcare professionals' behaviour. Phase 3: Two data collections are planned: (1 a test-retest of the new instrument, including item analysis, to assess its reliability and (2 a study using the instrument before and after CPD activities with a randomly selected control group to explore the instrument's mere-measurement effect. Phase 4: We will conduct individual interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders to identify anticipated barriers and enablers for implementing the

  8. Understanding human visual systems and its impact on our intelligent instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strojnik Scholl, Marija; Páez, Gonzalo; Scholl, Michelle K.

    2013-09-01

    We review the evolution of machine vision and comment on the cross-fertilization from the neural sciences onto flourishing fields of neural processing, parallel processing, and associative memory in optical sciences and computing. Then we examine how the intensive efforts in mapping the human brain have been influenced by concepts in computer sciences, control theory, and electronic circuits. We discuss two neural paths that employ the input from the vision sense to determine the navigational options and object recognition. They are ventral temporal pathway for object recognition (what?) and dorsal parietal pathway for navigation (where?), respectively. We describe the reflexive and conscious decision centers in cerebral cortex involved with visual attention and gaze control. Interestingly, these require return path though the midbrain for ocular muscle control. We find that the cognitive psychologists currently study human brain employing low-spatial-resolution fMRI with temporal response on the order of a second. In recent years, the life scientists have concentrated on insect brains to study neural processes. We discuss how reflexive and conscious gaze-control decisions are made in the frontal eye field and inferior parietal lobe, constituting the fronto-parietal attention network. We note that ethical and experiential learnings impact our conscious decisions.

  9. Simulation of Impacts of Changing in the International Standard of Financial Instruments (IFRS 9 in the Major Brazilian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Sayed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to verify the impact of changes in the net profit and their respective volatilities resulting from changes of the international standard of financial instruments, from IAS 39 to IFRS 9, in regard to aspects: (i the future change in the methodology of the impairment calculated e (ii the elimination of the category "available for sale" and their reclassification to the category "fair value through profit or loss". The study was based on simulations in profits expected to sixteen quarters, from 31/12/2010 to 31/12/2014, to the five largest financial institutions in Brazil. For such simulations it were projected interest rates that fluctuate according to the estimated model of the term structure of interest rates using the Monte Carlo method. According to the projected interest rates set new credit risk levels, which resulted changes in the impairment and fair value of financial assets previously classified as available for sale. The results showed an early impact in Q1, in view of their adaptation to the new standard. Subsequently, there was no significant change in the results and their respective volatilities.

  10. Three-dimensional visualisation and articulating instrumentation: Impact on simulated laparoscopic tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittner James

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopy requires the development of technical skills distinct from those used in open procedures. Several factors extending the learning curve of laparoscopy include ergonomic and technical difficulties, such as the fulcrum effect and limited degrees of freedom. This study aimed to establish the impact of four variables on performance of two simulated laparoscopic tasks. Methods: Six subjects including novice (n=2, intermediate (n=2 and expert surgeons completed two tasks: 1 four running sutures, 2 simple suture followed by surgeon′s knot plus four square knots. Task variables were suturing angle (left/right, needle holder type (standard/articulating and visualisation (2D/3D. Each task with a given set of variables was completed twice in random order. The endpoints included suturing task completion time, average and maximum distance from marks and knot tying task completion time. Results: Suturing task completion time was prolonged by 45-degree right angle suturing, articulating needle holder use and lower skill levels (all P < 0.0001. Accuracy also decreased with articulating needle holder use (both P < 0.0001. 3D vision affected only maximum distance ( P =0.0108. For the knot tying task, completion time was greater with 45-degree right angle suturing ( P =0.0015, articulating needle holder use ( P < 0.0001, 3D vision ( P =0.0014 and novice skill level ( P =0.0003. Participants felt that 3D visualisation offered subjective advantages during training. Conclusions: Results suggest construct validity. A 3D personal head display and articulating needle holder do not immediately improve task completion times or accuracy and may increase the training burden of laparoscopic suturing and knot tying.

  11. Comparing Aerosol Retrievals from Ground-Based Instruments at the Impact-Pm Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupinski, M.; Bradley, C. L.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Xu, F.; Diner, D. J.; Clements, C. B.; Camacho, C.

    2016-12-01

    Detection of aerosol types, components having different size and chemical composition, over urban areas is important for understanding their impact on health and climate. In particular, sustained contact with size-differentiated airborne particulate matter: PM10 and PM2.5 can lead to adverse health effects such as asthma attacks, heart and lung diseases, and premature mortality. Multi-angular polarimetric measurements have been advocated in recent years as an additional tool to better understand and retrieve the aerosol properties needed for improved predictions of aerosol impart on air quality and climate. We deployed the ground-based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (GroundMSPI) for accurate spectropolarimetric and radiance measurements co-located with the AERONET CIMEL sun photometer and a Halo Doppler 18 m resolution lidar from San José State University at the Garland-Fresno Air Quality supersite in Fresno, CA on July 7 during the Imaging Polarimetric Assessment and Characterization of Tropospheric Particulate Matter (ImPACT-PM) field experiment. GroundMSPI sampled the atmospheric scattering phase function in and 90 degrees out of the principal plane every 15 minutes in an automated manner, utilizing the 2-axis gimbal mount in elevation and azimuth. The goal of this work is verify atmospheric measurement of GroundMSPI with the coincident CIMEL sun photometer and ground-based lidar. Diffuse-sky radiance measurements of GroundMSPI are compared with the CIMEL sun photometer throughout the day. AERONET aerosol parameters such as size, shape, and index of refraction as well as lidar aerosol extinction profiles will be used in a forward radiative transfer model to compare with GroundMSPI observations and optimize these parameters to best match GroundMSPI data.

  12. Irradiation programme MANITU: Results of pre-examinations and Charpy tests with unirradiated materials; Bestrahlungsprogramm MANITU. Ergebnisse der Voruntersuchungen und der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche mit den unbestrahlten Werkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.; Ries, H.; Romer, O.

    1995-04-01

    The irradiation project MANITU was planned in the frame of the European Long-term Fusion Materials Development Programme. The results of MANITU will have a lasting influence on the future actions within the materials development programme. The problem of the irradiation induced embrittlement of possible martensitic alloy candidates is still unsolved. But after the evaluation of sub-size Charpy tests with the unirradiated refrence specimens of MANITU a first tendency is recognizable. The Charpy properties of the newly developed low activation 7-10% Cr-WVTa alloys are clearly better compared with the modified commerical 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb steels. In the present report the pre-examinations are documented and the Charpy test results with unirradiated reference specimens are analysed and assessed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bestrahlungsprojekt MANITU wurde im Rahmen des europaeischen Langzeitprogramms fuer Materialentwicklung fuer die Kernfusion geplant. Die daraus gewonnenen Ergebnisse werden das weitere Vorgehen bei der Materialentwicklung entscheidend beeinflussen. Das Problem der bestrahlungsinduzierten Versproedung bei den in Frage kommenden martensitischen Werkstoffen ist nach wie vor ungeloest. Eine erste Tendenz zeichnet sich nach der Auswertung der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche an den unbestrahlten miniaturisierten Referenzproben des MANITU-Programms ab. Die neu entwickelten niedrig aktivierbaren 7-10% Cr-WVTa-Legierungen weisen gegenueber den modifizierten kommerziellen 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb-Staehlen deutlich bessere Kerbschlageigenschaften auf. Im vorliegenden Bericht werden die Voruntersuchungen dokumentiert und die Ergebnisse aus den Kerbschlagbiegeversuchen der unbestrahlten Referenzproben analysiert und bewertet. (orig.)

  13. Irradiation programme MANITU: results of impact tests with the irradiated materials (2,4 dpa); Bestrahlungsprogramm MANITU. Ergebnisse der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche mit den bis 2,4 dpa bestrahlten Werkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, H.C.; Dafferner, B.; Ries, H.; Romer, O.

    2001-05-01

    The irradiation project MANITU was planned and carried out in the frame of the European long-term fusion materials development programme. The problem of the irradiation induced embrittlement of possible martensitic alloy candidates is still unsolved. But after the evaluation of sub-size Charpy tests with the unirradiated reference specimens of MANITU a first tendency was recognizable. The mechanical properties of the newly developed low activation 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa alloys are partly better compared to the modified commercial 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb steels. After the evaluation of subsize Charpy tests with specimens irradiated up to 0.2 and 0.8 dpa in the first phase of the MANITU programme, better mechanical properties of the 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa alloys were obvious. In the present report the results of instrumented impact tests within the second phase of the MANITU programme (irradiation dose 2.4 dpa, irradiation temperatures 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 C) are analysed and assessed in comparison to the results of the irradiation up to 0.2 and 0.8 dpa in the first phase of the project. Among the examined alloys (MANET-I/II, K-Heat, OPTIFER-Ia/II, F82H, ORNL 3791) the ORNL steel shows the very best embrittlement behaviour after neutron irradiation. (orig.)

  14. Impact of newborn follow-up visit timing on subsequent ED visits and hospital readmissions: an instrumental variable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Heather C; Colman, Gregory; Trachtman, Rebecca A; Velazco, Nerissa; Racine, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether newborn first outpatient visit (FOV) within 3 days of discharge is associated with reduced rates of emergency department (ED) visits and hospital readmissions. Retrospective cohort analysis was performed of all newborns who were born and had outpatient follow-up within a large academic medical center to determine whether they had ED visits or hospital readmission within 2 weeks after hospital discharge. Multivariable regression using an instrumental variable for timing of FOV was conducted to estimate the relationship between FOV within 3 days of discharge and ED visits and hospital readmissions within 2 weeks of discharge, adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses assessed this relationship in subpopulations with medical or social risk factors. Of 3282 newborns, 178 (5%) had 1 or more ED visits or hospital readmissions within 2 weeks of hospital discharge. FOV within 3 days was not significantly associated with ED visits and readmissions in the instrumental variable analysis (IVA) (-0.035, P = .11) or the ordinary least squares analysis (OLS) (0.006, P = .52). The difference in coefficients between these analyses, however, suggests that IVA successfully adjusted for some unmeasured bias. In stratified analyses, only newborns born to African American mothers or discharged by family medicine providers demonstrated a significant relationship between FOV within 3 days and reduced odds of ED visits and readmissions. No significant relationship between outpatient visit timing and ED visits and hospital readmissions was found. Further study is needed to assess the impact of early outpatient visits on other newborn outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Numerical modelling of Charpy-V notch test by local approach to fracture. Application to an A508 steel in the ductile-brittle transition range; Modelisation de l'essai Charpy par l'approche locale de la rupture. Application au cas de l'acier 16MND5 dans le domaine de transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, B

    2001-07-15

    Ferritic steels present a transition of the rupture mode which goes progressively of a brittle rupture (cleavage) to a ductile rupture when the temperature increases. The following of the difference of the transition temperature of the PWR vessel steel by the establishment of toughness curves makes of the Charpy test an integrating part of the monitoring of the French PWR reactors. In spite of the advantages which are adapted to it in particular its cost, the Charpy test does not allow to obtain directly a variable which characterizes a crack propagation resistance as for instance the toughness used for qualifying the mechanical integrity of a structure. This work deals with the establishment of the through impact strength-toughness in the transition range of the vessel steel: 16MND5 from a non-empirical approach based on the local approach of the rupture. The brittle rupture is described by the Beremin model (1983), which allows to describe the dispersion inherent in this rupture mode. The description of the brittle fissure is carried out by the GTN model (1984) and by the Rousselier model (1986). This last model has been modified in order to obtain a realistic description of the brittle damage in the case of fast solicitations and of local heating. The method proposed to determine the parameters of the damage models depends only of tests on notched specimens and of the inclusion data of the material. The behaviour is described by an original formulation parametrized in temperature which allows to describe all the tests carried out in this study. Before using this methodology, an experimental study of the behaviour and of the rupture modes of the steel 16MND5 has been carried out. From the toughness tests carried out in quasi-static and dynamical conditions, it has been revealed that this steel does not present important unwedging of its toughness curve due to the velocity effect. In the transition range, local heating of about 150 C have been measured in the root

  16. Reliability and construct validity of the Instrument to Measure the Impact of Valve Heart Disease on the Patient's Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Daniela Brianne Martins Dos; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Padilha, Kátia Melissa; Pedrosa, Rafaela Batista Dos Santos; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2016-12-19

    evaluate the practicality, acceptability and the floor and ceiling effects, estimate the reliability and verify the convergent construct's validity with the instrument called the Heart Valve Disease Impact on daily life (IDCV) of the valve disease in patients with mitral and or aortic heart valve disease. data was obtained from 86 heart valve disease patients through 3 phases: a face to face interview for a socio-demographic and clinic characterization and then other two done through phone calls of the interviewed patients for application of the instrument (test and repeat test). as for the practicality and acceptability, the instrument was applied with an average time of 9,9 minutes and with 110% of responses, respectively. Ceiling and floor effects observed for all domains, especially floor effect. Reliability was tested using the test - repeating pattern to give evidence of temporal stability of the measurement. Significant negative correlations with moderate to strong magnitude were found between the score of the generic question about the impact of the disease and the scores of IDCV, which points to the validity of the instrument convergent construct. the instrument to measure the impact of valve heart disease on the patient's daily life showed evidence of reliability and validity when applied to patients with heart valve disease. avaliar a praticabilidade, aceitabilidade e os efeitos teto e chão, estimar a confiabilidade e verificar a validade de construto convergente do Instrumento para Mensuração do Impacto da Doença no Cotidiano do Valvopata em pacientes com valvopatia mitral e/ou aórtica. dados foram obtidos junto a 86 pacientes valvopatas por meio de três etapas: uma entrevista presencial para caracterização sociodemográfica e clínica e as duas outras realizadas por meio de contato telefônico para as aplicações do instrumento (Teste e teste de repetição). quanto à praticabilidade e aceitabilidade, o instrumento foi aplicado com tempo m

  17. INFLUENCE OF COOLING RATE DURING QUENCHING ON IMPACT TOUGHNESS OF A HOT-WORK TOOL STEEL AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURE AND AT 200 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Jesperson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Gross cracking of die-casting dies with inferior toughness sometimes occurs through too low preheating temperature and/or too slow cooling during quenching. This study aimed to clarify the influence of cooling rate on the toughness of the hot-work tool steel grade Uddeholm Vidar Superior at ambient temperature and at 200 °C, a typical preheating temperature for aluminium die-casting dies. Toughness was measured through instrumented Charpy V-notch impact testing. The decrease in energy absorption with increasing cooling time between 800°C and 500°C both at both ambient temperature and 200 °C was pronounced. At ambient temperature, the decrease in total energy was a consequence of a decrease in initiation energy whereas, at 200 °C, the decrease in total energy was due to a decrease in propagation energy.

  18. 46 CFR 54.05-20 - Impact test properties for service of 0 °F and below.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impact test properties for service of 0 °F and below... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Toughness Tests § 54.05-20 Impact test properties for service of 0 °F and below. (a) Test energy. The impact energies of each set of transverse Charpy specimens may not be less...

  19. Numerical study of the Notch Location of the Impact Test Specimens on the HAZ of SA516 Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yun Chan; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Young Seog [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jae Keun; Park, Ji Hong [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Experimental and numerical studies were performed to examine the effects of notch position on the failure behavior and energy absorption when the Charpy V-notch impact test is made at 1 .deg. C. For this purpose, carbon steel plate (SA-516 Gr. 70) with thickness of 25mm usually used for pressure vessel was welded by SMAW (Shielded Metal-Arc Welding) method and specimens were fabricated from the welded plate. The Charpy impact tests were then performed with specimens having different notch positions varying within HAZ. A series of three-dimensional FE analysis which simulates the Charpy test and crack propagation are carried out as well to examine the reproducibility of test results. The FE analysis takes into account the heterogeneous mechanical properties with complex microstructures in HAZ. Results reveal that the absorbed energies during impact test depend significantly on the notch position.

  20. Impact energy analysis of HSLA specimens after simulated welding thermal cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarždić, I.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents impact energy results of specimens made from high strength fine grained steel TStE 420 after thermal cycle simulation. These results are obtained by examining Charpy specimens. Metallographic analysis is performed, hardness is measured and total impact energy is divided into ductile and brittle components.

  1. [The impact factor: a factor of impact or the impact of a (sole) factor? The limits of a bibliometric indicator as a candidate for an instrument to evaluate scientific production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensini, G F; Conti, A A

    1999-01-01

    The Impact Factor is a bibliometric quantitative parameter introduced in 1971 and used to evaluate, classify and compare scientific journals. It is essentially the ratio between the number of citations they receive, computed on the basis of those included in the Science Citation Index, and the number of published articles. It is thus a dynamic parameter and an indicator of the editorial quality of a journal. It has also been considered a putative index of the scientific production of a single author. The Impact Factor was first proposed as a useful instrument for planning library choices, programming personal journal buying and reading, and directing scientific journal editors in their editorial strategies. However, since among the numerous variables which may influence the Impact Factor there are such parameters as: the average number of bibliographical references in a single article, self-citations, "salami publications", the Impact Factor, though adequate to judge entities such as journals, institutions and whole scientific communities, seems on the contrary inadequate to evaluate accurately the quality of the single investigator, paper, and research group. Furthermore, a limited number of papers, all focused on the so-called "hot topics", may contribute to increase the Impact Factor of a single journal. There is therefore still much research to be done to find truly "objective" methods to evaluate critically the "quality" (and not only the "quantity") of the work of a single author, a scientific group, and an entire institution, so that not only quantitative, but also qualitative evidence may be acquired!

  2. Qualitative Assessment of the Symptoms and Impact of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency (PEI) to Inform the Development of a Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Colin D; Arbuckle, Rob; Bonner, Nicola; Connett, Gary; Dominguez-Munoz, Enrique; Levy, Philippe; Staab, Doris; Williamson, Nicola; Lerch, Markus M

    2017-03-22

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) affects patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and cystic fibrosis (CF) who produce insufficient digestive pancreatic enzymes. Common symptoms include steatorrhoea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. The objective of the study was to develop and test the content validity of a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument assessing PEI symptoms and their impact on health-related quality of life. Instrument development was supported by a literature review, expert physician interviews (n = 10: Germany 4, UK 3, France 3), and exploratory, qualitative, concept-elicitation interviews with patients with CF and CP with PEI (n = 61: UK 29, Germany 18, France 14) and expert physicians (n = 10). Cognitive debriefing of the draft instrument was then performed with patients with PEI (n = 37: UK 24, Germany 8, France 5), and feasibility was assessed with physicians (n = 3). For all interviews, verbatim transcripts were qualitatively analysed using thematic analysis methods and Atlas.ti computerized qualitative software. All themes were data driven rather than a priori. Patient interviews elicited symptoms and impacts not reported in the literature. Six symptom concepts emerged: pain, bloating, bowel symptoms, nausea/vomiting, eating problems, and tiredness/fatigue. Six impact domains were also identified. A 45-item instrument was developed in English, French, and German for testing in cognitive debriefing patient interviews. Following cognitive debriefing, 18 items were deleted. Rigorous qualitative patient research and expert clinical input supported development of a PEI-specific PRO with the potential to aid management and monitoring of unmet needs among patients with PEI. The next step is to perform psychometric evaluation of the resulting instrument.

  3. The development and psychometric evaluation of a multi-dimensional measurement instrument of employability - and the impact of aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijde, van der C.M.; Heijden, van der B.I.J.M.; Costa, G.; Goedhart, W.J.A.; Ilmarinen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The employability of workers enables organizations to meet their fluctuating demands for numerical and functional flexibility, two very important factors for organizations to remain competitive in today's dynamic markets. Clear definitions and measurement instruments for the concept of employability

  4. Impact energy analysis of quenched and tempered fine grain structural steel specimens after weld thermal cycle simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dunđer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents impact energy results of thermal cycle simulated specimens of quenched and tempered fine grain structural steel S960QL. These results are obtained by examining notched Charpy specimens. Upon performed metallographic analysis and measured hardness, total impact energy is separated into ductile and brittle components.

  5. Impact toughness of high strength low alloy TMT reinforcement ribbed bar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bimal Kumar Panigrahi; Surendra Kumar Jain

    2002-08-01

    Charpy V-notch impact toughness of 600 MPa yield stress TMT rebars alloyed with copper, phosphorus, chromium and molybdenum has been evaluated. Subsize Charpy specimens were machined from the rebar keeping the tempered martensite rim intact. The copper–phosphorus rebar showed toughness of 35 J at room temperature. The toughness of copper–molybdenum and copper–chromium rebars was 52 J. The lower toughness of phosphorus steel is attributed to solid solution strengthening and segregation of phosphorus to grain boundaries. Due to superior corrosion resistance, copper–phosphorus TMT rebar is a candidate material in the construction sector.

  6. Impact toughness and fracture toughness of austempered ductile iron

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingcheng; Guoxiong SUN

    2004-01-01

    The impact toughness and fracture toughness ofaustermpered ductile iron (ADI) are described. The notched and un-notched charpy impact toughness of ADI at room temperature are somewhat lower than that of steel castings or forged steel pieces, however, they are approximately three times higher than that of mormal pearlitic ductile iron. The impact toughness of ADI decreases with decreasing temperature; but at -40 ℃ it still maintains about 70% of the value at room temperature. The properties of...

  7. Analysing the interactions between renewable energy promotion and energy efficiency support schemes: The impact of different instruments and design elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del, E-mail: pablo.delrio@cchs.csic.e [Instituto de Politicas y Bienes Publicos, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, renewable energy deployment and energy efficiency are three main energy/environmental goals, particularly in Europe. Their relevance has led to the implementation of support schemes in these realms. Their coexistence may lead to overlaps, synergies and conflicts between them. The aim of this paper is to analyse the interactions between energy efficiency measures and renewable energy promotion, whereas previous analyses have focused on the interactions between emissions trading schemes (ETS) and energy efficiency measures and ETS and renewable energy promotion schemes. Furthermore, the analysis in this paper transcends the 'certificate' debate (i.e., tradable green and white certificates) and considers other instruments, particularly feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity. The goal is to identify positive and negative interactions between energy efficiency and renewable electricity promotion and to assess whether the choice of specific instruments and design elements within those instruments affects the results of the interactions.

  8. Analysing the interactions between renewable energy promotion and energy efficiency support schemes. The impact of different instruments and design elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Rio, Pablo [Instituto de Politicas y Bienes Publicos, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, renewable energy deployment and energy efficiency are three main energy/environmental goals, particularly in Europe. Their relevance has led to the implementation of support schemes in these realms. Their coexistence may lead to overlaps, synergies and conflicts between them. The aim of this paper is to analyse the interactions between energy efficiency measures and renewable energy promotion, whereas previous analyses have focused on the interactions between emissions trading schemes (ETS) and energy efficiency measures and ETS and renewable energy promotion schemes. Furthermore, the analysis in this paper transcends the certificate debate (i.e., tradable green and white certificates) and considers other instruments, particularly feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity. The goal is to identify positive and negative interactions between energy efficiency and renewable electricity promotion and to assess whether the choice of specific instruments and design elements within those instruments affects the results of the interactions. (author)

  9. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  10. A new test of the construct validity of the CarerQol instrument: Measuring the impact of informal care giving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hoefman (Renske); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); S. Looren De Jong (Sandra); E. Orlewska (William Ken); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Most economic evaluations of health care programmes do not consider the effects of informal care, while this could lead to suboptimal policy decisions. This study investigates the construct validity of the CarerQol instrument, which measures and values carer effects, in a new po

  11. Cognitive, Affective, and Meta-Cognitive Skill Development through Instrumental Music: A Positive Impact on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the skills students develop through participation in instrumental music and the effect it has on their academic achievement through student and parent/guardian surveys. Fifty-eight percent of cognitive skills were identified as being obtained by a majority of students, 70% of affective skills, and 71% of meta-cognitive skills…

  12. Numerical and experimental evaluation of the impact performance of advanced high-strength steel sheets based on a damage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Park, Taejoon; Kim, Dongun; Kim, Chongmin; Chung, Kwansoo

    2010-06-01

    The impact performance in a Charpy impact test was experimentally and numerically studied for the advanced high-strength steel sheets (AHSS) TWIP940 and TRIP590 as well as the high-strength grade known as 340R. To characterize the mechanical properties, uni-axial simple tension tests were conducted to determine the anisotropic properties and strain rate sensitivities of these materials. In particular, the high-speed strain-rate sensitivity of TRIP590 and 340R (rate sensitive) was also characterized to account for the high strain rates involved in the Charpy impact test. To evaluate fracture behavior in the Charpy impact test, a new damage model including a triaxiality-dependent fracture criterion and hardening behavior with stiffness deterioration was introduced. The model was calibrated via numerical simulations and experiments involving simple tension and V-notch tests. The new damage model along with the anisotropic yield function Hill 1948 was incorporated into the ABAQUS/Explicit FEM code, which performed reasonably well to predict the impact energy absorbed during the Charpy impact test.

