WorldWideScience

Sample records for instrumentation electronic

  1. Nuclear electronic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    The activities carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of the nuclear electronic instrumentation included those activities corresponding to the design and production of nuclear instruments in a first stage, as well as the internal activities of design, repair and maintenance that have supported to other projects of the institution during many years. It is mentioned of the presence and constant collaboration of the ININ with the IAEA in different projects and programs. Also, it is mentioned on the establishment of the Radiation Detectors Laboratory, which for their characteristics and repair capacities of radiation detectors of cooled semiconductor, it is only in their specialty. It is emphasized the investigation and the development in the field of new radiation detectors and applications, as well as the important contribution in this field, in institutions like: Mexican Petroleum, National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards and Federal Commission of Electricity. Finally a position of the future of these activities is made, considering the speed of the advances of the electronic and nuclear technology. (Author)

  2. Modernization of ILL instrument electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, F.

    1999-01-01

    We have built new general purpose cards for data acquisition taking advantage of recent developments in electronics. At the end of the year, most scheduled instruments at the ILL will be running under UNIX with VME electronics front-end. As the VME electronics of the ILL was designed at the beginning of the eighties, the instrument control section (SCI) at ILL has prepared a renewal plan for two reasons: - first, all the processor cards of the Institute are based on MIZAR processor boards and MIZAR stopped the production of this card last year, as the market was shrinking; - in addition, processors and programmable electronics are now 10 times faster. The electronics services want to take full advantage of these new performances. (author)

  3. Increasing Laser Stability with Improved Electronic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Daylin; Bennett, Aaron; Erickson, Christopher J.; Jones, Tyler; Durfee, Dallin S.

    2010-03-01

    We present several electronic instruments developed to implement an ultra-stable laser lock. These instruments include a high speed, low noise homodyne photo-detector; an ultrahigh stability, low noise current driver with high modulation bandwidth and digital control; a high-speed, low noise PID controller; a low-noise piezo driver; and a laser diode temperature controller. We will present the theory of operation for these instruments, design and construction techniques, and essential characteristics for each device.

  4. Some notes concerning ISABELLE electronic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion is given to stimulate early thought relative to the electronic instrumentation which will be required at ISABELLE at the inception of its experimental program. This represents a unique opportunity to approach the instrumentation problem rationally, making provisions for most of the needs in the various intersection regions at minimal cost. In particular, as will be seen, it may be possible to develop a number of specialized integrated circuits which will go a long way toward facilitating the rapid acquisition and examination of data

  5. Electronic instrumentation system for pulsed neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, J.; Igielski, A.; Kowalik, W.

    1982-01-01

    An essential point of pulsed neutron measurement of thermal neutron parameters for different materials is the registration of the thermal neutron die-away curve after a fast neutron bursts have been injected into the system. An electronic instrumentation system which is successfully applied for pulsed neutron measurements is presented. An important part of the system is the control unit which has been designed and built in the Laboratory of Neutron Parameters of Materials. (author)

  6. Calibration Base Lines for Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A calibration base line (CBL) is a precisely measured, straight-line course of approximately 1,400 m used to calibrate Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments...

  7. The effects of nuclear power generators upon electronic instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Truscello, V. C.

    1970-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of electronic instruments susceptible to neutron and gamma radiation is evaluated by means of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator /RTG/. The gamma field of the RTG affects instrument operation and requires shielding, the neutron field does not affect operation via secondary capture-gamma production.

  8. [Electronic Apex Locator as a dental instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S; Winocur-Arias, O; Slutzky-Goldberg, I

    2009-04-01

    Electronic Apex Locators (EAL) have become widely used in the last decade. The first apex locator was introduced in 1962, based on a constant electrical resistance (6.5 K.) between the oral mucosa and periodontal ligament. The first and second generations of EAL were inaccurate and could not detect the apex in the presence of conducting fluids. The third generation solved this problem by using two alternating frequencies and calculating the impedance between them. This provided reliable and accurate results in dry canals, or in the presence of blood, electrolytes or other fluid in the root canals, when the pulp was necrotic or when there was a perforation along the root. The Root ZX and Apit (Endex) are the most documented devices. The new fourth generation of apex locators is a diverse group: some use multifrequency currents, others use a "lookup matrix" rather than calculate the readings. Several of the newer EALs are smaller, and others connect to computers.

  9. Modern trends of electronic trading by negotiable financial instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Кравчук, Ігор Святославович

    2018-01-01

    International negotiable financial instrument markets have a high level of electronic trading. It is displayed using the consolidated limit order book, the widening the range of trading orders, smart order routing, high speed access to the market on the basis of latency minimizing. The result of electronic trading is the development of high-frequency trading, the positive features of which are the increase of trading activity and market liquidity, and the reducing of transaction costs. The ma...

  10. Cryogenic instrumentation with cold electronics-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, M.G.; Scurlock, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The low level signals from cryogenic sensors and transducers are usually carried to the electronic signal conditioning and data handling systems at ambient temperatures by long electrical leads running from the cyrogenic environment to ambient. There are many applications, outside those using superconducting devices, in which there are advantages to be gained by placing part or all of the electronic system in the cryogenic environment adjacent to the measuring point. This paper discusses the requirements for an ideal cold electronic instrumentation system and then reviews the present state of the art in relation to off-the-shelf electronic components, devices and integrated circuits, and the published literature. The integration of sensors/transducers with cold electronics is discussed and areas for development are outlined

  11. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  12. Electronic instrument for radon daughter dosimetry. Report of investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the daily exposures of uranium mining personnel to 222Rn daughters, a device is needed which will continually monitor the individual's exposure. Such a device has been built and tested and is known as the Radon Daughter Dosimeter. This is an electronic instrument using a solid-state detector and circuitry. The system permits the evaluation of cumulative exposures to airborne radon progeny, expressed in units of Working Level Hours (WL-HRS). The instrument is a personal device worn by the individual throughout the working shift. Since the instrument is in close proximity to the miner and measures continual exposure, it provides an accurate account of total cumulative exposure, thus avoiding the errors caused by the present technique of spot checking of the environment

  13. Development of the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) for Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jack; Christensen, John L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) is a new technique for measuring electric fields in space by detecting the effect on weak beams of test electrons. This U.S. portions of the technique, flight hardware, and flight software were developed for the Cluster mission under this contract. Dr. Goetz Paschmann of the Max Planck Institute in Garching, Germany, was the Principle Investigator for Cluster EDI. Hardware for Cluster was developed in the U.S. at the University of New Hampshire, Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, and University of California, San Diego. The Cluster satellites carrying the original EDI instruments were lost in the catastrophic launch failure of first flight of the Arianne-V rocket in 1996. Following that loss, NASA and ESA approved a rebuild of the Cluster mission, for which all four satellites were successfully launched in the Summer of 2000. Limited operations of EDI were also obtained on the Equator-S satellite, which was launched in December, 1997. A satellite failure caused a loss of the Equator-S mission after only 5 months, but these operations were extremely valuable in learning about the characteristics and operations of the complex EDI instrument. The Cluster mission, satellites, and instruments underwent an extensive on-orbit commissioning phase in the Fall of 2000, carrying over through January 2001. During this period all elements of the instruments were checked and careful measurements of inter-experiments interferences were made. EDI is currently working exceptionally well in orbit. Initial results verify that all aspects of the instrument are working as planned, and returning highly valuable scientific information. The first two papers describing EDI on-orbit results have been submitted for publication in April, 2001. The principles of the EDI technique, and its implementation on Cluster are described in two papers by Paschmann et al., attached as Appendices A and B. The EDI presentation at the formal Cluster Commissioning

  14. SuperAGILE onboard electronics and ground test instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacciani, Luigi; Morelli, Ennio; Rubini, Alda; Mastropietro, Marcello; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Rapisarda, Massimo; Soffitta, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe the electronics of the SuperAGILE X-ray imager on-board AGILE satellite and the instrumentation developed to test and improve the Front-End and digital electronics of the flight model of the imager. Although the working principle of the instrument is very well established, and the conceptual scheme simple, the budget and mechanical constraints of the AGILE small mission made necessary the introduction of new elements in SuperAGILE, regarding both the mechanics and the electronics. In fact the instrument is contained in a ∼44x44x16cm 3 volume, but the required performance is quite ambitious, leading us to equip a sensitive area of ∼1350cm 2 with 6144 Silicon μstrips detectors with a pitch of 121μm and a total length of ∼18.2cm. The result is a very light and power-cheap imager with a good sensitivity (∼15mCrab in 1 day in 15-45keV), high angular resolution (6arcmin) and gross spectral resolution. The test-equipment is versatile, and can be easily modified to test FEE based on self-triggered, data-driven and sparse-readout ASICs such as XA family chips

  15. The Electron Drift Instrument on Cluster: overview of first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paschmann

    Full Text Available EDI measures the drift velocity of artificially injected electron beams. From this drift velocity, the perpendicular electric field and the local magnetic field gradients can be deduced when employing different electron energies. The technique requires the injection of two electron beams at right angles to the magnetic field and the search for those directions within the plane that return the beams to their associated detectors after one or more gyrations. The drift velocity is then derived from the directions of the two beams and/or from the difference in their times-of-flight, measured via amplitude-modulation and coding of the emitted electron beams and correlation with the signal from the returning electrons. After careful adjustment of the control parameters, the beam recognition algorithms, and the onboard magnetometer calibrations during the commissioning phase, EDI is providing excellent data over a wide range of conditions. In this paper, we present first results in a variety of regions ranging from the polar cap, across the magnetopause, and well into the magnetosheath.

    Key words. Electron drift velocity (electric fields; plasma convection; instruments and techniques

  16. New developments in radiation protection instrumentation via active electronic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    New developments in electronics and radiation detectors are improving on real-time data acquisition of radiation exposure and contamination conditions. Recent developments in low power circuit designs, hybrid and integrated circuits, and microcomputers have all contributed to smaller and lighter radiation detection instruments that are, at the same time, more sensitive and provide more information (e.g., radioisotope identification) than previous devices. New developments in radiation detectors, such as cadmium telluride, gas scintillation proportional counters, and imaging counters (both charged particle and photon) promise higher sensitivities and expanded uses over present instruments. These developments are being applied in such areas as health physics, waste management, environmental monitoring, in vivo measurements, and nuclear safeguards

  17. Radiation-hardened micro-electronics for nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Uffelen, M.

    2007-01-01

    The successful development and deployment of future fission and thermonuclear fusion reactors depends to a large extent on the advances of different enabling technologies. Not only the materials need to be custom engineered but also the instrumentation, the electronics and the communication equipment need to support operation in this harsh environment, with expected radiation levels during maintenance up to several MGy. Indeed, there are yet no commercially available electronic devices available off-the-shelf which demonstrated a satisfying operation at these extremely high radiation levels. The main goal of this task is to identify commercially available radiation tolerant technologies, and to design dedicated and integrated electronic circuits, using radiation hardening techniques, both at the topological and architectural level. Within a stepwise approach, we first design circuits with discrete components and look for an equivalent integrated technology. This will enable us to develop innovative instrumentation and communication tools for the next generation of nuclear reactors, where both radiation hardening and miniaturization play a dominant role

  18. Ultrafast electron microscopy: Instrument response from the single-electron to high bunch-charge regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemmons, Dayne A.; Flannigan, David J.

    2017-09-01

    We determine the instrument response of an ultrafast electron microscope equipped with a conventional thermionic electron gun and absent modifications beyond the optical ports. Using flat, graphite-encircled LaB6 cathodes, we image space-charge effects as a function of photoelectron-packet population and find that an applied Wehnelt bias has a negligible effect on the threshold levels (>103 electrons per pulse) but does appear to suppress blurring at the upper limits (∼105 electrons). Using plasma lensing, we determine the instrument-response time for 700-fs laser pulses and find that single-electron packets are laser limited (1 ps), while broadening occurs well below the space-charge limit.

  19. Modern trends of electronic trading by negotiable financial instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Kravchuk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available International negotiable financial instrument markets have a high level of electronic trading. It is displayed using the consolidated limit order book, the widening the range of trading orders, smart order routing, high speed access to the market on the basis of latency minimizing. The result of electronic trading is the development of high-frequency trading, the positive features of which are the increase of trading activity and market liquidity, and the reducing of transaction costs. The main drawback of high-frequency trading is the potential negative impact on market stability (software failures, the manipulative incentives of algorithmic strategies, in particular, technical arbitrage, the use of homogeneous strategies, cyber risks. The current system of high-frequency trading requires particular actions from the regulators to overcome information gaps and enhanced monitoring to create a regulatory environment that could take into account both the aspects of supporting market development and its stability through appropriate macroprudential instruments, especially the implementation of the stress testing of the high-frequency algorithms in response to the shocks of various origin, taking into account the aggregate market effect of the mutual influence of different algorithmic strategies.

  20. 2nd International Conference on Measurement Instrumentation and Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Preface It is our great pleasure to welcome you to 2017 2nd International Conference on Measurement Instrumentation and Electronics which has been held in Prague, Czech Republic during June 9-11, 2017. ICMIE 2017 is dedicated to issues related to measurement instrumentation and electronics. The major goal and feature of the conference is to bring academic scientists, engineers, industry researchers together to exchange and share their experiences and research results, and discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Professors from Czech Republic, Germany and Italy are invited to deliver keynote speeches regarding latest information in their respective expertise areas. It is a golden opportunity for the students, researchers and engineers to interact with the experts and specialists to get their advice or consultation on technical matters, teaching methods and strategies. These proceedings present a selection from papers submitted to the conference from universities, research institutes and industries. All of the papers were subjected to peer-review by conference committee members and international reviewers. The papers selected depended on their quality and their relevancy to the conference. The volume tends to present to the readers the recent advances in the field of computer and communication system, system design and measurement and control technology, power electronics and electrical engineering, materials science and engineering, power machinery and equipment maintenance, architectural design and project management, environmental analysis and detection etc. We would like to thank all the authors who have contributed to this volume and also to the organizing committee, reviewers, speakers, chairpersons, and all the conference participants for their support to ICMIE 2017. ICMIE 2017 Organizing Committee June 20th, 2017 (paper)

  1. Electronic Instrumentations for High Energy Particle Physics and Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00452332

    The present dissertation describes design, qualification and operation of several electronic instrumentations for High Energy Particle Physics experiments (LHCb) and Neutrino Physics experiments (CUORE and CUPID). Starting from 2019, the LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator will be upgraded to operate at higher luminosity and several of its detectors will be redesigned. The RICH detector will require a completely new optoelectronic readout system. The development of such system has already reached an advanced phase, and several tests at particle beam facilities allowed to qualify the performance of the entire system. In order to achieve a higher stability and a better power supply regulation for the front-end chip, a rad-hard low dropout linear regulator, named ALDO, has been developed. Design strategies, performance tests and results from the irradiation campaign are presented. In the Neutrino Physics field, large-scale bolometric detectors, like those adopted by CUORE and its future upgrade CUPID, offer u...

  2. Electronically Tunable Transimpedance Instrumentation Amplifier Based on OTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA is the most suitable analog building block (ABB for transimpedance type signal processing due to its very nature of current input and voltage output. In this paper, OTRA-based transimpedance instrumentation amplifier (TIA is presented. It provides high differential gain and bandwidth, which is independent of gain. It also offers high common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR. The amplifier gain can be controlled electronically by implementing resistors using MOS transistors operating in linear region. The circuit can be made fully integrated. The proposed circuit is insensitive to parasitic input capacitances and input resistances due to the internally grounded input terminals of OTRA. Theoretical analysis is verified through PSPICE simulations and experimentation.

  3. Discussion forum on electron beam instruments AERE Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, J.E.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this catalogue is to provide a source of information on the equipment available at AERE Harwell, to the nuclear and non-nuclear scientist. The original aim, that is, is to provide data on electron/proton beam instruments has been revised to include optical devices and ancillary preparatory equipment. The intention is to enable prospective users to have a contact who can provide further detailed information, although it must be recognised that work on certain projects completely fills the time available. This publication has been updated, first catalogue published in January 1975, to August 1980 and it is the intention that it should form part of a similar publication which incorporates details of similar equipment available throughout the UKAEA. (author)

  4. An Electron Beam Profile Instrument Based on FBGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Sporea

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the dose rate and the total irradiation dose measurements, the knowledge of the beam localization and the beam profile/energy distribution in the beam are parameters of interest for charged particle accelerator installations when they are used in scientific investigations, industrial applications or medical treatments. The transverse profile of the beam, its position, its centroid location, and its focus or flatness depend on the instrument operating conditions or on the beam exit setup. Proof-of-concept of a new type of charged particle beam diagnostics based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs was demonstrated. Its operating principle relies on the measurement of the peak wavelength changes for an array of FBG sensors as function of the temperature following the exposure to an electron beam. Periodically, the sensor irradiation is stopped and the FBG are force cooled to a reference temperature with which the temperature influencing each sensor during beam exposure is compared. Commercially available FBGs, and FBGs written in radiation resistant optical fibers, were tested under electron beam irradiation in order to study their possible use in this application.

  5. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  6. On DESTINY Science Instrument Electrical and Electronics Subsystem Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod R.

    2009-01-01

    Future space missions are going to require large focal planes with many sensing arrays and hundreds of millions of pixels all read out at high data rates'' . This will place unique demands on the electrical and electronics (EE) subsystem design and it will be critically important to have high technology readiness level (TRL) EE concepts ready to support such missions. One such omission is the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) charged with making precise measurements of the expansion rate of the universe to reveal vital clues about the nature of dark energy - a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of the expansion. One of three JDEM concept studies - the Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) was conducted in 2008 at the NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland. This paper presents the EE subsystem framework, which evolved from the DESTINY science instrument study. It describes the main challenges and implementation concepts related to the design of an EE subsystem featuring multiple focal planes populated with dozens of large arrays and millions of pixels. The focal planes are passively cooled to cryogenic temperatures (below 140 K). The sensor mosaic is controlled by a large number of Readout Integrated Circuits and Application Specific Integrated Circuits - the ROICs/ASICs in near proximity to their sensor focal planes. The ASICs, in turn, are serviced by a set of "warm" EE subsystem boxes performing Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based digital signal processing (DSP) computations of complex algorithms, such as sampling-up-the-ramp algorithm (SUTR), over large volumes of fast data streams. The SUTR boxes are supported by the Instrument Control/Command and Data Handling box (ICDH Primary and Backup boxes) for lossless data compression, command and low volume telemetry handling, power conversion and for communications with the spacecraft. The paper outlines how the JDEM DESTINY concept

  7. Electronics and instrumentation for the SST-1 superconducting magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristi, Yohan; Pradhan, Subrata; Varmora, Pankaj; Banaudha, Moni; Praghi, Bhadresh R.; Prasad, Upendra

    2015-01-01

    Steady State Superconducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India is now in operation phase. The SST-1 magnet system consists of sixteen superconducting (SC), D-shaped Toroidal Field (TF) coils and nine superconducting Poloidal Field (PF) coils together with a pair of resistive PF coils, inside the vacuum vessel of SST-1. The magnets were cooled down to 4.5 K using either supercritical or two-phase helium, after which they were charged up to 10 kA of transport current. Precise quench detection system, cryogenic temperature, magnetic field, strain, displacement, flow and pressure measurements in the Superconducting (SC) magnet were mandatory. The Quench detection electronics required to protect the SC magnets from the magnet Quench therefore system must be reliable and prompt to detect the quench from the harsh tokamak environment and high magnetic field interference. A ∼200 channels of the quench detection system for the TF magnet are working satisfactorily with its design criteria. Over ∼150 channels Temperature measurement system was implemented for the several locations in the magnet and hydraulic circuits with required accuracy of 0.1K at bellow 30K cryogenic temperature. Whereas the field, strain and displacement measurements were carried out at few predefined locations on the magnet. More than 55 channels of Flow and pressure measurements are carried out to know the cooling condition and the mass flow of the liquid helium (LHe) coolant for the SC Magnet system. This report identifies the different in-house modular signal conditioning electronics and instrumentation systems, calibration at different levels and the outcomes for the SST-1 TF magnet system. (author)

  8. The PhotoElectron Boundary as observed by MAVEN instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, P.; Steckiewicz, M.; Mazelle, C. X.; Xu, S.; Mitchell, D. L.; Holmberg, M.; Halekas, J. S.; Andersson, L.; Brain, D.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Lillis, R. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Savaud, J. A.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Photoelectron peaks in the 20-30 eV energy range are commonly observed in planetary atmospheres (Earth, Mars, Titan...), produced by the intense photoionization from solar 30.4 nm photons. At Mars, these photoelectrons result from the ionization of CO2 and O atmospheric neutrals, and are known to escape the planet down its tail, making them tracers for the atmospheric escape (Frahm et al., 2006). Furthermore, their presence or absence allows us to define the so-called PhotoElectron Boundary (PEB), that separates the sunlit photoelectron-dominated ionosphere from the solar wind controlled environment, as initially observed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) MAG/ER instrument (Mitchell et al. (2000, 2001). We provide here a detailed statistical analysis of the location and properties of the PEB based on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission electron and magnetic field data. Our dataset includes 1696 dayside PEB crossings obtained from September 2014 until May 2016 (the observations of escaping photoelectrons in the wake being not included). The PEB appears as mostly sensitive to the solar wind dynamic and crustal magnetic fields pressures, for which a quantitative dependance is derived and compared with two other important boundaries : the bow shock and magnetic pileup boundary. The PEB altitude is highly variable, leading to a variable wake cross section for escape (up to +- 50%), which is important for deriving global escape rates from in situ photoelectron escape rates. The PEB is not always sharp, and is, despite a strong variability, characterized on average by : a magnetic field topology typical for the edge of the Magnetic Pile Up Region above it, more field aligned fluxes above than below, and a clear change of the altitude dependence of both electron fluxes and total density (that appears different from the ionopause). The PEB thus appears as a transition region between two plasma and field configurations which is determined by the

  9. Evolutionary developments in x ray and electron energy loss microanalysis instrumentation for the analytical electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluzec, Nester J.

    Developments in instrumentation for both X ray Dispersive and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (XEDS/EELS) over the last ten years have given the experimentalist a greatly enhanced set of analytical tools for characterization. Microanalysts have waited for nearly two decades now in the hope of getting a true analytical microscope and the development of 300 to 400 kV instruments should have allowed us to attain this goal. Unfortunately, this has not generally been the case. While there have been some major improvements in the techniques, there has also been some devolution in the modern AEM (Analytical Electron Microscope). In XEDS, the majority of today's instruments are still plagued by the hole count effect, which was first described in detail over fifteen years ago. The magnitude of this problem can still reach the 20 percent level for medium atomic number species in a conventional off-the-shelf intermediate voltage AEM. This is an absurd situation and the manufacturers should be severely criticized. Part of the blame, however, also rests on the AEM community for not having come up with a universally agreed upon standard test procedure. Fortunately, such a test procedure is in the early stages of refinement. The proposed test specimen consists of an evaporated Cr film approx. 500 to 1000A thick supported upon a 3mm diameter Molybdenum 200 micron aperture.

  10. Low-kilovolt coherent electron diffractive imaging instrument based on a single-atom electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Yueh [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wei-Tse; Chen, Yi-Sheng; Hwu, En-Te; Chang, Chia-Seng; Hwang, Ing-Shouh, E-mail: ishwang@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wei-Hao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, a transmission-type, low-kilovolt coherent electron diffractive imaging instrument was constructed. It comprised a single-atom field emitter, a triple-element electrostatic lens, a sample holder, and a retractable delay line detector to record the diffraction patterns at different positions behind the sample. It was designed to image materials thinner than 3 nm. The authors analyzed the asymmetric triple-element electrostatic lens for focusing the electron beams and achieved a focused beam spot of 87 nm on the sample plane at the electron energy of 2 kV. High-angle coherent diffraction patterns of a suspended graphene sample corresponding to (0.62 Å){sup −1} were recorded. This work demonstrated the potential of coherent diffractive imaging of thin two-dimensional materials, biological molecules, and nano-objects at a voltage between 1 and 10 kV. The ultimate goal of this instrument is to achieve atomic resolution of these materials with high contrast and little radiation damage.

  11. Nuclear electronic instrument systems using the Harwell 6000 series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, F.D.; Snelling, G.F.; Hawthorn, I.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes some of the more recent equipment designed by the Systems Instrumentation Unit (AERE, Harwell), in the Harwell 6000 modular format. The units include: Laboratory Instruments (alpha monitors, beta-gamma detectors, spectrometers, automatic sample changer systems, automated counting laboratory systems, low power systems). Environmental Monitors (nuclear plant monitor, air monitor, sea bed monitor). Process Instruments (plutonium waste control, x-ray fluorescence monitor, process monitor, beam current monitor, effluent monitors). (U.K.)

  12. Analysis and application of analog electronic circuits to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2003-01-01

    This book introduces the basic mathematical tools used to describe noise and its propagation through linear systems and provides a basic description of the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio by signal averaging and linear filtering. The text also demonstrates how op amps are the keystone of modern analog signal conditioning systems design, and illustrates their use in isolation and instrumentation amplifiers, active filters, and numerous biomedical instrumentation systems and subsystems. It examines the properties of the ideal op amp and applies this model to the analysis of various circuits

  13. Measuring Instruments Control Methodology Performance for Analog Electronics Remote Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai Hernandez-Jayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the work that has been developed in parallel to the VISIR project. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the validations processes that have been carried out to check the control methodology. This method has been developed with the aim of being independent of the instruments of the labs.

  14. Analog Front-End Electronics in Beam Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Boscolo, A

    2005-01-01

    The work gives an overview of present and near future technological opportunities for the first analog conditioning and subsequent signal processing of sensor signal. The interactions between beam sensor capability, their signals characteristics and the system requirements are analyzed from different approaches as: full analog continuous, sampled time discrete, full digital time and amplitude discrete. Special attention will be given to the impact of measurement methods and new devices in circuits and instrumentation architecture design, especially from the metrological point of view. A lot of measurement methods and related systems have been developed in order to overcome technological drawbacks and to reach the best cost-performances ratio. By a system revamping, some of these still now show the capability of reaching the actual technological limits in a simpler way in many applications as: ADC, linear and non linear signal processing, ultra high speed logic, etc. These methods could be carried out by the n...

  15. BGO front-end electronics and signal processing in the MXGS instrument for the ASIM mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogseide, Yngve; Cenkeramaddi, Linga Reddy; Genov, Georgi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the Bismuth Germanate Oxide (BGO) front-end electronics design and signal processing in Modular X- and Gamma ray sensor (MXGS) instrument onboard the Atmosphere Space Interaction Monitor (ASIM) mission, funded by the European Space Agency. University of Bergen is responsible...... for the design and development of the detector layers and readout electronics for the MXGS instrument. The principal objective of the instrument is to detect Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs), which are related to thunderstorm activity. The digital pulse processing scheme used in the MXGS BGO detector gives...... it a significantly higher rate capability than what has been achieved in other instruments used in the study of terrestrial gamma flashes. The front-end electronics for the BGO detector layer in MXGS system also uses fewer components compared to conventional analog front-ends for BGO detectors, thereby increasing...

  16. Instrument electronic transformers for medium voltage systems; Transformadores eletronicos de instrumentos para sistemas de media tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javora, Radek; Stefanka, Martin; Mahonen, Pentti; Niemi, Tapio; Rintamaki, Olli [ABB, Helsinki (Finland); ABB, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-02-15

    This paper compares the conventional technologies and the electronic of instrument transformers, and highlights the advantages, discoveries and principles of electronic models. Such equipment are essentially indicated for using with as micro processed relays at the substations, and also projected for connection to the IEDs, and the future digital communication (author)

  17. Analysis and application of analog electronic circuits to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    All chapters include an introduction and chapter summary.Sources and Properties of Biomedical SignalsSources of Endogenous Bioelectric SignalsNerve Action PotentialsMuscle Action PotentialsThe ElectrocardiogramOther BiopotentialsElectrical Properties of BioelectrodesExogenous Bioelectric SignalsProperties and Models of Semiconductor Devices Used in Analog Electronic Systemspn Junction DiodesMidfrequency Models for BJT BehaviorMidfrequency Models for Field-Effect TransistorsHigh-Frequency Models for Transistors and Simple Transistor AmplifiersPhotons, Photodiodes, Photoconductors, LEDs, and Las

  18. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Polshin, Evgeny; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  19. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Polshin, Evgeny; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  20. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa, E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polshin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kirsanov, Dmitry [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart [BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip [Centre for Malting and Brewing Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverelee (Belgium); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  1. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  2. Neutron Scattering Investigations of Correlated Electron Systems and Neutron Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sonja Lindahl

    are a unique probe for studying the atomic and molecular structure and dynamics of materials. Even though neutrons are very expensive to produce, the advantages neutrons provide overshadow the price. As neutrons interact weakly with materials compared to many other probes, e.g. electrons or photons...... contains antiferromagnetically coupled Cu2+ S = 1=2 ions forming truncated 24-spin cube clusters of linked triangles. The clusters in boleite afford a situation intermediate between molecular and bulk magnetism, accessible to both experiment and numerical theory, in which a spin liquid can be studied...... the impact of the time structure (pulse length and repetition frequency) choice for ESS are appended. McStas simulations of a low resolution cold powder diffractometer and high resolution thermal powder diffractometer with wavelength frame multiplication have been carried out for 20 different settings...

  3. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  4. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  5. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  6. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  7. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  8. eV-TEM: Transmission electron microscopy in a low energy cathode lens instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geelen, Daniël, E-mail: geelen@physics.leidenuniv.nl [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Thete, Aniket [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Schaff, Oliver; Kaiser, Alexander [SPECS GmbH, Voltastrasse 5, D-13355 Berlin (Germany); Molen, Sense Jan van der [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Tromp, Rudolf [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We are developing a transmission electron microscope that operates at extremely low electron energies, 0–40 eV. We call this technique eV-TEM. Its feasibility is based on the fact that at very low electron energies the number of energy loss pathways decreases. Hence, the electron inelastic mean free path increases dramatically. eV-TEM will enable us to study elastic and inelastic interactions of electrons with thin samples. With the recent development of aberration correction in cathode lens instruments, a spatial resolution of a few nm appears within range, even for these very low electron energies. Such resolution will be highly relevant to study biological samples such as proteins and cell membranes. The low electron energies minimize adverse effects due to radiation damage. - Highlights: • We present a new way of performing low energy transmission electron microscopy in an aberration corrected LEEM/PEEM instrument. • We show a proof of principle where we measure transmitted electrons through a suspended graphene monolayer with a preliminary setup. • We present an improved setup design that provides better control of the incident electron beam.

  9. The progress report of the Instrumentation and Technological Electronical Division, for 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The 1987 activity report of the CEA Instrumentation and Technological Electronic Division (ITED), is presented. The ITED fields of interest include nuclear, space, health, defense and civil domains. The research development and perspectives are summarized. Concerning materials and components the following research programs are included: silicon integrated circuits, silicon on isolator, common experimental laboratory, mass memory, lasers, photodetection, flat screens, and sensors. In the field of instrumentations and systems, the retained research guidelines are focused on: medical and biological instrumentation, the environment, the nuclear domain. Moreover, the research fields of physics, artificial intelligence and software, production, robots, architecture and integration are also included [fr

  10. Inter-instrument calibration using magnetic field data from Flux Gate Magnetometer (FGM) and Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) onboard Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Teubenbacher, R.; Giner, L.; Baumjohann, W.; Magnes, W.; Steller, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Chutter, M.; Fornaçon, K.-H.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Carr, C.

    2013-07-01

    We compare the magnetic field data obtained from the Flux-Gate Magnetometer (FGM) and the magnetic field data deduced from the gyration time of electrons measured by the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) onboard Cluster to determine the spin axis offset of the FGM measurements. Data are used from orbits with their apogees in the magnetotail, when the magnetic field magnitude was between about 20 nT and 500 nT. Offset determination with the EDI-FGM comparison method is of particular interest for these orbits, because no data from solar wind are available in such orbits to apply the usual calibration methods using the Alfvén waves. In this paper, we examine the effects of the different measurement conditions, such as direction of the magnetic field relative to the spin plane and field magnitude in determining the FGM spin-axis offset, and also take into account the time-of-flight offset of the EDI measurements. It is shown that the method works best when the magnetic field magnitude is less than about 128 nT and when the magnetic field is aligned near the spin-axis direction. A remaining spin-axis offset of about 0.4 ~ 0.6 nT was observed between July and October 2003. Using multi-point multi-instrument measurements by Cluster we further demonstrate the importance of the accurate determination of the spin-axis offset when estimating the magnetic field gradient.

  11. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  12. Instrumentation at the National Center for Electron Microscopy: the Atomic Resolution Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronsky, R.; Thomas, G.

    1983-01-01

    The Atomic Resolution Microscope (ARM) is one of two unique high voltage electron microscopes at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM). The latest results from this new instrument which was manufactured by JEOL, Ltd. to the performance specifications of the NCEM, delivered in January of 1983, and soon to be open to access by the entire microscopy community are given. Details of its history and development are given and its performance specifications are reviewed

  13. Instrumentation system for pulsed neutron generator. Pt. 1. Electronic control and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, J.; Igielski, A.; Janik, W.; Kosik, M.; Kurowski, A.; Zaleski, T.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents an electronic instrumentation system which is successfully applied for pulsed neutron generator and measurements. In the paper there are described in details all modernized parts of the system as well as new designed and applied ones. The set of diagrams is enclosed. An important part of the system has been designed and built in the Neutron Transport Physics Laboratory. (author)

  14. Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR) for Remote Wiring and Measurement of Electronic Circuits on Breadboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, M.; Sancristobal, E.; Martin, S.; Gil, R.; Diaz, G.; Colmenar, A.; Peire, J.; Castro, M.; Nilsson, K.; Zackrisson, J.; Hakansson, L.; Gustavsson, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a state-of-the-art remote laboratory project called Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR). VISIR allows wiring and measuring of electronic circuits remotely on a virtual workbench that replicates physical circuit breadboards. The wiring mechanism is developed by means of a relay switching matrix connected to a PCI…

  15. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  16. Calibrating MMS Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) Ambient Electron Flux Measurements and Characterizing 3D Electric Field Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, J. R.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Argall, M. R.; Li, G.; Chen, L. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Le Contel, O.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    The electron drift instruments (EDIs) onboard each MMS spacecraft are designed with large geometric factors (~0.01cm2 str) to facilitate detection of weak (~100 nA) electron beams fired and received by the two gun-detector units (GDUs) when EDI is in its "electric field mode" to determine the local electric and magnetic fields. A consequence of the large geometric factor is that "ambient mode" electron flux measurements (500 eV electrons having 0°, 90°, or 180° pitch angle) can vary depending on the orientation of the EDI instrument with respect to the magnetic field, a nonphysical effect that requires a correction. Here, we present determinations of the θ- and ø-dependent correction factors for the eight EDI GDUs, where θ (ø) is the polar (azimuthal) angle between the GDU symmetry axis and the local magnetic field direction, and compare the corrected fluxes with those measured by the fast plasma instrument (FPI). Using these corrected, high time resolution (~1,000 samples per second) ambient electron fluxes, combined with the unprecedentedly high resolution 3D electric field measurements taken by the spin-plane and axial double probes (SDP and ADP), we are equipped to accurately detect electron-scale current layers and electric field waves associated with the non-Maxwellian (anisotropic and agyrotropic) particle distribution functions predicted to exist in the reconnection diffusion region. We compare initial observations of the diffusion region with distributions and wave analysis from PIC simulations of asymmetric reconnection applicable for modeling reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause, where MMS will begin Science Phase 1 as of September 1, 2015.

  17. Instrumental development of a quasi-relativistic ultrashort electron beam source for electron diffractions and spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Min; Figora, Michael

    2017-10-01

    A stable femtosecond electron beam system has been configured for time-resolved pump-probe experiments. The ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) system is designed with a sub-MeV photoelectron beam source pulsed by a femtosecond UV laser and nondispersive beamline components, including a bunch compressor-a pulsed S-band klystron is installed and fully commissioned with 5.5 MW peak power in a 2.5 μs pulse length. A single-cell RF photo-gun is designed to produce 1.6-16 pC electron bunches in a photoemission mode with 150 fs pulse duration at 0.5-1 MeV. The measured RF system jitters are within 1% in magnitude and 0.2° in phase, which would induce 3.4 keV and 0.25 keV of ΔE, corresponding to 80 fs and 5 fs of Δt, respectively. Our particle-in-cell simulations indicate that the designed bunch compressor reduces the time-of-arrival jitter by about an order of magnitude. The transport and focusing optics of the designed beamline with the bunch compressor enables an energy spread within 10 -4 and a bunch length (electron probe) within quasi-relativistic UED system.

  18. Progress towards a measurement of the UHE cosmic ray electron flux using the CREST Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jim; Wakely, Scott; Coutu, Stephane; Geske, Matthew; Nutter, Scott; Tarle, Gregory; Park, Nahee; Schubnell, Michael; Gennaro, Joseph; Muller, Dietrich

    2012-07-01

    Electrons of energy beyond about 3 TeV have never been detected in the flux of cosmic rays at Earth despite strong evidence of their presence in a number of supernova remnants (e.g., SN 1006). The detection of high energy electrons at Earth would be extremely significant, yielding information about the spatial distribution of nearby cosmic ray sources. With the Cosmic Ray Electron Synchrotron Telescope (CREST), our collaboration has adopted a novel approach to the detection of electrons of energies between 2 and 50 TeV which results in a substantial increase in the acceptance and sensitivity of the apparatus relative to its physics size. The first LDB flight of the CREST detector took place in January 2012, with a float duration of approximately 10 days. In this paper we describe the flight performance of the instrument, and progress in the analysis of the data obtained in this flight.

