WorldWideScience

Sample records for instrument incubator program

  1. Learning Incubator: an instrument to foster entrepreneurship in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Obem, Marielle Kulakowski; Pereira, Simone Barbosa; Gomes, Carine Alves; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2015-01-01

    this study aimed to know the contributions of the Learning Incubator to the process of lifelong education in health. this is a qualitative field research whose data was collected from August to December 2014 by the focus group technique. The research had 34 employees of a Teaching Hospital in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul that participated previously in the incubation process. from the data encoded by content analysis, three themes were selected: Learning Incubator - welcoming and integrating space; An instigating instrument that enhances possibilities; Continuous and lifelong education strategy. the Learning Incubator is an important instrument to foster entrepreneurship in nursing and other health areas due to its capacity of rethinking mechanized practices, to the possibility of instigating new ways of being and acting, and to the ability of creating and developing new ideas based on individual and institutional needs.

  2. Gemini Instrument Upgrade Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ruben; Goodsell, Stephen; Kleinman, Scot

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini Observatory* remains committed to keeping its operational instrumentation competitive and serving the needs of its user community. Currently the observatory operates a 4 instruments + 1 AO system at each site. At Gemini North the GMOS-N, GNIRS, NIFS and NIRI instruments are offered supported by the ALTAIR AO system. In the south, GMOS-S, F-2, GPI and GSAOI are offered instrumentation and GeMS is the provided AO System. This paper reviews our strategy to keep our instrumentation suite competitive, examines both our current funded upgrade projects and our potential future enhancements. We summarize the work done and the results so far obtained within the instrument upgrade program.

  3. Business Incubation as an Instrument of Innovation: The Experience of South America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the experience of business incubation as an innovative developmental instrument based on the recent experience of the South American countries of Brazil and Chile and the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago. A qualitative research method was adopted involving a review of published reports, journal articles and relevant case studies; and face-to-face semi-structured interviews with incubator managerial staff. The major findings are that there are great similarities among the incubators studied in terms of their links to universities, services offered, and funding challenges, but there is growing acceptance of incubation as a potentially valid tool for promoting business development and innovation although most incubators are at the early stage. The paper is original because the case study application to incubation in Trinidad and Tobago is new with only one related article published, and this study therefore adds value to the body of research because business incubation has been under-researched in the study area. The research is limited to the extent that the case study focuses on a comparison of selected incubator features and did not include the views of clients. The practical implications of this study is that sponsors of incubators and managers need to obtain a deeper understanding of the incubation ecosystem especially with regard to innovation-based incubators, if successful innovative businesses are to emerge. The results of the study can also be generalized over the small island developing states of the Caribbean.

  4. Incubating incubators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Pötz, Katharina Anna

    Setting up business incubators has become and industry in its own right. In this article, we return to incubator development studies but focus on the specific process through which involved stakeholders develop the new organization that should deliver services to future incubatees and become a self......-sustaining, dynamic business. In particular, we raise the question of how incubators should be set-up with regard to the context-dependent balance between business planning and venture creation approaches. We illustrate this challenge through providing insight into a case of a project-based and mainly planning...... to inspire further research on incubator development processes....

  5. Dynamic programming approach for newborn's incubator humidity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouattoura, D; Villon, P; Farges, G

    1998-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of the human skin have been studied for a long time. A special interest has been shown in the water permeability of the premature infant's skin, which is known to be an important factor in the maintenance of a controlled water and heat balance. The rate of evaporative heat exchange between the skin surface of a very premature infant and the surrounding incubator air may be so high that evaporative heat loss alone may exceed the infant's total metabolic heat production. However, it has been demonstrated in several investigations published in recent years that basal evaporative water loss can be consistently reduced by increasing the ambient humidity. Nevertheless, the passive humidification system (water reservoir) used in most incubators cannot achieve high and steady humidity levels. In this paper, we propose an active humidification system. The algorithm is based on a combination of optimal control theory and dynamic programming approach. The relative-humidity (R.H.) regulation is performed in range of 35-90% at 33 degrees C with small oscillations (+/- 0.5% R.H.) around the reference value (i.e., prescribed R.H.).

  6. Research of the incubation and hybridization instrument with vibration for nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Deng, Yan; Li, Qihua; Liu, Bin; Xia, Yun; Du, Yuhang; He, Nongyue

    2012-11-01

    Nanoparticles are the largest and most widely used nanomaterial in biomedical research nowadays, which are always used in solution. However, traditional techniques, such as hybridization oven are not appropriate for the incubation and hybridization of nanoparticles. Thus designing and developing an effective method and instrument for hybridization of nanoparticles is very essential to solve these present problems. This paper introduced and successfully designed a hybridization instrument, including insulated and closed chamber, temperature control system, motion control system input and output control system. The instrument can not only control temperature precisely to meet various requirements for chemical and biological molecule's incubation and hybridization on nanomaterials, but also make liquid flow slowly and shake according to a certain frequency for mixing to improve hybridization efficiency significantly. The control algorithm of temperature applied PID and fuzzy-PID, the accuracy is improved and stable. Vibration is the most obvious and advantageous feature of the instrument. Furthermore the core control system was improved whose core is C8051F060 MCU and designed into panel.

  7. Program Instrumentation and Trace Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Goldberg, Allen; Filman, Robert; Rosu, Grigore; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several attempts have been made recently to apply techniques such as model checking and theorem proving to the analysis of programs. This shall be seen as a current trend to analyze real software systems instead of just their designs. This includes our own effort to develop a model checker for Java, the Java PathFinder 1, one of the very first of its kind in 1998. However, model checking cannot handle very large programs without some kind of abstraction of the program. This paper describes a complementary scalable technique to handle such large programs. Our interest is turned on the observation part of the equation: How much information can be extracted about a program from observing a single execution trace? It is our intention to develop a technology that can be applied automatically and to large full-size applications, with minimal modification to the code. We present a tool, Java PathExplorer (JPaX), for exploring execution traces of Java programs. The tool prioritizes scalability for completeness, and is directed towards detecting errors in programs, not to prove correctness. One core element in JPaX is an instrumentation package that allows to instrument Java byte code files to log various events when executed. The instrumentation is driven by a user provided script that specifies what information to log. Examples of instructions that such a script can contain are: 'report name and arguments of all called methods defined in class C, together with a timestamp'; 'report all updates to all variables'; and 'report all acquisitions and releases of locks'. In more complex instructions one can specify that certain expressions should be evaluated and even that certain code should be executed under various conditions. The instrumentation package can hence be seen as implementing Aspect Oriented Programming for Java in the sense that one can add functionality to a Java program without explicitly changing the code of the original program, but one rather writes an

  8. The ESO Paranal instrumentation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Luca

    2016-08-01

    The Paranal Instrumentation Programme is responsible for planning and delivering the instruments and the associated infrastructure needed to keep the VLT and La Silla Observatories at the forefront of ground-based astronomy. The VLT second generation instruments KMOS, MUSE and SPHERE have been delivered and are in operations, GRAVITY is under commissioning at the renewed VLTI facility. The Adapative Optics Facility is moving towards completion, as well as the high resolution spectrograph ESPRESSO and the VLTI second generation instrument MATISSE. The mid-IR imager and spectrograph VISIR has been upgraded, and a major upgrade of the CRIRES spectrograph is under way. Finally, two new Multi Object Spectrographs projects have started, one for the VLT (MOONS), one for the 4M VISTA telescope (4MOST), and two new instruments for La Silla, (SOXS and NIRPS) fully funded by the community, are being agreed. The Programme follows a roadmap that foresees one new instrument/project or one upgrade starting every year. Active management, cost to completion and risk policy are in place.

  9. Instrumentation of a manually programmed neutron diffractometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.B.; Neisig, K.E.

    1966-01-01

    This paper describes essentially the digital part of the instrumentation for a neutron diffractometer in which the measuring procedure is governed by a control unit involving a fixed number of program points. A simultaneously running test program monitors the information transfer from the data...

  10. World Music in the Instrumental Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Will

    1992-01-01

    Offers strategies for introducing world music into the school instrumental music program. Suggests steps toward creating a more multicultural band or orchestra, including choosing multicultural musical literature, analyzing world music, and maintaining a diverse music library. Argues that culturally diverse music programs are better equipped to…

  11. Incubation Programs from Public Research Organizations as Catalysts for Open Business Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven H. De Cleyn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In many economies, new knowledge and technology creation and transfer towards local entities and new startups have been recognized as catalysts for industry renewal and tools for safeguarding (or even enhancing a region’s employment and prosperity. This article presents a case study of iMinds, a network organization in Flanders, Belgium. The organization fosters interdisciplinary research in information and communication technologies (ICT and strongly engages in transferring these new technologies towards local actors and in creating and supporting new startups. iMinds’ incubation and entrepreneurship programs act as catalysts for open innovation and company startup activities in the Flemish region.

  12. Effects of breeder feeding restriction programs and incubation temperatures on progeny footpad development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, M J; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Wilson, J; Montiel, E

    2014-08-01

    Footpad dermatitis begins early in life, and there is evidence of individual susceptibility. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the carryover effects of breeder feed restriction programs and incubation temperatures (TEM) on progeny footpad development at hatch, and 7 and 22 d. Cobb 500 fast feathering breeders were subjected to 2 dietary feed restriction programs during rearing: skip-a-day (SAD) and every-day feeding (EDF). At 60 wk of age, eggs from each group were collected and incubated according to 2 TEM, standard (S) eggshell temperature (38.1°C) and early-low late-high (LH). This second profile had low (36.9°C) eggshell temperature for the first 3 d, and standard temperature until the last 3 d when eggs were subjected to elevated (38.9°C) eggshell temperature. At hatch, 15 chicks from each treatment combination were sampled to obtain footpads for histological analysis. Seventy-two chicks per treatment were placed in 48 cages (6/cage), and raised to 22 d. At 7 and 22 d, 1 and 2 chickens, respectively, were sampled for footpads. The BW and group feed intake were recorded to obtain BW gain and feed conversion ratio at 7 and 21 d. Histological analysis assessed thickness and total area of stratus corneum (SC), epidermis, and dermis, and total papillae height. Data were analyzed as randomized complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. There was a negative effect of LH TEM on performance at both ages. An interaction effect on SC area and papillae height was observed at hatch. Additionally, SAD treatment increased thickness and area of footpad dermis. At 7 d, the SC parameters of the SAD progeny were increased. Epidermis thickness was affected by treatment interaction. Furthermore, LH TEM decreased epidermis thickness and dermis area. At 22 d, interaction effects were observed in thickness and area of SC and epidermis. Incubation S TEM increased thickness and area of dermis. It was concluded that breeder feed restriction programs

  13. HPS instrument calibration laboratory accreditation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, F.X; Eisenhower, E.H.; Swinth, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an accurate overview of the development and structure of the program established by the Health Physics Society (HPS) for accrediting instrument calibration laboratories relative to their ability to accurately calibrate portable health physics instrumentation. The purpose of the program is to provide radiation protection professionals more meaningful direct and indirect access to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) national standards, thus introducing a means for improving the uniformity, accuracy, and quality of ionizing radiation field measurements. The process is designed to recognize and document the continuing capability of each accredited laboratory to accurately perform instrument calibration. There is no intent to monitor the laboratory to the extent that each calibration can be guaranteed by the program; this responsibility rests solely with the accredited laboratory.

  14. Increased Science Instrumentation Funding Strengthens Mars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lee D.; Graff, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    As the strategic knowledge gaps mature for the exploration of Mars, Mars sample return (MSR), and Phobos/Deimos missions, one approach that becomes more probable involves smaller science instrumentation and integrated science suites. Recent technological advances provide the foundation for a significant evolution of instrumentation; however, the funding support is currently too small to fully utilize these advances. We propose that an increase in funding for instrumentation development occur in the near-term so that these foundational technologies can be applied. These instruments would directly address the significant knowledge gaps for humans to Mars orbit, humans to the Martian surface, and humans to Phobos/ Deimos. They would also address the topics covered by the Decadal Survey and the Mars scientific goals, objectives, investigations and priorities as stated by the MEPAG. We argue that an increase of science instrumentation funding would be of great benefit to the Mars program as well as the potential for human exploration of the Mars system. If the total non-Earth-related planetary science instrumentation budget were increased 100% it would not add an appreciable amount to the overall NASA budget and would provide the real potential for future breakthroughs. If such an approach were implemented in the near-term, NASA would benefit greatly in terms of science knowledge of the Mars, Phobos/Deimos system, exploration risk mitigation, technology development, and public interest.

  15. Instrumentation Technical Program Management Team: FY-1987 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, M.L.; Englert, G.L.; Grametbauer, G.L.

    1988-04-14

    This report contains evaluations of process, environmental, health, and safety instrumentation of gaseous diffusion plants. The study was conducted by the instrumentation technical program management team. (LSP)

  16. Non-instrumented incubation of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the rapid and sensitive detection of proviral HIV-1 DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Lillis

    Full Text Available Sensitive diagnostic tests for infectious diseases often employ nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAATs. However, most NAAT assays, including many isothermal amplification methods, require power-dependent instrumentation for incubation. For use in low resource settings (LRS, diagnostics that do not require consistent electricity supply would be ideal. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA is an isothermal amplification technology that has been shown to typically work at temperatures ranging from 25-43°C, and does not require a stringent incubation temperature for optimal performance. Here we evaluate the ability to incubate an HIV-1 RPA assay, intended for use as an infant HIV diagnostic in LRS, at ambient temperatures or with a simple non-instrumented heat source. To determine the range of expected ambient temperatures in settings where an HIV-1 infant diagnostic would be of most use, a dataset of the seasonal range of daily temperatures in sub Saharan Africa was analyzed and revealed ambient temperatures as low as 10°C and rarely above 43°C. All 24 of 24 (100% HIV-1 RPA reactions amplified when incubated for 20 minutes between 31°C and 43°C. The amplification from the HIV-1 RPA assay under investigation at temperatures was less consistent below 30°C. Thus, we developed a chemical heater to incubate HIV-1 RPA assays when ambient temperatures are between 10°C and 30°C. All 12/12 (100% reactions amplified with chemical heat incubation from ambient temperatures of 15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. We also observed that incubation at 30 minutes improved assay performance at lower temperatures where detection was sporadic using 20 minutes incubation. We have demonstrated that incubation of the RPA HIV-1 assay via ambient temperatures or using chemical heaters yields similar results to using electrically powered devices. We propose that this RPA HIV-1 assay may not need dedicated equipment to be a highly sensitive tool to diagnose

  17. Progress of Glaciology and Geocryology Incubation Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Guodong; Zhang Yaonan; Wang Zhengwen

    2007-01-01

    The 10th 5-year Plan for National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) for fostering competent research teams and highly qualified scholars in fundamental research in glaciology and geocryology was based on the strategy of incubating "competitive, problem-solving oriented and motivated fledgling scientists, who can effectively lead and greatly advance the aimed subjects and conduct the cutting edge research". This principle has been playing crucial roles in restructuring the team aiming at world-first-class research projects and at solving critical problems in national key projects. It was under the guidance of this strategy that the key research team for mitigating the challenging and differential frost and thaw hazards along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) had been formed, that a strong group focused on the cryosphere (snow, ice and permafrost ) research was re-established and enhanced. These accomplishments have facilitated the formation and growth of highly motivated competitive research teams on comprehensive and integrated fundamental research, which promoted, intensified, and expanded the research programs in glaciology and geocryology.

  18. Program Instrumentation: A Technique for Evaluating Educational Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Bryan P.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of educational software evaluation highlights an evaluation based on program instrumentation of a medical school simulation program. Evaluation strategies are discussed; evaluation techniques, including interviews, questionnaires, and observation are described; and implications of the results of the program instrumentation for the…

  19. Counselor Competence, Performance Assessment, and Program Evaluation: Using Psychometric Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…

  20. Counselor Competence, Performance Assessment, and Program Evaluation: Using Psychometric Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…

  1. Fostering and Inspiring Research Engagement (FIRE): program logic of a research incubator scheme for allied health students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziviani, Jenny; Feeney, Rachel; Schabrun, Siobhan; Copland, David; Hodges, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the application of a logic model in depicting the underlying theory of an undergraduate research scheme for occupational therapy, physiotherapy, and speech pathology university students in Queensland, Australia. Data gathered from key written documents on the goals and intended operation of the research incubator scheme were used to create a draft (unverified) logic model. The major components of the logic model were inputs and resources, activities/outputs, and outcomes (immediate/learning, intermediate/action, and longer term/impacts). Although immediate and intermediate outcomes chiefly pertained to students' participation in honours programs, longer-term outcomes (impacts) concerned their subsequent participation in research higher-degree programs and engagement in research careers. Program logic provided an effective means of clarifying program objectives and the mechanisms by which the research incubator scheme was designed to achieve its intended outcomes. This model was developed as the basis for evaluation of the effectiveness of the scheme in achieving its stated goals.

  2. Evolutionary programming for neutron instrument optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Phillip M.; Pappas, Catherine; Habicht, Klaus; Lelièvre-Berna, Eddy

    2006-11-01

    Virtual instruments based on Monte-Carlo techniques are now integral part of novel instrumentation development and the existing codes (McSTAS and Vitess) are extensively used to define and optimise novel instrumental concepts. Neutron spectrometers, however, involve a large number of parameters and their optimisation is often a complex and tedious procedure. Artificial intelligence algorithms are proving increasingly useful in such situations. Here, we present an automatic, reliable and scalable numerical optimisation concept based on the canonical genetic algorithm (GA). The algorithm was used to optimise the 3D magnetic field profile of the NSE spectrometer SPAN, at the HMI. We discuss the potential of the GA which combined with the existing Monte-Carlo codes (Vitess, McSTAS, etc.) leads to a very powerful tool for automated global optimisation of a general neutron scattering instrument, avoiding local optimum configurations.

  3. Evolutionary programming for neutron instrument optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, Phillip M. [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: phillip.bentley@hmi.de; Pappas, Catherine [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Habicht, Klaus [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Lelievre-Berna, Eddy [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2006-11-15

    Virtual instruments based on Monte-Carlo techniques are now integral part of novel instrumentation development and the existing codes (McSTAS and Vitess) are extensively used to define and optimise novel instrumental concepts. Neutron spectrometers, however, involve a large number of parameters and their optimisation is often a complex and tedious procedure. Artificial intelligence algorithms are proving increasingly useful in such situations. Here, we present an automatic, reliable and scalable numerical optimisation concept based on the canonical genetic algorithm (GA). The algorithm was used to optimise the 3D magnetic field profile of the NSE spectrometer SPAN, at the HMI. We discuss the potential of the GA which combined with the existing Monte-Carlo codes (Vitess, McSTAS, etc.) leads to a very powerful tool for automated global optimisation of a general neutron scattering instrument, avoiding local optimum configurations.

  4. Measurement control program for NDA instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems.

  5. Evaluating the Effectiveness of School Instrumental Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    Describes the analysis of "Strengths and Weaknesses and Opportunities and Threats" (SWOT). Discusses the study, "Gemeinhardt 4," that used the SWOT analysis to determine 13 different types of music programs. Addresses how music teachers can utilize this information. Includes other sections such as, "Possible Solution to Music Program Threats."…

  6. 77 FR 25463 - Applications for New Awards; Enhanced Assessment Instruments Grants Program-Enhanced Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Instruments Grants that yield significant research, methodologies, products, or tools specifically regarding... Applications for New Awards; Enhanced Assessment Instruments Grants Program--Enhanced Assessment Instruments...: Notice. Overview Information: Enhanced Assessment Instruments Grants Program--Enhanced...

  7. Instrumentation Technical Program Management Team: Annual report, FY-1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grametbauer, G.L.; Wallace, B.W.; Hanson, M.L.

    1989-01-30

    The Instrumentation Technical Program Management Team (ITPMT) was chartered to consolidate, coordinate, and manage Process and Long- Range Technical Support (P and LRTS) activities in the areas of process, environmental, health, and safety instrumentation. During FY-1988, steps have been taken toward improving the effectiveness of a limited technical support program, including initiation of the acquisition of a modest number of additional people, limitation of numbers of projects to a very selected few, and the encouragement of other Teams to address instrumentation development. This report will be in the same format as the last two. A generalized summation of instrumentation P and LRTS support known to be currently of high priority and expected to be addressed during the FY-1989 and FY-1991 time frame will be presented, with the expectation that addressing all of the listed work will be precluded by presently-unidentifiable demands. FY-1989 milestones will, however, be described in some detail.

  8. Training Programmes as Incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Truls; Gjellan, Are

    2003-01-01

    A European technological university conducts quarterly incubator programs in which teams develop ideas into viable business plans. Analysis indicates that 57 of 102 ideas resulted in successful technology-based businesses and more than 400 students received hands-on experience in business start-up. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  9. Imperative-program transformation by instrumented-interpreter specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren

    2008-01-01

    We describe how to implement strength reduction, loop-invariant code motion and loop quasi-invariant code motion by specializing instrumented interpreters. To curb code duplication intrinsic to such specialization, we introduce a new program transformation, rewinding, which uses Moore-automata mi...

  10. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is

  11. Environmental leadership capacity building in higher education: experience and lessons from Asian Program for Incubation of Environmental Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mino, Takashi; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2013-01-01

    ....” As well, the APIEL program has field units to provide experience in problem solving, decision making, and participation, taking into consideration ecological, political, economic, social, aesthetic, and ethical...

  12. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is to provide a platform for the researchers,academicians,

  13. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  14. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  15. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  16. Artificial intelligence programming with LabVIEW: genetic algorithms for instrumentation control and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J H

    1995-06-01

    A genetic algorithm for instrumentation control and optimization was developed using the LabVIEW graphical programming environment. The usefulness of this methodology for the optimization of a closed loop control instrument is demonstrated with minimal complexity and the programming is presented in detail to facilitate its adaptation to other LabVIEW applications. Closed loop control instruments have variety of applications in the biomedical sciences including the regulation of physiological processes such as blood pressure. The program presented here should provide a useful starting point for those wishing to incorporate genetic algorithm approaches to LabVIEW mediated optimization of closed loop control instruments.

  17. The Effects of Participation in School Instrumental Music Programs on Student Academic Achievement and School Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Kevin O.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether or not students that participated in a school sponsored instrumental music program had higher academic achievement and attendance than students that did not participate in a school sponsor instrumental music program. Units of measurement included standardized test scores and attendance, without taking into consideration…

  18. The Effects of Participation in School Instrumental Music Programs on Student Academic Achievement and School Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Kevin O.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether or not students that participated in a school sponsored instrumental music program had higher academic achievement and attendance than students that did not participate in a school sponsor instrumental music program. Units of measurement included standardized test scores and attendance, without taking into consideration…

  19. Instrumentation program for rock mechanics and spent fuel tests at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.H.; Simonson, R.

    1978-08-01

    This report contains a discussion of an instrumentation and rock mechanics program recommended for consideration as part of the overall Lawrence Livermore nuclear waste storage program at NTS. It includes a discussion of (1) rationale for the heater tests, spent fuel facility evaluation, heated room tests, (2) recommended instrumentation types together with estimated delivery schedules, (3) recommended instrumentation layouts, (4) other proposed rock mechanics tests both laboratory and in situ, and (5) data acquisition and reduction requirements.

  20. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  1. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal,Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial

  2. Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Results of PIDDP have contributed to the development of flight hardware flown on, or selected for, many of NASA’s planetary missions. The instrument...

  3. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Hallbert

    2012-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  4. Monitoring instrumentation spent fuel management program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary monitoring system methodologies are identified as an input to the risk assessment of spent fuel management. Conceptual approaches to instrumentation for surveillance of canister position and orientation, vault deformation, spent fuel dissolution, temperature, and health physics conditions are presented. In future studies, the resolution, reliability, and uncertainty associated with these monitoring system methodologies will be evaluated.

  5. Can Personality-Type Instruments Profile Majors in Management Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fred A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Results of completion of 4 instruments (Myers-Briggs Type Inventory, Strong Interest Inventory, Hermann Brain Dominance Inventory, and Learning Styles Inventory) by 75 accounting, business administration, and public administration graduate students suggest that the Hermann (and to some extent the Strong) inventory has potential value for…

  6. Developing and Utilizing Undergraduate Program Objectives for Developing Evaluative Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Carroll D.

    A follow-up study of recent graduates of the College of Education at the University of New Orleans was developed to continue the organized assessment program of the College. Information gathered by the investigation is intended to provide the basis for revision of the undergraduate teacher education program and the development of effective…

  7. SIZE AND INCUBATION PERIOD '

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Chemical and Process Engineering,. University of Dar es Salaam, ... incubation time on biogas production from water hyacinth. Substrate ..... This was attributed to high lignin content in the ..... and steam explosion. Biotechnol ...

  8. Night Heron Incubation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...

  9. On Business Incubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠

    2014-01-01

    The paper is organized in three parts. The first part is about the history and development periods of business incubation; the second one is on its three generations defined by scholars; and the third one is on its present situation including various forms of incubators. In the conclusion, a brief reflection is made on its significance in economy and on the value it provides for society.

  10. Instrumentation Technical Program Management Team: Annual report, FY-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, M.L.; Fitzgerald, J.M.; Grametbauer, G.L.

    1987-03-04

    This report deals with several projects carried out at the Portsmouth and Oak Ridge gaseous diffusion plants. Line recorders were installed at the Portsmouth plant to monitor gas constituents of the cascade process gas. Technical assessment was made of the shutdown of the Oak Ridge plant to identify potential problems. Progress was made on development of a computer-controlled gas recycle system at Oak Ridge. Monitoring instruments were developed for gases in standby cells at Oak Ridge. A criticality radiation alarm was installed at Portsmouth. A scintillation device was developed to monitor purge vent effluents at Portsmouth. The report concludes with a forecast of projects to be carried out in 1987. (JDH)

  11. Evolution of Incubation Models: Evidence from the Italian Incubation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Alessandro; Grimaldi, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of incubators in supporting new venture creation. A mapping of four different types of incubator is proposed: corporate private incubators (CPIs), independent private incubators (IPIs), business innovation centres (BICs) and university business incubators (UBIs). This mapping is exemplified through case studies of one…

  12. Mentoring Program as an Instrument of Enhancing Mentees’ Self- Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the correlation between mentoring program and mentees‘ selfefficacy. Self-report questionnaires were employed to collect data from undergraduate business students at a research university in Malaysia. The results of SmartPLS path model showed two essential findings: firstly, communication was positively and significantly correlated with mentees‘ self-efficacy. Secondly, support was positively and significantly correlated with mentees‘ selfefficacy. The result demonstrates that mentoring program does act as an important determinant of mentees‘ self-efficacy in the organizational sample. Further, the paper provides discussion, implications and conclusion.

  13. A customizable evaluation instrument to facilitate comparisons of existing online training programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Murphy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A proliferation of retail online training materials exists, but often the person in charge of choosing the most appropriate online training materials is not versed in best practices associated with online training. Additionally, the person must consider the context of the training situation when choosing a training solution. To assist this decision-making process an evaluation instrument was developed. The instrument was designed to help decision-makers 1 assess multiple online training programs against known best practices, and 2 consider context specific training needs via a weighting process. Instrument testing across multiple online training programs was performed, and weighted and unweighted results were examined to determine the impact of contextualized weighting. Additionally, evaluation data from the new instrument were compared to data from an existing online training evaluation instrument. Results indicated the new instrument allowed for consistent rankings by raters across multiple programs, and when the new weighting process was applied small differences were magnified making them more noticeable in overall rating scores. Thus the new weighted instrument was effective in 1 assessing multiple online training programs, and 2 providing reviewers clearer context-specific rating data on which they could make purchasing decisions.