  13. Development of an instrument to assess the impact of an enhanced experiential model on pharmacy students' learning opportunities, skills and attitudes: A retrospective comparative-experimentalist study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins John B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacy schools across North America have been charged to ensure their students are adequately skilled in the principles and practices of pharmaceutical care. Despite this mandate, a large percentage of students experience insufficient opportunities to practice the activities, tasks and processes essential to pharmaceutical care. The objective of this retrospective study of pharmacy students was to: (1 as "proof of concept", test the overall educational impact of an enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experiential (APPE model on student competencies; (2 develop an instrument to measure students' and preceptors' experiences; and (3 assess the psychometric properties of the instrument. Methods A comparative-experimental design, using student and preceptor surveys, was used to evaluate the impact of the enhanced community-based APPE over the traditional APPE model. The study was grounded in a 5-stage learning model: (1 an enhanced learning climate leads to (2 better utilization of learning opportunities, including (3 more frequent student/patient consultation, then to (4 improved skills acquisition, thence to (5 more favorable attitudes toward pharmaceutical care practice. The intervention included a one-day preceptor workshop, a comprehensive on-site student orientation and extending the experience from two four-week experiences in different pharmacies to one eight-week in one pharmacy. Results The 35 student and 38 preceptor survey results favored the enhanced model; with students conducting many more patient consultations and reporting greater skills improvement. In addition, the student self-assessment suggested changes in attitudes favoring pharmaceutical care principles. Psychometric testing showed the instrument to be sensitive, valid and reliable in ascertaining differences between the enhanced and traditional arms. Conclusion The enhanced experiential model positively affects learning opportunities and competency

  14. The development and validation of the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS): a 13-item screening instrument for alcohol and drug and mental health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Carla M; Ober, Coralie; McCarthy, Molly M; Watson, Joanne D; Seinen, Anita

    2007-03-01

    The study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS) as a screening instrument for determining (i) the presence of alcohol and drug and mental health risk in Indigenous adult Australians and (ii) the cut-off scores that discriminate most effectively between the presence and absence of risk. A cross-sectional survey was used in clinical and non-clinical Indigenous and non-Indigenous services across Queensland Australia. A total of 175 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from urban, rural, regional and remote locations in Queensland took part in the study. Measures included the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS), the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ). Additional Mental Health measures included the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ). Principle axis factoring analysis of the IRIS revealed two factors corresponding with (i) alcohol and drug and (ii) mental health. The IRIS alcohol and drug and mental health subscales demonstrated good convergent validity with other well-established screening instruments and both subscales showed high internal consistency. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to generate cut-offs for the two subscales and t-tests validated the utility of these cut-offs for determining risky levels of drinking. The study validated statistically the utility of the IRIS as a screen for alcohol and drug and mental health risk. The instrument is therefore recommended as a brief screening instrument for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

  15. Long-Term Forecast 2012 - An impact analysis of existing policy instruments in energy- and climate area; Laangsiktsprognos 2012 - En konsekvensanalys av gaellande styrmedel inom energi- och klimatomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The Energy Agency has a mandate that under 'Ordinance on climate reporting' (SFS 2005:626) out projections for the energy sector of the European Parliament and Council Decision No 280/2004/EC concerning a 'Mechanism for monitoring the emissions of the Community greenhouse gas'. This report contains a reference trajectory until 2030, and two sensitivity scenarios. The forecast is based on existing instruments, which means that results of the report should not be regarded as a proper projection of future energy, but as the impact of current policy instruments given different conditions such as economic growth and fuel prices. The Energy Authority's long-term forecasts are studied energy system's long-term development on the basis of policy instruments and several assumed conditions. The conditions for this long-term prognosis was established in January 2012 and has its basis in the policy instruments decided until the turn of 2011/2012. The work was partially done in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency assignments 'Assignment to provide input to a Swedish road map for Sweden without greenhouse gas emissions in 2050' as reported in December 2012. For a short-term development of the energy system the reader is referred to the Energy Authority's short-term forecasts that extend two to three years into the future and that are produced twice a year. Energy Agency's long-term projections are impact assessments with time horizon of 10-20 years which aims to describe the energy system's future development, provided a range of assumed conditions. If any of these conditions change it will also change forecast results. Economic development is an important assumption for the assessment of future energy.

  16. Definition of the minimum longitude of insert in the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes for surveillance and life extension of vessels in Mexico; Definicion de la longitud minima de inserto en la reconstitucion de probetas Charpy para vigilancia y extension de vida de vasijas en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M., E-mail: jesus.romero@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico) a welding system for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes has been developed, automated, qualified and used for the surveillance of the mechanical properties (mainly embrittlement) of the vessel. This system uses the halves of the rehearsed Charpy test tubes of the surveillance capsules extracted of the reactors, to obtain, of a rehearsed test tube, two reconstituted test tubes. This rebuilding process is used so much in the surveillance program like in the potential extension of the operation license of the vessel. To the halves of Charpy test tubes that have been removed the deformed part by machine are called -insert- and in a very general way the rebuilding consists in weld with the welding process -Stud Welding- two metallic implants in the ends of the insert, to obtain a reconstituted test tube. The main characteristic of this welding are the achieved small dimensions, so much of the areas welded as of the areas affected by the heat. The applicable normative settles down that the minim longitude of the insert for the welding process by Stud Welding it should be of 18 mm, however according to the same normative this longitude can diminish if is demonstrated analytic or experimentally that the central volume of 1 cm{sup 3} in the insert is not affected. In this work the measurement of the temperature profiles to different distances of the welding interface is presented, defining an equation for the maximum temperatures reached in function of the distance, on the other hand the real longitude affected in the test tube by means of metallography is determined and this way the minimum longitude of the insert for this developed rebuilding system was determined. (Author)

  17. Electoral impact of public policies Case Study: Elections as an instrument of civic participation in public policies in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Ibrahim Gashi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Being aware of the role of electoral systems as the most important mechanisms of fostering political interaction in a political system of a certain democratic society, it is our intention to study and theoretically and practically analyze the establishment and functioning of the electoral system in Kosovo, in the temporal context of the last decade. Before that thought, several standard theoretical modalities attributable to electoral systems are to be set, with a view of explaining the role and functions of the electoral systems in consolidating basic attributes of a mature democracy. In our case studies, amongst the most important attributes under analysis are: elections, as an instrument of civil participation in public policies. Furthermore, in studying the function of elections, we shall make efforts to elaborate on the level of political culture in Kosovo, creation of authority and legitimacy, and the extent of maturity of Kosovar society itself. Since Kosovo has been under international administration for more than ten years, the analysis of the electoral system in Kosovo is found to be sui generis, and this fact allows for an extraordinary understanding of the role of elections as an instrument of citizens for participating in public policies and public life in Kosovo. In attaining such goals, we shall focus on the analysis of all cycles of elections held in Kosovo since 2001, and up to the constitutional reforms ongoing related to electoral reforms in Kosovo.

  18. The impact of the use of different types of gloves and bare hands for preparation of clean surgical instruments 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Camila Quartim de Moraes; de Souza, Rafael Queiroz; Massaia, Irineu Francisco Silva; Cruz, Áurea Silveira; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to determine if there are differences on the safety of the preparation of clean surgical instruments using different types of gloves and bare hands and evaluate the microbiological load of these preparations without gloves. Method: laboratory procedure with a pragmatic approach, in which the samples were handled with different types of gloves and bare hands. In addition, cytotoxicity assays were carried out by means of the agar diffusion method. Further samples were subjected to microbiological analysis after being handled without gloves. Results: none of the samples showed cytotoxic effect. All microbiological cultures showed growth of microorganisms, but no microorganism has been recovered after autoclaving. Conclusion: there were no differences in the cytotoxic responses regarding the use of different types of gloves and bare hands in the handling of clean surgical instruments, which could entail iatrogenic risk. It is noteworthy that the use of gloves involves increase in the costs of process and waste generation, and the potential allergenic risk to latex. PMID:27737375

  19. The impact of the use of different types of gloves and bare hands for preparation of clean surgical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Camila Quartim de Moraes; Souza, Rafael Queiroz de; Massaia, Irineu Francisco Silva; Cruz, Áurea Silveira; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2016-10-10

    to determine if there are differences on the safety of the preparation of clean surgical instruments using different types of gloves and bare hands and evaluate the microbiological load of these preparations without gloves. laboratory procedure with a pragmatic approach, in which the samples were handled with different types of gloves and bare hands. In addition, cytotoxicity assays were carried out by means of the agar diffusion method. Further samples were subjected to microbiological analysis after being handled without gloves. none of the samples showed cytotoxic effect. All microbiological cultures showed growth of microorganisms, but no microorganism has been recovered after autoclaving. there were no differences in the cytotoxic responses regarding the use of different types of gloves and bare hands in the handling of clean surgical instruments, which could entail iatrogenic risk. It is noteworthy that the use of gloves involves increase in the costs of process and waste generation, and the potential allergenic risk to latex. determinar se existe diferenças na segurança do preparo de instrumentais cirúrgicos relacionada ao uso de distintos tipos de luvas e das mãos nuas no preparo, e avaliar a carga microbiológica destes preparados sem luvas. experimento laboratorial com abordagem pragmática, onde amostras foram manipuladas com diferentes tipos de luvas e com as mãos nuas, elaborado teste de citotoxicidade por meio da difusão em ágar. Outras Amostras sofreram análise microbiológica após serem manipuladas sem luvas. nenhuma das amostras apresentou efeito citotóxico. Todas as culturas microbiológicas apresentaram crescimento de microrganismos, embora nenhum microrganismo tenha sido recuperado após a autoclavação. não houve diferenças nas respostas citotóxicas relacionadas ao uso de diferentes tipos de luvas e das mãos nuas na manipulação do instrumental cirúrgico limpo que sinalizasse risco de iatrogenia. Ressalta-se que o uso de luvas

  20. Measuring Research Quality Using the Journal Impact Factor, Citations and "Ranked Journals": Blunt Instruments or Inspired Metrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarwal, Som D.; Brion, Andrew M.; King, Maxwell L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether three bibliometric indicators--the journal impact factor, citations per paper and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative's list of "ranked journals"--can predict the quality of individual research articles as assessed by international experts, both overall and within broad disciplinary…

  1. The dynamics of technology diffusion and the impacts of climate policy instruments in the decarbonisation of the global electricity sector

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J -F; Foley, A M; Chewpreecha, U; Pollitt, H

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of possible uses of climate policy instruments for the decarbonisation of the global electricity sector in a non-equilibrium economic and technology innovation-diffusion perspective. Emissions reductions occur through changes in technology and energy consumption; in this context, investment decision-making opportunities occur periodically, which energy policy can incentivise in order to transform energy systems and meet reductions targets. Energy markets are driven by innovation, dynamic costs and technology diffusion; yet, the incumbent systems optimisation methodology in energy modelling does not address these aspects nor the effectiveness of policy onto decision-making since the dynamics modelled take their source from the top-down `social-planner' assumption. This leads to an underestimation of strong technology lock-ins in cost-optimal scenarios of technology. Our approach explores the global diffusion of low carbon technology in connection to a highly disaggregated sector...

  2. Study on the transplant impact on the elementary composition of Protousnea magellanica thallus by using instrumental neutron activation analysis; Estudio del impacto del transplante en la composicion elemental de Protousnea magellanica utilizando analisis por activacion neutronica instrumental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubach, Debora; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro; Arribere, Maria A.; Wiesztort, Andres [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche. Lab. de Analisis por Activacion Nautronica; Calvelo, Susana [Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Regional Universitario Bariloche

    1999-11-01

    As part of a study on the use of the furticose lichen Protousnea magellanica as a bio indicator of atmospheric pollution, it was studied the impact on the elemental composition of the thallus when this lichen is transplanted in the same area under similar environmental conditions. The lichens were collected and replanted in a pristine area in Puerto Blest, Nahuel Huapi National Park, Bariloche, Argentina. After one year, the transplanted thalli were collected and analyzed by using Instrumental Activation Analysis, complemented with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry for the Pb content determination. Crustal inputs were identified by computing enrichment factors. The transplanted thalli concentrations of most of the elements under study, Al, As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Dy, Eu, Hg, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Pb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Tb, Ti, Th, V, Yb and Zn, showed no significant differences with respect to the control thalli. However, some biological elements, Ca, Cl, Br, K and Rb, showed significant variations with respect to the controls, more noticeable in the first two elements. (author) 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  4. Introduction of a new dynamic fracture toughness evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Isamu; Niinomi, Mitsuo

    1993-05-01

    The instrumented Charpy impact test has been widely used as a simple method for semiempirically evaluating material impact toughness. The authors have developed a new instrumented Charpy impact testing system, which is called computer aided instrumented Charpy impact testing. Using this system, dynamic fracture toughness parameters and various absorbed energies can be obtained from the load-deflection curve of a single precracked specimen for both ductile and brittle materials. The system has been put into practical use in Japan. This paper introduces the details of the toughness evaluation procedures in the system.

  5. Impact of instrumental constraints and imperfections on the dislocation structure in micron-sized Cu compression pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchlechner, C., E-mail: christoph.kirchlechner@unileoben.ac.at [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria); Keckes, J. [Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria); Motz, C.; Grosinger, W.; Kapp, M.W. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Micha, J.S.; Ulrich, O. [CEA-Grenoble/Institut Nanosciences et Cryogenie (France); CRG-IF BM32 at ESRF, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Dehm, G. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria); Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} In situ {mu}Laue compression tests on three 7 {mu}m sized Copper pillars were performed. {yields} The evolution of dislocation structures is interlinked with the mechanical response. {yields} Well aligned samples do not store GNDs to a strain of approximately 0.18. {yields} Poorly aligned samples immediately store GNDs and form dislocation boundaries. - Abstract: In situ micro-Laue diffraction was used to study the plasticity in three 7 {mu}m, initially identical, single-crystalline Cu pillars during compression. Movements of the Laue spot as well as Laue spot streaking were analyzed to obtain real-time insights into the storage of excess dislocations and the possible formation of dislocation cell structures. The results reveal that instrumental constraints lead to dislocation storage at the sample base and top, but will not affect the storage of excess dislocations in the sample center in case of an ideal alignment. In contrast, misaligned samples show early yielding due to the activation of an unpredicted slip system, storage of excess dislocations also in the sample center and, at a later stage, the formation of a complex dislocation substructure.

  6. Economic Instruments and the Pollution Impact of the 2006-2010 Vietnam Socio-Economic Development Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Tarp, Finn; Xuan, Hong Vu;

    , such a scenario would have been accompanied by a moderate expansion in fiscal revenues and a relatively minor economy-wide efficiency loss. The current study, therefore, suggests that effective implementation and gradual expansion of pollution emission charges should be incorporated into future SEDP development......The current study derives optimal growth paths for pollution emission charges, in order to control future water pollution emissions in the Vietnamese manufacturing sector. The study builds on a prior study, which estimated the manufacturing sector pollution impact of the 2006- 2010 SEDP development...... plan for Vietnam (Jensen et al.; 2008). The current study demonstratesthat effective implementation and moderate expansion of optimal emission charges, under certain conditions, could have been used, as part of the 2006-2010 SEDP development plan, to control pollution emissions at 2005 levels. Moreover...

  7. Economic Instruments and the Pollution Impact of the 2006-2010 Vietnam Socio-Economic Development Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Tarp, Finn; Xuan, Hong Vu

    The current study derives optimal growth paths for pollution emission charges, in order to control future water pollution emissions in the Vietnamese manufacturing sector. The study builds on a prior study, which estimated the manufacturing sector pollution impact of the 2006- 2010 SEDP development...... plan for Vietnam (Jensen et al.; 2008). The current study demonstratesthat effective implementation and moderate expansion of optimal emission charges, under certain conditions, could have been used, as part of the 2006-2010 SEDP development plan, to control pollution emissions at 2005 levels. Moreover......, such a scenario would have been accompanied by a moderate expansion in fiscal revenues and a relatively minor economy-wide efficiency loss. The current study, therefore, suggests that effective implementation and gradual expansion of pollution emission charges should be incorporated into future SEDP development...

  8. Study on impact properties of creep-resistant steel thermally simulated heat affected zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Radivoje M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The steam pipe line (SPL and steam line material, along with its welded joints, subject to damage that accumulates during operation in coal power plants. As a result of thermal fatigue, dilatation of SPL at an operating temperature may lead to cracks initiation at the critical zones within heat affected zone (HAZ of steam pipe line welded joints. By registration of thermal cycle during welding and subsequent HAZ simulation is possible to obtain target microstructure. For the simulation is chosen heat resisting steel, 12H1MF (designation 13CrMo44 according to DIN standard. From the viewpoint of mechanical properties, special attention is on impact toughness mostly because very small number of available references. After simulation of single run and multi run welding test on instrumented Charpy pendulum. Metallographic and fractographic analysis is also performed, on simulated 12H1MF steel from service and new, unused steel. The results and correlation between microstructure and impact toughness is discussed, too.

  9. Luminescence Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to instrumentation for stimulated luminescence studies, with special focus on luminescence dating using the natural dosimeters, quartz and feldspars. The chapter covers basic concepts in luminescence detection, and thermal and optical stimulation, and reference...

  10. Applicability of the Modified Ritchie-Knott-Rice Failure Criterion to Examine the Feasibility of Miniaturized Charpy Type SE(B Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Meshii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined whether the modified Ritchie-Knott-Rice (RKR failure criterion can be applied to examine the feasibility of miniaturized Charpy type SE(B specimens of thickness-to-width ratio B/W=1. The modified RKR failure criterion considered in this paper is the (4δt,σ22c criterion which predicts the onset of cleavage fracture when the midplane crack-opening stress measured at a distance equal to four times the crack-tip opening displacement, denoted as σ22d, exceeds a critical stress σ22c. Specimens with B values of 25, 10, 3, and 2 mm (denoted as 25t, 10t, 3t, and 2t specimens, resp. manufactured with 0.55% carbon steel were tested at 20°C. The results showed that the modified RKR criterion could appropriately predict the occurrence of cleavage fracture accompanied by negligibly small stable crack extension (denoted as KJc fracture naturally for the 25t and 10t specimens. The modified RKR criterion could also predict that KJc fracture does not occur for the 2t specimen. The σ22c obtained from specimens for the 25t and 10t specimens exhibited only a small difference, indicating that the Jc obtained from the 10t specimens can be used to predict the Jc that will be obtained with the 25t specimens.

  11. Low-cost sensors and crowd-sourced data: Observations of siting impacts on a network of air-quality instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskell, Georgia; Salmond, Jennifer; Williams, David E

    2017-01-01

    Low-cost sensors offer the possibility of gathering high temporal and spatial resolution crowd-sourced data-sets that have the potential to revolutionize the ways in which we understand individual and population exposure to air pollution. However, one of the challenges associated with crowd-sourced data ('citizen science'), often from low-cost sensors, is that citizens may use sites strongly affected by local conditions, limiting the wider significance of the data. This paper examines results from a low-cost network measuring ground-level ozone to evaluate the impact of siting on data quality. Locations at both reference stations and at private homes or research centers were used, and thought of as a typical 'crowd-sourced' network. Two instruments were co-located at each site to determine intra-site variability and evaluated by standard performance statistics and local-scale activity logs. The wider application of the data for both regional Inter-site variability was evaluated to show-case the wider value and usefulness of crowd-sourced data. Analysis of intra-site variability showed little differences at most sites (data, but had minimal impact on standard reporting time-scales, and so did not pose as being significant limitations or errors. Inter-site evaluation demonstrated that dense networks of low-cost sensors can add value to existing networks, with minimal impact on the overall data-set quality. Sensors located in crowd-sourced locations nearby to regulatory analyzers were able to capture similar trends and concentrations, supporting their ability to report on wider conditions. Thus crowd-sourced approaches to monitoring (with suitable calibration and data quality control checks) may be an appropriate method for increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of air quality networks.

  12. Combinations of policy instruments to decrease the climate impacts of housing, personal transport and food. Final report of the KUILU-project; Ohjauskeinoyhdistelmaet asumisen, henkiloeliikenteen ja ruoan ilmastovaikutusten hillintaeaen. KUILU-hankkeen loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissinen, A.; Heiskanen, E.; Perrels, A.; Berghaell, E.; Liesimaa, V.; Mattinen, M.

    2012-07-01

    In Finland, numerous policy instruments and measures already target the climate impacts of housing and passenger traffic. For decreasing the climate impacts of food choices, there is only one policy instrument, i.e., a council of state decision of principle on sustainable public procurement, but it includes several measures that have positive impacts. The KUILU project included several stages in which existing policy instruments were first evaluated, and then packages of instruments were developed to mitigate the climate impacts of housing, passenger traffic and food. Two expert workshops were organized during the project. In this final report of the project, recommendations and suggestions about policy instrument packages are presented. The impacts of the policy instrument packages on the greenhouse gas emissions were also assessed. By 2020, the emission reduction in housing and passenger traffic was estimated to be more than 4 million tonnes (Mt), which is significant compared with Finland's emission reduction target. The emission reduction of policy instruments associated with food was estimated to be 0.3 - 0.5 Mt. On the other hand, it should be mentioned that consumption-based emissions and emission reductions can be calculated in multiple ways, and the terminology and calculation rules should be further developed in later studies. One should also critically assess some basic assumptions of the calculations. The assesment of the policy instrument packages showed that the efficiency of the measures can be increased. When a set of instruments is examined as a whole, the synergy benefits between measures can be reinforced and hence overall effectiveness can be improved. In practice, this would require improved co-operation in the state administration. This could be facilitated through common policy programs and objectives for all the ministries in the sectors of housing, traffic and food. Acceptability of the policy instruments was found to be a prime issue

  13. Instrumented SSH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  14. Impact resistance and fractography of low-alloy martensitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Frydman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper dynamic properties of HTK SOOH, HTK 900H. Hardox 400 and Hardox 500 steeZs in delivcrcd stalc (aftcr hardening andtempering are considered. Charpy V - notch (CVN test rcsults in connection with fractography in the ductilc - to - brittle transitionternpcrature region were analyzed. The impact transition curve obtained from CVN tcst not always predicts properly a behavior ofmaterials in conditions of dynamic loading, so the analyze of character of fracture helps to evalitate the rcal bchavior of ma~crials. Tcstcdsamples were cut out longitudinally and transversely in relation to cold work direction. The results of CVN test far investigated steels, inthe range of temperatures from 40t o 20 "C are presented. Regarding ductilc - to - bri~tlel ransition temperature, there is a significantdiffcrcnce taking into account vatues of Charpy V cncrgy absorbcd and a character of fracture.

  15. Piezoelectric device vs. conventional rotative instruments in impacted third molar surgery: relationships between surgical difficulty and postoperative pain with histological evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullo, Rosario; Addabbo, Francesco; Papaccio, Giampaolo; D'Aquino, Riccardo; Festa, Vincenzo Maria

    2013-03-01

    To investigate and compare the influence of surgical difficulty on postoperative pain after treatment of impacted mandibular third molars by rotatory osteotomy or Piezoelectric surgery. A prospective, randomized, split-mouth study was performed of 52 patients with bilateral and symmetrically oriented impacted mandibular third molars, who were surgically treated using a burr (Group A) on one random side of the lower jaw and a Piezoelectric device (Group B) on the contralateral side. Surgical difficulty was evaluated using a modified version of the Parant scale to categorize "simple extractions" and "complex extractions". Primary outcome parameters were the comparison of the postoperative pain evaluation rated on the Visual Analogue Scale from day 0 to day 6 postsurgery, and the assessment of differences in surgery time between the groups. Bone biopsies were taken during surgery to assess differences in bone tissue damage levels between the two different techniques. In "complex extractions" lower pain evaluation and significantly shorter surgery times were recorded when rotatory instruments were used. In "simple extractions", similar surgery times were observed for both techniques, but pain was greatest on the day of surgery when the burr was used. Bone heat osteonecrosis was observed only in the rotatory group and a high level of alkaline phosphatase was noted only in the Piezoelectric group. Pain after extraction of a mandibular third molar increases with increased surgical difficulty and especially in longer interventions. The integrity of the bony structure observed after the ultrasonic technique may favour the bone healing process. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Active instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    2017-01-01

    ) show the dynamic nature of policy processes, and (3) consider the search for policy reference points among the different actors. We present rankers in motion, policies in motion, and finally the complex nature of the ranking device that needs to be both a relevant and malleable policy instrument...

  17. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP Analysis on Depressed Mood in Korea: The Impact of Gender Differences and Other Socio-Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gitto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people’s quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on Korea. In fact, in spite of the great amount of empirical studies carried out for other countries, few epidemiological studies have examined the socio-economic determinants of depression in Korea and they were either limited to samples of employed women or did not control for individual health status. Moreover, as the likely data endogeneity (i.e. the possibility of correlation between the dependent variable and the error term as a result of autocorrelation or simultaneity, such as, in this case, the depressed mood due to health factors that, in turn might be caused by depression, might bias the results, the present study proposes an empirical approach, based on instrumental variables, to deal with this problem. Methods Data for the year 2008 from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES were employed. About seven thousands of people (N= 6,751, of which 43% were males and 57% females, aged from 19 to 75 years old, were included in the sample considered in the analysis. In order to take into account the possible endogeneity of some explanatory variables, two Instrumental Variables Probit (IVP regressions were estimated; the variables for which instrumental equations were estimated were related to the participation of women to the workforce and to good health, as reported by people in the sample. Explanatory variables were related to age, gender, family factors (such as the number of family members and marital status and socio

  18. Revisiting the Impact of Atmospheric Dispersion and Differential Refraction on Widefield Multiobject Spectroscopic Observations. From VLT/VIMOS to Next Generation Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Selman, Fernando; Bristow, Paul; Hammersley, Peter; Hilker, Michael; Rejkuba, Marina; Wolff, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) Atmospheric dispersion and field differential refraction impose severe constraints on widefield MOS observations. Flux reduction and spectral distortions must be minimised by a careful planning of the observations -- which is especially true for instruments that use slits instead of fibres. This is the case of VIMOS at the VLT, where MOS observations have been restricted, since the start of operations, to a narrow two-hour range from the meridian to minimise slit losses. We revisit in detail the impact of atmospheric effects on the quality of VIMOS-MOS spectra. We model slit losses across the entire VIMOS FOV as a function of target declination. We explore two different slit orientations at the meridian: along the parallactic angle (North-South), and perpendicular to it (East-West). We show that, for fields culminating at zenith distances larger than 20 deg, slit losses are minimised with slits oriented along the parallactic angle at the meridian. The two-hour angle rule holds for these observation...

  19. The evaluation of dynamic cracking resistance of chosen casting alloys in the aspect of the impact bending test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Sadowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase of quality and durability of produced casting alloys can be evaluated on the base of material tests performed on a high level. One of such modern test methods are tests of the dynamic damage process of materials and the evaluation on the base of obtained courses F(f, F(t of parameters of dynamic cracking resistance KId, JId, performed with the usage of instrumented Charpy pendulums. In the paper there was presented the evaluation of dynamic cracking resistance parameters of casting alloys such as: AK12 aluminum alloy, L20G cast steel and spheroid cast iron. The methodology of the evaluation of that parameters was described and their change as well, for the AK12 alloy with the cold work different level, L20G cast steel cooled from different temperatures in the range +20oC -60oC, and for the spheroid cast iron in different stages of treatment i.e. raw state, after normalization, spheroid annealing and graphitizing annealing.Obtained parameters of dynamic cracking resistance KId, JId of tested casting alloys enabled to define the critical value of the ad defect that can be tolerated by tested castings in different work conditions with impact loadings.