  19. Organic ice resists for 3D electron-beam processing: Instrumentation and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiddi, William; Elsukova, Anna; Beleggia, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Organic vapors condensed into thin layers of ice on the surface of a cold substrate are exposed with an electron beam to create resist patterns for lithography applications. The entire spin- and development-free lithography process requires a single custom instrument. We report the design, material...... choice, implementation and operation of this apparatus. It is based on a scanning electron microscope fitted with an electron beam control system that is normally used for electron beam lithography in a multi-user open-access laboratory. The microscope was also equipped with a gas injection system......, a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostage, a temperature control system, and a load-lock. Three steps are required to initialize the apparatus for organic ice resist processing, and two steps are required to restore the apparatus for routine multi-user operations. Five steps are needed to create organic ice...

  20. Scanning electron microscope - some aspects of the instrument and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatte, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    Development of the science of microscopy leading to three different types of microscopes - the optical, the conventional transmission electron microscope (CTEM) and the scanning electron microscope(SEM) has been discussed. Special advantages of the SEM in the solution of problems in industrial laboratories are mentioned. A brief reference to the latest instruments announced by Siemens AG shows the modern trends in the technique. A close similarity in image building between SEM and television is indicated. Operational anatomy of the SEM is reviewed. (author)

  1. Control architecture for an adaptive electronically steerable flash lidar and associated instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Lyle; Craner, Jeremy; Harris, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    An Electronically Steerable Flash Lidar (ESFL), developed by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation, allows realtime adaptive control of configuration and data-collection strategy based on recent or concurrent observations and changing situations. This paper reviews, at a high level, some of the algorithms and control architecture built into ESFL. Using ESFL as an example, it also discusses the merits and utility such adaptable instruments in Earth-system studies.

  2. Electronic keyboard instruments as a helping tool in the process of teaching music

    OpenAIRE

    Rosiński, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The following article shows the usage of new technology in the widely understood music teaching in schools of general profile. Innovative usage of electronic keyboard instruments in music lessons on a significant level expands children’s and teenagers’ musicality and music sensitivity, which was proven with research and observations. The usage of new tools by an educator will influence the quality of performed service so that they can meet the criteria that support the course of lesson. Ch...

  3. Proceedings of the spring meeting of the Working Group for Electronic Instrumentation, Berlin, March 21 - 23, 1994. Summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, F.

    1994-07-01

    The SEI, working group for electronic instrumentation, is a platform for exchange of information and experience among electronics engineers from universities and research labs, particularly on subjects of interest in high-energy physics and nuclear electronics engineering. The abstracts of the 12 papers presented to the meeting cover aspects of current interest ranging from technology transfer to hardware description language to data processing to specific measuring and control instruments. (DG) [de

  4. Optimising electron holography in the presence of partial coherence and instrument instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shery L.Y., E-mail: shery.chang@fz-juelich.de; Dwyer, Christian, E-mail: c.dwyer@fz-juelich.de; Boothroyd, Chris B.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2015-04-15

    Off-axis electron holography provides a direct means of retrieving the phase of the wavefield in a transmission electron microscope, enabling measurement of electric and magnetic fields at length scales from microns to nanometers. To maximise the accuracy of the technique, it is important to acquire holograms using experimental conditions that optimise the phase resolution for a given spatial resolution. These conditions are determined by a number of competing parameters, especially the spatial coherence and the instrument instabilities. Here, we describe a simple, yet accurate, model for predicting the dose rate and exposure time that give the best phase resolution in a single hologram. Experimental studies were undertaken to verify the model of spatial coherence and instrument instabilities that are required for the optimisation. The model is applicable to electron holography in both standard mode and Lorentz mode, and it is relatively simple to apply. - Highlights: • We describe a simple, yet accurate, model for predicting the best phase resolution in off-axis electron holography. • Calibration of the model requires only two series of blank holograms; an intensity sequence and a time sequence. • The model can predict the optimum dose rate and exposure time for any given combination of biprism voltage and magnification. • The model is applicable in both standard mode and Lorentz mode, using either round or elliptical illumination.

  5. Energetic particles detected by the Electron Reflectometer instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor, 1999-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delory, Gregory T.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Brain, David

    2012-01-01

    events at Mars associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections, which includes the identification of interplanetary shocks. MGS observations of energetic particles at varying geometries between the Earth and Mars that include shocks produced by halo, limb, and backsided events provide a unique......We report the observation of galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles by the Electron Reflectometer instrument aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft from May of 1999 to the mission conclusion in November 2006. Originally designed to detect low-energy electrons, the Electron...... recorded high energy galactic cosmic rays with similar to 45% efficiency. Comparisons of this data to galactic cosmic ray proton fluxes obtained from the Advanced Composition Explorer yield agreement to within 10% and reveal the expected solar cycle modulation as well as shorter timescale variations. Solar...

  6. Standard practice for evaluating performance characteristics of ultrasonic Pulse-Echo testing instruments and systems without the use of electronic measurement instruments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes procedures for evaluating the following performance characteristics of ultrasonic pulse-echo examination instruments and systems: Horizontal Limit and Linearity; Vertical Limit and Linearity; Resolution - Entry Surface and Far Surface; Sensitivity and Noise; Accuracy of Calibrated Gain Controls. Evaluation of these characteristics is intended to be used for comparing instruments and systems or, by periodic repetition, for detecting long-term changes in the characteristics of a given instrument or system that may be indicative of impending failure, and which, if beyond certain limits, will require corrective maintenance. Instrument characteristics measured in accordance with this practice are expressed in terms that relate to their potential usefulness for ultrasonic testing. Instrument characteristics expressed in purely electronic terms may be measured as described in E1324. 1.2 Ultrasonic examination systems using pulsed-wave trains and A-scan presentation (rf or video) may be ev...

  7. 5 CFR 532.267 - Special wage schedules for aircraft, electronic, and optical instrument overhaul and repair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... manufacturing. 334418 Printed circuit assembly (electronic assembly) manufacturing. 334419 Other electronic..., electronic, and optical instrument overhaul and repair positions in Puerto Rico. 532.267 Section 532.267 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS...

  8. 46 CFR 67.218 - Optional filing of instruments in portable document format as attachments to electronic mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... format as attachments to electronic mail. 67.218 Section 67.218 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... format as attachments to electronic mail. (a) Any instrument identified as eligible for filing and recording under § 67.200 may be submitted in portable document format (.pdf) as an attachment to electronic...

  9. The Preparation of an Electron Beam Machine 500 keV/10 mA Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyanto; Prayitno; Dewita; Bambang-Supardiyono; Widi-Setyawan

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of an Electron Beam Machine 500 keV/10 mA instrumentation by using a Distributed Instrumentation System have been done. The system consisting of industrial interfaces PCL-718 ADC 12 bit, PCLD-889 Mux/Prog Gain Amp PCLD-786 Driver Relay with solid state relays, PCL 745 serial com, DC motor 12-24 V/8.6 A with reduction gear 10:1 and a pair of PC's connected with twisted cable and an isolated amplifier AD-210 equipped with high voltage divider. The operation can be done using animation Pascal program on the remote mode using twisted cable and a pair of RS-485 interfaces, some operation sequences such as switch on/off blower unit, water pump cooling unit, filament voltage, anode voltage and some timer's have already been adapted on the computer program. Non intercepting beam monitoring technique have been discussed in this paper. (author)

  10. Introduction of a new instrument to measure motivation for gaming: the electronic gaming motives questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrseth, Helga; Notelaers, Guy; Strand, Leif Åge; Borud, Einar Kristian; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold

    2017-09-01

    To adapt the four-dimensional Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Revised (GMQ-R) to measure the motivation for engaging in electronic gaming, and to validate the internal structure and investigate the criterion validity of the new Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire (EGMQ). The GMQ-R was adapted to measure motivation for playing video games and the new instrument was tested on a sample of Norwegian conscripts selected randomly from the pool of conscripts who started their military service between 2013 and 2015. The questionnaire was administered to all those who had played video games during the last 6 months and consisted of 853 gamers (86.8% men, mean age = 19.4 years). All participants completed the EGMQ, as well as other measures of gaming behaviour, gaming problems, boredom, loneliness and depression. The confirmatory factor analyses showed that the proposed EGMQ (measuring enhancement, coping, social and self-gratification motives) displayed satisfactory fit and internal consistency. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that gender emerged as a significant predictor (P motivational dimensions explained an additional 5.8-38.8% of the variance. Coping and self-gratification predicted gaming problems (P motivational dimensions were also predicted differentially by indicators of psychosocial wellbeing, indicating divergent validity of the four motives. The four-dimensional Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire is a valid instrument for measuring motives for gaming. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Development and Testing of UCLA's Electron Losses and Fields Investigation (ELFIN) Instrument Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, C.; Bingley, L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Caron, R.; Cruce, P. R.; Chung, M.; Rowe, K.; Runov, A.; Liu, J.; Tsai, E.

    2017-12-01

    UCLA's Electron Losses and Fields Investigation (ELFIN) is a 3U+ CubeSat mission designed to study relativistic particle precipitation in Earth's polar regions from Low Earth Orbit. Upon its 2018 launch, ELFIN will aim to address an important open question in Space Physics: Are Electromagnetic Ion-Cyclotron (EMIC) waves the dominant source of pitch-angle scattering of high-energy radiation belt charged particles into Earth's atmosphere during storms and substorms? Previous studies have indicated these scattering events occur frequently during storms and substorms, and ELFIN will be the first mission to study this process in-situ.Paramount to ELFIN's success is its instrument suite consisting of an Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) and a Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM). The EPD is comprised of two collimated solid-state detector stacks which will measure the incident flux of energetic electrons from 50 keV to 4 MeV and ions from 50 keV to 300 keV. The FGM is a 3-axis magnetic field sensor which will capture the local magnetic field and its variations at frequencies up to 5 Hz. The ELFIN spacecraft spins perpendicular to the geomagnetic field to provide 16 pitch-angle particle data sectors per revolution. Together these factors provide the capability to address the nature of radiation belt particle precipitation by pitch-angle scattering during storms and substorms.ELFIN's instrument development has progressed into the late Engineering Model (EM) phase and will soon enter Flight Model (FM) development. The instrument suite is currently being tested and calibrated at UCLA using a variety of methods including the use of radioactive sources and applied magnetics to simulate orbit conditions during spin sectoring. We present the methods and test results from instrument calibration and performance validation.

  12. A hybrid instrument combining electronic and photonic tunnelling for surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechou, R.; Ajustron, F.; Seine, G.; Coratger, R.; Maurel, C.; Beauvillain, J.

    2004-01-01

    A PSTM working in the collection mode and based on an STM probe-sample regulation scheme has been developed. This original hybrid instrument for surface analysis uses apertureless metal-coated chemically etched optical fibres. The use of an electronic tunnelling-based feedback loop significantly reduces tip-sample distance and leads to the collection of a high level near-field optical (NFO) signal. A simple amplified photodiode is thus used to perform optical signal acquisition and to draw electromagnetic field maps of sample surfaces. Experimental results on nanostructured gold surfaces are presented

  13. Proceedings of the spring meeting of the Study Group for Electronic Instrumentation on April 3-5, 1995 in Juelich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The 17 papers presented at the meeting give a survey of recent progress in the field of electronic instrumentation of scientific and technical measuring instruments, achieved at the research centers of KFA Juelich, TU Graz, HMI Berlin, Karlsruhe FZ, and Rossendorf FZ. (DG) [de

  14. Synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers accelerator physics, instrumentation and science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat; Schneider, Jochen; Hastings, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Hardly any other discovery of the nineteenth century did have such an impact on science and technology as Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen’s seminal find of the X-rays. X-ray tubes soon made their way as excellent instruments for numerous applications in medicine, biology, materials science and testing, chemistry and public security. Developing new radiation sources with higher brilliance and much extended spectral range resulted in stunning developments like the electron synchrotron and electron storage ring and the freeelectron laser. This handbook highlights these developments in fifty chapters. The reader is given not only an inside view of exciting science areas but also of design concepts for the most advanced light sources. The theory of synchrotron radiation and of the freeelectron laser, design examples and the technology basis are presented. The handbook presents advanced concepts like seeding and harmonic generation, the booming field of Terahertz radiation sources and upcoming brilliant light sources dri...

  15. GET: A generic electronics system for TPCs and nuclear physics instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollacco, E. C.; Grinyer, G. F.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Ahn, T.; Anvar, S.; Arokiaraj, A.; Ayyad, Y.; Baba, H.; Babo, M.; Baron, P.; Bazin, D.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Belkhiria, C.; Blaizot, M.; Blank, B.; Bradt, J.; Cardella, G.; Carpenter, L.; Ceruti, S.; De Filippo, E.; Delagnes, E.; De Luca, S.; De Witte, H.; Druillole, F.; Duclos, B.; Favela, F.; Fritsch, A.; Giovinazzo, J.; Gueye, C.; Isobe, T.; Hellmuth, P.; Huss, C.; Lachacinski, B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Lebertre, G.; Legeard, L.; Lynch, W. G.; Marchi, T.; Martina, L.; Maugeais, C.; Mittig, W.; Nalpas, L.; Pagano, E. V.; Pancin, J.; Poleshchuk, O.; Pedroza, J. L.; Pibernat, J.; Primault, S.; Raabe, R.; Raine, B.; Rebii, A.; Renaud, M.; Roger, T.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Russotto, P.; Saccà, G.; Saillant, F.; Sizun, P.; Suzuki, D.; Swartz, J. A.; Tizon, A.; Usher, N.; Wittwer, G.; Yang, J. C.

    2018-04-01

    General Electronics for TPCs (GET) is a generic, reconfigurable and comprehensive electronics and data-acquisition system for nuclear physics instrumentation of up to 33792 channels. The system consists of a custom-designed ASIC for signal processing, front-end cards that each house 4 ASIC chips and digitize the data in parallel through 12-bit ADCs, concentration boards to read and process the digital data from up to 16 ASICs, a 3-level trigger and master clock module to trigger the system and synchronize the data, as well as all of the associated firmware, communication and data-acquisition software. An overview of the system including its specifications and measured performances are presented.

  16. A comparison of root surface instrumentation using manual, ultrasonic and rotary instruments: an in vitro study using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marda, Preeti; Prakash, Shobha; Devaraj, C G; Vastardis, S

    2012-01-01

    The commonly accepted idea concerning root planing is that excessive removal of cementum is not necessary for removal of endotoxins. The ideal instrument should enable the removal of all extraneous substances from the root surfaces, without causing any iatrogenic effects. To compare the remaining calculus, loss of tooth substance, and roughness of root surface after root planing with Gracey curette, ultrasonic instrument (Slimline insert FSI-SLI-10S), and DesmoClean rotary bur. The efficiency of calculus removal, the amount of lost tooth substance, and root surface roughness resulting from the use of hand curette, ultrasonic instrument, and rotary bur on 36 extracted mandibular incisors were examined by SEM. We used three indices to measure the changes: Remaining calculus index (RCI), Loss of tooth substance index (LTSI), and Roughness loss of tooth substance index (RLTSI). Twelve samples were treated with each instrument. The time required for instrumentation was also noted. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons and the Mann-Whitney test for group-wise comparisons. Analysis was carried out with SPSS software (version 13). The RCI and LTSI showed nonsignificant differences between the three groups. RLTSI showed a significant difference between Slimline and hand curette as well as Slimline and Desmo-Clean. Slimline showed the least mean scores for RCI, LTSI, and RLTSI. Thus, even though the difference was not statistically significant, Slimline insert was shown to be better than the other methods as assessed by the indices scores and the instrumentation time.

  17. 107th meeting of the working group electronic instrumentation in Spring 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettlicher, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Instrumentation and the NUSTAR physics program in FAIR phase-0, actual projects of the group EE-digital electronics, ethernet-based data acquisition beyond 10 GBit/s, the big data problem in DAQ systems, a general front-end readout architecture in scientific detector systems, the KALYPSO detection system for single-shot electro-optical bunch measurements, MicroTCA based RF and laser cavity regulation including piezo controls, FPGA implementation for data acquisition system with gigabit serial link and PCIe interface, next generation MTCA.4 crate, increased PCIexpress band-width up to 128 Gb/s and optical PCIexpress cascading, power supplies for the sensitive measurement techniques and the complex automatization, error-save industry PC, the interfacing of NI products to EPICS, Green Cube, a survey of EPICS rate at GSI and FAIR, CS++ as actor-based successor of the CS framework, synchronized fast shutter control with adaptive phase shift compensation in the EtherCAT motion control system, precise voltage supply for the SiPM of a Cherenkov telescope in the Antarctis, development of a multichannel readout hardware for delay-line neutron detectors, silicon photonic data transmission for detector instrumentation, EMV consideration of the Maria instrument at the FRM2, quench detectors for FAIR, optimized illumination and in-situ calibration of high-gain antennas for the detection of extensive cosmic air showers. (HSI)

  18. Nuclear electronic instruments in tropical countries. Technical specifications for the ordering by the IAEA of nuclear electronic instruments to be used in tropical countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    This book comes from work carried out at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It includes suggestions and recommendations of consultants from eleven countries made during a meeting at Agency headquarters in Vienna on 18 - 20 December 1961, and comments received afterwards on a draft recommendation. It is intended to serve as a guide for the Agency in purchasing equipment for use in tropical countries but not as a strict regulation to be followed in all cases. Suitable alternative materials and techniques are not precluded, but they shall be used only with the consent of the Agency. Before making its purchases the Agency will examine nuclear electronic equipment to find what is best and most suitable to meet difficult environmental conditions of tropical countries (Appendix B). Wherever possible it will recommend suitable air-conditioning systems. An attempt is made in this book to base recommendations on the accepted international procedures (technology and terminology) that are published by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Because rapidly advancing technology and the large amount of work being done in this field will very quickly make this book obsolete, an effort will be made to revise it in the future. Emphasis is made on the need to maintain requirements at limits that are restrictive. The purpose is to avoid abnormally high fabrication costs and to allow the Agency to select commercially manufactured instruments that best meet severe environmental conditions because of sound engineering design and use of first-quality materials and components. The section called 'Climatic conditions' has two purposes. The first is to tell manufacturers of the severity of conditions. The second is to describe conditions in particular locations. So that the manufacturer will be even more precisely informed of exact climatic conditions in which his products must perform, he will be provided with information from a questionnaire sent by the Agency to each

  19. Instrumentation and control aging management: A focus on electronic parts and boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocombette, C.; Simon, G.; Favaro, P.; Naser, J.; Guffroy, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear power industry is currently facing increasing aging and obsolescence issues with original equipment installed for instrumentation, control, and safety system applications. One area that needs attention is the aging of electronic boards and components used in instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). In this context, EPRI has launched a project dedicated to NPP electronic component and board aging management. The goals of this project are: 1) to better understand the degradation mechanisms of I and C electronic systems; 2) to develop new methods to monitor prevalent mechanisms and forecast generic aging cases; and 3) to give guidelines for the aging management of I and C electronic systems. The ultimate objectives are: 1) to reduce the likelihood of losing plant availability due to a board or component failure; and 2) to reduce the global cost of maintenance by optimizing preventive maintenance tasks and the schedule for refurbishment or renewal. Degradation mechanisms of electronic boards in NPP - Aging mechanisms of electronic parts depend on technologies, manufacturing quality, and conditions of environment and operation. Aging of electronic parts is well documented in harsh environments (e.g., aerospace, military, or automotive industries data). However, only a small amount of data on electronic part failures in NPPs is available because the conditions are benign and the failure rates are supposed to be low. It is thus difficult to identify what will predominantly cause the aging of electronic systems after 20 or 30 years of operation. Usual causes are temperature, corrosion, temperature cycles, or extrinsic aggressions (Electrical Over Stress (EOS), Electro Static Discharges (ESD)). From field data and bibliographic analyses, we found that electrolytic capacitors, relays, potentiometers, power devices (thyristors, power transistors, etc.), optocouplers, on-board connectors, printed boards, integrated

  20. R and D in control, instrumentation, and electronic systems at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeck, E.O.; Stirling, A.J.; Yan, G.

    1980-10-01

    Research and development in control, instrumentation, and electronics is part of the refinement of the CANDU power plant design and of the R and D work at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The programs presently being carried out in these areas are described in this report. Many of these projects originated in response to a potential for performance improvements in CANDU power plants and are aimed at extending plant capabilities and applying new technology and ideas to achieve better and less expensive systems. Some of these projects such as the development of in-reactor pressure transducers for fuel testing are to be completed in a matter of months. Others, for example heavy water vapor loss instruments, will have gone through the laboratory development phase within a year or two. More sophisicated developments such as multivariable controllers, computer-based safety systems, and advanced neutron detectors will continue over 4 or 5 years. This time scale also applies to the design and implementation of new control and safety systems for the NRU research reactor. Still others will require more than 5 years to be fully operational. New systems for the detection and location of failed fuel and a total information network with distributed intelligence, to be applied to future power stations, fall into that category. (auth)

  1. A comparison of root surface instrumentation using manual, ultrasonic and rotary instruments: An in vitro study using scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Marda

    2012-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: The RCI and LTSI showed nonsignificant differences between the three groups. RLTSI showed a significant difference between Slimline™ and hand curette as well as Slimline™ and Desmo-Clean™. Slimline™ showed the least mean scores for RCI, LTSI, and RLTSI. Thus, even though the difference was not statistically significant, Slimline™ insert was shown to be better than the other methods as assessed by the indices scores and the instrumentation time.

  2. Optimization of an analytical electron microscope for x-ray microanalysis: instrumental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, J.; Zaluzec, N.J.; Kenik, E.A.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The addition of an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer to a modern transmission or scanning transmission electron microscope can provide a powerful tool in the characterization of the materials. Unfortunately this seemingly simple modification can lead to a host of instrumental problems with respect to the accuracy, validity, and quality of the recorded information. This tutorial reviews the complications which can arise in performing x-ray microanalysis in current analytical electron microscopes. The first topic treated in depth is fluorescence by uncollimated radiation. The source, distinguishing characteristics, effects on quantitative analysis and schemes for elimination or minimization as applicable to TEM/STEMs, D-STEMs and HVEMs are discussed. The local specimen environment is considered in the second major section where again detrimental effects on quantitative analysis and remedial procedures, particularly the use of low-background specimen holers, are highlighted. Finally, the detrimental aspects of specimen contamination, insofar as they affect x-ray microanalysis, are discussed. It is concluded that if the described preventive measures are implemented, reliable quantitative analysis is possible

  3. Design of the 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging instrument for the J-TEXT tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X M; Yang, Z J; Ma, X D; Zhu, Y L; Luhmann, N C; Domier, C W; Ruan, B W; Zhuang, G

    2016-11-01

    A new 2D Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostic is being developed for the J-TEXT tokamak. It will provide the 2D electron temperature information with high spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution. The new ECEI instrument is being designed to support fundamental physics investigations on J-TEXT including MHD, disruption prediction, and energy transport. The diagnostic contains two dual dipole antenna arrays corresponding to F band (90-140 GHz) and W band (75-110 GHz), respectively, and comprises a total of 256 channels. The system can observe the same magnetic surface at both the high field side and low field side simultaneously. An advanced optical system has been designed which permits the two arrays to focus on a wide continuous region or two radially separate regions with high imaging spatial resolution. It also incorporates excellent field curvature correction with field curvature adjustment lenses. An overview of the diagnostic and the technical progress including the new remote control technique are presented.

  4. Design of the 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging instrument for the J-TEXT tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, X. M.; Yang, Z. J., E-mail: yangzj@hust.edu.cn; Ma, X. D.; Ruan, B. W.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zhu, Y. L. [School of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Luhmann, N. C.; Domier, C. W. [Davis Millimeter Wave Research Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A new 2D Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostic is being developed for the J-TEXT tokamak. It will provide the 2D electron temperature information with high spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution. The new ECEI instrument is being designed to support fundamental physics investigations on J-TEXT including MHD, disruption prediction, and energy transport. The diagnostic contains two dual dipole antenna arrays corresponding to F band (90-140 GHz) and W band (75-110 GHz), respectively, and comprises a total of 256 channels. The system can observe the same magnetic surface at both the high field side and low field side simultaneously. An advanced optical system has been designed which permits the two arrays to focus on a wide continuous region or two radially separate regions with high imaging spatial resolution. It also incorporates excellent field curvature correction with field curvature adjustment lenses. An overview of the diagnostic and the technical progress including the new remote control technique are presented.

  5. The Hugh Davies Collection: live electronic music and self-built electro-acoustic musical instruments, 1967–1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr James Mooney

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hugh Davies Collection (HDC at the Science Museum in London comprises 42 items of electronic sound apparatus owned by English experimental musician Hugh Davies (1943–2005, including self-built electro-acoustic musical instruments and modified sound production and manipulation hardware. An early proponent of ‘live electronic music’ (performed live on stage rather than constructed on magnetic tape in a studio, Davies’s DIY approach shaped the development of experimental and improvised musics from the late 1960s onwards. However, his practice has not been widely reported in the literature, hence little information is readily available about the material artefacts that constituted and enabled it. This article provides the first account of the development of Davies’s practice in relation to the objects in the HDC: from the modified electronic sound apparatus used in his early live electronic compositions (among the first of their kind by a British composer; through the ‘instrumental turn’ represented by his first self-built instrument, Shozyg I (1968; to his mature practice, where self-built instruments like Springboard Mk. XI (1974 replaced electronic transformation as the primary means by which Davies explored new and novel sound-worlds. As well as advancing knowledge of Davies’s pioneering work in live electronics and instrument-building and enhancing understanding of the objects in the HDC, this article shows how object biographic and archival methodologies can be combined to provide insight into the ways in which objects (instruments, technologies and practices shape each other over time.

  6. Three common faults in current practice that influence the validity of data obtained from electronic air pollution instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, G; Thomas, R S; Monkman, J L

    1975-01-01

    Instrumental development is now entering a more logical era, where the former artistic character of electronics is being replaced by cold technology. Because of this, one should be expect more reliability; however, there still exist many weak links in practical application. Digital readout systems and computer processing induce a false sense of security. In reality, it is the sample-measurement relationship that determines an instrument's credibility and not the number of digits on its meter. In describing three faulty practices that greatly influence an instrument's performance, it is hoped that measurement may be more closely related to the sample!

  7. Three common faults in current practice that influence the validity of data obtained from electronic air pollution instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, G; Thomas, R S; Monkman, J L

    1975-01-01

    Instrumental development is now entering a more logical era, where the former artistic character of electronics is being replaced by cold technology. Because of this, one should expect more reliability; however, there still exist many weak links in practical application. Digital readout systems and computer processing induce a false sense of security. In reality, it is the sample-measurement relationship that determines an instrument's credibility and not the number of digits on its meter. In describing three faulty practices that greatly influence an instrument's performance, it is hoped that measurement may be more closely related to the sample.

  8. Development and implementation of an electronic interface for complex clinical laboratory instruments without a vendor-provided data transfer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Blank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical pathology laboratories increasingly use complex instruments that incorporate chromatographic separation, e.g. liquid chromatography, with mass detection for rapid identification and quantification of biochemicals, biomolecules, or pharmaceuticals. Electronic data management for these instruments through interfaces with laboratory information systems (LIS is not generally available from the instrument manufacturers or LIS vendors. Unavailability of a data management interface is a limiting factor in the use of these instruments in clinical laboratories where there is a demand for high-throughput assays with turn-around times that meet patient care needs. Materials and Methods: Professional society guidelines for design and transfer of data between instruments and LIS were used in the development and implementation of the interface. File transfer protocols and support utilities were written to facilitate transfer of information between the instruments and the LIS. An interface was created for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy instruments to manage data in the Sunquest® LIS. Results: Interface validation, implementation and data transfer fidelity as well as training of technologists for use of the interface was performed by the LIS group. The technologists were familiarized with the data verification process as a part of the data management protocol. The total time for the technologists for patient/control sample data entry, assay results data transfer, and results verification was reduced from approximately 20 s per sample to <1 s per sample. Sample identification, results data entry errors, and omissions were eliminated. There was electronic record of the technologist performing the assay runs and data management. Conclusions: Development of a data management interface for complex, chromatography instruments in clinical laboratories has resulted in rapid, accurate

  9. Standards for Instrument Migration When Implementing Paper Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments Electronically: Recommendations from a Qualitative Synthesis of Cognitive Interview and Usability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlhausen, Willie; Byrom, Bill; Skerritt, Barbara; McCarthy, Marie; McDowell, Bryan; Sohn, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    To synthesize the findings of cognitive interview and usability studies performed to assess the measurement equivalence of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments migrated from paper to electronic formats (ePRO), and make recommendations regarding future migration validation requirements and ePRO design best practice. We synthesized findings from all cognitive interview and usability studies performed by a contract research organization between 2012 and 2015: 53 studies comprising 68 unique instruments and 101 instrument evaluations. We summarized study findings to make recommendations for best practice and future validation requirements. Five studies (9%) identified minor findings during cognitive interview that may possibly affect instrument measurement properties. All findings could be addressed by application of ePRO best practice, such as eliminating scrolling, ensuring appropriate font size, ensuring suitable thickness of visual analogue scale lines, and providing suitable instructions. Similarly, regarding solution usability, 49 of the 53 studies (92%) recommended no changes in display clarity, navigation, operation, and completion without help. Reported usability findings could be eliminated by following good product design such as the size, location, and responsiveness of navigation buttons. With the benefit of accumulating evidence, it is possible to relax the need to routinely conduct cognitive interview and usability studies when implementing minor changes during instrument migration. Application of design best practice and selecting vendor solutions with good user interface and user experience properties that have been assessed in a representative group may enable many instrument migrations to be accepted without formal validation studies by instead conducting a structured expert screen review. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglzim, El-Hassane; Rouane, Amar; El-Moznine, Reddad

    2007-10-17

    In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentationdeveloped in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell orbattery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. Thisinstrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electroniccards. Software under Hpvee ® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout ofthe impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, like the ambienttemperature, the fuel cell temperature, the level of the hydrogen, etc..., were taken withseveral sensors that enable us to control the measurement. To filter the noise and theinfluence of the 50Hz, we have implemented a synchronous detection which filters in a verynarrow way around the useful signal. The theoretical result obtained by a simulation underPspice ® of the method used consolidates the choice of this method and the possibility ofobtaining correct and exploitable results. The experimental results are preliminary results ona 12V vehicle battery, having an inrush current of 330A and a capacity of 40Ah (impedancemeasurements on a fuel cell are in progress, and will be the subject of a forthcoming paper).The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7V, 10V, 8V and 5V)and with two imposed currents (0.6A and 4A). The Nyquist diagram resulting from theexperimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internalimpedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the valuesobtained (both theoretical and practical) enables us to validate our electronic measurementinstrumentation. One of the future uses for this instrumentation is to integrate it with several control sensors, on a vehicle as an embedded system to monitor the degradation of fuel cell membranes.

  11. An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddad El-Moznine

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentationdeveloped in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell orbattery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. Thisinstrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electroniccards. Software under Hpvee® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout ofthe impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, like the ambienttemperature, the fuel cell temperature, the level of the hydrogen, etc..., were taken withseveral sensors that enable us to control the measurement. To filter the noise and theinfluence of the 50Hz, we have implemented a synchronous detection which filters in a verynarrow way around the useful signal. The theoretical result obtained by a simulation underPspice® of the method used consolidates the choice of this method and the possibility ofobtaining correct and exploitable results. The experimental results are preliminary results ona 12V vehicle battery, having an inrush current of 330A and a capacity of 40Ah (impedancemeasurements on a fuel cell are in progress, and will be the subject of a forthcoming paper.The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7V, 10V, 8V and 5Vand with two imposed currents (0.6A and 4A. The Nyquist diagram resulting from theexperimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internalimpedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the valuesobtained (both theoretical and practical enables us to validate our electronic measurementinstrumentation. One of the future uses for this instrumentation is to integrate it with several control sensors, on a vehicle as an embedded system to monitor the degradation of fuel cell membranes.

  12. A flameless catalytic combustion-based thermoelectric generator for powering electronic instruments on gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Heng; Qiu, Kuanrong; Gou, Xiaolong; Ou, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► MPPT is used to improve the feature that TEG output is sensitive to load variation. ► The improved feature makes TEG suitable to power electronic device on gas pipeline. ► Test shows heat transfer uniformity plays an important role in improving TEG output. ► It can get an optimized TEG by uniformly filling a thermal insulation material. - Abstract: This paper presents a flameless catalytic combustion-based thermoelectric power generator that uses commercial thermoelectric modules. The structure of the thermoelectric generator (TEG) is introduced and the power performance is measured based on a designed circuit system. The open circuit voltage of the TEG is about 7.3 V. The maximum power output can reach up to 6.5 W when the load resistance matches the TEG internal resistance. However, the system output is sensitive to load variation. To improve this characteristic, maximum power point tracking technique is used and results in an open circuit voltage of 13.8 V. The improved characteristic makes the TEG system a good charger to keep the lead acid battery fully charged so as to meet the needs of electronic instruments on gas pipelines. In addition, the combustion features have been investigated based on the temperature measurement. Test results show that the uniformity of combustion heat transfer process and the combustion chamber structure play important roles in improving system power output. It can get an optimized TEG system (maximum power output: 8.3 W) by uniformly filling a thermal insulation material (asbestos) to avoid a non-uniform combustion heat transfer process

  13. A scanning electron microscopic study of smear layer remaining following use of Greater Taper rotary instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soumya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the smear layer in the root canal following the use of Ni-Ti hand ProTaper, HERO shaper and Twisted rotary instruments. Fifteen freshly extracted single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were selected. Crowns of all teeth were cut off at the cemento-enamel junction with a carborundum disc. The roots were then randomly divided into three groups of 5 samples each. The working length of all teeth was established by the insertion of an endodontic instrument into the canal until its tip is visible at the apical foramen and then subtracted by 0.5 mm. A sequential crown down technique was carried out in all the three groups as follows: Group-I- Specimens in this group were instrumented with ProTaper Ni-Ti hand instruments. Group-II- Specimens were instrumented with HERO shapers. Group-III - The specimens in this group were instrumented with Twisted rotary instruments. Irrigation was done with 3% NaOCl and 15% EDTA in all the three groups. Teeth were carefully split with hammer and chisel and stored in small labeled bottles containing normal saline until SEM evaluation. Results showed that when comparing ProTaper files, Twisted rotary instruments and HERO shaper instruments, HERO shaper series of rotary instruments showed maximum amount of smear layer followed by the Twisted rotary instruments. Hand instruments produced least amount of smear layer.

  14. Flux-gate magnetometer spin axis offset calibration using the electron drift instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaschke, Ferdinand; Nakamura, Rumi; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Steller, Manfred; Magnes, Werner; Leinweber, Hannes K; Chutter, Mark; Vaith, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Spin-stabilization of spacecraft immensely supports the in-flight calibration of on-board flux-gate magnetometers (FGMs). From 12 calibration parameters in total, 8 can be easily obtained by spectral analysis. From the remaining 4, the spin axis offset is known to be particularly variable. It is usually determined by analysis of Alfvénic fluctuations that are embedded in the solar wind. In the absence of solar wind observations, the spin axis offset may be obtained by comparison of FGM and electron drift instrument (EDI) measurements. The aim of our study is to develop methods that are readily usable for routine FGM spin axis offset calibration with EDI. This paper represents a major step forward in this direction. We improve an existing method to determine FGM spin axis offsets from EDI time-of-flight measurements by providing it with a comprehensive error analysis. In addition, we introduce a new, complementary method that uses EDI beam direction data instead of time-of-flight data. Using Cluster data, we show that both methods yield similarly accurate results, which are comparable yet more stable than those from a commonly used solar wind-based method. (paper)

  15. 6. Seminar of the IIE-ININ-IMP on technological specialties. Topic 9: electronics, instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The document includes 10 papers presented at the 6. Seminar of the IIE-ININ-IMP on technological specialities in the field of electronics, instrumentation and control. (Topic 9). From these, 4 papers were in INIS subject scope and a separate abstract was prepared for each of them

  16. Analysis of the Failures and Corrective Actions for the LHC Cryogenics Radiation Tolerant Electronics and its Field Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Balle, Ch; Vauthier, N

    2014-01-01

    The LHC cryogenic system radiation tolerant electronics and their associated field instruments have been in nominal conditions since before the commissioning of the first LHC beams in September 2008. This system is made of about 15’000 field instruments (thermometers, pressure sensors, liquid helium level gauges, electrical heaters and position switches), 7’500 electronic cards and 853 electronic crates. Since mid-2008 a software tool has been deployed, this allows an operator to report a problem and then lists the corrective actions. The tool is a great help in detecting recurrent problems that may be tackled by a hardware or software consolidation. The corrective actions range from simple resets, exchange of defective equipment, repair of electrical connectors, etc. However a recurrent problem that heals by itself is present on some channels. This type of fault is extremely difficult to diagnose and it appears as a temporary opening of an electrical circuit; its duration can range from a few minutes to ...