  14. Humidification of incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpin, V A; Rutter, N

    1985-03-01

    The effect of increasing the humidity in incubators was examined in 62 infants of less than 30 weeks' gestation. Thirty three infants nursed in high humidity for two weeks were compared retrospectively with 29 infants from an earlier study who were nursed under plastic bubble blankets or with topical paraffin but without raised humidity. Humidification reduced skin water loss and improved maintenance of body temperature from birth, but did not delay the normal postnatal maturation of the skin. Infants nursed without humidity frequently became hypothermic in spite of a high incubator air temperature. These advantages must be weighed against the finding that overheating was more common and Pseudomonas was more commonly isolated from the infants. It is recommended that incubator humidity is raised for babies under 30 weeks' gestation in the first days of life but meticulous attention should be paid to fluid balance, avoiding overheating, and cleansing of the humidifier reservoir.

  15. Integrating education and incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    During the last decade student business incubation activities have become mainstream activities in Western universities. This is also the case in Danish higher education where all universities have established in-house student incubators. The models applied are different and place varied emphasis...... on the integration of extracurricular activities with formal credit awarding activities. In a Danish context, such integration has become increasingly important due to recent political reforms aimed at shortening the time it takes students to graduate in order to reduce national higher education expenditures...

  16. An Evaluation Instrument for Object-Oriented Example Programs for Novices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Börstler, Jürgen; Nordström,, Marie

    Examples are important tools for programming education. In this paper, we investigate desirable properties of programming examples from a cognitive and a measurement point of view. We argue that some cognitive aspects of example programs are "caught" by common software measures, but they are not ......Examples are important tools for programming education. In this paper, we investigate desirable properties of programming examples from a cognitive and a measurement point of view. We argue that some cognitive aspects of example programs are "caught" by common software measures...... objectively and consistently requires some kind of measurement instrument. In this paper, we describe the development and initial validation of an evaluation instrument for example programs, based on three aspects of quality; technical quality, object-oriented quality, and didactical quality. Validation...... was performed by six experienced educators using examples from popular introductory programming textbooks. Results show that the instrument helps indicating particular strengths and weaknesses of example programs. In all but one example program, we identified aspects that need to be improved. However, inter...

  17. The image of psychology programs: the value of the instrumental-symbolic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lievens, Filip; De Soete, Britt; Libbrecht, Nele; Schollaert, Eveline; Baligant, Dimphna

    2014-01-01

    As competition for funding and students intensifies, it becomes increasingly important for psychology programs to have an image that is attractive and makes them stand out from other programs. The current study uses the instrumental-symbolic framework from the marketing domain to determine the image of different master's programs in psychology and examines how these image dimensions relate to student attraction and competitor differentiation. The samples consist of both potential students (N = 114) and current students (N = 68) of three psychology programs at a Belgian university: industrial and organizational psychology, clinical psychology, and experimental psychology. The results demonstrate that both instrumental attributes (e.g., interpersonal activities) and symbolic trait inferences (e.g., sincerity) are key components of the image of psychology programs and predict attractiveness as well as differentiation. In addition, symbolic image dimensions seem more important for current students of psychology programs than for potential students.

  18. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE): An Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Instrument Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical

  19. National Security Technology Incubator Evaluation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the process by which the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) will be evaluated. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the components, steps, and measures of the proposed evaluation process. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. An effective evaluation process of the NSTI is an important step as it can provide qualitative and quantitative information on incubator performance over a given period. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The mission of the NSTI is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. To achieve success for both incubator businesses and the NSTI program, an evaluation process is essential to effectively measure results and implement corrective processes in the incubation design if needed. The evaluation process design will collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data through performance evaluation system.

  20. A Science Lesson Plan Analysis Instrument for Formative and Summative Program Evaluation of a Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christina L.; Martin, Sonya N.; Otieno, Tracey C.

    2008-01-01

    In evaluating the success of teacher development programs, valid and scalable measures of teaching practice are needed. We have developed and validated the Science Lesson Plan Analysis Instrument (SLPAI) for quantitative evaluation of teacher-generated multiday lesson plans. This paper presents the SLPAI as a complement to surveys and classroom…

  1. National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

  2. National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). This action plan serves as a tool in measuring progress in the development process and delivery of services for the NSTI program. Continuous review and evaluation of the action plan is necessary in the development process of the NSTI. The action plan includes detailed steps in developing the NSTI program based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Included are tasks required to implement the NSTI, developed within a work breakdown structure. In addition, a timeline is identified for each task.

  3. Instrument and Survey Analysis Technical Report: Program Implementation Survey. Technical Report #1112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical document provides guidance to educators on the creation and interpretation of survey instruments, particularly as they relate to an analysis of program implementation. Illustrative examples are drawn from a survey of educators related to the use of the easyCBM learning system. This document includes specific sections on…

  4. Input from Key Stakeholders in the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-31

    This report documents the input from key stakeholders of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) in developing a new technology incubator and related programs for southern New Mexico. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes identification of key stakeholders as well as a description and analysis of their input for the development of an incubator.

  5. A space instrument for fundamental materials science problems - The Mephisto program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzaud, A.; Favier, J. J.; Thevenard, D.

    The Mephisto program and the Mephisto instrument, a device offering the possibility of continuous characterization of crystal growth undercooling, are reviewed. The Mephisto instrument allows on-line in situ measurements of the real undercooling of a solidification front using a nonperturbing thermoelectric method; it also allows the on-line supervision of the effect of convective motions on crystal growth. First results obtained during the ground testing of a space mockup are presented, and the accuracy of the results is assessed with respect to the onset of morphological stability and interface response to unsteady perturbations.

  6. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

  7. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY INSTRUMENTATION DIVISION, R AND D PROGRAMS, FACILITIES, STAFF.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    INSTRUMENTATION DIVISION STAFF

    1999-06-01

    To develop state-of-the-art instrumentation required for experimental research programs at BNL, and to maintain the expertise and facilities in specialized high technology areas essential for this work. Development of facilities is motivated by present BNL research programs and anticipated future directions of BNL research. The Division's research efforts also have a significant impact on programs throughout the world that rely on state-of-the-art radiation detectors and readout electronics. Our staff scientists are encouraged to: Become involved in challenging problems in collaborations with other scientists; Offer unique expertise in solving problems; and Develop new devices and instruments when not commercially available. Scientists from other BNL Departments are encouraged to bring problems and ideas directly to the Division staff members with the appropriate expertise. Division staff is encouraged to become involved with research problems in other Departments to advance the application of new ideas in instrumentation. The Division Head integrates these efforts when they evolve into larger projects, within available staff and budget resources, and defines the priorities and direction with concurrence of appropriate Laboratory program leaders. The Division Head also ensures that these efforts are accompanied by strict adherence to all ES and H regulatory mandates and policies of the Laboratory. The responsibility for safety and environmental protection is integrated with supervision of particular facilities and conduct of operations.

  8. The e-incubator: a magnetic resonance imaging-compatible mini incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Shadi F; Wartella, Karin; Sharghi, Vahid Khalilzad; Xu, Huihui

    2015-04-01

    The tissue engineering community has been vocal regarding the need for noninvasive instruments to assess the development of tissue-engineered constructs. Medical imaging has helped fulfill this role. However, specimens allocated to a test tube for imaging cannot be tested for a prolonged period or returned to the incubator. Therefore, samples are essentially wasted due to potential contamination and transfer in a less than optimal growth environment. In turn, we present a standalone, miniature, magnetic resonance imaging-compatible incubator, termed the e-incubator. This incubator uses a microcontroller unit to automatically sense and regulate physiological conditions for tissue culture, thus allowing for concurrent tissue culture and evaluation. The e-incubator also offers an innovative scheme to study underlying mechanisms related to the structural and functional evolution of tissues. Importantly, it offers a key step toward enabling real-time testing of engineered tissues before human transplantation. For validation purposes, we cultured tissue-engineered bone constructs for 4 weeks to test the e-incubator. Importantly, this technology allows for visualizing the evolution of temporal and spatial morphogenesis. In turn, the e-incubator can filter deficient constructs, thereby increasing the success rate of implantation of tissue-engineered constructs, especially as construct design grows in levels of complexity to match the geometry and function of patients' unique needs.

  9. MGR COMPLIANCE PROGRAM GUIDANCE PACKAGE FOR RADIATION PROTECTION EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENTATION AND FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-02-01

    This Compliance Program Guidance Package identifies the regulatory guidance and industry codes and standards addressing radiation protection equipment, instrumentation, and support facilities considered to be appropriate for radiation protection at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Included are considerations relevant to radiation monitoring instruments, calibration, contamination control and decontamination, respiratory protection equipment, and general radiation protection facilities. The scope of this Guidance Package does not include design guidance relevant to criticality monitoring, area radiation monitoring, effluent monitoring, and airborne radioactivity monitoring systems since they are considered to be the topics of specific design and construction requirements (i.e., ''fixed'' or ''built-in'' systems). This Guidance Package does not address radiation protection design issues; it addresses the selection and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation to the extent that the guidance is relevant to the operational radiation protection program. Radon and radon progeny monitoring instrumentation is not included in the Guidance Package since such naturally occurring radioactive materials do not fall within the NRC's jurisdiction at the MGR.

  10. Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection Instrumentation Development and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; hide

    2008-01-01

    Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight instrumentation and for the development of advanced instrumentation technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight instrumentation including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instruments on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer instruments under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help calibrate current spaceflight instrumentation, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.

  11. Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) for Advanced Life Detection Instrumentation Development and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Will; Dworkin, Jason; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Mahaffy, Paul; Stern, Jen; Blake, Daid; Sandford, Scott; Fries, marc; Steele, Andrew; Amashukeli, Xenia; Fisher, Anita; Grunthaner, Frank; Aubrey, Andrew; Bada, Jeff; Chiesl, Tom; Stockton, Amanda; Mathies, Rich

    2008-01-01

    Scientific ground-truth measurements for near-term Mars missions, such as the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, are essential for validating current in situ flight instrumentation and for the development of advanced instrumentation technologies for life-detection missions over the next decade. The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) has recently funded a consortium of researchers called the Astrobiology Sample Analysis Program (ASAP) to analyze an identical set of homogenized martian analog materials in a "round-robin" style using both state-of-the-art laboratory techniques as well as in-situ flight instrumentation including the SAM gas chromatograph mass spectrometer and CHEMIN X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instruments on MSL and the Urey and MOMA organic analyzer instruments under development for the 2013 ExoMars missions. The analog samples studied included an Atacama Desert soil from Chile, the Murchison meteorite, a gypsum sample from the 2007 AMASE Mars analog site, jarosite from Panoche Valley, CA, a hydrothermal sample from Rio Tinto, Spain, and a "blind" sample collected during the 2007 MSL slow-motion field test in New Mexico. Each sample was distributed to the team for analysis to: (1) determine the nature and inventory of organic compounds, (2) measure the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition, (3) investigate elemental abundances, mineralogy and matrix, and (4) search for biological activity. The experimental results obtained from the ASAP Mars analog research consortium will be used to build a framework for understanding the biogeochemistry of martian analogs, help calibrate current spaceflight instrumentation, and enhance the scientific return from upcoming missions.

  12. Managed behavioral health care: an instrument to characterize critical elements of public sector programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, M Susan; Giard, Julienne; Shern, David; Mulkern, Virginia; Burnam, M Audrey

    2002-08-01

    To develop an instrument to characterize public sector managed behavioral health care arrangements to capture key differences between managed and "unmanaged" care and among managed care arrangements. The instrument was developed by a multi-institutional group of collaborators with participation of an expert panel. Included are six domains predicted to have an impact on access, service utilization, costs, and quality. The domains are: characteristics of the managed care plan, enrolled population, benefit design, payment and risk arrangements, composition of provider networks, and accountability. Data are collected at three levels: managed care organization, subcontractor, and network of service providers. Data are collected through contract abstraction and key informant interviews. A multilevel coding scheme is used to organize the data into a matrix along key domains, which is then reviewed and verified by the key informants. This instrument can usefully differentiate between and among Medicaid fee-for-service programs and Medicaid managed care plans along key domains of interest. Beyond documenting basic features of the plans and providing contextual information, these data will support the refinement and testing of hypotheses about the impact of public sector managed care on access, quality, costs, and outcomes of care. If managed behavioral health care research is to advance beyond simple case study comparisons, a well-conceptualized set of instruments is necessary.

  13. Instrument to assess educational programs for parents of children with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino Armijo, Paola; Ramírez León, Muriel; Clavería Rodríguez, Cristian

    2017-10-01

    To design and validate an instrument to assess the relevance of educational programs for parents of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) undergoing cardiac surgery. In October 2011, an instrument was designed based on Kaufman's model and on the bibliography, and a survey was developed in the form of a checklist with 32 close-ended questions about received education and desired education, categorized into 5 items: educator, time, place, means, and content. The survey was reviewed by 4 academic professionals and 9 experts in the care of children with CHD, and the checklist was extended to include 42 close-ended questions and 5 open questions. The instrument was administered on the day before discharge to the parents of children with CHD undergoing cardiac surgery at the Department of Pediatrics between February and August 2013. The survey was self-administered by the first participants and administered by the investigator among the remaining participants. Fifty-five children met inclusion criteria; a total of 60 parents took part in the study. Agreement was observed between received education and desired education, which was statistically significant only in terms of education provided by a cardiologist (p= 0.000, K= 0.659) and in the hall (p= 0.000, K= 0.655). Statistically significant differences were observed between the 19 self-administered surveys and the 41 surveys administered by the investigator. Among the latter, a greater level of completion was observed for all items. A validated instrument was developed to assess the relevance of educational programs for parents of children with CHD undergoing cardiac surgery. This survey should be administered by a health care provider for a better understanding of information.

  14. Measuring Fidelity and Adaptation: Reliability of a Instrument for School-Based Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dana C; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren; Strack, Joann

    2014-06-01

    There is a need to standardize methods for assessing fidelity and adaptation. Such standardization would allow program implementation to be examined in a manner that will be useful for understanding the moderating role of fidelity in dissemination research. This article describes a method for collecting data about fidelity of implementation for school-based prevention programs, including measures of adherence, quality of delivery, dosage, participant engagement, and adaptation. We report about the reliability of these methods when applied by four observers who coded video recordings of teachers delivering All Stars, a middle school drug prevention program. Interrater agreement for scaled items was assessed for an instrument designed to evaluate program fidelity. Results indicated sound interrater reliability for items assessing adherence, dosage, quality of teaching, teacher understanding of concepts, and program adaptations. The interrater reliability for items assessing potential program effectiveness, classroom management, achievement of activity objectives, and adaptation valences was improved by dichotomizing the response options for these items. The item that assessed student engagement demonstrated only modest interrater reliability and was not improved through dichotomization. Several coder pairs were discordant on items that overall demonstrated good interrater reliability. Proposed modifications to the coding manual and protocol are discussed.

  15. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  16. Instrumentation and control developments in the Los Alamos nuclear test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy contracts the Los Alamos National Laboratory to carry out a Nuclear Weapons Test Program in support of the national defense. The program is one of ongoing research to design, build, and test prototype nuclear devices. The goal is to determine what should ultimately be incorporated into the nation's nuclear defense stockpile. All nuclear tests are conducted underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This paper describes the instrumentation and control techniques used by Los Alamos to carry out the tests. Specifically, the contrast between historical methods and new, computer-based technology are discussed. Previous techniques required large numbers of expensive, heavy hardwire cables extending from the surface to the diagnostics rack at the bottom of the vertical shaft. These cables, which provided singular control/monitor functions, have been replaced by a few optical fibers and power cables. This significant savings has been enabled through the adaptation of industrial process control technology using programmable computer control and distributed input/output. Finally, an ongoing process of developing and applying the most suitable instrumentation and control technology to the unique requirements of the Test Program is discussed. 2 refs.

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BEGINNING READING SKILLS PROGRAM USING THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENTS INSTRUMENT. SECOND PROGRESS REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOTKIN, LASSAR G.; MCSWEENEY, JOSEPH

    THE SECOND PROGRESS REPORT OF A PROJECT UTILIZING A COMPLEX TEACHING MACHINE, THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENT INSTRUMENT, TO STUDY THE ACQUISITION OF BEGINNING READING SKILLS BY 5-YEAR-OLDS FROM DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUNDS IS PRESENTED. THE FIRST REPORT DESCRIBED THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENT INSTRUMENT AND DISCUSSED THE PROGRAMING DEVELOPED…

  18. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program network of microwave radiometers: instrumentation, data, and retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Cadeddu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Climate Research Facility of the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Program operates a network of ground-based microwave radiometers. Data and retrievals from these instruments have been available to the scientific community for almost 20 yr. In the past five years the network has been expanded to include a total of 22 microwave radiometers deployed in various locations around the world. The new instruments cover a frequency range between 22 and 197 GHz and are consistently and automatically calibrated. The latest addition to the network is a new generation of three-channel radiometers currently in the early stage of deployment at all ARM sites. The network has been specifically designed to achieve increased accuracy in the retrieval of precipitable water vapor (PWV and cloud liquid water path (LWP with the long-term goal of providing the scientific community with reliable, calibrated radiometric data and retrievals of important geophysical quantities with well-characterized uncertainties. The radiometers provide high-quality, continuous datasets that can be utilized in a wealth of applications and scientific studies. This paper presents an overview of the microwave instrumentation, calibration procedures, data, and retrievals that are available for download from the ARM data archive.

  19. Diffusion of student business incubators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Honig, Benson; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    This paper undertakes a longitudinal examination of the diffusion of a relatively new organizational activity - university student business incubators - by studying the processes through which actors grounded in three different institutional logics interact in the organizational field of higher...... education. Applying neo-institutional theory, we examine the development of student incubation activities in the field of general state-funded Danish universities. We review institutional pressures from the political sphere that led to the diffusion of student incubation, introducing a three-phase process...

  20. Provider attitudes toward pay-for-performance programs: development and validation of a measurement instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meterko, Mark; Young, Gary J; White, Bert; Bokhour, Barbara G; Burgess, James F; Berlowitz, Dan; Guldin, Matthew R; Nealon Seibert, Marjorie

    2006-10-01

    To develop an instrument for assessing physician attitudes toward quality incentive programs, and to assess its reliability and validity. Study involved primary data collection. A 40-item paper and pencil survey of primary care physicians in Rochester, New York, and Massachusetts was conducted between May 2004 and December 2004. Seven-hundred and ninety-eight completed questionnaires were received, representing a response rate of 32 percent (798/2,497). Based on an extensive review of the literature and discussions with experts in the field, we developed a conceptual framework representing the features of pay-for-performance (P4P) programs hypothesized to affect physician behavior in that context. A draft questionnaire was developed based on that conceptual model and pilot tested in three groups of physicians. The questionnaire was modified based on the physician feedback, and the revised version was distributed to 2,497 primary care physicians affiliated with two of the seven sites participating in Rewarding Results, a national evaluation of quality target and financial incentive programs. Respondents were randomly divided into a derivation and a validation sample. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to the responses of the derivation sample. Those results were used to create scales in the validation sample, and these were then subjected to multitrait analysis (MTA). One scale representing physicians' perception of the impact of P4P on their clinical practice was regressed on the other scales as a test of construct validity. Seven constructs were identified and demonstrated substantial convergent and discriminant validity in the MTA: awareness and understanding, clinical relevance, cooperation, unintended consequences, control, financial salience, and impact. Internal consistency reliabilities (Cronbach's alpha coefficients) ranged from 0.50 to 0.80. A statistically significant 25 percent of the variation in perceived impact was accounted for by physician

  1. Development of the SIT, an Instrument to Evaluate the Transfer Effects of Adult Education Programs for Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greef, Maurice; Segers, Mien; Verte, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    To date, hardly any evidence is available on the quality of adult education programs for vulnerable adults. Evaluation instruments or models mostly focussed on regular education and less on programs of adult education aiming to enhance social inclusion. This study presents a first exploration of the construct validity of a newly developed…

  2. Development of the SIT, an Instrument to Evaluate the Transfer Effects of Adult Education Programs for Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greef, Maurice; Segers, Mien; Verte, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    To date, hardly any evidence is available on the quality of adult education programs for vulnerable adults. Evaluation instruments or models mostly focussed on regular education and less on programs of adult education aiming to enhance social inclusion. This study presents a first exploration of the construct validity of a newly developed…

  3. Continuous High Technology Business Incubation : cross-sectoral comparison of approaches to high technology business incubation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davey, Todd; Kliewe, Thorsten; Sijde, van der Peter; McIntyre, Matt

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how organisations can foster high technology businesses in an incubation-type environment. We compare the approaches taken by a large private firm with a successful University entrepreneurial program to outline successful elements in creating a successful high te

  4. Infant incubators and radiant warmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E F

    1983-10-01

    Incubators and radiant warmers are used to maintain the body temperature of newborn infants. This is best done so that the energy expended for metabolic heat production is minimized. The heat output of these devices is usually regulated by servocontrol to keep the skin temperature constant at a site on the abdomen where a thermistor probe is attached. In incubators, air temperature can also be controlled as an alternative to skin temperature servocontrol. Increased ambient humidity, heat shields and clothing have been used to decrease the evaporative or nonevaporative heat loss of infants in incubators under certain conditions. Double-walled incubators, by adding a second inner layer of Plexiglas, reduce radiant heat loss. They may also reduce total heat loss, but only if air temperature is controlled rather than skin temperature. The minimal oxygen consumption under a radiant warmer is the same or perhaps slightly higher than it is for the same infant in an incubator. Compared with incubators, the partition of body heat loss is quite different under radiant warmers. Radiant warmers increase convective and evaporative heat loss and insensible water loss but eliminate radiant heat loss or change it to net gain. A heat shield of thin polyethylene film can be used with a radiant warmer to reduce heat loss by convection and evaporation. The major advantage of the radiant warmer is the easy access it provides to critically-ill infants without disturbing the thermal environment. Its major disadvantage is the increase in insensible water loss produced by the radiant warmer. Most infants can be safely and adequately cared for in either incubator or radiant warmer bed.

  5. Unpainting the black box : exploring mechanisms and practices of start-up incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weele, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Although incubators have become one of the most prominent instruments to stimulate the emergence and growth of start-ups, questions are being raised about their effectiveness. One major obstacle to evaluate the effectiveness of incubators is that the incubator remains a ‘black box’: the extant liter

  6. [The measurement of time and its instruments: the program of experimental psychology of Gabriele Buccola].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degni, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Gabriele Buccola is remembered as the first Italian psychologist to have developed a rigorous program of laboratory research. The careful examination of the instruments and experimental planning of his psychochronometric investigations reveals the indissoluble bond between theory and experimentation that defines a scientific conception of psychology on the basis of a differential methodology. For Buccola it is important to demonstrate that there exist "laws" that govern the mental processes, and that there exists a time that regulates human reactions and behaviour, considering however the individual differences and various factors that can bear influence to increase or decrease it. The use of 'intelligent' instruments proves to be fundamental within a model of experimentation directed towards pointing out individual differences and not just identifying the general laws of mental functioning. Buccola in this way imparts a psychological characterization to the study of mental illness--placing him as an initiator of experimental psychopathology, which will have a significant development in Europe thanks precisely to the work of Kraepelin--along with a differential and clinical-experimental bent to the emerging Italian scientific psychology. Lastly, the attention directed to the study of complex mental processes leads Buccola to lay the foundation in Italy for the study of the subjective experience of time.

  7. The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Queensland Priority Country Area. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briody, P.

    The Instrumental Music Program Unit in the South-West Priority Country Area (a vast, generally arid hot region some 800 km by 450 km) is a unique, dynamic, and successful program, enjoying an extremely high degree of enthusiastic support from all involved--administrators, instructors, students, schools, and communities. Begun in 1977, there are…

  8. BUSINESS INCUBATORS AND SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schebesch Klaus Bruno

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovative businesses are often the result of collective action of organisations involved in many-sided market structures, which can be found in and around business incubators or technology centres. Within such frame environments, many group interests beyond those of single producers and their immediate clients exist and interfere. Rather generically, important economic outcomes of innovations are sequences of cost reduction events at the level of economic sectors, where the nature of (sector-wise technology is influencing the pace of these events. At the conceptual level, we describe the social learning and social innovation process which leads to sustainable innovation by means of the influence exerted by firms on each other within constrained environments such as business incubators. These environments need not to be organized according to any sector logic. We propose that the influence exerted between firms is increasing in firm similarity, in the degree of product complementarity, and also to depend on (mutual trust relations. We note that, very much in symmetry with the role of sustainability in society as a whole, in the world of firms and markets, the incubation process may be viewed as a moderator, which attempts to overcome the disadvantages of highly paced, short-term oriented capitalist economies. In sections 2 and 3 a concept for representing the societal forces shaping sustainability and incubation for the innovating firm is described and ways of transforming the concept into concrete tools of assessment and valuation are pointed at.

  9. Business support within business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a

  10. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  11. Students' Attitudes towards Individual Musical Instrument Courses in Music Education Graduate Programs in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önder, Gülten Cüceoglu

    2015-01-01

    The Individual Musical Instrument course is a compulsory part of the curriculum, in the Music Education Departments of universities in Turkey. The main purpose of the course is to ensure that each student is able to play a musical instrument and, use the instrument once they become music teachers. This study aims to determine the attitudes of…

  12. Innovation Incubator: Whisker Labs Technical Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, Stephen M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, Lieko [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scheib, Jennifer G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator (IN2) is a program to foster and accelerate startup companies with commercial building energy-efficiency and demand management technologies. The program is funded by the Wells Fargo Foundation and co-administered by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Whisker Labs, an Oakland, California-based company, was one of four awardees in the first IN2 cohort and was invited to participate in the program because of its novel electrical power sensing technology for circuit breakers. The stick-on Whisker meters install directly on the front face of the circuit breakers in an electrical panel using adhesive, eliminating the need to open the panel and install current transducers (CTs) on the circuit wiring.

  13. Fundamentals of Business Incubator Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marchis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of the European Union, including Romania as a member state, determines the reconfiguration of Romanian way of acting inorder to develop new business. Learning from others with much more experience in the field of regional economic development may be the key toaccomplish the goal of economic and social cohesion. The gap between Romania and EU-27 average in economic development terms may bereduced only by promoting small businesses to enhance. Creating jobs and building wealth is the only solution available to the current problems ofRomanian economy. The paper intends to respond to basic questions of creating a business incubator. Also, it may be a tool to local and regionalpromoters that want to give rise, in a proper manner, to a Business Incubator.

  14. The evolution of business incubators: comparing demand and supply of business incubation services across different incubator generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruneel, J.; Ratinho, Tiago; Clarysse, B.; Groen, Arend J.