  20. Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument: Development of a new instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Wassef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of this project was to develop the first disease-specific instrument for the evaluation of quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. Methods: Focus groups and interview sessions were conducted, with chronic pancreatitis patients, to identify items felt to impact quality of life which were subsequently formatted into a paper-and-pencil instrument. This instrument was used to conduct an online survey by an expert panel of pancreatologists to evaluate its content validity. Finally, the modified instrument was presented to patients during precognitive testing interviews to evaluate its clarity and appropriateness. Results: In total, 10 patients were enrolled in the focus groups and interview sessions where they identified 50 items. Once redundant items were removed, the 40 remaining items were made into a paper-and-pencil instrument referred to as the Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument. Through the processes of content validation and precognitive testing, the number of items in the instrument was reduced to 24. Conclusions: This marks the development of the first disease-specific instrument to evaluate quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. It includes unique features not found in generic instruments (economic factors, stigma, and spiritual factors. Although this marks a giant step forward, psychometric evaluation is still needed prior to its clinical use.

  1. Failure Behaviors Depending on the Notch Location of the Impact Test Specimens on the HAZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yun Chan; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Young Suk [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jae Keun; Park, Ji Hong [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Numerical studies were performed to examine the effects of notch location of impact specimens on the failure behavior of HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) when Charpy V-notch impact test were made at a low temperature (1 .deg. C). Carbon steel plate (SA-516 Gr. 70) with thickness of 25mm for pressure vessel was welded by SMAW (Shielded Metal-Arc Welding) and specimens were fabricated from the welded plate. Charpy tests were then performed with specimens having different notch positions of specimens varying from the fusion line through HAZ to base metal. A series of finite element analysis which simulates the Charpy test and crack propagation initiating at the tip of V-notch was carried out as well. The finite element analysis takes into account the irregular fusion line and non-homogenous material properties due to the notch location of the specimen in HAZ. Results reveals that the energies absorbed during impact test depend significantly on the notch location and direction of specimen. Finite element analysis also demonstrates that the notch location of specimens, to a great extent, influences the reliability and consistency of the test.

  2. Optical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  3. Fracture Mechanics Study on 155 mm M107E1 Projectile Made from Isothermally Transformed HF-1 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    of MIO7EI Projectiles.. 22 4. Charpy V-Notch Impact Energy of Tsothermally Transformed HF-i Steel (Heat A) as a Function of Testing Temperature . 23...evaluating rough handling. Specific stress and loading rate data were developed through a series of drop tests of instrumented projectiles. Although the...Impact Toughness The impact toughness of Heat A was investigated at test tempera- tures ranging from -65 degrees F to +1150 degrees F using Charpy V- notch

  4. Degradation of impact fracture during accelerated aging of weld metal on microalloyed steel; Degradacion de la tenacidad al impacto durante el envejecimiento acelerado de soldadura en acero microaleado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Arista, B.; Hallen, J. M.; Albiter, A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.

    2008-07-01

    The effect of accelerated aging on the toughness and fracture of the longitudinal weld metal on an API5L-X52 line pipe steel was evaluated by Charpy V-notch impact test, fracture analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Aging was performed at 250 degree centigrade for 100 to 1000 h. The impact results indicated a significant reduction in the fracture energy and impact toughness as a function of aging time, which were achieved by the scanning electron microscope fractography that showed a decrease in the vol fraction of microvoids by Charpy ductile failure with the aging time, which favored the brittle fracture by transgranular cleavage. The minimum vol fraction of microvoids was reached at 500 h due to the peak aged. The microstructural analysis indicated the precipitation of transgranular iron nano carbides in the aged specimens, which was related to the deterioration of toughness and change in the ductile to brittle behavior. (Author) 15 refs.

  5. Factors affecting miniature Izod impact strength of tungsten-fiber-metal-matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsa, E. A.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The miniature Izod and Charpy impact strengths of copper, copper-nickel, and nickel-base superalloy uniaxially reinforced with continuous tungsten fibers were studied. In most cases, impact strength was increased by increasing fiber or matrix toughness, decreasing fibermatrix reaction, increasing test temperature, hot working, or heat treating. Notch sensitivity was reduced by increasing fiber content or matrix toughness. An equation relating impact strength to fiber and matrix properties and fiber content was developed. Program results imply that tungsten alloy-fiber/superalloy matrix composites can be made with adequate impact resistance for turbine blade or vane applications.

  6. The Impacts of Intrusive Advising on the Persistence of First-Year Science, Technology, and Mathematics Students Identified Using a Risk Prediction Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    Set in a large, urban, public university, this study explores the use of an institutionally specific risk instrument developed to identify students who had a high risk of attrition and the effectiveness of subsequent interventions deployed through advising. Though implemented throughout the institution, this study identified control and treatment…

  7. Similar head impact acceleration measured using instrumented ear patches in a junior rugby union team during matches in comparison with other sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug A; Hume, Patria A; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor N

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Direct impact with the head and the inertial loading of the head have been postulated as major mechanisms of head-related injuries, such as concussion. METHODS This descriptive observational study was conducted to quantify the head impact acceleration characteristics in under-9-year-old junior rugby union players in New Zealand. The impact magnitude, frequency, and location were collected with a wireless head impact sensor that was worn by 14 junior rugby players who participated in 4 matches. RESULTS A total of 721 impacts > 10g were recorded. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) number of impacts per player was 46 (IQR 37-58), resulting in 10 (IQR 4-18) impacts to the head per player per match. The median impact magnitudes recorded were 15g (IQR 12g-21g) for linear acceleration and 2296 rad/sec(2) (IQR 1352-4152 rad/sec(2)) for rotational acceleration. CONCLUSIONS There were 121 impacts (16.8%) above the rotational injury risk limit and 1 (0.1%) impact above the linear injury risk limit. The acceleration magnitude and number of head impacts in junior rugby union players were higher than those previously reported in similar age-group sports participants. The median linear acceleration for the under-9-year-old rugby players were similar to 7- to 8-year-old American football players, but lower than 9- to 12-year-old youth American football players. The median rotational accelerations measured were higher than the median and 95th percentiles in youth, high school, and collegiate American football players.

  8. Investigating the impact of different sport trainings on particulate matter resuspension in a sport center using well-characterized reference instruments and a low-cost monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouei Torkmahalleh, Mehdi; Kabay, Karakat; Bazhanova, Meruyet; Mohiuddin, Obaidullah; Obaidullah, Madina; Gorjinezhad, Soudabeh

    2017-09-05

    The present study investigated the exposure of teenagers, adults, and students to PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, particle number concentration at two sport facilities of Nazarbayev University including Gymnastics Hall and Multi-purpose Hall. Measurements were conducted during variety of sport training sessions including soccer, basketball, volleyball, Mixed Martial Arts (MMA), boxing, table tennis, etc. A low-cost instrument, Dylos was employed to compare its performance against two TSI instruments. In overall, the Dylos showed acceptable peaks when the source of particle resuspension was present. However, no correlation was observed between Dylos data and Dusttrak fine and coarse particle data. The average PM2,5 and PM10 concentrations were found to be below the WHO limits. The number of participants during the training sessions and sports involving balls including basketball, soccer and volleyball were the two factors responsible for the observed increased particle resuspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring the impact of common assessment instrumentation on communication and collaboration in inpatient and community-based mental health settings: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn; Hirdes, John P

    2014-10-03

    Recognition that integrated services can lead to more efficient and effective care has made the principle of integration a priority for health systems worldwide for the last decade. However, actually bringing fully integrated services to life has eluded most health care organizations. Mental health has followed the rule, rather than the exception, when it comes integrating services. The lack of effective mechanisms to evaluate the needs of persons across mental health care services has been an important barrier to communication between professionals involved in care. This study sought to understand communication among inpatient and community-based mental health staff during transfers of care, before and after implementation of compatible assessment instrumentation. Two focus groups were held with staff from inpatient (n = 10) and community (n = 10) settings in an urban, specialized psychiatric hospital in Ontario (Canada) - prior to and one year after implementation of compatible instrumentation in the community program. Transcripts were coded and aggregated into themes. Very different views of current communication patterns during transfers of care emerged. Inpatient mental health staff described a predictable, well-known process, whereas community-based staff emphasized unpredictability. Staff also discussed issues related to trust and the circle of care. All agreed that compatible assessments in inpatient and community mental health settings would facilitate communication through use of a common assessment language. However, no change in communication patterns was reported one year post implementation of compatible instrumentation. Though all participants agreed on the potential for compatible instrumentation to improve communication during transfers of care, this cannot happen overnight. A number of issues related to trust, evidence-based practice, and organizational factors act as barriers to communication. In particular, staff noted the need for the results

  10. Evaluation of an immunosuppressant side effect instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsett, Rebecca P; Arheart, Kris; Stratta, Robert J; Alloway, Rita; Wicks, Mona N; Gaber, A Osama; Hathaway, Donna K

    2004-09-01

    Clinicians continue to be compelled to evaluate the impact of immunosuppressive medication side effects on the quality of life of transplant recipients. We Were asked to develop an instrument to measure side effects in immunosuppressed transplant recipients. To construct an instrument that measures the impact and severity of side effects of immunosuppressive medications used in transplantation and to assess the reliability and validity of the newly developed instrument called the Memphis Survey. The instrument was constructed by a panel of physicians, nurses, and pharmacists with experience in treating transplant recipients. A small group of kidney transplant recipients (n= 13) provided pilot data for refining and testing the instrument. A national sample of kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients (n = 505) provided data that were used to further develop the instrument. Factor analysis was used to determine the psychological dimensions underlying the instrument and to guide the construction of scales from the survey items. The instrument scales were then computed from the dataset of 505 transplant recipients to quantify the impact of immunosuppressant side effects on the quality of life of transplant recipients. Analyses showed the final instrument scales to be valid and reliable. Exploratory analysis suggests the need for further testing of the instrument to determine gender differences.

  11. Irradiation programme HFR phase 1b. Results of impact tests with the irradiated materials (2.4 dpa); Bestrahlungsprogramm HFR Phase 1b. Ergebnisse der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche mit den bis 2,4 dpa bestrahlten Werkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, H.C.; Dafferner, B.; Ries, H.; Lautensack, S.; Romer, O.

    2004-04-01

    The irradiation project HFR phase 1b was planned and carried out in the frame of the European Long-term Fusion Materials Development Programme. It represents the continuation of the former High-Flux-Reactor irradiation programmes which are documented in detail in former FZK-reports. The problem of the irradiation induced embrittlement of possible martensitic alloy candidates is still not finally solved. After evaluation of sub-size Charpy tests with the 2.4 dpa irradiated specimens, the low activation 7-10%-Cr-W(Ge)VTa alloys showed outstandingly better characteristics compared to the modified commercial 10-11%-Cr-NiMoVNb steels. The emphasis of the phase 1b project is now on the investigation of low activating OPTIFER-alloys, which exhibit in contrast to the previously irradiated OPTIFER-steels a clearly reduced boron content in order to reduce the irradiation embrittlement. In the present report the results of instrumented impact tests within the phase 1b programme (irradiation dose 2.4 dpa, irradiation temperatures 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 C) are analysed and assessed in comparison to the results of the MANITU- and HFR phase 1a- irradiation programmes. Herein, the OPTIFER-V steel, which is nearly identical to the industrial heat EUROFER97 (which became available after the irradiation), supplied the best results. (orig.)

  12. Evaluating musical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  13. Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, Detlef; Bergmann, Raymond; Mikkelsen, Rene; Zeilstra, Christiaan; Meer, van der Devaraj; Versluis, Michel

    2004-01-01

    A lot of information on impacts of solid bodies on planets has been extracted from remote observations of impact craters on planetary surfaces; experiments however with large enough impact energies as compared to the energy stored in the ground are difficult. We approach this problem by downscaled e

  14. 49 CFR 572.77 - Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Instrumentation. (a)(1) Test probe. For the head, thorax, and knee impact test, use a test probe that is rigid, of... thorax assembly may be instrumented either with a Type A or Type B accelerometer. (i) Type A...) Limb joints. Set the limb joints at lg, barely restraining the limb's weight when the limb is extended...

  15. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  16. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP) Analysis on Depressed Mood in Korea: The Impact of Gender Differences and Other Socio-Economic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Gitto; Yong-Hwan Noh; Antonio Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people’s quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on...

  17. Irradiation programme MANITU. Results of impact tests with the irradiated materials of the second irradiation phase (0.8 dpa); Bestrahlungsprogramm MANITU. Ergebnisse der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche mit den bis 0,8 dpa bestrahlten Werkstoffen der zweiten Bestrahlungsphase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, H.C.; Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.; Ries, H.; Romer, O.

    2000-09-01

    The irradiation project MANITU was planned and carried out in the frame of the European Longterm Fusion Materials Development Programme. The problem of the irradiation induced embrittlement of possible martensitic alloy candidates is still unsolved. But after the evaluation of sub-size Charpy tests with the unirradiated reference specimens of MANITU a first tendency was recognizable. The mechanical properties of the newly developed low activation 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa alloys are partly better compared to the modified commercial 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb steels. After the evaluation of subsize Charpy tests with specimens irradiated up to 0.2 and 0.8 dpa in the first phase of the MANITU programme, better mechanical properties of the 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa alloys were obvious. In the present report the results of instrumented impact tests within the second phase of the MANITU programme (irradiation dose 0.8 dpa, irradiation temperatures 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 C) are analysed and assessed in comparison to the results of the irradiation up to 0.8 dpa in the first phase of the project. Among the examined alloys (OPTIMAR, OPTIFER-IV, GA3X) the GA3X steel shows the very best embrittlement behaviour after neutron irradiation. (orig.) [German] Das Bestrahlungsprojekt MANITU wurde im Rahmen des europaeischen Langzeitprogramms fuer Materialentwicklung fuer die Kernfusion geplant und durchgefuehrt. Das Problem der bestrahlungsinduzierten Versproedung bei den in Frage kommenden martensitischen Werkstoffen ist nach wie vor ungeloest. Eine erste Tendenz zeichnete sich jedoch nach der Auswertung der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche an den unbestrahlten miniaturisierten Referenzproben des MANITU-Programms ab. Die neu entwickelten niedrig aktivierbaren 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa-Legierungen weisen gegenueber den modifizierten kommerziellen 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb-Staehlen teilweise bessere mechanische Eigenschaften auf. Nach Auswertung der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche an den in der ersten Phase des MANITU-Programms mit 0

  18. Impact of frontal white matter hyperintensity on instrumental activities of daily living in elderly women with Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogama, Noriko; Sakurai, Takashi; Nakai, Toshiharu; Niida, Shumpei; Saji, Naoki; Toba, Kenji; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) start to decline during the progression of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer disease (AD). Cognitive and physical decline are involved in the loss of functional independence. However, little is known about AD-related neural change that leads to IADL impairment. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of regional white matter hyperintensity (WMH) on IADL impairment in persons with AD and aMCI. The participants were 347 female subjects aged 65-85 years diagnosed with AD (n = 227), aMCI (n = 44) or normal cognition (n = 76). IADL was assessed by the Lawton Index. Cognition, mood and mobility function were evaluated by comprehensive geriatric assessment batteries. WMH and brain atrophy were analyzed with brain magnetic resonance imaging, using an automatic segmentation program. Regional WMH was measured in the frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal lobes. Ability to carry out IADL of shopping, food preparation, mode of transportation, responsibility for own medication, and ability to handle finances was obviously impaired in the early stage of AD. Frontal WMH was specifically associated with disability to do shopping and food preparation even after adjusting for several confounders including brain atrophy. IADL subcategories were differentially impaired along with cognitive status in persons with AD and aMCI. Frontal WMH was an important predictor of impaired ability to do shopping and food preparation. A preventive strategy for WMH might lead to suppression of IADL disability and slow the progression of AD.

  19. Policy Instruments towards a Sustainable Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Forsfält

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste management system but the results should be relevant also for other countries. Through the assessments and lessons learned during the research program we conclude that several policy instruments can be effective and possible to implement. Particularly, we put forward the following policy instruments: “Information”; “Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials”; “Weight-based waste fee in combination with information and developed recycling systems”; “Mandatory labeling of products containing hazardous chemicals”, “Advertisements on request only and other waste minimization measures”; and “Differentiated VAT and subsidies for some services”. Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials is the policy instrument that has the largest potential for decreasing the environmental impacts with the configurations studied here. The effects of the other policy instruments studied may be more limited and they typically need to be implemented in combination in order to have more significant impacts. Furthermore, policy makers need to take into account market and international aspects when implementing new instruments. In the more long term perspective, the above set of policy instruments may also need to be complemented with more transformational policy instruments that can significantly decrease the generation of waste.

  20. Impact Behavior and Fracture Mechanism of Ductile Cast Iron with Minor Nickel Addition at Low Temperature%低镍球墨铸铁低温冲击性能及断裂机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江; 黄兴民; 高杰维; 董海; 戴光泽

    2012-01-01

    使用激光共聚焦显微镜、扫描电镜和示波冲击等实验手段研究了镍元素(0.0%~0.9%,质量分数,下同)对球墨铸铁的微观组织和低温冲击性能的影响,对低温断裂机理进行了探讨.结果表明:含镍0.7%退火态球墨铸铁的韧脆转变温度低于-60℃,其-70℃下冲击功高于12J;适量镍元素添加能有效地细化晶粒和强化基体,改善球墨铸铁的低温冲击性能.%Utilizing laser confocal microscopy, SEM, instrumented impact and other experimental methods, the influence of nickel content(0. 0%-0. 9%,mass fraction, the same below) on the micro-structure and low temperature impact toughness of ductile cast iron(DCI) was investigated. The fracture mechanism of DCIs was studied further at different temperatures by using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results show that ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of as-annealed DCIs with 0. 7% Ni content is lower than —60℃ , the impact energy of Charpy-type test is still higher than 12J at —70℃. Minor Ni addition of proper quantities might favor the grain refinement and matrix strengthen, low temperature impact toughness properties of DCIs are markedly improved.

  1. Assessing the Impact of Food Assistance on Stigma Among People Living with HIV in Uganda Using the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-PLWA (HASI-P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluccio, John A; Wu, Fan; Rokon, Redwan B; Rawat, Rahul; Kadiyala, Suneetha

    2017-03-01

    HIV-related stigma among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) is prevalent throughout sub-Saharan Africa. There is limited evidence, however, on which interventions are effective in reducing it. We used data from a prospective impact evaluation of a 12-month food assistance intervention among 904 antiretroviral therapy (ART)- naïve PLHIV in Uganda to examine the program impact on stigma. Stigma was measured using the comprehensive HASI-P scale, which demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87) and was correlated with several related constructs including physical and mental health-related quality of life, disclosure, and physical health symptoms in the sample. Using quasi-experimental difference-in-difference matching methods to better infer causality, we tested whether the intervention improved the overall stigma scale and its subscales. The food assistance intervention had a significant effect on reported internalized (but not external) stigma of approximately 0.2 SD (p stigma scale is a useful tool for measuring and tracking stigma. Food assistance interventions, embedded in an HIV care program, can reduce internalized stigma.

  2. Comparison of Piezosurgery and Conventional Rotary Instruments for Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: A Randomized Controlled Clinical and Radiographic Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Arakji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the effect of the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars using piezosurgery versus the conventional surgical technique on postoperative sequelae and bone healing. Material and Methods. This study was carried out as a randomized controlled clinical trial: split mouth design. Twenty patients with bilateral mandibular third molar mesioangular impaction class II position B indicated for surgical extraction were treated randomly using either the piezosurgery or the conventional bur technique on each site. Duration of the procedure, postoperative edema, trismus, pain, healing, and bone density and quantity were evaluated up to 6 months postoperatively. Results. Test and control sites were compared using paired t-test. There was statistical significance in reduction of pain and swelling in test sites, where the time of the procedure was statistically increased in test site. For bone quantity and quality, statistical difference was found where test site showed better results. Conclusion. Piezosurgery technique improves quality of patient’s life in form of decrease of postoperative pain, trismus, and swelling. Furthermore, it enhances bone quality within the extraction socket and bone quantity along the distal aspect of the mandibular second molar.

  3. The impact of single antimicrobial intervention treatment with potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on non-inoculated ground beef lipid, instrumental color, and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilo, S A; Pohlman, F W; Dias-Morse, P N; Brown, A H; Crandall, P G; Baublits, R T; Aparicio, J L

    2009-11-01

    The effect of using potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, acidified sodium chlorite, or peroxyacetic acid as a single antimicrobial intervention on ground beef instrumental color, sensory color and odor characteristics, and lipid oxidation was evaluated. Prior to grinding, beef trimmings (90/10) were treated with 3% potassium lactate (KL), 4% sodium metasilicate (NMS), 200-ppm peroxyacetic acid (PAA), 1000-ppm acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), or left untreated (CON). Ground beef under simulated retail display was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 7 of display for instrumental color, sensory characteristics, TBARS values, and pH to evaluate the impact of the treatments. The KL, NMS, PAA, and ASC were redder (a(∗); P<0.05) than CON. All treatments were scored by sensory panelists to have a brighter (P<0.05) red color than CON during days 1-3 of display. All treatments had less (P<0.05) lipid oxidation than CON on days 0, 3, and 7 of display. These results suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds on beef trimmings prior to grinding may not adversely affect, and may improve bulk packaged ground beef quality characteristics.

  4. The genogram as a research instrument of the impact of stressful events in the family-school transition / O genograma como instrumento de pesquisa do impacto de eventos estressores na transição família-escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Castoldi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of school life is a special moment in the life cycle that may be influenced by stressful events such as family loss and separation, as well as by conflicting relationship patterns between the present family and the family of origin. This article aims to demonstrate the use of the genogram as a research instrument in developmental psychology with the following objectives: characterize the family configurations, identify stressful events in the families' life cycle, especially, loss and separation experiences, and to analyze the relationship patterns between the nuclear family and the family of origin. A collective case study was carried out with six families and their children age five to six, three of whom were considered as having an easy adaptation to school and the other three as having a difficult adaptation. The mothers were interviewed and asked to construct their family genograms. Specific and distinct features were found regarding family configurations, stressful life events and relationship patterns in each group. The implications of the use of the genogram as a research instrument of the impact of stressful events in the family-school transition are discussed.

  5. Impact of frontal white matter hyperintensity on instrumental activities of daily living in elderly women with Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogama, Noriko; Sakurai, Takashi; Nakai, Toshiharu; Niida, Shumpei; Saji, Naoki; Toba, Kenji; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    Background Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) start to decline during the progression of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer disease (AD). Cognitive and physical decline are involved in the loss of functional independence. However, little is known about AD-related neural change that leads to IADL impairment. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of regional white matter hyperintensity (WMH) on IADL impairment in persons with AD and aMCI. Methods The participants were 347 female subjects aged 65–85 years diagnosed with AD (n = 227), aMCI (n = 44) or normal cognition (n = 76). IADL was assessed by the Lawton Index. Cognition, mood and mobility function were evaluated by comprehensive geriatric assessment batteries. WMH and brain atrophy were analyzed with brain magnetic resonance imaging, using an automatic segmentation program. Regional WMH was measured in the frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal lobes. Results Ability to carry out IADL of shopping, food preparation, mode of transportation, responsibility for own medication, and ability to handle finances was obviously impaired in the early stage of AD. Frontal WMH was specifically associated with disability to do shopping and food preparation even after adjusting for several confounders including brain atrophy. Conclusions IADL subcategories were differentially impaired along with cognitive status in persons with AD and aMCI. Frontal WMH was an important predictor of impaired ability to do shopping and food preparation. A preventive strategy for WMH might lead to suppression of IADL disability and slow the progression of AD. PMID:28253275

  6. Ecological research on offshore wind energy development in the North and Baltic sea. Part: Environmental planning instruments: Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA), Habitats Assessment and Strategic Environmetnal Assessment (SEA). Volumes 1-4 and final report; Oekologische Begleitforschung zur Windenergienutzung im Offshore-Bereich der Nord- und Ostsee. Teilbereich 'Instrumente des Umwelt- und Naturschutzes: Strategische Umweltpruefung, Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung und Flora-Fauna-Habitat-Vertraeglichkeitspruefung'. Band 1-4 und Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppel, J.; Langenheld, A.; Peters, W.; Wende, W.; Sommer, S.; Finger, A.; Koeller, J.; Kraetzschmer, D.; Kerber, N.; Mahlburg, S.; Mueller, C.

    2003-07-01

    Within the licensing procedure of offshore wind farms several environmental planning instruments have to be taken into account to assess the probable effects of turbines on the marine environment. So far only little experiences were available on how to fulfil legal and methodical demands with regard to these environmental planning instruments offshore. Hence it was the principle task of this project to analyse how instruments like the environmental impacts assessment (EIA), the habitats assessment and the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) can be adapted to the special conditions of the marine environment and the legal requirements of the licensing procedure in the German EEZ according to the offshore installations ordinance. Since according to the offshore installations ordinance the construction and operation of offshore wind farms can only be refused for environmental reasons when the marine environment is endangered, the project first investigated for different aspects of the marine environment (e.g. marine mammals, birds, benthos, visual landscape) which kind of conflicts can possibly be caused by the construction and operation of turbines and of which legal significance they are with regard to the licensing procedure. Referring to those environmental impacts which have been considered as relevant for the licensing procedure the state of knowledge has been investigated by means of expert interviews and literature research. Practicable starting points for the impact assessment were suggested. With regard to the required environmental assessment within the licensing procedure one result of the project is a structured documentation of the standard of knowledge (volume I). Further on the project developed proposals for the application of the planning instruments EIA, habitats assessment and SEA offshore based on legal regulations. The result is a catalogue of requirements regarding the content and proceedings of the instruments implementation in connection

  7. Strategic environmental impact assessment in spatial planning an instrument for assessment of importance of plan solutions for environmental protection and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Dejan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection, improvement and rational utilization of the environment becomes more and more primary task in modern society's struggle for more ecological healthy and humane living and working conditions. In order to living conditions satisfy man's social, economic, health and other needs protection, improvement and utilization of the environment must be in accordance with principles of sustainable development. Fact that planned solutions have great influence on quality of some environmental elements imposes importance of spatial planning for providing healthy environment as one of basic human needs. As in many planning documents environmental aspect was not considering in the way that it was needed to be, there arose a need for Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment in aim to verify are the planning documents in coherence with environmental protection and sustainable development.