  17. Injection Methods and Instrumentation for Serial X-ray Free Electron Laser Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel

    Scientists have used X-rays to study biological molecules for nearly a century. Now with the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL), new methods have been developed to advance structural biology. These new methods include serial femtosecond crystallography, single particle imaging, solution scattering, and time resolved techniques. The XFEL is characterized by high intensity pulses, which are only about 50 femtoseconds in duration. The intensity allows for scattering from microscopic particles, while the short pulses offer a way to outrun radiation damage. XFELs are powerful enough to obliterate most samples in a single pulse. While this allows for a "diffract and destroy" methodology, it also requires instrumentation that can position microscopic particles into the X-ray beam (which may also be microscopic), continuously renew the sample after each pulse, and maintain sample viability during data collection. Typically these experiments have used liquid microjets to continuously renew sample. The high flow rate associated with liquid microjets requires large amounts of sample, most of which runs to waste between pulses. An injector designed to stream a viscous gel-like material called lipidic cubic phase (LCP) was developed to address this problem. LCP, commonly used as a growth medium for membrane protein crystals, lends itself to low flow rate jetting and so reduces the amount of sample wasted significantly. This work discusses sample delivery and injection for XFEL experiments. It reviews the liquid microjet method extensively, and presents the LCP injector as a novel device for serial crystallography, including detailed protocols for the LCP injector and anti-settler operation.

  18. Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anchi; Ye, Xiong; Ionascu, Dan; Cao, Wenxiang; Champion, Paul M.

    2005-11-01

    An electronically delayed two-color pump-probe instrument was developed using two synchronized laser systems. The instrument has picosecond time resolution and can perform scans over hundreds of nanoseconds without the beam divergence and walk-off effects that occur using standard spatial delay systems. A unique picosecond Ti :sapphire regenerative amplifier was also constructed without the need for pulse stretching and compressing optics. The picosecond regenerative amplifier has a broad wavelength tuning range, which suggests that it will make a significant contribution to two-color pump-probe experiments. To test this instrument we studied the rotational correlation relaxation of myoglobin (τr=8.2±0.5ns) in water as well as the geminate rebinding kinetics of oxygen to myoglobin (kg1=1.7×1011s-1, kg2=3.4×107s-1). The results are consistent with, and improve upon, previous studies.

  19. Electronic constant current and current pulse signal generator for nuclear instrumentation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Circuitry is described for testing the ability of an intermediate range nuclear instrument to detect and measure a constant current and a periodic current pulse. The invention simulates the resistance and capacitance of the signal connection of a nuclear instrument ion chamber detector and interconnecting cable. An LED flasher/oscillator illuminates an LED at a periodic rate established by a timing capacitor and circuitry internal to the flasher/oscillator. When the LED is on, a periodic current pulse is applied to the instrument. When the LED is off, a constant current is applied. An inductor opposes battery current flow when the LED is on. 1 figures

  20. Mechanical, electronic and instrumentation development for tracer tests at El Berrocal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, M.G.; Benitez, A.H.; Yllera de Llano, A.; Romero, P.R.; Aleixandre, J.; Bueno, J.; Gonzalez, O.; Tamarit, J.; Guimera, J.

    1997-01-01

    The international El Berrocal Project was an integrated exercise in geological, geochemical and hydrogeological characterization with the aim of understanding and modelling the past and present-day migration processes that control the behaviour and distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides in a fractured granitic environment. Information is presented concerning the design and manufacture of the instrumentation used for the large scale tracer tests performed at El Berrocal, and the instrumentation and data acquisition development is specified. (author)

  1. Public Policy Instruments and Their Impact: From Analogue to Electronic Government in the Bus Services of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lopes Campos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the relations between public policy instruments and production practices of objects related to government action. It demonstrates that the materiality of the instruments built to make a public policy object legible to its operators has independent effects on the relations among private operators, bureaucrats, and the public sector. Based on the bus service provision policies in the city of São Paulo between the 1980s and the 2000s, it shows that transportation policies are structured around the dilemmas and conflicts associated with the production of reports and databases. This article suggests that everyday practices and instruments, especially those associated with the documentation of operational performance, are key dimensions to understand the limits and potential of both state capacities and the regulation of companies’ profits. Because of its materiality, documentation practices and document pathways, operate as devices and artifacts which structure opacities, asymmetries of information, and power struggles between the state bureaucrats and private companies in the construction of service legibility. This article concludes that the transition from the governance through analogue instruments to the governance through electronic instruments is characterized by more transparency and greater regulatory potential over the private sector.

  2. Survey of the state-of-the-art in aging of electronics with application to nuclear-power-plant instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.T. Jr.; Thome, F.V.; Craft, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to present results of a study to evaluate the state-of-the-art and outline needed research on aging of electronics in nuclear power plants. The emphasis is on aging of electronics (e.g., semiconductors, capacitors, resistors) used in safety-related Class 1E instrumentation, particularly those used in harsh environments. Some attention is also given to encapsulants, printed circuit boards and bonds (e.g., solder joints) since they are integral parts of circuits. Four major tasks were addressed in this study and are the subject of this report. These include (1) selecting candidate electronic components for study and review; (2) defining the aging environment and initiating an effort to determine the state-of-the-art in aging degradation; (3) recommending follow-on investigations and research; and (4) outlining the first steps in defining a program on accelerated aging

  3. Use of electronic computers for processing of spectrometric data in instrument neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyropaev, V.Ya.; Zlokazov, V.B.; Kul'kina, L.I.; Maslov, O.D.; Fefilov, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program is described for processing gamma spectra in the instrumental activation analysis of multicomponent objects. Structural diagrams of various variants of connection with the computer are presented. The possibility of using a mini-computer as an analyser and for preliminary processing of gamma spectra is considered

  4. In-situ measurements of the secondary electron yield in an accelerator environment: Instrumentation and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, W.H.; Asner, D.M.; Conway, J.V.; Dennett, C.A.; Greenwald, S.; Kim, J.-S.; Li, Y.; Moore, T.P.; Omanovic, V.; Palmer, M.A.; Strohman, C.R.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a particle accelerator can be limited by the build-up of an electron cloud (EC) in the vacuum chamber. Secondary electron emission from the chamber walls can contribute to EC growth. An apparatus for in-situ measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) was developed in connection with EC studies for the CESR Test Accelerator program. The CESR in-situ system, in operation since 2010, allows for SEY measurements as a function of incident electron energy and angle on samples that are exposed to the accelerator environment, typically 5.3 GeV counter-rotating beams of electrons and positrons. The system was designed for periodic measurements to observe beam conditioning of the SEY with discrimination between exposure to direct photons from synchrotron radiation versus scattered photons and cloud electrons. The samples can be exchanged without venting the CESR vacuum chamber. Measurements have been done on metal surfaces and EC-mitigation coatings. The in-situ SEY apparatus and improvements to the measurement tools and techniques are described

  5. In-situ measurements of the secondary electron yield in an accelerator environment: Instrumentation and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, W.H., E-mail: wh29@cornell.edu; Asner, D.M.; Conway, J.V.; Dennett, C.A.; Greenwald, S.; Kim, J.-S.; Li, Y.; Moore, T.P.; Omanovic, V.; Palmer, M.A.; Strohman, C.R.

    2015-05-21

    The performance of a particle accelerator can be limited by the build-up of an electron cloud (EC) in the vacuum chamber. Secondary electron emission from the chamber walls can contribute to EC growth. An apparatus for in-situ measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) was developed in connection with EC studies for the CESR Test Accelerator program. The CESR in-situ system, in operation since 2010, allows for SEY measurements as a function of incident electron energy and angle on samples that are exposed to the accelerator environment, typically 5.3 GeV counter-rotating beams of electrons and positrons. The system was designed for periodic measurements to observe beam conditioning of the SEY with discrimination between exposure to direct photons from synchrotron radiation versus scattered photons and cloud electrons. The samples can be exchanged without venting the CESR vacuum chamber. Measurements have been done on metal surfaces and EC-mitigation coatings. The in-situ SEY apparatus and improvements to the measurement tools and techniques are described.

  6. Analysis of the failures and corrective actions for the LHC cryogenics radiation tolerant electronics and its field instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balle, Christoph; Casas, Juan; Vauthier, Nicolas [CERN, TE Department, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-01-29

    The LHC cryogenic system radiation tolerant electronics and their associated field instruments have been in nominal conditions since before the commissioning of the first LHC beams in September 2008. This system is made of about 15’000 field instruments (thermometers, pressure sensors, liquid helium level gauges, electrical heaters and position switches), 7’500 electronic cards and 853 electronic crates. Since mid-2008 a software tool has been deployed, this allows an operator to report a problem and then lists the corrective actions. The tool is a great help in detecting recurrent problems that may be tackled by a hardware or software consolidation. The corrective actions range from simple resets, exchange of defective equipment, repair of electrical connectors, etc. However a recurrent problem that heals by itself is present on some channels. This type of fault is extremely difficult to diagnose and it appears as a temporary opening of an electrical circuit; its duration can range from a few minutes to several months. This paper presents the main type of problems encountered during the last four years, their evolution over time, the various hardware or software consolidations that have resulted and whether they have had an impact in the availability of the LHC beam.

  7. A versatile and modular quasi optics-based 200 GHz dual dynamic nuclear polarization and electron paramagnetic resonance instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Ting Ann; Leavesley, Alisa; Lund, Alicia; Kaminker, Ilia; Han, Songi

    2016-03-01

    Solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at higher magnetic fields (>3 T) and cryogenic temperatures (∼2-90 K) has gained enormous interest and seen major technological advances as an NMR signal enhancing technique. Still, the current state of the art DNP operation is not at a state at which sample and freezing conditions can be rationally chosen and the DNP performance predicted a priori, but relies on purely empirical approaches. An important step towards rational optimization of DNP conditions is to have access to DNP instrumental capabilities to diagnose DNP performance and elucidate DNP mechanisms. The desired diagnoses include the measurement of the "DNP power curve", i.e. the microwave (MW) power dependence of DNP enhancement, the "DNP spectrum", i.e. the MW frequency dependence of DNP enhancement, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, and the saturation and spectral diffusion properties of the EPR spectrum upon prolonged MW irradiation typical of continuous wave (CW) DNP, as well as various electron and nuclear spin relaxation parameters. Even basic measurements of these DNP parameters require versatile instrumentation at high magnetic fields not commercially available to date. In this article, we describe the detailed design of such a DNP instrument, powered by a solid-state MW source that is tunable between 193 and 201 GHz and outputs up to 140 mW of MW power. The quality and pathway of the transmitted and reflected MWs is controlled by a quasi-optics (QO) bridge and a corrugated waveguide, where the latter couples the MW from an open-space QO bridge to the sample located inside the superconducting magnet and vice versa. Crucially, the versatility of the solid-state MW source enables the automated acquisition of frequency swept DNP spectra, DNP power curves, the diagnosis of MW power and transmission, and frequency swept continuous wave (CW) and pulsed EPR experiments. The flexibility of the DNP instrument centered around the QO MW

  8. A versatile and modular quasi optics-based 200GHz dual dynamic nuclear polarization and electron paramagnetic resonance instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Ting Ann; Leavesley, Alisa; Lund, Alicia; Kaminker, Ilia; Han, Songi

    2016-03-01

    Solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at higher magnetic fields (>3T) and cryogenic temperatures (∼ 2-90K) has gained enormous interest and seen major technological advances as an NMR signal enhancing technique. Still, the current state of the art DNP operation is not at a state at which sample and freezing conditions can be rationally chosen and the DNP performance predicted a priori, but relies on purely empirical approaches. An important step towards rational optimization of DNP conditions is to have access to DNP instrumental capabilities to diagnose DNP performance and elucidate DNP mechanisms. The desired diagnoses include the measurement of the "DNP power curve", i.e. the microwave (MW) power dependence of DNP enhancement, the "DNP spectrum", i.e. the MW frequency dependence of DNP enhancement, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, and the saturation and spectral diffusion properties of the EPR spectrum upon prolonged MW irradiation typical of continuous wave (CW) DNP, as well as various electron and nuclear spin relaxation parameters. Even basic measurements of these DNP parameters require versatile instrumentation at high magnetic fields not commercially available to date. In this article, we describe the detailed design of such a DNP instrument, powered by a solid-state MW source that is tunable between 193 and 201 GHz and outputs up to 140 mW of MW power. The quality and pathway of the transmitted and reflected MWs is controlled by a quasi-optics (QO) bridge and a corrugated waveguide, where the latter couples the MW from an open-space QO bridge to the sample located inside the superconducting magnet and vice versa. Crucially, the versatility of the solid-state MW source enables the automated acquisition of frequency swept DNP spectra, DNP power curves, the diagnosis of MW power and transmission, and frequency swept continuous wave (CW) and pulsed EPR experiments. The flexibility of the DNP instrument centered around the QO MW

  9. Automation and instrument control applied to an experimental study of electron transport dynamics in an avalanche mode resistive plater chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work it is presented a computer based instrumentation system which was developed to perform data acquisition and integrate the control of different devices in an experimental study of electron transport dynamics in an avalanche mode resistive plate chamber detector in the Radiation Technology Center (CTR) at IPEN/CNEN-SP. System control and data acquisition was performed by a computer program called RPCLabOperator written in MatLab environment running on a LeCroy WavePro 7000 digital oscilloscope. (author)

  10. Nuclear electronic equipment for control and monitoring panel. Procedure guide for on-site tests of nuclear reactor instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    By the use of a procedure for on-site testing of nuclear reactor instruments it should be possible to judge their ability to guarantee the reactor safety and availability at the moment of divergence or during operation. Such a procedure must therefore be created as a work implement for the quick and reliable installation of electronic devices necessary for nuclear reactor control and supervision. A standard document is proposed for this purpose, allowing a ''test programme'' to be set up before the equipment is installed on the site [fr

  11. Jovian electrons as an instrument of investigation of the interplanetary medium structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daibog, E; Lazutin, L; Logachev, Yu; Kecskemety, K

    2016-01-01

    Electrons accelerated in the Jupiter magnetosphere are usually registered by near-earth spacecraft under optimal magnetic connection between the Earth and Jupiter, taking place once in 13 months (Earth- Jupiter synodic period). During the period of minimal solar activity between 23 and 24 cycles in 2007-2009 electrons of MeV energies were observed practically at each of 14 solar rotations (more than a year), which requires extremely long quasistationary state of inner heliosphere with constant Earth- Jupiter connection. To explain this situation the model with long living magnetic trap, co-rotating with the Sun, was suggested. Passing by the Jupiter this trap captures electrons, which then are registered by subsequent passing of the trap by the Earth. (paper)

  12. [Support of the nursing process through electronic nursing documentation systems (UEPD) – Initial validation of an instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hediger, Hannele; Müller-Staub, Maria; Petry, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Electronic nursing documentation systems, with standardized nursing terminology, are IT-based systems for recording the nursing processes. These systems have the potential to improve the documentation of the nursing process and to support nurses in care delivery. This article describes the development and initial validation of an instrument (known by its German acronym UEPD) to measure the subjectively-perceived benefits of an electronic nursing documentation system in care delivery. The validity of the UEPD was examined by means of an evaluation study carried out in an acute care hospital (n = 94 nurses) in German-speaking Switzerland. Construct validity was analyzed by principal components analysis. Initial references of validity of the UEPD could be verified. The analysis showed a stable four factor model (FS = 0.89) scoring in 25 items. All factors loaded ≥ 0.50 and the scales demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.73 – 0.90). Principal component analysis revealed four dimensions of support: establishing nursing diagnosis and goals; recording a case history/an assessment and documenting the nursing process; implementation and evaluation as well as information exchange. Further testing with larger control samples and with different electronic documentation systems are needed. Another potential direction would be to employ the UEPD in a comparison of various electronic documentation systems.

  13. Interinstrument calibration using magnetic field data from the flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) and electron drift instrument (EDI) onboard Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Teubenbacher, R.; Giner, L.; Baumjohann, W.; Magnes, W.; Steller, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Chutter, M.; Fornaçon, K.-H.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Carr, C.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the magnetic field data obtained from the flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) and the magnetic field data deduced from the gyration time of electrons measured by the electron drift instrument (EDI) onboard Cluster to determine the spin-axis offset of the FGM measurements. Data are used from orbits with their apogees in the magnetotail, when the magnetic field magnitude was between about 20 and 500 nT. Offset determination with the EDI-FGM comparison method is of particular interest for these orbits, because no data from solar wind are available in such orbits to apply the usual calibration methods using the Alfvén waves. In this paper, we examine the effects of the different measurement conditions, such as direction of the magnetic field relative to the spin plane and field magnitude in determining the FGM spin-axis offset, and also take into account the time-of-flight offset of the EDI measurements. It is shown that the method works best when the magnetic field magnitude is less than about 128 nT and when the magnetic field is aligned near the spin-axis direction. A remaining spin-axis offset of about 0.4 ∼ 0.6 nT was observed for Cluster 1 between July and October 2003. Using multipoint multi-instrument measurements by Cluster we further demonstrate the importance of the accurate determination of the spin-axis offset when estimating the magnetic field gradient.

  14. Evaluation of software and electronics technologies for the control of the E-ELT instruments: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Chiozzi, G.; Kiekebusch, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of the evaluation of architecture and technologies for the control system of the E-ELT (European-Extremely Large Telescope) instruments, a collaboration has been set up between the Instrumentation and Control Group of the INAF-OATs and the ESO Directorate of Engineering. The first result of this collaboration is the design and implementation of a prototype of a small but representative control system for a kind of multi-object (optical) spectrograph. The electronics has been based on PLCs (Programmable Logical Controller) and Ethernet based field-buses from different vendors but using international standards like the IEC 61131-3 and PLCopen Motion Control. The baseline design for the control software follows the architecture of the VLT (Very Large Telescope) Instrumentation application framework but it has been implemented using the ACS (ALMA Common Software), an open source software framework developed for the ALMA project and based on CORBA middle-ware. The communication among the software components is based on two models: CORBA calls for command/reply using the client/server paradigm and CORBA notification channel for distributing the devices status using the publisher/subscriber paradigm. The communication with the PLCs is based on OPC UA, an international standard for the communication with industrial controllers. The results of this work will contribute to the definition of the architecture of the control system that will be provided to all consortia responsible for the actual implementation of the E-ELT instruments. This paper presents the prototype motivation, its architecture, design and implementation. (authors)

  15. Interfacing LabVIEW With Instrumentation for Electronic Failure Analysis and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Randy K.; Bryan, Coleman; Ludwig, Larry

    1996-01-01

    The Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workstation (LabVIEW) software is designed such that equipment and processes related to control systems can be operationally lined and controlled by the use of a computer. Various processes within the failure analysis laboratories of NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) demonstrate the need for modernization and, in some cases, automation, using LabVIEW. An examination of procedures and practices with the Failure Analaysis Laboratory resulted in the conclusion that some device was necessary to elevate the potential users of LabVIEW to an operational level in minimum time. This paper outlines the process involved in creating a tutorial application to enable personnel to apply LabVIEW to their specific projects. Suggestions for furthering the extent to which LabVIEW is used are provided in the areas of data acquisition and process control.

  16. Evaluation of Giga-bit Ethernet instrumentation for SalSA electronics readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, Gary S.; Murakami, Laine; Ridley, David; Zhu Chaopin; Gorham, Peter

    2005-01-01

    An instrumentation prototype for acquiring high-speed transient data from an array of high bandwidth antennas is presented. Multi-kilometer cable runs complicate acquisition of such large bandwidth radio signals from an extensive antenna array. Solutions using analog fiber optic links are being explored though are very expensive. We propose an inexpensive solution that allows for individual operation of each antenna element, operating at potentially high local self-trigger rates. Digitized data packets are transmitted to the surface via commercially available Giga-bit Ethernet hardware. Events are then reconstructed on a computer farm by sorting the received packets using standard networking gear, eliminating the need for custom, very high speed trigger hardware. Such a system is completely scalable and leverages the enormous capital investment made by the telecommunications industry. Test results from a demonstration prototype are presented

  17. 106th meeting of the working group electronic instrumentation in Spring 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettlicher, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The following topics were dealt with: A survey of DESY, actual in DESY, the electronics sevice center of DESY, flip-chip technology at DES, CE certifications for electronic devices centrally performed by DESY ZE, a VHDL-based gigabit ethernet protocol pile for FPGAs, a digital camera trigger for the Cherenkov-telescope array, the trigger system in the Hess1 Upgrade camera, data connection between ships and zeppelin for the ascertainment of flow vortices, IP-based measurement devices on the base of FPGA, MTCA.4 RTM module based on the DRS-4 capacitor array, basic design rules, integrated phase-locked loop design, machine protection system for XFEL and FLASH II, general machine timing of FAIR, MTCA.4-based reference and clock distribution module for the European XFEL, the driving system of the 12-m Cherenkov telescope MST, ventilator driving tor VDC chambers in the CMS experiment, implementation of a TANGO server for the connection of the Mythen detector in the GALAXI experiment, the flexible PiLC controller for driving and measurement purposes with FPGA performance, measurement of important beam parameters of the LHC with diamond sensors, recent developments of the electronics for the ATLAS strip tracker upgrade, a flexible electromagnetic actuator system for the turbulence research, prototype development for the CALICE analogous hadronic calorimeter. (HSI)

  18. Highly stable single-crystal LaB6 cathode for conventional electron microprobe instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, R.; Shinike, T.; Ichimura, S.; Kawaii, S.; Tanaka, T.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of single-crystal LaB 6 cathode was examined by measuring the brightness and current stability under the same conditions as for the conventional W hairpin cathode. The LaB 6 cathode was mounted in Vogel-type electron gun assembly of an electron probe microanalyser JAX-3 specifically modified for this purpose. The result shows that the present LaB 6 cathode provides not only high brightness of 2 x 10 5 A/cm 2 str. at 20 kV, but also high-current stability better than 1 x 10 - 3 Ah - 1 in standard operation without any specific aid for current stabilization. Thus an order of magnitude increase in both the brightness and service lifetime can easily be obtained provided that the vacuum of the system is adequate, namely better than 1 x 10 - 5 Torr (1.33 x 10 - 3 Pa). This substantial improvement of the present single-crystal LaB 6 cathode over the conventional W hairpin was also confirmed in a practical way by use in a commercial-type scanning Auger electron microscope, JAMP III

  19. Management of the camera electronics programme for the World Space Observatory ultraviolet WUVS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Gayatri; Clapp, Matthew; Salter, Mike; Waltham, Nick; Beardsley, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a major international collaboration led by Russia and will study the universe at ultraviolet wavelengths between 115 nm and 320 nm. The WSO Ultraviolet Spectrograph (WUVS) subsystem is led by a consortium of Russian institutes and consists of three spectrographs. RAL Space is contracted by e2v technologies Ltd to provide the CCD readout electronics for each of the three WUVS channels. The programme involves the design, manufacturing, assembly and testing of each Camera Electronics Box (CEB), its associated Interconnection Module (ICM), Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) and harness. An overview of the programme will be presented, from the initial design phase culminating in the development of an Engineering Model (EM) through qualification whereby an Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) will undergo environmental testing to characterize the performance of the CEB against the space environment, to the delivery of the Flight Models (FMs). The paper will discuss the challenges faced managing a large, dynamic project. This includes managing significant changes in fundamental requirements mid-programme as a result of external political issues which forced a complete re-design of an existing CEB with extensive space heritage but containing many ITAR controlled electronic components to a new, more efficient solution, free of ITAR controlled parts. The methodology and processes used to ensure the demanding schedule is maintained through each stage of the project will be presented including an insight into planning, decision-making, communication, risk management, and resource management; all essential to the continued success of the programme.

  20. 105th meeting of the working group electronic instrumentation in Spring 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettlicher, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Contactless flow-rate sensor for heavy liquid metals, half-balanced broadband low-noise amplifier for the detection of quantum shot noise of graphene, generation of short pulses with high amplitude with standard CFA, electronic division of the HZG, myths of the PCB design of digital high-speed signals, FPGA based readout and control for PANDA components, MTCA.4 for the optical synchronization system at the XFEL and the FLASH accelerator, heterogeneous systems in computing intensive applications, upgrade of the camera electronics of the 12-meter telescope of H.E.S.S., the SeRiVas testing tool for VMEbus modules, rework of leadless components, real-time control on single atoms, IBIS models in SPICE environments, off-shore data acquisition, plant PET and application of USB 3.0 for the data acquisition, tact synchronization and time measurement in a distributed data-acquisition system, developments in DESY FS-DS, the open intersection place TwinCAT 3 for automatic code generation, a prototype experiment at the DESY test beam with the governing system DOOCS, dynamic surface generation for the facility driving with LabVIEW, driving of a sputtering facility with LabVIEW, automatization for vacuum chambers realized with LabVIEW and Simatic S7-300, shor summary of the workshop microcontroller/SPS/control systems. (HSI)

  1. Instrumental Developments for In-situ Breakdown Experiments inside a Scanning Electron Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Muranaka, T; Leifer, K; Ziemann, V

    2011-01-01

    Electrical discharges in accelerating structures are one of the key issues limiting the performance of future high energy accelerators such as the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Fundamental understanding of breakdown phenomena is an indispensable part of the CLIC feasibility study. The present work concerns the experimental study of breakdown using Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs). A SEM gives us the opportunity to achieve high electrical gradients of 1\\,kV/$\\mu$m which corresponds to 1\\,GV/m by exciting a probe needle with a high voltage power supply and controlling the positioning of the needle with a linear piezo motor. The gap between the needle tip and the surface is controlled with sub-micron precision. A second electron microscope equipped with a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) is used to create surface corrugations and to sharpen the probe needle to a tip radius of about 50\\,nm. Moreover it is used to prepare cross sections of a voltage breakdown area in order to study the geometrical surface damages as w...

  2. Development of the Quality of Australian Nursing Documentation in Aged Care (QANDAC) instrument to assess paper-based and electronic resident records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Björvell, Catrin; Hailey, David; Yu, Ping

    2014-12-01

    To develop an Australian nursing documentation in aged care (Quality of Australian Nursing Documentation in Aged Care (QANDAC)) instrument to measure the quality of paper-based and electronic resident records. The instrument was based on the nursing process model and on three attributes of documentation quality identified in a systematic review. The development process involved five phases following approaches to designing criterion-referenced measures. The face and content validities and the inter-rater reliability of the instrument were estimated using a focus group approach and consensus model. The instrument contains 34 questions in three sections: completion of nursing history and assessment, description of care process and meeting the requirements of data entry. Estimates of the validity and inter-rater reliability of the instrument gave satisfactory results. The QANDAC instrument may be a useful audit tool for quality improvement and research in aged care documentation. © 2013 ACOTA.

  3. Study of Primary Cosmic Ray Electrons In Energy Range 10^11 - 10^13 Ev By Pamela Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, S.; Pamela Collaboration

    The main goal of the magnetic spectrometer PAMELA is the study of antiparticle fluxes with energy up to 300 GeV in cosmic rays on board satellite. A modification of instrument was done by introducing of neutron detector. This device was placed under imaging calorimeter and bottom scintillator counter. It consists of two layers of 36 3He gas counters enveloped by a polyethylene moderator. The neutron detector gives additional possibility to identify the antiprotons going in aperture of spectrome- ter and generating the nuclear cascade in tungsten plates of calorimeter. This shower is followed by big number of neutrons in contrast to electromagnetic one caused by elec- tron or positron. From other side the combination of the imaging calorimeter, bottom scintillator and neutron detector constitute the independent instrument with large field of view which gives the possibility to measure the electron-positron cosmic ray com- ponent in energy range 1011-1013 eV with a rejection factor of order 10-4 regarding to nuclear one.

  4. In-flight calibration of the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer with an electron drift instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; Torkar, K.

    2012-10-01

    We show that the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer can be calibrated with an electron drift instrument (EDI) and that the required input time interval is relatively short. For missions such as Cluster or the upcoming Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer could be determined on an orbital basis. An improvement of existing methods for finding spin axis offsets via comparison of accurate measurements of the field magnitude is presented, that additionally matches the gains of the two instruments that are being compared. The technique has been applied to EDI data from the Cluster Active Archive and fluxgate magnetometer data processed with calibration files also from the Cluster Active Archive. The method could prove to be valuable for the MMS mission because the four MMS spacecraft will only be inside the interplanetary field (where spin axis offsets can be calculated from Alfvénic fluctuations) for short periods of time and during unusual solar wind conditions.

  5. In-flight calibration of the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer with an electron drift instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinweber, H K; Russell, C T; Torkar, K

    2012-01-01

    We show that the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer can be calibrated with an electron drift instrument (EDI) and that the required input time interval is relatively short. For missions such as Cluster or the upcoming Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission the spin axis offset of a fluxgate magnetometer could be determined on an orbital basis. An improvement of existing methods for finding spin axis offsets via comparison of accurate measurements of the field magnitude is presented, that additionally matches the gains of the two instruments that are being compared. The technique has been applied to EDI data from the Cluster Active Archive and fluxgate magnetometer data processed with calibration files also from the Cluster Active Archive. The method could prove to be valuable for the MMS mission because the four MMS spacecraft will only be inside the interplanetary field (where spin axis offsets can be calculated from Alfvénic fluctuations) for short periods of time and during unusual solar wind conditions. (paper)

  6. Electron Density Measurement on JUICE Mission by Mutual Impedance Technique: MIME Instrument as a Part of RPWI Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, J. L.; Henri, P.; Wahlund, J. E.; Le Duff, O.; Sene, O.; Colin, F.; Lagoutte, D.; Gilet, N.; Ahlen, L.; Bergman, J.; Gill, R.; Puccio, W.

    2017-09-01

    Mutual Impedance MEasurements (MIME) instrument is a part of the Radio Wave Plasma Investigation (RPWI) consortium which has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) on the nest planetary mission JJUpiter ICy moons Exploer (JUICE) for a launch in 2022. The goals are to explore Jupiter and its potentially habitable icy moons and to study its plasma environment. Impedance probes, which are well known in geophysical prospection, in particular for ground permittivity investigations, have been successfully transposed to space plasmas diagnostic. Transmitting and receiving electrodes are used for measuring on open circuit the dynamic impedance of the system at several fixed frequencies over a range that includes characteristic frequencies of the ambient plasma. The measurements are then interpreted using a suitable theory and the values of plasma parameters, such as the electron density and possibly the temperature of the plasma can be deduced. To show how powerful this technique is, results obtained in the Earth's plasmasphere by the mutual impedance probe onboard ROSETTA are presented as example. MIME instrument proposal is then described and its ability to make valuable measurements in the Jupiter space environment and in particular around Europe, Callisto and Ganymede is investigated..

  7. Measurement and Instrumentation Challenges at X-ray Free Electron Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yiping

    2015-03-01

    X-ray Free Electron Laser sources based on the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission process are intrinsically chaotic, giving rise to pulse-to-pulse fluctuations in all physical properties, including intensity, position and pointing, spatial and temporal profiles, spectral content, timing, and coherence. These fluctuations represents special challenges to users whose experiments are designed to reveal small changes in the underlying physical quantities, which would otherwise be completely washed out without using the proper diagnostics tools. Due to the X-ray FEL's unique characteristics such as the unprecedented peak power and nearly full spatial coherence, there are many technical challenges in conceiving and implementing these devices that are highly transmissive, provide sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, and most importantly work in the single-shot mode. Portions of this research were carried out at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. LCLS is an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science by Stanford Univ.

  8. An array of cold-electron bolometers with SIN tunnel junctions and JFET readout for cosmology instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmin, L

    2008-01-01

    A novel concept of the parallel/series array of Cold-Electron Bolometers (CEB) with Superconductor-Insulator-Normal (SIN) Tunnel Junctions has been proposed. The concept was developed specially for matching the CEB with JFET amplifier at conditions of high optical power load. The CEB is a planar antenna-coupled superconducting detector with high sensitivity. For combination of effective HF operation and low noise properties the current-biased CEBs are connected in series for DC and in parallel for HF signal. A signal is concentrated from an antenna to the absorber through the capacitance of the tunnel junctions and through additional capacitance for coupling of superconducting islands. Using array of CEBs the applications can be considerably extended to higher power load by distributing the power between N CEBs and decreasing the electron temperature. Due to increased responsivity the noise matching is so effective that photon NEP could be easily achieved at 300 mK with a room temperature JFET for wide range of optical power loads. The concept of the CEB array has been developed for the BOOMERanG balloon telescope and other Cosmology instruments

  9. Analysis of Surface Characteristics of ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next Instruments by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffery; Chung, Kwok-Hung; Fong, Hanson; Johnson, James; Paranjpe, Avina

    2017-07-01

    Many new rotary files systems have been introduced, however, limited research has been conducted related to the surface irregularities of these files and if these have any effects on the files themselves. Hence, the aim of the present study was to analyze surface irregularities of the ProTaper® Universal rotary files (PTU) and the ProTaper Next™ rotary files (PTN) before and after instrumentation in curved canals. The main objective was to investigate the nature of these irregularities and how they might influence the use and fracture of rotary files during root-canal treatments. The files were examined pre-operatively using a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) to analyze surface imperfections and the presence of particles. Mesial roots of forty extracted mandibular molars were selected. Each instrument was used to prepare one of the mesial canals. The files were then rinsed with alcohol, and autoclaved and analyzed again. Of the 80 files used in this study, five files fractured, five files unwound and seven files were curved or bent and they all belonged to the PTU group. Irregularities and debris could be visualized with the SEM on both unused PTU and PTN files. Most of the debris was found associated with deeper milling grooves and defects on the surface of the metal. Surface analysis of the files that were used and sterilized were performed and the SEM images demonstrated organic debris, metal flash, and crack formation and initiation of fractures for both file types. All files showed machining grooves, metal flash, debris, and defects on cutting edges. These irregularities appear to be critical in the accumulation of debris and initiation of fatigue and crack propagation within the NiTi alloy. The accumulation of debris could be a concern due to the potential exchange of organic debris between patients. Key words: ProTaper® Universal, ProTaper Next™, surface characteristics, SEM.

  10. Developing a theoretical model and questionnaire survey instrument to measure the success of electronic health records in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Qian, Siyu

    2018-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are introduced into healthcare organizations worldwide to improve patient safety, healthcare quality and efficiency. A rigorous evaluation of this technology is important to reduce potential negative effects on patient and staff, to provide decision makers with accurate information for system improvement and to ensure return on investment. Therefore, this study develops a theoretical model and questionnaire survey instrument to assess the success of organizational EHR in routine use from the viewpoint of nursing staff in residential aged care homes. The proposed research model incorporates six variables in the reformulated DeLone and McLean information systems success model: system quality, information quality, service quality, use, user satisfaction and net benefits. Two variables training and self-efficacy were also incorporated into the model. A questionnaire survey instrument was designed to measure the eight variables in the model. After a pilot test, the measurement scale was used to collect data from 243 nursing staff members in 10 residential aged care homes belonging to three management groups in Australia. Partial least squares path modeling was conducted to validate the model. The validated EHR systems success model predicts the impact of the four antecedent variables-training, self-efficacy, system quality and information quality-on the net benefits, the indicator of EHR systems success, through the intermittent variables use and user satisfaction. A 24-item measurement scale was developed to quantitatively evaluate the performance of an EHR system. The parsimonious EHR systems success model and the measurement scale can be used to benchmark EHR systems success across organizations and units and over time.

  11. Instrumental fundamental parameters and selected applications of the microfocus X-ray fluorescence analysis at a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    For a decade X-ray sources have been commercially available for the microfocus X-ray fluorescence analysis (μ-XRF) and offer the possibility of extending the analytics at a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an attached energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). By using the μ-XRF it is possible to determine the content of chemical elements in a microscopic sample volume in a quantitative, reference-free and non-destructive way. For the reference-free quantification with the XRF the Sherman equation is referred to. This equation deduces the intensity of the detected X-ray intensity of a fluorescence peak to the content of the element in the sample by means of fundamental parameters. The instrumental fundamental parameters of the μ-XRF at a SEM/EDS system are the excitation spectrum consisting of X-ray tube spectrum and the transmission of the X-ray optics, the geometry and the spectrometer efficiency. Based on a calibrated instrumentation the objectives of this work are the development of procedures for the characterization of all instrumental fundamental parameters as well as the evaluation and reduction of their measurement uncertainties: The algorithms known from the literature for the calculation of X-ray tube spectrum are evaluated with regard to their deviations in the spectral distribution. Within this work a novel semi-empirical model is improved with respect to its uncertainties and enhanced in the low energy range as well as extended for another three anodes. The emitted X-ray tube spectrum is calculated from the detected one, which is measured at an especially developed setup for the direct measurement of X-ray tube spectra. This emitted X-ray tube spectrum is compared to the one calculated on base of the model of this work. A procedure for the determination of the most important parameters of an X-ray semi-lens in parallelizing mode is developed. The temporal stability of the transmission of X-ray full lenses, which have been in regular use at

  12. Instruments and techniques for analysing the time-resolved transverse phase space distribution of high-brightness electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, Jeniffa

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the instruments and techniques used to characterise the transverse phase space distribution of high-brightness electron beams. In particular, methods are considered allowing to measure the emittance as a function of the longitudinal coordinate within the bunch (slice emittance) with a resolution in the ps to sub-ps range. The main objective of this work is the analysis of techniques applicable for the time-resolved phase space characterisation for future high-brightness electron beam sources and single-pass accelerators based on these. The competence built up by understanding and comparing different techniques is to be used for the design and operation of slice diagnostic systems for the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project (BERLinPro). In the framework of the thesis, two methods applicable for slice emittance measurements are considered, namely the zero-phasing technique and the use of a transverse deflector. These methods combine the conventional quadrupole scan technique with a transfer of the longitudinal distribution into a transverse distribution. Measurements were performed within different collaborative projects. The experimental setup, the measurement itself and the data analysis are discussed as well as measurement results and simulations. In addition, the phase space tomography technique is introduced. In contrast to quadrupole scan-based techniques, tomography is model-independent and can reconstruct the phase space distribution from simple projected measurements. The developed image reconstruction routine based on the Maximum Entropy algorithm is introduced. The quality of the reconstruction is tested using different model distributions, simulated data and measurement data. The results of the tests are presented. The adequacy of the investigated techniques, the experimental procedures as well as the developed data analysis tools could be verified. The experimental and practical experience gathered during this work, the

  13. Measurements of movements of the Perua dam using classic and modern electronic instruments; Erforschung der Verschiebung des Staudammes vom Wasserkraftwerk Peruca mit den klassischen und modernen elektronischen Instrumenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilajbegovic, A [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Geodaetische Fakultaet

    1997-12-31

    With the aim of investigating the moving of the power plant Peruca dam body, measurements with the classical precise theodolite WILD T3 as well as the modern electronic instruments, KERN E2 and WILD T2000S, were carried out in order to choose the most suitable instrumentaria. All three instruments were used in measuring with the same number of horizontal angle rounds; by using the statistical tests, a significant accuracy dependency on the used instrument type was established. The most accurate results were obtained by electronic theodolite Wild T2000S (estimated variance factor {sigma}=0.61), then by KERN E2 {sigma}=1.23, and finally by T3 {sigma}=1.68. Likewise, the use of the deformation analysis, i.e. global and local tests, the highest number of significant movements was established by measuring with the WILD T2000S electronic theodolite. The interior accuracy of straight line measurement of the electronic theodolite E2 was investigated in dependence with the number of horizontal angle rounds. Unfortunately, the war in this country is the reason that the planned measurements with the GPS devices have so far not been carried out. (orig.)