    2012-01-01

    Business incubators (BIs) have been established around the world to stimulate new business creation. Whilst it is accepted that incubation models have evolved, little is known about whether existing incubators have adjusted their value proposition to incorporate recent incubation paradigms or have

  15. Benefits of a Classroom Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal Memory of Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Nikki S.; Vasquez, Jorge T.; Murphy, Fintan; Gill, Anneliese; Toukhsati, Samia R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbal memory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training…

  16. An Investigation of the Relationships between Mathematics and Music Skills of Students Participating in Successful High School Instrumental Music Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory phenomenological study was designed to investigate the relationships between mathematics and music skills of students participating in successful high school instrumental music programs. The participants of this study were purposefully selected and included one math educator or math department chairperson and the band or orchestra…

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BEGINNING READING SKILLS PROGRAM USING THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENTS INSTRUMENT. FOURTH PROGRESS REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOTKIN, LASSAR G.; MCSWEENEY, JOSEPH

    A FOURTH PROGRESS REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BEGINNING READING SKILLS PROGRAM USING THE EDISON RESPONSIVE ENVIRONMENTS INSTRUMENT IS PRESENTED. THE ACQUISITION OF A SEQUENCE OF COMPLEX BEGINNING READING SKILLS IS EXAMINED. MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES ARE DISCUSSED. THE FOLLOWING HYPOTHESES WERE TESTED IN FIELD STUDIES--(1) THE EFFECTS OF TWO TYPES…

  18. Photoperiodic lighting (16 hours of light:8 hours of dark) programs during incubation: 1. Effects on growth and circadian physiological traits of embryos and early stress response of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, S; Yalçin, S; Babacanoglu, E; Kozanoglu, H; Karadas, F; Uysal, S

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a 16L:8D photoperiod during incubation, either during the whole incubation period (Inc(0-21d)) or the last week of incubation (Inc(14-21d)), on embryo growth, incubation performance, and light:dark rhythm of plasma melatonin and corticosterone in relation to early stress responses of newly hatched chicks to the posthatching environment. A dark incubation condition (Inc(Dark)) served as control. Three batches of eggs (n = 1,080, 1,320, 720) from Ross 308 broiler breeders were used in the experiment. Embryos from Inc(0-21d) presented a daily rhythm of melatonin at internal pipping and hatching, but Inc(Dark) embryos did not. The Inc(14-21d) group had rhythmic plasma melatonin at hatching only. A L:D rhythm of corticosterone was apparent at hatching. A significant incubation × sampling time interaction suggested that a lower increment in blood corticosterone level in Inc(0-21d) at 8 h posthatching (light period), as compared with hatching (dark period) values, might be associated with probable changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in Inc(0-21d) through incubation lighting. This finding may also suggest improved adaptation to the posthatching environment. Incubation lighting did not consistently affect brain malondialdehyde concentration; the only difference between groups was higher concentrations at hatching in Inc(14-21d), whereas incubation groups at the internal pipping stage had similar values. Mean relative asymmetry (RA) did not differ with incubation lighting. The malondialdehyde and RA results indicate that neither lighting nor darkness during the overall incubation exacerbated embryo oxidative and developmental stress. An increased breast muscle weight was observed at hatching only in Inc(14-21d). The Inc(0-21d) group had increased embryo weights relative to egg weight and decreased residual yolk but had no effect on chick weight, relative heart and liver (% of embryo weight), hatchability

  19. Data Acquisition Programming (LabVIEW): An Aid to Teaching Instrumental Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostowski, Rudy

    A course was developed at Austin Peay State University (Tennessee) which offered an opportunity for hands-on experience with the essential components of modern analytical instruments. The course aimed to provide college students with the skills necessary to construct a simple model instrument, including the design and fabrication of electronic…

  20. LIGHT WATER REACTOR SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM ADVANCED INSTRUMENTATION, INFORMATION, AND CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES TECHNICAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-07-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  1. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for FY 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbert, Bruce Perry [Idaho National Laboratory; Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-10-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  2. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  3. What determines a successful business incubator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Sophia; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Business incubators have become an important pillar in the attraction and the support of innovation and entrepreneurship – in practice, and to a greater extent in theory as well. Based on earlier research, we give an overview of business incubator literature between 2001 and 2013. We review...... these results in a generic business incubation process model, which is elaborated in a pre-, main- and after-incubation phase. Finally, we introduce an incubator guide, which is summarizing the key areas into a questionnaire. Hence, on the one hand, we foster future research on business incubation with our...

  4. Technology business incubators as engines of growth: towards a distinction between technology incubators and non-technology incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.; Langan Fox, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  5. Technology Business Incubators as Engines of Growth: Towards a distinction between Technology Incubators and Non-Technology Incubators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  6. 21 CFR 880.5400 - Neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neonatal incubator. 880.5400 Section 880.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.5400 Neonatal incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal incubator is a device consisting of...

  7. Integrating Chemistry Laboratory Instrumentation into the Industrial Internet: Building, Programming, and Experimenting with an Automatic Titrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famularo, Nicole; Kholod, Yana; Kosenkov, Dmytro

    2016-01-01

    This project is designed to improve physical chemistry and instrumental analysis laboratory courses for undergraduate students by employing as teaching tools novel technologies in electronics and data integration using the industrial Internet. The project carried out by upper-division undergraduates is described. Students are exposed to a complete…

  8. Integrating Chemistry Laboratory Instrumentation into the Industrial Internet: Building, Programming, and Experimenting with an Automatic Titrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famularo, Nicole; Kholod, Yana; Kosenkov, Dmytro

    2016-01-01

    This project is designed to improve physical chemistry and instrumental analysis laboratory courses for undergraduate students by employing as teaching tools novel technologies in electronics and data integration using the industrial Internet. The project carried out by upper-division undergraduates is described. Students are exposed to a complete…

  9. The Upgrade to Hybrid Incubators in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Gao, Yuchen

    with the integration of the advantages of non-for-profit and for-profit TBIs at same time. However, research on specific paths or key factors for integration of non-for- and for-profit TBIs to be one hybrid incubator are in sufficient. In addition, there are few relevant investigations about incubators in developing...... countries and emerging economics. Based on a single in-depth case-study of Tuspark Incubator, this study explores key factors and specific ways for the upgrade to hybrid incubators in the context of China. By using categorical analysis, three factors, i.e. incubation subdivision, intermediary platform...... TBIs in China requires further study....

  10. The business incubator in a network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2003-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a new incubator model, the "networked incubator", which is a hybrid form of the archetypal business incubators, based on territorial synergy, relational symbiosis and economices of scale, to the benefit of the participating 'incubatees'. The question...... addressed in this paper is why this new model has emerged and what distinguishes it from the more traditional incubator model. The theoretical basis of the research is social capital theory. Empirically, the paper is based on 6 months' ethnographic data collected in one of the first known networked...... incubators. The closing section of the paper addresses the implications for research and practitioners....

  11. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. This work involves two major goals: (1) to ensure that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet, and (2) to implement digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the nuclear power plant operating model. Resolving long-term operational concerns with the II&C systems contributes to the long-term sustainability of the LWR fleet, which is vital to the nation's energy and environmental security.

  12. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  13. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  14. 77 FR 25457 - Applications for New Awards; Enhanced Assessment Instruments Grants Program-Enhanced Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... language domains of reading, writing, speaking, and listening; (10) Assess all English learners, including... English learner subgroups such as English learners by years in a language instruction educational program... by years out of the language instruction educational program; English learners by level of English...

  15. Workplace Training Programs: Instruments for Human Capital Improvements or Screening Devices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Irene; Corsini, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of an Italian training program on the re-employment probability of young unemployed workers. The program consists exclusively of workplace training and is coordinated by employment centers, even if it is fully implemented by firms. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors develop a…

  16. GEOS-2 refraction program summary document. [ionospheric and tropospheric propagation errors in satellite tracking instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Data from an extensive array of collocated instrumentation at the Wallops Island test facility were intercompared in order to (1) determine the practical achievable accuracy limitations of various tropospheric and ionospheric correction techniques; (2) examine the theoretical bases and derivation of improved refraction correction techniques; and (3) estimate internal systematic and random error levels of the various tracking stations. The GEOS 2 satellite was used as the target vehicle. Data were obtained regarding the ionospheric and tropospheric propagation errors, the theoretical and data analysis of which was documented in some 30 separate reports over the last 6 years. An overview of project results is presented.

  17. Designing and Development of Readout and Configuration Program for the MXGS-Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The Atmosphere-Space Interactive Monitor (ASIM) is a project running under the guideline and financial support of the European Space Agency (ESA). The ASIM instrument consists of several high resolution, optical cameras and an X-ray and Gamma-ray detector. The ASIM payload is to be installed on the Columbus module on International Space Station (ISS) which will orbit the Earth at an altitude of 300-400 km, and will observe the Earth's atmosphere for a time span of two years after installation...

  18. New York Nano-Bio Molecular Information Technology (NYNBIT) Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Digendra K

    2008-12-19

    This project presents the outcome of an effort made by a consortium of six universities in the State of New York to develop a Center for Advanced technology (CAT) in the emerging field of Nano-Bio-Molecular Information Technology. The effort consists of activities such as organization of the NYNBIT incubator, collaborative research projects, development of courses, an educational program for high schools, and commercial start-up programs.

  19. MOD: An Instrument for the 2005 Mars Explorer Program HEDS Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, J. L.; Blaney, D. L.; Grunthaner, F. J.; McDonald, G. D.; Webster, C. R.; Duke, M.; Mathies, R. A.; McKay, C. P.; Paige, D. A.; Ride, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Organic Detector (MOD) was recently selected for the definition phase of the HEDS '05 (originally scheduled for '03) lander instrument package for fundamental biology and in situ resource utilization. MOD is designed to detect organic compounds in rock and soil samples directly on the surface of Mars in order to assess the biological potential of the planet. In addition, a MOD Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer (TDLS) will provide information on desorption and decomposition temperatures, as well as the release rates and quantities of water and carbon dioxide that can be liberated from regolith samples, thereby providing the parameters needed for the design of systems for the future large-scale in situ extraction of valuable consumable resources. A MOD TDLS will also measure the atmospheric water and carbon dioxide content, as well as the atmospheric carbon dioxide isotopic composition, in order to determine whether there is an isotopic offset between atmospheric and surface carbon.

  20. NASA Thunderstorm Overflight Program - Research in Atmospheric Electricity from an Instrumentated U-2 Aircraft Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    x 50 element photo- diode array manufactured by Reticon with a FOV of 1 radian, observes the lightning flash through a narrow-band interference...technical content. Review of any information concerning Department of Defense or nuclear energy activities or programs has been made by the MSFC Security

  1. U.S. Department of Energy University Reactor Instrumentation Program Final Report for 1992-94 Grant for the University of Florida Training Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernetson, William G.

    1999-04-01

    Overall, the instrumentation obtained under the first year 1992-93 University Reactor Instrumentation Program grant assured that the goals of the program were well understood and met as well as possible at the level of support provided for the University of Florida Training Reactor facility. Though the initial grant support of $21,000 provided toward the purchase of $23,865 of proposed instrumentation certainly did not meet many of the facility's needs, the instrumentation items obtained and implemented did meet some critical needs and hence the goals of the Program to support modernization and improvement of reactor facilities such as the UFTR within the academic community. Similarly, the instrumentation obtained under the second year 1993-94 University Reactor Instrumentation Program grant again met some of the critical needs for instrumentation support at the UFTR facility. Again, though the grant support of $32,799 for proposed instrumentation at the same cost projection does not need all of the facility's needs, it does assure continued facility viability and improvement in operations. Certainly, reduction of forced unavailability of the reactor is the most obvious achievement of the University Reactor Instrumentation Program to date at the UFTR. Nevertheless, the ability to close out several expressed-inspection concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with acquisition of the low level survey meter and the area radiation monitoring system is also very important. Most importantly, with modest cost sharing the facility has been able to continue and even accelerate the improvement and modernization of a facility, especially in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, that is used by nearly every post-secondary school in the State of Florida and several in other states, by dozens of departments within the University of Florida, and by several dozen high schools around the State of Florida on a regular basis. Better, more reliable service to such

  2. Indirect calorimetry during incubation of hatching eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry can be used during incubation of avian eggs to monitor the quality of the incubation process, the development of the embryo and the utilization of nutrients. Indirect calorimetry has several benefits above direct calorimetry, particularly in hatching eggs. However, to obtain rel

  3. Embryo temperature during incubation: practice and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.

    2008-01-01

    (Key words: incubation, embryo temperature, embryonic development, heat production, heat loss) Until recently, all incubator studies were performed using a constant machine temperature (MT). But it is embryo temperature (ET) that is of importance to the embryo, and not MT. In practice, MT is often

  4. Understanding management practices in business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent; Thijssen, Sander; Pascucci, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Following the call for process-oriented research on business incubation processes, this paper investigates the process of business incubation (BI) via an understanding of management practices and interactions. Based on a comprehensive literature review and empirical evidence of management practices

  5. Effects of an adapted physical activity program in a group of elderly subjects with flexed posture: clinical and instrumental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frizziero Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flexed posture commonly increases with age and is related to musculoskeletal impairment and reduced physical performance. The purpose of this clinical study was to systematically compare the effects of a physical activity program that specifically address the flexed posture that marks a certain percentage of elderly individuals with a non specific exercise program for 3 months. Methods Participants were randomly divided into two groups: one followed an Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture and the other one completed a non-specific physical activity protocol for the elderly. A multidimensional clinical assessment was performed at baseline and at 3 months including anthropometric data, clinical profile, measures of musculoskeletal impairment and disability. The instrumental assessment of posture was realized using a stereophotogrammetric system and a specific biomechanical model designed to describe the reciprocal position of the body segments on the sagittal plane in a upright posture. Results The Adapted Physical Activity program determined a significant improvement in several key parameters of the multidimensional assessment in comparison to the non-specific protocol: decreased occiput-to-wall distance, greater lower limb range of motion, better flexibility of pectoralis, hamstrings and hip flexor muscles, increased spine extensor muscles strength. Stereophotogrammetric analysis confirmed a reduced protrusion of the head and revealed a reduction in compensative postural adaptations to flexed posture characterized by knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion in the participants of the specific program. Conclusion The Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture significantly improved postural alignment and musculoskeletal impairment of the elderly. The stereophotogrammetric evaluation of posture was useful to measure the global postural alignment and especially to analyse the possible compensatory strategies

  6. Programs and instruments of the energy policy and climate policy. EEG versus emissions trading?; Programme und Instrumente der Energie- und Klimapolitik. EEG versus Emissionshandel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafhausen, Franzjosef [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The fundamental question behind the theme of the contribution under consideration is as old as the independent environmental policy in Germany. The battle undulates between fundamentally different schools. On the one side, there are representatives of a one-dimensional theory in which a single instrument is sufficient to solve a defined problem. On the other hand, there is the thesis that the existing obstacles and barriers have such a wide range of expression that one instrument is not sufficient to overcome all hurdles. This position advises the use of adjusted combinations of instruments in order to realize comprehensive and very ambitious targets. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on (a) the main reasons for the use of a combination of instruments; (b) the targets of the German climate protection policy; (c) the energy concept of the Federal Government.

  7. [Formaldehyde sediment in incubators following disinfection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartner, R; Kegel, M; Meyer, H D; Schlüter, G; Wegner, J; Werner, E

    1983-12-01

    Measurements in incubators revealed the presence of formaldehyde concentrations involving a health risk for premature and normal newborns kept and cared for in incubators. Prior to measurements, the incubators had been disinfected by means of formaldehyde vapours in an "Aseptor" disinfecting cabinet (Drägerwerk AG, Lübeck) and then ventilated in strict adherence to operating instructions. The elevated formaldehyde concentrations found had been due to residues of paraformaldehyde and urotropin on the surfaces of the disinfected apparatus, liberating formaldehyde by hydrolysis depending on temperature and relative humidity. There should be a basic reconsideration of the present practice of incubator disinfection. From experiments with activated-carbon filters in incubators it would seem that there is a chance of reducing such formaldehyde concentrations.

  8. Humidity control tool for neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdiche, M; Farges, G; Delanaud, S; Bach, V; Villon, P; Libert, J P

    1998-03-01

    In the first days of life, the daily evaporative loss from premature neonates can reach up to 20% of body mass. Such loss can be reduced by increasing the air humidity inside the incubator. Neither passive humidification nor open loop systems allow high humidity rates to be maintained or easily controlled: at 34 degrees C, the maximum levels vary with the system from 40% to 77% of relative humidity. The skin evaporative exchanges between the neonate and the environment are directly proportional to the water vapour partial pressure difference between the neonate's skin and the air. An active closed loop system has been designed, which permits reliable and accurate control of humidity according to the water vapour partial pressure set, between 1 and 6 kPa, in an air temperature range of 28-39 degrees C. It is characterised by variations of about 0.05 kPa around the set value and a maximum humidification speed of 0.25 kPa min-1. The algorithm is based on optimal control and the dynamic programming principles. Test results place this active system above usual systems for its power, precision and adaptability. It is an exploitable tool in fundamental and clinical research, to precisely study the humidity effects on neonatal comfort and thermo-regulation evolution.

  9. Intervention program in college instrumental musicians, with kinematics analysis of cello and flute playing: a combined program of yogic breathing and muscle strengthening-flexibility exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples.

  10. Instrumentation Analysis: An Automated Method for Producing Numeric Abstractions of Heap-Manipulating Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    Arbib and Suad Alagic. Proof rules for gotos. Acta Informatica , pages 139–148, 1979. 6.3 T. Ball, R. Majumdar, T. Millstein, and S. Rajamani...Press, January 1999. ISBN 0262032708. 3, 3.1, 3.3 323 B Bibliography M. Clint and C.A.R. Hoare. Program proving: Jumps and functions. Acta Informatica ...Goto statements: Semantics and deduction systems. Acta Informatica , pages 385–424, 1981. 6.3 324 B Bibliography Alain Deutsch. Interprocedural may

  11. Medical Civic Action Programs (MEDCAPS) and Medical Readiness Training Exercises (MEDRETES) as Instruments of Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-24

    designed by the Oral program of the Junta Nacional de Bienestar Social (National Board for Social Welfare). The Honduran dentist is going to give a...Funds ................. 68 Appendix E Ministry of Honduran Public Health and Social Services. .69 Accession F "or I NTI. GRA&I DTIC TAR [-] )Ju t1-. 1, c...stated above, this new type of warfare can be waged by using social -political-economic power, rather than the traditional use of military force

  12. Program Evaluation Using the Project Dakota Parent Satisfaction Survey. A Manual for Administration and Interpretation of Findings Using a Validated Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, JoAnne; Jacks, Robert

    This manual presents an instrument (the Dakota Parent Satisfaction Survey) and procedures for evaluating parent satisfaction with early intervention programs. The survey procedures have been used to evaluate seven early intervention programs each year since 1985. Development of the Survey is discussed, including the identification of program…

  13. A Survey of Florida High School Instrumental Music Programs: Rationale for the Inclusion of Jazz Ensemble Experience in Music Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    During the past 60 years, jazz music has slowly become recognized as a genre worthy of study in high school music programs throughout the United States. Only a few researchers have analyzed large samples of jazz-related instruction in instrumental music programs, and of these studies no data were collected to investigate the inclusion of jazz in…

  14. A Survey of Florida High School Instrumental Music Programs: Rationale for the Inclusion of Jazz Ensemble Experience in Music Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    During the past 60 years, jazz music has slowly become recognized as a genre worthy of study in high school music programs throughout the United States. Only a few researchers have analyzed large samples of jazz-related instruction in instrumental music programs, and of these studies no data were collected to investigate the inclusion of jazz in…

  15. Technology Roadmap Instrumentation, Control, and Human-Machine Interface to Support DOE Advanced Nuclear Energy Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald D Dudenhoeffer; Burce P Hallbert

    2007-03-01

    Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technologies are essential to ensuring delivery and effective operation of optimized advanced Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. In 1996, the Watts Bar I nuclear power plant in Tennessee was the last U.S. nuclear power plant to go on line. It was, in fact, built based on pre-1990 technology. Since this last U.S. nuclear power plant was designed, there have been major advances in the field of ICHMI systems. Computer technology employed in other industries has advanced dramatically, and computing systems are now replaced every few years as they become functionally obsolete. Functional obsolescence occurs when newer, more functional technology replaces or supersedes an existing technology, even though an existing technology may well be in working order.Although ICHMI architectures are comprised of much of the same technology, they have not been updated nearly as often in the nuclear power industry. For example, some newer Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers may, in fact, have more functionality than the 1996 computer control system at the Watts Bar I plant. This illustrates the need to transition and upgrade current nuclear power plant ICHMI technologies.

  16. Cognitive modifiability of children with developmental disabilities: a multicentre study using Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment--Basic program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozulin, A; Lebeer, J; Madella-Noja, A; Gonzalez, F; Jeffrey, I; Rosenthal, N; Koslowsky, M

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of cognitive intervention with the new "Instrumental Enrichment Basic" program (IE-basic), based on Feuerstein's theory of structural cognitive modifiability that contends that a child's cognitive functioning can be significantly modified through mediated learning intervention. The IE-basic progam is aimed at enhancing domain-general cognitive functioning in a number of areas (systematic perception, self-regulation abilities, conceptual vocabulary, planning, decoding emotions and social relations) as well as transferring learnt principles to daily life domains. Participants were children with DCD, CP, intellectual impairment of genetic origin, autistic spectrum disorder, ADHD or other learning disorders, with a mental age of 5-7 years, from Canada, Chile, Belgium, Italy and Israel. Children in the experimental groups (N=104) received 27-90 h of the program during 30-45 weeks; the comparison groups (N=72) received general occupational and sensory-motor therapy. Analysis of the pre- to post-test gain scores demonstrated significant (pcognitive functioning of children with developmental disability. No advantage was found for children with specific aetiology. Greater cognitive gains were demonstrated by children who received the program in an educational context where all teachers were committed to the principles of mediated learning.

  17. Incubation and intuition in creative problem solving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth James Gilhooly

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate v. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation.What form might unconscious work take? On theoretical grounds, the notion that Unconscious Work involves the same processing steps as Conscious Work but minus conscious awareness is discounted, despite some recent arguments that the unconscious can duplicate any conscious function. A candidate account in terms of spreading activation, coupled with below-threshold but active goal representations, is put forward. This account could explain the emergence of subjectively sudden intuitive solutions (Aha-insight solutions as a result of unconscious processes (Unconscious Work during incubation periods.

  18. Modeling incubation temperature: the effects of incubator design, embryonic development, and egg size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, N A

    1997-01-01

    A simple model to describe the relationship between the temperature of the developing embryo, incubator temperature, embryo heat production, and thermal conductivity of the egg and surrounding air is presented. During early incubation, embryo temperature is slightly lower than incubator temperature because of evaporative cooling. However, from midincubation onwards, metabolic heat production from the embryo raises embryo temperature above incubator temperature. The extent of the rise in embryo temperature depends on thermal conductivity, which, in turn, is mainly influenced by the air speed over the egg. The importance of air speed and restrictions to air flow within artificial incubators is discussed. Exact determinations of optimum incubation temperatures from studies reported in the literature are difficult because only incubator temperatures are reported. Embryo temperatures can differ from incubator temperature because of differences in thermal conductivity between different incubation systems and differences between incubators in their ability to control temperatures uniformly. It is suggested that shell surface temperatures are monitored in experiments to investigate temperature effects to allow consistent comparisons between trials. Monitoring shell temperatures would also make it easier to translate optimum temperatures derived in small experimental incubators to the large commercial incubators used by the poultry industry. The relationship between egg temperature, the metabolism of the developing embryo and egg size is discussed.

  19. Instrumentation and Controls Division biennial progress report, September 1, 1974--September 1, 1976. Non-LMFBR programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, G.S. (comp.)

    1976-11-01

    Research progress and developments are reported in the areas of basic electronics, instruments, radiation monitoring, pulse counting and analysis, electronic engineering support for research facilities, automatic control and data acquisition, reactor instrumentation and controls, fuel reprocessing and shipping, process systems and instrumentation development, thermometry, instrumentation for reactor division experiments and test loops, environmental science studies, miscellaneous engineering studies, services, and developments, and maintenance. (WHK)

  20. The multi-instrumental radio diagnostics of the ionosphere for Space Weather Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krankowski, Andrzej; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Pulinets, Sergey; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    To give a more detailed and complete understanding of physical plasma processes that govern the solar-terrestrial space, and to develop qualitative and quantitative models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling, it is necessary to design and build the next generation of instruments for space diagnostics and monitoring. Novel ground- based wide-area sensor networks, such as the LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) radar facility, comprising wide band, and vector-sensing radio receivers and multi-spacecraft plasma diagnostics should help to solve outstanding problems of space physics and describe long-term environmental changes. The LOw Frequency ARray - LOFAR - is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz located in Europe. The three new LOFAR stations will be installed until summer 2015 in Poland. The LOFAR facilities in Poland will be distributed among three sites: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near Olsztyn. Each site will host one LOFAR station (96 high-band+96 low-band antennas). The new digital radio frequency analyzer (RFA) on board the low-orbiting RELEC satellite was designed to monitor and investigate the ionospheric plasma properties. In addition to the in-situ space plasma measurements the topside sounders will be installed onboard the "Ionosphere" spacecrafts to retrieve the vertical distribution of electron concentration in the topside ionosphere. The first two satellites are scheduled for launch at the first half of 2016. These two-point ground-based and topside ionosphere-located space plasma diagnostic can be a useful new tool for monitoring and diagnosing turbulent plasma properties. In order to improve and validate the large scale and small scale ionospheric structures we will also use the GPS observations collected at IGS/EPN: global and regional TEC maps created with high special and temporal resolution, ROTI maps over the Northern Hemisphere and the data retrieved from

  1. Night Heron Incubation Data will gulls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with...

  2. What is the incubation period for listeriosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goulet Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeriosis is a foodborne infection with a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. Unlike common foodborne diseases, the incubation period can be long. The first incubation periods were documented during a large listeriosis outbreak published in 1987 by Linnan and al. in the New England Journal of Medicine (range: 3 days to 70 days. Data on the incubation period of listeriosis are scarce. Our study aim was to estimate precisely the incubation period of listeriosis using available data since 1987. Methods We estimated the incubation period of listeriosis using available published data and data from outbreak investigations carried out by the French National Institute for Public Health Surveillance. We selected cases with an incubation period calculated when a patient had a single exposure to a confirmed food source contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. Results We identified 37 cases of invasive listeriosis (10 cases with central nervous system involvement (CNS cases, 15 bacteraemia cases and 12 pregnancy-associated cases and 9 outbreaks with gastroenteritis. The overall median incubation period of invasive listeriosis was 8 days (range: 1–67 days and differed significantly by clinical form of the disease (p Conclusions This information has implications for the investigation of food borne listeriosis outbreaks as the incubation period is used to determine the time period for which a food history is collected. We believe that, for listeriosis outbreaks, adapting the exposure window for documenting patients’ food histories in accordance with the clinical form of infection will facilitate the identification of food products as the source of contamination. We therefore propose to take an exposure window of 14 days before the diagnosis for CNS and bacteraemia cases, and of 6 weeks before the diagnosis, for pregnancy-associated cases.

  3. Theoretical modeling of prion disease incubation

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, R. V.; Slepoy, A.; Singh, R. R. P.; Cox, D. L.; Mobley, D.; Pázmándi, F.

    2001-01-01

    We present a theory for the laboratory and epidemiological data for incubation times in infectious prion diseases. The central feature of our model is that slow growth of misfolded protein-aggregates from small initial seeds controls the `latent' or `lag' phase, whereas aggregate-fissioning and subsequent spreading leads to an exponential growth or doubling phase. Such a general framework can account for many features of prion diseases including the striking reproducibility of incubation time...

  4. INCUBATORS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladin Stefanovic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators aim to maximize the chances of success of start - up companies by creating a supportive environment. Typically, this involves offering management assistance, mentoring, access to financing, flexible and low - cost leases, office services, etc. There is large number of business incubators in the world. In this paper issues concerned status, development and overview of existing practice in the world will be presented as well as general issues and perspectives for developing countries.

  5. A theoretical model of infant incubator dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, B N; Reddy, N P; Kantak, A

    1994-08-01

    A spatially lumped mathematical model was developed and used for a computer simulation of the neonate-incubator system for parametric analysis of the factors that influence neonatal thermo-regulation. The simulation examined the effects of the following parameters: (1) size of the infant; (2) respiratory rate; (3) metabolic rate; (4) heart rate; (5) thermal properties of the mattress; (6) specific heat capacity of the incubator wall; (7) air flow rate; (8) heater control mechanisms.