  8. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  9. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator...

  10. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...

  11. Experimental and statistical models of impact determination of the electron beam parameters on surface layers properties of optical elements in precision instruments building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Yatsenko

    2016-05-01

    external heat flows in 1.3...1.5 times higher than before treatment. Conclusions: As results of the research the experimental and statistical models to determine the impact of parameters of the electron beam on the basic properties of the surface layers of the optical elements and their resistance to thermal action have been developed. This makes it possible (with a relative error of 5 ... 9% automatically in real time to form a managed database with improved properties that impact on the technical and operational characteristics of optical components and devices based on them.

  12. Holocene climate and anthropogenic impacts on two austrian alpine lakes: instrumental record based inference models and multi-proxy approach studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R.; Kamenik, C.; Hetzel, M.; Kaiblinger, C.; Koinig, K. A.; Thompson, R.

    2003-04-01

    Sediment cores from two lakes (Oberer and Unterer Landschitzsee) within the same drainage area and located slightly above and below the present day timberline, on the southern slopes of the central Austrian Alps, have been investigated using a multi-proxy approach. Transfer functions were constructed for diatoms (special emphasis being given to Fragilaria) and chrysophyte stomatocysts. The functions have been used to infer mean July water temperatures and the date of spring mixing, as based on a training set of thermistor recordings made in 45 lakes over a two year period. Other climate-driven environmental parameters which were reconstructed by transfer function studies are alkalinity and pH. In addition basic geochemical measurements, mineral magnetism, and pollen analyses were carried out on the sediment sequences. The period subsequent to the Younger Dryas (about 12000 cal. BP) is characterized by high alkalinity and low water temperatures, which in the earliest sediment records, were probably affected by glacial meltwater. Low water temperatures continued until 8000 cal. BP., due to a series of cold and wet climate oscillations. A marked temperature increase of about 3^o C followed between 8000 and 7400 cal. BP., paralleled by an increase in alkalinity and pH. Subsequently to about 6000 cal. BP. there followed a long-term trend of increasing humidity climaxing, at about 3000 cal. BP, in a series of oscillations between colder (and probably wetter) periods and warmer phases. A decline in pH mirrors this long-term trend in increasing humidity. Lowered pH appears to have been affected by temperature decline and/or melt-water impact during the more extreme events. Alpine land-use at Unterer Landschitzsee started about 3500 cal. BP and intensified during the Keltic/Roman and Medieval periods; these phases of enhanced anthropogenic impact are found to be closely related to climatic ameliorations. Changes in geochemistry (e.g., C/N and Fe/Mn ratios) relate to a

  13. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, A.; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  14. Subtask 12F4: Effects of neutron irradiation on the impact properties and fracture behavior of vanadium-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Up-to-date results on the effects of neutron irradiation on the impact properties and fracture behavior of V, V-Ti, V-Cr-Ti and V-Ti-Si alloys are presented in this paper, with an emphasis on the behavior of the U.S. reference alloys V-4Cr-4Ti containing 500-1000 wppm Si. Database on impact energy and cluctile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) has been established from Charpy impact tests of one-third-size specimens irradiated at 420{degrees}C-600{degrees}C up to {approx}50 dpa in lithium environment in fast fission reactors. To supplement the Charpy impact tests fracture behavior was also characterized by quantitative SEM fractography on miniature tensile and disk specimens that were irradiated to similar conditions and fractured at -196{degrees}C to 200{degrees}C by multiple bending. For similar irradiation conditions irradiation-induced increase in DBTT was influenced most significantly by Cr content, indicating that irradiation-induced clustering of Cr atoms takes place in high-Cr (Cr {ge} 7 wt.%) alloys. When combined contents of Cr and Ti were {le}10 wt.%, effects of neutron irradiation on impact properties and fracture behavior were negligible. For example, from the Charpy-impact and multiple-bend tests there was no indication of irradiation-induced embrittlement for V-5Ti, V-3Ti-1Si and the U.S. reference alloy V-4Cr-4Ti after irradiation to {approx}34 dpa at 420{degrees}C to 600{degrees}C, and only ductile fracture was observed for temperatures as low as -196{degrees}C. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 49 CFR 572.103 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test conditions and instrumentation. 572.103... Motion Headform § 572.103 Test conditions and instrumentation. (a) Headform accelerometers shall have... 1988, “Instrumentation for Impact Tests,” Class 1000 (incorporated by reference; see § 572.100)....

  16. The COURAGE Built Environment Outdoor Checklist: an objective built environment instrument to investigate the impact of the environment on health and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Bucciarelli, Paola; Franco, Maria Grazia; Andreotti, Alessandra; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Olaya, Beatriz; Chatterji, Somnath; Galas, Aleksander; Meriläinen-Porras, Satu; Frisoni, Giovanni; Russo, Emanuela; Minicuci, Nadia; Power, Mick; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    A tool to assess the built environment, which takes into account issues of disability, accessibility and the need for data comparable across countries and populations, is much needed. The Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE) in Europe Built Environment Outdoor Checklist (CBE-OUT) helps us to understand when features of the neighbourhood environment have either a positive or negative impact on the accessibility of neighbourhoods for healthy ageing. The CBE-OUT is composed of 128 items that can be recorded when present in the evaluated environment. Audits were performed in households randomly selected from each cluster of the sample for Finland, Poland and Spain, following precise rules defined by experts. Global scores were computed both section by section and in the overall checklist, rescaling the resulting scores from 0 (negative environment) to 100 (positive). The total number of completed CBE-OUT checklists was 2452 (Finland, 245; Poland, 972; and Spain, 1235). Mean global score for our sample is 49.3, suggesting an environment composed both of facilitating and hindering features. Significant differences were observed in the built environment features of the three countries and in particular between Finland and the other two. The assessment of features of built environment is crucial when thinking about ageing and enhanced participation. The COURAGE in Europe project developed this tool to collect information on built environment in an objective evaluation of environmental features and is a recommended methodology for future studies. The CBE-OUT checklist is an objective evaluation of the built environment and is centred on technical measurement of features present in the environment and has its foundations in the concepts of disability and accessibility operating in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model. The CBE-OUT checklist can be analysed using both the total score and the single section score

  17. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  18. Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its

  19. IMPACTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    (Photo courtesy of Don Davis / NASA)The University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL) are organising the 4th series of public lectures on astronomy, on the theme of "Impacts". The schedule is as follows: Il y a 100 ans : une explosion dans la Tunguska – Dr. Frédéric COURBIN, EPFL Les impacts sur Terre – Prof. Didier Queloz, UNIGE La fin des dinosaures – Dr. Stéphane Paltani, UNIGE Wednesday 7 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire CO1, EPFL, Ecublens Thursday 08 May 2008, from 7.00 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Auditoire Rouiller, Uni-Dufour, Genève All 3 lectures will be givent each evening! Admission free Information: 022 379 22 00

  20. Instrumenting Beliefs in Threshold Public Goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Angela C M; Spraggon, John M; Denny, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causal impact of beliefs on contributions in Threshold Public Goods (TPGs) is particularly important since the social optimum can be supported as a Nash Equilibrium and best-response contributions are a function of beliefs. Unfortunately, investigations of the impact of beliefs on behavior are plagued with endogeneity concerns. We create a set of instruments by cleanly and exogenously manipulating beliefs without deception. Tests indicate that the instruments are valid and relevant. Perhaps surprisingly, we fail to find evidence that beliefs are endogenous in either the one-shot or repeated-decision settings. TPG allocations are determined by a base contribution and beliefs in a one shot-setting. In the repeated-decision environment, once we instrument for first-round allocations, we find that second-round allocations are driven equally by beliefs and history. Moreover, we find that failing to instrument prior decisions overstates their importance.

  1. The Bath Adolescent Pain--Parental Impact Questionnaire (BAP-PIQ): development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of an instrument to assess the impact of parenting an adolescent with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Abbie; Eccleston, Christopher; McCracken, Lance M; Connell, Hannah; Clinch, Jacqui

    2008-07-31

    When an adolescent has chronic pain many aspects of a parent's life can be affected, including their emotional and social functioning. The assessment of this multidimensional parental impact is an essential, yet often neglected, clinical task. This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Bath Adolescent Pain--Parental Impact Questionnaire (BAP-PIQ), an assessment tool comprising multiple scales thought to be relevant for better understanding changes in functioning and behavior associated with parenting an adolescent with chronic pain. A sample of 194 parents of adolescents with chronic pain, recruited from three UK clinics, completed the 94 item draft inventory. Frequency and item correlation analyses resulted in a final inventory of 62 items. Internal consistency of all eight scales was established based on Cronbach's alpha. Convergent validity was undertaken by comparison of individual scales with existing validated measures of parental stress, mood, parenting behavior, marital adjustment, and general functioning. The temporal reliability of each scale was established using a sub-sample of 46 participants over a 14-day period. Psychometric evaluation suggests that the inventory yields a reliable and valid assessment of the multiple impacts of parenting an adolescent with chronic pain. The BAP-PIQ may offer a comprehensive assessment of these impacts in both a research and a clinical setting. Further study of the validity of BAP-PIQ scales and their ability to detect clinically meaningful change would be of use. Additional data from samples comprising fathers of adolescents with chronic pain and parents of adolescents with non-musculoskeletal pain would be of benefit.

  2. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  3. Gemini Instrument Upgrade Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ruben; Goodsell, Stephen; Kleinman, Scot

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini Observatory* remains committed to keeping its operational instrumentation competitive and serving the needs of its user community. Currently the observatory operates a 4 instruments + 1 AO system at each site. At Gemini North the GMOS-N, GNIRS, NIFS and NIRI instruments are offered supported by the ALTAIR AO system. In the south, GMOS-S, F-2, GPI and GSAOI are offered instrumentation and GeMS is the provided AO System. This paper reviews our strategy to keep our instrumentation suite competitive, examines both our current funded upgrade projects and our potential future enhancements. We summarize the work done and the results so far obtained within the instrument upgrade program.

  4. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  5. Aircrew Screening Instruments Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    available tools . Several vendors indicated that they will have new selection instruments available within a few months. These are not listed. As noted...AFCAPS-FR-2011-0012 AIRCREW SCREENING INSTRUMENTS REVIEW Diane L. Damos Damos Aviation Services, Inc...June 2007 – August 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aircrew Screening Instruments Review 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA3089-06-F-0385 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  6. Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havskov, Jens; Alguacil, Gerardo

    Here is unique and comprehensive coverage of modern seismic instrumentation, based on the authors' practical experience of a quarter-century in seismology and geophysics. Their goal is to provide not only detailed information on the basics of seismic instruments but also to survey equipment on the market, blending this with only the amount of theory needed to understand the basic principles. Seismologists and technicians working with seismological instruments will find here the answers to their practical problems.

  7. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  8. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  9. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  10. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  11. Marketing instruments of foreign trade promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Predrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruments of promotion as a part of marketing mix are usually associated with companies but more and more countries use this instrument in order to boost their exports. These foreign trade promotion instruments are now popular in many countries in the world since their use is not opposed to any World Trade Organization rules. Marketing instruments of trade promotions are the most important. They include National Exhibitions and National labels of origin and quality. In order to coordinate the application of these instruments countries have established national bodies for trade promotion. Many studies in the past had argued that national Agencies established to promote export did not had any real success, but recent studies indicate that they could have a significant impact on country export promotion. The result of this rise in impact of national export promotion agencies is due to international effort spearheaded by International Trade Center. The aim of this paper is to point out types and methods of marketing instruments application in trade promotion and to present the effectiveness of these instruments applications.

  12. Instrumentation Design and Development Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTTC has facilities for design, development and fabrication of: custominstrumentation, mobile instrumentation, miniaturized instrumentation, wirelessinstrumentation,...

  13. Impact toughness and fracture toughness of austempered ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcheng LIU

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact toughness and fracture toughness ofaustermpered ductile iron (ADI are described. The notched and un-notched charpy impact toughness of ADI at room temperature are somewhat lower than that of steel castings or forged steel pieces, however, they are approximately three times higher than that of mormal pearlitic ductile iron. The impact toughness of ADI decreases with decreasing temperature; but at -40 ℃ it still maintains about 70% of the value at room temperature. The properties of fracture toughness are important in safety design and failure analysis. In this study all fracture toughness data of ADI are higher than that of conventional ductile iron, and are equivalent to or better than that of steel castings o forged steel pieces with the tensile strength equivalent to ADI.

  14. BAA instrument no. 93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Instrument no. 93 has been in almost continual use for more than a hundred years. Since it left the workshop of its maker, George Calver, it has kept company with several other notable instruments and has been used by many eminent astronomers. It was added to the Association's collection in 1945.

  15. Instrumentation in endourology

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Rakesh; Monga,Manoj

    2011-01-01

    Success with endourological procedures requires expertise and instrumentation. This review focuses on the instrumentation required for ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and provides a critical assessment of in vitro and clinical studies that have evaluated the comparative effectiveness of these medical devices.

  16. Power quality and harmonic instrumentation selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, W.L.; Golden, P.

    1996-05-01

    The proliferation of adjustable speed drive (ASD) systems in commercial and industrial settings has prompted a new awareness of the impact of harmonics and other power quality (PQ) concerns. The PQ issues have a direct bearing on the reliability of these systems and the ability to perform the desired tasks in an interruption free manner. Details presented include identifying power quality problems, selecting the proper type of monitoring instruments, and interpretation of data. Included are typical instrument specifications and cost. Additionally the advent of artificial intelligence tools for PQ analysis and the resulting impact on providing solutions is described.

  17. SEAFRAME. Stewardship of Facilities. Volume 2, Issue 3, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    or following seas at any angle. Tracks attached to the bottom of the bridge support a towing carriage that carries test personnel, instrumentation ... Charpy test machine for impact testing is being designed and installed in conjunction with Johns Hopkins University. Further expansion includes the...Dynamic Measurement Annex at West Bethesda, supports model testing with calibrated instruments and fabrication capabilities. Other assets include the

  18. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  19. Jones' instrument technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ernest Beachcroft; Kingham, Edward G; Radnai, Rudolf

    1985-01-01

    Jones' Instrument Technology, Volume 5: Automatic Instruments and Measuring Systems deals with general trends in automatic instruments and measuring systems. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the principles of such devices. A brief review of a considerable number of standards is undertaken, with emphasis on the IEC625 Interface System. Other relevant standards are reviewed, including the interface and backplane bus standards. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a short introduction to the principles of automatic measurements, classification of measuring system

  20. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand....

  1. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  2. Manual of Surgical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia Sánchez Sarría

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical instruments are the group of tools used in surgical procedures. They are very expensive and sophisticated. Consequently, a standardized and meticulous care is essential; they should go through the decontamination, cleaning and sterilization process. These instruments are designed in order to provide surgeons with tools that help them to perform a basic surgical procedure; there are multiple variations and the design depends on their function. This paper aims at showing all surgical instruments that can be used in an operating room during surgery and are not generally included in the medical literature.

  3. Biomedical Sensors and Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    The living body is a difficult object to measure: accurate measurements of physiological signals require sensors and instruments capable of high specificity and selectivity that do not interfere with the systems under study. As a result, detailed knowledge of sensor and instrument properties is required to be able to select the "best" sensor from one of the many designed to meet these challenges. From the underlying principles to practical applications, this updated edition of Biomedical Sensors and Instruments provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the various kinds of biome

  4. Challenges in marine instrumentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Desa, E.; Joseph, A.; Chakraborty, B.; Nayak, M.R.; Ranade, G.

    . Acoustic and optical instrumentation combined on the same platform would be able to address these problems. For this autonomous vehicles with extremely low power requirements, long term deployment and data transmission capability via satellites after...

  5. UV and EUV Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K

    2010-01-01

    We describe telescopes and instruments that were developed and used for astronomical research in the ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The wavelength ranges covered by these bands are not uniquely defined. We use the following convention here: The EUV and UV span the regions ~100-912 and 912-3000 Angstroem respectively. The limitation between both ranges is a natural choice, because the hydrogen Lyman absorption edge is located at 912 Angstroem. At smaller wavelengths, astronomical sources are strongly absorbed by the interstellar medium. It also marks a technical limit, because telescopes and instruments are of different design. In the EUV range, the technology is strongly related to that utilized in X-ray astronomy, while in the UV range the instruments in many cases have their roots in optical astronomy. We will, therefore, describe the UV and EUV instruments in appropriate conciseness and refer to the respective chapters of this volume for more technic...

  6. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  7. Instrumentation for Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Richard S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

  8. Hetdex: Virus Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, G. J.; DePoy, D. L.; Tuttle, S.; Marshall, J. L.; Vattiat, B. L.; Prochaska, T.; Chonis, T. S.; Allen, R.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Integral-field-unit Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is made up of 150+ individually compact and identical spectrographs, each fed by a fiber integral-field unit. The instrument provides integral field spectroscopy at wavelengths between 350nm and 550nm of over 33,600 spatial elements per observation, each 1.8 sq. arcsec on the sky, at R 700. The instrument will be fed by a new wide-field corrector (WFC) of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) with increased science field of view as large as 22arcmin diameter and telescope aperture of 10m. This will enable the HETDEX, a large area blind survey of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z VIRUS instrument construction is summarized.

  9. Dynamic Failure of Integrated Durable Hot Structure for Space Access Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    hopkinson pressure bar loaded instrumented charpy impact test ,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 71, pp. 279–287, 2004. 111 [13] J. Dally and D... instrumented charpy impact test ,” Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 71, pp. 279–287, 2004. Jiang, C.P. Zou, Z. Z. W. D. and Liu, Y. W., “A discussion...SHPB apparatus. A three-point bending test specimen was machined from Ti/TiB plate using EDM technique. The crack was made using EDM wire of 0.002

  10. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  11. Modeling of Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Rolf; Hansen, Uwe

    Signal processing techniques in acoustics address many concerns. Included are such things as wave propagation variables, amplitude considerations, spectral content, wavelength, and phase. Phase is primarily of concern when waves interact with each other, as well as with a medium, and the imposition of boundary conditions leads to normal mode vibrations. Such conditions are prevalent in all musical instruments, and thus relevant signal processing techniques are essential to both understanding and modeling the structure of musical instruments and the sound radiated.

  12. Development of impact resistant boron/aluminum composites for turbojet engine fan blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, P.; Toth, I. J.

    1975-01-01

    Composite fabrication was performed by vacuum press diffusion bonding by both the foil-filament array and preconsolidated monotape methods. The effect of matrix material, fiber diameter, matrix enhancement, fiber volume reinforcement, test temperature, angle-plying, notch, impact orientation, processing variables and fabrication methods on tensile strength and Charpy impact resistance are evaluated. Root attachment concepts, were evaluated by room and elevated temperature tensile testing, as well as by pendulum-Izod and ballistic impact testing. Composite resistance to foreign object damage was also evaluated by ballistic impacting of panels using projectiles of gelatin, RTV rubber and steel at various velocities, and impingement angles. A significant improvement in the pendulum impact resistance of B-Al composites was achieved.

  13. The keyboard instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Ralph A

    2014-06-01

    Now that the field of performing arts medicine has been in existence for over three decades, we are approaching a key point: we should start to see more articles that bring together the data that have been collected from several studies in order to draw more robust conclusions. Review articles and their more structured relative, the meta-analysis, can help to improve our understanding of a particular topic, comparing and synthesizing the results of previous research that has been done on that subject area. One way this could be done would be to review the research that has been carried out on the performance-related problems associated with playing a particular instrument or group of instruments. While I am not going to do that myself, I hope that others will. In this editorial, I will do a very selective review of the playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) associated with one instrument group (the keyboard instruments), focusing on the most played instrument in that group (the piano;).

  14. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  15. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  16. Aethalometer™ Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Aethalometer is an instrument that provides a real-time readout of the concentration of “Black” or “Elemental” carbon aerosol particles (BC or E) in an air stream (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). It is a self-contained instrument that measures the rate of change of optical transmission through a spot on a filter where aerosol is being continuously collected and uses the information to calculate the concentration of optically absorbing material in the sampled air stream. The instrument measures the transmitted light intensities through the “sensing” portion of the filter, on which the aerosol spot is being collected, and a “reference” portion of the filter as a check on the stability of the optical source. A mass flowmeter monitors the sample air flow rate. The data from these three measurements is used to determine the mean BC content of the air stream.

  17. 3D Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bershady, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    In this Chapter we review the challenges of, and opportunities for, 3D spectroscopy, and how these have lead to new and different approaches to sampling astronomical information. We describe and categorize existing instruments on 4m and 10m telescopes. Our primary focus is on grating-dispersed spectrographs. We discuss how to optimize dispersive elements, such as VPH gratings, to achieve adequate spectral resolution, high throughput, and efficient data packing to maximize spatial sampling for 3D spectroscopy. We review and compare the various coupling methods that make these spectrographs ``3D,'' including fibers, lenslets, slicers, and filtered multi-slits. We also describe Fabry-Perot and spatial-heterodyne interferometers, pointing out their advantages as field-widened systems relative to conventional, grating-dispersed spectrographs. We explore the parameter space all these instruments sample, highlighting regimes open for exploitation. Present instruments provide a foil for future development. We give an...

  18. Micro mushroom instrumentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    An electronics circuit which provides for the recording of instrumentation data on an optical disk is disclosed. The optical disk is formatted in a spiral format instead of concentric tracks. The spiral format allows data to be recorded without the gaps that would be associated with concentric tracks. The instrumentation system provides each channel with a program instrumentation amplifier, a six pole lowpass switched capacitor filter, a sample and hold amplifier, and a digital to analog converter to provide automatic offset capability. Since each channel has its own components, simultaneous samples of every channel can be captured. All of the input signal's channel variables can be captured. All of the input signal's channel variables can be changed under software control without hardware changes. A single board computer is used for a system controller.

  19. ISSUERS OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rules laid down by Romanian Capital Market Law and the regulations put in force for its implementation apply to issuers of financial instruments admitted to trading on the regulated market established in Romania. But the issuers remain companies incorporated under Company Law of 1990. Such dual regulations need increased attention in order to observe the legal status of the issuers/companies and financial instruments/shares. Romanian legislator has chosen to implement in Capital Market Law special rules regarding the administration of the issuers of financial instruments, not only rules regarding admitting and maintaining to a regulated market. Thus issuers are, in Romanian Law perspective, special company that should comply special rule regarding board of administration and general shareholders meeting.

  20. Calibration of Geodetic Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bajtala

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of metrology and security systems of unification, correctness and standard reproducibilities belong to the preferred requirements of theory and technical practice in geodesy. Requirements on the control and verification of measured instruments and equipments increase and the importance and up-to-date of calibration get into the foreground. Calibration possibilities of length-scales (of electronic rangefinders and angle-scales (of horizontal circles of geodetic instruments. Calibration of electronic rangefinders on the linear comparative baseline in terrain. Primary standard of planar angle – optical traverse and its exploitation for calibration of the horizontal circles of theodolites. The calibration equipment of the Institute of Slovak Metrology in Bratislava. The Calibration process and results from the calibration of horizontal circles of selected geodetic instruments.

  1. O genograma como instrumento de pesquisa do impacto de eventos estressores na transição família-escola The genogram as a research instrument of the impact of stressful events in the family-school transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Castoldi

    2006-01-01

    six, three of whom were considered as having an easy adaptation to school and the other three as having a difficult adaptation. The mothers were interviewed and asked to construct their family genograms. Specific and distinct features were found regarding family configurations, stressful life events and relationship patterns in each group. The implications of the use of the genogram as a research instrument of the impact of stressful events in the family-school transition are discussed.

  2. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  3. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  4. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  6. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  7. [Hardening of dental instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasev, G P

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of prolonging the service life of stomatological instruments by the local hardening of their working parts is discussed. Such hardening should be achieved by using hard and wear-resistant materials. The examples of hardening dental elevators and hard-alloy dental drills are given. New trends in the local hardening of instruments are the treatment of their working parts with laser beams, the application of coating on their surface by the gas-detonation method. The results of research work and trials are presented.

  8. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  9. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  10. Impact Behavior of A356 Foundry Alloys in the Presence of Trace Elements Ni and V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, Daniele; Ludwig, Thomas H.; Merlin, Mattia; Arnberg, Lars; Garagnani, Gian Luca

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, the impact behavior of unmodified A356 alloys with the addition of Ni or V in as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions was assessed. Charpy V-notched specimens obtained from sand and permanent mold casting showed low total absorbed energy average values ( W t permanent mold cast alloys due to the locally finer microstructure. Concurrent mechanisms related to the chemical composition, solidification conditions and heat treatment were found to control the impact properties of the alloys. While the trace element Ni exerted only minor effects on the impact toughness of the A356 alloy, V had a strong influence: (i) V-containing sand cast alloys absorbed slightly higher impact energies compared to the corresponding A356 base alloys; (ii) in the permanent mold cast alloys, V in solid solution led to a considerable loss of ductility, which in turn decreased the total absorbed energy.

  11. Low temperature impact strength of heavy section ductile iron castings: effects of microstructure and chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Labrecque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A foundry research project has been recently initiated at RTIT in order to better understand the fabrication of as-cast heavy section DI parts meeting high impact energy requirements at low temperatures. The experimental castings have the following dimensions 180 mm x 180 mm x 190 mm. The achieved as-cast Charpy impact strengths were as follows: 17 J (RT, 16 J (-20°C and 11 J (-40°C. The foundry process, the chemical composition and the microstructure of this experimental casting are compared to the ones of various examples in order to show the detrimental effects of residual elements, microshrinkage and microcarbide on the impact properties. Finally, quality index empirical models (based on casting chemical compositions are used to analyse the impact tests results. This paper illustrates that an adequate nodule count can contribute to reducing the detrimental effects of the residual elements and microsegregation.