  14. Measurements of movements of the Perua dam using classic and modern electronic instruments; Erforschung der Verschiebung des Staudammes vom Wasserkraftwerk Peruca mit den klassischen und modernen elektronischen Instrumenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilajbegovic, A. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Geodaetische Fakultaet

    1996-12-31

    With the aim of investigating the moving of the power plant Peruca dam body, measurements with the classical precise theodolite WILD T3 as well as the modern electronic instruments, KERN E2 and WILD T2000S, were carried out in order to choose the most suitable instrumentaria. All three instruments were used in measuring with the same number of horizontal angle rounds; by using the statistical tests, a significant accuracy dependency on the used instrument type was established. The most accurate results were obtained by electronic theodolite Wild T2000S (estimated variance factor {sigma}=0.61), then by KERN E2 {sigma}=1.23, and finally by T3 {sigma}=1.68. Likewise, the use of the deformation analysis, i.e. global and local tests, the highest number of significant movements was established by measuring with the WILD T2000S electronic theodolite. The interior accuracy of straight line measurement of the electronic theodolite E2 was investigated in dependence with the number of horizontal angle rounds. Unfortunately, the war in this country is the reason that the planned measurements with the GPS devices have so far not been carried out. (orig.)

  15. Systems approach to the design of the CCD sensors and camera electronics for the AIA and HMI instruments on solar dynamics observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, N.; Beardsley, S.; Clapp, M.; Lang, J.; Jerram, P.; Pool, P.; Auker, G.; Morris, D.; Duncan, D.

    2017-11-01

    Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is imaging the Sun in many wavelengths near simultaneously and with a resolution ten times higher than the average high-definition television. In this paper we describe our innovative systems approach to the design of the CCD cameras for two of SDO's remote sensing instruments, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Both instruments share use of a custom-designed 16 million pixel science-grade CCD and common camera readout electronics. A prime requirement was for the CCD to operate with significantly lower drive voltages than before, motivated by our wish to simplify the design of the camera readout electronics. Here, the challenge lies in the design of circuitry to drive the CCD's highly capacitive electrodes and to digitize its analogue video output signal with low noise and to high precision. The challenge is greatly exacerbated when forced to work with only fully space-qualified, radiation-tolerant components. We describe our systems approach to the design of the AIA and HMI CCD and camera electronics, and the engineering solutions that enabled us to comply with both mission and instrument science requirements.

  16. Effectiveness of Rotary Endodontic Instruments on Smear Layer Removal in Root Canals of Primary Teeth: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Girish Babu, K L; Tabrez, T A

    2016-01-01

    The present SEM study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of root canal instrumentation using both manual and rotary files in the root canals of primary anterior teeth. Thirty freshly extracted primary maxillary incisors were divided into 3 groups of 10 teeth each. In Group I, root canals were instrumented with rotary NiTi files; in Group II, the root canals were instrumented using manual NiTi K files and; in Group III, manual instrumentation was done with stainless steel K files. Longitudinal sections were prepared and processed for observation under SEM at the coronal, middle and apical thirds. Scoring of smear layer was done according to Hulsmann and the data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Rotary files cleaned the coronal and middle thirds of root canals more effectively. Statistically there was no significant difference between the groups. Lowest score of 2.6 in the apical third of root canals was seen with hand NiTi files. Rotary instrumentation was as effective as manual instrumentation in removal of smear layer in the root canals of primary anterior teeth.

  17. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Residual Smear Layer Following Preparation of Curved Root Canals Using Hand Instrumentation or Two Engine-Driven Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Abbasali; Saatchi, Masoud; Shokouhi, Mohammad Mehdi; Baghaei, Badri

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental study, the amount of smear layer (SL) remnants in curved root canals after chemomechanical instrumentation with two engine-driven systems or hand instrumentation was evaluated. Forty-eight mesiobuccal roots of mandibular first molars with curvatures ranging between 25 and 35 degrees (according to Schneider's method) were divided into three groups (n=16) which were prepared by either the ProTaper Universal file series, Reciproc single file system or hand instrumentation. The canals were intermittently irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) EDTA, followed by distilled water as the final rinse. The roots were split longitudinally and the apical third of the specimens were evaluated under 2500× magnification with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mean scores of the SL were calculated and analyzed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The mean scores of the SL were 2.00±0.73, 1.94±0.68 and 1.44±0.63 µm for the ProTaper Universal, Reciproc and hand instrumentation, respectively. Mean score of SL was significantly less in the hand instrumentation group than the ProTaper (P=0.027) and Reciproc (P=0.035) groups. The difference between the two engine-driven systems, however, was not significant (P=0.803). The amount of smear layer in the apical third of curved root canals prepared with both engine-driven systems was similar and greater than the hand instrumentation technique. Complete cleanliness was not attained.

  18. Interaction of Ni-Re and Ni-W alloys with residual gases and carbonates under working conditions of oxide cathodes of electronic vacuum instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arskaya, E.P.; Korotkov, N.A.; Lazarev, Eh.M.

    1979-01-01

    Using the method of th micro X-ray spectrum, electron diffraction, micro X-ray spectrum and electron probe analysis and measuring the microhardness, the composition and structure of the zone, in which Ni-W-La and Ni-Re-La alloy core samples contact the oxide coating, have been studied. Analyzed was the significance of the diffusion processes, occurring dUring the continuous operation of oxide cathodes at increased temperatures. The diffusion constants of the Ni-W system in the temperature range of the oxide cathodes operation have been determined. It is shown that during the continuous operation of electrovaccuum instruments (10.000 hrs), Ni-Re alloys should be used as oxide cathode core sample materials, as they maintain their shape well and possess good electrophysical and emission characteristics

  19. 41 CFR 101-26.508 - Electronic data processing (EDP) tape and instrumentation tape (wide and intermediate band).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Electronic data...

  20. Instruments for radiation measurement in biosciences. Series 3. radioluminography. 11. Application of imaging plate in transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Tetsuo

    1999-01-01

    Properties and application of the imaging plate (IP) in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are reviewed. TEM has the resolution level of around 0.2 nm, which enables direct observation of molecules and atoms. In TEM, there are such recording systems as photographic film, TV camera, slow-scan CCD camera and IP. IP, to the electron beam, has the higher sensitivity than the film and has the broad dynamic range. Linearity between the input beam intensity and output signal is good, which makes it possible to record the image even with the small electron dose. Signal/noise ratio and detective quantum efficiency are important factors for precise image analysis. Fading phenomenon is a defect of IP, which weakens the signal output as time passing. For instance of application, IP is used for imaging of AgBr crystal fragile to strong electron beam required for the film. IP is necessary for quantitative analysis of TEM images and for the recently developed energy-filter TEM. (K.H.)

  1. 107th meeting of the working group electronic instrumentation in Spring 2016; 107. Tagung der Studiengruppe elektronische Instrumentierung im Fruehjahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettlicher, Peter (ed.)

    2016-06-15

    The following topics were dealt with: Instrumentation and the NUSTAR physics program in FAIR phase-0, actual projects of the group EE-digital electronics, ethernet-based data acquisition beyond 10 GBit/s, the big data problem in DAQ systems, a general front-end readout architecture in scientific detector systems, the KALYPSO detection system for single-shot electro-optical bunch measurements, MicroTCA based RF and laser cavity regulation including piezo controls, FPGA implementation for data acquisition system with gigabit serial link and PCIe interface, next generation MTCA.4 crate, increased PCIexpress band-width up to 128 Gb/s and optical PCIexpress cascading, power supplies for the sensitive measurement techniques and the complex automatization, error-save industry PC, the interfacing of NI products to EPICS, Green Cube, a survey of EPICS rate at GSI and FAIR, CS++ as actor-based successor of the CS framework, synchronized fast shutter control with adaptive phase shift compensation in the EtherCAT motion control system, precise voltage supply for the SiPM of a Cherenkov telescope in the Antarctis, development of a multichannel readout hardware for delay-line neutron detectors, silicon photonic data transmission for detector instrumentation, EMV consideration of the Maria instrument at the FRM2, quench detectors for FAIR, optimized illumination and in-situ calibration of high-gain antennas for the detection of extensive cosmic air showers. (HSI)

  2. Electron Pitch Angle Variations Recorded at the High Magnetic Latitude Boundary Layer by the NUADU Instrument on the TC-2 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Barabash, S.; Liu, Z.; Balaz, J.; Brinkfeldt, K.; Strhansky, I.; Shen, C.; Shi, J.; Cao, J.; Pu, Z.; Fu, S.; Gunell, H.; Kudela, K.; Roelof, E. C.; Brandt, P. C.; Dandouras, I.; Zhang, T.; Carr, C.; Fazakerley, A.

    2005-12-01

    During the first on orbit commission, with the deflection high voltage zero, the NUADU (NeUtral Atom Detector Unit) instrument aboard TC-2, with its high temporal-spatial resolution recorded 4d solid angle images of energetic particles spiraling around the geomagnetic field lines with different configuration at high northern magnetic latitude L>10. The ambient magnetic field and particles in different energy spectrum were simultaneously measured by the magnetometer experiment (FGM), the plasma electron and current experiment (PEACE), the low energy ion detector (LEID), and the high energy electron detector (HEED). The up-flowing electron beams made the pitch angle distribution (PAD) ring like configuration, and even concentrated toward the field lines to form a dumbbell-type PAD. In integration of the variations of ambient magnetic field and particles in different energy spectrums, a temporal string magnetic bottle model was proposed which might be formed by the disturbance of the magnetic pulse. Changes in the particle pitch angle diffusion may be associated with electron acceleration along the geomagnetic field lines.

  3. A Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for the Surface of Mars: An Instrument for the Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Danilatos, G.; Doloboff, I. J.; Effinger, M. R.; Harvey, R. P.; Jerman, G. A.; Klein-Schoder, R.; Mackie, W.; Magera, B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope(MVP-SEM) project, funded by the NASA Planetary Instrument Concepts for the Advancement of Solar System Observations (PICASSO) Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science (ROSES), will build upon previous miniaturized SEM designs for lunar and International Space Station (ISS) applications and recent advancements in variable pressure SEM's to design and build a SEM to complete analyses of samples on the surface of Mars using the atmosphere as an imaging medium. By the end of the PICASSO work, a prototype of the primary proof-of-concept components (i.e., the electron gun, focusing optics and scanning system)will be assembled and preliminary testing in a Mars analog chamber at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will be completed to partially fulfill Technology Readiness Level to 5 requirements for those components. The team plans to have Secondary Electron Imaging(SEI), Backscattered Electron (BSE) detection, and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) capabilities through the MVP-SEM.

  4. Evaluating performance characteristics of x-ray equipment and film systems without the use of electronic measurement and/or special instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.F.; DeNitto, C.; Liscio, A.; Scala, N.

    2004-01-01

    Measurement and control of characteristics of NDT equipment and system that produce output to be interpreted by inspector is one of the most important tools for NDT reliability. Control activity should be based on: initial accurate measurement and calibration; periodical check to assure maintenance of calibration status; and, immediate verification and corrective action when any malfunctioning is suspected. 'Self-calibration' intended as capability of NDT facility to calibrate and control its own equipment and systems is very important for continuous and reliable activity. Typical approach based on this philosophy is ASTM E317 'Standard Practice for Evaluating Performance Characteristics of Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Examination Instruments and Systems Without the Use of Electronic Measurement Instruments' that is applicable to shop or field conditions. Is 'Self-calibration' applicable to radiographic system too? Many characteristics can be self-determined according to existing practices and methods, but other ones require assistance and cooperation of supplier both for film system and x-ray equipment. A certified film system being controlled by pre-exposed filmstrips can be adopted as 'measurement device' for X-ray output concerning both intensity and contrast. Basically x-ray equipment manufacturer performs initial accurate measurement and calibration using electronic measurement and/or special instrumentation as necessary. Then specific film set on 'low-price' blocks and specimens is produced according to standard practice whose guidelines are supplied by this paper. Film set, blocks, specimens and results referred to specific film system will be the reference kit for periodical check in NDT facility. This paper supplies some guidelines for standard practice based on testing using mainly GE Inspection Technologies radiographic system being available in Avio facilities. (author)

  5. A comparative scanning electron microscopy study between hand instrument, ultrasonic scaling and erbium doped:Yttirum aluminum garnet laser on root surface: A morphological and thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitul Kumar Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Scaling and root planing is one of the most commonly used procedures for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Removal of calculus using conventional hand instruments is incomplete and rather time consuming. In search of more efficient and less difficult instrumentation, investigators have proposed lasers as an alternative or as adjuncts to scaling and root planing. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of erbium doped: Yttirum aluminum garnet (Er:YAG laser scaling and root planing alone or as an adjunct to hand and ultrasonic instrumentation. Subjects and Methods: A total of 75 freshly extracted periodontally involved single rooted teeth were collected. Teeth were randomly divided into five treatment groups having 15 teeth each: Hand scaling only, ultrasonic scaling only, Er:YAG laser scaling only, hand scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling and ultrasonic scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling. Specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscopy and photographs were evaluated by three examiners who were blinded to the study. Parameters included were remaining calculus index, loss of tooth substance index, roughness loss of tooth substance index, presence or absence of smear layer, thermal damage and any other morphological damage. Results: Er:YAG laser treated specimens showed similar effectiveness in calculus removal to the other test groups whereas tooth substance loss and tooth surface roughness was more on comparison with other groups. Ultrasonic treated specimens showed better results as compared to other groups with different parameters. However, smear layer presence was seen more with hand and ultrasonic groups. Very few laser treated specimens showed thermal damage and morphological change. Interpretation and Conclusion: In our study, ultrasonic scaling specimen have shown root surface clean and practically unaltered. On the other hand, hand instrument have produced a plane surface

  6. E-Division semiannual report. Progress report, June 1--December 31, 1977. [Electronics and Instrumentation Division, LASL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, P.A. (comp.)

    1978-03-01

    The status of the programs and projects of the Electronics Division is reported for the period of June through December 1977. The presentation is divided into three sections: Research, Engineering Support, and Technical Services. Each of these sections presents the activities and accomplishments of the corresponding branch within the Division. The primary goal of the Research and Development branch is to advance technology for future applications. The primary goal of the Engineering Support branch is to apply advanced technology to laboratory and material problems. The primary goal of the Technical Services branch is to provide a technical base and support for Laboratory programs. These goals are reflected in this report. Among the subject areas included are the following: radiation detectors, temperature monitoring, electromagnetic probing, Josephson junction switching devices, fiber optics, high-temperature electronics, HVAC systems, microprocessors, fuel cell-powered vehicles, laser fusion.

  7. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1984-09-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  8. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  9. Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. An inspector-instrument interface design that allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user is presented. This capability has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer

  10. Inspector-instrument interface in portable NDA instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    Recent electronics technology advances make it possible to design sophisticated instruments in small packages for convenient field implementation. This report describes an inspector-instrument interface design which allows communication of procedures, responses, and results between the instrument and user. The interface has been incorporated into new spent-fuel instrumentation and a battery-powered multichannel analyzer

  11. Use of neural network techniques to identify cosmic ray electrons and positrons during the 1993 balloon flight of the NMSU/Wizard-TS93 instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellotti, R.; Castellano, M. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Candusso, M.; Casolino, M.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy); Aversa, F.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    The detectors used in the TS93 balloon flight produced a large volume of information for each cosmic ray trigger. Some of the data was visual in nature, other portions contained energy deposition and timing information. The data sets are amenable to conventional analysis techniques but there is no assurance that conventional techniques make full use of subtle correlations and relations amongst the detector responses. With the advent of neural network technologies, particularly adept at classification of complex phenomena, it would seem appropriate to explore the utility of neural network techniques to classify particles observed with the instruments. In this paper neural network based methodology for signal/background discrimination in a cosmic ray space experiment is discussed. Results are presented for electron and positron classification in the TS93 flight data set and will be compared to conventional analyses.

  12. [Web-based electronic patient record as an instrument for quality assurance within an integrated care concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, A; Jünemann, A G M; Prokosch, H-U; Beyer, A; Ganslandt, T; Grolik, R; Klein, A; Mrosek, A; Michelson, G; Kruse, F E

    2009-03-01

    A prerequisite for integrated care programmes is the implementation of a communication network meeting quality assurance standards. Against this background the main objective of the integrated care project between the University Eye Hospital Erlangen and the health insurance company AOK Bayern was to evaluate the potential and the acceptance of a web-based electronic patient record in the context of cataract and retinal surgery. Standardised modules for capturing pre-, intra- and post-operative data on the basis of clinical pathway guidelines for cataract- and retinal surgery have been developed. There are 6 data sets recorded per patient (1 pre-operative, 1 operative, 4-6 post-operative). For data collection, a web-based communication system (Soarian Integrated Care) has been chosen which meets the high requirements in data security, as well as being easy to handle. This teleconsultation system and the embedded electronic patient record are independent of the software used by respective offices and hospitals. Data transmission and storage were carried out in real-time. At present, 101 private ophthalmologists are taking part in the IGV contract with the University Eye Hospital Erlangen. This corresponds to 52% of all private ophthalmologists in the region. During the period from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2006, 1844 patients were entered. Complete documentation was achieved in 1390 (75%) of all surgical procedures. For evaluation of this data, a multidimensional report and analysis tool (Cognos) was used. The deviation from target refraction as one quality indicator was in the mean 0.09 diopter. The web-based patient record used in this project was highly accepted by the private ophthalmologists. However there are still general concerns against the exchange of medical data via the internet. Nevertheless, the web-based patient record is an essential tool for a functional integration between the ambulatory and stationary health-care units. In addition to the

  13. Preliminary test of remote manual instrumentation & control type system for vacuum unit of 350 KeV / 10 mA electron beam machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyanto

    2003-01-01

    Remote manual instrumentation & control type for vacuum unit of 350 KeV/10 mA Electron Beam Machine is being completed. The system consisting of a remote manual controlled and a remote acquisition system. A remote manual (50 m) controlled is based on the on/off status of 220 Volt terminal supply for pneumatic valves and vacuum pumps, in this case the power supply switch of pneumatic valves and pumps have already been selected On. Remote acquisition of vacuum level can be done by using a CCTV camera which is place in front of the panning gauge and TGP.300 Balzer unit.The CCTV system equipped with 6 cameras, one TV monitor and a multiplexer unit to arranged a selected picture on it. One of the camera was mounted on the rotator unit, it can be controlled (rotating left / right) for different monitoring orientations required by using infrared controller. A trial test of the remote manual control system for vacuum unit of the Electron Beam Machine showed a good performance. (author)

  14. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  15. DESIGN AND EXPERIENCE WITH THE WS/HS ASSEMBLY MOVEMENT USING LABVIEW VIS, NATIONAL INSTRUMENT MOTION CONTROLLERS, AND COMPUMOTOR ELECTRONIC DRIVE UNITS AND MOTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.; Day, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), designed and built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program and provides a platform for measuring high-power proton beam-halo formation. The technique used for measuring the beam halo employs nine combination Wire Scanner and Halo Scraper (WS/HS) devices. This paper will focus on the experience gained in the use of National Instrument (NI) LabVIEW VIs and motion controllers, and Compumotor electronic drive units and motors. The base configuration couples a Compumotor motor driven by a Parker-Hannifin Gemini GT Drive unit. The drive unit is controlled by a NI PXI-7344 controller card, which in turn is controlled by a PC running custom built NI LabVIEW VIs. The function of the control VI's is to interpret instructions from the main control system, the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), and carry out the corresponding motion commands. The main control VI has to run all nineteen WS/HS motor axes used in the accelerator. A basic discussion of the main accelerator control system, EPICs which is hosted on a VXI platform, and its interface with the PC based LabVIEW motion control software will be included

  16. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  17. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  18. Environment for the instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambro, P.

    1992-01-01

    A properly conditioned AC power supply is necessary for reliable functioning of instruments. Electric mains power is produced primarily for industry, workshops, lighting and household uses. Its quality is adjusted to these uses. In areas sand countries with a fast growing demand for electric power, these requirements are far from being met. Electronic instruments and computers, especially in these countries, need protection against disturbances of the mains supply. A clean and dry environment is needed for reliable functioning and long life of instruments. High humidity, specially at higher temperatures, changes the characteristics of electronic components. Moreover, under these conditions fungal growth causes leakage of currents and corrosion causes poor contacts. The presence of dust enhances these effects. They give rise to malfunction of instruments, particularly of high voltage equipment

  19. Environment for the instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambro, P

    1993-12-31

    A properly conditioned AC power supply is necessary for reliable functioning of instruments. Electric mains power is produced primarily for industry, workshops, lighting and household uses. Its quality is adjusted to these uses. In areas sand countries with a fast growing demand for electric power, these requirements are far from being met. Electronic instruments and computers, especially in these countries, need protection against disturbances of the mains supply. A clean and dry environment is needed for reliable functioning and long life of instruments. High humidity, specially at higher temperatures, changes the characteristics of electronic components. Moreover, under these conditions fungal growth causes leakage of currents and corrosion causes poor contacts. The presence of dust enhances these effects. They give rise to malfunction of instruments, particularly of high voltage equipment

  20. Fire risk analysis, fire simulation, fire spreading and impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation electronics - State-of-the-Art Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Bertrand, R.; Bonneval, F.; Hamblen, D.; Siu, N.; Aulamo, H.; Martila, J.; Sandberg, J.; Virolainen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Numerous fire PSAs (probabilistic safety assessments) have shown that fire can be a major contributor to nuclear power plant risk. However, there are considerable uncertainties in the results of these assessments, due to significant gaps in current abilities to perform realistic assessments. These gaps involve multiple aspects of fire PSA, including the estimation of the probability of important fire scenarios, the modeling of fire growth and suppression, the prediction of fire-induced damage to equipment (including the effects of smoke), and the treatment of plant and operator responses to the fire. In response to recommendations of /VIR 93/, CSNI/PWG5 established a Task Group to review the present status and maturity of current methods used in fire risk assessments for operating nuclear power plants. The Task Group issued a questionnaire in May 1997 to all nuclear power generating OECD countries. The prime focus of the questionnaire (see Appendix A) was on a number of important issues in fire PSA: Fire PSA methodology and applications; Fire simulation codes; Ignition and damageability data; Modeling of fire spread on cables or other equipment; Modeling of smoke production and spread; Impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation, electronics, or other electrical equipment; Impact of actual cable fires on safety systems. The questionnaire requested specific information on these topics (e.g., computer codes used in fire PSAs, the physical parameters used to model ignition). Responses to the questionnaire were provided by Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the USA. This report summarizes the questionnaire responses and thereby: a) provides a perspective on the current fire PSA state of the art (SOAR) with respect to the issues listed above, and b) provides numerous references for more detailed information regarding these issues. The main responsibility for writing different chapters of this report was divided between some

  1. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  2. Development of a Suitable Survey Instrument To Identify Causes Behind High Turnover Rates within the 0301 Series in the Communications Electronics Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    CAUSES BEHIND HIGH TURNOVER RATES WITHIN THE 0301 SERIES IN THE COMMUNICATIONS- ELECTRONICS COMMAND September 2017 By: Antonia U. Orjih...THE COMMUNICATIONS- ELECTRONICS COMMAND 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Antonia U. Orjih and Shamika M. Fleuranges 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Communications- Electronics Command (CECOM) Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING

  3. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  4. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  5. A multi-instrument non-parametric reconstruction of the electron pressure profile in the galaxy cluster CLJ1226.9+3332

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, C.; McWilliam, M.; Macías-Pérez, J.-F.; Adam, R.; Ade, P.; André, P.; Aussel, H.; Beelen, A.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; Comis, B.; de Petris, M.; Désert, F.-X.; Doyle, S.; Goupy, J.; Kramer, C.; Lagache, G.; Leclercq, S.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Pascale, E.; Perotto, L.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Revéret, V.; Ritacco, A.; Roussel, H.; Ruppin, F.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Triqueneaux, S.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

    2018-04-01

    Context. In the past decade, sensitive, resolved Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) studies of galaxy clusters have become common. Whereas many previous SZ studies have parameterized the pressure profiles of galaxy clusters, non-parametric reconstructions will provide insights into the thermodynamic state of the intracluster medium. Aim. We seek to recover the non-parametric pressure profiles of the high redshift (z = 0.89) galaxy cluster CLJ 1226.9+3332 as inferred from SZ data from the MUSTANG, NIKA, Bolocam, and Planck instruments, which all probe different angular scales. Methods: Our non-parametric algorithm makes use of logarithmic interpolation, which under the assumption of ellipsoidal symmetry is analytically integrable. For MUSTANG, NIKA, and Bolocam we derive a non-parametric pressure profile independently and find good agreement among the instruments. In particular, we find that the non-parametric profiles are consistent with a fitted generalized Navaro-Frenk-White (gNFW) profile. Given the ability of Planck to constrain the total signal, we include a prior on the integrated Compton Y parameter as determined by Planck. Results: For a given instrument, constraints on the pressure profile diminish rapidly beyond the field of view. The overlap in spatial scales probed by these four datasets is therefore critical in checking for consistency between instruments. By using multiple instruments, our analysis of CLJ 1226.9+3332 covers a large radial range, from the central regions to the cluster outskirts: 0.05 R500 generation of SZ instruments such as NIKA2 and MUSTANG2.

  6. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  7. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  8. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  9. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  10. Innovative instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all

  11. Innovative instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1983-11-15

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all.

  12. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  13. Electron pitch angle variations recorded at the high magnetic latitude boundary layer by the NUADU instrument on the TC-2 spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The NUADU (NeUtral Atom Detector Unit experiment aboard TC-2 recorded, with high temporal and spatial resolution, 4π solid angle images of electrons (~50-125 keV spiraling around geomagnetic field lines at high northern magnetic latitudes (L>10, during its in-orbit commissioning phase (September 2004. The ambient magnetic field, as well as electrons in other energy ranges, were simultaneously measured by the TC-2 magnetometer (FGM, the plasma electron and current experiment (PEACE, the low energy ion detector (LEID and the high energy electron detector (HEED. The NUADU data showed that up-flowing electron beams could form "ring-like" and "dumbbell-type" pitch angle distributions (PADs in the region sampled. Changes in these pitch angle distributions due to transient magnetic variations are suggested to have been associated with electron acceleration along the geomagnetic field lines. A nested magnetic bottle configuration that formed due to the propagation towards the Earth of a magnetic pulse, is proposed to have been associated with this process.

  14. L-shell bifurcation of electron outer belt at the recovery phase of geomagnetic storm as observed by STEP-F and SphinX instruments onboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Podgorski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    Radiation belts and sporadically arising volumes comprising enhanced charged particle fluxes in the Earth's magnetosphere are typically studied by space-borne telescopes, semiconductor, scintillation, gaseous and other types of detectors. Ambient and internal electron bremsstrahlung in hard X-ray arises as a result of interaction of precipitating particles with the atmosphere (balloon experiments) and with the satellite's housings and instrument boxes (orbital experiments). Theses emissions provide a number of new information on the physics of radiation belts. The energies of primary electrons and their spectra responsible for measured X-ray emissions remain usually unknown. Combined measurements of particle fluxes, and their bremsstrahlung by individual satellite instruments placed next to each other provide insight to respective processes. The satellite telescope of electrons and protons STEP-F and the solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX were placed in close proximity to each other aboard CORONAS-Photon, the low, circular and highly inclined orbit satellite. Based on joint analysis of the data we detected new features in the high energy particle distributions of the Earth's magnetosphere during deep minimum of solar activity [1-3]. In this research the bifurcation of Van Allen outer electron radiation belt during the weak geomagnetic storm and during passage of interplanetary shock are discussed. Outer belt bifurcation and growth of electron fluxes in a wide energy range were recorded by both instruments during the recovery phase of May 8, 2009 substorm. STEP-F recorded also barely perceptible outer belt splitting on August 5, 2009, after arrival of interplanetary shock to the Earth's magnetosphere bowshock. The STEP-F and SphinX data are compared with the space weather indexes, and with relativistic electron fluxes observed at geostationary orbit. We discuss possible mechanism of the phenomena consisting in the splitting of drift shells because of Earth

  15. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  16. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  17. Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: creation of an electronic version of a patient-reported outcome instrument by conversion from a pen-and-paper version and evaluation of their equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Herrera L

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leticia Delgado-Herrera,1 Benjamin Banderas,2 Oluwafunke Ojo,2 Ritesh Kothari,3 Bernhardt Zeiher1 1Astellas Pharma Global Development, Inc., Northbrook, IL, 2Adelphi Values LLC, Boston, MA, 3ACCESS Medical LLC, Chicago, IL, USA Background: Subjects with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D experience abdominal cramping, bloating, pressure, and pain. Due to an absence of clinical biomarkers for IBS-D severity, evaluation of clinical therapy benefits depends on valid and reliable symptom assessments. A patient-reported outcome (PRO instrument has been developed, comprising of two questionnaires – the IBS-D Daily Symptom Diary and IBS-D Symptom Event Log – suitable for clinical trials and real-world settings. This program aimed to support instrument conversion from pen-and-paper to electronic format.Materials and methods: Digital technology (Android/iOS and a traditional mode of administration study in the target population were used to migrate or convert the validated PRO IBS-D pen-and-paper measure to an electronic format. Equivalence interviews, conducted in three waves, each had three parts: 1 conceptual equivalence testing between formats, 2 electronic-version report-history cognitive debriefing, and 3 electronic version usability evaluation. After each interview wave, preliminary analyses were conducted and modifications made to the electronic version, before the next wave. Final revisions were based on a full analysis of equivalence interviews. The final analysis evaluated subjects’ ability to read, understand, and provide meaningful responses to the instruments across both formats. Responses were classified according to conceptual equivalence between formats and mobile-format usability assessed with a questionnaire and open-ended probes.Results: Equivalence interviews (n=25 demonstrated conceptual equivalence between formats. Mobile-application cognitive debriefing showed some subjects experienced difficulty with font

  18. Physical characterisation of endodontic instruments in NiTi alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrisi, L.

    2000-01-01

    NiTi based endodontic instruments are investigated in functionality and wear. The instrument surfaces have been studied applying Auger electron spectroscopy, mechanical analysis, differential-scanning calorimetry, wear tests, and scanning electron microscopy. (orig.)

  19. Instrumental analysis, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, G.D.; O'Reilly, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The second edition of Instrumental Analysis is a survey of the major instrument-based methods of chemical analysis. It appears to be aimed at undergraduates but would be equally useful in a graduate course. The volume explores all of the classical quantitative methods and contains sections on techniques that usually are not included in a semester course in instrumentation (such as electron spectroscopy and the kinetic methods). Adequate coverage of all of the methods contained in this book would require several semesters of focused study. The 25 chapters were written by different authors, yet the style throughout the book is more uniform than in the earlier edition. With the exception of a two-chapter course in analog and digital circuits, the book purports to de-emphasize instrumentation, focusing more on the theory behind the methods and the application of the methods to analytical problems. However, a detailed analysis of the instruments used in each method is by no means absent. The book has the favor of a user's guide to analysis

  20. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and assembly of a prototype for study radioactive particles is presented. The objective for constructing this equipment and the theoretical fundamentals are shown. The electronic circuits and its distribution in blocks according its functions are also described. (author)

  1. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  2. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  3. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  4. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  5. 106th meeting of the working group electronic instrumentation in Spring 2015; 106. Tagung der Studiengruppe elektronische Instrumentierung im Fruehjahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettlicher, Peter (ed.)

    2015-06-15

    The following topics were dealt with: A survey of DESY, actual in DESY, the electronics sevice center of DESY, flip-chip technology at DES, CE certifications for electronic devices centrally performed by DESY ZE, a VHDL-based gigabit ethernet protocol pile for FPGAs, a digital camera trigger for the Cherenkov-telescope array, the trigger system in the Hess1 Upgrade camera, data connection between ships and zeppelin for the ascertainment of flow vortices, IP-based measurement devices on the base of FPGA, MTCA.4 RTM module based on the DRS-4 capacitor array, basic design rules, integrated phase-locked loop design, machine protection system for XFEL and FLASH II, general machine timing of FAIR, MTCA.4-based reference and clock distribution module for the European XFEL, the driving system of the 12-m Cherenkov telescope MST, ventilator driving tor VDC chambers in the CMS experiment, implementation of a TANGO server for the connection of the Mythen detector in the GALAXI experiment, the flexible PiLC controller for driving and measurement purposes with FPGA performance, measurement of important beam parameters of the LHC with diamond sensors, recent developments of the electronics for the ATLAS strip tracker upgrade, a flexible electromagnetic actuator system for the turbulence research, prototype development for the CALICE analogous hadronic calorimeter. (HSI)

  6. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstorovic, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment related to experimental facilities [sr

  7. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  8. The use of the JEM 1250 high voltage electron microscope (HVEM) of the university of Antwerp (RUCA) as an instrument for void swelling simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snijkers, M.; Janssens, C.

    1978-01-01

    The working procedure has been established for the use of the high voltage electron microscope of the University of Antwerp (RUCA) as an apparatus for testing the swelling behavior of ferritic and austenitic stainless steels. The local temperature increase of the specimen due to beam heating was measured. The results are in good agreement with measurements done in other laboratories. The intensity of the transmitted beam has been measured as a function of specimen thickness (for thicknesses smaller than a few μ) The operation conditions are described for carrying out irradiation experiments and for taking stereo pairs. (author)

  9. 105th meeting of the working group electronic instrumentation in Spring 2014; 105. Tagung der Studiengruppe elektronische Instrumentierung im Fruehjahr 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettlicher, Peter (ed.)

    2014-09-15

    The following topics were dealt with: Contactless flow-rate sensor for heavy liquid metals, half-balanced broadband low-noise amplifier for the detection of quantum shot noise of graphene, generation of short pulses with high amplitude with standard CFA, electronic division of the HZG, myths of the PCB design of digital high-speed signals, FPGA based readout and control for PANDA components, MTCA.4 for the optical synchronization system at the XFEL and the FLASH accelerator, heterogeneous systems in computing intensive applications, upgrade of the camera electronics of the 12-meter telescope of H.E.S.S., the SeRiVas testing tool for VMEbus modules, rework of leadless components, real-time control on single atoms, IBIS models in SPICE environments, off-shore data acquisition, plant PET and application of USB 3.0 for the data acquisition, tact synchronization and time measurement in a distributed data-acquisition system, developments in DESY FS-DS, the open intersection place TwinCAT 3 for automatic code generation, a prototype experiment at the DESY test beam with the governing system DOOCS, dynamic surface generation for the facility driving with LabVIEW, driving of a sputtering facility with LabVIEW, automatization for vacuum chambers realized with LabVIEW and Simatic S7-300, shor summary of the workshop microcontroller/SPS/control systems. (HSI)

  10. Contributions to the research programs in nuclear and industrial electronics, domestic production of instrumentation, safety and control systems and equipment for nuclear reactors and auxiliary installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpariu, C; Talpariu, J.; Matei, C.