  6. Experimental program of the Super-FRS Collaboration at FAIR and developments of related instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Äystö, J. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Behr, K.-H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Benlliure, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bracco, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy); Egelhof, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Fomichev, A. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Galès, S. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire Orsay, 91406 Orsay (France); Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG6, Bucharest (Romania); Geissel, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Justus-Liebig-Universität, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Grahn, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaskyla (Finland); Grigorenko, L.V. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Harakeh, M.N. [KVI Center for Advanced Radiation Technology, University of Groningen, 9700 Groningen (Netherlands); Hayano, R. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 113-0033 Tokyo (Japan); Heinz, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Itahashi, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Jokinen, A. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaskyla (Finland); and others

    2016-06-01

    The physics program at the super-conducting fragment separator (Super-FRS) at FAIR, being operated in a multiple-stage, high-resolution spectrometer mode, is discussed. The Super-FRS will produce, separate and transport radioactive beams at high energies up to 1.5 AGeV, and it can be also used as a stand-alone experimental device together with ancillary detectors. Various combinations of the magnetic sections of the Super-FRS can be operated in dispersive, achromatic or dispersion-matched spectrometer ion-optical modes, which allow measurements of momentum distributions of secondary-reaction products with high resolution and precision. A number of unique experiments in atomic, nuclear and hadron physics are suggested with the Super-FRS as a stand-alone device, in particular searches for new isotopes, studies of hypernuclei, delta-resonances in exotic nuclei and spectroscopy of atoms characterized by bound mesons. Rare decay modes like multiple-proton or neutron emission and the nuclear tensor force observed in high-momentum regime can be also addressed. The in-flight radioactivity measurements as well as fusion, transfer and deep-inelastic reaction mechanisms with the slowed-down and energy-bunched fragment beams are proposed for the high-resolution and energy buncher modes at the Super-FRS.

  7. Upper atmospheric effects of the hf active auroral research program ionospheric research instrument (HAARP IRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccles, V.; Armstrong, R.

    1993-05-01

    The earth's ozone layer occurs in the stratosphere, primarily between 10 and 30 miles altitude. The amount of ozone, O3, present is the result of a balance between production and destruction processes. Experiments have shown that natural processes such as auroras create molecules that destroy O. One family of such molecules is called odd nitrogen of which nitric oxide (NO) is an example. Because the HAARP (HF Active Auroral Research Program) facility is designed to mimic and investigate certain natural processes, a study of possible effects of HAARP on the ozone layer was conducted. The study used a detailed model of the thermal and chemical effects of the high power HF beam, which interacts with free electrons in the upper atmosphere above 50 miles altitude. It was found only a small fraction of the beam energy goes into the production of odd nitrogen molecules, whereas odd nitrogen is efficiently produced by auroras. Since the total energy emitted by HAARP in the year is some 200,000 times less than the energy deposited in the upper atmosphere by auroras, the study demonstrates that HAARP HF beam experiments will cause no measurable depletion of the earth's ozone layer.... Ozone, Ozone depletion, Ozone layer, Odd nitrogen, Nitric oxide, HAARP Emitter characteristics.

  8. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Traldi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval determined for each breeder age were weighed, broken, and their components were separated and weighed. At hatch, hatchlings were sexed and weighed, determining the average initial weight of the progeny of each breeder age. Data were analyzed using the Analyst program of SAS® software package. In Experiment 1, the weight difference between eggs produced by young and mature breeders was 10.92 g, and the component that mostly influenced this difference was the yolk (7.51 g heavier in mature breeders, compared with 4.23 g difference in albumen and 0.8 g in eggshell weights. Hatchling weight difference was 9.4 g higher in eggs from mature breeders. In Experiment 2, egg weight difference was only 0.74 g, but yolk weight was 4.59 g higher in the eggs of mature breeders. The results obtained in the present study indicate that hatchling weight is influenced by egg weight, and not by breeder age.

  9. Instrumentation and Controls Division annual progress report for period ending September 1, 1974. Non-LMFBR program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, G.S. (comp.)

    1976-09-01

    Research projects are summarized under the following categories: (1) basic electronics development; (2) engineering support for research facilities; (3) pulse counting and analysis; (4) radiation detection and monitoring; (5) instrument development; (6) automatic control and data acquisition; (7) process systems and instrumentation development; (8) reactor instrumentation and controls; (9) fuel reprocessing and shipping; (10) standards laboratory; (11) instrumentation for reactor division experiments and test loops; (12) maintenance and service; (13) ecological science studies; and (14) administration and training. (WHK)

  10. Technology Business Incubators in China and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Mingfeng; Baskaran, Angathevar; Pancholi, Jatin

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative case study of Technology Business Incubators (TBIs) in two major emerging economies in Asia - China and India. We employ an integrative analytical framework that combines three broad categories of indicators (originally developed by developed by Mian, 1997): Management...... policies and practices; Services and their impacts; and Performance outcomes; with the national system of innovation (NSI) concept. At the micro (TBI) level, we mainly focus on: objectives, structure and governance of incubators, selection of tenants, funding for incubators and tenants, services provided...... the NSIs of China and India, as major components of NSI such as macroeconomic conditions, national S&T policy framework, industrial structure and the nature of financial institutions have played significant role in shaping the nature and rate of TBIs development in both countries. This suggests...

  11. [Audit "Toys and incubators in neonatology"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raginel, T; Bigoin-Dupont, M; Aguelon, V; Fines-Guyon, M; Guillemin, M G

    2009-08-01

    Owing to an increase in nosocomial septicaemias in the Neonatalogy department, we've judged it necessary to consider the role of items not linked to the nursing procedures, and nevertheless present in the incubators, as well as the hygiene techniques applied to them. In November 2007, we've made a longitudinal prospective study consisting in an observation audit during 3 successive days, observing every single incubator with a newborn baby. In each incubator, we've checked whether there were or not items that weren't required by the nursing activities, along with their characteristics and the hygiene procedures applied to them. We've inquired as well whether the parents and the nursing staff knew and applied the required hygiene procedures. In 13 among the 17 incubators under survey, at least one item not strictly required by the nursing procedures could be found. The number of toys in each incubator varied from seven to one. Among the 33 toys surveyed, 24 (73%) of them showed a score of maximum fluffiness (4 out of 4), and only 10 wore labels giving cleansing advice from the manufacturers. Without any record about the cleaning/disinfecting of the toys brought in hospital, we have observed that the parents were given varied advice about how to clean the toys at home before putting them in the incubators (only four parents had washed the toys in their washing machines at more than 30 degrees C). From the six samples under scrutiny, all the culture results were tested positive. In particular two of the soft toys sampled were found infected by a Pseudomonas oryzihabitans. These particular toys belonged to a baby who had been diagnosed with a septicaemia characterized by hemocultures positive to a P. oryzihabitans of a different strain. Our audit has been an efficient reminder that any item put in an incubator is a potential vector and reservoir of pathogen organisms. After a general feedback towards the department staff, the medical staff then prescribed to

  12. Pavlovian Incubation of US Signal Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Murray J.

    2013-01-01

    Four experiments with rats examined Pavlovian incubation, in which responding increases when Pavlovian conditioning is followed by a testing delay. In a within-subjects design, Experiment 1 first showed that when a single food pellet unconditioned stimulus (US) signaled the delivery of three additional pellets, responding after the single US was…

  13. A Framework of Successful E-Business Incubator for Indonesian Public Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Gozali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many developed countries, many business incubators take part to help starts-up company to develop their own business; especially the baby born business cannot compete with the giant industries that have become the old business players. Universities play an important role in motivating young graduates to become technology entrepreneur. Unemployment in Indonesia is still the main issue for the government program to increase welfare in the future. In year 2014 the data from Statistic Center of Indonesia state that Indonesia has 4% unemployment from Indonesia’ work generation. In Indonesia, incubators has been developed since 1992 initiated by the government, Cooperative Department and also universities. This effort continued in 1997 when there was a program called the Development of Entrepreneurship Culture in universities, and of its activity was New Entrepreneur Incubator. The objectives of the research are to investigate the success factor for e-business incubator, and to propose and develop a framework for successful e-business incubator for public universities in Indonesia. Research location is in Indonesia for the public universities that have their e-business incubator. This research will conduct quantitative and qualitative analyses based on data collection from incubator managers and business founders in Indonesia. The result of this research is a framework for successful e-business incubator in Indonesian public universities.

  14. Mid Columbia sturgeon incubation and rearing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric; Blubaugh, J

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results from the second year of a three-year investigation on the effects of different thermal regimes on incubation and rearing early life stages of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. The Columbia River has been significantly altered by the construction of dams resulting in annual flows and water temperatures that differ from historical levels. White sturgeon have been demonstrated to spawn in two very distinct sections of the Columbia River in British Columbia, Canada, which are both located immediately downstream of hydropower facilities. The thermal regimes differ substantially between these two areas. The general approach of this study was to incubate and rear white sturgeon early life stages under two thermal regimes; one mimicking the current, cool water regime of the Columbia River downstream from Revelstoke Dam, and one mimicking a warmer regime similar to conditions found on the Columbia River at the international border. Second-year results suggest that thermal regimes during incubation influence rate of egg development and size at hatch. Eggs incubated under the warm thermal regime hatched sooner than those incubated under the cool thermal regime. Mean length of free embryos at hatch was significantly different between thermal regimes with free embryos from the warm thermal regime being longer at hatch. However, free embryos from the cool thermal regime had a significantly higher mean weight at hatch. This is in contrast with results obtained during 2009. The rearing trials revealed that growth of fish reared in the cool thermal regime was substantially less than growth of fish reared in the warm thermal regime. The magnitude of mortality was greatest in the warm thermal regime prior to initiation of exogenous feeding, but chronic low levels of mortality in the cool thermal regime were higher throughout the period. The starvation trials showed that the fish in the warm thermal regime exhausted their yolk reserves faster

  15. Development Scaffolding for Construction of Evaluation Instrument Training Program on The Cognitive Domain For Senior High School Physics Teachers and The Same Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, W.; Suhandi, A.; Kaniawati, I.; Setiawan, A.

    2017-02-01

    The development of scaffolding for evaluation instrument construction training program on the cognitive domain for senior high school physics teacher and the same level that is specified in the test instrument has been done. This development was motivated by the low ability of the majority of physics teachers in constructing the physics learning achievement test. This situation not in accordance with the demands of Permendiknas RI no. 16 tahun 2007 concerning the standard of academic qualifications and competence of teachers, stating that teachers should have a good ability to develop instruments for assessment and evaluation of process and learning outcomes. Based on the preliminary study results, it can be seen that the main cause of the inability of teachers in developing physics achievement test is because they do not good understand of the indicators for each aspect of cognitive domains. Scaffolding development is done by using the research and development methods formulated by Thiagarajan which includes define, design and develope steps. Develop step includes build the scaffolding, validation of scaffolding by experts and the limited pilot implementations on the training activities. From the build scaffolding step, resulted the scaffolding for the construction of test instruments training program which include the process steps; description of indicators, operationalization of indicators, construction the itemsframework (items scenarios), construction the items stem, construction the items and checking the items. The results of the validation by three validator indicates that the built scaffolding are suitable for use in the construction of physics achievement test training program, especially for novice. The limited pilot implementation of the built scaffolding conducted in training activities attended by 10 senior high school physics teachers in Garut district. The results of the limited pilot implementation shows that the built scaffolding have a medium

  16. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the identification and assessment of external service providers to the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant to Arrowhead Center, New Mexico State University. This report contains 1) a summary of the services to be provided by NSTI; 2) organizational descriptions of external service providers; and 3) a comparison of NSTI services and services offered by external providers.

  17. The value of business incubation services for early stage start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Brian; Tanev, Stoyan; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    that they could create value for the different stakeholders involved in their business ecosystem. The second issue is the need to categorize the various types of business incubators before examining the way they create value for early start-ups. In most national or regional entrepreneurial ecosystems...... there are different types of business incubators that do not necessarily offer the same types of services neither share a common vision about the way they should create value for their client companies. At the same time, early stage start-ups rely on the services provided by incubators and accelerators and need...... of the benefits from engaging in specific incubation programs. The objective of this paper is to investigate the value dimensions of specific types of business incubation services for early-stage start-ups in a way that may help such newly created firms to maximize the benefits from their participation...

  18. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  19. Social capital dimensions among incubated entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ezequiel Quijano Quijano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows contributions from leading researchers in the fi eld of social capital as support of corporate sustainability and the contribution generated by a descriptive case study based on a representative sample from entrepreneurs from the Fundación Parque de Desarrollo Tecnológico (Parquesoft in Colombia, to contrast the theoretical approaches. The findings show a slight presence of social capital in the performance of incubated entrepreneurs.

  20. Peculiarities of psychological, clinical and instrumental indicators in children with vegetative dysfunction and hypotension under the influence of innovative psychocorrective program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Mitjurjajeva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. To study the features of psychological state, clinical and instrumental parameters in children with vegetative dysfunction (VD and hypotension influenced by comprehensive treatment with the inclusion of the innovative psychocorrective program with elements of music therapy, visual art therapy and gelotology. Materials and methods. The study included 57 patients with VD and hypotension aged 12 to 17 years, 37 of them received psychotherapy with innovative program “Our drugs — music, laughter, creativity” in comprehensive treatment, 20 children (control group received basic treatment without psychological assistance. General clinical, laboratory, instrumental and psychodiagnostic studies were performed both in main and control groups. Results. Using innovative psychocorrective program in children with VD and hypotension as a part of comprehensive treatment contributed to the improvement of clinical and instrumental data: number of cases with autonomic influences on the heart reduced (from 22.1 to 5.25 %, р < 0.05, orthostatic test autonomic provision was normalized in 40.5 % of children, psychological state improvement was observed in 74.1 % of cases. Conclusions. Innovative psychocorrective program with elements of music therapy, visual art therapy and gelotology can be recommended as a part of comprehensive treatment of children with VD and hypotension in hospital environment and in future psychological support of patients.

  1. Parasitological diagnosis of onchocerciasis: comparisons of incubation media and incubation times for skin snips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R C; Brandling-Bennett, A D; Holliman, R B; Campbell, C C; Darsie, R F

    1980-01-01

    Tissue culture fluid NCTC 135 (Hank's base) was compared to water and to saline as incubation media for the detection of microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus in skin snips. NCTC 135 allowed detection of significantly more positive persons than did water (P less than 0.001) or saline (P less than 0.05) when two snips per person were incubated for periods of 0.5 or 24 hours. In addition, snips containing microfilariae were incubated in NCTC 135 or in saline and the number of emerged microfilariae was determined at various intervals of time up to 24 hours. After incubation, snips were either fixed in 10% formalin, serially sectioned, and the microfilariae counted, or they were digested in collagenase solution to free unemerged microfilaire. Of the total number of microfilariae present in the snips, 43.9% +/- 18.5, 80.2% +/- 22.2, 83.0% +/- 19.5, and 85.3% +/- 18.0 had emerged by 0.5, 4, 8, and 24 hours of incubation, respectively. Of the microfilariae that remained in the skin after incubation, most were located deep in the dermis.

  2. Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo eRoden

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 minutes sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests for three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.

  3. Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.

  4. Effects of a School-Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal and Visual Memory in Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children’s socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills. PMID:23267341

  5. Vibration in metal and non-metal incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblut, J M; Lewandowski, W; Casper, G R; Youngblut, W R

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of vibration transmitted to the surface of an incubator mattress. Empty incubators with metal (n = 12) and non-metal (n = 12) bases were monitored for vibration levels when the incubators were turned "off" and when they were turned "on." High levels of low-frequency vibration were detected in both types of incubators in both conditions. The metal incubators transmitted significantly less vibration to the mattress than did the non-metal incubators at several frequencies in the "off," the "on," and the "adjusted" conditions. These results suggest that infants experience significant whole-body vibration while lying in incubators.

  6. TOGA - A GNSS Reflections Instrument for Remote Sensing Using Beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhuizen, S.; Meehan, T. K.; Robison, D.

    2009-01-01

    Remotely sensing the Earth's surface using GNSS signals as bi-static radar sources is one of the most challenging applications for radiometric instrument design. As part of NASA's Instrument Incubator Program, our group at JPL has built a prototype instrument, TOGA (Time-shifted, Orthometric, GNSS Array), to address a variety of GNSS science needs. Observing GNSS reflections is major focus of the design/development effort. The TOGA design features a steerable beam antenna array which can form a high-gain antenna pattern in multiple directions simultaneously. Multiple FPGAs provide flexible digital signal processing logic to process both GPS and Galileo reflections. A Linux OS based science processor serves as experiment scheduler and data post-processor. This paper outlines the TOGA design approach as well as preliminary results of reflection data collected from test flights over the Pacific ocean. This reflections data demonstrates observation of the GPS L1/L2C/L5 signals.

  7. TOGA - A GNSS Reflections Instrument for Remote Sensing Using Beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhuizen, S.; Meehan, T. K.; Robison, D.

    2009-01-01

    Remotely sensing the Earth's surface using GNSS signals as bi-static radar sources is one of the most challenging applications for radiometric instrument design. As part of NASA's Instrument Incubator Program, our group at JPL has built a prototype instrument, TOGA (Time-shifted, Orthometric, GNSS Array), to address a variety of GNSS science needs. Observing GNSS reflections is major focus of the design/development effort. The TOGA design features a steerable beam antenna array which can form a high-gain antenna pattern in multiple directions simultaneously. Multiple FPGAs provide flexible digital signal processing logic to process both GPS and Galileo reflections. A Linux OS based science processor serves as experiment scheduler and data post-processor. This paper outlines the TOGA design approach as well as preliminary results of reflection data collected from test flights over the Pacific ocean. This reflections data demonstrates observation of the GPS L1/L2C/L5 signals.

  8. Instrument performance for IIP Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) for vertically resolved CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, A. E.; Kumer, J. B.; Rairden, R. L.; Jamieson, T. H.; Mergenthaler, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) have been developed to demonstrate measurement capability, when deployed in space, for multi-layer retrieval of CO from spectral measurements acquired in the solar reflective band ~ 4281 to 4301 cm-1 and in the thermal band ~ 2110 to 2165 cm-1. The presentation will describe [a] the top level designs [b] measured instrument performance parameters including spectral and spatial resolution, spectral quality and noise performance, [c] comparisons of the performance (spectral, spatial, noise) with instrument modeling and [d] calibration procedures and results for spectral registration, spectral response, flat fielding, zero level determination and radiometric. Good comparison with demonstration instrument performance and modeling gives a high level of confidence for instrument performance in the space based case. Lessons learned will be described. These are very valuable for the space deployed application. The TIMS are well suited for either LEO or GEO application.

  9. Factors related to the artificial incubation of wild bird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.; Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Kondrad, Shannon R.

    2009-01-01

    Attempts to artificially incubate the eggs of wild birds have failed in many respects in duplicating the success of natural incubation. As part of a larger study we had the opportunity to artificially incubate the eggs of 22 species of birds (three domestic and 19 wild species). We report the successes and failures associated with artificial incubation of these eggs. Moisture loss varied widely, not only for Orders of birds but for similar species within an Order. Overall hatching success and success through to 90% of incubation varied for different Orders and for similar species. Humidity and temperature are critical elements in the artificial incubation of wild bird eggs and must be closely monitored throughout incubation to ensure the best possible chance of hatching. Even when these elements are addressed, artificial incubation still can not duplicate the success of incubation by the parent.

  10. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in waterbird nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ± 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ± 1.6 days and 1.9 ± 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ± 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ± 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates.

  11. Task 5c: measurement and instrumentation under subsystem design of the LLL safeguard material control program. [For fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-31

    A product survey was conducted of all security products currently available on the market. Documentation is presented of the survey and a printout of the data is included. A general description is given of new but recommended instrumentation and security devices for application to fuel reprocessing plants. Security systems and hardware recommended for development, assembly, and testing are discussed briefly. (DLC)

  12. Design and Application of Information Management Program for Precursor Instrument%前兆仪器信息管理程序的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱佳苗; 朱培育; 赵俊香

    2015-01-01

    An application program is designed specially for managing and maintaining the observation instruments scientifically.The general idea ,system function ,system interface and main features of this information management program for precursor instruments are briefly introduced.It makes storage and management of instrument information centralized and unified and has a high reliability , heightening the level of management.%为实现科学有效地管理和维护台站的观测仪器 ,特设计一款应用程序.文章简要介绍了前兆仪器信息管理程序设计的总体思路、系统功能、系统界面和主要特点 ,且投入实际运行后 ,实现了仪器信息的统一存储和管理 ,具备较高的可靠性 ,有效地提高了管理水平.

  13. BIOREACTOR WITH LID FOR EASY ACCESS TO INCUBATION CAVITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible.......There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible....

  14. INNOVATION CLUSTERS: SOCIAL LEARNING AND BUSINESS INCUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Deac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable innovation is more expensive than a regular one but it may lead to long termbenefits and durable competitive advantage, especially if many firms from the networkcollude or act within constrained environments such as business incubators. The opinionformation process, which leads to sustainable innovation, may be viewed as a collectivecognitive process resembling that of branding and re-branding. Technological innovationscan be viewed as sequences of cost reduction events and, in a many-firm setting, sociallearning which leads to sustainability-oriented behaviour depends on (mutual trustrelations. The experimental modelling part of the paper illustrates selected aspects of theconcept just outlined by developing a stylized dynamic model of the firm.

  15. IN Like Flint: How the Innovation Incubator at UM-Flint Fosters Social Entrepreneurship in a City Remaking Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Nic

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the University of Michigan-Flint's Innovation Incubator supports emerging for-profit businesses and nonprofit organizations through programming, business plan development, and ongoing mentorship. The Incubator is especially interested in supporting start-ups that address key social issues in the surrounding community,…

  16. High mass resolution, high angular acceptance time-of-flight mass spectroscopy for planetary missions under the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David T.

    1991-01-01

    This final report covers three years and several phases of work in which instrumentation for the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP) were successfully developed. There were two main thrusts to this research: (1) to develop and test methods for electrostatically scanning detector field-of-views, and (2) to improve the mass resolution of plasma mass spectrometers to M/delta M approximately 25, their field-of-view (FOV) to 360 degrees, and their E-range to cover approximately 1 eV to 50 keV. Prototypes of two different approaches to electrostatic scanning were built and tested. The Isochronous time-of-flight (TOF) and the linear electric field 3D TOF devices were examined.

  17. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  18. Use of Transportable Radiation Detection Instruments to Assess Internal Contamination from Intakes of Radionuclides Part II: Calibration Factors and ICAT Computer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anigstein, Robert; Olsher, Richard H; Loomis, Donald A; Ansari, Armin

    2016-12-01

    The detonation of a radiological dispersion device or other radiological incidents could result in widespread releases of radioactive materials and intakes of radionuclides by affected individuals. Transportable radiation monitoring instruments could be used to measure radiation from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the body for triaging individuals and assigning priorities to their bioassay samples for in vitro assessments. The present study derived sets of calibration factors for four instruments: the Ludlum Model 44-2 gamma scintillator, a survey meter containing a 2.54 × 2.54-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Captus 3000 thyroid uptake probe, which contains a 5.08 × 5.08-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Transportable Portal Monitor Model TPM-903B, which contains two 3.81 × 7.62 × 182.9-cm polyvinyltoluene plastic scintillators; and a generic instrument, such as an ionization chamber, that measures exposure rates. The calibration factors enable these instruments to be used for assessing inhaled or ingested intakes of any of four radionuclides: Co, I, Cs, and Ir. The derivations used biokinetic models embodied in the DCAL computer software system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The three physical instruments were represented by MCNP models that were developed previously. The affected individuals comprised children of five ages who were represented by the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory pediatric phantoms, and adult men and adult women represented by the Adult Reference Computational Phantoms described in Publication 110 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These calibration factors can be used to calculate intakes; the intakes can be converted to committed doses by the use of tabulated dose coefficients. These calibration factors also constitute input data to the ICAT computer program, an interactive Microsoft Windows-based software package that estimates intakes of

  19. Development of a Biogas-powered Poultry Egg Incubator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    This study advances the utilization of biogas energy for chick production. ... The eggs were turned using a semi-automated device. ... pollution. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Incubator Description. The still-air incubator, with 12.7 mm thick.

  20. Study on Instrument System Power Supply Program%仪表系统供电方案的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文

    2012-01-01

    提高仪表电源系统的可靠性,对大型化工生产装置安全稳定运行至关重要。详细介绍了不间断电源的种类及特点和主要仪表用电设备的供电特点,从用电类型和安全生产要求等几个方面考虑,提出有针对性的仪表供电系统方案和应用实例。实践证明,该仪表供电系统方案运行稳定、安全可靠、经济实用。%Improving reliability of instrument power supply system is very critical to safe and stable operation of large chemical plants. The type, character of UPS and power supply characteristics of major instruments with electricity consumption are introduced in details. From perspectives of electricity consumption type and requirement of safe production, a specific instrument power supply scheme and corresponding application example are proposed. The practice has proved that the power supply scheme is stable, safe, reliable, economical and practical.

  1. Incubators as tools for entrepreneurship promotion in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Akcomak, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on incubators in developed and developing countries. We show that the concept of incubators has evolved in time according to market and firm needs. Contemporary successful incubators are profit-oriented, provide a wide range of services, focus more on intangible business services, and employ qualified managers and support staff. By drawing lessons from country experiences we assess the appropriateness of incubators as a tool for entrepreneurship promotion in ...

  2. Development, validation, and utility of an instrument to assess core competencies in the Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S; Baum, Katherine T; Bevans, Katherine B; Blum, Nathan J

    2015-02-01

    To describe the development and psychometric evaluation of the Core Competency Measure (CCM), an instrument designed to assess professional competencies as defined by the Maternal Child Health Bureau (MCHB) and targeted by Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) programs. The CCM is a 44-item self-report measure comprised of six subscales to assess clinical, interdisciplinary, family-centered/cultural, community, research, and advocacy/policy competencies. The CCM was developed in an iterative fashion through participatory action research, and then nine cohorts of LEND trainees (N = 144) from 14 different disciplines completed the CCM during the first week of the training program. A 6-factor confirmatory factor analysis model was fit to data from the 44 original items. After three items were removed, the model adequately fit the data (comparative fit indices = .93, root mean error of approximation = .06) with all factor loadings exceeding .55. The measure was determined to be quite reliable as adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability were found for each subscale. The instrument's construct validity was supported by expected differences in self-rated competencies among fellows representing various disciplines, and the convergent validity was supported by the pattern of inter-correlations between subscale scores. The CCM appears to be a reliable and valid measure of MCHB core competencies for our sample of LEND trainees. It provides an assessment of key training areas addressed by the LEND program. Although the measure was developed within only one LEND Program, with additional research it has the potential to serve as a standardized tool to evaluate the strengths and limitations of MCHB training, both within and between programs.

  3. Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

  4. Cultural Incubators and Spread of Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crema, Enrico R; Lake, Mark W

    2015-07-01

    Several forms of social learning rely on the direct or indirect evaluation of the fitness of cultural traits. Here we argue, via a simple agent-based model, that payoff uncertainty, that is, the correlation between a trait and the signal used to evaluate its fitness, plays a pivotal role in the spread of beneficial innovation. More specifically, we examine how this correlation affects the evolutionary dynamics of different forms of social learning and how each form can generate divergent historical trajectories depending on the size of the sample pool. In particular, we demonstrate that social learning by copying the best model is particularly susceptible to a sampling effect caused by the interaction of payoff uncertainty, the number of models sampled (the sample pool), and the frequency with which a trait is present in the population. As a result, we identify circumstances in which smaller sample pools can act as "cultural incubators" that promote the spread of innovations, while more widespread sampling of the population actually retards the rate of cultural evolution.