  12. Mechanical characterization based in the impact test of the cadmium-zinc and cadmium-zinc-copper alloys; Caracterizacion mecanica basada en la prueba de impacto de las aleaciones cadmio-zinc y cadmio-zinc-cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casolco, S.R.; Torres V, G. [Instituto de Investigacion en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-11-01

    The present work is a study carried out in the Institute for Materials Research of the UNAM, of the alloys cadmium-zinc and cadmium-zinc-copper with the fundamental objective of knowing their behavior to the impact that which will allow to establish structural applications of these alloys. This work consists mainly on impact tests of the type Charpy at different temperatures in a range of - 150 Centigrade to 250 Centigrade and to study their fracture morphologies with the help of a scanning electron microscope to recognize the tendency of the material toward the fracture of the fragile type and to determine the ductile-fragile transition. (Author)

  13. Irradiation programme MANITU. Results of impact tests with the irradiated materials of the first irradiation phase (0.8 dpa); Bestrahlungsprogramm MANITU. Ergebnisse der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche mit den bis 0,8 dpa bestrahlten Werkstoffen der ersten Bestrahlungsphase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.; Ries, H.; Romer, O.

    1995-09-01

    The irradiation project MANITU was planned and carried out in the frame of the European Longterm Fusion Materials Development Programme. The problem of the irradiation induced embrittlement of possible martensitic alloy candidates is still unsolved. But after the evaluation of subsize Charpy tests with the unirradiated reference specimens of MANITU a first tendency was recognizable. The mechanical properties of the newly developed low activation 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa alloys are partly better compared to the modified commercial 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb steels. In the present report the results of instrumented impact tests within the first phase of the MANITU programme (irradiation dose 0.8 dpa, irradiation temperatures 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 C) are analysed and assessed. Among all examined alloys (MANET-I, MANET-II, K-heat, OPTIFER-Ia, OPTIFER-II, F82H, 9Cr-2WVTa ORNL 3791) the ORNL steel shows the very best embrittlement behaviour after neutron irradiation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bestrahlungsprojekt MANITU wurde im Rahmen des europaeischen Langzeitprogramms fuer Materialentwicklung fuer die Kernfusion geplant und durchgefuehrt. Das Problem der bestrahlungsinduzierten Versproedung bei den in Frage kommenden martensitischen Werkstoffen ist nach wie vor ungeloest. Eine erste Tendenz zeichnete sich jedoch nach der Auswertung der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche an den unbestrahlten miniaturisierten Referenzproben des MANITU-Programms ab. Die neu entwickelten niedrig aktivierbaren 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa-Legierungen weisen gegenueber den modifizierten kommerziellen 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb-Staehlen teilweise bessere mechanische Eigenschaften auf. Im vorliegenden Bericht werden die Ergebnisse aus den instrumentierten Kerbschlagbiegeversuchen der ersten Phase des MANITU-Programms (Bestrahlungsdosis 0,8 dpa, Bestrahlungstemperaturen 250, 300, 350, 400 und 450 C) analysiert und bewertet. Von den untersuchten Legierungen (MANET-I, MANET-II, Kastencharge, OPTIFER-Ia, OPTIFER-II, F82H, 9Cr-2WVTa ORNL 3791

  14. Irradiation programme MANITU. Results of impact tests with the irradiated materials (0.2 dpa); Bestrahlungsprogramm MANITU. Ergebnisse der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche mit den bis 0,2 dpa bestrahlten Werkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.; Kunisch, W.; Ries, H.; Romer, O.

    1997-04-01

    The irradiation project MANITU was planned and carried out in the frame of the European Longterm Fusion Materials Development Programme. The problem of the irradiation induced embrittlement of possible martensitic alloy candidates is still unsolved. But after the evaluation of subsize Charpy tests with specimens of MANITU (0.8 dpa) a first tendency was recognizable. The mechanical properties of the newly developed low activation 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa alloys are better compared to the modified commercial 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb steels. In the present report the results of instrumented impact tests of the MANITU programme (irradiation dose 0.2 dpa, irradiation temperatures 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 C) are analysed and assessed. Among all examined alloys (MANET-I, MANET-II, K-heat, OPTIFER-Ia, OPTIFER-II, F82H, 9Cr-2WVTa ORNL 3791) the ORNL steel shows the best embrittlement behaviour after neutron irradation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bestrahlungsprojekt MANITU wurde im Rahmen des europaeischen Langzeitprogramms fuer Materialentwicklung fuer die Kernfusion geplant und durchgefuehrt. Das Problem der bestrahlungsinduzierten Versproedung bei den in Frage kommenden martensitischen Werkstoffen ist nach wie vor ungeloest. Eine erste Tendenz zeichnete sich jedoch nach der Auswertung der Kerbschlagbiegeversuche an den bis 0,8 dpa bestrahlten miniaturisierten Proben des MANITU-Programms ab. Die neu entwickelten niedrig aktivierbaren 7-10% Cr-W(Ge)VTa-Legierungen weisen gegenueber den modifizierten kommerziellen 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb-Staehlen bessere mechanische Eigenschaften auf. Im vorliegenden Bericht werden die Ergebnisse aus den instrumentierten Kerbschlagbiegeversuchen des MANITU-Programms (Bestrahlungsdosis 0,2 dpa, Bestrahlungstemperaturen 250, 300, 350, 400 und 450 C) analysiert und bewertet. Von den untersuchten Legierungen (MANET-I, MANET-II, Kastencharge, OPTIFER-Ia, OPTIFER-II, F82H, 9Cr-2WVTa ORNL 3791) zeigt der ORNL-Stahl das beste Versproedungsverhalten nach

  15. Future developments in instrumentation for electron crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Kenneth H

    2013-01-01

    Advances in instrumentation have proceeded at an impressive rate since the invention of the electron microscope. These advances have produced a continuous expansion of the capabilities and range of application of electron microscopy. In order to provide some insights on how continuing advances may enhance cryo-electron microscopy and electron crystallography, we review some of the active areas of instrumentation development. There is strong momentum in areas including detectors, phase contrast devices, and aberration correctors that may have substantial impact on the productivity and expectations of electron crystallographers.

  16. AWARE: mobile context instrumentation framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzil eFerreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a mobile instrumentation toolkit, AWARE, an open-source effort to develop an extensible and reusable platform for capturing, inferring, and generating context on mobile devices. Mobile phones are sensor-rich but resource-constrained, and therefore several considerations need to be addressed when creating a research tool that ensures problem-free context collection. We demonstrate how AWARE can mitigate researchers’ effort when building mobile data-logging tools and context-aware applications, with minimal battery impact. By encapsulating implementation details of sensor data retrieval and exposing the sensed context as higher-level abstractions, AWARE shifts the focus from software development to data analysis, both quantitative and qualitative. We have evaluated AWARE in several case studies and discuss its use, power consumption, and scalability.

  17. Felled trees as a rockfall protection system: Impact on simply supported fresh wood stems, experimental and numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Ignacio; Bourrier, Franck; Bertrand, David; Berger, Frédéric; Limam, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Forest is a well known and efficient natural protection solution against rockfall. In forested areas, the maintenance of forests is required to ensure their protective function and health. During this process that consists in removing some trees, the protective capacity of the forest decreases. To compensate the temporary loss of protection, some of the felled trees can be left in an oblique position to the slope. It is a financially feasible solution to ensure the protection against rockfall during the regeneration of forests. Thus, felled trees can become a useful protection system if they are correctly placed. No studies have been done concerning the efficiency of these devices and particularly their resistance to rock impacts and their energy dissipation capacity. In order to estimate the capacity of these devices to dissipate energy, it is necessary to study the dynamic response of tree stems under impact as well as rock's trajectory changes due the interaction with such structures. Experimental and numerical studies are carried out to determine the efficacy of this devices. Laboratory experiments enabled studying the response of fresh wood stems under dynamic and quasi-static loadings. A Mouton-Charpy pendulum was used on the dynamic loading tests performed onto simply supported stems. The experimental device was instrumented in order to obtain the impact force data and the stem's displacements fields. The mechanical properties of fresh wood are analyzed from the experimental results which also allow carrying out a detailed study of the stems dynamic response. A numerical model based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) enables to simulate the interaction of a rock and a felled tree device. To simulate the rock - tree interactions, rocks are represented by spherical solid bodies while cylindrical bodies represent the trees. The fresh wood constitutive law and the contact law are integrated on the model allowing realistic simulations. The numerical model is

  18. Economic Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Økonomiske instrumenter begrundes med behovet for politiske indgreb, der muliggør internaliseringen af omkostningerne ved de miljøpåvirkninger, produktion and levevis afstedkommer, således at hensyntagen til miljøet bliver en del af virksomheders og husholdningers omkostninger og dermed en tilsky...

  19. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  20. Creating a Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpää, Maria; Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to the development of new technology, musical instruments are no more tied to their existing acoustic or technical limitations as almost all parameters can be augmented or modified in real time. An increasing number of composers, performers, and computer programmers have thus become intere...

  1. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  2. Advanced instrumentation and teleoperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1998-07-01

    SCK-CEN's advanced instrumentation and teleoperation project aims at evaluating the potential of a telerobotic approach in a nuclear environment and, in particular, the use of remote-perception systems. Main achievements in 1997 in the areas of R and D on radiation tolerance for remote sensing, optical fibres and optical-fibre sensors, and computer-aided teleoperation are reported.

  3. Economic Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Økonomiske instrumenter begrundes med behovet for politiske indgreb, der muliggør internaliseringen af omkostningerne ved de miljøpåvirkninger, produktion and levevis afstedkommer, således at hensyntagen til miljøet bliver en del af virksomheders og husholdningers omkostninger og dermed en...

  4. Instrument for assaying radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  5. Integrating Nephelometer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uin, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Integrating Nephelometer (Figure 1) is an instrument that measures aerosol light scattering. It measures aerosol optical scattering properties by detecting (with a wide angular integration – from 7 to 170°) the light scattered by the aerosol and subtracting the light scattered by the carrier gas, the instrument walls and the background noise in the detector (zeroing). Zeroing is typically performed for 5 minutes every day at midnight UTC. The scattered light is split into red (700 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) wavelengths and captured by three photomultiplier tubes. The instrument can measure total scatter as well as backscatter only (from 90 to 170°) (Heintzenberg and Charlson 1996; Anderson et al. 1996; Anderson and Ogren 1998; TSI 3563 2015) At ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement), two identical Nephelometers are usually run in series with a sample relative humidity (RH) conditioner between them. This is possible because Nephelometer sampling is non-destructive and the sample can be passed on to another instrument. The sample RH conditioner scans through multiple RH values in cycles, treating the sample. This kind of setup allows to study how aerosol particles’ light scattering properties are affected by humidification (Anderson et al. 1996). For historical reasons, the two Nephelometers in this setup are labeled “wet” and “dry”, with the “dry” Nephelometer usually being the one before the conditioner and sampling ambient air (the names are switched for the MAOS measurement site due to the high RH of the ambient air).

  6. Instruments of Transformative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    production and distribution channels. PDPs aim at overcoming current market and government failures by pooling resources in the attempt to solve this global social challenge. Thus, PDPs are a case of instruments of transformative research and innovation, operating in a transnational governance context...

  7. The tropospheric monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voert, M.J. te; Brakel, R. van; Witvoet, G.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal and opto-mechanical design and analysis work has been done on the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), a spectrometer on the Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor satellite. To verify compliance with the stringent opto-mechanical stability requirements, detailed thermal and thermo-mechani

  8. Virtual reality musical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low cost technologies has created a wide interest in virtual reality (VR), but how to design and evaluate multisensory interactions in VR remains as a challenge. In this paper, we focus on virtual reality musical instruments, present an overview of our...

  9. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  10. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  11. Specification for Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This paper is intended to give an overview on instrumentation for monitoring the efficiency of the Converter and the performance of the device. Real-time control of plant and data monitoring and storage are the main objectives of the control system....

  12. 48 The Nigerian Musical Instrument Production Industry Sunday ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    appreciate the impacts of the industry by recognizing, supporting, strengthening and making it .... identity interests of Nigeria and its individual citizens are enormous. ... instrument industry being a valuable tourists' attraction invariably adds to ...

  13. The Science of String Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Many performing musicians, as well as instrument builders, are coming to realize the importance of understanding the science of musical instruments. This book explains how string instruments produce sound. It presents basic ideas in simple language, and it also translates some more sophisticated ideas in non-technical language. It should be of interest to performers, researchers, and instrument makers alike.

  14. UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition For the UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition proposal, a new 400 MHz and an upgraded 500 MHz NMR ...UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition Report Title For the UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition proposal, a new 400 MHz and an upgraded 500...MHz NMR have been delivered, installed, and incorporated into research and two lab courses. While no results from these instruments have been

  15. An investigation of fracture toughness, fatigue-crack growth, sustained-load flaw growth, and impact properties of three pressure vessel steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, C. M.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Lewis, P. E.

    1975-01-01

    The elastic fracture toughness of the three steels is shown to not decrease significantly with decreasing temperature from room temperature to about 244 K (-20 F.). The elastic fracture toughness of the three steels increased with increasing specimen width and thickness. The fatigue-crack-growth data for all three steels fall into relatively narrow scatter bands on plots of rate against stress-intensity range. An equation is shown to predict the upper bounds of the scatter bands reasonably well. Charpy impact energies decreased with decreasing temperature in the nominal temperature range from room temperature to 244 K (-20 F). The nil-ductility temperatures of the steels are discussed.

  16. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  17. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  18. A systems analysis of the impact of navigation instrumentation on-board a Mars rover, based on a covariance analysis of navigation performance. M.S. Thesis, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, Douglas Eric

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Space Exploration Initiative, the exploration of Mars will undoubtedly require the use of rovers, both manned and unmanned. Many mission scenarios have been developed, incorporating rovers which range in size from a few centimeters to ones large enough to carry a manned crew. Whatever the mission, accurate navigation of the rover on the Martian surface will be necessary. This thesis considers the initial rover missions, where minimal in-situ navigation aids will be available on Mars. A covariance analysis of the rover's navigation performance is conducted, assuming minimal on-board instrumentation (gyro compass and speedometer), a single orbiting satellite, and a surface beacon at the landing site. Models of the on-board instruments are varied to correspond to the accuracy of various levels of these instruments currently available. A comparison is made with performance of an on-board IMU. Landing location and satellite orbits are also varied.

  19. Instrumentation problems for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G O

    1980-01-01

    The physician has, for whatever reasons, diminished his or her level of involvement on the team dedicated to developing, refining, and evaluating medical technology. As a result, the challenge confronting the physician and the technology development team today is to orchestrate a team structure that will ensure the greatest input and commitment from physicians and other professionals during current and future technology development. The charges of cost escalation and dehumanization in our system of health care delivery will also be discussed, as will the lack of, or confusion about, access to data concerning cost of a given instrument, and fuzzy semantics and perspectives on technology and instrumentation. The author suggests answers to, or means to ameliorate, the problems.

  20. KEKB beam instrumentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaga, M.; Flanagan, J.; Hiramatsu, S.; Ieiri, T.; Ikeda, H.; Ishii, H.; Kikutani, E.; Mimashi, T.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mizuno, H.; Mori, K.; Tejima, M.; Tobiyama, M.

    2003-02-01

    For the stable high-luminosity operation and luminosity increase, the electron and positron storage rings of the KEK B-Factory (KEKB) is equipped with various beam instrumentations, which have been working well since the start of the commissioning in December, 1998. Details and performance of the beam-position monitor system based on the spectrum analysis using DSPs, the turn-by-turn BPM with four-dimensional function available for measurements of the individual bunch position, phase and intensity, the parametric beam-DCCTs designed so as to avoid the magnetic-core-selection problems for the parametric flux modulation, the bunch-by-bunch feedback system indispensable to suppress the strong multibunch instabilities in KEKB, the various optical beam diagnostic systems, such as synchrotron radiation interferometers for precise beam-size measurement, the tune meters, the bunch length monitors and the beam-loss monitors are described. Delicate machine tuning of KEKB is strongly supported by these instrumentations.

  1. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  2. The impact of the instrumentation and control systems in the safety of a nuclear plant: a general vision; El impacto de los sistemas de instrumentacion y control en la seguridad de una planta nuclear: una vision general

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celis del Angel, L.; Rivero, T., E-mail: lina.celis@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    One of the fundamental components so much for the sure operation, like in emergency cases or accident are the equipment s and instrumentation and control systems. The nuclear industry has had some accidents where the instrumentation and control have played and important part: a wrong design, instrumentation lack, faulty systems of safety, etc. At the present time the necessity to modernize the instrumentation and control in a nuclear power plant is before the challenge of finding innovative forms to improve the competitiveness and readiness, reducing operation costs without put ing in risk the safety and reliability of the nuclear power plant. Most of the nuclear power plants require actualizing their instrumentation and control systems, here the digital systems represent a great alternative, improving the performance and the safety, increasing the readiness and reducing the maintenance s. However they require of strict tests that allow assuring their application in critical systems. It is also necessary, the development of modernization programs that allow the programmed substitution of the systems without affecting the readiness of the nuclear power plants. During this whole modernization process will be necessary to put special attention in the cyber-safety because the attacks every time they are more elaborated. Therefore will be necessary to go toward the modernization of the instrumentation and control with the challenge of making without detriment some in the safety of the normal operation and with response reliability in emergency conditions or accident that which represents an effort that should not be postponed in the case of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  3. An ice lithography instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  4. Advancements in Actuated Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Berdahl, Edgar; Hamilton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article presents recent developments in actuated musical instruments created by the authors, who also describe an ecosystemic model of actuated performance activities that blur traditional boundaries between the physical and virtual elements of musical interfaces. Actuated musical instrument...... that these instruments enable. We look at some of the conceptual and perceptual issues introduced by actuated musical instruments, and finally we propose some directions in which such research may be headed in the future.......This article presents recent developments in actuated musical instruments created by the authors, who also describe an ecosystemic model of actuated performance activities that blur traditional boundaries between the physical and virtual elements of musical interfaces. Actuated musical instruments...... are physical instruments that have been endowed with virtual qualities controlled by a computer in real-time but which are nevertheless tangible. These instruments provide intuitive and engaging new forms of interaction. They are different from traditional (acoustic) and fully automated (robotic) instruments...

  5. The effect of strain rate on the impact strength of the high-Mn steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Śmiglewicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, results of impact bending tests of a high-manganese steel of Fe – 30 wt.%, Mn – 9 wt.%, Al – 0,65 wt.%, C grade are presented. The tests were carried out using a flywheel machine, suitable for dynamic stretching and impact bending tests in the range of linear velocity of the forcing element from 5 ÷ 40 m/s. The obtained test results were compared with the results of impact resistance of the studied steel determined using Charpy machine. Structural investigations were carried out using scanning transmission electron microscopy. Surfaces of fractures formed in the break point during bending tests were analyzed, and they indicate a presence of mixed transcrystalline fractures with a predominance of plastic fractures.

  6. FHR Process Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactors (FHRs) are entering into early phase engineering development. Initial candidate technologies have been identified to measure all of the required process variables. The purpose of this paper is to describe the proposed measurement techniques in sufficient detail to enable assessment of the proposed instrumentation suite and to support development of the component technologies. This paper builds upon the instrumentation chapter of the recently published FHR technology development roadmap. Locating instruments outside of the intense core radiation and high-temperature fluoride salt environment significantly decreases their environmental tolerance requirements. Under operating conditions, FHR primary coolant salt is a transparent, low-vapor-pressure liquid. Consequently, FHRs can employ standoff optical measurements from above the salt pool to assess in-vessel conditions. For example, the core outlet temperature can be measured by observing the fuel s blackbody emission. Similarly, the intensity of the core s Cerenkov glow indicates the fission power level. Short-lived activation of the primary coolant provides another means for standoff measurements of process variables. The primary coolant flow and neutron flux can be measured using gamma spectroscopy along the primary coolant piping. FHR operation entails a number of process measurements. Reactor thermal power and core reactivity are the most significant variables for process control. Thermal power can be determined by measuring the primary coolant mass flow rate and temperature rise across the core. The leading candidate technologies for primary coolant temperature measurement are Au-Pt thermocouples and Johnson noise thermometry. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow measurement, that includes high-temperature tolerant standoffs, is a potential coolant flow measurement technique. Also, the salt redox condition will be monitored as an indicator of its corrosiveness. Both

  7. CARMENES instrument overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The

  8. ONLINE INSTRUMENTS IN QUANTITATIVE MARKETING RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA, Ivona

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has brought great benefits, revolutionizing the world of marketing instruments used for advertising, bringing new areas such as search engine marketing, online marketing research, is a mediator of diverse individuals gathered in communities where borders no longer matter, and information is immeasurable. The impact of Internet use in marketing research refers to collecting data through online quantitative survey. This paper has its duty to reveal the importance of online cantitat...

  9. 不同消毒方法对手术器械清洗质量的影响%Impact of the different sterilization methods on the cleaning quality of surgical instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秋霞; 谢碧娴; 林爱惜

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨机械热力消毒法与含氯消毒剂浸泡消毒法在手术器械清洗中的应用效果.方法:将100件非特殊感染手术器械分为A组和B组各50件,A组采用机械热力消毒,B组采用含氯消毒剂浸泡消毒.比较两组清洗质量.结果:两组手术器械合格率目测法比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),细菌培养法比较A组合格率明显高于B组(P<0.05).结论:采用机械热力消毒法处理手术器械可提高清洗质量,值得推广.%Objective: To investigate the application effect of mechanical thermal disinfection and immersion disinfection with chlorine -containing disinfectant in the cleaning of surgical instruments.Methods: 100 pieces of surgical instruments with non - specific infection were divided into group A and group B ( 50 pieces for each group ).The mechanical thermal disinfection was used in the group A and immersion disinfection with chlorine - containing disinfectant was utilized in the group B.The cleaning quality was compared between the two groups.Results: The difference in the comparison of the qualified rate of disinfected surgical instruments by visual method was not statistically significant ( P > 0.05 ); the qualified rate of disinfected surgical instruments compared by bacterial culture method is markedly higher in the group A than the group B ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion: Application of the mechanical thermal disinfection can improve the cleaning quality of surgical instruments, it is recommended to be widely used.

  10. Tool – Material, Metaphor – Metonymy, Instrument(ness)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2008-01-01

    This paper, presents in an abbreviated form the argument presented in an earlier paper[1], and tries to relate it to the theme, "retro in the interface". We introduce the concept instrumentness as a quality of human-computer interfaces. Instrumentness points to the way musical instruments are con...

  11. ZBLAN Viscosity Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukler, William

    2001-01-01

    The past year's contribution from Dr. Kaukler's experimental effort consists of these 5 parts: a) Construction and proof-of-concept testing of a novel shearing plate viscometer designed to produce small shear rates and operate at elevated temperatures; b) Preparing nonlinear polymeric materials to serve as standards of nonlinear Theological behavior; c) Measurements and evaluation of above materials for nonlinear rheometric behavior at room temperature using commercial spinning cone and plate viscometers available in the lab; d) Preparing specimens from various forms of pitch for quantitative comparative testing in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer, Thermal Mechanical Analyzer; and Archeological Analyzer; e) Arranging to have sets of pitch specimens tested using the various instruments listed above, from different manufacturers, to form a baseline of the viscosity variation with temperature using the different test modes offered by these instruments by compiling the data collected from the various test results. Our focus in this project is the shear thinning behavior of ZBLAN glass over a wide range of temperature. Experimentally, there are no standard techniques to perform such measurements on glasses, particularly at elevated temperatures. Literature reviews to date have shown that shear thinning in certain glasses appears to occur, but no data is available for ZBLAN glass. The best techniques to find shear thinning behavior require the application of very low rates of shear. In addition, because the onset of the thinning behavior occurs at an unknown elevated temperature, the instruments used in this study must provide controlled low rates of shear and do so for temperatures approaching 600 C. In this regard, a novel shearing parallel plate viscometer was designed and a prototype built and tested.

  12. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  13. Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Strehl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This treatise covers all aspects of the design and the daily operations of a beam diagnostic system for a large particle accelerator. A very interdisciplinary field, it involves contributions from physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers and computer experts alike so as to satisfy the ever-increasing demands for beam parameter variability for a vast range of operation modi and particles. The author draws upon 40 years of research and work, most of them spent as the head of the beam diagnostics group at GSI. He has illustrated the more theoretical aspects with many real-life examples that will provide beam instrumentation designers with ideas and tools for their work.

  14. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    the cost and to calculate general economic and sectoral consequences. This CGE model is linked to an agricultural sector model calculating the optimal use of land, and the agricultural sector model is then linked to a biological agent based simulation model (ABM) calculating changes in the population...... for improving bio-diversity and securing drinking water. That is, combining economic modeling with physical biological modeling and geological evaluation allows us to select unsprayed field margins as the most effective instrument. Sensitivity analysis conducted on bio-diversity suggest that this result...

  15. Beam Instrument Development System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-08

    Beam Instrumentation Development System (BIDS) is a collection of common support libraries and modules developed during a series of Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control and timing/synchronization projects. BIDS includes a collection of Hardware Description Language (HDL) libraries and software libraries. The BIDS can be used for the development of any FPGA-based system, such as LLRF controllers. HDL code in this library is generic and supports common Digital Signal Processing (DSP) functions, FPGA-specific drivers (high-speed serial link wrappers, clock generation, etc.), ADC/DAC drivers, Ethernet MAC implementation, etc.

  16. Calibration of "Babyline" RP instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

      If you have old RP instrumentation of the “Babyline” type, as shown in the photo, please contact the Radiation Protection Group (Joffrey Germa, 73171) to have the instrument checked and calibrated. Thank you. Radiation Protection Group

  17. Keyboard Emulation For Computerized Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, P. M.; Crouch, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    Keyboard emulator has interface at same level as manual keyboard entry. Since communication and control take place at high intelligence level in instrument, all instrument circuitry fully utilized. Little knowledge of instrument circuitry necessary, since only task interface performs is key closure. All existing logic and error checking still performed by instrument, minimizing workload of laboratory microcomputer. Timing constraints for interface operation minimal at keyboard entry level.