    2001-01-01

    Domestic production of component system and equipment for the control and safety of nuclear facilities was one of the priority objective of the Nuclear Research Institute Pitesti. The problems addressed were particularly related to design and production of analog and digital equipment for measurements, triggering and display of the values of process parameters as well as to regulating complex functions of this equipment. Associated to this effort were the research works concerning: - reliability and in-service life-time of the electronic components and equipment in the safety and control systems for nuclear processes; - radiation endurance of industrial electronic components; utilization of whirling currents in calandria tube testing; - expert systems and applications in nuclear reactor control and safety; design and testing methods of process real time software packages for safety in control critical systems for nuclear domain. There are presented characteristics of the following equipment: 1. amplifier for ionization chambers with triggering comparator circuits for the CANDU 600 reactor shut down system; 2. amplifier for ionization chambers without triggering comparator circuits for power regulating system; 3. safety and regulating computerized system for C9 and C5 cans; 4. acquisition system for dosimetric data in nuclear facilities; 5. program able digital comparator for the reactor shut down system; 6. stationary gamma areal monitors for CANDU 600 reactors and other nuclear facilities

  11. Evaluating noise performance of the IUCAA sidecar drive electronics controller (ISDEC) based system for TMT on-instrument wavefront sensing (OIWFS) application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burse, Mahesh; Chattopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Sinha, Sakya; Prabhudesai, Swapnil; Punnadi, Sujit; Chordia, Pravin; Kohok, Abhay

    2016-07-01

    As a part of a design study for the On-Instrument Low Order Wave-front Sensor (OIWFS) for the TMT Infra-Red Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), we recently evaluated the noise performance of a detector control system consisting of IUCAA SIDECAR DRIVE ELECRONICS CONTROLLER (ISDEC), SIDECAR ASIC and HAWAII-2RG (H2RG) MUX. To understand and improve the performance of this system to serve as a near infrared wavefront sensor, we implemented new read out modes like multiple regions of interest with differential multi-accumulate readout schemes for the HAWAII-2RG (H2RG) detector. In this system, the firmware running in SIDECAR ASIC programs the detector for ROI readout, reads the detector, processes the detector output and writes the digitized data into its internal memory. ISDEC reads the digitized data from ASIC, performs the differential multi-accumulate operations and then sends the processed data to a PC over a USB interface. A special loopback board was designed and used to measure and reduce the noise from SIDECAR ASIC DC biases2. We were able to reduce the mean r.m.s read noise of this system down to 1-2 e. for any arbitrary window frame of 4x4 size at frame rates below about 200 Hz.

  12. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae, Myeong Gi; Lee, Won Seong; Kim, Ha Hyeok

    1989-02-01

    This book give description of electronic engineering such as circuit element and device, circuit analysis and logic digital circuit, the method of electrochemistry like conductometry, potentiometry and current measuring, spectro chemical analysis with electromagnetic radiant rays, optical components, absorption spectroscopy, X-ray analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and reference, chromatography like gas-chromatography and liquid-chromatography and automated analysis on control system evaluation of automated analysis and automated analysis system and reference.

  13. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Myeong Gi; Lee, Won Seong; Kim, Ha Hyeok

    1989-02-15

    This book give description of electronic engineering such as circuit element and device, circuit analysis and logic digital circuit, the method of electrochemistry like conductometry, potentiometry and current measuring, spectro chemical analysis with electromagnetic radiant rays, optical components, absorption spectroscopy, X-ray analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and reference, chromatography like gas-chromatography and liquid-chromatography and automated analysis on control system evaluation of automated analysis and automated analysis system and reference.

  14. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero B, E.

    1989-01-01

    The rapid technical development of Colombia over the past years, resulted among others, a considerable increase in the number of measuring instrumentation and testing laboratories, scientific research and metrology centers, in industry, agriculture, public health, education on the nuclear field, etc. IAN is a well organized institution with qualified management, trained staff and reasonably equipped laboratories to carry out tasks as: Metrology, standardization, quality control and maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments. The government of Colombia has adopted a policy to establish and operate through the country maintenance and repair facilities for nuclear instrumentation. This policy is reflected in the organization of electronic laboratories in Bogota-IAN

  15. Operational Test Instrumentation Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    System. A topographic, transit-level measuring system, instrumented with altimeter, clinometers, compasses , and an alidade, plane table, and stadia rod...dual hangar 250 x 135 feet with two door openings, 80 feet each. There is no compass swing base, no electronic landing aids, ro aircraft wash or...month) of SDG &E) Haybarn Canyon 15,000 6,183,870 Lan Pulgas 1,500 433,890 Las Pulgas Well #41621 100 4,258 Las Pulgas Well #41611 150 7,548 Las Flores

  16. Instrumentation for tomograph positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A.D.B.; Castello Branco, L.M.; Reznik, D.S.; Santos, C.A.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The COPPE's Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. has been developing researches directed towards the implementation of a Computer-Based Tomography System. Basically, the system reported in this paper can be divided into three major parts: the mechanical part, responsible for the physical movement (Stepper-Motors, table, etc.); the electronic part, which controls the mechanical part and handles the data-acquisition process (microcomputer, interfaces, etc.); and finally, the support of a software-oriented system, including control programs and information processing routines. (Author) [pt

  17. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  18. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  19. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  20. Psychometric validation of a new measurement instrument for time-oriented patient information in electronic medical records: A questionnaire survey of physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Akiko; Misawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Yukihiro; Ichikawa, Rie; Kamata, Michiyo; Inoue, Ryusuke; Morimoto, Tetsuji; Nakayama, Masaharu; Hishiki, Teruyoshi; Kondo, Yoshiaki

    2017-12-01

    Time is an important element in medical data. Physicians record and store information about patients' disease progress and treatment response in electronic medical records (EMRs). Because EMRs use timestamps, physicians can identify patterns over time regarding a patient's disease and treatment (eg, laboratory values and medications). However, analyses of physicians' use and satisfaction with EMRs have focused on functionality, storage, and system operation rather than the use of time-oriented information. This study aimed to understand physicians' needs regarding time-oriented patient information in EMRs in clinical practice. The reliability and validity of the items in the questionnaire were evaluated in 87 physicians at a national university hospital. Internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach alpha coefficient, 0.87). Four dimensions were identified in exploratory factor analysis. Correlations between the 4 dimensions supported the construct validity of the items. Scores of time-oriented patients' medical history in the 4 dimensions showed a significant association with physician age. Based on confirmatory factor analysis, associations were significant and positive (P information in EMRs, both time-oriented treatment results followed by time-oriented team information had significant positive associations. Our study suggests that 4 specific time-oriented patient information factors in EMRs are needed by physicians. Exploring physicians' needs regarding patient-specific time-oriented information may provide a better understanding of the barriers facing the adoption and use of EMRs (eg, decision-making and practice safety concerns) and lead to better acceptance of EMRs in physicians' clinical practices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Radiological instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material

  2. Being an Informed Consumer of Health Information and Assessment of Electronic Health Literacy in a National Sample of Internet Users: Validity and Reliability of the e-HLS Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçkin, Gül; Yeatts, Dale; Hughes, Susan; Hudson, Cassie; Bell, Valarie

    2016-07-11

    The Internet, with its capacity to provide information that transcends time and space barriers, continues to transform how people find and apply information to their own lives. With the current explosion in electronic sources of health information, including thousands of websites and hundreds of mobile phone health apps, electronic health literacy is gaining an increasing prominence in health and medical research. An important dimension of electronic health literacy is the ability to appraise the quality of information that will facilitate everyday health care decisions. Health information seekers explore their care options by gathering information from health websites, blogs, Web-based forums, social networking websites, and advertisements, despite the fact that information quality on the Internet varies greatly. Nonetheless, research has lagged behind in establishing multidimensional instruments, in part due to the evolving construct of health literacy itself. The purpose of this study was to examine psychometric properties of a new electronic health literacy (ehealth literacy) measure in a national sample of Internet users with specific attention to older users. Our paper is motivated by the fact that ehealth literacy is an underinvestigated area of inquiry. Our sample was drawn from a panel of more than 55,000 participants maintained by Knowledge Networks, the largest national probability-based research panel for Web-based surveys. We examined the factor structure of a 19-item electronic Health Literacy Scale (e-HLS) through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency reliability, and construct validity on sample of adults (n=710) and a subsample of older adults (n=194). The AMOS graphics program 21.0 was used to construct a measurement model, linking latent factors obtained from EFA with 19 indicators to determine whether this factor structure achieved a good fit with our entire sample and the subsample (age ≥ 60

  3. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. An analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station is presented. (Author) [pt

  4. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. Finally, it is presented an analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station. (Author) [pt

  5. Technical presentation - KEITHLEY Instruments - CANCELLED

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2009-01-01

    10 March 2009 13:30 – 15:30, Council Chamber, Bldg. 503 Keithley markets highly accurate instruments and data acquisition products, as well as complete system solutions for high-volume production and assembly testing. Keithley Instruments, Inc. designs, develops, manufactures and markets complex electronic instruments and systems geared to the specialized needs of electronics manufacturers for high-performance production testing, process monitoring, product development and research. Products and Services: Digital Multimeters and Data Acquisition Systems Current / Voltage Source and Measure Products Low Current / High Resistance Measurement Products Function/Pulse/Arbitrary/Pattern Generators Low Voltage/Low Resistance Measurement Products RF Spectrum Analyzer / RF Signal Generator / RF Switching Semiconductor Device Characterization Program: Topic 1: Welcome and short overview of new Products SMU 26XXA / ARB Generator 3390 / DMM 3706 / E-Meter 6517B Topic 2a: Te...

  6. Technical Training seminar: Texas Instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) POWER - A short approach to Texas Instruments power products Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to the SWIFT software FPGA + CPLD power solutions WIRELESS / CHIPCON Decision criteria when choosing a RF platform Introduction to Texas Instruments wireless products: standardized platforms proprietary platforms ( 2.4 GHz / sub 1 GHz) development tools Antenna design: example for 2.4 GHz questions, discussion Industrial partners: Robert Medioni, François Caloz / Spoerle Electronic, CH-1440 Montagny (VD), Switzerland Phone: +41 24 447 0137, email: RMedioni@spoerle.com, http://www.spoerle.com Language: English. Free s...

  7. Electronics department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities in 1978 of some of the groups within the Electronics Department. The work covered includes plant protection and operator studies, reliability techniques, application of nuclear techniques to mineral exploration, applied laser physics, computing and, lastly, research instrumentation. (author)

  8. Nuclear instrumentation for radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses. Nuclear detectors and associated electronics facilitate detection and measurement of different types of radiation like alpha particles, beta particles, gamma radiation, and detection of neutrons. Nuclear instrumentation has evolved greatly since the discovery of radioactivity. There has been tremendous advancement in detector technology, electronics, computer technology, and development of efficient algorithms and methods for spectral processing to extract precisely qualitative and quantitative information of the radiation. Various types of detectors and nuclear instruments are presently available and are used for different applications. This paper describes nuclear radiation, its detection and measurement and associated electronics, spectral information extraction, and advances in these fields. The paper also describes challenges in this field

  9. Electricity electron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Sung, Rak Jin

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with measurement of electricity and electron. It is divided into fourteen chapters, which depicts basic of electricity measurement, unit and standard, important electron circuit for measurement, instrument of electricity, impedance measurement, power and power amount measurement, frequency and time measurement, waveform measurement, record instrument and direct viewing instrument, super high frequency measurement, digital measurement on analog-digital convert, magnetic measurement on classification by principle of measurement, measurement of electricity application with principle sensors and systematization of measurement.

  10. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikic, N.; Majstorovic, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related to renewal of the equipment [sr

  11. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikic, N.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related control and maintenace of the experimental devices [sr

  12. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikic, N.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related control and maintenace of the experimental devices [sr

  13. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstorovic, D.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related to renewal of the equipment [sr

  14. Report of the Instrumentation Service - Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstorovic, D.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the tasks and organizational structure of the Instrumentation service. The most important task of this Service is control and maintenance of the reactor control and protection instruments, operation control, and dosimetry system. Besides data about this basic instrumentation, the report includes data about control and maintenance of other electronic equipment, inspection of the reactor vessel and spent fuel storage pool and describes activities related to renewal of the equipment [sr

  15. Electron beam instrumentation techniques using coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1997-01-01

    Much progress has been made on coherent radiation research since coherent synchrotron radiation was first observed in 1989. The use of coherent radiation as a bunch length diagnostic tool has been studied by several groups. In this paper, brief introductions to coherent radiation and far-infrared measurement are given, the progress and status of their beam diagnostic application are reviewed, different techniques are described, and their advantages and limitations are discussed

  16. Maintenance of nuclear medicine instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambro, P

    1993-12-31

    Maintenance of instruments is generally of two kinds: (a) corrective maintenance, on a non-scheduled basis, to restore equipment to a functional status by repairs; (b) preventive maintenance, to keep equipment in a specified functional condition by providing systematic inspection, quality control, detection and correction of early malfunctions. Most of the instruments used in nuclear medicine are rather complex systems built from mechanical, electrical and electronic parts. Any one of these components is liable to fail at some time or other. Repair could be done only by a specialist who is able to evaluate the condition of the various parts ranging from cables to connectors, from scintillators to photomultipliers, from microprocessors to microswitches. The knowledge of the intricacies of the various electronic components required for their repairs is quite wide and varied. The electronics industry turns out more and more multi-purpose chips which can carry out the functions of many parts used in the instruments of the earlier generation. This provides protection against unauthorized copying of the circuits but it serves another purpose as well of inhibiting repairs by non-factory personnel. These trends of the instrument design should be taken into consideration when a policy has to be developed for the repairs of the hospital based equipment 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Maintenance of nuclear medicine instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambro, P.

    1992-01-01

    Maintenance of instruments is generally of two kinds: (a) corrective maintenance, on a non-scheduled basis, to restore equipment to a functional status by repairs; (b) preventive maintenance, to keep equipment in a specified functional condition by providing systematic inspection, quality control, detection and correction of early malfunctions. Most of the instruments used in nuclear medicine are rather complex systems built from mechanical, electrical and electronic parts. Any one of these components is liable to fail at some time or other. Repair could be done only by a specialist who is able to evaluate the condition of the various parts ranging from cables to connectors, from scintillators to photomultipliers, from microprocessors to microswitches. The knowledge of the intricacies of the various electronic components required for their repairs is quite wide and varied. The electronics industry turns out more and more multi-purpose chips which can carry out the functions of many parts used in the instruments of the earlier generation. This provides protection against unauthorized copying of the circuits but it serves another purpose as well of inhibiting repairs by non-factory personnel. These trends of the instrument design should be taken into consideration when a policy has to be developed for the repairs of the hospital based equipment

  18. Wubbles: A Collaborative Ephemeral Musical Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Berthaut, Florent; Knibbe, Jarrod

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a collaborative digital musical instrument that uses the ephemeral and physical properties of soap bubbles to explore the complexity layers and oscillating parameters of electronic (bass) music. This instrument, called Wubbles, aims at encouraging both individual and collaborative musical manipulations.

  19. Recent developments in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text : Nuclear Instrumentation is a field of vital importance for DAE. It has important applications in many areas of interest such as Reactor Monitoring and control, Accelerator based research, Laser and nuclear physics experiments, Health and environmental monitoring, Astrophysics experiments etc. It is a specialized field involving expertise in detection of radioactivity down to the level of few events per minute as well as processing and analysis of signals which can be as small as few hundred micro volts embedded in noise. Some applications involve digitizing and processing these signals with 0.001% accuracy and timing accuracies of a fraction of nano sec. Rapid developments in semiconductor related technologies have influenced the field of nuclear instrumentation. Development of FPGA's and ASIC's have made it possible to develop miniaturized smart and portable instruments for field applications. Advancements in field of computers, communications and various field buses have been successfully utilized for smart, portable and DSP based instrumentation. Smart sensor with detector and front-end electronics on a single silicon chip is now a reality. These instruments are also made intelligent by addition of fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and expert systems. Electronics Division of BARC has made significant contribution to the field of nuclear instrumentation to achieve self-reliance in this area. This has also led to development of several new methods, which have been published in international journals and appreciated worldwide. As a step towards achieving complete self-reliance a programme for development of FPGA's, HMC's and ASIC's has been undertaken and is being followed with special emphasis. This also includes development of detector and front- end electronics on a single chip. This talk brings out details of these developments and describes the 'state of art' work done in India

  20. Mechanical engineers' handbook, design, instrumentation, and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Kutz, Myer

    2015-01-01

    Full coverage of electronics, MEMS, and instrumentation andcontrol in mechanical engineering This second volume of Mechanical Engineers' Handbookcovers electronics, MEMS, and instrumentation and control, givingyou accessible and in-depth access to the topics you'll encounterin the discipline: computer-aided design, product design formanufacturing and assembly, design optimization, total qualitymanagement in mechanical system design, reliability in themechanical design process for sustainability, life-cycle design,design for remanufacturing processes, signal processing, dataacquisition and dis

  1. Instrumental fundamental parameters and selected applications of the microfocus X-ray fluorescence analysis at a scanning electron microscope; Instrumentelle Fundamentalparameter und ausgewaehlte Anwendungen der Mikrofokus-Roentgenfluoreszenzanalyse am Rasterelektronenmikroskop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rackwitz, Vanessa

    2012-05-30

    For a decade X-ray sources have been commercially available for the microfocus X-ray fluorescence analysis ({mu}-XRF) and offer the possibility of extending the analytics at a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an attached energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). By using the {mu}-XRF it is possible to determine the content of chemical elements in a microscopic sample volume in a quantitative, reference-free and non-destructive way. For the reference-free quantification with the XRF the Sherman equation is referred to. This equation deduces the intensity of the detected X-ray intensity of a fluorescence peak to the content of the element in the sample by means of fundamental parameters. The instrumental fundamental parameters of the {mu}-XRF at a SEM/EDS system are the excitation spectrum consisting of X-ray tube spectrum and the transmission of the X-ray optics, the geometry and the spectrometer efficiency. Based on a calibrated instrumentation the objectives of this work are the development of procedures for the characterization of all instrumental fundamental parameters as well as the evaluation and reduction of their measurement uncertainties: The algorithms known from the literature for the calculation of X-ray tube spectrum are evaluated with regard to their deviations in the spectral distribution. Within this work a novel semi-empirical model is improved with respect to its uncertainties and enhanced in the low energy range as well as extended for another three anodes. The emitted X-ray tube spectrum is calculated from the detected one, which is measured at an especially developed setup for the direct measurement of X-ray tube spectra. This emitted X-ray tube spectrum is compared to the one calculated on base of the model of this work. A procedure for the determination of the most important parameters of an X-ray semi-lens in parallelizing mode is developed. The temporal stability of the transmission of X-ray full lenses, which have been in regular

  2. Advances in control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surendar, Ch.

    1994-01-01

    Control and instrumentation systems have seen significant changes from pneumatic to electronic with the advent of transistors and integrated circuits. Miniaturization was realised. With the introduction of microprocessors there has been a revolutionary change in the approach in instrumentation and control systems in the areas of sensors, data acquisition/transmission, processing for control, and presentation of the information to the operator. An effort is made to give some insight into these areas, with some idea of the advantages to which these systems are being put to use in the nuclear facilities, particularly nuclear power reactors. (author)

  3. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, David E.

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  4. The QUIET Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  5. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  6. Electronics Department. Progress Report 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    This report summarizes the activities in the Electronics Department in 1984. These include work under the headings of informatics, applied laser physics, nuclear geophysics, instrumentation and measuring techniques, and instrumentation consulting, registration and maintenance for the Danish...

  7. Safeguards instrumentation: past, present, future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Instruments are essential for accounting, for surveillance and for protection of nuclear materials. The development and application of such instrumentation is reviewed, with special attention to international safeguards applications. Active and passive nondestructive assay techniques are some 25 years of age. The important advances have been in learning how to use them effectively for specific applications, accompanied by major advances in radiation detectors, electronics, and, more recently, in mini-computers. The progress in seals has been disappointingly slow. Surveillance cameras have been widely used for many applications other than safeguards. The revolution in TV technology will have important implications. More sophisticated containment/surveillance equipment is being developed but has yet to be exploited. On the basis of this history, some expectations for instrumentation in the near future are presented

  8. The Sensors and Instrumentation Knowledge Transfer Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P

    2009-01-01

    The Sensors and Instrumentation KTN has established itself as the UK's national network in sensors and instrumentation, developing a community of over 2,250 member organisations. This paper describes the background to Knowledge Transfer Networks (KTNs) and the changes that are happening to KTNs at a national level, before describing the market size, activities and successes of the Sensors and Instrumentation KTN. The paper concludes by describing the merger between the Sensors and Instrumentation KTN and four other KTNs to create a new KTN, with a working title of the Electronics, Sensors and Photonics KTN.

  9. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  10. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  11. Astronomical Instruments in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  12. Beam diagnostic instruments of TARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shin-ichi.

    1987-09-01

    The paper summarizes the beam diagnostic instruments of the low energy ion accumulation ring; TARN. With these monitors, position, profiles, bunch structure, intensity, emittance and momentum spread were measured to evaluate the injection and stacking experiments. The monitors provide the sensitivity of a few μA for the nondestructive and a few nA for the destructive monitors. Discussions on monitor probe and electronics are presented on the basis of an achievement of the beam stacking experiments. (author)

  13. Troubleshooting in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report on troubleshooting of nuclear instruments is the product of several scientists and engineers, who are closely associated with nuclear instrumentation and with the IAEA activities in the field. The text covers the following topics: Preamplifiers, amplifiers, scalers, timers, ratemeters, multichannel analyzers, dedicated instruments, tools, instruments, accessories, components, skills, interfaces, power supplies, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting in systems, radiation detectors. The troubleshooting and repair of instruments is illustrated by some real examples

  14. Electronics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    countries in developing market nations in Asia (such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia , China and Vietnam). The competition for the knowledge, economic...Intel, Infineon Technologies, STMicroelectronics, Samsung Electronics, Texas Instruments, AMD Spansion, Philips Semiconductor, Freescale... Samsung ($19.7B), #5 Toshiba ($9.8B), #6 TSMC ($9.7B), #7 Hynix ($8.0B) and #8 Renesas ($7.9B) (McGrath, 2007, p. 3). Samsung , headquartered in

  15. Recent advances in radiation protection instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, D.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation protection instrumentation plays very important role in radiation protection and surveillance programme. Radiation detector, which appears at the frontal end of the instrument, is an essential component of these instruments. The instrumental requirement of protection level radiation monitoring is different from conventional radiation measuring instruments. Present paper discusses the new type of nuclear radiation detectors, new protection level instruments and associated electronic modules for various applications. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, such as nuclear power plants; mining and milling; medical institutions; educational and research establishments; and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection to workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radioactive materials for different applications. The radiation exposures to the individual radiation workers and records of their cumulative radiation doses need to be routinely monitored and recorded

  16. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of the influence of manual and mechanical glide path on the surface of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in moderately curved root canals: An in-vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dishant; Bashetty, Kusum; Srirekha, A.; Archana, S.; Savitha, B.; Vijay, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of manual versus mechanical glide path (GP) on the surface changes of two different nickel-titanium rotary instruments used during root canal therapy in a moderately curved root canal. Materials and Methods: Sixty systemically healthy controls were selected for the study. Controls were divided randomly into four groups: Group 1: Manual GP followed by RaCe rotary instruments, Group 2: Manual GP followed by HyFlex rotary instruments, Group 3: Mechanical GP followed by RaCe rotary instruments, Group 4: Mechanical GP followed by HyFlex rotary instruments. After access opening, GP was prepared and rotary instruments were used according to manufacturer's instructions. All instruments were evaluated for defects under standard error mean before their use and after a single use. The scorings for the files were given at apical and middle third. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-squared test was used. Results: The results showed that there is no statistical difference between any of the groups. Irrespective of the GP and rotary files used, more defects were present in the apical third when compared to middle third of the rotary instrument. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that there was no effect of manual or mechanical GP on surface defects of subsequent rotary file system used. PMID:27994317

  17. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    can empower performers by producing super instrument works that allow the concert instrument to become an ensemble controlled by a single player. The existing instrumental skills of the performer can be multiplied and the qualities of regular acoustic instruments extended or modified. Such a situation......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...

  18. BOMBAY: Instrumentation school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Promising students had a foretaste of the latest laboratory techniques at the ICFA 1993 India School on Instrumentation in High Energy Physics held from February 15-26 and hosted by the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Bombay. The scientific programme was put together by the ICFA Panel for Future Instrumentation, Innovation and Development, chaired by Tord Ekelof (Uppsala). The programme included lectures and topical seminars covering a wide range of detector subjects. In small groups, students got acquainted with modern detector technologies in the laboratory sessions, using experimental setups assembled in various institutes world-wide and shipped to Bombay for the School. The techniques covered included multiwire proportional chambers for detection of particles and photons, gaseous detectors for UV photons and X-ray imaging, the study of charge drift in silicon detectors, measurement of the muon lifetime using liquid scintillators, tracking using scintillating fibres, and electronics for sensitive detectors. The India School was attended by around 80 students from 20 countries; 34 came from Indian universities. It was the fifth in this series, previous Schools having been at Trieste (1987, 1989 and 1991) organized by the ICFA Panel and hosted and sponsored by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, and in 1990, organized at Rio de Janeiro in collaboration with the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas. The School was jointly directed by Suresh Tonwar (TIFR), Fabio Sauli (CERN) and Marleigh Sheaff (University of Wisconsin), and sponsored by TIFR and DAE (India), CERN (Switzerland), ICTP and INFN (Italy), British Council and RAL (UK), NSF and DOE (USA), KEK (Japan), IPP (Canada) and DESY (Germany)

  19. Analysis the fatigue using pro taper rotary instruments durin instrumentation of extrated mandibular premolars. SEM observation.

    OpenAIRE

    Siragusa, Martha; Racciatti, Gabriela; García, María

    2007-01-01

    Recibido: Marzo 2007 Aceptado: Julio 2007 Siragusa, Martha; Racciatti, Gabriela y García, María. Analysis the fatigue using pro taper rotary instruments durin instrumentation of extrated mandibular premolars. SEM observation. Electronic Journal of Endodontics Rosario [Online], Volumen 2 Número 13. [octubre 2007]. http://www.endojournal.com.ar/journal/index.php/ejer/article/view/44. ISSN 1666-6143.

  20. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  1. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  2. Nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; McGonigal, G.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described which has an equal number of fuel sub-assemblies and sensing instruments. Each instrument senses temperature and rate of coolant flow of a coolant derived from a group of three sub-assemblies so that an abnormal value for one sub-assembly will be indicated on three instruments thereby providing for redundancy of up to two of the three instruments. The abnormal value may be a precurser to unstable boiling of coolant

  3. Electronic theodolite intersection systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bingley, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of electronic surveying instruments, such as electronic theodolites, and concurrent advances in computer technology, has revolutionised engineering surveying; one of the more recent examples being the introduction of Electronic Theodolite Intersection Systems (ETISs). An ETIS consists of two or more electronic theodolites and a computer, with peripheral hardware and suitable software. The theoretical principles on which they are based have been known for a long time, but ...

  4. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, Abraham; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  5. Status of safeguards instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higinbotham, W.A.

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is performing safeguards at some nuclear power reactors, 50 bulk processing facilities, and 170 research facilities. Its verification activities require the use of instruments to measure nuclear materials and of surveillance instruments to maintain continuity of knowledge of the locations of nuclear materials. Instruments that are in use and under development to measure weight, volume, concentration, and isotopic composition of nuclear materials, and the major surveillance instruments, are described in connection with their uses at representative nuclear facilities. The current status of safeguards instrumentation and the needs for future development are discussed

  6. Early modern mathematical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jim

    2011-12-01

    In considering the appropriate use of the terms "science" and "scientific instrument," tracing the history of "mathematical instruments" in the early modern period is offered as an illuminating alternative to the historian's natural instinct to follow the guiding lights of originality and innovation, even if the trail transgresses contemporary boundaries. The mathematical instrument was a well-defined category, shared across the academic, artisanal, and commercial aspects of instrumentation, and its narrative from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century was largely independent from other classes of device, in a period when a "scientific" instrument was unheard of.

  7. Instrument for measuring flow velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffo, J.

    1977-01-01

    The design described here means to produce a 'more satisfying instrument with less cost' than comparable instruments known up to now. Instead of one single turbine rotor, two similar ones but with opposite blade inclination and sense of rotation are to be used. A cylindrical measuring body is carrying in its axis two bearing blocks whose shape is offering little flow resistance. On the shaft, supported by them, the two rotors run in opposite direction a relatively small axial distance apart. The speed of each rotor is picked up as pulse recurrence frequency by a transmitter and fed to an electronic measuring unit. Measuring errors as they are caused for single rotors by turbulent flow, profile distortion of the velocity, or viscous flow are to be eliminated by means of the contrarotating turbines and the subsequently added electronic unit, because in these cases the adulterating increase of the angular velocity of one rotor is compensated by a corresponding deceleration of the other rotor. The mean value then indicated by the electronic unit has high accurancy of measurement. (RW) [de

  8. Designing communication and remote controlling of virtual instrument network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lin; Wang, Houjun; Zhou, Xue; Zhou, Wenjian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual instrument network through the LAN and finally remote control of virtual instruments is realized based on virtual instrument and LabWindows/CVI software platform. The virtual instrument network system is made up of three subsystems. There are server subsystem, telnet client subsystem and local instrument control subsystem. This paper introduced virtual instrument network structure in detail based on LabWindows. Application procedure design of virtual instrument network communication, the Client/the programming mode of the server, remote PC and server communication far realizing, the control power of the workstation is transmitted, server program and so on essential technical were introduced. And virtual instruments network may connect to entire Internet on. Above-mentioned technology, through measuring the application in the electronic measurement virtual instrument network that is already built up, has verified the actual using value of the technology. Experiment and application validate that this design is resultful.

  9. Designing communication and remote controlling of virtual instrument network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Lin; Wang Houjun; Zhou Xue; Zhou Wenjian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual instrument network through the LAN and finally remote control of virtual instruments is realized based on virtual instrument and LabWindows/CVI software platform. The virtual instrument network system is made up of three subsystems. There are server subsystem, telnet client subsystem and local instrument control subsystem. This paper introduced virtual instrument network structure in detail based on LabWindows. Application procedure design of virtual instrument network communication, the Client/the programming mode of the server, remote PC and server communication far realizing, the control power of the workstation is transmitted, server program and so on essential technical were introduced. And virtual instruments network may connect to entire Internet on. Above-mentioned technology, through measuring the application in the electronic measurement virtual instrument network that is already built up, has verified the actual using value of the technology. Experiment and application validate that this design is resultful

  10. Instrumentation in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serin, L.

    2007-01-01

    The instrumentation in high energy physics is a wide and advanced domain which cannot be covered in a single lesson. The main basic physics processes for charged and neutral particles are recalled with the definition of a few concepts needed to understand or design a detector. The application of these principles to charged particle measurement devices (momentum), light detection or energy measurement are presented mostly with examples from collider experiments. The particle identification which is often the combination of different techniques in a same experiment is also discussed. Finally in a very short section, a few considerations about electronics/processing with their impact on the detector performance are given

  11. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  12. Instrumentation for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and coordinate nuclear instrumentation standards with resulting economies for the nuclear and radiation fields. There was particular emphasis on coordination and management of the Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) System, U.S. activity involving the CAMAC international standard dataway system, the FASTBUS modular high-speed data acquisition and control system and processing and management of national nuclear instrumentation and detector standards, as well as a modest amount of assistance and consultation services to the Pollutant Characterization and Safety Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The principal accomplishments were the development and maintenance of the NIM instrumentation system that is the predominant instrumentation system in the nuclear and radiation fields worldwide, the CAMAC digital interface system in coordination with the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories, the FASTBUS high-speed system and numerous national and international nuclear instrumentation standards

  13. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  14. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  15. 论对电子管风琴中民族乐器音色的模仿性触键及对民族音乐作品的诠释%On the imitation touching keys of the timbres of national musical instruments in electronic organand interpretation of national music works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓博

    2013-01-01

      电子管风琴中设置的我国民族乐器音色包括二胡、笛、笙、筝等等。如何利用有限的音色资源演奏民族音乐作品?并且实现模仿得像?演奏得像?这是演奏者必须思考和掌握的问题。文章将从模仿民族乐器中的吹奏乐器、弹拨乐器、拉奏乐器几方面探讨如何在电子管风琴上对民族乐器音色实现模仿性触键,并以《二泉映月》为代表论述演奏民族音乐作品的触键特征,力求将保留原曲韵味与发挥电子管风琴特点相统一,融合民族性与时代性,不断开拓电子管风琴演奏的广阔天地!%  China's national musical instrument in electronic organ includes erhu, flute, Sheng, zither etc.. How to use the limited resources to play folk music sound? And imitate? Play like? This is the problem performer must consider and master. This article from the imitation of national musical instrument to explore how to achieve imitation touch of the timbres of national musical instruments in electronic organ, to take the "Erquanyingyue" as the representative to discuss the features of touching key in the national music playing, in order to retain the unity of original flavor and play music electron tube the characteristics, ethnic fusion with the times, and constantly open up vast space of electronic organ!

  16. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  17. Instrument validation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells

  18. Instrument performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program

  19. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  20. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  1. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, Halina; Abusleme, Angel; Afanaciev, Konstantin

    2010-09-01

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10 -3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised. (orig.)

  2. Forward Instrumentation for ILC Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, Halina; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar, Jonathan; Ambalathankandy, Prasoon; Bambade, Philip; Bergholz, Matthias; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Castro, Elena; Chelkov, Georgy; Coca, Cornelia; Daniluk, Witold; Dragone, Angelo; Dumitru, Laurentiu; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Gostkin, Mikhail; Grah, Christian; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Haller, Gunter; Henschel, Hans; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Idzik, Marek; Ito, Kazutoshi; Jovin, Tatjana; Kielar, Eryk; Kotula, Jerzy; Krumstein, Zinovi; Kulis, Szymon; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Levy, Aharon; Moszczynski, Arkadiusz; Nauenberg, Uriel; Novgorodova, Olga; Ohlerich, Marin; Orlandea, Marius; Oleinik, Gleb; Oliwa, Krzysztof; Olshevski, Alexander; Pandurovic, Mila; Pawlik, Bogdan; Przyborowski, Dominik; Sato, Yutaro; Sadeh, Iftach; Sailer, Andre; Schmidt, Ringo; Schumm, Bruce; Schuwalow, Sergey; Smiljanic, Ivan; Swientek, Krzysztof; Takubo, Yosuke; Teodorescu, Eliza; Wierba, Wojciech; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zhang, Jinlong

    2010-01-01

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

  3. Industrial Products for Beam Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Schmickler, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    In various branches of high technology industry there has been considerable progress in the past years which could be used for beam instrumentation. The subject will be introduced by two short demonstrations: a demonstration of modern audio electronics with 24bit-96kHz ADC, digital signal electronics and application programs under windows on a PC, which allow to change the parameters of the signal treatment. Potential applications are data monitoring at constant sampling frequency, orbit feedbacks (including high power audio amplifiers), noise reduction on beam current transformers... digital treatment of video signals webcams, frame grabbers, CCD-data via USB, all one needs for image acquisitions, in particular interesting for profile measurements. These introductory demonstrations will not last longer than 30 minutes. The remaining time will be used to pass through the audience collecting information into a two dimensional table, which shall contain as row index the accelerator and as column index the t...

  4. Overview of LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed

  5. Instrumentation and Controls Division biennial progress report, September 1, 1974--September 1, 1976. Non-LMFBR programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, G.S.

    1976-11-01

    Research progress and developments are reported in the areas of basic electronics, instruments, radiation monitoring, pulse counting and analysis, electronic engineering support for research facilities, automatic control and data acquisition, reactor instrumentation and controls, fuel reprocessing and shipping, process systems and instrumentation development, thermometry, instrumentation for reactor division experiments and test loops, environmental science studies, miscellaneous engineering studies, services, and developments, and maintenance

  6. Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1985-04-01

    This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underlay modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost.

  7. Instrumentation and Controls Division biennial progress report, September 1, 1976--September 1, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, G.S. (ed.)

    1978-11-01

    Progress is summarized in the following research and development areas: electronic circuits;instruments; radiation monitoring; process systems and instrumentation; thermometry; instrumentation for engineering experiments and test loops; HTGR fuel recycle development; reactor measurements and analysis; automatic control and data acquisition; electronic engineering support for research facilities; miscellaneous engineering services, studies, and developments; maintenance; and environmental science studies.

  8. Instrumentation and Controls Division biennial progress report, September 1, 1976--September 1, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, G.S.

    1978-11-01

    Progress is summarized in the following research and development areas: electronic circuits;instruments; radiation monitoring; process systems and instrumentation; thermometry; instrumentation for engineering experiments and test loops; HTGR fuel recycle development; reactor measurements and analysis; automatic control and data acquisition; electronic engineering support for research facilities; miscellaneous engineering services, studies, and developments; maintenance; and environmental science studies

  9. Computational and instrumental methods in EPR

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Computational and Instrumental Methods in EPR Prof. Bender, Fordham University Prof. Lawrence J. Berliner, University of Denver Electron magnetic resonance has been greatly facilitated by the introduction of advances in instrumentation and better computational tools, such as the increasingly widespread use of the density matrix formalism. This volume is devoted to both instrumentation and computation aspects of EPR, while addressing applications such as spin relaxation time measurements, the measurement of hyperfine interaction parameters, and the recovery of Mn(II) spin Hamiltonian parameters via spectral simulation. Key features: Microwave Amplitude Modulation Technique to Measure Spin-Lattice (T1) and Spin-Spin (T2) Relaxation Times Improvement in the Measurement of Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Quantitative Measurement of Magnetic Hyperfine Parameters and the Physical Organic Chemistry of Supramolecular Systems New Methods of Simulation of Mn(II) EPR Spectra: Single Cryst...