  5. Temperature - Impact of chiller failure on the short-term temperature variation in the incubation of salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In salmon recovery programs it is commonly necessary to chill incubation and early rearing temperatures to match wild development times. The most common failure mode...

  6. Chiller Design Model - Impact of chiller failure on the short-term temperature variation in the incubation of salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In salmon recovery programs it is commonly necessary to chill incubation and early rearing temperatures to match wild development times. The most common failure mode...

  7. Towards a distinction between technology incubators and non-technology incubators: can they contribute to economic growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.; Fink, M.; Hatak, I.

    2010-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  8. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  9. Analysis of the Characteristics of an Entrepreneur in Incubation Process and Non Incubated

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This article first, analyzes and identifies a successful entrepreneur from the characteristics of the entrepreneur who made the incubation process and those acting individually. On the other hand, secondary data and an empirical study of this paper intends to contrast according to studies by different authors how an entrepreneur contributes to the development of the regions from the point of view of identifying opportunity and what is the type of entrepreneur who arises in the context of incu...

  10. Sound transmission into incubators in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A; Cooper-Peel, C; Vos, P

    1999-01-01

    To measure the attenuation of sound by modern incubators. LEQ, LMAX, LPEAK, and frequency distribution were measured simultaneously inside and outside two recent model incubators. The attenuation of sound (outside minus inside) was 15 to 18 dBA with the motor off and 4 to 8 dBA with the motor on. There was a significant difference between incubators in their attenuation of sound. Octave band analysis showed attenuation in frequency bands of > 31.5 Hz with the motor off. With the motor on, the sound level inside the incubator was higher than outside at frequency bands of incubators reduces "averaged" sound exposure to levels near those recommended for the neonatal intensive care unit. Lower frequency sounds are louder inside the incubator and arise from the incubator motor.

  11. Ground-based Magnetometer Array Science for IHY: Opportunities for an Array in Africa within the UNBSS Developing Nations Small Instrument Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, I. R.; Milling, D. K.; Moldwin, M.; Yizengaw, E.

    2005-12-01

    Arrays of ground-based magnetometers provide the capability for the meso- and global-scale monitoring of current systems and waves in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Recent advances in the processing of multiple time series magnetometer array data allows the inversion of standing Alfven eigenfrequencies for the purposes of monitoring density depletion and refilling dynamics in the plasmasphere, plasmapause and plasmatrough regions. In addition, mid-latitude magnetometer arrays can also allow the monitoring of the ULF waves which are implicated in the transport and acceleration of MeV energy electrons in the radiation belts, as well as monitoring the penetration of asymmetric ring current and substorm current systems to mid- and low-latitudes during storms. Fluxgate magnetometer technology is relatively inexpensive, and the data sets are small allowing relatively easy collection of data through the low-band-width internet connections. However, the accumulation of magnetometer data into nation-, continental- and global-scale array coverage provides a powerful tool for pursuing IHY science objectives. We present examples of how these concepts might be exploited through the UN Developing Nations Small Instrument program with the creation, coordination and operation of an IHY Magnetometer Array (IHYMag). The IHY science focus on storms also ensures that mid-latitude and even equatorial developing nations coverage would ensure IHYMag data is a valuable resource for IHY scientists. African locations offer a prime opportunity to expand the global magnetometer coverage into this region during IHY. Technology being developed for instrument development and data collection for the CARISMA formerly CANOPUS) magnetometer array expansion, including planned use of solar and/or wind turbine power at the remote BACK magnetometer site in the CARISMA array, might also form a basis for the hardware development which could be used to support a Developing Nations Small

  12. Design of an Incubator for Premature Infant Based on LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Zhou, Runjing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the system structure, hardware circuits, control algorithms, and software program of the incubator for premature infant based on LabVIEW. The main advantages of this device are that preheating is less time than others, the capability of meeting of emergency is provided, control track of temperature and humidity are visible, operation is easy to clinical practice, and maintainability is possessed.

  13. Optical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  14. THE ACCOUNTING INSTRUMENTATION OF THE FINANCING THROUGH THE OPERATIONAL PROGRAMS IN CASE OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS OF ACADEMIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRĂGUŞIN CRISTINA-PETRINA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in Romania, projects financed from nonrefundable external funds post-accession are an important additional source of funding for public institutions of academic education in the somber context of the budgetary underfunding and under the significant decrease in the number of the students that are paying tuition fees. In these circumstances, this paper focuses on the accounting codification and instrumentation of the operations afferent to the projects financed from structural funds, materializing into a pragmatic approach in which we aim to present the accounting reflection of the specific accounting operations in the case of the University of Craiova, as public beneficiary of post-accession external grants, based on the principle of expenses reimbursement. In order to achieve our desideration, we shall consider issues related to the interpretation of the applicable referential in full correlation with the practice size in the context of the accounting capitalization of the financial allocations facilitated by the contracts signed between the public institutions of higher education and the pan-European financier.

  15. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  16. A Pratical Benchmark for Quality Certification in Business Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo do Carmo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to create a practical quality benchmark for incubators. The benchmark is a model to be followed in order to help incubators deploy all processes defined by the quality accreditation label called Centro de Referência para Apoio a Novos Empreendimentos [Reference Center for Support to New Ventures] – Cerne. The purpose of this label is to standardize the processes and level the quality of the incubators. The study was based mainly on two tools of quality management. One is the PDCA cycle and the other is the 5W2H. There are countless benefits from this certification. Among such benefits: ensuring the incubated companies higher quality in rendered services; enhancing the visibility and credibility of the incubator and incubated companies; reducing process variability; increasing the competitiveness of the incubator; in addition to benefiting from a more effective and systematic management system. Thus, this practical benchmark will be very useful for any incubator that has an interest in receiving the Cerne accreditation. Those involved with the incubators had a positive experience with the objective material, with clear and organized information. With this material, it will be simpler to systematize and standardize the processes required by Cerne accreditation

  17. INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIES OF BUSINESS INCUBATION: THE USA, GERMANY AND RUSSIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evgeny Tsaplin; Yulia Pozdeeva

    2017-01-01

    ...: the USA, Germany, and Russia using both a comparative theoretical analysis of different performance criteria of business incubators and interviewing experts who work directly with startup companies...

  18. EFFECTS OF PRE-INCUBATION STORAGE TIME OF OSTRICH EGGS ON THEIR INCUBATION AND HATCHING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumturi Sena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the “ANOC” ostrich farm in Patos/Albania, in order to determine the effects of storage period on the hatchability of 197 ostrich (Struthio camelus eggs. One egg setting was monitored, through dividing the eggs into three groups according to their age, as following: 20-30, 10-20 and 1-10 days old, containing respectively 49, 80 and 68 eggs/group. During the hatching process, the respective parameters, such as: fecundity, embryonic mortality, weight egg loss and hatchability were recorded and monitored. After two weeks, the average weight loss of the all eggs resulted to be 0.5% more than the standard, referred as such, the instructions given by the Dutch company PAS REFORM, producer of the ostrich eggs incubation and hatching machines. The reason of the high embryonic mortality (40.7% mainly relates with the long pre-incubation storage time. Higher sterility (42.6% might especially relate with the high temperature stress in the farm, considering the fact that the animals were just transferred from the Netherlands to Albania. The hatching rate (29.9%, compared to the total number of the set eggs is comparable with the same parameter achieved in the UK. Out of these results, it is concluded that: the shorter the egg storage time before the setting the better will the hatching results be.

  19. Evaluating professionalism and interpersonal and communication skills: implementing a 360-degree evaluation instrument in an anesthesiology residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Metro, David G; Patel, Rita M

    2009-12-01

    To implement a 360-degree resident evaluation instrument on the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) rotation and to determine the reliability, feasibility, and validity of this tool for assessing residents' professionalism and interpersonal and communication skills. Thirteen areas of evaluation were selected to assess the professionalism and interpersonal and communication skills of residents during their PACU rotation. Each area was measured on a 9-point Likert scale (1, unsatisfactory performance, to 9, outstanding performance). Rating forms were distributed to raters after the completion of the PACU rotation. Raters included PACU nurses, secretarial staff, nurse aides, and medical technicians. Residents were aware of the 360-degree assessment and participated voluntarily. The multiple raters' evaluations were then compared with those of the traditional faculty. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to measure the reliability of ratings within each category of raters by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Four hundred twenty-nine rating forms were returned during the study period. Fifteen residents were evaluated. The response rate was 88%. Residents were ranked highest on availability and lowest on management skill. The average rating across all areas was high (8.23). The average mean rating across all items from PACU nurses was higher (8.34) than from secretarial staff (7.99, P > .08). The highest ranked resident ranked high with all raters and the lowest ranked was low with most raters. The intraclass coefficients of correlations were 0.8719, 0.7860, 0.8268, and 0.8575. This type of resident assessment tool may be useful for PACU rotations. It appears to correlate with traditional faculty ratings, is feasible to use, and provides formative feedback to residents regarding their professionalism and interpersonal and communication skills.

  20. The Liege-balloon program. [balloon-borne instruments for high-spectral resolution observations of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, R.

    1974-01-01

    The Liege-balloon program is intended to make high-spectral resolution observations of the sun in the near- and intermediate infrared regions not accessible from the ground. A description of the equipment, followed by a summary of the data obtained till now is presented. Except for ozone whose maximum of concentration lies near 25 Km altitude, the residual mass distribution of the other mentioned molecules decreases with altitude. This is a self-explanatory argument for carrying out spectroscopic observations from platforms transcending the densest layers of the earth's atmosphere. The Liege balloon equipment is primarily intended for very high-resolution solar observations from about 27-30 Km altitude, in all spectral regions between 1.5 and 15.0 microns, not accessible from the ground.

  1. Business Incubators: Creation of a Fit in Armenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorian, A.; Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which business incubation services meet tenant’s needs. Additionally, we pose the question of whether the current business incubators actually cover the needs of a particular industry. Our empirical setting is a developing country in the Caucasian Region

  2. Incubation Provides Relief from Artificial Fixation in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaloza, Alan A.; Calvillo, Dustin P.

    2012-01-01

    An incubation effect occurs when taking a break from a problem helps solvers arrive at the correct solution more often than working on it continuously. The forgetting-fixation account, a popular explanation of how incubation works, posits that a break from a problem allows the solver to forget the incorrect path to the solution and finally access…

  3. The Pre-Incubator: A Longitudinal Study of 10 Years of University Pre-Incubation in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisey, Pamela; Jones, Paul; Thomas, Brychan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal study of over 10 years of university pre-incubation in Wales, using case studies of incubated businesses to track their performance since 2001. Surviving "graduated" businesses were investigated and quantitative and qualitative data were gathered to profile the current status of these businesses and…

  4. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation. Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Discussion Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn’s innovative internship program (Hellfire. It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD in revenue in 2009. Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies. Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. Summary A key to Acorn’s achievements was

  5. Can incubators work in Africa? Acorn Technologies and the entrepreneur-centric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakma, Justin; Masum, Hassan; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Incubators are organizations that support the growth of new and typically technology-based enterprises, by providing business support services that bring together human and financial capital. Although the traditional role of incubators has been for economic development, they may also be a useful policy lever to tackle global health, by fostering the development and delivery of local health innovation.Given its high disease burden, life sciences incubators hold particular potential for Africa. As the most industrially advanced African nation, South Africa serves as a litmus test for identifying effective incubator policies. The case study method was used to illustrate how one such publicly funded incubator founded in 2002, Acorn Technologies, helped to catalyze local health product innovation. Acorn helped to support twelve biomedical device firms. One of them, Real World Diagnostics, was founded by a trainee from Acorn's innovative internship program (Hellfire). It developed rapid strip diagnostic tests for locally prevalent diseases including schistosomiasis and HIV, and reported $2 million (USD) in revenue in 2009.Acorn achieved this success by operating as a non-profit virtual incubator with little physical infrastructure. Employing a virtual model in combination with stringent selection criteria of capital efficiency for clients proved to be effective in reducing its own fixed costs. Acorn focused on entrepreneurship training and networking, both critical at an early stage in an environment dominated by multinational biomedical device companies.Acorn and its clients learned that employing a cross-subsidy business model allowed one to generate royalty revenue through imports to subsidize R&D for local diseases. However, funding constraints and government expectations for rapid self-sustainability forced Acorn to merge with its sister biotechnology incubator in 2009. A key to Acorn's achievements was identifying entrepreneurs with technologies with health and

  6. Luminescence Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to instrumentation for stimulated luminescence studies, with special focus on luminescence dating using the natural dosimeters, quartz and feldspars. The chapter covers basic concepts in luminescence detection, and thermal and optical stimulation, and reference...

  7. Creativity—the unconscious foundations of the incubation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Simone M.; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is one of the most important assets we have to navigate through the fast changing world of the 21st century. Anecdotal accounts of creative individuals suggest that oftentimes, creative discoveries result from a process whereby initial conscious thought is followed by a period during which one refrains from task-related conscious thought. For example, one may spend an embarrassing amount of time thinking about a problem when the solution suddenly pops into consciousness while taking a shower. Not only creative individuals but also traditional theories of creativity have put a lot of emphasis on this incubation stage in creative thinking. The aim of the present article is twofold. First, an overview of the domain of incubation and creativity is provided by reviewing and discussing studies on incubation, mind-wandering, and sleep. Second, the causes of incubation effects are discussed. Previously, little attention has been paid to the causes of incubation effects and most findings do not really speak to whether the effects should be explained by unconscious processes or merely by consequences of a period of distraction. In the latter case, there is no need to assume active unconscious processes. The findings discussed in the current article support the idea that it is not merely the absence of conscious thought that drives incubation effects, but that during an incubation period unconscious processes contribute to creative thinking. Finally, practical implications and directions for future research will be discussed. PMID:24782742

  8. Aligning business strategy of incubator center and tenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Yudha; Agustiani, Elly; Jumayla, Sari

    2017-06-01

    Incubator center is developed to help a particular group of small business players to achieve the expected business growth. In this center, business players often called as tenants will get assistances in pertaining with space, professional network, marketing, investment or funding, and training to improve their business capability. There are three types of incubator center, namely universities that help their alumni or business people in their surrounded area, company that supports small business as the corporate social responsibility, and independent organizations that have specialties in the business development. Some might success in increasing the capacity of the tenants, while other can have difficulties to increase the simplest business capability, e.g., to define the production cost to measure the profit. This study was intended to propose a model to align the business strategy between incubator center and its tenants. The sales and profit growth are the main priorities for the tenants together with their business capability and sustainability. The proposed alignment model provides measurement tools that link the motivation of tenants for joining the incubation process with the mission of incubator center. The linkage covered the key performance indicators (KPI), steps to achieve the target and evaluation tools to improve the current handicaps. An experiment on 4 (four) diverse business fields of the tenants of an incubator center was performed to test the model. As a result, the increase of KPI of incubator center will simultaneously yield a higher value of the tenants' sales.

  9. Principles and Best Practices in Successful Tourism Business Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea F. Şchiopu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The business incubators are entities that provide support to start-up companies, managing the obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and facilitating the hazardous process of business creation. This article aims to identify the existing views on best practices that can contribute to the achieving of business incubators’ objectives. Moreover, the present study investigates how the business incubators can ensure the success of tourism, with evidence grounded in both theory and case studies from around the world. In this paper, the authors have identified several types of incubators that could be used successfully for the benefit of start-ups in the tourism sector, such as network incubators, incubators in ecotourism or nature-based incubators. The authors also propose a new perspective on best practices in business incubation, emphasizing the role of the emotions that entrepreneurs have to cope with. Even though the studies in this area are still scarce, the authors strongly believe that this will be a topic highly discussed in the near future, given the fact that emotion and logical thought are intertwined, interacting in complex ways during problem solving, decision making, and other important forms of cognition that entrepreneurs use when pursuing their ventures.

  10. Toward a fuzzy logic control of the infant incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narender P; Mathur, Garima; Hariharan, S I

    2009-10-01

    Premature birth is a world wide problem. Thermo regulation is a major problem in premature infants. Premature infants are often kept in infant incubators providing convective heating. Currently either the incubator air temperature is sensed and used to control the heat flow, or infant's skin temperature is sensed and used in the close loop control. Skin control often leads to large fluctuations in the incubator air temperature. Air control also leads to skin temperature fluctuations. The question remains if both the infant's skin temperature and the incubator air temperature can be simultaneously used in the control. The purpose of the present study was to address this question by developing a fuzzy logic control which incorporates both incubator air temperature and infant's skin temperature to control the heating. The control was evaluated using a lumped parameter mathematical model of infant-incubator system (Simon, B. N., N. P. Reddy, and A. Kantak, J. Biomech. Eng. 116:263-266, 1994). Simulation results confirmed previous experimental results that the on-off skin control could lead to fluctuations in the incubator air temperature, and the air control could lead to too slow rise time in the core temperature. The fuzzy logic provides a smooth control with the desired rise time.

  11. Pre-incubation and low temperatures in quantitative radioreceptor assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensing, K.; de Zeeuw, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The detection limits of drugs in quantitative RRA are primarily determined by their affinities towards the receptor. Yet, the concentration of radiolabeled ligand, necessary for quantification of receptor-bound drug, increases the theoretical detection limit. Therefore the influences of low temperatures and pre-incubation on the detection limit was studied. Analysis of experimental data suggests that when a well-defined incubation procedure is used, pre-incubation and low temperatures will increase sensitivity without loss of accuracy and precision. 6 references, 2 figures.

  12. Navigating the Role of Business Incubators: A Review on the Current Literature on Business Incubation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators (BIs are a significant tool in promoting the development of entrepreneurial firms, technology-based growth firms and economic growth in South Africa. The study reviewed the current literature on business incubation in South Africa. BIs in South Africa emerged as a popular strategy in the 1990s and most of the current literature was established in the same period. However, the current literature is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the role and effectiveness of business incubation in supporting the development of new small startup businesses. The quantitative and qualitative literature published by the academic and practitioner communities is reviewed. The searches indicated that incubation has encouraged many studies in South Africa. The studies can be categorised under the following themes: the role and contribution of incubators, success factors for business incubation, obstacles, and the relationship between incubators and entrepreneurship. The areas for further research are suggested. Two major areas that new research can explore focus on the creation of the model and selfsustainability of BIs.

  13. Networking behavior and contracting relationships among entrepreneurs in business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Ebbers

    2014-01-01

    Many studies focus on the relationship between social networks and performance. I study networking behavior as an antecedent of tie formation among entrepreneurs in business incubators. I distinguish between two types of networking behavior: individual networking orientation or building potentially

  14. Networking behavior and contracting relationships among entrepreneurs in business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies focus on the relationship between social networks and performance. I study networking behavior as an antecedent of tie formation among entrepreneurs in business incubators. I distinguish between two types of networking behavior: individual networking orientation or building potentially

  15. Ostrich (Struthio camelus Egg Embryonic Death During Artificial Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha E. Faki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of ostrich farming revealed that egg hatchability was remarkably lower than the wild. This review considers the factors leading to, as pertaining to the ostrich, egg and incubator. Ostrich genotype, age, season and congenital problems affect clutch and egg sizes and egg quality- fertility to lead a successful hatch. Egg treatment prior incubation can later reduce hatchability, affected by storage conditions and duration. Most detrimental factors lie in the incubator and hatcher management. Egg correct positioning and turning in the appropriate incubator humidity and temperature are likely to yield high hatch. Variability in egg size, shell quality, pore sizes and numbers govern the water loss and exchange of gases. The hatcher management is important when chicks need intervention. Dead-in-shell embryos, early or late were likely to be affected by all of the above factors plus egg microbial contamination or be merely nutritional.

  16. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial...... pressure, which can exceed 1 MPa at in situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well. We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations...... and inert PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow...

  17. PROPUESTA PARA EL DESARROLLO DE INSTRUMENTOS DE AUTOEVALUACIÓN PARA PROGRAMAS EDUCATIVOS A DISTANCIA (PROPOSAL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS FOR DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Martínez Verónica

    2011-08-01

    -assessment model of distance learning program at the Universidad Juarez Autónoma de Tabasco, Mexico during the period 2008-2009. The model was designed by ANUIES. The findings of this study and the literature review on the subject reflect the need to design local or regional contextualized measuring items. The proposal is mainly based on the literature review, and the expert panel selected through the Delphi and combined TZ method. The methodological strategy consists of four stages: a the review of evaluation models; b selection of experts from two universities in the states of Tabasco and Chiapas, which have more than ten years of experience with distance learning programs; c the self-diagnostic instrument designed for distance learning programs and d the validity of the instrument by those experts. This paper describes three out of four stages of this study. The average rate on self-assessment experts was similar in the two universities. It is concluded that the level of experts share related knowledge, particularly in the design of learning materials or objects, but not in quality indicators estimated for virtual education.

  18. Effect of incubation period on epidemic spreading in complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Wei; Jiang Rui; Hu Mao-Bin; Wu Qing-Song

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of incubation period on epidemic spreading in the Barabasi-Albert scale-free network and the Watts-Strogatz small world network by using a Suspectable-Incubated-Infected-Suspectable model.Our analytical investigations show that the epidemic threshold is independent of incubation period in both networks,which is verified by our large-scale simulation results.We also investigate the effect of incubation period on the epidemic dynamics in a supercritical regime.It is found that with the increase of incubation period Ω,a damped oscillation evolution of ρΤ(the ratio of persons in incubated state)appears and the time needed to reach a saturation value increases.Moreover,the steady value of ρI increases and approaches to an asymptotic constant with the value of Ω increasing.As a result,the infected ratio ρΤ decreases with the increase of Ω according to a power law.

  19. Using Fyrite to monitor incubator carbon dioxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J E; Boone, W R; Lee, S T; Blackhurst, D W

    1995-02-01

    The Fyrite analyzer (Bacharach, Incorporated) was evaluated to ascertain whether it would perform within the range specified by the manufacturer (+/- 0.5%). Fyrite analyzer samples were compared to control samples obtained using an infrared CO2 monitor (Ohmeda, Model Number 5200). Ten Fyrite analyzer measurements from each of three incubators were obtained using two different analyzers by three investigators for a total of 60 measurements per investigator. Twenty control measurements for each of the three incubators were obtained using an infrared monitor calibrated at the 5.0% CO2 level. Fyrite analyzer values fell outside of an acceptable range (Control mean CO2 +/- 0.5%) for 7 of 60 (11.7%) observations for Incubator 1 and 4 of 60 (6.7%) observations for Incubator 2. (Incubator 3 had no values outside the range.) The Fyrite analyzers were significantly different from each other (P = 0.002). The three investigators (I) differed significantly from the control (I1 and I3, P incubator calibration and monthly CO2 checks in concert with daily use of the Fyrite as a monitoring tool only is the better method.

  20. Instrumented SSH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  1. Tracking the evolution of reclaimed landscapes through the use of instrumented watersheds : a brief history of the Syncrude Southwest 30 Overburden Reclamation Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, L.; Chapman, D.; Qualizza, C.; Kessler, S.; Boese, C.; Shurniak, R.; Meiers, G.; O' Kane, M.; Hendry, J.; Wall, S. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    Alberta's 4 oil sand regions contain the largest petroleum resource in the world. The Athabasca, Wabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River deposits combined, contain 1.7 to 2.5 trillion barrels of bitumen, of which 300 billion are recoverable with current technologies. In the case of Syncrude Canada, resource access will involve the disturbance of 21,000 hectares. Other regional operators face similar challenges. Alberta's Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act ensures that operators conserve and reclaim specified land. This presentation outlined the challenges facing Syncrude Canada at quantifying the geochemical reactions in mine waste piles and in reclaiming its Mildred Lake Mine in northern Alberta. It described Syncrude's corporate reclamation strategy and reviewed its Southwest 30 Overburden Reclamation Research Program. The review included project objectives, instrumentation, data management, presentation of typical results, key analyses and recommendations. The presentation emphasized the importance of watersheds, the major building block of landscapes. The issue of saline/sodic overburden in the watershed was also discussed along with the range of target ecosites desired for particular parent materials. The science and engineering behind constructing landforms and manipulating soil placement and revegetation was also discussed with reference to the correct soil profile that promotes a productive boreal forest ecosystem, functioning wetlands, and which minimizes salt leaching or erosion. figs.

  2. Loyaliteitsprogramma's: zinvol CRM-instrument?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Loyalty programs have been widely adopted by companies and their customers. A loyalty program is a relational marketing instrument that aims to enhance customer loyalty. However, skepticism exists about the implementation and effectiveness of loyalty programs. This paper studies for whom, when and h

  3. Loyaliteitsprogramma's: zinvol CRM-instrument?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Loyalty programs have been widely adopted by companies and their customers. A loyalty program is a relational marketing instrument that aims to enhance customer loyalty. However, skepticism exists about the implementation and effectiveness of loyalty programs. This paper studies for whom, when and

  4. Progress of the Photovoltaic Technology Incubator Project Towards an Enhanced U.S. Manufacturing Base: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H.; Mitchell, R.; Keyes, B.; VanSant, K.; von Roedern, B.; Symko-Davies, M.; Kane, V.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the major accomplishments of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) Photovoltaic (PV) Technology Incubator project. The Incubator project facilitates a company's transition from developing a solar cell or PV module prototype to pilot- and large-scale U.S. manufacturing. The project targets small businesses that have demonstrated proof-of-concept devices or processes in the laboratory. Their success supports U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu's SunShot Initiative, which seeks to achieve PV technologies that are cost-competitive without subsidies at large scale with fossil-based energy sources by the end of this decade. The Incubator Project has enhanced U.S. PV manufacturing capacity and created more than 1200 clean energy jobs, resulting in an increase in American economic competitiveness. The investment raised to date by these PV Incubator companies as a result of DOE's $ 59 million investment totals nearly $ 1.3 billion.

  5. Extended scrapie incubation time in goats singly heterozygous for PRNP S146 or K222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen N; Reynolds, James O; Waldron, Daniel F; Schneider, David A; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2012-06-10

    Scrapie is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of sheep and goats, and scrapie eradication in sheep is based in part on strong genetic resistance to classical scrapie. Goats may serve as a scrapie reservoir, and to date there has been no experimental inoculation confirming strong genetic resistance in goats. Two prion protein variants (amino acid substitutions S146 and K222) in goats have been significantly underrepresented in scrapie cases though present in scrapie-exposed flocks, and have demonstrated low cell-free protein conversion efficiency to the disease form (PrP(D)). To test degree of genetic resistance conferred in live animals with consistent exposure, we performed the first oral scrapie challenge of goats singly heterozygous for either PRNP S146 or K222. All N146-Q222 homozygotes became clinically scrapie positive by an average of 24months, but all S146 and K222 heterozygotes remain scrapie negative by both rectal biopsy and clinical signs at significantly longer incubation times (Pscrapie, suggesting these alleles do not confer complete resistance in the heterozygous state but rather extend incubation. The oral challenge results presented here confirm extended incubation observed in a recent intracerebral challenge of K222 heterozygotes, and to our knowledge provide the first demonstration of extended incubation in S146 heterozygotes. These results suggest longer relevant trace-back histories in scrapie-eradication programs for animals bearing these alleles and strengthen the case for additional challenge experiments in both homozygotes to assess potential scrapie resistance.