  18. Evaluation of multivariate calibration models transferred between spectroscopic instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae; Hansen, Per W.; Skov, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In a setting where multiple spectroscopic instruments are used for the same measurements it may be convenient to develop the calibration model on a single instrument and then transfer this model to the other instruments. In the ideal scenario, all instruments provide the same predictions for the ......In a setting where multiple spectroscopic instruments are used for the same measurements it may be convenient to develop the calibration model on a single instrument and then transfer this model to the other instruments. In the ideal scenario, all instruments provide the same predictions...... for the same samples using the transferred model. However, sometimes the success of a model transfer is evaluated by comparing the transferred model predictions with the reference values. This is not optimal, as uncertainties in the reference method will impact the evaluation. This paper proposes a new method...... for calibration model transfer evaluation. The new method is based on comparing predictions from different instruments, rather than comparing predictions and reference values. A total of 75 flour samples were available for the study. All samples were measured on ten near infrared (NIR) instruments from two...

  19. Advancements in Actuated Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Berdahl, Edgar; Hamilton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    are physical instruments that have been endowed with virtual qualities controlled by a computer in real-time but which are nevertheless tangible. These instruments provide intuitive and engaging new forms of interaction. They are different from traditional (acoustic) and fully automated (robotic) instruments...

  20. Electronic Instruments -- Played or Used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulveland, Randall Dana

    1998-01-01

    Compares the experience of playing an acoustic instrument to an electronic instrument by analyzing the constant structures and relationships between the experiences. Concludes that students' understanding of the physical experience of making music increases when experiences with acoustic instruments precede their exposure to electronic…

  1. Mallet Instruments Challenge Beginning Percussionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumley, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Orff mallet instruments should be used in beginning band classes. Adding mallet instruments would expand a beginner's concept of percussion instruments. Just as important, the percussion section would provide a solid melodic and harmonic foundation to assist beginning wind instrumentalists with their insecurities about pitch. (RM)

  2. An Instrumental Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Think of guitars and you think of rock and country music, or the vigorous rhythms of the gypsy flamenco, or perhaps the classical strumming of a Segovia. About the last thing you would associate with guitars is aerospace technology. Yet there is a connection. A whole family of quality guitars is an outgrowth of helicopter rotor research conducted for the military services and NASA by an aerospace contractor. These musical spinoffs, commercially available and rapidly gaining in popularity, are the Ovation guitar line, manufactured by Ovation Instruments, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut. Ovation Instruments is a subsidiary of Kaman Corporation, a diversified company originally formed to develop and build helicopters. A helicopter's rotor system, with thousands of moving parts, is highly susceptible to vibration. For rotor efficiency, vibration must be "dampened," or reduced. Like other helicopter builders, Kaman Corporation spent years of research toward that end. The technology thus developed, together with the availability of staff experts in vibration engineering, sparked an idea in the mind of the company's president and founder, Charles H. Karnan. A guitarist of professional caliber, Kaman reasoned that vibration-dampening technology could be turned around to enhance vibration and thereby produce a guitar with superior sound.

  3. The QUIET Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  4. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  5. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  6. HANARO instrumented capsule development for supporting a study on the irradiation damage of stainless steels for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S.; Sohn, J. M.; Kim, H. R.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, K. H

    2000-10-01

    As a part of the program for the maximum utilization of HANARO by MOST, Korea, an instrumented capsule (00M-01U) was designed and fabricated for supporting a study on the irradiation damage of stainless steels for nuclear applications. The basic structure of the capsule for the irradiation of Stainless steels was based on that of the 99M-01K capsule irradiated successfully in HANARO. To satisfy the user requirements such as irradiation temperature and neutron fluence, the optimal arrangement of test specimens was done in the axial and circumferential direction. The temperature distribution and thermal stress of a capsule with multi-holes were obtained by a finite element analysis code, ANSYS. From these analyzed data, this capsule was found to be compatible with HANARO design requirement. Various types of specimens such as small tensile, Charpy, TEM and EPMA specimens were inserted in the capsule. The specimens will be irradiated in the IR2 test hole of HANARO at 288, 300 and 350 deg C up to a fast neutron fluence of 1.0x10{sup 20}(n/cm{sup 2})(E>1.0MeV)

  7. Impact de l'utilisation d'un réseau de communication sur les performances en sécurité d'un système instrumenté de sécurité

    OpenAIRE

    Mkhida, Abdelhak; Thiriet, Jean-Marc; Aubry, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Dans ce papier, la modélisation et l'évaluation des performances relatives à la sûreté de fonctionnement des systèmes instrumentés de sécurité (SIS) sont traitées pour des structures classiques. La contribution de la fonctionnalité communication est ensuite évaluée après l'introduction d'un réseau de communication dans les systèmes instrumentés de sécurité. Une approche dynamique utilisant les réseaux d'activité stochastiques est proposée. Les paramètres utilisés pour ...

  8. Back to Basics: Instrument Cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    Adequately cleaning and processing surgical instruments may be challenging for perioperative team members; however, the cleaning and processing of instruments are critical steps in making instruments safe to use on patients and achieving an appropriately safe OR environment. Instruments that are cleaned properly have had organic debris and soil removed, rendering them ready for sterilization or disinfection. This Back to Basics article covers the basic steps and considerations for cleaning and processing instruments before sterilization. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Subtask 12D2: Baseline impact properties of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the baseline impact properties of vanadium-base alloys as a function of compositional variables. Up-to-date results on impact properties of unirradiated V, V-Ti, V-Cr-Ti and V-Ti-Si alloys are presented and reviewed in this paper, with an emphasis on the most promising class of alloys, i.e., V-(4-5)Cr-(3-5)Ti containing 400-1000 wppm Si. Database on impact energy and ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) has been established from Charpy impact tests on small laboratory as well as production-scale heats. DBTT is influenced most significantly by Cr contents and, to a lesser extent, by Ti contents of the alloys. When combined contents of Cr and Ti were {le}10 wt.%, V-Cr-Ti alloys exhibit excellent impact properties, i.e., DBTT<-200{degrees}C and upper shelf energies of {approx}120-140 J/cm{sup 2}. Impact properties of the production-scale heat of the U.S. reference alloy V-4Cr- 4Ti were as good as those of the laboratory-scale heats. Optimal impact properties of the reference alloy were obtained after annealing the as-rolled products at 1000{degrees}C-1050{degrees}C for 1-2 h in high-quality vacuum. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.

    2016-05-01

    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  11. Reconfigurable laser ranging instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiter, John

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a fast, flexible, non-contact, eye-safe laser ranging instrument useful in a variety of industrial metrology situations, such as in-process machining control and part inspection. The system has variable computer-controlled standoff and depth of field, and can obtain 3-D images of surfaces within a range of from 1.5 ft to almost 10 ft from the final optical element. The minimum depth of field is about 3.5 in. at 1.5 ft and about 26 in. at the far range. The largest depth of field for which useful data are available is about 41 in. Resolution, with appropriate averaging, is about one part in 4000 of the depth of field, which implies a best case resolution for this prototype of 0.00075 in. System flexibility is achieved by computer controlled relative positioning of optical components.

  12. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, David E. (Danbury, CT)

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  13. The MICE PID Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonesini, M

    2008-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will carry out a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. As the emittance measurement will be done on a particle-by-particle basis, sophisticated beam instrumentation is needed to measure particle coordinates and timing vs RF. A PID system based on three time-of-flight stations, two Aerogel Cerenkov detectors and a KLOE-like calorimeter has been constructed in order to keep beam contamination ($e, \\pi$) well below 1%. The MICE time-of-flight system will measure timing with a resolution better than 70 ps per plane, in a harsh environment due to high particle rates, fringe magnetic fields and electron backgrounds from RF dark current.

  14. Instrumented Architectural Simulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagi, B. A.; Saraiya, N.; Nishimura, S.; Byrd, G.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies, not just toy problems or small application fragements, (2) the details of the simulation include the critical details of the design, (3) the view of the design presented by the simulator instrumentation leads to useful insights on the problems with the design, and (4) there is enough flexibility in the simulation system so that the asking of unplanned questions is not suppressed by the weight of the mechanics involved in making changes either in the design or its measurement. A simulation system with these goals is described together with the approach to its implementation. Its application to the study of a particular class of multiprocessor hardware system architectures is illustrated.

  15. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  16. Lessons for Teachers: What Lower Secondary School Students Tell Us about Learning a Musical Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    In this study I set out to investigate why many students drop out from elective instrument programmes, particularly in lower secondary school. I examined the values and beliefs a sample of students in their first year in secondary school attach to learning an instrument, and the impact of the instrument lesson upon these values and beliefs.…

  17. Ideology as instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna

    2007-12-01

    Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. (Copyright) 2007 APA.

  18. Aprendizaje instrumental en anfibios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén N. Muzio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una revisión de los estudios realizados acerca de los mecanismos de aprendizaje en anfibios. Se conoce muy poco acerca de los procesos de aprendizaje en anfibios, y aún menos respecto de las relaciones cerebro-aprendizaje. Recientemente hemos comenzado el estudio sistemático del aprendizaje instrumental en el sapo Bufo arenarum dentro de un marco comparativo. Se observaron diversos fenómenos de aprendizaje comunes a una amplia variedad de vertebrados, tales como la adquisición bajo condiciones de entrenamiento masivo y espaciado, la extinción, la recuperación espontánea, el efecto subsiguiente al refuerzo, y el efecto en al adquisición de la magnitud del reforzamiento. Además, comenzamos el análisis de los efectos sobre el aprendizaje de las lesiones del pallium medial (estructura postulada como homóloga al hipocampo de los mamíferos. La lesión del paIlium medial no tuvo efectos sobre el desempeño ni sobre la tasa de captación de agua durante la adquisición. Pero retardó significativamente la extinción de la respuesta instrumental en un corredor recto. Estos datos sugieren que el palli um medial de los sapos juega un papel en la inhibición de respuestas previamente aprendidas. Los resultados de nuestros estudios en el sapo Bufo arenarum aportan datos origi na1es a la limitada información disponible sobre aprendizaje en anfibios.

  19. Incidence of instrument separation using LightSpeed rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Kenneth I; Hammond, Nathan B; Biggs, Stephen G; Ibarrola, Jose L

    2006-01-01

    The use of nickel-titanium rotary instrument systems has gained popularity over the past 10 years. One of these instrument systems is the LightSpeed (LightSpeed Technology, Inc, San Antonio, TX). One drawback for all nickel-titanium rotary instruments is the incidence of instrument separation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of nonretrievable instrument separation using the LightSpeed system in a clinical setting. A total of 3543 canals were treated over a 24 month period and during that time, 46 LightSpeed instruments were separated and found to be nonretrievable, resulting in a separation rate of 1.30%. This rate was lower than previous reported studies.

  20. Tool – Material, Metaphor – Metonymy, Instrument(ness)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2008-01-01

    This paper, presents in an abbreviated form the argument presented in an earlier paper[1], and tries to relate it to the theme, "retro in the interface". We introduce the concept instrumentness as a quality of human-computer interfaces. Instrumentness points to the way musical instruments are con...... pointing to alternative values, differing from traditional usability, which are also relevant in creative work outside art and music composition.......This paper, presents in an abbreviated form the argument presented in an earlier paper[1], and tries to relate it to the theme, "retro in the interface". We introduce the concept instrumentness as a quality of human-computer interfaces. Instrumentness points to the way musical instruments...... are controlled and conceptualized through values such as virtuosity and palyability, which are important for computer-mediated creative work supporting development in use beyond what is initially designed for. The papet performs a conceptual investigation into qualities in software interfaces that support...

  1. Exoplanetary Science: Instrumentation, Observations, and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    More than 700 exoplanets have been discovered and studied using indirect techniques, leading our field into the exciting new era of comparative exoplanetology. However, the direct detection of exoplanetary systems still remains at the sensitivity limits of both ground- and space-based observatories. The development of new technologies for adaptive optics systems and high contrast instruments continues to increase the ability to directly study exoplanets. The scientific impact of these developments has promising prospects for both short and long timescales. In my talk, I will discuss recent highlights from the SEEDS survey and the current instrumentation in use at the Subaru telescope. SEEDS is a high contrast imaging strategic observing program with 120 nights of time allocated at the NAOJ's flagship optical and infrared telescope. I will also describe new instrumentation I designed to improve the SEEDS capabilities and efficiency. Finally, I will briefly discuss the conceptual design of a transiting planet camera to fly as a potential second generation instrument on-board NASA's SOFIA observatory.

  2. 衍生金融工具的确认对银行类上市公司业绩的影响及其结构分析%Derivative Financial Instruments: Their Impact on Performance of Listed Companies in Banking and Structural Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅芳; 廖波; 时海霞

    2009-01-01

    The new way to recognize derivative financial instruments hishlishts the reform of the new accounting stand-ards.The paper analyses listed companies in banking which apply derivative financial instruments to business operation most frequently,discusses the composition of derivative financial instruments and their impact on corporate performance to help the users concerned who read the financial statements to understand the true financial situation of enterprises and to make better investment decision.%衍生金融工具确认方式的变化,是新会计准则改革的一个亮点.针对运用衍生金融工具最多的银行类上市公司,来具体阐述并详细分析衍生金融工具对企业业绩的影响,分析了衍生金融工具的构成情况,以助于财务报表使用者了解企业真实财务状况,更好地进行投资决策.

  3. Correction factors for safe performance of API X65 pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, Sayyed H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Birjand, P.O. Box 97175/615, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: shhashemi@birjand.ac.ir

    2009-08-15

    Prediction of required Charpy energy for fracture arrest is vital for safe performance of gas transportation pipelines. This is commonly estimated through failure models calibrated in the past on fracture data from combined Charpy tests and full-thickness burst experiments. Unfortunately, such pipeline failure models are unable to correctly predict the minimum arrest toughness of thermo-mechanical controlled rolled (TMCR) steels. To refine the existing failure models, different empirical adjustments have been proposed in recent years. In this paper, similar correction factors were derived from fracture information of instrumented Charpy impact tests on API X65 steel. The contribution of different fracture mechanisms of impact test specimens was determined through energy partitioning analysis. Parts of the energy contribution were correlated then to the source of uncertainty observed in similar experiments. The applied technique was similar to that of previous studies on X70 and X100 steels, and proved to be encouraging in giving consistent results compared to available test data.

  4. Effect of neutron irradiation on fracture toughness of metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shinji; Hamada, Kenichi; Kohyama, Akira

    1992-09-01

    Based on the recent improvement in mechanical properties of unidirectionally reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs), SiC/Al and C/Al, impact property change due to neutron irradiation has been investigated. This paper details effects of neutron irradiation on fracture toughness of the MMCs. Materials used were formed sheets of SiC/Al and C/Al. Miniaturized Charpy V-notched specimens were tested by an instrumented Charpy impact tester. Neutron irradiation was performed in JMTR(LWR) at Oarai. The Charpy value was increased with increasing test temperature and with neutron irradiation. SiC/Al was rather more neutron fluence insensitive than C/Al and the insensitivity was correlated to differences in interfacial structure between the two systems.

  5. Ex-core instrumentation; Instrumentation hors coeur des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burel, J.P. [Schneider Electric S.A., 92 - Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    1999-01-01

    The safety and the control of the reactor need to master the nuclear power from the core radiation measurement. According to the reactor dimensions and conception, the nuclear parameters monitoring is realized through two instrumentation systems: the ex-core instrumentation system which use detector placed outside of the core and the in-core instrumentation system. This paper deals with the ex-core systems based on neutronic measurements and details the detectors choice, the treatment circuits, data processing, realizations in France and also example of the Wwr reactor instrumentation. (A.L.B.)

  6. Stress Transiently Affects Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Pedro; Silva, Miguel; Sousa, Nuno; Cerqueira, João J.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has a strong impact in the brain, impairing decision-making processes as a result of changes in circuits involving the prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices and the striatum. Given that these same circuits are key for action control and outcome encoding, we hypothesized that adaptive responses to which these are essential functions, could also be targeted by stress. To test this hypothesis we herein assessed the impact of chronic stress in a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm, a model of an adaptive response in which a previously conditioned cue biases an instrumental goal-directed action. Data reveals that rats submitted to chronic unpredictable stress did not display deficits in pavlovian conditioning nor on the learning of the instrumental task, but were impaired in PIT; importantly, after a stress-free period the PIT deficits were no longer observed. These results are relevant to understand how stress biases multiple incentive processes that contribute to instrumental performance. PMID:22737108

  7. Cultural competence models and cultural competence assessment instruments in nursing: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zuwang

    2015-05-01

    The author reviewed cultural competence models and cultural competence assessment instruments developed and published by nurse researchers since 1982. Both models and instruments were examined in terms of their components, theoretical backgrounds, empirical validation, and psychometric evaluation. Most models were not empirically tested; only a few models developed model-based instruments. About half of the instruments were tested with varying levels of psychometric properties. Other related issues were discussed, including the definition of cultural competence and its significance in model and instrument development, limitations of existing models and instruments, impact of cultural competence on health disparities, and further work in cultural competence research and practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  9. Instruments to assess integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Høst, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    abstracts were independently reviewed by two investigators. RESULTS: We identified 23 measurement instruments and, within these, eight organisational elements were found. No measurement instrument covered all organisational elements, but almost all studies include well-defined structural and process aspects......INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how...... to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified. METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science for the years 1980-2011. Selected...

  10. Instrumental and Analytic Methods for Bolometric Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, W C; Crill, B P; Contaldi, C R; Kisner, T S; Lange, A E; MacTavish, C J; Netterfield, C B; Ruhl, J E

    2006-01-01

    We discuss instrumental and analytic methods that have been developed for the first generation of bolometric cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeters. The design, characterization, and analysis of data obtained using Polarization Sensitive Bolometers (PSBs) are described in detail. This is followed by a brief study of the effect of various polarization modulation techniques on the recovery of sky polarization from scanning polarimeter data. Having been successfully implemented on the sub-orbital Boomerang experiment, PSBs are currently operational in two terrestrial CMB polarization experiments (QUaD and the Robinson Telescope). We investigate two approaches to the analysis of data from these experiments, using realistic simulations of time ordered data to illustrate the impact of instrumental effects on the fidelity of the recovered polarization signal. We find that the analysis of difference time streams takes full advantage of the high degree of common mode rejection afforded by the PSB design. In ad...

  11. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  12. The Clementine instrument complement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    The recent successes of the Galileo solid-state imaging (SSI) experiment at the Moon and Gaspra show the utility of multispectral imaging of planetary objects. 'Clementine' is the planetary community's 'code name' for the SDIO (Space Defense Initiative Organization), mission to the Moon and the asteroid Geographos. This mission is designed as a long term stressing test on sensors and space systems developed for SDIO. In the course of this test Clementine will obtain science data using a varied and powerful array of remote sensing instruments which were developed by or for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. Clementine carries five cameras, one for navigation and four for science experiments. In addition, a laser ranger is included which will serve as a laser altimeter. The Clementine cameras cover a wider range of spatial resolutions and wavelength range than did Galileo and are almost ideally suited to mapping of mafic rock types as are present on the Moon and expected at Geographos. Calibration of the cameras will occur at the sensor calibration laboratory at LLNL. In flight calibrations, using standard stars and other standards should improve the stated accuracies. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) include the following noise sources: shot noise, calibration error, digitization noise, readout noise, and frame transfer noise (where applicable). The achieved SNRs are a balance between detector saturation and acceptable image smear. The 'worst' case uses the longest possible integration times.

  13. Halo vest instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver R.; Krag, Martin

    1996-05-01

    The halo vest is a head and neck immobilization system that is often used on patients that are recovering from cervical trauma or surgery. The halo vest system consists of a rigid halo that is firmly attached to the skull, an upright support structure for stabilization and immobilization, and a torso-enveloping vest. The main purpose of this study was to measure the forces that are carried by the halo-vest structure as the subject undergoes various activities of daily living and external loading for different vest designs. A tethered strain gage load cell based instrumentation system was used to take these load measurements on ten different subjects. Three different halo-vest systems were evaluated. The primary difference between the vests was the amount of torso coverage and the use of shoulder straps. The loads were measured, analyzed and used to compare the vests and to create a model of halo-vest-neck mechanics. Future applications of this technology to standalone data logging, pin-load measuring and biofeedback applications are discussed.

  14. Custom brass instrument player mouthguard for orthodontic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Dias Lopes; Paula Vaz; Maria João Ponces; Luís Loureiro

    2011-01-01

    Mouthguards reduce greatly the frequency and the severity of injuries on intraoral tissues (Bishop et al., 1985) absorbing and dispersing the energy of the force impact (Park et al., 1994). The brass instruments known as lip-vibrated instruments (Baines, 1993) are played by blowing air through closed lips. The pressure applied on the lips, particularly the upper lip, can cause laceration and bruising. The use of mouthguards can prevent those damages producing some relief on orthodontics patie...

  15. Effect of iron-intermetallics and porosity on tensile and impact properties of aluminum-silicon-copper and aluminum-silicon-magnesium cast alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheyuan

    Aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are an important class of materials that constitute the majority of aluminum cast parts produced, due to their superior properties and excellent casting characteristics. Within this family of alloys, Al-Si-Cu and Al-Si-Mg cast alloys are frequently employed in automotive applications. The commercially popular 319 and 356 alloys, representing these two alloy systems, were selected for study in the present work, with the aim of investigating the effect of iron intermetallics and porosity on the alloy performance. This was carried out through a study of the tensile and impact properties, these being two of the important mechanical properties used in design calculations. Iron, through the precipitation of second phase intermetallic constituents, in particular the platelike beta-Al5FeSi phase, is harmful to the alloy properties. Likewise, gas- or shrinkage porosity in castings is also detrimental to the mechanical properties. By determining the optimum alloying, melt processing and solidification parameters (viz., Fe content, Sr modification and cooling rate) required to minimize the harmful effects of porosity and iron intermetallics, and studying their role on the fracture behavior, the fracture mechanism in the alloys could be determined. Castings were prepared from both industrial and experimental 319.2, B319.2 and A356.2 alloy melts, containing Fe levels of 0.2--1.0 wt%. Sr-modified (˜200 ppm) melts were also prepared for each alloy Fe level. The end-chilled refractory mold used provided directional solidification and a range of cooling rates (or dendrite arm spacings, DAS) within the same casting. Tensile and impact test samples machined from specimen blanks sectioned from the castings at various heights above the chill end provided DASs of 23--85mum. All samples were T6-heat-treated before testing. Tests were carried out employing Instron Universal and Instrumented Charpy testing machines. Optical microscopy, image analysis, SEM

  16. Measurement, instrumentation, and sensors handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Eren, Halit

    2014-01-01

    The Second Edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes. Organized acco

  17. Experimenting with string musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-03-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a Science of Sound & Light course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when used in physics, represent reality that can actually be observed, in this case, the operation of string musical instruments.

  18. Logical Varieties of Instrumental Reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Spielthenner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental reasons play a central role in our practical deliberations because we apply the distinction between reasonable and unreasonable not only to beliefs, but to actions also. The question of what one has an instrumental reason to do is an important substantive question that is relevant to the general theory of practical reasoning and to ethics, too. It will be my object in the present study to show that we have different kinds of instrumental reasons, which depend solely on their logi...

  19. A Novel Patient-Derived Conceptual Model of the Impact of Celiac Disease in Adults: Implications for Patient-Reported Outcome and Health-Related Quality-of-Life Instrument Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Daniel A; Acaster, Sarah; Gallop, Katy; Dennis, Melinda; Kelly, Ciarán P; Adelman, Daniel C

    2017-04-01

    Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory condition with wide ranging effects on individual's lives caused by a combination of symptoms and the burden of adhering to a gluten-free diet (GFD). To further understand patients' experience of celiac disease, the impact it has on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and to develop a conceptual model describing this impact. Adults with celiac disease on a GFD reporting symptoms within the previous 3 months were included; patients with refractory celiac disease and confounding medical conditions were excluded. A semistructured discussion guide was developed exploring celiac disease symptoms and impact on patients' HRQOL. An experienced interviewer conducted in-depth interviews. The data set was coded and analyzed using thematic analysis to identify concepts, themes, and the inter-relationships between them. Data saturation was monitored and concepts identified formed the basis of the conceptual model. Twenty-one participants were recruited, and 32 distinct gluten-related symptoms were reported and data saturation was reached. Analysis identified several themes impacting patients' HRQOL: fears and anxiety, day-to-day management of celiac disease, physical functioning, sleep, daily activities, social activities, emotional functioning, and relationships. The conceptual model highlights the main areas of impact and the relationships between concepts. Both symptoms and maintaining a GFD have a substantial impact on patient functioning and HRQOL in adults with celiac disease. The conceptual model derived from these data may help to design future patient-reported outcomes as well as interventions to improve the quality of life in an individual with celiac disease. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Determining the climate impact of the German government's Integrated Energy and Climate Programme (IEKP) and proposing a plan to continuously monitor its climate impact. Work package 1. Qualitative assessment of the instruments in an Integrated Energy and Climate Programme (IEKP); Ermittlung der Klimaschutzwirkung des Integrierten Energie- und Klimaschutzprogramms der Bundesregierung IEKP und Vorschlag fuer ein Konzept zur kontinuierlichen Ueberpruefung der Klimaschutzwirkung des IEKP. Arbeitspaket 1. Qualitative Einschaetzung der Instrumente im Integrierten Energie- und Klimaschutzprogramm (IEKP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Claus; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Fleiter, Tobias [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2012-02-15

    In August 2007, the key elements for an integrated energy and climate program (IECP) were adopted within the Meseberg resolutions. The implementation of the Meseberg resolutions were performed in three packages primarily including amending laws as well as support measures. The authors of the contribution under consideration compare the climate protection instruments realized by IECP with the presentations in the IECP. This comparison is based on an analysis of documents and research projects in the periphery of the IECP and on a survey of target groups and other relevant actors on the effectiveness of the IECP mechanisms. The result of this comparison is summarized in form of 27 measures.

  1. Design of Onboard Instrument Based on Virtual Instrument Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Baoping; ZHONG Yuanchang; QIU Jianwei

    2006-01-01

    After analyzing and comparing the traditional automobile instrument, the onboard instrument based on virtual instrument technology is designed in this paper. The PC/104 computer was employed as the core processing unit of the onboard instrument, and the several intelligent data acquisition nodes are set and connected by the CAN bus, through which the nodes can communicate with the core processing unit. The information of the vehicle's working condition can be displayed synthetically by adopting virtual instrument technology. When the working condition goes beyond its limit, the system can emit an alarm, record and storage the abnormal condition automatically, and suggest how to deal with the abnormity urgently. The development background and design idea of onboard information system were elaborated in the paper. The software, the hardware architecture and the principle of onboard information system were introduced in detail.