  10. New generation low power radiation survey instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.; Wolf, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and powersaving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Use of a capacitor as a power source eliminates many problems commonly associated with battery-operated instruments, such as having to open the case to change batteries, battery storage life, availability of batteries in the field, and some savings in weight. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments

  11. How To Control Color Appearance With Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Margaret E.

    1980-05-01

    Colorimetry, as defined by the International Commission on Illumination, is the measurement of colors, made possible by the properties of the eye and based on a set of conventions. Instrumentation for measuring object color, therefore, must be based on a human observer. The intent is to design an instrument that in effect responds as a person would, so that research development, production control and quality control areas have some means of assessing the acceptability of the appearance of a product. Investigations of a human observer's psychological response to color, and the manner in which visual observations are made, give the instrument designer and manufacturer data necessary to answer two questions: a. How can we put numbers (instrument read-out) on a perception that occurs in the brain of the observer? b. What can we learn from examination of a visual observing situation that will guide us in our design of an instrumental simulation of this situation? Involving as it does our own daily, almost unconscious, practice of making judgments concerning the things we see, the design and manufacture of color measurement instruments is an exceedingly interesting field. The advances being made concurrently today in research concerning human color vision and in optical and electronic technology will make possible increasingly useful instrumentation for quality control of product color.

  12. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  13. The latest radiation instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Se Sik; Gwon, Dal Gwan; Kim, Gyeong Geum

    2008-08-01

    This book deals with the latest radiation instrument, which is comprised of eight chapters. It explains X rays instrument for medial treatment, X-ray tube instrument and permissible burden with its history, structure and characteristic high voltage apparatus with high voltage rectifier circuit, X-ray control apparatus for medical treatment, X-ray image equipment X-ray television apparatus and CCD 205, X-ray apparatus of install and types, Digital X-ray apparatus with CR 261 and DR 269, performance management on X-ray for medical treatment with its history, necessity and management in the radiation field.

  14. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities as well as wastes from old waste burial ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. Because of the topic of this workshop, only the assay instrumentation applied specifically to soil monitoring will be discussed here. Four types of soil monitors are described

  15. Soil monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has an extensive program for the development of nondestructive assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic (TRU) materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. Included are wastes generated in decontamination and decommissioning of outdated nuclear facilities, as well as from old waste-burial-ground exhumation programs. The assay instrumentation is designed to have detection limits below 10 nCi/g wherever practicable. The assay instrumentation that is applied specifically to soil monitoring is discussed

  16. Jones' instrument technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ernest Beachcroft; Kingham, Edward G; Radnai, Rudolf

    1985-01-01

    Jones' Instrument Technology, Volume 5: Automatic Instruments and Measuring Systems deals with general trends in automatic instruments and measuring systems. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the principles of such devices. A brief review of a considerable number of standards is undertaken, with emphasis on the IEC625 Interface System. Other relevant standards are reviewed, including the interface and backplane bus standards. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a short introduction to the principles of automatic measurements, classification of measuring system

  17. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand....

  18. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  19. CCAT Heterodyne Instrument Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work will extend and proof-out the design concept for a high pixel count (128 pixels in 2 bands) submillimeter-wave heterodyne receiver array instrument for the...

  20. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  1. Nuclear instrument technician training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollesen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Nuclear Instrument Technician (NIT) training that has developed at an accelerated rate over the past three decades. During the 1960's commercial nuclear power plants were in their infancy. For that reason, there is little wonder that NIT training had little structure and little creditability. NIT training, in many early plants, was little more than On-The Job Training (OJT). The seventies brought changes in Instrumentation and Controls as well as emphasis on the requirements for more in depth training and documentation. As in the seventies, the eighties saw not only changes in technologies but tighter requirements, standardized training and the development of accredited Nuclear Instrument Training; thus the conclusion: Nuclear Instrument Training Isn't What It Used To Be

  2. Carbon Footprint Reduction Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page outlines the major differences between Renewable Energy Certificates (REC) and Project Offsets and what types of claims each instrument allows the organization to make in regards to environmental emissions claims.

  3. Instrument care: everyone's responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée du Toit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyone working in an ophthalmic operating theatre must be competent in the care, handling, storage, and maintenance of instruments. This will help to improve surgical outcomes, maintain an economic and affordable service for patients, and provide a safe environment for the wellbeing of patients and staff.Including instrument care in theatre courses and in-service training is one way of ensuring staff competence.

  4. Instrument uncertainty predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, D.A.

    1991-07-01

    The accuracy of measurements and correlations should normally be provided for most experimental activities. The uncertainty is a measure of the accuracy of a stated value or equation. The uncertainty term reflects a combination of instrument errors, modeling limitations, and phenomena understanding deficiencies. This report provides several methodologies to estimate an instrument's uncertainty when used in experimental work. Methods are shown to predict both the pretest and post-test uncertainty

  5. Experimenting with woodwind instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2007-05-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects of holes in the tubing and other factors that make simple tubes useful as musical instruments.

  6. Maintenance of scientific instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, E.

    1986-01-01

    During the last years Colombia has increased the use of nuclear techniques, instruments and equipment in ambitious health programs, as well as in research centers, industry and education; this has resulted in numerous maintenance problems. As an alternative solution IAN has established a Central Maintenance Laboratory for nuclear instruments within an International Atomic Energy Agency program for eight Latin American and nine Asian Countries. Established strategies and some results are detailed in this writing

  7. Advanced optical instruments technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-08-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  8. The nuclear instrumentation system of the French 1400 MWe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgerette, A.; Mauduit, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear instrumentation systems in power reactors in France have made considerable advances thanks to technological progress. The appearance of an integrated digital protection system (SPIN) and the extension of digital techniques have considerably improved performance and operating flexibility. Working on the basis of technology developed jointly with the Nuclear Electronics and Instrumentation Department at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Framatome and Merlin Gerin have designed the new nuclear instrumentation system for 1400 MW reactors. (authors). 4 figs

  9. Nuclear instrumentation for the industrial measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, S.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with nuclear instrumentation and its application to industry, power plant fuel reprocessing plant and finally with homeland security. The first part concerns the reactor instrumentation, in-core and ex-core measurement system. Ionization Uranium fission chamber will be introduced with their acquisition system especially Campbell mode system. Some progress have been done on regarding sensors failure foresee. The second part of this work deals with reprocessing plant and associated instrumentation for nuclear waste management. Proportional counters techniques will be discussed, especially Helium-3 counter, and new development on electronic concept for reprocessing nuclear waste plant (one electronic for multipurpose acquisition system). For nuclear safety and security for human and homeland will be introduce. First we will explain a new particular approach on operational dosimetric measurement and secondly, we will show new kind of organic scintillator material and associated electronics. Signal treatment with real time treatment is embedded, in order to make neutron gamma discrimination possible even in solid organic scintillator. Finally, the conclusion will point out future, with most trends in research and development on nuclear instrumentation for next years. (author) [fr

  10. National Skills Standards Development Program: Organization and Operation of Technical Committees To Develop National Skill Standards for Competency in the Electronics Industry. The Third Party Summative Evaluation of the Electronic Industries Foundation Project. Phase I & II. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Charles

    The Electronics Industries Foundation was awarded a project to develop national entry-level standards and a certification system. Ten specialties were included: automotive electronics, avionics, biomedical electronics, business machines, consumer products electronics, general electronics, industrial electronics, instrumentation, microcomputer, and…

  11. Instrumentation of air conditioning and ventilation system - R-5 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.B.; Naik, C.D.; Narasingha Rao, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed account of instrumentation proposed for airconditioning and ventilation system in the R-5, 100 MW thermal research reactor, under construction is presented. Controls and instrumentation provided in this system are electronic, pneumatic and hydraulic in nature depending on the application. They cater to the accurate operation of the system and maintain the conditions strictly within desired tolerances. (S.K.K.)

  12. Electron microscopy (nonbiological)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The period 1982-1985, which is covered by this review, has seen major advances in the capabilities of the commercially available instruments. The new electron microscopes operating in the range of 300-400 keV have provided important improvements in the resolution available and in the possibilities for microanalysis of very small specimen areas. Correspondingly there has been a broadening in the range of possible applications of the techniques. Electron microscopy has become a much more powerful tool for studies of semiconductors and catalysts, for example, and offers promise of a major revolution in surface science. The major industrial laboratories, in particular, are investing in million-dollar instruments and in the highly skilled scientists needed to run them because the capabilities of the new instruments are seen to have immediate practical applications to current industrial research. Unfortunately all of the new instruments and most of the skilled users come from overseas. The American instrument industry, although showing some limited signs of life, is not yet in a position to compete in this lucrative market and the training of electron optics specialists in this country is far from meeting the demand. The increased sophistication required for both the operation of the instruments and the interpretation of the observation requires that the quality as well as the quantity of trainees must be improved. 62 references

  13. Musical instrument technology of the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Paul

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the technical development of musical instruments during the 20th century. Starting with early electronic instruments (such as the Theremin-1917) invented prior to the organization of ASA, the history includes the development of electronic organs, synthesizers, and computer music. This paper provides an introduction to the session, giving a framework for the papers which follow in the session.

  14. Some emergency instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P H

    1986-10-01

    The widespread release of activity and the resultant spread of contamination after the Chernobyl accident resulted in requests to NRPB to provide instruments for, and expertise in, the measurement of radiation. The most common request was for advice on the usefulness of existing instruments, but Board staff were also involved in their adaptation or in the development of new instruments specially to meet the circumstances of the accident. The accident occurred on 26 April. On 1 May, NRPB was involved at Heathrow Airport in the monitoring of the British students who had returned from Kiev and Minsk. The main purpose was to reassure the students by checking that their persons and belongings did not have significant surface contamination. Additional measurements were also made of iodine activity in thyroid using hand-held detectors or a mobile body monitor. This operation was arranged with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, which had also received numerous requests for instruments from embassies and consulates in countries close to the scene of the accident. There was concern for the well-being of staff and other United Kingdom nationals who resided in or intended to visit the most affected countries. The board supplied suitable instruments, and the FCO distributed them to embassies. The frequency of environmental monitoring was increased from 29 April in anticipation of contamination and appropriate Board instrumentation was deployed. After the Chernobyl cloud arrived in the UK on 2 May, there were numerous requests from local government, public authorities, private companies and members of the public for information and advice on monitoring equipment and procedures. Some of these requirements could be met with existing equipment but members of the public were usually advised not to proceed. At a later stage, the contamination of foodstuffs and livestock required the development of an instrument capable of detecting low levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in food

  15. DYMAC digital electronic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.M.

    1980-06-01

    The Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System at LASL integrates nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments with interactive data-processing equipment to provide near-real-time accountability of the nuclear material in the LASL Plutonium Processing Facility. The most widely used NDA instrument in the system is the DYMAC digital electronic balance. The DYMAC balance is a commercial instrument that has been modified at LASL for weighing material in gloveboxes and for transmitting the weight data directly to a central computer. This manual describes the balance components, details the LASL modifications, reviews a DYMAC measurement control program that monitors balance performance, and provides instructions for balance operation and maintenance

  16. Reactor instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, D.; Beraha, D.

    1980-01-01

    The methods for measuring radiation are shortly reviewed. The instrumentation for neutron flux measurement is classified into out-of-core and in-core instrumentation. The out-of-core instrumentation monitors the operational range from the subcritical reactor to full power. This large range is covered by several measurement channels which derive their signals from counter tubes and ionization chambers. The in-core instrumentation provides more detailed information on the power distribution in the core. The self-powered neutron detectors and the aeroball system in PWR reactors are discussed. Temperature and pressure measurement devices are briefly discussed. The different methods for leak detection are described. In concluding the plant instrumentation part some new monitoring systems and analysis methods are presented: early failure detection methods by noise analysis, acoustic monitoring and vibration monitoring. The presentation of the control starts from an qualitative assessment of the reactor dynamics. The chosen control strategy leads to the definition of the part-load diagram, which provides the set-points for the different control systems. The tasks and the functions of these control systems are described. In additiion to the control, a number of limiting systems is employed to keep the reactor in a safe operating region. Finally, an outlook is given on future developments in control, concerning mainly the increased application of process computers. (orig./RW)

  17. Networking strategies of the microscopy community for improved utilization of advanced instruments: (3) Two European initiatives to support TEM infrastructures and promote electron microscopy over Europe, ESTEEM (2006-2011) and ESTEEM 2 (2012-2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoeck, E.; Van Tendeloo, G.

    2014-01-01

    The ESTEEM consortium of electron microscopy laboratories for materials science and solid-state physics has been created as an EU-supported delocalized infrastructure to bring together the major electron microscopy centres in Europe. Its main objectives were to develop networking, to offer trans-national access to these centres with specialized and complementary techniques and skills and to upgrade in close collaboration different technical and methodological aspects such as tomography, spectroscopy, holography, detectors, and specimen holders. These efforts were aimed to strengthen the position of European microscopy and to generate new technologies potentially of high relevance in many domains identified as strategic. Following the success of the first program, ESTEEM has been conducted again in 2012 for 4 more years with an enlarged set of partners. (authors)

  18. Tamper indicating radiation surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, W.H.; Ney, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Prototype personnel and shipping dock portal monitors suitable for unattended use were fabricated and tested. The requirement for continuous operation with only periodic inspection along with a desire for minimum costs and minimum interference with normal plant operation imposed unique design constraints. The design, operation, and performance of the detection and data recording instrumentation are described, as well as the tamper indicating techniques required to protect the collected data. The essential elements of either of the two instruments include a gamma detector array, signal conditioning electronics, digital alarm logic circuitry, power supplies, a microwave occupancy monitor, surveillance camera, irreversible electromechanical counters, and the appropriate tamper indicating envelope protecting these elements. Attempts to penetrate the tamper indicating envelope require material removal, and undetectable repair is very difficult, if not impossible. The techniques for joining major subassemblies and providing unique seals are also described. The personnel doorway uses a double pole array of NaI(Tl) detectors, and outputs are taken from a single channel pulse height analyzer with a window set at 60 to 250 keV and the lower level discriminator at greater than 60 keV. A sliding interval counter is used to make comparisons to an accumulated background at the 4sigma level. Logic design, sensitivity for special nuclear materials, false alarm data, and test procedures are described in detail. The shipping dock monitor had different design constraints and therefore uses a single, long, cylindrical plastic scintillator. Some differences in signal conditioning and processing are also described. (auth)

  19. Development and testing of a fast digital electronic system for ion identification and spectroscopy; Etude et realisation d'une chaine d'instrumentation numerique rapide pour l'identification des ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legou, Th

    2002-02-01

    This report deals with a fast digital electronic system developed for ion identification and spectroscopy. The system, called IRIS, has been conceived for the super heavy element research program: FUSION. In order to observe a super heavy element, the energy of the compound nucleus implanted in a silicon detector must be measured, and the alpha decay also registered. The associated electronics must therefore handle a very wide range of energies and also exhibit a small recovery time after the implantation of the compound nucleus. IRIS is connected to the output of a charge preamplifier. It digitizes the signal and then executes two digital signal processes: the first to detect the particle, and the second to determine the energy deposited in the silicon detector. The use of programmed processing allows for the adjustment of the digital processing parameters, as well as a choice of other digital signal processing procedures, depending the application. After having explained why a conventional electronic system cannot be used for the detection of super-heavy ions, IRIS' structure is detailed and a number of digital signal processing procedures are studied and tested. (author)

  20. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  1. Hybrid microcircuits for nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    Hybrid microcircuits (HMCs) have distinct advantages over their rival products like printed circuit boards (PCBs) and integrated circuits (ICs), and are able to survive the onslaught of Moore's law, by retaining the niche market for themselves. The ASIC development cost is normally huge and when the volumes are small (less than ten thousand or so), the prohibitively high unit cost deters the potential customers. However the HMCs can be developed at a small fraction of an ASIC development cost and thus they are attractive when the volumes are small, as in the case of professional electronics industries like defense, broadcast, or instrumentation industries. The hybrid microcircuit (HMC) technology can involve one of the two processes: thick-film and thin- film. Broadly the thick-film process consists of printing and firing of, conductor and resistor pastes, on an Alumina substrate. The thin-film process consists of photo lithographic etching of, conductor and resistor patterns, on a metal/resistor sputtered high purity Alumina substrate. The active devices, either in die-form or in surface-mount form, are attached to the thick-film or the thin-film substrate. The passive devices like chip inductors and chip capacitors are also attached to the substrate. This paper discusses in detail the thick-film and the thin-film processes and their relative merits and demerits. The associated qualification and screening procedures followed to provide reliable HMCs to the customer are described. The existing HMC facilities and the product range available in Bharat Electronics including the HMCs developed for nuclear instrumentation are presented. (author)

  2. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  3. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  4. Characteristics of protective instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichart, G.

    1982-01-01

    Protective Instrumentation (PI) for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is a general term for an highly reliable instrumentation, which provides information for keeping the system within safe limits, for initation of countermeasures in the case of an incident or for mitigation of consequences of an accident. In German NPPs one can find a hierarchical structure of protective instrumentation, wherein the Reactor Protection System (RPS) has the highest priority. To meet the reliability requirements different design principles are used, like - redundancy - diversity - fail safe - decoupling. The presentation gives an overview about the different design principles and characterizes their reliability aspects. As an example for the technical realization the RPS of a German NPP is discussed in some detail. Furthermore some information about other type of PI is given and reliability aspects of the interaction of operating personell with these systems are mentioned. (orig.)

  5. Aethalometer™ Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Aethalometer is an instrument that provides a real-time readout of the concentration of “Black” or “Elemental” carbon aerosol particles (BC or E) in an air stream (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). It is a self-contained instrument that measures the rate of change of optical transmission through a spot on a filter where aerosol is being continuously collected and uses the information to calculate the concentration of optically absorbing material in the sampled air stream. The instrument measures the transmitted light intensities through the “sensing” portion of the filter, on which the aerosol spot is being collected, and a “reference” portion of the filter as a check on the stability of the optical source. A mass flowmeter monitors the sample air flow rate. The data from these three measurements is used to determine the mean BC content of the air stream.

  6. The IKARUS instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerster, H.J.; Stein, G.

    1994-01-01

    When the Federal Government decided on a 25% reduction of CO 2 emissions till 2005 in 1990 the necessity resulted that an instrument has to be developed for the analysis and assessment of the ecological, economic and energetic impact of different reduction strategies. The development task was awarded by the BMFT to the Research Centre Juelich in cooperation with well-known institutions of energy system research. The total instrument is scheduled to be finished by the end of 1994. For the decentral use of the instrument by a wide specialist public the developed models and data banks which are equipped with a user-friendly surface are suited for larger PCs (486, 16 MB RAM/500-1000 MB ROM). (orig.) [de

  7. ISSUERS OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rules laid down by Romanian Capital Market Law and the regulations put in force for its implementation apply to issuers of financial instruments admitted to trading on the regulated market established in Romania. But the issuers remain companies incorporated under Company Law of 1990. Such dual regulations need increased attention in order to observe the legal status of the issuers/companies and financial instruments/shares. Romanian legislator has chosen to implement in Capital Market Law special rules regarding the administration of the issuers of financial instruments, not only rules regarding admitting and maintaining to a regulated market. Thus issuers are, in Romanian Law perspective, special company that should comply special rule regarding board of administration and general shareholders meeting.

  8. Micromachined Precision Inertial Instruments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Najafi, Khalil

    2003-01-01

    This program focuses on developing inertial-grade micromachined accelerometers and gyroscopes and their associated electronics and packaging for use in a variety of military and commercial applications...

  9. ICFA: Instrumentation school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-10-15

    74 students, including 45 from developing countries, ten lecturers and nine laboratory instructors participated in the novel instrumentation school held in June at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, sponsored by ICTP and arranged through the Instrumentation Panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICF). During the two weeks of the course, students had the chance to construct and test a proportional chamber, measure the lifetime of cosmic ray muons, operate and analyse the performance of an 8-wire imaging drift chamber, or study noise and signal processing using a silicon photodiode.

  10. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed

  11. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  12. Neutron multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  13. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev. 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice

  14. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  15. ICFA: Instrumentation school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    74 students, including 45 from developing countries, ten lecturers and nine laboratory instructors participated in the novel instrumentation school held in June at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, sponsored by ICTP and arranged through the Instrumentation Panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICF). During the two weeks of the course, students had the chance to construct and test a proportional chamber, measure the lifetime of cosmic ray muons, operate and analyse the performance of an 8-wire imaging drift chamber, or study noise and signal processing using a silicon photodiode

  16. Instrumentation Cables Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A fire at a nuclear power plant (NPP) has the potential to damage structures, systems, and components important to safety, if not promptly detected and suppressed. At Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975, a fire in the reactor building damaged electrical power and control systems. Damage to instrumentation cables impeded the function of both normal and standby reactor coolant systems, and degraded the operators’ plant monitoring capability. This event resulted in additional NRC involvement with utilities to ensure that NPPs are properly protected from fire as intended by the NRC principle design criteria (i.e., general design criteria 3, Fire Protection). Current guidance and methods for both deterministic and performance based approaches typically make conservative (bounding) assumptions regarding the fire-induced failure modes of instrumentation cables and those failure modes effects on component and system response. Numerous fire testing programs have been conducted in the past to evaluate the failure modes and effects of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal conditions. However, that testing has primarily focused on control circuits with only a limited number of tests performed on instrumentation circuits. In 2001, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a series of cable fire tests designed to address specific aspects of the cable failure and circuit fault issues of concern1. The NRC was invited to observe and participate in that program. The NRC sponsored Sandia National Laboratories to support this participation, whom among other things, added a 4-20 mA instrumentation circuit and instrumentation cabling to six of the tests. Although limited, one insight drawn from those instrumentation circuits tests was that the failure characteristics appeared to depend on the cable insulation material. The results showed that for thermoset insulated cables, the instrument reading tended to drift

  17. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  18. 75 FR 34096 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... University Department of Chemistry, 3501 Laclede Ave., St. Louis, MO 63103. Instrument: Electron Microscope..., enhanced thermal conductivity (lubricants), thermally stable, light-weight materials for space applications...

  19. Selected topics in nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The IAEA training courses in the field of nuclear electronics heavily rely upon practical work in the laboratory. Accordingly, the IAEA has produced and published the Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Manual (TECDOC 309) where the experience on organizing the efficient practical training in nuclear electronics was compiled. The present publication is focused on the theoretical understanding of basic electronic circuits and is of particular importance to the attendees of the IAEA training course. The present publication does not copy any available book on nuclear electronics and instrumentation. On purpose, it does not describe the elementary electronics circuits as applied in nuclear instruments; they can be found in books. It starts the nuclear electronics study on the instruments level, continues to describe the technology and circuitries on the board level, and only in some exceptional cases investigates the circuits on the components level. It is believed that such an approach better reflects the advanced status of nuclear electronics and the philosophy of the modern design of nuclear instruments. For illustration, and wherever it appeared useful, some commercial instruments are described and analyzed. Figs and tabs

  20. Selected topics in nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The IAEA training courses in the field of nuclear electronics heavily rely upon practical work in the laboratory. Accordingly, the IAEA has produced and published the Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Manual (TECDOC 309) where the experience on organizing the efficient practical training in nuclear electronics was compiled. The present publication is focused on the theoretical understanding of basic electronic circuits and is of particular importance to the attendees of the IAEA training course. The present publication does not copy any available book on nuclear electronics and instrumentation. On purpose, it does not describe the elementary electronics circuits as applied in nuclear instruments; they can be found in books. It starts the nuclear electronics study on the instruments level, continues to describe the technology and circuitries on the board level, and only in some exceptional cases investigates the circuits on the components level. It is believed that such an approach better reflects the advanced status of nuclear electronics and the philosophy of the modern design of nuclear instruments. For illustration, and wherever it appeared useful, some commercial instruments are described and analyzed

  1. Electronics Department progress report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities in the Electronics Department in 1984. These include work under the headings of informatics, applied laser physics, nuclear geophysics, instrumentation and measuring techniques, and instrumentation consulting, registration and maintenance for the Danish Research Council and Risoe National Laboratory. (author)

  2. Nuclear instrument maintenance - problems, solutions, and obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuister, P.H.

    1983-01-01

    In 200 laboratories of South-East Asia, Latin America and Africa a survey was made of the state of instrumentation for nuclear medicine. The principal cause of failures and defects was inadequate quality control and preventive maintenance. On the basis of the survey coordinated research programs were compiled for the maintenance of nuclear instruments. The four principal points of the programs are: to safeguard quality and stable electric power supplies for the instruments, to safeguard permanent temperature and humidity in the environment in which the equipment is operated, effective maintenance, and training of personnel. In the years 1981 and 1982, 14 local training courses were run in which emphasis was put on practicals and tests in mechanics and electronics

  3. First Experience with the LHC Cryogenic Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Vauthier, N; Balle, Ch; Casas-Cubillos, J; Ciechanowski, M; Fernandez-Penacoba, G; Fortescue-Beck, E; Gomes, P; Jeanmonod, N; Lopez-Lorente, A; Suraci, A

    2008-01-01

    The LHC under commissioning at CERN will be the world's largest superconducting accelerator and therefore makes extensive use of cryogenic instruments. These instruments are installed in the tunnel and therefore have to withstand the LHC environment that imposes radiation-tolerant design and construction. Most of the instruments require individual calibration; some of them exhibit several variants as concerns measuring span; all relevant data are therefore stored in an Oracle® database. Those data are used for the various quality assurance procedures defined for installation and commissioning, as well as for generating tables used by the control system to configure automatically the input/output channels. This paper describes the commissioning of the sensors and the corresponding electronics, the first measurement results during the cool-down of one machine sector; it discusses the different encountered problems and their corresponding solutions.

  4. Power station instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    Power stations are characterized by a wide variety of mechanical and electrical plant operating with structures, liquids and gases working at high pressures and temperatures and with large mass flows. The voltages and currents are also the highest that occur in most industries. In order to achieve maximum economy, the plant is operated with relatively small margins from conditions that can cause rapid plant damage, safety implications, and very high financial penalties. In common with other process industries, power stations depend heavily on control and instrumentation. These systems have become particularly significant, in the cost-conscious privatized environment, for providing the means to implement the automation implicit in maintaining safety standards, improving generation efficiency and reducing operating manpower costs. This book is for professional instrumentation engineers who need to known about their use in power stations and power station engineers requiring information about the principles and choice of instrumentation available. There are 8 chapters; chapter 4 on instrumentation for nuclear steam supply systems is indexed separately. (Author)

  5. University Reactor Instrumentation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1992-11-01

    Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented

  6. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  7. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  8. Economic Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Økonomiske instrumenter begrundes med behovet for politiske indgreb, der muliggør internaliseringen af omkostningerne ved de miljøpåvirkninger, produktion and levevis afstedkommer, således at hensyntagen til miljøet bliver en del af virksomheders og husholdningers omkostninger og dermed en tilsky...

  9. Radiometric well logging instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The technical properties of well instruments for radioactive logging used in the radiometric logging complexes PKS-1000-1 (''Sond-1'') and PRKS-2 (''Vitok-2'') are described. The main features of the electric circuit of the measuring channels are given

  10. Advanced instrumentation and teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's advanced instrumentation and teleoperation project aims at evaluating the potential of a telerobotic approach in a nuclear environment and, in particular, the use of remote-perception systems. Main achievements in 1997 in the areas of R and D on radiation tolerance for remote sensing, optical fibres and optical-fibre sensors, and computer-aided teleoperation are reported

  11. Health physics instrumentation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1984-10-01

    Deficiencies and desirable improvements can be identified in every technical area in which health physics instruments are employed. The needed improvements cover the full spectrum including long-term reliability, human factors, accuracy, ruggedness, ease of calibration, improved radiation response, and improved mixed field response. Some specific areas of deficiency noted along with needed improvements. 17 references

  12. Virtual reality musical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low cost technologies has created a wide interest in virtual reality (VR), but how to design and evaluate multisensory interactions in VR remains as a challenge. In this paper, we focus on virtual reality musical instruments, present an overview of our...

  13. Creating a Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpää, Maria; Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to the development of new technology, musical instruments are no more tied to their existing acoustic or technical limitations as almost all parameters can be augmented or modified in real time. An increasing number of composers, performers, and computer programmers have thus become intere...

  14. CMO Site: Ocean Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Precipitation , Lightning, Visibility 0150 A InterOcea Hawser Strain 1.. systems, inc. and more... n 1946 3540 aero court san diego ca 92123-1799 usa phone: (619...AGU’s Microgal culture Association, P.O. Box 1004, April 8-10, 1997-Underwater Gravimetry : Instruments, Observa- Niland, CA 92257; (619) 359-3474

  15. Instrumentation in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the performance of a thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) system the equipment plays an important role. Crucial parameters of instrumentation in TLD are discussed in some detail. A review is given of equipment available on the market today - with some emphasis on automation - which is partly based on information from industry and others involved in research and development. (author)

  16. Ion chamber instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    An electrical ionization chamber is described having a self-supporting wall of cellular material which is of uniform areal density and formed of material, such as foamed polystyrene, having an average effective atomic number between about 4 and about 9, and easily replaceable when on the instrument. (auth)

  17. Integrating Nephelometer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uin, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Integrating Nephelometer (Figure 1) is an instrument that measures aerosol light scattering. It measures aerosol optical scattering properties by detecting (with a wide angular integration – from 7 to 170°) the light scattered by the aerosol and subtracting the light scattered by the carrier gas, the instrument walls and the background noise in the detector (zeroing). Zeroing is typically performed for 5 minutes every day at midnight UTC. The scattered light is split into red (700 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) wavelengths and captured by three photomultiplier tubes. The instrument can measure total scatter as well as backscatter only (from 90 to 170°) (Heintzenberg and Charlson 1996; Anderson et al. 1996; Anderson and Ogren 1998; TSI 3563 2015) At ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement), two identical Nephelometers are usually run in series with a sample relative humidity (RH) conditioner between them. This is possible because Nephelometer sampling is non-destructive and the sample can be passed on to another instrument. The sample RH conditioner scans through multiple RH values in cycles, treating the sample. This kind of setup allows to study how aerosol particles’ light scattering properties are affected by humidification (Anderson et al. 1996). For historical reasons, the two Nephelometers in this setup are labeled “wet” and “dry”, with the “dry” Nephelometer usually being the one before the conditioner and sampling ambient air (the names are switched for the MAOS measurement site due to the high RH of the ambient air).

  18. Measurement and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2018-01-02

    This is a chapter for a book called the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineering. Though it is not obvious from the title, the book deals mainly with power engineering. The first chapter (not mine) is about the fundamental quantities used in measurement. This chapter is about the process and the instrumentation.

  19. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  20. CRISP instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucknall, D.G.; Langridge, Sean

    1997-05-01

    This document is a user manual for CRISP, one of the two neutron reflectomers at ISIS. CRISP is highly automated allowing precision reproducible measurements. The manual provides detailed instructions for the setting-up and running of the instrument and advice on data analysis. (UK)

  1. A guide on instrument of biochemistry and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This book is about instrument on biochemistry and molecular biology, which consists of six chapters. It deals with introduction of advanced bio-instrument, common utilization and maintain, explanation of each instrument like capillary electrophoresis, interactive laser cytometer, personal computer and software, an electron microscope and DNA/RNS synthesis instrument, large equipment and special system like information system and network, analysis system for genome and large spectro graph, outside donation, examples for common utilization and appendix on data like application form for use.

  2. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, Halina [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel); Abusleme, Angel [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Afanaciev, Konstantin [NCPHEP, Minsk (BY)] (and others)

    2010-09-15

    Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10{sup -3} and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised. (orig.)

  3. Multipotenciostat System Based on Virtual Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrieta-Almario Álvaro Angel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To carry out this project an electronic multichannel system of electrochemical measurement or multipotenciostat was developed. It is based on the cyclic voltammetry measurement technique, controlled by a computer that monitors, by means of an electronic circuit, both the voltage generated from the Pc and supplied to an electrolytic cell, and the current that flows through the electrodes of it. To design the application software and the user interface, Virtual Instrumentation was used. On the other hand, to perform the communication between the multipotenciostat circuit and the designed software, the National Instruments NI9263 and NI9203 acquisition modules were used. The system was tested on a substance with a known REDOX property, as well as to discriminate and classify some samples of coffee.

  4. The Science of String Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Many performing musicians, as well as instrument builders, are coming to realize the importance of understanding the science of musical instruments. This book explains how string instruments produce sound. It presents basic ideas in simple language, and it also translates some more sophisticated ideas in non-technical language. It should be of interest to performers, researchers, and instrument makers alike.

  5. Instrumentation for PSD based neutron diffractometers at Dhruva reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, S.S.; Borkar, S.P.; Prafulla, S.; Srivastava, V.D.; Behare, A.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Kataria, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Linear position sensitive detectors (PSDs) are widely used to configure neutron diffractometers and other instruments. Necessary front-end electronics and a data acquisition system is developed to cater to such instruments built around the Dhruva research reactor in BARC. These include three diffractometers with multiple PSDs and four with single PSD. The front-end electronics consists of high voltage units, preamplifiers, shaping amplifiers, ratio ADCs (RDC). The data acquisition system consists of an interface card and software. Commercially available hardware like temperature controller or stepper motor controller connected over GPIB or RS232 are also integrated in the data acquisition system. The data acquisition is automated so that it can continue unattended for control parameter like temperature, thus enabling optimum utilization of available beam time. The instrumentation is scalable and can be easily configured for various instrumental requirements. The front-end electronics and the data acquisition system are described here. (author)

  6. Instrumentation for PSD-based neutron diffractometers at Dhruva reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, S. S.; Borkar, S. P.; Prafulla, S.; Srivastava, V. D.; Behare, A.; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.; Ghodgaonkar, M. D.; Kataria, S. K.

    2004-08-01

    Linear position sensitive detectors (PSDs) are widely used to configure neutron diffractometers and other instruments. Necessary front-end electronics and a data acquisition system [1] is developed to cater to such instruments built around the Dhruva research reactor in BARC. These include three diffractometers with multiple PSDs and four with single PSD. The front-end electronics consists of high voltage units, preamplifiers [2], shaping amplifiers, ratio ADCs (RDC) [3]. The data acquisition system consists of an interface card and software. Commercially available hardware like temperature controller or stepper motor controller connected over GPIB or RS232 are also integrated in the data acquisition system. The data acquisition is automated so that it can continue unattended for control parameter like temperature, thus enabling optimum utilization of available beam time. The instrumentation is scalable and can be easily configured for various instrumental requirements. The front-end electronics and the data acquisition system are described here.

  7. Principle And Practice Of Instrumental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chong Il; Kim, Chang Gyo; Oh, Yong Taek

    2010-03-01

    This book gives descriptions of instrumental analysis, which includes quantum physics and chemical foundation with Bohr's adatom model and structure of an electron of atom and the periodic table, analytical theory on analytical chemistry and chemometrics, measurement uncertainty and probability and statistics, state of crystalline materials, structure of crystalline materials, spectroscopy, like infrared spectroscopy and near infrared spectroscopy, electro spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy and Atomic spectroscopy.

  8. Design and Implementation of Data Collection Instruments for Neonatology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica G. HĂŞMĂŞANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available im: The aim of our research was to design and implement data collection instruments to be use in context of an observational prospective clinical study with follow-up conducted on new born with intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: The structure of the data collection forms (paper based and electronic based was first identified and for each variable the best type to accomplish the research aim was established. The code for categorical variables has also been decided as well as the units of measurements for quantitative variables. In respect of good practice, a set of confounding factors (as gender, date of birth, etc. have also been identified and integrated in data collection instruments. Data-entry validation rules were implemented for each variable to reduce data input errors when the electronic data collection instrument was created. Results: Two data collection instruments have been developed and successfully implemented: a paper-based form and an electronic data collection instrument. The developed forms included demographics, neonatal complications (as hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, etc., biochemical data at birth and follow-up, immunological data, as well as basal and follow-up echocardiographic data. Data-entry validation criteria have been implemented in electronic data collection instrument to assure validity and precision when paper-based data are translated in electronic form. Furthermore, to assure subject’s confidentiality a careful attention was given to HIPPA identifiers when electronic data collection instrument was developed. Conclusion: Data collection instruments were successfully developed and implemented as an a priori step in a clinical research for assisting data collection and management in a case of an observational prospective study with follow-up visits.

  9. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  10. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  11. Wavepacket electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    In this note, the formal analysis of the electron wavepacket produced by a STEM instrument is sketched, and some of the diffraction effects briefly described. It is hoped that this will encourage some needed analysis of the complicated inelastic processes occurring in this experimental geometry. 21 references, 3 figures

  12. Electronic ripple indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. K.; Houck, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    Electronic circuit for monitoring excessive ripple voltage on dc power lines senses voltage variations from few millivolts to maximum of 10 volts rms. Instrument is used wherever power supply fluctuations might endanger system operations or damage equipment. Device is inexpensive and easily packaged in small chassis.