  6. INCUBATORS AND GOVERNMENT POLICY FOR DEVELOPING IT INDUSTRY AND REGION IN EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Atiqah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incubation, a concept supported by a variety of economic cluster theories, is a vital element in economic development in developed countries. The entrepreneurial businesses that they house often improve the developed economies in terms of not only jobs but also wealth creation. The question that this article embraces is as follows: "Do incubators play the same vital role in economic development in developing regions of the world?" We use the case study methodology to develop this query in a focus area of regional development in an emerging economy. We examine the implementation of three incubators located in designated cybercities. The cybercity concept is one of the Malaysian government's initiatives to encourage the development of the IT industry within the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC Program. This study takes advantage of the 10-year development of cybercities by performing a longitudinal study. We found that these incubators did well in achieving their initial performance objectives, but they need to catch up with developed countries' continued rapid progress.

  7. Active instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    2017-01-01

    ) show the dynamic nature of policy processes, and (3) consider the search for policy reference points among the different actors. We present rankers in motion, policies in motion, and finally the complex nature of the ranking device that needs to be both a relevant and malleable policy instrument...

  8. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.

    2016-05-01

    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  9. Factors Affecting The Success of Incubators and The Moderating Role of Information and Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadri Kamal Alzaghal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators can help young firms to survive during their first years. They are considered to be an entrepreneurial and economic development instrument that can increase the creativity of new firms including small and mid-sized enterprises and that can support them in the early stage of development which is the most vulnerable stage of their existence. Small and mid-sized enterprises are crucial for enhancing innovation, productivity, competitiveness, social cohesion, and economic development in developed and developing countries. They are also crucial in minimizing unemployment; they create a lot of jobs and significant output in many countries. The economy in many developing countries, especially Arab countries, is in a critical state. The unemployment rate is very high and gross domestic product is very low compared to developed countries. Many types of success models have been proposed and used to measure the success and performance of business incubators in developed countries. However, a limited number of studies and success models have been published on this topic in the case of the developing world. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to propose a model using a combination of well-known and new success factors for business incubator success in developing countries.

  10. Autonomous Bio-Optical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-30

    Autonomous Bio -Optical Instruments Russ E. Davis Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla CA 92093-0230 phone: (858) 534-4415 fax: (858) 534... Bio -Optical Instruments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  11. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  12. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  13. Sex effects in mouse prion disease incubation time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Akhtar

    Full Text Available Prion disease incubation time in mice is determined by many factors including PrP expression level, Prnp alleles, genetic background, prion strain and route of inoculation. Sex differences have been described in age of onset for vCJD and in disease duration for both vCJD and sporadic CJD and have also been shown in experimental models. The sex effects reported for mouse incubation times are often contradictory and detail only one strain of mice or prions, resulting in broad generalisations and a confusing picture. To clarify the effect of sex on prion disease incubation time in mice we have compared male and female transmission data from twelve different inbred lines of mice inoculated with at least two prion strains, representing both mouse-adapted scrapie and BSE. Our data show that sex can have a highly significant difference on incubation time. However, this is limited to particular mouse and prion strain combinations. No sex differences were seen in endogenous PrP(C levels nor in the neuropathological markers of prion disease: PrP(Sc distribution, spongiosis, neuronal loss and gliosis. These data suggest that when comparing incubation times between experimental groups, such as testing the effects of modifier genes or therapeutics, single sex groups should be used.

  14. Thermoregulation: incubators, radiant warmers, artificial skins, and body hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, M H

    1991-09-01

    Keeping babies warm whether using incubator or radiant warmers is important in optimizing their chances of survival. Many design changes have occurred in devices for keeping babies warm, while few controlled studies using clinically important end points have been conducted to assess these changes. Radiant warmers produce larger evaporative heat and water losses and slightly higher basal metabolic rate than incubators. The clinical significance of the higher metabolic rate is uncertain. The water losses create an additional problem in managing infants under radiant warmers. The use of hoods made of thin plastic films to raise local humidity and reduce evaporative water loss helps control this problem. In incubators, humidity may be necessary to provide a warm enough environment for the most immature infants. Artificial skins as yet have not supplanted body hoods for this purpose. Both incubators and radiant warmers produce temperature instability when used as skin servocontrolled devices. There are, however, no data currently available to say how much thermal instability can be well tolerated by a baby. Too much thermal instability produces apnea and increased mortality. Air servocontrolling an incubator reduces environmental temperature instability.

  15. Micro mushroom instrumentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    An electronics circuit which provides for the recording of instrumentation data on an optical disk is disclosed. The optical disk is formatted in a spiral format instead of concentric tracks. The spiral format allows data to be recorded without the gaps that would be associated with concentric tracks. The instrumentation system provides each channel with a program instrumentation amplifier, a six pole lowpass switched capacitor filter, a sample and hold amplifier, and a digital to analog converter to provide automatic offset capability. Since each channel has its own components, simultaneous samples of every channel can be captured. All of the input signal's channel variables can be captured. All of the input signal's channel variables can be changed under software control without hardware changes. A single board computer is used for a system controller.

  16. An Investigative Study into Perspectives and Experiences of Incubates at the Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre at the Kenyatta University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyanyiwa, Takaruza; Mutsau, Morgen; Rudhumbu, Norman; Svotwa, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The study presents results from an investigative study undertaken at the Kenyatta University (KU) Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre. A total of 10 incubates representing 10 projects were engaged in face to face interviews. The incubates were appreciative of the value that incubation centre such as the one at KU contributed to…

  17. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis.

  18. Modeling of Incubation Time for Austenite to Ferrite Phase Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-guang; LIU Zhen-yu; WU Di; WANG Wei; JIAO Si-hai

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the classical nucleation theory, a new model of incubation time for austenite to ferrite transformation has been developed, in which the effect of deformation on austenite has been taken into consideration. To prove the precision of modeling, ferrite transformation starting temperature (Ar3) has been calculated using the Scheil′s additivity rule, and the Ar3 values were measured using a Gleeble 1500 thermomechanical simulator. The Ar3 values provided by the modeling method coincide with the measured ones, indicating that the model is precise in predicting the incubation time for austenite to ferrite transformation in hot deformed steels.

  19. How can the gap between educations and student incubators be bridged at higher educational institutes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mette Lindahl; Rasmussen, Jan Erik Røjkjær; Brandt, Erika Zimmer

    2015-01-01

    ). It is in the DNA of some educational institutes like Babson and in some educational programs like the business degrees to work with entrepreneurship. But it comes natural for a minority of the total student body to see them self as entrepreneurs and act as such. At some educations and educational institutes......Student incubators in various shapes and forms are found at many higher educational institutes, they are becoming an increasingly important part of solving the challenges of educating entrepreneurial graduates that has arisen in the wake of the second academic revolution (Etzkowitz, 2003...... entrepreneurship is student incubators is considered a privilege for carefully selected students, though reality is that for most other educations, students enrol in the education with an image of becoming employees. This foster a mind-set where problems are given and the sensitivity towards spotting opportunities...

  20. Comparative clinical evaluation of a prototype non-electric transport incubator and an electrical infant incubator in a neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadeh, Y; Nili, F; Nayeri, F; Wickramasinghe, Y

    2001-09-01

    A new non-electric transport incubator has been developed for transferring babies between health facilities in developing countries. The temperature performance of this prototype was compared with a commercial electric incubator. The warm-up time for the prototype was 51.8 min, compared with 48.1 min for the electric incubator. Forty-five non-distressed premature babies, aged 24-72 h, with a gestational age of less than 37 weeks, were continuously evaluated for a 2 h period. Twenty-five babies, with a mean weight of 2073 g (range 1500-2500 g), were studied in the prototype, and 20 babies, with a mean weight of 2076g (range 1550-2500 g), were studied in the electrical incubator. The rectal and abdominal skin temperature, heart rate, oxygen saturation and respiratory rate of the babies were recorded. The temperature, oxygen and humidity level of the canopy and the room temperature were also measured. The SaO2, heart rate and respiratory rate were within the normal range (in the prototype: 96.5%, 130.5 beats min(-1) and 43 breaths min(-1), respectively; and, in the electric incubator: 96.5%, 128.5 beats min(-1) and 40 breaths min(-1), respectively). No evidence of carbon dioxide narcosis, hypoxia, acidosis or adverse thermoregulatory behaviour were observed in the two groups. The mean rectal temperature for both groups was within the range 36.5 degrees C-37.5 degrees C. There was no significant difference between the measurements of the two groups. The level of oxygen inside the canopy was 21%, and no decrease was observed. The new nonelectric transport incubator confirmed its safety and efficiency in providing a warm environment for non-distressed premature babies over a 2 h period.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF COMBINATION NON-MEDICAL TREATMENT INCLUDING FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMED ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON THE CLINICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Eliseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is the leading cause of physical disability in pediatric  age. The search for new methods and improvement of old rehabil- itation techniques is ongoing, due to low efficacy of the latter. Aim: To assess the efficacy of a func- tional programmed electrical muscle stimulation as a part  of combination treatment of patients with cerebral palsy in the form of spastic diplegia. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of treatment of 71 children with cerebral palsy and spastic diplegia, who had  been  randomized  into two groups  depending on the type of treatment. In  the  first group,  the  patients  (n = 38 received a course of functional programmed electric stim- ulation  in combination with  other  non-medical treatment  methods.  The  second   group   (n = 33 underwent a usual  course  of electrical  stimula- tion in combination with non-medical  treatment, similar to that  in the first group. The third group (control   included   41   children   without    cere- bral palsy. Clinical and  instrumental parameters were  assessed  in all study  participants. Results: After the course of combination treatment in the group  1, the  tonus  of m. gastrocnemius was de- creased significantly by 41%, that of the posterior group  of femur muscles by 43%, adductor group of femur muscles by 36%. In the group  2, the re- spective parameters decreased by 24, 21 and 21%. Muscle power  endurance was  increased  signifi- cantly in patients of both groups: that of long back extensors by 12.5 and 6.2 sec, of m. rectus abdomi- nis by 10.6 sec and 5.2 sec, of gluteal muscles by 9.3 and 4.6 sec, of m. quadriceps  by 19.8 and 7.2 sec, of m. anterior  tibialis by 12.1 and 4.6 sec, respec- tively. After the  treatment, the  active movement volume in the large joints of lower extremities  in the group 1 patients  improved as follows: by 15.6° in hip joints, by 11.1° in knee joints and by

  2. Longer incubation times for yeast fungemia: importance for presumptive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paugam, André; Ancelle, Thierry; Lortholary, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    Isolation rates of Candida glabrata at ≤2 days were 8.9% and 34.8% at >2 days; for Cryptococcus neoformans, they were 0.9% and 8.6%, respectively (1741 fungemia analyzed). An incubation time >2 days supports candins as presumptive treatment for C. glabrata, keeping in mind the risk of Cryptococcus fungemia.

  3. Designing a Low-Cost Multifunctional Infant Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kevin; Gibson, Aaron; Wong, Don; Tilahun, Dagmawi; Selock, Nicholas; Good, Theresa; Ram, Geetha; Tolosa, Leah; Tolosa, Michael; Kostov, Yordan; Woo, Hyung Chul; Frizzell, Michael; Fulda, Victor; Gopinath, Ramya; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Sudarshan, Hanumappa; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Kumar, V Sashi; Shylaja, N; Rao, Govind

    2014-06-01

    Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat. We developed a prototype incubator and visited and presented our design to our partnership hospital site in Mysore, India. After obtaining feedback, we have determined realistic, nontrivial design requirements and constraints in order to develop a new prototype incubator for clinical trials in hospitals in India. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  4. State of the art incubator for controlled atmosphere studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    A state of the art incubator for studies of the biological effect of controlled atmosphere was designed. Working conditions are all combinations of: Temperature (5 to 40°C), Humidity (25 to 98%), oxygen (0.1 to 30%) and nitrogen (0.1 to 50%). Several points were given specific considerations...

  5. Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubation Environments: A Framework of Key Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dajani, Haya; Dedoussis, Evangelos; Watson, Erika; Tzokas, Nikalaos

    2014-01-01

    The benchmarking framework developed in this study is specifically designed for higher education institutions to consider when developing environments to encourage entrepreneurship among their students, graduates and staff. The objective of the study was to identify key success factors of Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubator Environments (GEIEs)…

  6. Mind Wandering and the Incubation Effect in Insight Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tengteng; Zou, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Although many anecdotes suggest that creative insights often arise during mind wandering, empirical research is still sparse. In this study, the number reduction task (NRT) was used to assess whether insightful solutions were related to mind wandering during the incubation stage of the creative process. An experience sampling paradigm was used to…

  7. Human-centered incubator: beyond a design concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, R.H.M.; Willemsen, H.

    2013-01-01

    We read with interest the paper by Ferris and Shepley1 on a human-centered design project with university students on neonatal incubators. It is interesting to see that in the design solutions and concepts as presented by Ferris and Shepley,1 human-centered design played an important role. In 2005,

  8. Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubation Environments: A Framework of Key Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dajani, Haya; Dedoussis, Evangelos; Watson, Erika; Tzokas, Nikalaos

    2014-01-01

    The benchmarking framework developed in this study is specifically designed for higher education institutions to consider when developing environments to encourage entrepreneurship among their students, graduates and staff. The objective of the study was to identify key success factors of Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubator Environments (GEIEs)…

  9. Encapsulation of Aloe Vera and Its Effect During Yogur Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adolfo Parra Huertas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The yogurt is milk derivative highly consumed around the world,as well as aloe vera. Both have reports tocontribute to human health. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of the addition of capsules with aloe vera during the incubation of yogurt. Aloeverawas encapsulated in alginate at two different concentrations, 1% and 2%,addingthe capsules from the moment of incubation and comparing the effect of the addition of capsules withthe non-addition of them. For these samples were determined: pH, acidity, syneresis, lactic acid bacteria count, sensory evaluation and proximate analysis. The results indicated that for the three treatments pH values and acid behaved similarly to each characteristic of the yogurt during incubation. The lactic acid bacteria count indicated that treatment with capsules containing 2% sodium alginate had higher counts. Sensorially, three treatments had a favorable acceptability; proximate analysis had favorable values . In conclusion,the tests showed the viability of encapsulated aloe vera in the manufacture of yogurt during incubation time without being affected by the concentration of sodium alginate.

  10. Meeting embryonic requirements of broilers throughout incubation: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, R.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Meijerhof, R.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    During incubation of chicken embryos, environmental conditions, such as temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration, must be controlled to meet embryonic requirements that change during the different phases of embryonic development. In the current review, the effects of embryo temperature,

  11. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed 1 MPa at in situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well. We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120°C, and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. To keep costs low, the system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow-through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g., fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration. As an application of the system we extracted organic compounds from sub-bituminous coal using H(2)O as well as a H(2)O-CO(2) mixture at elevated temperature (90°C) and pressure (5 MPa). Subsamples were taken at different time points during the incubation and analyzed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could

  12. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSauer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed one MPa at in-situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in-situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well.We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120° C and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. The system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g. fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration.As an application of the system we extracted organic acids from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O-CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C and pressure (5 MPa. Subsamples were taken during the incubation and analysed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulphate reduction rate upon the addition of

  13. Internal incubation and early hatching in brood parasitic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhead, T R; Hemmings, N; Spottiswoode, C N; Mikulica, O; Moskát, C; Bán, M; Schulze-Hagen, K

    2011-04-07

    The offspring of brood parasitic birds benefit from hatching earlier than host young. A proposed but little-known strategy to achieve this is 'internal incubation', by retaining the egg in the oviduct for an additional 24 h. To test this, we quantified the stage of embryo development at laying in four brood parasitic birds (European cuckoo, Cuculus canorus; African cuckoo, Cuculus gularis; greater honeyguide, Indicator indicator; and the cuckoo finch, Anomalospiza imberbis). For the two cuckoos and the honeyguide, all of which lay at 48 h intervals, embryos were at a relatively advanced stage at laying; but for the cuckoo finch (laying interval: 24 h) embryo stage was similar to all other passerines laying at 24 h intervals. The stage of embryo development in the two cuckoos and honeyguide was similar to that of a non-parasitic species that lay at an interval of 44-46 h, but also to the eggs of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata incubated artificially at body temperature immediately after laying, for a further 24 h. Comparison with the zebra finch shows that internal incubation in the two cuckoos and honeyguide advances hatching by 31 h, a figure consistent with the difference between the expected and the observed duration of incubation in the European cuckoo predicted from egg mass. Rather than being a specific adaptation to brood parasitism, internal incubation is a direct consequence of a protracted interval between ovulation (and fertilization) and laying, but because it results in early hatching may have predisposed certain species to become brood parasitic.

  14. Business incubators in China: An inquiry into the variables associated with incubatee success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonobe, Tetsushi; Zhang, Haiyang

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the outcome of business incubation and the resources used by incubators, by using a small panel of science and technology business incubators (STBIs) in China...

  15. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  16. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  17. Incubating Innovation: A standard model for nurturing new businesses, the incubator gains prominence in the world of biotech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Incubators, accelerators, innovation centers, launch pads. Everyone defines the idea a bit differently, but, generally, these infrastructures refer to a subsidized space where fledgling companies get support?a combination of mentorship, funding, low rent, networking opportunities, and other training?with the goal of propelling early businesses to success.

  18. Business incubators as support mechanisms for the economic development: Case of Maringá's Technology Incubator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Helen Mansano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where competition is increasingly fierce, it is essential to create an innovation system, that ranges from basic research to the transfer of developments for the companies and the whole society. To verify this process, the most of the works are using the record number of patents as a proxy, given the difficulty of measuring new products, services and process for the market. Based in incubators of technology-based enterprises, in this article this problem was overcome, by measuring their products, services and processes. Thus, we developed this work with the main objective to assess whether there is interaction between the resident enterprises in technological incubator of Maringá, external companies and university.   The methodology includes a literature review on the subject, the development of variables related to incubator´s characteristics, the application of a questionnaire to the companies linked to Technological Incubator of Maringá, in order to verify the new products, services and process related to research that hit the market. The results point indicates the need for facilitating the process of innovation and interaction with university and industry by developed innovations.

  19. Being flexible through customization : The impact of incubator focus and customization strategies on incubate survival and growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstraeten, J.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Matthyssens, P.; Andreassi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Given the increased importance of flexibility in company development models, it is not surprising that start-up support structures such as business incubators give more attention to flexible service offerings. In this paper, we argue that an incubator’s service customization strategy is ideal in sit

  20. Development and implantation of a control and data acquisition program for the calibration of instruments for diagnostic radiology; Desenvolvimento e implantacao de um programa de controle e aquisicao de dados na calibracao de instrumentos em radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betti, Flavio

    2007-07-01

    Design techniques of an automatic control system implementing corrected kerma determination and shutter command in the calibration laboratory at IPEN are shown, as well as the periodic calibration program developed for a monitor chamber for several X-ray beam qualities used for diagnostic radiology and radiation protection instruments. Two reference electrometers, a multichannel secondary standard thermometer, and an absolute pressure barometer were connected to the Rs-232 interface from a PC computer equipped with a National Instruments multi function analog and digital I/O card. LabVIEW{sup MR} was chosen as programming tool, which allowed for the development of a suite of programs for both controlling the shutter timing cycles and the calibration of the monitor chamber against a reference standard. A detailed description of the methods used for troubleshooting, fine tuning of parameters and evaluation of program results is followed by an analysis showing that considerable advantages regarding reduction of time and precision improvements during the calibrations could be achieved by the use of the developed programs, particularly under adverse conditions like those found during short expositions, or instead during long irradiation intervals where fluctuation of parameters like kerma rate or room conditions (temperature or pressure) can be found. (author)

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljegren, JC

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  10. Innovation, incubation and entrepreneurship case studies from IIT Kanpur

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on promoting entrepreneurial ecosystems within universities and educational institutes. It especially emphasizes the thriving systems and practices existing within the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IITK). It discusses cases and successes of the SIDBI Incubation and Innovation Centre in the Institute. This edited volume highlights the vision of IITK and describes a few of the major achievements of the past few years. It especially showcases the requirements and challenges of creating, sustaining, and boosting such entrepreneurial ecosystems and incubation centres. The contents of this book will be useful to researchers, administrators, and corporate collaborators working in the area of monetizing technology coming from educational institutions by converting it to successful products and business ideas. .

  11. UNIVERSITIES AND INCUBATORS: KEY FACTORS DRIVING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic diversification is an utterly important factor for regions that are directly or indirectly related to any productive mechanisms and seek to strengthen their foundations for the generation of jobs and income. Within this context, to invest in business preparation and maturation, especially in the ones related to the technological area, turns out to be an interesting mean of diversifying a regional economy that is facing the risk of stagnation. This study considers the importance of the role taken on by universities and their incubators in driving entrepreneurship and supporting the creation of new companies and the innovative capacity of a country through knowledge transfer amongst universities and companies, generating benefits and socioeconomic progress in a country. It also conducts a case study on a company of the information technology area, recently incubated and whose major objective consists in becoming part of this economic diversification basis.

  12. Nitrification Potential of Soils Under Liquid Incubation Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; RAN Wei; SHEN Qi-Rong

    2005-01-01

    A red soil, a fluvo-aquic soil and a permeable paddy soil were used in a long-term investigation to study changes in nitrification with treatments: 1) soil incubation, 2) liquid incubation inoculated with soil samples, and 3) liquid incubation inoculated with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) from the soils. There were significant differences (P < 0.001) in nitrification rates among the three soils when measured for 28 days by adding (NH4)2SO4 at the rate of 154 mg N kg-1 dry soil to fresh soil. However, the amounts of nitrifying bacteria in the three soils were not related to soil nitrification capacity. When the soil samples or the isolates of AOB enriched from the corresponding soil were incubated in liquid with pH 5.8, 7.0 and 8.0 buffers and 10 mmol L-1 ammonium nitrogen, there were no significant nitrification differences in the same soil type at each pH. The ability to oxidize ammonia through AOB from different types of soils in a homogeneous culture medium was similar, and the soil nitrification capacity could reflect the inherent properties of a soil. Altering the culture medium pH of individual soil type also showed that acidification of an alkaline fluvo-aquic soil decreased nitrification capacity, whereas alkalinization of the acidic red soil and permeable paddy soil increased their nitrification. For a better insight into factors influencing soil nitrification processes, soil properties including texture and clay composition should be considered.

  13. AND BUSINESS INCUBATORS INTO THE TRIPLE HELIX CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizova, Y.S.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article’s author endeavors to create a practical model of the Russian economy’s development while integrating such tools of supporting and stimulating entrepreneurship as business incubators and research and technology parks into the Triple Helix concept. The article points out that configurations fusing together the nation-state, business and science/education, possess a greater potential for development.

  14. Incubation temperature modifies neonatal thermoregulation in the lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Rachel M; Walguarnery, Justin W

    2007-08-01

    The thermal environment experienced during embryonic development can profoundly affect the phenotype, and potentially the fitness, of ectothermic animals. We examined the effect of incubation temperature on the thermal preferences of juveniles in the oviparous lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Temperature preference trials were conducted in a laboratory thermal gradient within 48 hr of hatching and after 22-27 days of maintenance in a common laboratory environment. Incubation temperature had a significant effect on the upper limit of the interquartile range (IQR) of temperatures selected by A. carolinensis within the first 2 days after hatching. Between the first and second trials, the IQR of selected temperatures decreased significantly and both the lower limit of the IQR and the median selected temperature increased significantly. This, along with a significant incubation temperature by time interaction in the upper limit of the IQR, resulted in a pattern of convergence in thermoregulation among treatment groups. The initial differences in selected temperatures, as well as the shift in selected temperatures between first and second trials, demonstrate plasticity in temperature selection. As a previous study failed to find environmentally induced plasticity in temperature selection in adult A. carolinensis, this study suggests that this type of plasticity is exclusive to the period of neonatal development.

  15. Aerobic and anaerobic incubation: Biological indexes of soil nitrogen availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresović Mirjana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Our researches have been made on brown forest soil that had been used in long-term experiments set up according to specified fertilization system for over 30 years. We have chosen those experiment variants in which quantities of nitrogen fertilizers were gradually increased. The soil samples taken from 0 cm to 30 cm depth were used to determine biological indexes of nitrogen availability (aerobic and anaerobic incubation. The same samples were also used for pot experiments with oat. Plant and soil parameters obtained in controlled conditions were used for determination of biological indexes reliability in measuring the soil nitrogen availability. On the grounds of correlation analysis, it can be concluded that biological index of nitrogen availability achieved by the anaerobic incubation (without substraction of the initial content of available nitrogen of the investigated brown forest soil is the reliable indicator of soil nitrogen availability. That is not the case with the aerobic incubation in which reliability has not been established.

  16. Prolonged incubation of processed human spermatozoa will increase DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, A; Khalili, M A; Halvaei, I; Roodbari, F

    2014-05-01

    One of the causes of failure in ART is sperm DNA fragmentation which may be associated with long period of spermatozoa incubation at 37 °C. The objective was to evaluate the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation using the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test after swim-up at different time intervals prior to use. In this prospective study, 21 normozoospermic specimens were analysed. The samples were incubated at 37 °C after preparation by direct swim-up. DNA fragmentation was assessed at different time intervals (0, 1, 2 and 3 h) using SCD test. Spermatozoa with no DNA fragmentation showed large- or medium-sized halos, and sperm cells with DNA fragmentation showed either a small halo or no halo. The rates of normal morphology and progressive motility after sperm processing were 72.33 ± 2.53% and 90 ± 1.02%, respectively. The rate of sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly higher after 2 h (8.81 ± 0.93%, P = 0.004) and 3 h (10.76 ± 0.89%, P fragmentation. Therefore, sperm samples intended for ART procedures should be used within 2 h of incubation at 37 °C. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. A construção de um instrumento de avaliação discente de um programa de pós-graduação Development of an instrument for students' evaluation of a graduate program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Milnitsky Stein

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta o processo de construção e validação de conteúdo e aparente de um instrumento de avaliação discente para programas de pós-graduação. Para este processo foram desenvolvidas diversas etapas envolvendo tanto uma amostra de 14 docentes de um programa de pós-graduação de Psicologia, quanto a testagem piloto numa amostra de 52 pós-graduandos. O instrumento assim aprimorado foi testado numa nova amostra de 63 estudantes (46 mestrandos e 17 doutorandos. Os resultados, tanto quantitativos quanto qualitativos, indicaram que o instru-mento possui bons indicadores de consistência interna para a escala como um todo (alpha= 0,9332 e para suas sub-escalas, como também de validade de conteúdo e aparente. Espera-se com este trabalho poder contribuir para a avaliação de outros programas de pós-graduação e auxiliar demais pesquisadores na construção de seus instrumentos de pesquisa.This paper presents the process of developing an instrument for students' assessment of a Graduate Program. That process encompassed a series of steps involving a sample of 14 faculty members of a Psychology Graduate Program as well as a pilot sample of 52 graduate students. The revised instrument was tested on a group of 62 students (46 masters and 17 doctoral students. Both quantitative and qualitative results indicated that the instrument was reliable with high internal consistency as a whole (alpha= 0,9332 and as sub-scales. In addition, those results also suggested that the instrument was valid (face and content validity. We hope to have contributed with this work to other graduate programs in their student assessment system and also to researchers interested in scale development.