  2. Formación instrumental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Zerrate

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Es el nombre dado al proyecto de investigación que un Grupo de docentes del Énfasis de Pedagogía Instrumental del Departamento de Educación Musical de la Facultad de BELLAS ARTES, propone para reflexionar sobre la Didáctica Instrumental

  3. Cryogenic Caging for Science Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso C.

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed for caging science instrumentation to protect from pyro-shock and EDL (entry, descent, and landing) acceleration damage. Caging can be achieved by immersing the instrument (or its critical parts) in a liquid and solidifying the liquid by cooling. After the launch shock and/or after the payload has landed, the solid is heated up and evaporated.

  4. Autonomous Bio-Optical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-30

    Autonomous Bio -Optical Instruments Russ E. Davis Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla CA 92093-0230 phone: (858) 534-4415 fax: (858) 534... Bio -Optical Instruments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  5. Instruments in science and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mieke; Olsen, Jan Kyrre Berg; Pedersen, Stig Andur; Hendricks, Vincent F.

    2009-01-01

    Modern science and technology are interwoven into a complex that is sometimes called 'techno-science': the progress of science is dependent on the sophistication of instrumentation, whereas the progress of ‘high-tech’ instruments and apparatus is dependent on scientific research. Yet, how scientific

  6. A Database Management Assessment Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jeffrey P.; Pardue, J. Harold; Daigle, Roy; Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an instrument designed for assessing learning outcomes in data management. In addition to assessment of student learning and ABET outcomes, we have also found the instrument to be effective for determining database placement of incoming information systems (IS) graduate students. Each of these three uses is discussed in this…

  7. Experimenting with String Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…

  8. Kodaly Strategies for Instrumental Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Priscella M.

    1996-01-01

    Advocates using the singing voice and the study of folk music in instrumental instruction. Recommends instrumental teachers confer with voice teachers to coordinate ideas and terminology. Includes several excerpts of scores and musical exercises, as well as a list of selected resources. (MJP)

  9. Current and Nascent SETI Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Siemion, Andrew P V; Chen, Henry; Cordes, Jim; Filiba, Terry; Foster, Griffin; Fries, Adam; Howard, Andrew; von Korff, Josh; Korpela, Eric; Lebofsky, Matt; McMahon, Peter L; Parsons, Aaron; Spitler, Laura; Wagner, Mark; Werthimer, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe our ongoing efforts to develop high-performance and sensitive instrumentation for use in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI). These efforts include our recently deployed Search for Extraterrestrial Emissions from Nearby Developed Intelligent Populations Spectrometer (SERENDIP V.v) and two instruments currently under development; the Heterogeneous Radio SETI Spectrometer (HRSS) for SETI observations in the radio spectrum and the Optical SETI Fast Photometer (OSFP) for SETI observations in the optical band. We will discuss the basic SERENDIP V.v instrument design and initial analysis methodology, along with instrument architectures and observation strategies for OSFP and HRSS. In addition, we will demonstrate how these instruments may be built using low-cost, modular components and programmed and operated by students using common languages, e.g. ANSI C.

  10. Instrument Remote Control Application Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Troy; Hostetter, Carl F.

    2006-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) architecture is a flexible, platform-independent application framework that is well suited for the control and monitoring of remote devices and sensors. IRC enables significant savings in development costs by utilizing extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions to configure the framework for a specific application. The Instrument Markup Language (IML) is used to describe the commands used by an instrument, the data streams produced, the rules for formatting commands and parsing the data, and the method of communication. Often no custom code is needed to communicate with a new instrument or device. An IRC instance can advertise and publish a description about a device or subscribe to another device's description on a network. This simple capability of dynamically publishing and subscribing to interfaces enables a very flexible, self-adapting architecture for monitoring and control of complex instruments in diverse environments.

  11. Instrumental variables and Mendelian randomization with invalid instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunseung

    Instrumental variables (IV) methods have been widely used to determine the causal effect of a treatment, exposure, policy, or an intervention on an outcome of interest. The IV method relies on having a valid instrument, a variable that is (A1) associated with the exposure, (A2) has no direct effect on the outcome, and (A3) is unrelated to the unmeasured confounders associated with the exposure and the outcome. However, in practice, finding a valid instrument, especially those that satisfy (A2) and (A3), can be challenging. For example, in Mendelian randomization studies where genetic markers are used as instruments, complete knowledge about instruments' validity is equivalent to complete knowledge about the involved genes' functions. The dissertation explores the theory, methods, and application of IV methods when invalid instruments are present. First, when we have multiple candidate instruments, we establish a theoretical bound whereby causal effects are only identified as long as less than 50% of instruments are invalid, without knowing which of the instruments are invalid. We also propose a fast penalized method, called sisVIVE, to estimate the causal effect. We find that sisVIVE outperforms traditional IV methods when invalid instruments are present both in simulation studies as well as in real data analysis. Second, we propose a robust confidence interval under the multiple invalid IV setting. This work is an extension of our work on sisVIVE. However, unlike sisVIVE which is robust to violations of (A2) and (A3), our confidence interval procedure provides honest coverage even if all three assumptions, (A1)-(A3), are violated. Third, we study the single IV setting where the one IV we have may actually be invalid. We propose a nonparametric IV estimation method based on full matching, a technique popular in causal inference for observational data, that leverages observed covariates to make the instrument more valid. We propose an estimator along with

  12. Legal instruments for the promotion of a sustainable consumption. Using products as an example; Rechtliche Instrumente zur Foerderung des nachhaltigen Konsums. Am Beispiel von Produkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlacke, Sabine; Stadermann, Michael; Grunow, Moritz [Forschungsstelle fuer Europaeisches Umweltrecht (FEU), Bremen (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The expertise under consideration attempts to identify, to analyze and to develop further the legal instruments for the promotion of asustainable consumption. Legal possibilities of impacting the consumer behaviour in the utilization phase of products shall be highlighted in order to promote the sustainable consumption. The focus of this expertise are instruments directly aimed at consumers. The activation of these instruments shall effectuate a more sustainable behaviour of consumption.

  13. Digitization of optical lever instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Romeo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Some classical old-fashioned instruments (such as the Wood-Anderson seismometers, as well as some modern instruments (like the all-quartz made Verbaandert-Melchior tiltmeters, conventionally require an impractical recording system obtained by a photographic drum recorder in a darkroom. Simple electronic equipment (made by readily available, low cost electronics may help in using such kind of instruments allowing a useful digital recording. This will reduce the time-hour in data acquisition and storage (and the manual error, and will increase the accuracy. The theory of operations and some results obtained using the described equipment are shown.

  14. Evaluating the Relational Coordination instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    2014-01-01

    and surgical performance. This has prompted the attention of both practitioners and politicians some of who perceive relational coordination as a means to attain better performance. The relational coordination instrument has been validated as a measure of teamwork from the following perspectives: internal...... consistency, interrater agreement and reliability, structural validity, content validity. However as relational coordination is being used as a diagnostics tool it is important to examine further if the instrument can measure changes. Indeed we need to know how precise and sensitive the instrument is when...

  15. EIT based on virtual instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of a electrical impedance tomography system based on virtual instrument, the author firstly introduced the virtual instrument into the electrical impedance imaging from the perspective of hardware and software. The system use DAQ of NI to simplify the hardware structure and improve the stability. Software of system combines the advantages of LABVIEW and MATLAB, and verify some algorithms. Using NI virtual instrument, the system has strong expansion and do good basis for enhancing the performance of electrical impedance imaging system.

  16. Tensile and impact properties of General Atomics 832864 heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Nowicki, L.J.; Gazda, J.; Billone, M.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Johnson, W.R.; Trester, P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A 1300-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy was procured by General Atomics (GA) for the DIII-D radiative divertor program. To determine the mechanical properties of this alloy, tensile and Charpy tests were conducted on specimens prepared from pieces of 4.8-mm-thick as-rolled plates, a major product form for the DIII-D application. The tensile tests were conducted at three temperatures, 26, 280 and 380 C, the last two being the anticipated peak temperatures during DIII-D boronization and postvent bake-out, respectively. Results from these tests show that the tensile and impact properties of the 832864 heat are comparable to those of the other smaller V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloy heats previously developed by the US Fusion Materials Program and that scale-up of vanadium alloy production can be successfully achieved as long as reasonable process control is implemented.

  17. Using Financial Instruments to Transfer the Information Security Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Pandey; Einar Snekkenes

    2016-01-01

    For many individuals and organizations, cyber-insurance is the most practical and only way of handling a major financial impact of an information security event. However, the cyber-insurance market suffers from the problem of information asymmetry, lack of product diversity, illiquidity, high transaction cost, and so on. On the other hand, in theory, capital market-based financial instruments can provide a risk transfer mechanism with the ability to absorb the adverse impact of an information...

  18. Stress Transiently Affects Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro eMorgado; Miguel eSilva; Nuno eSousa; Cerqueira, João J.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has a strong impact in the brain, impairing decision-making processes as a result of changes in circuits involving the prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices and the striatum. Given that these same circuits are key for action control and outcome encoding, we hypothesized that adaptive responses to which these are essential functions, could also be targeted by stress. To test this hypothesis we herein assessed the impact of chronic stress in a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) par...

  19. GPS Instrumentation in Ballistic Missile Intercept Test and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    detected, there is no accuracy data provided from tests with near misses or impacts outside the instrumented impact zone. Whereas precision trajectory...to the same precision, but they provide no information for a near miss . However, understanding what caused a near miss is very important. The GPS...system can address small-scale trajectory deviations that accompany a near miss that may offer critical insights into the cause. Having precise

  20. Instrument detects bacterial life forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, C.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument assays enzymatic bioluminescent reaction that occurs when adenosine triphosphate /ATP/ combines with lucifrase and luciferin. Module assembly minimizes need for hardware associated with reaction fluid and waste transfer. System is applicable in marine biology and aerospace and medical fields.

  1. Technical Training seminar: Texas Instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) POWER - A short approach to Texas Instruments power products Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to the SWIFT software FPGA + CPLD power solutions WIRELESS / CHIPCON Decision criteria when choosing a RF platform Introduction to Texas Instruments wireless products: standardized platforms proprietary platforms ( 2.4 GHz / sub 1 GHz) development tools Antenna design: example for 2.4 GHz questions, discussion Industrial partners: Robert Medioni, François Caloz / Spoerle Electronic, CH-1440 Montagny (VD), Switzerland Phone: +41 24 447 0137, email: RMedioni@spoerle.com, http://www.spoerle.com Language: English. Free s...

  2. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  3. Compact Formaldehyde Fluorescence Instrument Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The successful completion of this IRAD will deliver a fully functional instrument at TRL 6.  The key characteristics that we will demonstrate are simplicity,...

  4. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum has started the development of virtual sensor test instrumentation in Phase I for characterization and measurement of ground testing of propulsion systems....

  5. Intelligent instrumentation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Manabendra

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of microprocessors and digital-processing technologies as catalyst, classical sensors capable of simple signal conditioning operations have evolved rapidly to take on higher and more specialized functions including validation, compensation, and classification. This new category of sensor expands the scope of incorporating intelligence into instrumentation systems, yet with such rapid changes, there has developed no universal standard for design, definition, or requirement with which to unify intelligent instrumentation. Explaining the underlying design methodologies of intelligent instrumentation, Intelligent Instrumentation: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive and authoritative resource on the scientific foundations from which to coordinate and advance the field. Employing a textbook-like language, this book translates methodologies to more than 80 numerical examples, and provides applications in 14 case studies for a complete and working understanding of the material. Beginn...

  6. Luminescence techniques: Instrumentation and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used...... luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the stale of the art in luminescence measurements and analysis. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. The MEPHISTO scientific space instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, G.; Cadet, G.; Favier, J. J.

    1987-02-01

    A furnace to study solidification on Earth and in orbit was developed. Design and performances in Bridgman-Stockbarger directional solidification are given in terms of thermal gradient achievables, thermal gradient stability, back-melting mastering, and quenching capabilities. In-situ measurements in real time of fundamental parameters for the solidification process control, associated with a possible interactivity between the principal investigator on ground and the instrument in orbit, are among the main features of the space instrument.

  8. Notes on instrumentation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, G J

    2013-01-01

    Notes on Instrumentation and Control presents topics on pressure (i.e., U-tube manometers and elastic type gauges), temperature (i.e. glass thermometer, bi-metallic strip thermometer, filled system thermometer, vapor pressure thermometer), level, and flow measuring devices. The book describes other miscellaneous instruments, signal transmitting devices, supply and control systems, and monitoring systems. The theory of automatic control and semi-conductor devices are also considered. Marine engineers will find the book useful.

  9. Accounting Issues On Financial Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Shiba, Kenji

    1995-01-01

    Financial Instruments should be measured at the present value by using the current effective yield as the discount rate by reference to the current market interest rate and the risk premium. The fair value or the current market price are surrogates of the present value. The present value determined by using the historical effective yield as the discount rate is allowed under limited circumstances. However, the historical cost is not allowed as a measurement basis of financial instruments. Thi...

  10. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  11. The ESO Paranal instrumentation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Luca

    2016-08-01

    The Paranal Instrumentation Programme is responsible for planning and delivering the instruments and the associated infrastructure needed to keep the VLT and La Silla Observatories at the forefront of ground-based astronomy. The VLT second generation instruments KMOS, MUSE and SPHERE have been delivered and are in operations, GRAVITY is under commissioning at the renewed VLTI facility. The Adapative Optics Facility is moving towards completion, as well as the high resolution spectrograph ESPRESSO and the VLTI second generation instrument MATISSE. The mid-IR imager and spectrograph VISIR has been upgraded, and a major upgrade of the CRIRES spectrograph is under way. Finally, two new Multi Object Spectrographs projects have started, one for the VLT (MOONS), one for the 4M VISTA telescope (4MOST), and two new instruments for La Silla, (SOXS and NIRPS) fully funded by the community, are being agreed. The Programme follows a roadmap that foresees one new instrument/project or one upgrade starting every year. Active management, cost to completion and risk policy are in place.

  12. Evaluation of torque within manual preparation with root canal instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Gorski, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Used root canal instruments are often deformed; they can fracture, persist and reinfect teeth. There are no evident studies consulting torque and manual preparation of root canals. Thus, the purpose of this study is the evaluation of torque within manual preparation in connection with its impact on file deformation. With the aid of torque measurement a change in dental education could potentially be achieved.

  13. 49 CFR 572.44 - Instrumentation and test conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Impact Dummy 50th Percentile Male § 572.44 Instrumentation and test conditions. (a) The test probe used... installed in the dummy are then processed with the software for the Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter... joints of the test dummy are set at the force between 1-2 g's, which just supports the limbs' weight...

  14. 'Test Driving' a Financing Instrument for Climate Adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, Liz; Krabben, van der Erwin; Spit, Tejo

    2016-01-01

    Urban physical public infrastructure is a frontline defense mechanism to manage and mitigate climate-related impacts. Market instruments are often cited as possible means to spread risk and reduce financial burdens on the public sector. The authors argue that existing research tends to focus on the

  15. Design and fabrication report on instrumented capsule (99M-01K.02H) for korean reactor pressure vessel material made by HANJUNG (Co)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G.; Cho, M. S.; Son, J. M.; Kim, D. S.; Oh, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T

    2000-09-01

    The instrumented capsules (99M-01K{center_dot}02H) was designed and fabricated. The purpose of the capsules were to evaluate the nuclear irradiation performance of the Korean nuclear reactor pressure vessel material, SA508 class 3 steel, fabricated by HANJUNG Co for Yonggwang Units 4,5 and Ulchin Unit 4. There are 5 stages having specimens and independent electric heaters in the capsule mainbody. 12 K-type thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe and sapphire neutron Fluence Monitors were also inserted in the apsule. Various types of specimens, such as round compact tension, Charpy insert, pre-cracked v-notch (PCVN), tensile, small punch (SP), magnetic Barkhausen effect (MBE), and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) specimens, were inserted in the capsule. The capsule was fabricated at DAEWOO Precision Co. according to KAERI detailed design specifications. This report describes the details of the design, fabrication and inspection of the 99M-01K and 99M-02H capsule. The capsules were irradiated in the IR2 test hole of HANARO at 290{+-}10 deg C up to the fast neutron fluence (E>1.0 MeV) of 3.0x10{sup 19} (n/cm{sup 2})

  16. Adaptation of WHOQOL as health-related quality of life instrument to develop a vision-specific instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Lalit

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHOQOL instrument was adapted as a health-related QOL instrument for a population-based epidemiologic study of eye diseases in southern India, the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS. A follow-up question was added to each item in WHOQOL to determine whether the decrease in QOL was due to any health reasons including eye-related reasons. Modifications in WHOQOL and translation in local language were done through the use of the focus groups including health professionals and people not related to health care. The modified instrument has 28 items across 6 domains of the WHOQOL and was translated into the local language, Telugu, using the pragmatic approach. It takes 10-20 minutes to be administered by a trained interviewer. Reliability was within acceptable range. This health-related QOL instrument is being used in the population-based study APEDS to develop a vision-specific QOL instrument which could potentially be used to assess the impact of visual impairment on QOL across different cultures and for use in evaluating eye-care interventions. This health-related QOL instrument could also be used to develop other disease-specific instruments as it allows assessment of the extent to which various aspects of QOL are affected by a variety of health problems.

  17. Adaptation of WHOQOL as health-related quality of life instrument to develop a vision-specific instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, R; Dandona, L; McCarty, C A; Rao, G N

    2000-03-01

    The WHOQOL instrument was adapted as a health-related QOL instrument for a population-based epidemiologic study of eye diseases in southern India, the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS). A follow-up question was added to each item in WHOQOL to determine whether the decrease in QOL was due to any health reasons including eye-related reasons. Modifications in WHOQOL and translation in local language were done through the use of the focus groups including health professionals and people not related to health care. The modified instrument has 28 items across 6 domains of the WHOQOL and was translated into the local language, Telugu, using the pragmatic approach. It takes 10-20 minutes to be administered by a trained interviewer. Reliability was within acceptable range. This health-related QOL instrument is being used in the population-based study APEDS to develop a vision-specific QOL instrument which could potentially be used to assess the impact of visual impairment on QOL across different cultures and for use in evaluating eye-care interventions. This health-related QOL instrument could also be used to develop other disease-specific instruments as it allows assessment of the extent to which various aspects of QOL are affected by a variety of health problems.

  18. The estimation method of GPS instrumental biases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A model of estimating the global positioning system (GPS) instrumental biases and the methods to calculate the relative instrumental biases of satellite and receiver are presented. The calculated results of GPS instrumental biases, the relative instrumental biases of satellite and receiver, and total electron content (TEC) are also shown. Finally, the stability of GPS instrumental biases as well as that of satellite and receiver instrumental biases are evaluated, indicating that they are very stable during a period of two months and a half.

  19. VLT Instruments Pipeline System Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y.; Ballester, P.; Banse, K.; Hummel, W.; Izzo, C.; McKay, D. J.; Kiesgen, M.; Lundin, L. K.; Modigliani, A.; Palsa, R. M.; Sabet, C.

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the VLT operations in 1998, substantial effort has been put in the development of automatic data reduction tools for the VLT instruments. A VLT instrument pipeline is a complex system that has to be able to identify and classify each produced FITS file, optionally retrieve calibration files from a database, use an image processing software to reduce the data, compute and log quality control parameters, produce FITS images or tables with the correct headers, optionally display them in the control room and send them to the archive. Each instrument has its own dedicated pipeline, based on a common infrastructure and installed with the VLT Data Flow System (DFS). With the increase in the number and the complexity of supported instruments and in the rate of produced data, these pipelines are becoming vital for both the VLT operations and the users, and request more and more resources for development and maintenance. This paper describes the different pipeline tasks with some real examples. It also explains how the development process has been improved to both decrease its cost and increase the pipelines quality using the lessons learned from the first instruments pipelines development.

  20. Calibration of shaft alignment instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Bjorn

    1998-09-01

    Correct shaft alignment is vital for most rotating machines. Several shaft alignment instruments, ranging form dial indicator based to laser based, are commercially available. At VTT Manufacturing Technology a device for calibration of shaft alignment instruments was developed during 1997. A feature of the developed device is the similarity to the typical use of shaft alignment instruments i.e. the rotation of two shafts during the calibration. The benefit of the rotation is that all errors of the shaft alignment instrument, for example the deformations of the suspension bars, are included. However, the rotation increases significantly the uncertainty of calibration because of errors in the suspension of the shafts in the developed device for calibration of shaft alignment instruments. Without rotation the uncertainty of calibration is 0.001 mm for the parallel offset scale and 0,003 mm/m for the angular scale. With rotation the uncertainty of calibration is 0.002 mm for the scale and 0.004 mm/m for the angular scale.

  1. Composite Rolled Magnetometer and Instrument Boom Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Magnetometers are the most common instrument flown on NASA science missions and interference from onboard electronics requires that these instruments be deployed...

  2. Impact strength of denture polymethyl methacrylate reinforced with continuous glass fibers or metal wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallittu, P K; Vojtkova, H; Lassila, V P

    1995-12-01

    The impact strength of heat-cured acrylic resin test specimens that had been reinforced in various ways was compared in this study. Ten rectangular test specimens were fabricated for each test group. The strengtheners included 1.0-mm-diameter steel wire and continuous E-glass fibers. Both notched and unnotched test specimens were tested in a Charpy-type impact test. In a further analysis the concentration of glass fibers in the test specimens was determined and plotted against the impact strength of the test specimens. The results showed that, compared with the unreinforced specimens, both types of reinforcement increased the impact strength of the test specimens considerably (p < 0.001). There was no clear difference between the mean impact strength value of the test specimens reinforced with metal wire and that of the specimens reinforced with glass fiber. The correlation coefficient between the fiber concentration of the test specimens and their impact strength was 0.818 (p < 0.005). Specimens with fiber concentrations greater than 25 wt% yielded to the higher impact strength more readily than those with metal wire reinforcement did.

  3. Technical presentation - KEITHLEY Instruments - CANCELLED

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2009-01-01

    10 March 2009 13:30 – 15:30, Council Chamber, Bldg. 503 Keithley markets highly accurate instruments and data acquisition products, as well as complete system solutions for high-volume production and assembly testing. Keithley Instruments, Inc. designs, develops, manufactures and markets complex electronic instruments and systems geared to the specialized needs of electronics manufacturers for high-performance production testing, process monitoring, product development and research. Products and Services: Digital Multimeters and Data Acquisition Systems Current / Voltage Source and Measure Products Low Current / High Resistance Measurement Products Function/Pulse/Arbitrary/Pattern Generators Low Voltage/Low Resistance Measurement Products RF Spectrum Analyzer / RF Signal Generator / RF Switching Semiconductor Device Characterization Program: Topic 1: Welcome and short overview of new Products SMU 26XXA / ARB Generator 3390 / DMM 3706 / E-Meter 6517B Topic 2a: Te...

  4. Introduction to instrumentation and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Weighing in on the growth of innovative technologies, the adoption of new standards, and the lack of educational development as it relates to current and emerging applications, the third edition of Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements uses the authors' 40 years of teaching experience to expound on the theory, science, and art of modern instrumentation and measurements (I&M). What's New in This Edition: This edition includes material on modern integrated circuit (IC) and photonic sensors, micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) and nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) sensors, chemical and radiation sensors, signal conditioning, noise, data interfaces, and basic digital signal processing (DSP), and upgrades every chapter with the latest advancements. It contains new material on the designs of micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) sensors, adds two new chapters on wireless instrumentation and microsensors, and incorporates extensive biomedical examples and problems. Containing 13 chapters, this third edition: Describ...

  5. [Portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuai; Chen, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    A portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment containing sensor module, acquisition board and embedded module was developed for home care in this paper. The sensor module consists of one ECG module and three pulse wave extraction modules, synchronously acquiring human ECG and pulse wave signal of carotid, radial, and dorsal, respectively. The acquisition board converts the sensor module's analog output signals into digital signals and transmits them to the embedded module. The embedded module realizes the functions including signal display, storage and the calculation and output of pulse wave velocity. The structure of the proposed portable instrument is simple, easy to use, and easy to expand. Small size, low cost, and low power consumption are also the advantages of this device. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment has high accuracy, good repeatability and can assess the degree of atherosclerosis appropriately.

  6. RHEED streaks and instrument response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hove, J.M.; Pukite, P.; Cohen, P.I.; Lent, C.S.

    1983-04-01

    Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is so sensitive to surface morphology that it is difficult to separate the roles of instrument response and surface imperfection in the diffraction. To address this difficulty we have used MBE grown GaAs(001) as a test surface to study the angular dimensions of the diffracted beams. This is important if RHEED is to be useful as a quantitive probe of surface structure for in situ studies of crystal growth. The limitations placed by instrumental uncertainties on the maximum resolvable distance are estimated. Measurements of the angular length of the RHEED steaks versus angle of incidence are presented which show the changes expected from a combination of a uniformly broadened reciprocal lattice rod and an instrument limit due to angular uncertainties. Resolvable distances are obtained with RHEED that are much larger than those typically obtained with low-energy electron diffraction.

  7. Instrumentation, interdisciplinarity and innovation; Instrumentation interdisciplinarite et innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placko, D. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Cachan, 94 (France); Santander, E.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the papers presented at C2I'98, the interdisciplinary colloquium in instrumentation held November 18-19, 1998 in Cachan, France. 10 papers are interesting for the ETDE database and are analyzed separately. (O.M.)

  8. Violencia instrumental y sentimientos morales = Instrumental aggression and moral feelings

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Gómez, Mª José

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación es estudiar la relación entre la agresión instrumental y la existencia de sentimientos morales de los adolescentes en el primer ciclo de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (E.S.O.). El análisis de la violencia desde un

  9. The COMPTEL instrumental line background

    OpenAIRE

    Weidenspointner, G.; Varendorff, M.; Oberlack, U.; Morris, D.; Plueschke, S.; Diehl, R.; Kappadath, S. C.; McConnell, M; Ryan, J.; Schoenfelder, V.; Steinle, H.