  13. National Center for Electron Microscopy users' guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM) in the Materials and Molecular Research Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is a high voltage electron microscope facility for ultra-high resolution or dynamic in-situ studies. This guide describes the instruments and their specifications, support instrumentation, and user policies. Advice as to travel and accommodations is provided in the guide. (FI)

  14. A GC Instrument Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, D. Bruce

    1999-02-01

    This simulator was developed to help students beginning the study of gas chromatographic instruments to understand their operation. It is not meant to teach chromatographic theory. The instrument simulator is divided into 5 sections. One is for sample preparation. Another is used to manage carrier gases and choose a detector and column. The third sets the conditions for either isothermal or programmed temperature operation. A fourth section models manual injections, and the fifth is the autosampler. The operator has a choice among 6 columns of differing diameters and packing polarities and a choice of either isothermal or simple one-stage temperature programming. The simulator can be operated in either single-sample mode or as a 10-sample autosampler. The integrator has two modes of operation, a "dumb" mode in which only the retention time, area of the peak, and percentage area are listed and a "smart" mode that also lists the components' identities. The identities are obtained from a list of names and retention times created by the operator. Without this list only the percentages and areas are listed. The percentages are based on the areas obtained from the chromatogram and not on the actual percentages assigned during sample preparation. The data files for the compounds used in the simulator are ASCII files and can be edited easily to add more compounds than the 11 included with the simulator. A maximum of 10 components can be used in any one sample. Sample mixtures can be made on a percent-by-volume basis, but not by mass of sample per volume of solvent. A maximum of 30 compounds can be present in any one file, but the number of files is limited only by the operating system. (I suggest that not more than 20 compounds be used in any one file, as scrolling through large numbers of compounds is annoying to say the least.) File construction and layout are discussed in detail in the User's Manual. Chromatograms are generated by calculating a retention time based on

  15. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  16. Social Responsibility Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mizera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Responsible business notion is more and more present in Polish economy, however the results of the research carried out in Polish business still shows a low level of CRS idea knowledge, especially in small and medium companies. Although responsible business notion is generally known, its details, ways of preparing strategy, instruments and what is more its benefits are still narrowly spread. Many business people face the lack of knowledge and information, which on one hand make it easier to spread and deepen wrong stereotypes connected with this notion and on the other hand make business people unwilling to implement CRS in their companies. The subjects of this article are examples of instruments which are responsible for realization of social responsibility strategy.

  17. Radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1985-01-01

    A highly sensitive and compactly structured radiation measuring instrument for detecting ionizing radiation, in particular for measuring dose rates and contamination. The laminar structure of the associated counter tube, using only a few, simple plastic parts and a highly elastic counter wire, makes it possible to use the simplest manufacturing techniques. The service life of the counter tube construction, which is completely and permanently sealed and filled with gas, is expected to be more than 12 years. The described counter tube can be adapted in optimal fashion to the available space in a pocket instrument if it is used in combination with a specialized high-voltage generator which is low in interference voltage and with a pulse evaluation circuit having a means of compensating for interference voltage

  18. Radon-Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno y Moreno, A.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  19. Testing Aircraft Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-11

    1. Have test data been collected, recorded, and presented in accordance with this TOP? Yes No Comment : 2. Were the facilities, test equipment...instrumentation, and support accommodations adequate to accomplish the test objectives? Yes No Comment : 3. Have all data collected been reviewed for...correctness and completeness? Yes No Comment : 4. Were the test results compromised in any way due to insufficient test planning? Yes No Comment : 5. Were the

  20. Transgressive or Instrumental?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary practices that connect the arts with learning are widespread at all level of educational systems and in organisations, but they include very diverse approaches, multiple methods and background values. Regardless of explicit learning benefits, the arts/learning partnerships bring about...... creativity and the other on practices of arts-integration. My final point rests on the belief that the opposition of transgression and instrumentality is a deceiving perspective on the arts, against the background of the aesthetic plurality and hybridity....

  1. New-generation low-power radiation survey instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Wolf, M.A.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and power-saving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments

  2. EPRTM Reactor neutron instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, Maxime; SALA, Stephanie

    2013-06-01

    The core safety during operation is linked, in particular, to the respect of criteria related to the heat generated in fuel rods and to the heat exchange between the rods and the coolant. This local power information is linked to the power distribution in the core. In order to evaluate the core power distribution, the EPR TM reactor relies on several types of neutron detectors: - ionization chambers located outside the vessel and used for protection and monitoring - a fixed in-core instrumentation based on Cobalt Self Powered Neutron Detectors used for protection and monitoring - a mobile reference in-core instrumentation based on Vanadium aero-balls This document provides a description of this instrumentation and its use in core protection, limitation, monitoring and control functions. In particular, a description of the detectors and the principles of their signal generation is supplied as well as the description of the treatments related to these detectors in the EPR TM reactor I and C systems (including periodical calibration). (authors)

  3. Mandolin Family Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David J.; Rossing, Thomas D.

    The mandolin family of instruments consists of plucked chordophones, each having eight strings in four double courses. With the exception of the mandobass, the courses are tuned in intervals of fifths, as are the strings in violin family instruments. The soprano member of the family is the mandolin, tuned G3-D4-A4-E5. The alto member of the family is the mandola, tuned C3-G3-D4-A4. The mandola is usually referred to simply as the mandola in the USA, but is called the tenor mandola in Europe. The tenor member of the family is the octave mandolin, tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. It is referred to as the octave mandolin in the USA, and as the octave mandola in Europe. The baritone member of the family is the mandocello, or mandoloncello, tuned C2-G2-D3-A3. A variant of the mandocello not common in the USA is the five-course liuto moderno, or simply liuto, designed for solo repertoire. Its courses are tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. A mandobass was also made by more than one manufacturer during the early twentieth century, though none are manufactured today. They were fretted instruments with single string courses tuned E1-A1-D2-G2. There are currently a few luthiers making piccolo mandolins, tuned C4-G4-D5-A5.

  4. Nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; McGonigal, G.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to the instrumentation of liquid metal cooled fast reactors. In order to ensure the safe operation of such reactors it is necessary to constantly monitor the coolant flowing through the fuel assemblies for temperature and rate of flow, requiring a large number of sensors. An improved and simplified arrangement is claimed in which the fuel assemblies feed a fraction of coolant to three instrument units arranged to sense the temperature and rate of flow of samples of coolant. Each instrument unit comprises a sleeve housing a sensing unit and has a number of inlet ducts arranged for receiving coolant from a fuel assembly together with a single outlet. The sensing unit has three thermocouple hot junctions connected in series, the hot junctions and inlet ducts being arranged in pairs. Electromagnetic windings around an inductive core are arranged to sense variation in flow of liquid metal by flux distortion. Fission product sensing means may also be provided. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  5. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  6. Auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalaraman, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    General features of electron excited Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) which is a nondestructive technique for the analysis of surfaces upto about 15 Adeg depth with a detection limit of about 0.1% of a monolayer. Methods of measuring the Auger electron energies and recent improvements in the instrumentation are reviewed. Typical energy resolution is found to be about 0.5% which is specially suited for the detection of light elements. It is widely used in metallurgy, surface chemistry and thin film studies. (K.B.)

  7. CARMENES instrument overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The

  8. Instrumentation for environmental monitoring: biomedical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    An update is presented to Volume four of the six-volume series devoted to a survey of instruments useful for measurements in biomedicine related to environmental research and monitoring. Results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Methods of detection and analysis of gaseous organic pollutants and metals, including Ni and As are presented. Instrument techniques and notes are included on atomic spectrometry and uv and visible absorption instrumentation

  9. Identification of V-type nerve agents in vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator and fluoridating conversion tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrui, Y; Nagoya, T; Kurimata, N; Sodeyama, M; Seto, Y

    2017-07-01

    A field-portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system (Hapsite ER) was evaluated for the detection of nonvolatile V-type nerve agents (VX and Russian VX (RVX)) in the vapor phase. The Hapsite ER system consists of a Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler, a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary GC column and a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump. The GC-MS system was attached to a VX-G fluoridating conversion tube containing silver nitrate and potassium fluoride. Sample vapors of VX and RVX were converted into O-ethyl methylphosphonofluoridate (EtGB) and O-isobutyl methylphosphonofluoridate (iBuGB), respectively. These fluoridated derivatives were detected within 10 min. No compounds were detected when the VX and RVX samples were analyzed without the conversion tube. A vapor sample of tabun (GA) was analyzed, in which GA and O-ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate were detected. The molar recovery percentages of EtGB and iBuGB from VX and RVX vapors varied from 0.3 to 17%, which was attributed to variations in the vaporization efficiency of the glass vapor container. The conversion efficiencies of the VX-G conversion tube for VX and RVX to their phosphonate derivatives were estimated to be 40%. VX and RVX vapors were detected at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg m -3 . Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the analyses of VX and RVX. In the presence of 160 mg m -3 gasoline, the detection limits of VX and RVX vapor were increased to 20 mg m -3 . Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. 76 FR 37319 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Manufacturer: UNISOKU Co., Ltd., Japan. Intended Use: The instrument will be... transmission electron microscope. Justification for Duty-Free Entry: There are no instruments of the same... California, Los Angeles, 760 Westwood Plaza, Box 77, Los Angeles, CA 90095. Instrument: Slicescope microscope...

  11. Radioisotope relay instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdnyakov, V.N.; Sazonov, O.L.; Taksar, I.M.; Tesnavs, Eh.R.; Yanushkovskij, V.A.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes a radioisotope relay device containing a radiation source, a detector, an electronic relay block with a comparative threshold mechanism. The device differs from previously known ones in that, for the purpose of increasing stability and speed of action, the electronic relay block is a separate unit and contains two threshold pulse generators which are joined up, across series-connected ''and'' and ''or'' elements, with one of the inputs of the comparative threshold mechanism, whose second input is connected with a detector and whose outputs are connected with a relay element connected by feedback with the above-mentioned ''and'' elements. (author)

  12. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  13. Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Strehl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This treatise covers all aspects of the design and the daily operations of a beam diagnostic system for a large particle accelerator. A very interdisciplinary field, it involves contributions from physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers and computer experts alike so as to satisfy the ever-increasing demands for beam parameter variability for a vast range of operation modi and particles. The author draws upon 40 years of research and work, most of them spent as the head of the beam diagnostics group at GSI. He has illustrated the more theoretical aspects with many real-life examples that will provide beam instrumentation designers with ideas and tools for their work.

  14. Easy instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Myeong Su; Kim, Tae Hwa; Park, Gyu Hyeon; Yang, Jong Beom; Oh, Chang Hwan; Lee, Kyoung Hye

    2010-04-01

    This textbook describes instrument analysis in easy way with twelve chapters. The contents of the book are pH measurement on principle, pH meter, pH measurement, examples of the experiments, centrifugation, Absorptiometry, Fluorescent method, Atomic absorption analysis, Gas-chromatography, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, High performance liquid chromatography liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry, Electrophoresis on practical case and analysis of the result and examples, PCR on principle, device, application and examples and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with indirect ELISA, sandwich ELISA and ELISA reader.

  15. Maintenance of nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Rebelo, A.M. de; Santos, C.J.F. dos; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Silva, L.E.M.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    A program to design and repairing of nuclear instruments for teaching and research was founded in the UFRJ to find solutions for technical support problem - The GEMD-RADIACOES. This group has assisted to several groups of the University in recuperation and conservation of devices like: Linear scanner, Cromatograph and system of radiation detection in general. Recuperation of these devices had required a study of theirs operations modes, to make it possible the setting up of a similar system. Recuperation also involves operation tests, calibration and technical for users, orienting them to get the best performance. (Author) [pt

  16. Easy instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Myeong Su; Kim, Tae Hwa; Park, Gyu Hyeon; Yang, Jong Beom; Oh, Chang Hwan; Lee, Kyoung Hye

    2010-04-15

    This textbook describes instrument analysis in easy way with twelve chapters. The contents of the book are pH measurement on principle, pH meter, pH measurement, examples of the experiments, centrifugation, Absorptiometry, Fluorescent method, Atomic absorption analysis, Gas-chromatography, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, High performance liquid chromatography liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry, Electrophoresis on practical case and analysis of the result and examples, PCR on principle, device, application and examples and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with indirect ELISA, sandwich ELISA and ELISA reader.

  17. Instruments of Transformative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    production and distribution channels. PDPs aim at overcoming current market and government failures by pooling resources in the attempt to solve this global social challenge. Thus, PDPs are a case of instruments of transformative research and innovation, operating in a transnational governance context....... They exhibit three novelties: they address strategic long-term problems in a holistic manner, set substantive output-oriented goals, and are implemented through new organizational structures. After characterizing the different types of current PDPs and the context in which they emerged, the paper examines...

  18. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    -mentioned models and tools. All three scenarios are constructed such that they result in the same welfare implication (measured by national consumption in the CGE model). The scenarios are: 1) pesticide taxes resulting in a 25 percent overall reduction; 2) use of unsprayed field margins, resulting in the same...... for improving bio-diversity and securing drinking water. That is, combining economic modeling with physical biological modeling and geological evaluation allows us to select unsprayed field margins as the most effective instrument. Sensitivity analysis conducted on bio-diversity suggest that this result...

  19. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-07

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Calibration of radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Radiation protection is dependent on good radiation monitoring, and properly calibrated instruments are essential for this work. Simple procedures for periodically checking and recalibrating different kinds of radiation monitoring instruments are shown in this training film

  1. Calibration of "Babyline" RP instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

      If you have old RP instrumentation of the “Babyline” type, as shown in the photo, please contact the Radiation Protection Group (Joffrey Germa, 73171) to have the instrument checked and calibrated. Thank you. Radiation Protection Group

  2. Calibration of radiation monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-12-31

    Radiation protection is dependent on good radiation monitoring, and properly calibrated instruments are essential for this work. Simple procedures for periodically checking and recalibrating different kinds of radiation monitoring instruments are shown in this training film

  3. Instruments for Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Dwight G.

    1972-01-01

    Presents information regarding available instruments for industries and agencies who must monitor numerous aquatic parameters. Charts denote examples of parameters sampled, testing methods, range and accuracy of test methods, cost analysis, and reliability of instruments. (BL)

  4. 78 FR 2659 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ..., 2201 West End Ave., Nashville, TN 37235. Instrument: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer: FEI Company... St., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2024. Instrument: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer: FEI Company, the..., microorganisms, nanomaterials, and chemical compounds. Justification for Duty-Free Entry: There are no...

  5. General presentation of the instrumentation area of IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The area of electronic instrumentation of IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares), is presented. The activities of AIE (Electronic Instrumentation Area) is constituted basically in a technical attendance to the IPEN research centers and sometimes to industry that needs maintenance in nuclear equipments. (E.G.) [pt

  6. Developing the TRYAD Science Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, K. T.; Jenke, P.; Briggs, M. S.; Fuchs, J.; Capps, L.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are brief MeV gamma-ray flashes that are associated with thunderstorms, around 12km in altitude, and are viewed by orbiting satellites. These bright flashes of high energy photons were discovered in 1994. The two major models for TGFs that originate in thunderstorms are the Lightning Leader and Relativistic Feedback Discharge (RFD) model. Both depend on energetic electrons radiating via bremsstrahlung emission. The Lightning Leader model theorizes that lightning step leaders can accelerate electrons to relativistic speeds. The RFD model states that an energetic seed particle can be accelerated to relativistic speeds by strong electric fields inside of a thunderstorm. The main difference in the results of the two models is as follows; the Lightning Leader model results in a wider beam of gamma-rays than the RFD model because the electric field of a thunderstorm is more structured than that of lightning. The TRYAD mission will be the first to fly two detectors, inside CubeSats, in formation to detect TGFs from multiple points in the sky. The data from the CubeSats and the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) will likely provide enough insight to constrain or eliminate some of the existing models for TGFs.This summer was spent testing components and constructing the engineering model of the scientific instrument that will be used to detect TGFs. The detector is made up of four lead-doped plastic scintillators which are coupled to arrays of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The signal from the SiPM array is then fed into a discriminator where a lower energy estimate can be determined and photon counts are recorded. I will present the progress made over the summer constructing the engineering model.

  7. Nuclear instrumentation for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, Carlos G.; Pita, Antonio; Verrastro, Claudio A.; Maino, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear instrumentation for research reactors in Argentina was developed in 70'. A gradual modernization of all the nuclear instrumentation is planned. It includes start-up and power range instrumentation, as well as field monitors, clamp, scram and rod movement control logic. The new instrumentation is linked to a computer network, based on real time operating system for data acquisition, display and logging. This paper describes the modules and whole system aspects. (author). 2 refs

  8. Neutron instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Takao; Arita, Setsuo; Yuchi, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    The neutron instrumentation system of this invention can greatly reduce the possibility that the shutdown flux is increased greater than a predetermiend value to cause scram due to vibrations caused by earthquakes or shocks in the neutron instrumentation system without injuring the reactor safety. That is, a sensor having a zero sensitivity to a neutron flux which is an object to be detected by the sensor (dummy sensor) is used together with a conventional sensor (a sensor having predetermined sensitivity to a neutron flux as an object to be measured ----- true sensor). Further, identical signal transmission cables, connector and the signal processing circuits are used for both of true sensor and the dummy sensor. The signal from the dummy sensor is subtracted from the signal from the true sensor at the output of the signal processing circuit. Since the output of the dummy sensor is zero during normal operation, the subtracted value is the same as the value from the true sensor. If the true sensor causes an output with the reason other than the neutron flux, this is outputted also from the dummy sensor but does not appear in the subtracted value. (I.S.)

  9. Incore instrument device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakima, Naoki

    1996-01-01

    An incore instrument device has an integrally disposed touch panel having a function of displaying an operation indication method such as for setting of conditions for incore measurement and information processing and results of the incore measurement and a function capable of conducting operation indication such as for setting conditions and information processing for incore measurement relative to a control section upon touching an information position on a displayed information. In addition, an information processing section comprising a man-machine function program formed so as to recognize the content of the operation indication for the incore measurement by touching and let the control section to conduct it is disposed to the outside by way of a communication interface. In addition, a programming device is disposed for forming and rewriting the program of the man-machine function relative to the information processing section. Then, when various indication operations are conducted upon performing incore measurement, a view point can be concentrated to one predetermined point thereby enabling to improve the operationability without danger. In addition, the programming of the man-machine function does not apply unnecessary load to the control section in the incore instrumentation device. (N.H.)

  10. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  11. Advancements in Actuated Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Berdahl, Edgar; Hamilton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    are physical instruments that have been endowed with virtual qualities controlled by a computer in real-time but which are nevertheless tangible. These instruments provide intuitive and engaging new forms of interaction. They are different from traditional (acoustic) and fully automated (robotic) instruments...

  12. Rio de Janeiro: Instrumentation school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Students from Latin America were able to get hands-on experience in state-of-the-art physics instrumentation in this year's School on Instrumentation for High Energy Physics organized by the active Instrumentation Panel of ICFA (the International Committee for Future Accelerators) at the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquicas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, in July

  13. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  14. Instrumentation and Controls Division annual progress report for period ending September 1, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, G.S.

    1976-08-01

    Research progress is described under the following topics: (1) pulse counting and analysis; (2) support for the thermonuclear division ORMAK project; (3) miscellaneous electronics development; (4) detectors of ionizing particles and radiation; (5) radiation monitoring; (6) support for the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; (7) automatic control and data acquisition; (8) process instrumentation and control; (9) reactor instrumentation and controls; (10) instrumentation for reactor division experiments and test loops; (11) maintenance and service; and (12) ecological science studies

  15. The modern trends in space electromagnetic instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, V. E.

    The future trends of the experimental plasma physics development in outer space demand more and more exact and sophisticated scientific instrumentation. Moreover, the situation is complicated by constant reduction of financial support of scientific research, even in leading countries. This resulted in the development of mini; micro and nanosatellites with low price and short preparation time. Consequently, it provoked the creation of new generation of scientific instruments with reduced weight and power consumption but increased level of metrological parameters. The recent state of the development of electromagnetic (EM) sensors for microsatellites is reported. For flux-gate magnetometers (FGM) the reduction of weight as well as power consumption was achieved not only due to the use of new electronic components but also because of the new operation mode development. The scientific and technological study allowed to decrease FGM noise and now the typical noise figure is about 10 picotesla rms at 1 Hz and the record one is below 1 picotesla. The super-light version of search-coil magnetometers (SCM) was created as the result of intensive research. These new SCMs can have about six decades of operational frequency band with upper limit ˜ 1 MHz and noise level of few femtotesla with total weight about 75 grams, including electronics. A new instrument.- wave probe (WP) - which combines three independent sensors in one body - SCM, split Langmuir probe and electric potential sensor - was created. The developed theory confirms that WP can directly measure the wave vector components in space plasmas.

  16. Malaysian Preparation for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Kamarudin Sulaiman; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2011-01-01

    Instrumentation and Control System is required in Nuclear Power Plant for their safe and effective operation. The system is combination and integrated from detectors, actuators, analog system as well as digital system. Current design of system definitely follows of electronic as well as computer technology, with strictly follow regulation and guideline from local regulator as well as International Atomic Energy Agency. Commercial Off-The-Shelf products are extensively used with specific nucleonic instrumentation. Malaysian experiences depend on Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI Instrumentation and Control, Power Plant Instrumentation and Control as well as Process Control System. However Malaysians have capabilities to upgrade themself from Electronics, Computers, Electrical and Mechanical based. Proposal is presented for Malaysian preparation. (author)

  17. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  18. ''Cutie Pie,'' A portable radiation instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, C.O.

    1947-01-01

    A portable beta and gamma radiation meter of exceedingly small dimensions and weight has been developed. User acceptance has been more enthusiastic than any previous instrument of its type. The circuit, using one Victoreen V-32 tube, is the simplest electronic circuit possible for radiation work and gives high sensitivity. Stability exceeds anything of comparable sensitivity which has come to our attention. The short term stability is due to a circuit which prevents emission before the cathode reaches operating temperature. Long term stability has been improved by evacuating the tube enclosure and switch. The complete, one unit instrument, weighs four pounds two ounces, and is carried with a pistol grip. Exclusive of chamber and handle, its dimensions are 3'' wide, 6 1/2'' long, and 5'' high. The case is formed of aluminum and is designed to give excellent visibility of the meter. Three ranges of approximately 50, 500 and 5000 mr/hr have been incorporated in the instruments. The instrument has been named ''Cutie Pie'' due to its diminutive size

  19. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  20. The XGS instrument on-board THESEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuschino, F.; Baldazzi, G.; Rignanese, L. P.; Campana, R.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Amati, L.; Frontera, F.; Fiorini, M.; Uslenghi, M.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Elmi, I.; Rachevski, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Vacchi, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Bellutti, P.; Piemonte, C.

    2016-01-01

    Consolidated techniques used for space-borne X-ray and gamma-ray instruments are based on the use of scintillators coupled to Silicon photo-detectors. This technology associated with modern very low noise read-out electronics allows the design of innovative architectures able to reduce drastically the system complexity and power consumption, also with a moderate-to-high number of channels. These detector architectures can be exploited in the design of space instrumentation for gamma-spectroscopy with the benefit of possible smart background rejection strategies. We describe a detector prototype with 3D imaging capabilities to be employed in future gamma-ray and particle space missions in the 0.002-100 MeV energy range. The instrument is based on a stack of scintillating bars read out by Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) at both ends. The spatial segmentation and the crystal double-side readout allow a 3D position reconstruction with ∼3 mm accuracy within the full active volume, using a 2D readout along the two external faces of the detector. Furthermore, one of the side of SDDs can be used simultaneously to detect X-rays in the 2-30 keV energy range. The characteristics of this instrument make it suitable in next generation gamma-ray and particle space missions for Earth or outer space observations, and it will be briefly illustrated. (paper)

  1. The XGS instrument on-board THESEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuschino, F.; Campana, R.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Amati, L.; Fiorini, M.; Uslenghi, M.; Baldazzi, G.; Evangelista, Y.; Elmi, I.; Feroci, M.; Frontera, F.; Rachevski, A.; Rignanese, L. P.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Rashevskaya, I.; Bellutti, P.; Piemonte, C.

    2016-10-01

    Consolidated techniques used for space-borne X-ray and gamma-ray instruments are based on the use of scintillators coupled to Silicon photo-detectors. This technology associated with modern very low noise read-out electronics allows the design of innovative architectures able to reduce drastically the system complexity and power consumption, also with a moderate-to-high number of channels. These detector architectures can be exploited in the design of space instrumentation for gamma-spectroscopy with the benefit of possible smart background rejection strategies. We describe a detector prototype with 3D imaging capabilities to be employed in future gamma-ray and particle space missions in the 0.002-100 MeV energy range. The instrument is based on a stack of scintillating bars read out by Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) at both ends. The spatial segmentation and the crystal double-side readout allow a 3D position reconstruction with ∼3 mm accuracy within the full active volume, using a 2D readout along the two external faces of the detector. Furthermore, one of the side of SDDs can be used simultaneously to detect X-rays in the 2-30 keV energy range. The characteristics of this instrument make it suitable in next generation gamma-ray and particle space missions for Earth or outer space observations, and it will be briefly illustrated.

  2. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  3. Nuclear electronics laboratory manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Manual is a joint product of several electronics experts who have been associated with IAEA activity in this field for many years. The manual does not include experiments of a basic nature, such as characteristics of different active electronics components. It starts by introducing small electronics blocks, employing one or more active components. The most demanding exercises instruct a student in the design and construction of complete circuits, as used in commercial nuclear instruments. It is expected that a student who completes all the experiments in the manual should be in a position to design nuclear electronics units and also to understand the functions of advanced commercial instruments which need to be repaired or maintained. The future tasks of nuclear electronics engineers will be increasingly oriented towards designing and building the interfaces between a nuclear experiment and a computer. The manual pays tribute to this development by introducing a number of experiments which illustrate the principles and the technology of interfacing

  4. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  6. Repairing method of color TV with measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This book concentrates on repairing method of color TV with measuring instrument, which deals with direction and sorts of measuring instrument for service, application and basic technique of an oscilloscope and a synchroscope, constituent of TV and wave reading, everything for test skill for service man, service technique by electronic voltmeter, service technique by sweep generator and maker generator, dot-bar generator and support skill for color TV and color bar generator and application technology of color circuit.

  7. Instrumentation renewal at the FIR 1 research reactor in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Bruno; Kall, Leif

    1982-01-01

    The Finnish TRIGA Mark II reactor (FIR 1 100 kW, later 250 kW steady state power and pulsing capability up to 250 MW) has been in operation for 20 years. The reactor is the only research reactor in Finland and is an important research training and service facility, which obviously will be operated for 10...20 years ahead. The mechanical parts of the reactor are in good shape. Some minor modifications have previously been made in the instrumentation. However, the original instrumentation could hardly have been used for 10...20 years ahead without extensive modifications and modernization. After a careful evaluation and planning process the whole reactor instrumentation was renewed in 1981 at a cost of about 400 000 dollar. The renewal was carried out in cooperation with the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI) at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, which delivered the nuclear part of the instrumentation and with the Finnish company Valmet Oy Instrument Works, which delivered the conventional instrumentation, including the automatic power control system and the control console. The instrumentation, which is located in-a new isolated control room is based on modern industrial standard modular units with standardized signal ranges, electronic testing possibilities, galvanically isolated outputs etc. The instrument renewal project was brought successfully to completion in November 1981 after only about 10 working days of shut down time. The reactor is now in routine operation and the experiences gained from the new instrumentation are excellent. (author)

  8. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.

    2016-05-01

    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  9. Control of training instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, K. W.; Joo, Y. C.; Park, J. C.; Hong, C. S.; Choi, I. K.; Cho, B. J.; Lee, H. Y.; Seo, I. S.; Park, N. K.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the annual results on control of training instrument. The scope and contents are the following: 1. Control of Compact Nuclear Simulator 2. Control of Radiation/Radioactivity Measurement 3. Control of Non-Destructive Testing Equipment 4. Control of Chemical Equipment 5. Control of Personal Computer 6. Other related Lecture Aid Equipment. Efforts were employed to upgrade the training environment through retrofitting experimental facilities, compiling teaching materials and reforcing audio-visual aids. The Nuclear Training Center executed the open-door training courses for 2,496 engineers/scientists from the nuclear regulatory, nuclear industries, research institutes and other related organizations by means of offering 45 training courses during the fiscal year 1995. (author). 15 tabs., 7 figs., 13 refs

  10. Instrument design and automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernlund, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The ion mobility spectrometer-mass spectrometer (IMS-MS) is described and consists of two separate instruments coupled in tandem: an ion mobility spectrometer coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The two insturments operate at different pressures in a synergistic manner, supplying both drift time and mass information about ions which are formed at atmospheric pressure in the ion mobility spectrometer tube. Two types of ion intensity signals are presented to the data processor. The IMS produces an analog voltage with major components from dc to 5 KHz. The mass spectrometer signal output resides in the pulse count rate derived from a series of TTL level pulses where each pulse represents the arrival of a single ion. The hardware, software, interfacing capabilities and basic data acquisition program are described in detail

  11. FMIT diagnostic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Chamberlin, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test facility (FMIT) cw prototype accelerator has noninterceptive beamline instrumentation to measure beam parameters. The transverse emittances and beam profiles are measured with an array of photodiode sensors viewing light emitted from the beam region. Tomographic reconstructions of both spatial-density distributions and of transverse-emittance distributions are performed throughout a quadrupole focusing section. Beam bunches passing through capacitive probes produce bipolar waveforms whose zero crossing corresponds to the bunch's longitudinal centroid. By measuring the time required for a bunch to travel the known distance between two probes, velocity and energy are determined. A toroidal transformer measures the average ac beam current. Beam spill is measured by a set of movable jaws that intercept the beam edges. Each jaw contains a water flow channel whose flow rate and differential temperature are measured to derive a transverse power distribution. Beam centroid position is measured by a four-lobe, magnetic-loop pickup. 5 refs., 6 figs

  12. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  13. Ideology as instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna

    2007-12-01

    Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. (Copyright) 2007 APA.

  14. Electron optical characteristics of a concave electrostatic electron mirror for a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamarat, R.T.; Witzani, J.; Hoerl, E.M.

    1984-08-01

    Numerical computer calculations are used to explore the design characteristics of a concave electrostatic electron mirror for a mirror attachment for a conventional scanning electron microscope or an instrument designed totally as a scanning electron mirror microscope. The electron paths of a number of set-ups are calculated and drawn graphically in order to find the optimum shape and dimensions of the mirror geometry. This optimum configuration turns out to be the transition configuration between two cases of electron path deflection, towards the optical axis of the system and away from it. (Author)

  15. Instrumentation of the ESRF medical imaging facility

    CERN Document Server

    Elleaume, H; Berkvens, P; Berruyer, G; Brochard, T; Dabin, Y; Domínguez, M C; Draperi, A; Fiedler, S; Goujon, G; Le Duc, G; Mattenet, M; Nemoz, C; Pérez, M; Renier, M; Schulze, C; Spanne, P; Suortti, P; Thomlinson, W; Estève, F; Bertrand, B; Le Bas, J F

    1999-01-01

    At the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) a beamport has been instrumented for medical research programs. Two facilities have been constructed for alternative operation. The first one is devoted to medical imaging and is focused on intravenous coronary angiography and computed tomography (CT). The second facility is dedicated to pre-clinical microbeam radiotherapy (MRT). This paper describes the instrumentation for the imaging facility. Two monochromators have been designed, both are based on bent silicon crystals in the Laue geometry. A versatile scanning device has been built for pre-alignment and scanning of the patient through the X-ray beam in radiography or CT modes. An intrinsic germanium detector is used together with large dynamic range electronics (16 bits) to acquire the data. The beamline is now at the end of its commissioning phase; intravenous coronary angiography is intended to start in 1999 with patients and the CT pre-clinical program is underway on small animals. The first in viv...

  16. Health physics instruments: what are the current needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armantrout, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Health Physics instruments are used to measure the risk which may be incurred by an individual exposed to a given radiation field. The response of the instrument sensors will differ markedly from actual human risk factors for a variety of reasons, and this requires the use of instrument modifications and conversion factors. The values of these conversion factors continue to be updated and will likely change in the future. To accommodate the effects of different types of radiation and new conversion and usage factors, new instruments should be able to determine the type, energy distribution, and direction of incoming radiation and then apply the proper weighting factors to determine relative human risk. Such instrumentation will need to utilize modern sensor elements and microprocessor electronics

  17. An instrument for X-ray set quality assurance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willetts, R.J.; West, M.B.; Brydon, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype electronic instrument for performing quality assurance (QA) measurements on diagnostic radiological equipment with a view to long-term performance assessment on a Regional basis. The instrument is based on a Tandy 200 laptop computer and has been developed primarily to include the assessment of image intensifier/TV systems in a general QA package. It is capable of accepting signals from the following sources: (1) a radiation detector (diode array); (2) a Keithley kV divider (Keithley Instruments, Inc.); (3) the video output of an image intensifier system. (author)

  18. Performance tests for instruments measuring radon activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.; Buchroeder, H.; Schmidt, V.

    2009-01-01

    Performance tests of electronic instruments measuring the activity concentration of 222 Rn have been carried out with respect to the standard IEC 61577-2. In total, 9 types of instrument operating with ionization chambers or electrostatic collection have been tested for the influence of different climatic and radiological factors on the measurement characteristics. It is concluded that all types of instrument, which are commercially available, are suitable for indoor radon measurements. Because of the dependence on climatic conditions, the outdoor use is partly limited.

  19. Standardization of portable assay instrumentation: the neutron-coincidence tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    Standardization of portable neutron assay instrumentation has been achieved by using the neutron coincidence technique as a common basis for a wide range of instruments and applications. The electronics originally developed for the High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter has been adapted to both passive- and active-assay instrumentation for field verification of bulk plutonium, inventory samples, pellets, powders, nitrates, high-enriched uranium, and materials-testing-reactor, light-water-reactor, and mixed-oxide fuel assemblies. The family of detectors developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their performance under in-field conditions are described. 16 figures, 3 tables

  20. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  1. University of Houston Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A., III; Talbot, R. W.; Hampton, D. L.; Molders, N.; Millan, R. M.; Halford, A. J.; Dunbar, B.; Morris, G. A.; Prince, J.; Gamblin, R.; Ehteshami, A.; Lehnen, J. N.; Greer, M.; Porat, I.; Alozie, M.; Behrend, C. C.; Bias, C.; Fenton, A.; Gunawan, B.; Harrison, W.; Martinez, A.; Mathur, S.; Medillin, M.; Nguyen, T.; Nguyen, T. V.; Nowling, M.; Perez, D.; Pham, M.; Pina, M.; Thomas, G.; Velasquez, B.; Victor, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Project (USIP) is a NASA program to engage undergraduate students in rigorous scientific research, for the purposes of innovation and developing the next generation of professionals for an array of fields. The program is student led and executed from initial ideation to research to the design and deployment of scientific payloads. The University of Houston has been selected twice to participate in the USIP programs. The first program (USIP_UH I) ran from 2013 to 2016. USIP_UH II started in January of 2016, with funding starting at the end of May. USIP_UH I (USIP_UH II) at the University of Houston was (is) composed of eight (seven) research teams developing six (seven), distinct, balloon-based scientific instruments. These instruments will contribute to a broad range of geophysical sciences from Very Low Frequency recording and Total Electron Content to exobiology and ozone profiling. USIP_UH I had 12 successful launches with 9 recoveries from Fairbanks, AK in March 2015, and 4 piggyback flights with BARREL 3 from Esrange, Kiruna, Sweden in August, 2015. USIP_UH II had 8 successful launches with 5 recoveries from Fairbanks, AK in March 2017, 3 piggyback flights with BARREL 4 from Esrange, Kiruna, Sweden in August, 2016, and 1 flight each from CSBF and UH. The great opportunity of this program is capitalizing on the proliferation of electronics miniaturization to create new generations of scientific instruments that are smaller and lighter than ever before. This situation allows experiments to be done more cheaply which ultimately allows many more experiments to be done.

  2. Upgrade of Instrumentation for Purdue Reactor PUR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revankar, S.T.; Merritt, E.; Bean, R.

    2000-01-01

    The major objective of this program was to upgrade and replace instruments and equipment that significantly improve the performance, control and operational capability of the Purdue University nuclear reactor (PUR-1). Under this major objective two projects on instrument upgrade were implemented. The first one was to convert the vacuum tube control and safety amplifiers (CSA) to solid state electronics, and the other was to upgrade the electrical and electronic shielding. This report is the annual report and gives the efforts and progress achieved on these two projects from July 1999 to June 2000

  3. Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument: Development of a new instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Wassef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of this project was to develop the first disease-specific instrument for the evaluation of quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. Methods: Focus groups and interview sessions were conducted, with chronic pancreatitis patients, to identify items felt to impact quality of life which were subsequently formatted into a paper-and-pencil instrument. This instrument was used to conduct an online survey by an expert panel of pancreatologists to evaluate its content validity. Finally, the modified instrument was presented to patients during precognitive testing interviews to evaluate its clarity and appropriateness. Results: In total, 10 patients were enrolled in the focus groups and interview sessions where they identified 50 items. Once redundant items were removed, the 40 remaining items were made into a paper-and-pencil instrument referred to as the Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument. Through the processes of content validation and precognitive testing, the number of items in the instrument was reduced to 24. Conclusions: This marks the development of the first disease-specific instrument to evaluate quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. It includes unique features not found in generic instruments (economic factors, stigma, and spiritual factors. Although this marks a giant step forward, psychometric evaluation is still needed prior to its clinical use.

  4. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemaru, Takaaki; Hirata, Kazuho; Takasu, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Mizuki, Keiji; Mataka, Shuntaro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM) and an electron microscope (EM). In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JXA8600 M) was combined with a fluorescence digital camera microscope unit and this hybrid instrument was named a fluorescence SEM (FL-SEM). In the labeling of FL-SEM samples, both Fluolid, which is an organic EL dye, and Alexa Fluor, were employed. We successfully demonstrated that the FL-SEM is a simple and practical tool for correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy.