  18. Current and Nascent SETI Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Siemion, Andrew P V; Chen, Henry; Cordes, Jim; Filiba, Terry; Foster, Griffin; Fries, Adam; Howard, Andrew; von Korff, Josh; Korpela, Eric; Lebofsky, Matt; McMahon, Peter L; Parsons, Aaron; Spitler, Laura; Wagner, Mark; Werthimer, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe our ongoing efforts to develop high-performance and sensitive instrumentation for use in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI). These efforts include our recently deployed Search for Extraterrestrial Emissions from Nearby Developed Intelligent Populations Spectrometer (SERENDIP V.v) and two instruments currently under development; the Heterogeneous Radio SETI Spectrometer (HRSS) for SETI observations in the radio spectrum and the Optical SETI Fast Photometer (OSFP) for SETI observations in the optical band. We will discuss the basic SERENDIP V.v instrument design and initial analysis methodology, along with instrument architectures and observation strategies for OSFP and HRSS. In addition, we will demonstrate how these instruments may be built using low-cost, modular components and programmed and operated by students using common languages, e.g. ANSI C.

  19. Cot-nursing versus incubator care for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter H; Flenady, Vicki

    2011-08-10

    Preterm infants are usually nursed in incubators, but cot-nursing may provide an alternative. While there may be benefits of nursing preterm infants in open cots, there may be potential risks such as nosocomial infection caused by more handling due to easier access. To assess effects of cot-nursing versus incubator care on temperature control and weight gain in preterm infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library), Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE, as well as previous reviews including cross references through November 2009. All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation in which infants receiving care in standard newborn cots were compared to infants managed in a conventional air heated incubator. The authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data for the primary outcomes of temperature control and weight gain. Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed-effect model. Eleven potential studies were identified of which five, involving 247 infants, were included in this review. When compared to incubator care, cot-nursing resulted in no significant difference in mean body temperature (MD 0.02 degrees C; 95% CI -0.02 to 0.07, four trials), though the one trial that reported on episodes of hyperthermia found this to be statistically more common in the cot-nursing group (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09). There were no statistically significant differences in weight gain. In the cot-nursing group, fewer infants were breast fed on discharge (typical RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.14, three trials, 150 infants) and fewer infants died prior to hospital discharge (typical RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.25, four trials, 235 infants) but these results failed to reach statistical significance. The comparison of cot-nursing using a heated water-filled mattress

  20. EMPOWERING IT ENTREPRENEURSHIPS: WHAT’S THE CONTRIBUTION OF BUSINESS INCUBATORS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wescley Silva Xavier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the contribution of Business Incubators for small IT business. In this way, a deep research in three Brazilian IT Incubators was developed. We investigated the perception of incubators’ managers, tenant and graduated entrepreneurs regarding to the key elements of incubation process, as support and infrastructure, university-incubator interaction, and management training. Our findings indicate some deficiencies in IT Incubators, predominantly in prospecting customers, attracting financial resources, and establishing relationships within universities and research centers.

  1. Incubation Station for the Bacterial Growth Study in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rafael Duharte Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the designing and characterization of a prototype of laboratory incubator as support of Microbiology research, in particular for the research of the bacterial growth in biological samples through optic methods (Turbidimetry and electrometric measurements of bioimpedance. It shows the results of simulation and experimentation of the design proposed for the canals of measurement of the variables: temperature and humidity, with a high linearity from the adequate selection of the corresponding sensors and the analogue components of every canal, controlled with help of a microcontroller AT89C51 (ATMEL with adequate benefi ts for this type of application.

  2. Cellular Automata with network incubation in information technology diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseo, Renato; Guidolin, Mariangela

    2010-06-01

    Innovation diffusion of network goods determines direct network externalities that depress sales for long periods and delay full benefits. We model this effect through a multiplicative dynamic market potential driven by a latent individual threshold embedded in a special Cellular Automata representation. The corresponding mean field approximation of its aggregate version is a Riccati equation with a closed form solution. This allows the detection of a change-point time separating an incubation period from a subsequent take-off due to a collective threshold (critical mass). Weighted nonlinear least squares are the main inferential methodology. An application is analysed with reference to USA fax machine diffusion.

  3. Short communication. Effects of the time to change from incubation to hatching temperature on the artificial incubation of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Gomez-de-Travecedo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates, in red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, the effects of the time to change from incubation to hatching temperature on egg weight loss, hatchability, chick weight at hatch, incubation length, and development stage at embryonic mortality. Five batches of 80 eggs each were incubated at 37.8ºC during the first 18, 19, 20, 21 or 22 d of incubation, and subsequently at 37.5ºC until hatching. Hatchability, development stage at embryonic mortality and chick weight at hatch were not affected by the time of temperature change (p > 0.05. However, incubation length and egg weight loss after 21 d of incubation as representative of that of developed embryos were influenced by the incubation treatment (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively. Thus, eggs maintained at the incubation temperature of 37.8ºC for 22 d not only hatched earlier (23.04 d but also with lower dispersion than eggs from the other treatments. As hatching may start around day 22 of incubation, to improve hatching synchrony we could recommend to move A. rufa eggs from the incubator, set at 37.8ºC, to the hatcher on the 21st d of incubation keeping the temperature unchanged, and reduce it to 37.5ºC on the 22nd d. Nevertheless, further research should be carried out to study the effect of this temperature scheduling on chick growth and performance.

  4. Low-power hybrid wireless network for monitoring infant incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D I; Shin, K H; Kim, I K; Park, K S; Lee, T S; Kim, S I; Lim, K S; Huh, S J

    2005-10-01

    We have created a pilot wireless network for the convenient monitoring of temperature and humidity of infant incubators. This system combines infrared and radio frequency (RF) communication in order to minimize the power consumption of slave devices, and we therefore call it a hybrid wireless network. The slave module installed in the infant incubator receives the calling signal from the host with an infrared receiver, and sends temperature and humidity data to the host with an RF transmitter. The power consumption of the host system is not critical, and hence it uses the maximum power of infrared transmission and continuously operating RF receiver. In our test implementation, we included four slave devices. The PC calls each slave device every second and then waits for 6 s, resulting in a total scan period of 10 s. Slave devices receive the calling signals and transmit three data values (temperature, moisture, and skin temperature); their power demand is 1 mW, and can run for about 1000 h on four AA-size nickel-hydride batteries.

  5. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A.; Lu, Zhengfeng [University of Chicago Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-15

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  6. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  7. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  8. Program for the Inspection of Nickel Alloy Components Report from the Program’s Steering Committee: Inspection of Bottom-Mounted Instrumentation Nozzles Round Robin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Doctor, Steven R.; Taylor, Theodore T.

    2009-11-13

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) executed agreements with organizations in Japan, Sweden, South Korea, Finland, and the United States to establish the Program for the Inspection of Nickel Alloy Components (PINC).

  9. Striped Bass, morone saxatilis, egg incubation in large volume jars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C.J.; Wrege, B.M.; Jeffery, Isely J.

    2010-01-01

    The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped bass brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization. Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately 150 g of eggs each. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate (??1 SE) in McDonald jars of 21.9 ?? 0.03 eggs/mL and in experimental jars of 10.9 ?? 0.57 eggs/mL. The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was 37.3 ?? 4.49% for McDonald jars and 34.2 ?? 3.80% for experimental jars. Although survival in experimental jars was slightly less than in McDonald jars, the effect of container volume on survival to 48 h (F = 6.57; df = 1,5; P > 0.05), 96 h (F = 0.02; df = 1, 4; P > 0.89), and 144 h (F = 3.50; df = 1, 4; P > 0.13) was not statistically significant. Mean survival between replicates ranged from 14.7 to 60.1% in McDonald jars and from 10.1 to 54.4% in experimental jars. No effect of initial stocking rate on survival (t = 0.06; df = 10; P > 0.95) was detected. Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost. As survival was similar to McDonald jars, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.

  10. [Collagenase production increases in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis synoviocytes incubated].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrull, H L; Brizuela, N Y; Demurtas, S L; Strusberg, A M; Spitale, L S; Meirovich, C I

    2000-01-01

    Cartilage is a specialized connective tissue. It contains few cells into an extracell matrix. The matrix mainly constituents are collagen and proteoglycans. Its degradation depends on synoviocytes activity, that secrete metalloproteases, agents to proteoglycans catabolism. There are two types of synoviocytes: macrophagics (type "A:') and fibroblastics (type "B"). The proteoglycan destruction can be LT-dependent or LT-independent. The aim of this work is synoviocytes function ex vívo study, free immune system influence. In order to do it, heparinized synovial fluid samples were obtained from 6 osteoarthritic (OA) and 6 arthritic (RA) both sex untreated patients, diagnosed according ACR criteria, which disease duration was longer than 6 months. Patients average age was 70 +/- 2 years. Control samples were synovial fluid from traumatic arthritis or non inflammatory bone-muscle pathology. Synovial fluid was centifugated at 1500 g for 30 minutes to isolate synoviocytes. Sediment containing cells was 6 hs incubed with Dulbecco-Eagles media, that has HEPES Gibco (26 mM); NaHCO3 (0.5 g/I); glutamine (2 mM), streptomicine (100 mg/l), G-penicillin (1 U/ml); anphotericine B (2.5 mg/l). Cells calification and viability were cytopathologically determined. Before and after incubation, collagenase activity was measured by ELISA-double-sandwich, using 10 micrograms/ml monoclonal anti-MMPs in phosphate-buffer-saline. The antigen-antibody complex production with inespecific proteins was blocked by bovine seric albumine. Streptavidin peroxidase was added and washed with 2,2,azin,di(3-ethyl-benztazoilinsuiphonic) acid to develop color. The link of labeled antibody by absorbance at 410 nm was determined in ELISA-spectrophothometer. RA patients earlier MMPs synoviocytes production was 1373 +/- 115 ng/ml. Then 6 hs incubation 2143 +/- 132 ng/ml was reached. The increase (56%) had high significance (p cartilago, because SF provides markers of joint disease. MMPs are giving information

  11. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  12. Field test of the feasibility and validity of using the Hoosier Assurance Plan Instrument for Adults in a state mental health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Frederick L; McGrew, John; Deliberty, Richard N

    2009-08-01

    The current paper reports on the feasibility of using the HAPI-A, an instrument designed to assess a person's level of functioning in the community: (1) to help determine eligibility to receive behavioral health services, (2) to assign reimbursement case rates; and (3) to provide data for a service provider report card. A 3-year field study of the use of the instrument across an entire state mental health system explored the effectiveness of methods to enhance data accuracy, including annual training and a professional clinical record audit, and the ability of the test to detect differences in improvement rates within risk-adjusted groupings. The combination of training and auditing produced statistically significant, cumulative reductions in data errors across all 3 years of the field test. The HAPI-A also was sensitive in detecting differences among service providers in outcome improvements for six of six risk-adjusted groups rated at the moderate level of impairment and for five of six groups rated at the mild level of impairment, but was inconsistent in detecting outcome differences for persons rated at the severe level of impairment.

  13. Getting better integrated into foreign markets supported by the incubator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Gretzinger, Susanne; Hollensen, Svend

    The challenges associated with entering foreign growth markets, like BRIC markets, remain significant, especially for inexperienced SMEs. These challenges can include inadequate knowledge about a host country’s culture, norms, values and business environment, and a lack of embeddedness...... in the industry networks abroad. Such barriers can often hinder successful foreign market entry. One concept to use for SMEs, which lack experiential knowledge when bridging new distant international growth markets, is the ‘incubator’. It is best described as a shared office-space facility, including a local...... into the following two propositions: - The higher the level of the company’s accumulated experiential knowledge, the faster integration into the foreign market. - The use of incubator facilitates a faster integration into a specific high growth foreign market....

  14. Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.

  15. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Simon, Stéphanie; Benestad, Sylvie L; Maillet, Séverine; Mathey, Jacinthe; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Cassard, Hervé; Costes, Pierrette; Bergonier, Dominique; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Moldal, Torffin; Simmons, Hugh; Lantier, Frederic; Feraudet-Tarisse, Cécile; Morel, Nathalie; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2008-12-01

    Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc) accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  16. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lacroux

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  17. Incubator weaning in preterm infants and associated practice variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, R; Kirkby, S; Turenne, W; Greenspan, J

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship of weight of preterm infants when first placed into an open crib with days to full oral feedings, growth velocity and length of stay (LOS), and to identify unwarranted variation in incubator weaning after adjusting for severity indices. A retrospective study using the ParadigmHealth neonatal database from 2003 to 2006 reviewed incubator weaning to an open crib in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants from 22 to weeks gestation. Primary outcome measurements included days to full oral (PO) feeding, weight gain from open crib to discharge and length of stay. Models were severity adjusted. To understand hospital practice variation, we also used a regression model to estimate the weight at open crib for the top 10 volume hospitals. In all 2908 infants met the inclusion criteria for the study. Their mean weight at open crib was 1850 g. On average every additional 100 g an infant weighed at the open crib was associated with increased time to full PO feeding by 0.8 days, decreased weight gained per day by 1 gram and increased LOS by 0.9 days. For the top 10 volume hospitals, severity variables alone accounted for 9% of the variation in weight at open crib, whereas the hospital in which the baby was treated accounted for an additional 19% of the variation. Even after controlling for severity, significant practice variation exists in weaning to an open crib, leading to potential delays in achieving full-volume oral feeds, decreased growth velocity and prolonged LOS.

  18. Using Soil Incubation Experiments to Enhance Urban Elementary School Student Understanding of Carbon Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittinghill, K. A.; van Vleck, H. E.; Dechaine, J. M.; Faber, N.

    2007-12-01

    Soil incubations provide a simple and low-cost way to introduce inquiry into the elementary school curriculum. As part of the University of Minnesota's NSF-funded GK-12 program, we used a replicated soil experiment to enhance a unit on global warming and carbon cycling for a 4th grade enrichment group at an urban elementary school. After completing several global warming related, inquiry based activities, the students designed an experiment to test their hypothesis that increasing temperature increases soil respiration. Students used soil from the playground placed at different temperatures within the school (computer server room, classroom, and refrigerator) to carry out their experiment. With the help of GK-12 graduate fellows, students used an infrared gas analyzer to quantify the production of carbon dioxide by the soil within mason jars. The students analyzed their data and discussed the relevance of their findings to previous lessons on global climate change. We will discuss the incubation experiment in the context of our collaboration between scientists and elementary school classrooms, inquiry based science education, and our 4th grade unit on global climate change.

  19. Biparental incubation-scheduling: no experimental evidence for major energetic constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Martin; Cresswell, Will; Rutten, Anne L; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Incubation is energetically demanding, but it is debated whether these demands constrain incubation-scheduling (i.e., the length, constancy, and timing of incubation bouts) in cases where both parents incubate. Using 2 methods, we experimentally reduced the energetic demands of incubation in the semipalmated sandpiper, a biparental shorebird breeding in the harsh conditions of the high Arctic. First, we decreased the demands of incubation for 1 parent only by exchanging 1 of the 4 eggs for an artificial egg that heated up when the focal bird incubated. Second, we reanalyzed the data from the only published experimental study that has explicitly tested energetic constraints on incubation-scheduling in a biparentally incubating species (Cresswell et al. 2003). In this experiment, the energetic demands of incubation were decreased for both parents by insulating the nest cup. We expected that the treated birds, in both experiments, would change the length of their incubation bouts, if biparental incubation-scheduling is energetically constrained. However, we found no evidence that heating or insulation of the nest affected the length of incubation bouts: the combined effect of both experiments was an increase in bout length of 3.6min (95% CI: -33 to 40), which is equivalent to a 0.5% increase in the length of the average incubation bout. These results demonstrate that the observed biparental incubation-scheduling in semipalmated sandpipers is not primarily driven by energetic constraints and therefore by the state of the incubating bird, implying that we still do not understand the factors driving biparental incubation-scheduling.

  20. APPLICATION OF THE MODEL CERNE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CRITERIA INCUBATION SELECTION IN TECHNOLOGY BASED BUSINESSES : A STUDY IN INCUBATORS OF TECHNOLOGICAL BASE OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clobert Jefferson Passoni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators are a great source of encouragement for innovative projects, enabling the development of new technologies, providing infrastructure, advice and support, which are key elements for the success of new business. The technology-based firm incubators (TBFs, which are 154 in Brazil. Each one of them has its own mechanism for the selection of the incubation companies. Because of the different forms of management of incubators, the business model CERNE - Reference Center for Support for New Projects - was created by Anprotec and Sebrae, in order to standardize procedures and promote the increase of chances for success in the incubations. The objective of this study is to propose selection criteria for the incubation, considering CERNE’s five dimensions and aiming to help on the decision-making in the assessment of candidate companies in a TBF incubator. The research was conducted from the public notices of 20 TBF incubators, where 38 selection criteria were identified and classified. Managers of TBF incubators validated 26 criteria by its importance via online questionnaires. As a result, favorable ratings were obtained to 25 of them. Only one criterion differed from the others, with a unfavorable rating.

  1. Evaluating musical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  2. A randomized clinical trial comparing embryo culture in a conventional incubator with a time-lapse incubator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjaer, Johnny Juhl; Grøndahl, Marie Louise;

    2012-01-01

    Time-lapse monitoring allows for a flexible embryo evaluation and potentially provides new dynamic markers of embryo competence. Before introducing time-lapse monitoring in a clinical setting, the safety of the instrument must be properly documented. Accordingly, the aim of this study...

  3. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  4. Effect of short-term pre-hatch heat shock of incubating eggs on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of short-term pre-hatch heat shock of incubating eggs on subsequent. ... of thermal conditioning of broiler chickens during embryonic development on subsequent ... Keywords: Heat stress, incubation, parent age, live weight, mortality

  5. Mobi-incubation user experience for rural entrepreneurs in emerging economies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chelule, E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Business incubation has long been a successful economic development tool in developed and emerging economies. It helps entrepreneurs start businesses that remain sustainable. However, business incubation theory designed for developed countries...

  6. Sustaining Johannesburg’s fashion design incubators : the role of fashion design education

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, design incubators have emerged as a result of clustering. These design incubators serve as artist studios, or as design centers providing opportunities for young emerging entrepreneurs to acquire studio workspaces located within a cluster of similar economic activities. In South Africa, design incubators, particularly fashion design incubators, have emerged in the Johannesburg Fashion District, situated within the central business district of Johannesburg. Research conducted ...

  7. A study of knowledge supernetworks and network robustness in different business incubators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing; Zhao, Liming

    2016-04-01

    As the most important intangible resource of the new generation of business incubators, knowledge has been studied extensively, particularly with respect to how it spreads among incubating firms through knowledge networks. However, these homogeneous networks do not adequately describe the heterogeneity of incubating firms in different types of business incubators. To solve the problem of heterogeneity, the notion of a knowledge supernetwork has been used both to construct a knowledge interaction model among incubating firms and to distinguish social network relationships from knowledge network relationships. The process of knowledge interaction and network evolution can then be simulated with a few rules for incubating firms regarding knowledge innovation/absorption, social network connection, and entry and exit, among other aspects. Knowledge and networks have been used as performance indicators to evaluate the evolution of knowledge supernetworks. Moreover, we study the robustness of incubating firms' social networks by employing four types of attack strategies. Based on our simulation results, we conclude that there have been significant knowledge interaction and network evolution among incubating firms on a periodic basis and that both specialized and diversified business incubators have every advantage necessary in terms of both knowledge and networks to cultivate start-up companies. As far as network robustness is concerned, there is no obvious difference between the two types of business incubators with respect to the stability of their network structures, but specialized business incubators have stronger network communication abilities than diversified business incubators.

  8. The see-saw a vertical-lift incubator designed for channel catfish egg masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended in water that is agitated with rotating or oscillating paddles. We designed and tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish egg masses. Preliminary research in commercial hatcheries...

  9. Soil respiration is not limited by reductions in microbial biomass during long-term soil incubations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining rates of soil respiration are reliably observed during long-term laboratory incubations, but the cause is uncertain. We explored different controls on soil respiration during long-term soil incubations. Following a 707 day incubation (30 C) of soils from cultivated and forested plots at Ke...

  10. Partly versus Completely out of Your Mind: Effects of Incubation and Distraction on Resolving Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Nicholas; Smith, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Incubation has long been proposed as a mechanism in creative problem solving (Wallas, 1926). A new trial-by-trial method for observing incubation effects was used to compare the forgetting fixation hypothesis with the conscious work hypothesis. Two experiments examined the effects of incubation on initially unsolved Remote Associates Test (RAT)…

  11. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  12. Instrumentation for tropospheric aerosol characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.; Young, S.E.; Becker, C.H.; Coggiola, M.J. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wollnik, H. [Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A new instrument has been developed that determines the abundance, size distribution, and chemical composition of tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols with diameters down to 0.2 {mu}m. In addition to aerosol characterization, the instrument also monitors the chemical composition of the ambient gas. More than 25.000 aerosol particle mass spectra were recorded during the NASA-sponsored Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) field program using NASA`s DC-8 research aircraft. (author) 7 refs.

  13. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  14. Morphofunctional disturbances of human sperm after incubation with organophosphorate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, H R; Badilla, J; Bustos-Obregón, E

    1999-08-01

    The organophosphorate pesticides are highly toxic for insects and mammals, but their effects in the male reproductive tract are scarcely known. Many alterations induced by organophosphorate pesticides have been described, such as: cytogenetic alterations in germinal cells, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia in the mouse. Parathion, the pesticide mostly utilized in Chilean agriculture, is rapidly metabolized to paraoxon, the active metabolite, in mammalian organisms. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of Parathion and paraoxon on different morphological and functional parameters of the sperm. Human spermatozoa were incubated with Parathion and paraoxon at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mM). Vitality (tripan blue and eosin tests), acrosome reaction (triple stain test), plasma membrane integrity (HOS-test), and chromatin stability (sodium thioglycolate test) were determined. The observations were done by optical microscopy at 1000x of magnification and three hundred sperms were evaluated for each treatment. The results indicated that Parathion and paraoxon increase the percent of sperm with acrosome reaction and also increase the percentage of sperm with chromatin decondensation in a dose-dependent manner. The vitality and plasma membrane integrity decrease significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest a direct action of Parathion and paraoxon on the different parameters studied. The morphofunctionality of sperm is altered significatively, suggesting that Parathion and paraoxon, thanks to their alkylating and electrophylic properties, could act on DNA and proteins respectively, to elicit these changes.

  15. Novel Instrumentation for Rocket Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed SBIR Phase II program is to develop, deploy and deliver novel laser-based instruments that provide rapid, in situ, simultaneous...

  16. Novel Instrumentation for Rocket Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed SBIR Phase I program is to develop novel laser-based instruments that provide rapid, in situ, simultaneous measurements of gas...

  17. Visual interface for the automation of the instrumented pendulum of Charpy tests used in the surveillance program of reactors vessel of nuclear power plants; Interfase visual para la automatizacion del pendulo instrumentado de pruebas Charpy utilizado en el programa de vigilancia de la vasija de reactores de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Sainz M, E.; Ruiz E, J.A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km.36.5, Mpio. de Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: asrs@nuclear.inin.mx; esm@nuclear.inin.mx; jare@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    Inside the Programs of Surveillance of the nuclear power stations periodic information is required on the state that keep the materials with those that builds the vessel of the reactor. This information is obtained through some samples or test tubes that are introduced inside the core of the reactor and it is observed if its physical characteristics remain after having been subjected to the radiation changes and temperature. The rehearsal with the instrumented Charpy pendulum offers information on the behavior of fracture dynamics of a material. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it has an instrumented Charpy pendulum. The operation of this instrument is manual, having inconveniences to carry out rehearsals with radioactive material, handling of high and low temperatures, to fulfill the normative ones for the realization of the rehearsals, etc. In this work the development of a computational program is presented (virtual instrument), for the automation of the instrumented pendulum. The system has modules like: Card of data acquisition, signal processing, positioning system, tempered system, pneumatic system, compute programs like it is the visual interface for the operation of the instrumented Charpy pendulum and the acquisition of impact signals. This system shows that given the characteristics of the nuclear industry with radioactive environments, the virtual instrumentation and the automation of processes can contribute to diminish the risks to the personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  18. Decisions for the IVF laboratory: comparative analysis of embryo culture incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Jason E

    2014-05-01

    Incubators in the IVF laboratory play a pivotal role in providing a stable and appropriate culture environment required for optimizing embryo development and clinical outcomes. With technological advances, several types of incubators are now available and careful consideration is required for selection. Examination of variables, such as recovery/stabilization of temperature, gas atmosphere and humidity, as well as understanding various approaches utilized by each device to regulate these variables, is critical. Additionally, a comprehensive examination of clinical studies that compare various incubators may provide insight into their efficacy. Other factors, both technical and practical, must also be considered when selecting an incubator. Importantly, proper management, including patient volume and workflow, is paramount in optimizing function of any incubator, regardless of the technology incorporated. This review highlights incubator function and reviews key environmental variables controlled and the technology utilized in various units. Additionally, existing comparative studies focused on incubator recovery and clinical outcomes are critically analysed. Finally, strategies employed for incubator management, as well as future potential incubator improvements are discussed. While existing reports indicate that smaller benchtop/topload incubators provide faster recovery of environmental variables, there is no clear advantage of any particular incubator based on clinical outcomes.

  19. Effects of incubation at various 'room' temperatures on the sensitivity and specificity of Microstix-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akriotis, V J; Arbus, G S

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of room temperature incubation of Microstix-3 specimens to detect urinary tract infection was studied. This procedure, if successful, would allow home monitoring of patients and eliminate the need for an incubator. Four Microstix-3 strips were dipped into each of 1,241 urine specimens and incubated at 18, 22, 27 or 37 degree C. Results after incubation for 24 h at 27 degree C and after 48 h at 22 degree C were comparable to those after incubation for 18-24 h at 37 degree C. However, even after 72 h, incubation at 18 degree C did not produce results comparable to those obtained at 37 degree C. It appears that the incubator can be successfully eliminated at the higher temperatures tested if the limits of time outlined are observed.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  3. Technical presentation - KEITHLEY Instruments - CANCELLED

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2009-01-01

    10 March 2009 13:30 – 15:30, Council Chamber, Bldg. 503 Keithley markets highly accurate instruments and data acquisition products, as well as complete system solutions for high-volume production and assembly testing. Keithley Instruments, Inc. designs, develops, manufactures and markets complex electronic instruments and systems geared to the specialized needs of electronics manufacturers for high-performance production testing, process monitoring, product development and research. Products and Services: Digital Multimeters and Data Acquisition Systems Current / Voltage Source and Measure Products Low Current / High Resistance Measurement Products Function/Pulse/Arbitrary/Pattern Generators Low Voltage/Low Resistance Measurement Products RF Spectrum Analyzer / RF Signal Generator / RF Switching Semiconductor Device Characterization Program: Topic 1: Welcome and short overview of new Products SMU 26XXA / ARB Generator 3390 / DMM 3706 / E-Meter 6517B Topic 2a: Te...

  4. Effects of environmental factors on incubation patterns of Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Delehanty, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Birds in which only one sex incubates the eggs are often faced with a direct conflict between foraging to meet metabolic needs and incubation. Knowledge of environmental and ecological factors that shape life-history strategies of incubation is limited. We used continuous videography to make precise measurements of female Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) incubation constancy (percentage of time spent at the nest in a 24-hour period) and recess duration. We used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate incubation patterns in relation to grouse age, timing of incubation, raven abundance, microhabitat, weather, and food availability. Overall, sage-grouse females showed an incubation constancy of 96% and a distinctive bimodal distribution of brief incubation recesses that peaked at sunset and 30 min prior to sunrise. Grouse typically returned to their nests during low light conditions. Incubation constancy of yearlings was lower than that of adults, particularly in the later stages of incubation. Yearlings spent more time away from nests later in the morning and earlier in the evening compared to adults. Video images revealed that nearly all predation events by Common Ravens (Corvus corax), the most frequently recorded predator at sage-grouse nests, took place during mornings and evenings after sunrise and before sunset, respectively. These were the times of the day when sage-grouse typically returned from incubation recesses. Recess duration was negatively related to raven abundance. We found evidence that incubation constancy increased with greater visual obstruction, usually from vegetation, of nests. An understanding of how incubation patterns relate to environmental factors will help managers make decisions aimed at increasing productivity through successful incubation.