    2000-01-01

    The instrumental line background of the Compton telescope COMPTEL onboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory is due to the activation and/or decay of many isotopes. The major components of this background can be attributed to eight individual isotopes, namely 2D, 22Na, 24Na, 28Al, 40K, 52Mn, 57Ni, and 208Tl. The identification of instrumental lines with specific isotopes is based on the line energies as well as on the variation of the event rate with time, cosmic-ray intensity, and deposited r...

  10. An introduction to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Dewhurst, D J

    1976-01-01

    An Introduction to Biomedical Instrumentation presents a course of study and applications covering the basic principles of medical and biological instrumentation, as well as the typical features of its design and construction. The book aims to aid not only the cognitive domain of the readers, but also their psychomotor domain as well. Aside from the seminar topics provided, which are divided into 27 chapters, the book complements these topics with practical applications of the discussions. Figures and mathematical formulas are also given. Major topics discussed include the construction, handli

  11. Instrumentation for tropospheric aerosol characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.; Young, S.E.; Becker, C.H.; Coggiola, M.J. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wollnik, H. [Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A new instrument has been developed that determines the abundance, size distribution, and chemical composition of tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols with diameters down to 0.2 {mu}m. In addition to aerosol characterization, the instrument also monitors the chemical composition of the ambient gas. More than 25.000 aerosol particle mass spectra were recorded during the NASA-sponsored Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) field program using NASA`s DC-8 research aircraft. (author) 7 refs.

  12. Processing and impact properties of steel based laminated composites; Procesado y propiedades de impacto de materiales compuestos laminados de base hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreno, F.; Pozuelo, M.; Chao, J.; Ruano, O. A.

    2001-07-01

    A seven layers steel based laminated composite (four ultra-high carbon steel, UHCS, layers and three mild steel, MS layers) has been processed by rolling bonding and its microstructure and impact properties have been studied. Suitable parameters of temperature and thickness reduction were selected to obtain a finer microstructure relative to the original materials components. This finer microstructure induces improved mechanical properties. Charpy impact tests values in both crack arrester and crack divider orientations improve the values of the UHCS constituent materials. Furthermore, the crack arrester orientation value exceed that of the MS material. The delamination, which is controlled by interface bonding, plays a key role defecting the crack, absorbing energy and imposing the nucleation of new cracks in the next materials layers. (Author) 10 refs.

  13. Towards automatic musical instrument timbre recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Hong

    This dissertation is comprised of two parts---focus on issues concerning research and development of an artificial system for automatic musical instrument timbre recognition and musical compositions. The technical part of the essay includes a detailed record of developed and implemented algorithms for feature extraction and pattern recognition. A review of existing literature introducing historical aspects surrounding timbre research, problems associated with a number of timbre definitions, and highlights of selected research activities that have had significant impact in this field are also included. The developed timbre recognition system follows a bottom-up, data-driven model that includes a pre-processing module, feature extraction module, and a RBF/EBF (Radial/Elliptical Basis Function) neural network-based pattern recognition module. 829 monophonic samples from 12 instruments have been chosen from the Peter Siedlaczek library (Best Service) and other samples from the Internet and personal collections. Significant emphasis has been put on feature extraction development and testing to achieve robust and consistent feature vectors that are eventually passed to the neural network module. In order to avoid a garbage-in-garbage-out (GIGO) trap and improve generality, extra care was taken in designing and testing the developed algorithms using various dynamics, different playing techniques, and a variety of pitches for each instrument with inclusion of attack and steady-state portions of a signal. Most of the research and development was conducted in Matlab. The compositional part of the essay includes brief introductions to "A d'Ess Are ," "Aboji," "48 13 N, 16 20 O," and "pH-SQ." A general outline pertaining to the ideas and concepts behind the architectural designs of the pieces including formal structures, time structures, orchestration methods, and pitch structures are also presented.

  14. Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Engelfried, J

    2006-01-01

    In this course, given at the school in 3 parts of 75 minutes each, we will discuss the physics of particle detection, the basic designs and working principles of detectors, and, as an example with more details, some detectors for particle identification.

  15. Interobserver agreement in fusion status assessment after instrumental desis of the lower lumbar spine using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laoutliev, Borislav; Havsteen, Inger; Bech, Birthe Højlund;

    2012-01-01

    Persistent lower back pain after instrumental posterolateral desis may arise from incomplete fusion. We investigate the impact of experience on interobserver agreement in fusion estimation.......Persistent lower back pain after instrumental posterolateral desis may arise from incomplete fusion. We investigate the impact of experience on interobserver agreement in fusion estimation....

  16. Novel Developments in Instrumentation for PET Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Advances in medical imaging, in particular positron emission tomography (PET), have been based on technical developments in physics and instrumentation that have common foundations with detection systems used in other fields of physics. New detector materials are used in PET systems that maximize efficiency, timing characteristics and robustness, and which lead to improved image quality and quantitative accuracy for clinical imaging. Time of flight (TOF) techniques are now routinely used in commercial PET scanners that combine physiological imaging with anatomical imaging provided by x-ray computed tomography. Using new solid-state photo-sensors instead of traditional photo-multiplier tubes makes it possible to combine PET with magnetic resonance imaging which is a significant technical challenge, but one that is creating new opportunities for both research and clinical applications. An overview of recent advances in instrumentation, such as TOF and PET/MR will be presented, along with examples of imaging studies to demonstrate the impact on patient care and basic research of diseases.

  17. Status of Terra and Aqua MODIS Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B. N.; Kuyper, J. R.; Salomonson, V. V.; Barnes, W. L.

    2008-12-01

    Currently, two nearly identical MODIS instruments are operating in space: one on the Terra spacecraft launched in December 1999 and another on the Aqua spacecraft launched in May 2002. MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths covering from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). Since launch, MODIS observations and data products have contributed significantly to studies of changes in the Earth system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. To maintain its on-orbit calibration and data product quality, MODIS was built with a comprehensive set of on-board calibrators, consisting of a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and an on-board blackbody (BB) for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). Both instruments have demonstrated good performance. The primary Level-1B (L1B) data products are top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectance for RSB and radiance for TEB. This paper provides an overview of MODIS calibration methodologies, activities, lifetime on-orbit performance and challenging issues for each MODIS, the impact on L1B product quality, and lessons learned for future sensors such as the NPOESS VIIRS.

  18. Direct payments as an instrument of the environmental policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sadłowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the area of human activity that is accompanied by the formation of positive and negative external environmental effects. In order to motivate farmers to conduct production activities in a way that reduces the negative impact of these activities on the environment, the so-called principle of cross compliance has been incorporated into the direct support system. This study characterises the area payments as an instrument of the environmental policy and is a review of the European Commission’s different proposals for the reform of direct payments through the prism of environmental functions of this instrument.

  19. Instrumentation for the detection and characterization of exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Francesco; Ehrenreich, David; Meyer, Michael R

    2014-09-18

    In no other field of astrophysics has the impact of new instrumentation been as substantial as in the domain of exoplanets. Before 1995 our knowledge of exoplanets was mainly based on philosophical and theoretical considerations. The years that followed have been marked, instead, by surprising discoveries made possible by high-precision instruments. Over the past decade, the availability of new techniques has moved the focus of research from the detection to the characterization of exoplanets. Next-generation facilities will produce even more complementary data that will lead to a comprehensive view of exoplanet characteristics and, by comparison with theoretical models, to a better understanding of planet formation.

  20. DEBIE - first standard in-situ debris monitoring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuitunen, J.; Drolshagen, G.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Svedhem, H.; Leese, M.; Mannermaa, H.; Kaipiainen, M.; Sipinen, V.

    2001-10-01

    Objects larger than a few centimetres can be tracked with radar or with optical telescopes. The population of smaller particles can only be investigated by the analysis of retrieved spacecraft and passive detectors or by in-situ monitors in orbit. Patria Finavitec together with UniSpace Kent have developed the DEBIE (DEBris In-orbit Evaluator) instrument to determine the parameters of sub-millimetre sized space debris and micrometeoroids in-situ by their impact with a detecting surface. The main goal has been to develop an economical and low-resource instrument, easy to integrate into any spacecraft, while providing reliable real-time data for space debris modelling.

  1. GLOBAL RISKS AND INSTRUMENTS OF ITS MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Havryliuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that economic globalization leads to the formation of macro-economic, political and other risks that are able to grow into global risks affecting, without exception, all national economies, creating a serious threat to national economic security. The emphasis is on the negative elements of a set of global risks, their development and minimize the possibility of using a number of tools. Ensuring firmness of the state to external risks demands continuous monitoring and forecasting of world processes and usage of economic instruments of rapid response for prevention of negative consequences. The essence of the category of "risk" is revealed and deepened. The global risks that can not affect the economic security of Ukraine is disclosed. It is shown that the emergence of these global risks has negative impact on the economic security of Ukraine.

  2. CRiSP: An Instrument for Assessing Student Perceptions of Classroom Response Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; McDonald, Christine; Oprescu, Florin

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of an instrument for evaluating classroom response systems (CRS). While a number of studies evaluating CRS have been published to date, no standardised instrument exists as a means of evaluating the impact of using the CRS. This means that comparing the different systems, or evaluating the…

  3. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Instrument Performance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Antonio; Hartman, Kathy R.

    2014-01-01

    The Ultimate objective of the GEO-CAPE 2014 study: Quantify the cost impact of very specific changes in instrument performance! The customer has defined 4 instrument types they are notionally interested in:! FR: Filter Radiometer! WAS: Wide Angle Spectrometer! MSS: Multi Slit Spectrometer! SSS: Single Slit Spectrometer.

  4. Development of an Instrument to Measure Undergraduates' Nanotechnology Awareness, Exposure, Motivation, and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyehouse, Melissa A.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Bennett, Deborah E.; Imbrie, P. K.

    2008-01-01

    There are many educational interventions being implemented to address workforce issues in the field of nanotechnology. However, there is no instrument to assess the impact of these interventions on student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. To address this need, the "Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument" was…

  5. Influence of Constituent Materials on the Impact Toughness and Fracture Mechanisms of Hot-Roll-Bonded Aluminum Multilayer Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Jiménez, C. M.; Hidalgo, P.; Pozuelo, M.; Ruano, O. A.; Carreño, F.

    2010-01-01

    Two aluminum multilayer laminates have been processed by hot roll bonding following similar processing paths. The first one is constituted by alternated Al 2024 and Al 1050 layers (ALH19) and the second one by alternated Al 7075 and Al 1050 layers (ADH19). The influence of the constituent materials in the multilayer laminates both during the processing at high temperature and during the subsequent mechanical characterization has been analyzed. The mechanical behavior of the as-received materials at the processing conditions has been characterized by hot torsion. Multilayer laminates have been tested at room temperature under impact Charpy tests, three-point bend tests, and shear tests on the interfaces. The relative toughness increase compared to the constituent materials was much higher for the ADH19 laminate based on the high-strength Al 7075 alloy than for the ALH19 laminate. This is attributed to the different fracture mechanism.

  6. Instruments for Methane Gas Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sibu Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the explanation of different instruments for detecting methane gas in detail. This paper discusses their working principles. Methane gas detection is essentially required in the areas like in coal mines, power plant, Waste Water Treatment, Boiler Rooms etc. This paper also discusses their roles in various applications.

  7. Loyaliteitsprogramma's: zinvol CRM-instrument?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Loyalty programs have been widely adopted by companies and their customers. A loyalty program is a relational marketing instrument that aims to enhance customer loyalty. However, skepticism exists about the implementation and effectiveness of loyalty programs. This paper studies for whom, when and h

  8. Literature Review of Multicultural Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraj, Huda; Carter, Stacy; Burley, Hansel

    2015-01-01

    Demographic changes at the national level emphasize a critical need for multicultural education to be included as part of undergraduate education. This critical review of the literature examines 10 multicultural instruments that are suitable for use in K-12 or higher education institutions. This is a novel literature review in that it is the first…

  9. Alternative instruments for the CAP?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Rijswick, van C.W.J.; Bont, de C.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    With parallel negotiations taking place on enlargement of the EU and a new WTO agreement, EU's Common Agricultural Policy is facing further reforms. This report addresses the issue of whether any alternatives can be found for the instruments of this policy, and looks at decoupled payments, a net inc

  10. Market-based Economic Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Grundkategorien her er markedet som den optimale allokeringsmekanisme for de belastninger, som de økonomiske instrumenter / miljøskatterne påfører. Det mest omfattende og spektakulære eksempel på markedet som allokatorer af skatter er EU's børs for forureningstilladelser, dvs reelt CO-2 beskatnin...

  11. Loyaliteitsprogramma's: zinvol CRM-instrument?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Loyalty programs have been widely adopted by companies and their customers. A loyalty program is a relational marketing instrument that aims to enhance customer loyalty. However, skepticism exists about the implementation and effectiveness of loyalty programs. This paper studies for whom, when and

  12. Presentation of a new instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, M B; Rasmussen, B K; Brennum, J

    1992-01-01

    A new instrument, the Diagnostic Headache Diary, based on the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society (IHS), was tested in 61 migraine patients from a headache research clinic using the clinical diagnosis (IHS criteria) for comparison. All patients kept the diary for...

  13. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  14. Instrumentation System Diagnoses a Thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Zavala, Carlos; Burns, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    An improved self-validating thermocouple (SVT) instrumentation system not only acquires readings from a thermocouple but is also capable of detecting deterioration and a variety of discrete faults in the thermocouple and its lead wires. Prime examples of detectable discrete faults and deterioration include open- and short-circuit conditions and debonding of the thermocouple junction from the object, the temperature of which one seeks to measure. Debonding is the most common cause of errors in thermocouple measurements, but most prior SVT instrumentation systems have not been capable of detecting debonding. The improved SVT instrumentation system includes power circuitry, a cold-junction compensator, signal-conditioning circuitry, pulse-width-modulation (PWM) thermocouple-excitation circuitry, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a digital data processor, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. The system can operate in any of the following three modes: temperature measurement, thermocouple validation, and bonding/debonding detection. The software running in the processor includes components that implement statistical algorithms to evaluate the state of the thermocouple and the instrumentation system. When the power is first turned on, the user can elect to start a diagnosis/ monitoring sequence, in which the PWM is used to estimate the characteristic times corresponding to the correct configuration. The user also has the option of using previous diagnostic values, which are stored in an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory so that they are available every time the power is turned on.

  15. Safety instrumented systems in vogelvlucht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logtenberg, M.T.; Bliek, E. van den

    2003-01-01

    In deze uitgave worden in vogelvlucht de achtergrond van "safety instrumented systems" (SIS) gegeven door in te gaan op: de historie van de procesbeveiliging; de positie en rol van een SIS in de procesbeveiliging; de principes en uitvoeringvormen van SIS; de eisen die aan dergelijke systemen gesteld

  16. Instrument sterilization in orthodontic offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, R E

    1979-07-01

    1. Three different quaternary ammonium compound solutions remained bactericidal against specific vegetative bacteria in three orthodontic offices over a ten day working period. However, no spore formers or viruses were tested. 2. Bacterial contaminants were cultured on pliers and scalers at the chair at least once in each of three orthodontic offices sampled twice a day for ten working days. 3. Sampled chairside instruments wiped with an alcohol sponge only, between patients, were contaminated an excessive 32.5% of the time, too frequently to be seriously considered for routine disinfection of pliers. 4. Chairside instruments, sampled regardless of other means of disinfection or sterilization used, were contaminated from 3.5 to 15% of the time. Therefore, storage and handling of orthodontic instruments must be evaluated and upgraded to prevent recontamination of previously sterilized instruments. 5. Staff personnel need courses in sterilization and disinfection procedures to prevent cross contamination from patient to patient and to protect themselves. These courses should be related specifically to orthodontic practice procedures.

  17. Psychology Needs Realism, Not Instrumentalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents his comments on "Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: Psychological Theory as a Search for Truth and the Discovery of Solutions" by John T. Cacioppo, Gun R. Semin and Gary G. Berntson. In the original article, the authors recommended the combined use of the philosophies of scientific realism and…

  18. Experimenting with Brass Musical Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes experiments to address the properties of brass musical instruments that can be used to demonstrate sound in any level physics course. The experiments demonstrate in a quantitative fashion the effects of the mouthpiece and bell on the frequencies of sound waves and thus the musical pitches produced. (Author/NB)

  19. A Musical instrument in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; de Boer, Hans L.; de Boer, H.; Beekman, J.G.; Been, A.J.; Folkertsma, Gerrit Adriaan; Folkertsma, G.A.; Fortgens, L.; de Graaf, D.; Vocke, S.; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    In this work we describe a MEMS instrument that resonates at audible frequencies, and with which music can be made. The sounds are generated by mechanical resonators and capacitive displacement sensors. Damping by air scales unfavourably for generating audible frequencies with small devices.

  20. GIPP: Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Haberland

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam (GIPP consists of field instruments, sensors and equipment for temporary seismological studies (both controlled source and earthquake seismology as well as for magnetotelluric (electromagnetic experiments. These instruments are mainly mobile digital recorders, broadband seis­mometers and short period sensors, and they are used to reveal the subsurface structure and to investigate earth­quakes. Sensors for magnetotellurics include induction coil and fluxgate magnetometers and non-polarizing silver / silver-chloride electrodes. It is operated by the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The instru­ment facility is open to all academic applicants, both national and international. Instrument applications are evalu­ated and ranked by an external steering board. Currently, for seismological applications >850 geophysical recorders, >170 broadband seis­mo­meters and >1300 short period geophones are available (among others. Available for magnetotelluric experiments are > 50 real-time data-loggers, >150 induction coils, and >500 electrodes. User guidelines and data policy are in force and data archives are provided (standard exchange formats.

  1. An Instrument to Measure Anomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Allen B.

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred and eighty-six disadvantaged adults from North Carolina were the subjects in a study that factor-analyzed three instruments designed to measure anomia, yielding a 12-item unidimensional scale. (The refined combination scale is presented as of potential usefulness for research on the effects of educational intervention on anomia.) (LRA)

  2. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  3. Instruments to assess integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Høst, Dorte;

    2014-01-01

    to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified. METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science for the years 1980-2011. Selected...

  4. High-Resolution Instrumentation Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    30 September 1986 Los Angeles Air Force Station 13. NUMBER OF PAGES Los Angeles, Calif. 90009-2960 36 74. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(If...TREE PLMUT ",-20 -CUTLIASS DumpER SED AN... TREE TRUNK, -0 - MERC BUMPER f - 40 H!-I -50 iI Fig. 7. High-Resolution Instrumentation Radar View of

  5. Concert Band Instrumentation: Realities and Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests ways to solve problems resulting from imbalanced instrumentation in school concert bands. Identifies sources of imbalance. Encourages band directors to plan for correct instrumentation, to match students' characteristics and abilities to instruments, and to recruit students to play needed instruments. Discusses the benefits of balanced…

  6. Instrumentation and handling effects on Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne Blanchet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of biologging instruments has greatly improved our understanding of the behaviour, physiology and ecology of free-ranging marine mammals. However, handling wild animals and attaching instruments to streamlined bodies can cause stress and potentially influence behaviour and swimming/diving energetics. The goals of this study, undertaken on Bouvetøya, were (1 to determine if the first trip to sea after instrumentation is representative of subsequent trips in lactating Antarctic fur seals, to explore potential handling effects and assess possible biases in having multiple short-duration deployments (inflating N, using a limited number of tags and (2 to evaluate potential effects of two different instrument combinations (SMRU satellite data relay loggers and very high frequency radio transmitters versus Wildlife Computers time–depth recorders and very high frequency radio transmitters on trip durations, dive parameters, female body condition and pup growth. Handling did not appear to have any effects on the parameters studied; data from the first and second trips did not differ significantly. This implies that multiple short-term deployments are unlikely to result in biased data in this species. Instrument type did have measurable effects; time-at-sea was greater and pup growth was lower for pairs in which mothers carried bulkier instruments. This suggests that instrument streamlining is important to avoid negative impacts and that bulkier equipment should be deployed on lactating females with caution and only for short periods. The study highlights that instrument effects should be taken into account when comparing data from experiments collected using different equipment packages.

  7. Effect of small additional elements on DBTT of V 4Cr 4Ti irradiated at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Tamaki; Yamagata, Ichiro; Kayano, Hideo; Namba, Chusei

    1998-10-01

    As a part of a program to screen several V-4Cr-4Ti containing Si, Al and Y alloys and optimize the amounts of Si, Al and Y, the Charpy impact test of five kinds of V-4Cr-4Ti-Si-Al-Y alloys by an instrumented Charpy impact testing machine using miniaturized specimens (1.5 mm × 1.5 mm × 20 mm) have been conducted before and after neutron irradiation. Charpy impact specimens were encapsulated in an aluminum vial filled with high purity He and irradiated up to 1.06 × 10 19 n/cm 2 ( E > 1 MeV, 156 h) at low temperatures (about 150°C) in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of each alloy was determined by various methods on absorbed energy, brittle fracture ratio and lateral expansion from a quantitative analysis of fractography for broken specimens after the Charpy impact test. Almost all specimens were embrittled after low temperature irradiation. Decomposition of primary precipitates could result in migration of interstitial elements to irradiation defects and many precipitates are formed under irradiation. Radiation hardening then caused the substantial degradation of its fracture toughness.

  8. Passive/Active Health Monitoring of Filament Wound Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    comparison of methods for estimating the transfer function and its application to the instrumented charpy impact test ,” JSME International Journal...structural component, they are often disregarded due to the time required to test a sufficient number of degrees of freedom. On the other hand, finite...The sensor was mounted as shown in Figure 1. To create the FRF model, impact testing was performed at 6 equispaced circumferential locations and 6

  9. Fracture Toughness and Processing Routes Relations in Commercial Titanium Alloys for Developing Alternative Alloys for Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    cross head speed of 0.3 mm/ min in air. The dynamic fracture toughness tests will be carried out using a computer aided instrumented Charpy impact...both static and dynamic fracture toughness tests . The static fracture toughness tests will be carried out using an Instron type testing machine at a... testing system, CAI system, at an impact speed of over 1.0 m/ sec in air. The crack initiation point will be detected using compliance changing rate

  10. The Choice of Innovation Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the different types of instruments of innovation policy, to examine how governments and public agencies in different countries and different times have used these instruments differently, to explore the political nature of instrument choice and design (and....... These mixes are often called “policy mix”. The problem-oriented nature of the design of instrument mixes is what makes innovation policy instruments ‘systemic’....

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information April 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2009-05-07

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information May 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information July 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-08-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information - June 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information September 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information August 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-09-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  17. Robust Instrumentation[Water treatment for power plant]; Robust Instrumentering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wik, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Cementa Slite Power Station is a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with moderate steam data; 3.0 MPa and 420 deg C. The heat is recovered from Cementa, a cement industry, without any usage of auxiliary fuel. The Power station commenced operation in 2001. The layout of the plant is unusual, there are no similar in Sweden and very few world-wide, so the operational experiences are limited. In connection with the commissioning of the power plant a R and D project was identified with the objective to minimise the manpower needed for chemistry management of the plant. The lean chemistry management is based on robust instrumentation and chemical-free water treatment plant. The concept with robust instrumentation consists of the following components; choice of on-line instrumentation with a minimum of O and M and a chemical-free water treatment. The parameters are specific conductivity, cation conductivity, oxygen and pH. In addition to that, two fairly new on-line instruments were included; corrosion monitors and differential pH calculated from specific and cation conductivity. The chemical-free water treatment plant consists of softening, reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation. The operational experience shows that the cycle chemistry is not within the guidelines due to major problems with the operation of the power plant. These problems have made it impossible to reach steady state and thereby not viable to fully verify and validate the concept with robust instrumentation. From readings on the panel of the online analysers some conclusions may be drawn, e.g. the differential pH measurements have fulfilled the expectations. The other on-line analysers have been working satisfactorily apart from contamination with turbine oil, which has been noticed at least twice. The corrosion monitors seem to be working but the lack of trend curves from the mainframe computer system makes it hard to draw any clear conclusions. The chemical-free water treatment has met all

  18. Stress transiently affects pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eMorgado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress bias decision-making processes by favoring the shift to habits as a result of changes in corticostriatal circuits. Given that these same circuits are implicated in action control and outcome encoding implicated in adaptive responses we herein assessed the impact of chronic stress in a pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT paradigm. Data reveals that rats submitted to a chronic unpredictable stress model did not display deficits in pavlovian conditioning nor on the learning of instrumental task, but were impaired in PIT; importantly, after a stress-free period the PIT deficits were no longer observed. These results are relevant to understand how stress bias multiple incentive processes that contribute to instrumental performance.

  19. Software Security Requirements Gathering Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti Jain

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Security breaches are largely caused by the vulnerable software. Since individuals and organizations mostly depend on softwares, it is important to produce in secured manner. The first step towards producing secured software is through gathering security requirements. This paper describes Software Security Requirements Gathering Instrument (SSRGI that helps gather security requirements from the various stakeholders. This will guide the developers to gather security requirements along with the functional requirements and further incorporate security during other phases of software development. We subsequently present case studies that describe the integration of the SSRGI instrument with Software Requirements Specification (SRS document as specified in standard IEEE 830-1998. Proposed SSRGI will support the software developers in gathering security requirements in detail during requirements gathering phase.

  20. Surface Meteorological Instrumentation for BOBMEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G S Bhat; S Ameenulla

    2000-06-01

    Although India has a long experience in ship-borne experiments and oceanographic instrumentation, the atmospheric component has not received much attention in the past. In this paper, the basis of the atmospheric instrumentation system assembled for use on board ORV Sagar Kanya for the BOBMEX- Pilot experiment is described along with some representative results. Wherever possible, Woods Hole's IMET recommendations for meteorological sensors for applications in the marine environment have been followed to keep our measurements in par with international standards. The sensors were tested during the BOBMEX-Pilot experiment and all sensors worked well. Velocity, humidity and temperature data have been successfully collected using fast sensors. It is shown that the component due to the ship's pitching motion can be removed from the measured vertical velocity by making use of an accelerometer. This makes it possible to calculate the surface fluxes by direct methods.