  5. Proceedings of the OECD/CSNI specialist meeting on advanced instrumentation and measurement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, J [comp.

    1998-09-01

    In the last few years, tremendous advances in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow have been accomplished by the applications of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. The detailed measurements gave new insight to the true nature of local mechanisms of interfacial transfer between phases, interfacial structure and two-phase flow turbulent transfers. These new developments indicate that more accurate and reliable two-phase flow models can be obtained, if focused experiments are designed and performed by utilizing this advanced instrumentation. The purpose of this Specialist Meeting on Advanced Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques was to review the recent instrumentation developments and the relation between thermal-hydraulic codes and instrumentation capabilities. Four specific objectives were identified for this meeting: bring together international experts on instrumentation, experiments, and modeling; review recent developments in multiphase flow instrumentation; discuss the relation between modeling needs and instrumentation capabilities, and discuss future directions for instrumentation development, modeling, and experiments.

  6. Proceedings of the OECD/CSNI specialist meeting on advanced instrumentation and measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.

    1998-09-01

    In the last few years, tremendous advances in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow have been accomplished by the applications of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. The detailed measurements gave new insight to the true nature of local mechanisms of interfacial transfer between phases, interfacial structure and two-phase flow turbulent transfers. These new developments indicate that more accurate and reliable two-phase flow models can be obtained, if focused experiments are designed and performed by utilizing this advanced instrumentation. The purpose of this Specialist Meeting on Advanced Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques was to review the recent instrumentation developments and the relation between thermal-hydraulic codes and instrumentation capabilities. Four specific objectives were identified for this meeting: bring together international experts on instrumentation, experiments, and modeling; review recent developments in multiphase flow instrumentation; discuss the relation between modeling needs and instrumentation capabilities, and discuss future directions for instrumentation development, modeling, and experiments

  7. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, J.

    1978-01-01

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness

  8. A Light-Weight Instrumentation System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidner, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    To meet challenging constraints on telemetry system weight and volume, a custom Light-Weight Instrumentation System was developed to collect vehicle environment and dynamics on a short-duration exo-atmospheric flight test vehicle. The total telemetry system, including electronics, sensors, batteries, and a 1 watt transmitter weighs about 1 kg. Over 80 channels of measurement, housekeeping, and telemetry system diagnostic data are transmitted at 128 kbps. The microcontroller-based design uses the automotive industry standard Controller Area Network to interface with and support in-flight control fimctions. Operational parameters are downloaded via a standard asynchronous serial communications intefiace. The basic design philosophy and functionality is described here

  9. Designer's handbook of instrumentation and control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph J

    1991-01-01

    Here is a comprehensive, practical guide to the entire process of analog instrumentation and control, from sensor input to data conversion circuitry and final output. This readable handbook avoids complex mathematical treatments, instead taking an applications-oriented approach and presenting many sample circuits and concrete examples. It is an essential reference for engineers and high-level technicians in a variety of scientific and engineering fields--anywhere data is collected electronically and where such data is used to control physical processes.Key Features* Covers design o

  10. A scanning Auger electron spectrometer for internal surface analysis of Large Electron Positron 2 superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, C.; Cosso, R.; Genest, J.; Hauer, M.; Lacarrère, D.; Rijllart, A.; Saban, R.

    1996-08-01

    A computer-controlled surface analysis instrument, incorporating static Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning Auger mapping, and secondary electron imaging, has been designed and built at CERN to study and characterize the inner surface of superconducting radio-frequency cavities to be installed in the Large Electron Positron collider. A detailed description of the instrument, including the analytical head, the control system, and the vacuum system is presented. Some recent results obtained from the cavities provide examples of the instrument's capabilities.

  11. Impact Disdrometers Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility has been collecting observations of the drop size spectra of rain events since early in 2006. Impact disdrometers were the initial choice due to their reliability, ease of maintenance, and relatively low cost. Each of the two units deployed was accompanied by a nearby tipping bucket. In 2010, the tipping buckets were replaced by weighing buckets rain gauges. Five video disdrometers were subsequently purchased and are described in ARM’s VDIS Handbook.1 As of April 2011, three of the weighing bucket instruments were deployed, one was to travel with the second ARM Mobile Facility, and the fifth was a spare. Two of the video disdrometers were deployed, a third was to be deployed later in the spring of 2011, one was to travel with the second ARM Mobile Facility, and the last was a spare. Detailed descriptions of impact disdrometers and their datastreams are provided in this document.

  12. TFTR CAMAC instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Gatto, H.J.; Bradish, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The TFTR Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) system makes extensive use of CAMAC equipment. The system consists of eight CAMAC highways operating from eight Gould 75/32 computers. Links up to 3.5 miles in length with more than fifty CAMAC crates have been implemented and are currently in use. Data transfer along the highway is implemented in bit serial format. The link speed is run at 5MHz. The length and complexity of the link requires the reformatting of the NRZ input/output format of the L-2 crate controller. U-Port adapter modules are used to interface the modified serial highway to the L-2 controllers. The modified serial highway uses a transmission technique that requires the distribution of both Bi-Phase encoded data and a 5MHz clock. The Serial Driver interfaces to the GOULD computer through use of a High Speed Data (HSD) interface board which attaches to the computers internal bus. All transfers to and from the computer are accomplished by direct memory access (DMA). In addition to the standard CAMAC link the system also includes a Block Transfer (BT) system. This system provides an alternate path for transferring data between the computers and the CAMAC modules. The BT system is interfaced to the host computers through HSD boards and to the CAMAC crates through use of an auxiliary crate controllers

  13. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  14. Measurement, instrumentation, and sensors handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Eren, Halit

    2014-01-01

    The Second Edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes. Organized acco

  15. Experimenting with string musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-03-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a Science of Sound & Light course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when used in physics, represent reality that can actually be observed, in this case, the operation of string musical instruments.

  16. Nanosecond electron beam generation and instrumentation at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Miller, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    The present SLAC injector system, including the latest beam chopping equipment, is discussed, and an updated diagram is given. The present equipment can produce almost any mix of chopped and single bunch beams for experimenters with a high degree of multiple beam compatibility. Topics covered include the grid pulsers, the pulse isolation transformers, the resonant choppers, the nonresonant chopper, the synchronization system, and the fast beam monitors. (PMA)

  17. Evaluating the Relational Coordination instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    2014-01-01

    consistency, interrater agreement and reliability, structural validity, content validity. However as relational coordination is being used as a diagnostics tool it is important to examine further if the instrument can measure changes. Indeed we need to know how precise and sensitive the instrument is when....... We distinguish between statistical and clinical significance. Statistical significance is calculated using T-test. Clinical significance is the minimal amount of change in relational coordination score that is not considered noise. Sensitivity of the instrument i.e. the ability of the instrument...

  18. Review of accelerator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, J.L.

    1980-05-01

    Some of the problems associated with the monitoring of accelerator beams, particularly storage rings' beams, are reviewed along with their most common solutions. The various electrode structures used for the measurement of beam current, beam position, and the detection of the bunches' transverse oscillations, yield pulses with sub-nanosecond widths. The electronics for the processing of these short pulses involves wide band techniques and circuits usually not readily available from industry or the integrated circuit market: passive or active, successive integrations, linear gating, sample-and-hold circuits with nanosecond acquisition time, etc. This report also presents the work performed recently for monitoring the ultrashort beams of colliding linear accelerators or single-pass colliders. To minimize the beam emittance, the beam position must be measured with a high resolution, and digitized on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Experimental results obtained with the Stanford two-mile Linac single bunches are included

  19. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…

  20. Electronics in nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastidar, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Electronics plays a vital role in the field of nuclear research and industry. Nuclear instrumentation and control systems rely heavily on electronics for reliable plant operation and to ensure personnel safety from harmful radiations. Rapid developments in electronics have resulted in the gradual phasing out of pneumatic instruments and replacement by solid-state electronic systems. On-line computers are now being used extensively for centralised monitoring and control of large nuclear plants. The paper covers the following main topics: (i) radiation detection and measurement, (ii) systems for nuclear research and design, (iii) nuclear reactor control and safety systems and (iv) modern trends in reactor control and nuclear instrumentation systems. The methods for radiation detection, ionization chambers, self-powdered detectors and semiconductor detectors are discussed in brief, followed by the description of the electronic systems commonly used in nuclear research, namely the pulse height, multichannel, correlation and fourier analysers. NIM and CAMAC, the electronic system standards used in nuclear laboratories/industries are also outlined. Electronic systems used for nuclear reactor control, safety, reactor core monitoring, failed fuel detection and process control instrumentation, have been described. The application of computers to reactor control, plant data processing, better man-machine interface and the use of multiple computer systems for achieving better reliability have also been discussed. Micro-computer based instrumentation systems, computers in reactor safety and advanced nuclear instrumentation techniques are briefly illustrated. (auth.)

  1. Practical implications of neutron survey instrument performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, R. J.; Bartlett, D. T.; Hager, I. G.; Jones, I. N.; Molinos, C.; Roberts, N. J.; Taylor, G. C.; Thomas, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    Improvements have been made to the Monte Carlo modelling used to calculate the response of the neutron survey instruments most commonly used in the UK, for neutron energies up to 20 MeV. The improved modelling of the devices includes the electronics and battery pack, allowing better calculations of both the energy and angle dependence of response. These data are used to calculate the response of the instruments in rotationally and fully isotropic, as well as unidirectional fields. Experimental measurements with radionuclide sources and monoenergetic neutron fields have been, and continue to be made, to test the calculated response characteristics. The enhancements to the calculations have involved simulation of the sensitivity of the response to variations in instrument manufacture, and will include the influence of the user and floor during measurements. The practical implications of the energy and angle dependence of response, variations in manufacture, and the influence of the user are assessed by folding the response characteristics with workplace energy and direction distributions. (authors)

  2. Instrumentation database specific to Trillo I NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Pagan, M.B.; Saenz de Tejada, P.; Fernandez Alvarez, A.; Haya, J.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of data on electronic instrumentation components in the Trillo I PSA has involved and extra effort, basically due to the particular characteristics of these equipment items. This analysis has different aspects depending on the type of information used: Components whose data have been obtained from generic information sources (with or without Bayesian processing). Components whose data have been obtained from specific German studies (TUV) Components whose data have been based directly on the historical experience of Trillo I NPP Components whose data have been based on miscellaneous generic and specific sources This information can also be classified into: Micro components formed by a single module ar card Micro components: formed by set of instrumentation elements It can be further subdivided according to the operating conditions of the components: Equipment whose operation depends on the functions they perform in a particular system (eg. reactor protection system instrumentation channels) Equipment whose operation is not associated with particular conditions (eg. modules for motor-operated equipment). (Author)

  3. Instruments to assess integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Høst, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how to mea...... was prevalent. It is uncertain whether development of a single 'all-inclusive' model for assessing integrated care is desirable. We emphasise the continuing need for validated instruments embedded in theoretical contexts.......INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how...... to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified. METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science for the years 1980-2011. Selected...

  4. Atomic absorption instrument functional description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroff, R.I.; Boyle, W.G. Jr.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This report describes a proposed system for automating atomic absorption analysis. The system consists of two atomic absorption instruments and an automatic sampler that can be attached to either instrument. A computer program controls the sampling and gathers data. The program then uses the data to perform bookkeeping, data processing, and report writing

  5. Nuclear instrumentation evaluation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Suk Jun; Han, Sang Joon; Chung, Chong Eun; Han, Kwang Soo; Kim, Dong Hwa; Park, Byung Hae; Moon, Je Sun; Lee, Chel Kwon; Song, Ki Sang; Choi, Myung Jin; Kim, Seung Bok; Kim, Jung Bok

    1986-12-01

    This project provides the program for improving instrumentation reliability as well as developing a cost-effective preventive maintenance activity through evaluation and analysis of nuclear instrumentation concerning pilot plants, large-scale test facilities and various laboratories on KAERI site. In addition, it discusses the program for enhancing safe operations and improving facility availability through establishment of maintenance technology. (Author)

  6. A Database Management Assessment Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jeffrey P.; Pardue, J. Harold; Daigle, Roy; Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an instrument designed for assessing learning outcomes in data management. In addition to assessment of student learning and ABET outcomes, we have also found the instrument to be effective for determining database placement of incoming information systems (IS) graduate students. Each of these three uses is discussed in this…

  7. Experimenting with String Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…

  8. Developing a workplace resilience instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-05-27

    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  9. Upgrade of Dhruva fuel channel flow instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadgil, Kaustubh; Awale, P.K.; Sengupta, C.; Sumanth, P.; Roy, Kallol

    2014-01-01

    Dhruva, a 100 MW Heavy Water moderated and cooled, vertical tank-type Research Reactor, using metallic natural Uranium fuel has flow instrumentation for all the 144 fuel channels, consisting of venturi and triplicate DP gauges for each fuel channel. These gauges provide contacts for generation of reactor trip on low flow through fuel channel. These DP gauges were facing numerous generic and ageing related failures over the years and was also difficult to maintain owing to obsolescence. While considering an upgrade for these DP gauges, it was also planned to replace the existing Coolant Low Flow Trip (CLFT) system with a computer based Reactor Trip Logic System (RTLS). Being a retrofit job, the existing panels for mounting the gauges, cable layout, impulse tubing layout, etc. were retained, thereby simplifying the site execution, reducing reactor down time and also reducing person-milli-Sievert consumption. A customized Electronic DP Indicating Switch (EDPIS) was conceptualized for achieving these objectives. Such a design, utilizing a standard DP transmitter with customized electronic circuitry, was developed, evaluated and finalized after a series of factory trials, field trials and prototyping. The instrument design included contact input for existing CLFT system and also provision for 4-20 mA current output for the proposed computer based RTLS. The display and form factor of the instrument remained identical to older one and ensures familiarity of O and M personnel. Since EDPIS is classified as Safety Class IA, stringent type tests, hardware FMEA and V and V of the micro-controller software were carried out as per the requirements laid down by relevant standards for qualification of these instruments. Being a customized instrument, the manufacturing process was closely monitored and was followed by stringent QA plan and acceptance tests. A total of 396 gauges were replaced in a phased manner during scheduled fuelling outages and thereby did not affect reactor

  10. Smart antennas for nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ranjan Bala; Singhi, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    The advances in the field of computer and communications are leading to the development of smart embedded nuclear instruments. These instruments have highly sophisticated signal-processing algorithms based on FPGA and ASICS, provisions of present day connectivity and user interfaces. The developments in the connectivity, standards and bus technologies have made possible to access these instruments on LAN and WAN with suitable reliability and security. To get rid of wires i.e. in order to access these instruments, without wires at any place, wireless technology has evolved and become integral part of day-to-day activities. The environment monitoring can be done remotely, if smart antennas are incorporated on these instruments

  11. Instrumentation with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Muenzer, W.; Ostermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is an indispensable tool for the investigation of novel materials exhibiting electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition, polarized neutrons are necessary for neutron spin precession techniques that path the way to obtain extremely high resolution in space and time. Last but not least, polarized neutrons are being used for fundamental studies as well as very recently for neutron imaging. Many years ago, neutron beam lines were simply adapted for polarized beam applications by adding polarizing elements leading usually to unacceptable losses in neutron intensity. Recently, an increasing number of beam lines are designed such that an optimum use of polarized neutrons is facilitated. In addition, marked progress has been obtained in the technology of 3 He polarizers and the reflectivity of large-m supermirrors. Therefore, if properly designed, only factors of approximately 2-3 in neutron intensity are lost. It is shown that S-benders provide neutron beams with an almost wavelength independent polarization. Using twin cavities, polarized beams with a homogeneous phase space and P>0.99 can be produced without significantly sacrificing intensity. It is argued that elliptic guides, which are coated with large m polarizing supermirrors, provide the highest flux.

  12. The LION instrument on SOHO and its scientific objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor

    Full Text Available A technical description is presented of the low-energy ion and electron (LION instrument on the SOHO spacecraft and its scientific goals are discussed. LION forms part of the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP, which is, in turn, a subset of the COSTEP/ERNE particle analyser collaboration (CEPAC.

  13. The LION instrument on SOHO and its scientific objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A technical description is presented of the low-energy ion and electron (LION instrument on the SOHO spacecraft and its scientific goals are discussed. LION forms part of the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP, which is, in turn, a subset of the COSTEP/ERNE particle analyser collaboration (CEPAC.

  14. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  15. Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

    2006-12-01

    consisting of a 'tractor' element containing the hammering mechanism jointed to a trailed compartment housing the instruments as well as some front-end electronics, tethered to surface controls and instruments. This presentation will highlight the design of the IMS and will describe results of comprehensive functional and environmental tests that included soil penetration to depths beyond 2 m, thermal vacuum functional tests, as well as vibration testing of the stowed system. Mission scenarios that are being considered for the IMS are discussed (including the ExoMars mission of ESA), and an update is given on parallel tests of the HP3 instrument package that is being developed in a dedicated, ESA-funded effort.

  16. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kwang Soo; Jeong, Jong Eun; Park, Kwang Hyeon; Hong, Suk Bong; Moon, Je Sun; Choi, Myeong Jin; Kim, Seung Bok; Kim, Jeong Bok

    1994-12-01

    Solving the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have supported the research and development work, and reduced operation costs of the pilot plants in KAERI. In addition, we have imposed the maintainability of instruments to use effectively. 15 tabs., 14 figs., 14 refs. (Author) .new

  17. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kwang Soo; Chung, Chong Eun; Park, Kwang Hyeon; Hong, Suk Boong; Moon, Je Sun; Choi, Myung Jin; Kim, Seung Bok; Kim, Jung Bok

    1996-12-01

    Solving the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have supported the research and development work, and reduced operation cost of the pilot plants in KAERI. In addition, we have improved the maintainability of instruments to use effectively. (author). 10 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs.

  18. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kwang Soo; Chung, Chong Eun; Park, Kwang Hyeon; Hong, Suk Boong; Moon, Je Sun; Choi, Myung Jin; Kim, Seung Bok; Kim, Jung Bok.

    1996-12-01

    Solving the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have supported the research and development work, and reduced operation cost of the pilot plants in KAERI. In addition, we have improved the maintainability of instruments to use effectively. (author). 10 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs

  19. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kwang Soo; Jeong, Jong Eun; Park, Kwang Hyun; Hong, Suk Bong; Moon, Je Sun; Choi, Myung Jin; Kim, Seung Bok; Kim, Jeong Bok

    1995-12-01

    Solving the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have supported the research and development work, and reduced operation costs of the pilot plants in KAERI. In addition, we have improved the maintainability of instruments to use effectively. 18 tabs., 17 figs., 13 refs. (Author) .new

  20. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kwang Soo; Jeong, Jong Eun; Park, Kwang Hyun; Hong, Suk Bong; Moon, Je Sun; Choi, Myung Jin; Kim, Seung Bok; Kim, Jeong Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Solving the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have supported the research and development work, and reduced operation costs of the pilot plants in KAERI. In addition, we have improved the maintainability of instruments to use effectively. 18 tabs., 17 figs., 13 refs. (Author) .new.

  1. Use of modern software - based instrumentation in safety critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.; Smith, B.

    2005-01-01

    Many Nuclear Power Plants are now ageing and in need of various degrees of refurbishment. Installed instrumentation usually uses out of date 'analogue' technology and is often no longer available in the market place. New technology instrumentation is generally un-qualified for nuclear use and specifically the new 'smart' technology contains 'firmware', (effectively 'soup' (Software of Uncertain Pedigree)) which must be assessed in accordance with relevant safety standards before it may be used in a safety application. Particular standards are IEC 61508 [1] and the British Energy (BE) PES (Programmable Electronic Systems) guidelines EPD/GEN/REP/0277/97. [2] This paper outlines a new instrument evaluation system, which has been developed in conjunction with the UK Nuclear Industry. The paper concludes with a discussion about on-line monitoring of Smart instrumentation in safety critical applications. (author)

  2. Practical considerations in developing an instrument-maintenance plan--

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, M.A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The author develops a general set of considerations to explain how a consistent, well-organized, prioritized, and adequate time-allowance program plan for routine maintenance can be constructed. The analysis is supplemented with experience from the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) at US Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). After the preventive maintenance (PM) problem was defined, the instruments on the schedule were selected based on the manufacturer's design specifications, quality-assurance requirements, prior classifications, experiences with the incidence of breakdowns or calibration, and dependencies among instruments. The effects of repair error in PM should be also studied. The HFIR requires three full-time technicians to perform both PM and unscheduled maintenance. A review is presented of concepts from queuing theory to determine anticipated breakdown patterns. In practice, the pneumatic instruments have a much longer lifetime than the electric/electronic instruments on various reactors at ORNL. Some special considerations and risk aversion in choosing a maintenance schedule

  3. Instrument calls and real-time code for laboratory automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taber, L.; Ames, H.S.; Yamauchi, R.K.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    These programs are the result of a joint Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Environmental Protection Agency project to automate water quality laboratories. They form the interface between the analytical instruments and the BASIC language programs for data reduction and analysis. They operate on Data General NOVA 840's at Cincinnati and Chicago and on a Data General ECLIPSE C330 at Livermore. The operating system consists of unmodified RDOS, Data General's disk operating system, and Data General's multiuser BASIC modified to provide the instrument CALLs and other functions described. Instruments automated at various laboratories include Technicon AutoAnalyzers, atomic absorption spectrophotometers, total organic carbon analyzers, an emission spectrometer, an electronic balance, sample changers, and an optical spectrophotometer. Other instruments may be automated using these same CALLs, or new CALLs may be written as described

  4. Reactor instrumentation experience at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) in Sao Paulo started in 1977 development of nuclear instrumentation. In 1982 two groups were established, one responsible for maintenance of electronic equipment and the other, the Nuclear Instrumentation Section (NIS), for new projects, such as a light water moderated critical facility (IPEN/MB-0). The NIS had the responsibility to execute all necessary activities to develop the ''nonconventional'' instrumentation systems: control, protection and radiation monitoring for the IPEN/MB-01 facility. After the commissioning of the critical facility the NIS group started the development of instrumentation systems for a power reactor. As a first step an overall review of the quality assurance programme was implemented. In parallel the development of self powered detectors was carried out. (author). 7 figs

  5. Electron Microscopy Society of Southern Africa : proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyman, H.C.; Coetzee, J.; Coubrough, R.I.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings of the 26th annual conference of the Electron Microscopy Society of Southern Africa are presented. Papers were presented on the following topics: techniques and instrumentation used in electron microscopy, and applications of electron microscopy in the life sciences, including applications in medicine, zoology, botany and microbiology. The use of electron microscopy in the physical sciences was also discussed. Separate abstracts were prepared for seven of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  6. Maintenance and fabrication of electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chong Eun; Moon, Byung Soo; Hong, Suk Boong; Kim, Yong Keun; Kim, Jung Bok

    2001-12-01

    Providing technical support to the maintenance and repair problems of electronic instruments, we have assisted the research and development work, and made it done effectively in KAERI. In addition, we have improved the performance of the alarming system of the unit211 in PIEF and the lamp control module(IND100) in RWTF using PLCs. And also, electronic circuit modules for MAFF system which is an instrument for airborne monitoring in radiation area have been designed and fabricated

  7. How discriminating are discriminative instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew

    2008-05-27

    The McMaster framework introduced by Kirshner & Guyatt is the dominant paradigm for the development of measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The framework defines the functions of such instruments as evaluative, predictive or discriminative. Evaluative instruments are required to be sensitive to change (responsiveness), but there is no corresponding index of the degree to which discriminative instruments are sensitive to cross-sectional differences. This paper argues that indices of validity and reliability are not sufficient to demonstrate that a discriminative instrument performs its function of discriminating between individuals, and that the McMaster framework would be augmented by the addition of a separate index of discrimination. The coefficient proposed by Ferguson (Delta) is easily adapted to HRQL instruments and is a direct, non-parametric index of the degree to which an instrument distinguishes between individuals. While Delta should prove useful in the development and evaluation of discriminative instruments, further research is required to elucidate the relationship between the measurement properties of discrimination, reliability and responsiveness.

  8. How discriminating are discriminative instruments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The McMaster framework introduced by Kirshner & Guyatt is the dominant paradigm for the development of measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL. The framework defines the functions of such instruments as evaluative, predictive or discriminative. Evaluative instruments are required to be sensitive to change (responsiveness, but there is no corresponding index of the degree to which discriminative instruments are sensitive to cross-sectional differences. This paper argues that indices of validity and reliability are not sufficient to demonstrate that a discriminative instrument performs its function of discriminating between individuals, and that the McMaster framework would be augmented by the addition of a separate index of discrimination. The coefficient proposed by Ferguson (Delta is easily adapted to HRQL instruments and is a direct, non-parametric index of the degree to which an instrument distinguishes between individuals. While Delta should prove useful in the development and evaluation of discriminative instruments, further research is required to elucidate the relationship between the measurement properties of discrimination, reliability and responsiveness.

  9. Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science at the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrah, Nora [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-10-13

    This grant supported a Single Investigator and Small Group Research (SISGR) application to enable multi-user research in Ultrafast Science using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world’s first hard x-ray free electron laser (FEL) which lased for the first time at 1.5 Å on April 20, 2009. The goal of our proposal was to enable a New Era of Science by requesting funds to purchase and build Advanced Instrumentation for Ultrafast Science (AIUS), to utilize the intense, short x-ray pulses produced by the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will allow peer review selected users to probe the ultrasmall and capture the ultrafast. These tools will expand on the investment already made in the construction of the light source and its instrumentation in both the LCLS and LUSI projects. The AIUS will provide researchers in the AMO, Chemical, Biological and Condensed Matter communities with greater flexibility in defining their scientific agenda at the LCLS. The proposed instrumentation will complement and significantly augment the present AMO instrument (funded through the LCLS project) through detectors and capabilities not included in the initial suite of instrumentation at the facility. We have built all of the instrumentations and they have been utilized by scientists. Please see report attached.

  10. Instrumentation in elementary particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabjan, C W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Pilcher, J E [Chicago Univ., IL (United States); eds.

    1988-01-01

    The first International Committee for Future Accelerators Instrumentation School was held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy from 8 to 19 June 1987. The School was attended by 74 students of whom 45 were from developing countries, 10 lecturers and 9 laboratory instructors. The next generation of elementary particle physics experiments would depend vitally on new ideas in instrumentation. This is a field where creativity and imagination play a major role and large budgets are not a prerequisite. One of the unique features was the presentation of four laboratory experiments using modern techniques and instrumentation. Refs, figs and tabs.

  11. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  12. Instrumentation in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabjan, C.W.; Pilcher, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The first International Committee for Future Accelerators Instrumentation School was held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy from 8 to 19 June 1987. The School was attended by 74 students of whom 45 were from developing countries, 10 lecturers and 9 laboratory instructors. The next generation of elementary particle physics experiments would depend vitally on new ideas in instrumentation. This is a field where creativity and imagination play a major role and large budgets are not a prerequisite. One of the unique features was the presentation of four laboratory experiments using modern techniques and instrumentation. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Traceability of radiation protection instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Y.; Kurosawa, T.

    2007-08-01

    Radiation protection instruments are used in daily measurement of dose and activities in workplaces and environments for safety management. The requirements for calibration certificates with traceability are increasing for these instruments to ensure the consistency and reliabilities of the measurement results. The present traceability scheme of radiation protection instruments for dose and activity measurements is described with related IEC/ISO requirements. Some examples of desirable future calibration systems with recent new technologies are also discussed to establish the traceability with reasonable costs and reliabilities.

  14. Steam 80 steam generator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, W.H.; Harris, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes two special instrumentation packages in an integral economizer (preheater) steam generator of one of the first System 80 plants scheduled to go into commercial operation. The purpose of the instrumentation is to obtain accurate operating information from regions of the secondary side of the steam generator inaccessible to normal plant instrumentation. In addition to verification of the System 80 steam generator design predictions, the data obtained will assist in verification of steam generator thermal/hydraulic computer codes developed for generic use in the industry

  15. Commissioning Instrument for the GTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, S.; Sánchez, B.; Bringas, V.; Espejo, C.; Flores, R.; Chapa, O.; Lara, G.; Chavolla, A.; Anguiano, G.; Arciniega, S.; Dorantes, A.; González, J. L.; Montoya, J. M.; Toral, R.; Hernández, H.; Nava, R.; Devaney, N.; Castro, J.; Cavaller-Marqués, L.

    2005-12-01

    During the GTC integration phase, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) will be a diagnostic tool for performance verification. The CI features four operation modes: imaging, pupil imaging, Curvature WFS, and high resolution Shack-Hartmann WFS. This instrument was built by the Instituto de Astronomía UNAM and the Centro de Ingeniería y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI) under GRANTECAN contract after a public bid. In this paper we made a general instrument overview and we show some of the performance final results obtained when the Factory Acceptance tests previous to its transport to La Palma.

  16. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  17. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  18. Survey of instruments for micrometeorology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monteith, John Lennox

    1972-01-01

    ... have been developed for micrometeorological measurements. Many of these instruments can be used by ecologists to measure and define the environment of plants and animals and to explore the ways in which organisms modify the environment they are exposed...

  19. Digital instrumentation for retrofit applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, U.E.

    1986-01-01

    There can be many reasons for applying retrofit designs to existing power plants. Whatever the reasons, care in planning and instrument design will be required in order to derive the full benefits afforded by today's technology. Specifically, the availability of microprocessors and their related integrated circuits make possible capabilities, accuracies, reliabilities, maintainability and user interfaces not achievable when original equipment was designed. Some of the motives for the replacement of current instrumentation are examined and the various benefits and pitfalls of applying present day microprocessor technology to new designs are discussed. From this, a set of design objectives can be formulated that can best take advantage of modern technology. General Electric's design solution, a family of instruments called NUMAC (Nuclear Measurement, Analysis and Control) is described, followed by descriptions of instruments currently in production and those contemplated for design in the near future

  20. Economic instruments for environmental mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, A.

    1995-01-01

    A joint International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)/World Energy Council (WEC) Working Group has been studying a range of policy instruments which are being used or considered for use to address the question of ever increasing energy demand versus environmental protection, and pollution reduction. Economic instruments for such environmental protection include direct regulation, market-based instruments, and voluntary approaches. No single policy or device was likely to suffice in addressing the diversity of environmental problems currently faced. Altering energy prices must be seen in a social context, but some direct regulation may also be inevitable. Generally economic instruments of change were preferred as these were viewed as more flexible and cost-effective. (UK)

  1. PEP instrumentation and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melen, R.

    1980-06-01

    This paper describes the operating characteristics of the primary components that form the PEP Instrumentation and Control System. Descriptions are provided for the computer control system, beam monitors, and other support systems.

  2. PEP instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melen, R.

    1980-06-01

    This paper describes the operating characteristics of the primary components that form the PEP Instrumentation and Control System. Descriptions are provided for the computer control system, beam monitors, and other support systems

  3. Intelligent instrumentation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Manabendra

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of microprocessors and digital-processing technologies as catalyst, classical sensors capable of simple signal conditioning operations have evolved rapidly to take on higher and more specialized functions including validation, compensation, and classification. This new category of sensor expands the scope of incorporating intelligence into instrumentation systems, yet with such rapid changes, there has developed no universal standard for design, definition, or requirement with which to unify intelligent instrumentation. Explaining the underlying design methodologies of intelligent instrumentation, Intelligent Instrumentation: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive and authoritative resource on the scientific foundations from which to coordinate and advance the field. Employing a textbook-like language, this book translates methodologies to more than 80 numerical examples, and provides applications in 14 case studies for a complete and working understanding of the material. Beginn...

  4. A Finescale Lagrangian Instrument System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toole, John

    2003-01-01

    ... from conventional, bottom-anchored moorings. An initial trial of the concept targeting the upper ocean was carried out off Bermuda in November 2001 with an instrument profiling between 12 and 28O-m depth...

  5. Instrumental development and data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, J.

    1978-01-01

    A review of recent developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation is presented under the following headings: introduction (scope of mass spectrometry compared with neighbouring fields); ion sources and ionization techniques; spectrometers (instrumental developments); measuring procedures; coupling techniques; data systems; conclusions (that mass spectrometry should have a broader basis and that there would be mutual profit from a better penetration of mass spectrometry into fields of routine application). (U.K.)

  6. MITS instrumentation error analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.W.; Hillon, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The MITS (Machine Interface Test System) installation consists of three types of process monitoring and control instrumentation: flow, pressure, and temperature. An effort has been made to assess the various instruments used and assign a value to the accuracy that can be expected. Efforts were also made to analyze the calibration and installation procedures to be used and determine how these might effect the system accuracy

  7. Notes on instrumentation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, G J

    2013-01-01

    Notes on Instrumentation and Control presents topics on pressure (i.e., U-tube manometers and elastic type gauges), temperature (i.e. glass thermometer, bi-metallic strip thermometer, filled system thermometer, vapor pressure thermometer), level, and flow measuring devices. The book describes other miscellaneous instruments, signal transmitting devices, supply and control systems, and monitoring systems. The theory of automatic control and semi-conductor devices are also considered. Marine engineers will find the book useful.

  8. Nucleonic instruments from VUPJT Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smola, J.

    1986-01-01

    The instruments currently produced by Tesla Premysleni are listed and briefly characterized. They include a low level alpha-beta counter, an automatic low level alpha-beta counter, detection units for environmental sample counting, instruments for measuring specific activity of liquids and radon concentration in water, a radioactive aerosol meter, dose ratemeters, portable alpha-beta indicators for surface contamintion monitoring, neutron monitors, single-, two- and three-channel spectrometric units. (M.D.)

  9. Laboratory comparison of the mechanical properties of TRUShape with several nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaghy, A M; Elsaka, S E

    2017-08-01

    To assess and compare the mechanical properties of TRUShape (TRS) with several nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Cyclic fatigue, torsional resistance, flexibility and surface microhardness of TRS (size 25, 0.06v taper), ProTaper Next X2 (PTN X2, size 25, 0.06 taper), ProTaper Gold (PTG F2; size 25, 0.08 taper) and ProTaper Universal (PTU F2; size 25, 0.08 taper) instruments were evaluated. The topographical structures of the fracture surfaces of instruments were assessed using a scanning electron microscope. The cyclic fatigue resistance, torsional resistance and microhardness data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's post hoc tests. The fragment length and bending resistance data were analysed statistically with the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The statistical significance level was set at P instruments revealed significantly higher resistance to cyclic fatigue than TRS and PTU instruments (P instruments revealed significantly higher torsional resistance compared with the other instruments (P instrument had significantly higher flexibility than the other tested brands (P instruments had lower resistance to cyclic fatigue and lower flexibility compared with PTG and PTN instruments. TRS, PTG and PTU instruments had lower resistance to torsional stress than PTN instruments. TRS and PTG instruments had comparable surface microhardness. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Electronics Department progress report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    this report summarizes the Electronics Department's activities in 1983. These include work under the headings of man-machine system and operator studies, reliability techniques, application of nuclear techniques to mineral exploration, applied laser physics, computing and, lastly, research instrumentation. (author)

  11. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is, again, excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal for this project has been the development of a scanning tunneling instrument for the purpose of imaging individual particles and tunneling into these particles at high magnetic fields. Further progress is discussed in this report

  12. Principles of electron tunneling spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, E L

    2012-01-01

    Electron tunnelling spectroscopy as a research tool has strongly advanced understanding of superconductivity. This book explains the physics and instrumentation behind the advances illustrated in beautiful images of atoms, rings of atoms and exotic states in high temperature superconductors, and summarizes the state of knowledge that has resulted.

  13. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  14. An electronics laboratory in Ceylon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    At the request of the Ceylon Government, the International Atomic Energy Agency provided Ceylon with the services of an expert to install electronic equipment for nuclear raw materials prospecting and assay and to train local personnel in the operation and maintenance of the instruments

  15. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  16. Isotope-equipped measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Kazuo; Amano, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    In the steel industry, though the investment in isotope-equipped measuring instruments is small as compared with that in machinery, they play important role in the moisture measurement in sintering and blast furnaces, the thickness measurement in rolling process and others in automatic control systems. The economic aspect of the isotope-equipped measuring instruments is described on the basis of the practices in Kimitsu Works of Nippon Steel Corporation: distribution of such instruments, evaluation of economic effects, usefulness evaluation in view of raising the accuracy, and usefulness evaluation viewed from the failure of the isotope instruments. The evaluation of economic effects was made under the premise that the isotope-equipped measuring instruments are not employed. Then, the effects of raising the accuracy are evaluated for a γ-ray plate thickness gauge and a neutron moisture gauge for coke in a blast furnace. Finally, the usefulness was evaluated, assuming possible failure of the isotope-equipped measuring instruments. (J.P.N.)

  17. 2-D Imaging of Electron Temperature in Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsat, T.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H.; Domier, C.W.; Johnson, M.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Wang, J.; Xia, Z.; Classen, I.G.J.; Donne, A.J.H.; Pol, M.J. van de

    2004-01-01

    By taking advantage of recent developments in millimeter wave imaging technology, an Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) instrument, capable of simultaneously measuring 128 channels of localized electron temperature over a 2-D map in the poloidal plane, has been developed for the TEXTOR tokamak. Data from the new instrument, detailing the MHD activity associated with a sawtooth crash, is presented

  18. Electronic emission and electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  19. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Diaz Cordero, Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces

  20. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    "[to] promote the understanding and, acceptance of and growth in the number of electronic transactions .... Chapter III of the ECT Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic. Commerce ... Communications Technology Law 146. 22.