  5. Biparental incubation patterns in a high-Arctic breeding shorebird: how do pairs divide their duties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Martin; Valcu, Mihai; Rutten, Anne L; Kempenaers, Bart

    2014-01-01

    In biparental species, parents may be in conflict over how much they invest into their offspring. To understand this conflict, parental care needs to be accurately measured, something rarely done. Here, we quantitatively describe the outcome of parental conflict in terms of quality, amount, and timing of incubation throughout the 21-day incubation period in a population of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) breeding under continuous daylight in the high Arctic. Incubation quality, measured by egg temperature and incubation constancy, showed no marked difference between the sexes. The amount of incubation, measured as length of incubation bouts, was on average 51min longer per bout for females (11.5h) than for males (10.7h), at first glance suggesting that females invested more than males. However, this difference may have been offset by sex differences in the timing of incubation; females were more often off nest during the warmer period of the day, when foraging conditions were presumably better. Overall, the daily timing of incubation shifted over the incubation period (e.g., for female incubation from evening-night to night-morning) and over the season, but varied considerably among pairs. At one extreme, pairs shared the amount of incubation equally, but one parent always incubated during the colder part of the day; at the other extreme, pairs shifted the start of incubation bouts between days so that each parent experienced similar conditions across the incubation period. Our results highlight how the simultaneous consideration of different aspects of care across time allows sex-specific investment to be more accurately quantified.

  6. Real-Time On-Board Airborne Demonstration of High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Ng, Tak-Kwong; Davis, Mitchell J.; Adams, James K.; Bowen, Stephen C.; Fay, James J.; Hutchinson, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program since April, 2012. The HOPS team recently completed two flight campaigns during the summer of 2014 on two different aircrafts with two different science instruments. The first flight campaign was in July, 2014 based at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in Hampton, VA on the NASA's HU-25 aircraft. The science instrument that flew with HOPS was Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) funded by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). The second campaign was in August, 2014 based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in Palmdale, CA on the NASA's DC-8 aircraft. HOPS flew with the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) instrument developed by Excelis Inc. The goal of the campaigns was to perform an end-to-end demonstration of the capabilities of the HOPS prototype system (HOPS COTS) while running the most computationally intensive part of the ASCENDS algorithm real-time on-board. The comparison of the two flight campaigns and the results of the functionality tests of the HOPS COTS are presented in this paper.

  7. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators.

  8. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Yezdani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged, molar bands and mouth mirrors used in the patient′s mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups - Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate and set B (0.025% betadine and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse. The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37°C for 24 h. For sterility control, Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518 was included. Results: No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculated with the microwaved set C instruments. Conclusion: Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min.

  9. Characterizing the nutritional strategy of incubating king eiders Somateria spectabilis in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, R.L.; Powell, A.N.; Williams, T.D.; Kitaysky, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    We measured plasma concentrations of variables associated with lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, glycerol, triglyceride, and ??- hydroxybutyrate), protein metabolism (uric acid), and baseline corticosterone to characterize the nutritional state of incubating king eiders Somateria spectabilis and relate this to incubation constancy at two sites, Kuparuk and Teshekpuk, in northern Alaska. King eiders at both sites appeared to employ a partial-income incubation strategy, relying on both endogenous and exogenous energy resources. Females maintained high invariant levels of free fatty acids, ??-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol throughout incubation, indicating that fat reserves were a major energy source, and not completely depleted during incubation. Similarly, uric acid did not increase, suggesting effective protein sparing or protein ingestion and adequate lipid reserves throughout incubation. Baseline corticosterone and triglyceride levels increased during incubation, indicative of an increase in foraging during late stages of incubation. Incubating females at Kuparuk had higher triglyceride concentrations but also had higher ??-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than females at Teshekpuk. This dichotomy may reflect a short-term signal of feeding overlaying the longer-term signal of reliance on endogenous lipid reserves due to higher food intake yet higher metabolic costs at Kuparuk because of its colder environment. Incubation constancy was not correlated with plasma concentrations of lipid or protein metabolites. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  10. Incubation temperature influences locomotor performance in young wood ducks (Aix sponsa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Brittney Cole; Durant, Sarah Elizabeth; Hepp, Gary Richard; Hopkins, William Alexander

    2011-06-01

    Incubation temperature is an important maternal effect in birds that can influence numerous offspring traits. For example, ducklings from eggs incubated at lower temperatures have lower growth rates, protein content, and are in poorer body condition than ducklings from eggs incubated at higher temperatures. Based on these observations, we predicted that incubation temperature would indirectly influence performance through its direct effects on body size. Wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs were incubated at three ecologically relevant temperatures (35, 35.9, 37°C). After hatching, all ducklings were housed under identical conditions and were subjected to aquatic and terrestrial racing trials at 15 and 20 days posthatch (dph). Contrary to our prediction, incubation temperature did not influence most duckling body size parameters at 15 or 20 dph. However, incubation temperature did have a strong influence on locomotor performance independent of body size and body condition. Ducklings hatched from eggs incubated at the lowest temperature had significantly reduced maximum aquatic swim velocity than ducklings from higher temperatures. Maximum terrestrial sprint velocity followed a similar pattern, but did not differ statistically among incubation treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that slight changes in incubation temperature can directly affect locomotor performance in avian offspring and thus provide a significant source of phenotypic variation in natural wood duck populations.

  11. Incubation temperature effects on hatchling performance in the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah R Fisher

    Full Text Available Incubation temperature has significant developmental effects on oviparous animals, including affecting sexual differentiation for several species. Incubation temperature also affects traits that can influence survival, a theory that is verified in this study for the Northwest Atlantic loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta. We conducted controlled laboratory incubations and experiments to test for an effect of incubation temperature on performance of loggerhead hatchlings. Sixty-eight hatchlings were tested in 2011, and 31 in 2012, produced from eggs incubated at 11 different constant temperatures ranging from 27°C to 33°C. Following their emergence from the eggs, we tested righting response, crawling speed, and conducted a 24-hour long swim test. The results support previous studies on sea turtle hatchlings, with an effect of incubation temperature seen on survivorship, righting response time, crawling speed, change in crawl speed, and overall swim activity, and with hatchlings incubated at 27°C showing decreased locomotor abilities. No hatchlings survived to be tested in both years when incubated at 32°C and above. Differences in survivorship of hatchlings incubated at high temperatures are important in light of projected higher sand temperatures due to climate change, and could indicate increased mortality from incubation temperature effects.

  12. The Effect of a Two-Hour, Room Temperature Incubation of Human Spermatozoa in TEST-Yolk Buffer on the Rate of Fertilization in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Julie R.; Walker, John H.; Milki, Amin A.; Westphal, Lynn; Behr, Barry

    2004-01-01

    Patients: To reassess the use of TEST-yolk buffer (TYB) in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program by comparing fertilization rates achieved in a glucose-free cleavage medium by the standard IVF preparation of sperm versus a 2-h, room temperature incubation of sperm in TYB.

  13. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  14. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator...

  15. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...

  16. APPLICATION OF THE MODEL CERNE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CRITERIA INCUBATION SELECTION IN TECHNOLOGY BASED BUSINESSES : A STUDY IN INCUBATORS OF TECHNOLOGICAL BASE OF THE COUNTRY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clobert Jefferson Passoni; Izabel Cristina Zattar; Jessica Werner Boschetto; Rosangela Rosa Luciane da Silva

    2017-01-01

    .... Because of the different forms of management of incubators, the business model CERNE - Reference Center for Support for New Projects - was created by Anprotec and Sebrae, in order to standardize...

  17. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, A.; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  18. Excitation Emission Matrix Spectra (EEMS) of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Produced during Microbial Incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, N.; Nelson, N. B.; Parsons, R.

    2013-12-01

    The chromophoric or light-absorbing fraction of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is present ubiquitously in natural waters and has a significant impact on ocean biogeochemistry, affecting photosynthesis and primary production as well direct and indirect photochemical reactions (Siegel et al., 2002; Nelson et al., 2007). It has been largely researched in the past few decades, however the exact chemical composition remains unknown. Instrumental methods of analysis including simultaneous excitation-emission fluorescence spectra have allowed for further insight into source and chemical composition. While certain excitation-emission peaks have been associated with ';marine' sources, they have not been exclusively linked to bacterial production of CDOM (Coble, 1996; Zepp et al., 2004). In this study, ';grazer diluted' seawater samples (70% 0.2μm filtered water; 30% whole water) were collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) site in the Sargasso Sea (31° 41' N; 64° 10' W) and incubated with an amendment of labile dissolved organic carbon (10μM C6H12O6), ammonium (1μM NH4Cl) and phosphate (0.1μM K2HPO4) to facilitate bacterial production. These substrates and concentrations have been previously shown to facilitate optimum bacterial and CDOM production (Nelson et al., 2004). Sample depths were chosen at 1m and 200m as water at these depths has been exposed to UV light (the Subtropical Mode Water at 200m has been subducted from the surface) and therefore has low initial concentrations of CDOM. After the samples were amended, they were incubated at in-situ temperatures in the dark for 72 hours, with bacteria counts, UV-Vis absorption and EEMS measurements taken at 6-8 hour intervals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements were collected daily. For the surface water experiment specific bacteria populations were investigated using Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results showed a clear production of bacteria and production of CDOM, which

  19. Anoxic incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags: a method for biogeochemical process studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, JW; Thamdrup, B.; Jørgensen, BB

    2000-01-01

    Incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags is described as a method for experimental studies of biogeochemical processes. Sediment incubation in these bags allows time-course experiments to be conducted on homogenised sediment without dilution, continuous stirring, or gaseous head......-space. Consequently, bag incubations of sediment combine the advantage of low heterogeneity in slurry incubations with the more natural conditions in jar and whole-core incubations. The bag material is a transparent laminated plastic comprised of Nylon, ethylenevinyl alcohol, and polyethylene with a low permeability...... for the studied gases: O-2, CO2, H2S, CH4, N-2, H-2, and He. Estimated fluxes of biologically active gases through the plastic bag during sediment incubation were insignificant compared to rates of microbial processes and to gas concentrations in coastal sediments. An exception was CH4, for which process...

  20. Temperature variations within and between incubators-a prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Meredith W; Butler, Julia M; Higdon, H Lee; Boone, William R

    2013-12-01

    To determine if there is a temperature variation within and between incubators. This prospective, experimental trial with external controls was performed at an Assisted Reproductive Technology laboratory in a tertiary-care, university hospital. Temperature values were taken at various locations within and between incubators. Even though they were both set to 37.0 °C, the same make and model incubators had significantly different internal temperatures. Temperatures differed significantly among top, middle and bottom shelves and between fronts and backs of shelves. We found temperatures differed within and between our front-loading incubators. Thus, laboratory personnel should evaluate their incubators for temperature variations within and between incubators and, if temperatures differ significantly, develop a plan to deal with discrepancies.

  1. The Incubator Concept as an Entry Mode option for SME’s

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Marie Dyhr Ulrich; Svend Hollensen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the relevance of an alternative entry mode, the incubator concept. Such an alternative entry mode like the so-called incubator is increasingly being used as a shortcut or bridge to a distant market. In-depth qualitative research on a selected case (Kelsen Group selling butter cookies to India) reveals the reasoning behind the entry mode choice of a company entering an emergent market (India). The incubator option provides the opportunity for a company...

  2. Survival and Growth of American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) hatchlings after artificial incubation and repatriation

    OpenAIRE

    Temsiripong, Yosapong; Woodward, Allan R.; Ross, J. Perran; Kubilis, Paul S.; Percival, H. Franklin

    2006-01-01

    Hatchling American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) produced from artificially incubated wild eggs were returned to their natal areas (repatriated). We compared artificially incubated and repatriated hatchlings released within and outside the maternal alligator’s home range with naturally incubated hatchlings captured and released within the maternal alligator’s home range on Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Orange Lake in Florida. We used probability of recapture and total l...

  3. Incubation of Methamphetamine and Palatable Food Craving after Punishment-Induced Abstinence

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnova, Irina N.; Marchant, Nathan J.; Ladenheim, Bruce; McCoy, Michael T.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Shaham, Yavin; Cadet, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    In a rat model of drug craving and relapse, cue-induced drug seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from methamphetamine and other drugs, a phenomenon termed ‘incubation of drug craving'. However, current experimental procedures used to study incubation of drug craving do not incorporate negative consequences of drug use, which is a common factor promoting abstinence in humans. Here, we studied whether incubation of methamphetamine craving is observed after suppression of drug seeki...

  4. Specialized High Schools and Talent Search Programs: Incubators for Adolescents with High Ability in STEM Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarode, John T.; Subotnik, Rena F.; Crowe, Edward; Tai, Robert H.; Lee, Geesoo Maie; Nowlin, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between self-efficacy and maintenance of interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) resulting in completion of an undergraduate degree in a science related area. To pursue this analysis, the researchers surveyed 3,510 graduates from selective specialized science…

  5. A Human Capital Model: Service-Learning in the Micro Business Incubator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplaces, David E.; Steinberg, Margery; Coleman, Susan; Kenworthy-U'Ren, Amy

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a service-learning approach to inner city revitalization that is grounded in a human capital model for economic development. The case study demonstrates how a private university became the catalyst for growth in an "at risk" neighborhood of an urban inner city. Our ongoing service-learning project, called The Upper…

  6. Small business incubators: An emerging phenomenon in South Africa’s SMME economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukovhe Masutha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa much policy attention is focused on the potential of the small, medium and micro-enterprise (SMME economy for job creation. Nevertheless, despite government support for the SMME economy, high mortality rates are experienced by start-up enterprises. In common with international experience South Africa has adopted business incubation as a strategic tool for assisting the survival as well as building the competitiveness of SMMEs. This article analyses the state of business incubation in South Africa drawing attention to marked differences between the groups of public sector business incubators as opposed to those business incubators which have been initiated by the private sector.

  7. Noise at the neonatal intensive care unit and inside the incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Eliana Moreira; Guinsburg, Ruth; Nabuco, Marco Antonio de Araujo; Kakehashi, Tereza Yoshiko

    2011-01-01

    The goal was to identify sound pressure level (SPL) at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and inside the incubator of a teaching hospital of a public university from São Paulo - SP, Brazil. SPL inside the NICU and the incubator were measured using four dosimeters in January/2010. SPL at the NICU varied from 52.6 dBA to 80.4 dBA and inside the incubator, from 45.4 dBA to 79.1 dBA. SPL both at the NICU and inside the incubator are above the recommended values, but levels were higher at the NICU than inside the incubator. Although there are some specific factors related to SPL inside the incubator, the NICU and incubator acoustic features present a system: an increase/decrease in SPL at the NICU usually tends to increase/decrease SPL inside the incubator. The study points to the need for simultaneous monitoring of SPL at the NICU and inside the incubator.

  8. Knowledge service decision making in business incubators based on the supernetwork model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing

    2017-08-01

    As valuable resources for incubating firms, knowledge resources have received gradually increasing attention from all types of business incubators, and business incubators use a variety of knowledge services to stimulate rapid growth in incubating firms. Based on previous research, we generalize the knowledge transfer and knowledge networking services of two main forms of knowledge services and further divide knowledge transfer services into knowledge depth services and knowledge breadth services. Then, we construct the business incubators' knowledge supernetwork model, describe the evolution mechanism among heterogeneous agents and utilize a simulation to explore the performance variance of different business incubators' knowledge services. The simulation results show that knowledge stock increases faster when business incubators are able to provide knowledge services to more incubating firms and that the degree of discrepancy in the knowledge stock increases during the process of knowledge growth. Further, knowledge transfer services lead to greater differences in the knowledge structure, while knowledge networking services lead to smaller differences. Regarding the two types of knowledge transfer services, knowledge depth services are more conducive to knowledge growth than knowledge breadth services, but knowledge depth services lead to greater gaps in knowledge stocks and greater differences in knowledge structures. Overall, it is optimal for business incubators to select a single knowledge service or portfolio strategy based on the amount of time and energy expended on the two types of knowledge services.

  9. SOCIAL ECONOMY INCUBATORS IN SFÂNTU GHEORGHE (CV, BACĂU AND CRAIOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polixenia Calagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the strategy that served as the foundation of Social Economy Incubators within the ”Social Economy Model in Romania” project, in three development regions of the country. The article presents the role and the functioning mechanism of the Social Economy incubators and also the activity carried out by the staff employed by these three Social Economy Incubators. The three Social Economy incubators were set up in partnership with the Public Local Authorities from Sfântu Gheorghe (Center Development Region, Bacău (North-East Development Region and Craiova (South-West Oltenia Development Region.

  10. Impact of incubator type on the yield of in vitro produced bovine blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, B; Greve, T

    1992-01-01

    Because of suboptimal in vitro production of bovine blastocysts a new incubator model (Mini) was tested against the traditional (Heraeus). The difference between their properties seemed only to be the volume of the incubator space. No difference was noted between the CO2 or the temperature, but the data clearly showed a highly significant increase of the blastocyst rates, 6% versus 51% in the Heraeus and the Mini incubator, respectively, calculated as blastocysts per cleaved embryos. It was concluded that the incubator type or model may be a very important part of the in vitro production of bovine embryos, although we were not able to pin point specific causes for this difference.

  11. Recent updates on incubation of drug craving: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Caprioli, Daniele; Marchant, Nathan J

    2015-09-01

    Cue-induced drug craving progressively increases after prolonged withdrawal from drug self-administration in laboratory animals, a behavioral phenomenon termed 'incubation of drug craving.' Studies over the years have revealed several important neural mechanisms contributing to incubation of drug craving. In this mini-review, we first discuss three excellent Addiction Biology publications on incubation of drug craving in both human and laboratory animals. We then review several key publications from the past year on behavioral and mechanistic findings related to incubation of drug craving. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Laboratory Instrumentation: An Exploration of the Impact of Instrumentation on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Don L.; Brown, Eric C.; Shadle, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Academic programs generally work to make their laboratory curriculum both as instrumentation rich and up to date as possible. However, little is known about the relationship between the use of instrumentation in the curriculum and student learning. As part of our department's ongoing assessment efforts, a project was designed to probe this…

  13. Policy Instruments towards a Sustainable Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Forsfält

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste management system but the results should be relevant also for other countries. Through the assessments and lessons learned during the research program we conclude that several policy instruments can be effective and possible to implement. Particularly, we put forward the following policy instruments: “Information”; “Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials”; “Weight-based waste fee in combination with information and developed recycling systems”; “Mandatory labeling of products containing hazardous chemicals”, “Advertisements on request only and other waste minimization measures”; and “Differentiated VAT and subsidies for some services”. Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials is the policy instrument that has the largest potential for decreasing the environmental impacts with the configurations studied here. The effects of the other policy instruments studied may be more limited and they typically need to be implemented in combination in order to have more significant impacts. Furthermore, policy makers need to take into account market and international aspects when implementing new instruments. In the more long term perspective, the above set of policy instruments may also need to be complemented with more transformational policy instruments that can significantly decrease the generation of waste.

  14. Microbiological evaluation of the steam sterilization of assembled laparoscopic instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Carolina de Camargo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: assess the safety of steam sterilization of assembled laparoscopic instruments with challenge contamination. Method: a laboratory experimental study, using as test samples trocars and laparoscopic graspers. Geobacillus stearothermophillus ATCC-7953 was used, with a microbial population of 106UFC/Filter paper substrate, removed from the biological indicator. Three of them were introduced into each instrument at the time of assembly, and sterilized at pressurized saturated steam, 134oC for 5 minutes. After sterilization, the instrument was disassembled and each filter paper substrate was inoculated in soybean casein culture and incubated at 56oC for 21 days. In case of absence of growth, they were subjected to heat shock of 80oC, for 20 minutes and re-incubated for 72 hours. Sample size: 185 graspers and 185 trocars, with 95% power. We paired the experiments with comparative negative control groups (5 graspers and 5 trocars with challenge contamination, sterilized disassembled and positive control (30 filter paper supports, unsterilized, subject to the same incubation procedures. Results: there was no microbial growth in experimental and negative control. The results of the positive control were satisfactory. Conclusion: this study provided strong scientific evidence to support the safety of steam sterilizing of the assembled laparoscopic instrument.

  15. The Business Engineering Surgical Technologies (BEST) teaching method: incubating talents for surgical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, V; Halvax, P; Dallemagne, B; Swanström, L; Marescaux, J; Perretta, S

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation in surgical science and healthcare is vital and calls for close collaboration between engineering and surgery. To meet this objective, BEST was designed as a free sustainable innovative teaching method for young professionals, combining surgery, engineering, and business in a multidisciplinary, high-quality, low-cost, and learning-by-doing philosophy. This paper reviews the initial outcomes of the program and discusses lessons learned and future directions of this innovative educational method. BEST educational method is delivered in two parts: the first component consisting of live streaming or pre-recorded online lectures, with an interdisciplinary profile focused on surgery, engineering, and business. The second component is an annual 5-day on-site course, organized at IRCAD-IHU, France. The program includes workshops in engineering, entrepreneurship team projects, and in-depth hands-on experience in laparoscopy, robotic surgery, interventional radiology, and flexible endoscopy with special emphasis on the interdisciplinary aspect of the training. A panel of surgeons, engineers, well-established entrepreneurs, and scientists assessed the team projects for potential patent application. From November 2011 till September 2013, 803 individual and institutional users from 79 different countries attended the online course. In total, 134 young professionals from 32 different countries applied to the onsite course. Sixty participants were selected each year for the onsite course. In addition, five participants were selected for a web-based team. Thirteen provisional patents were filed for the most promising projects. BEST proved to be a global talent incubator connecting students to high-quality education despite institutional and economical boundaries. Viable and innovative ideas arose from this revolutionary approach which is likely to spin-off significant technology transfer and lead the way for future interdisciplinary hybrid surgical

  16. Gender and Instrument Associations, Stereotypes, and Stratification: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wych, Gina M. F.

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines and synthesizes 30 years of research into the relationship between gender and musical instruments. Specifically, the review focuses on how this relationship affects instrument selection by grade school students entering a school music program. Topics include the gender typing of musical instruments, instrument…

  17. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future November-December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  18. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future November-December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  19. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Searby, Nancy D

    2004-03-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  20. [Effects of incubation temperature and substrate humidity on embryonic development of Mauremys mutica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Hong; Zhu, Xin-Ping; Zhao, Wei-Hua; Wei, Cheng-Qing; Chen, Yong-Le

    2010-01-01

    Yellow pond turtle (Mauremys mutica) eggs were incubated in vermiculite under nine combinations of temperature and humidity, i. e., 25 degrees C and -12 kPa, 29 degrees C and -12 kPa, 33 degrees C and -12 kPa, 25 degrees C and -150 kPa, 29 degrees C and -150 kPa, 33 degrees C and -150 kPa, 25 degrees C and -300 kPa, 29 degrees C and -300 kPa, and 33 degrees C and -300 kPa, aimed to study the effects of incubation temperature and its interaction with substrate humidity on the embryonic development of M. mutica. The initial egg mass, incubation temperature, substrate humidity, and the interaction of incubation temperature and substrate humidity had significant effects on the mass increment of egg in the course of hatching. At the same temperature, eggs incubated in wetter substrates (-12 kPa) gained more mass than those incubated in drier substrates (-150 kPa and -300 kPa). Incubation temperature affected hatching period significantly, while substrate humidity and its interaction with temperature did not. Both incubation temperature and substrate humidity affected hatching success and shell crack rate significantly. Abnormal hatchlings were found when incubated at 25 degrees C and 33 degrees C, but not at 29 degrees C. Incubation temperature had significant effects on the hatchling mass, carapace length and width, plastron length and width, body height, and tail length; while substrate humidity only affected hatchlings plastron length. The interaction of incubation temperature and substrate humidity did not affect the morphology of hatchlings.

  1. A meta-analysis of experiments linking incubation conditions with subsequent leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Groves

    Full Text Available A series of incubation and broiler growth studies were conducted using one strain of broiler chicken (fast feathering dam line observing incubation effects on femoral bone ash % at hatch and the ability of the bird to remain standing at 6 weeks of age (Latency-To-Lie. Egg shell temperatures during incubation were consistently recorded. Parsimonious models were developed across eight studies using stepwise multiple linear regression of egg shell temperatures over 3-day periods and both bone ash at hatch and Latency-To-Lie. A model for bone ash at hatch explained 70% of the variation in this factor and revealed an association with lower egg shell temperatures during days 4-6 and 13-15 and higher egg shell temperatures during days 16-18 of incubation. Bone ash at hatch and subsequent Latency-To-Lie were positively correlated (r = 0.57, P<0.05. A model described 66% of the variation Latency-To-Lie showing significant association of the interaction of femoral ash at hatch and lower average egg shell temperatures over the first 15 days of incubation. Lower egg shell temperature in the early to mid incubation process (days 1-15 and higher egg shell temperatures at a later stage (days 16-18 will both tend to delay the hatch time of incubating eggs. Incubation profiles that resulted in later hatching chicks produced birds which could remain standing for a longer time at 6 weeks of age. This supports a contention that the effects of incubation observed in many studies may in fact relate more to earlier hatching and longer sojourn of the hatched chick in the final stage incubator. The implication of these outcomes are that the optimum egg shell temperature during incubation for broiler leg strength development may be lower than that regarded as ideal (37.8°C for maximum hatchability and chick growth.

  2. A meta-analysis of experiments linking incubation conditions with subsequent leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Peter J; Muir, Wendy I

    2014-01-01

    A series of incubation and broiler growth studies were conducted using one strain of broiler chicken (fast feathering dam line) observing incubation effects on femoral bone ash % at hatch and the ability of the bird to remain standing at 6 weeks of age (Latency-To-Lie). Egg shell temperatures during incubation were consistently recorded. Parsimonious models were developed across eight studies using stepwise multiple linear regression of egg shell temperatures over 3-day periods and both bone ash at hatch and Latency-To-Lie. A model for bone ash at hatch explained 70% of the variation in this factor and revealed an association with lower egg shell temperatures during days 4-6 and 13-15 and higher egg shell temperatures during days 16-18 of incubation. Bone ash at hatch and subsequent Latency-To-Lie were positively correlated (r = 0.57, Pmodel described 66% of the variation Latency-To-Lie showing significant association of the interaction of femoral ash at hatch and lower average egg shell temperatures over the first 15 days of incubation. Lower egg shell temperature in the early to mid incubation process (days 1-15) and higher egg shell temperatures at a later stage (days 16-18) will both tend to delay the hatch time of incubating eggs. Incubation profiles that resulted in later hatching chicks produced birds which could remain standing for a longer time at 6 weeks of age. This supports a contention that the effects of incubation observed in many studies may in fact relate more to earlier hatching and longer sojourn of the hatched chick in the final stage incubator. The implication of these outcomes are that the optimum egg shell temperature during incubation for broiler leg strength development may be lower than that regarded as ideal (37.8°C) for maximum hatchability and chick growth.

  3. Patterns of GPS tracks suggest nocturnal foraging by incubating Peruvian pelicans (Pelecanus thagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B Zavalaga

    Full Text Available Most seabirds are diurnal foragers, but some species may also feed at night. In Peruvian pelicans (Pelecanus thagus, the evidence for nocturnal foraging is sparse and anecdotal. We used GPS-dataloggers on five incubating Peruvian pelicans from Isla Lobos de Tierra, Perú, to examine their nocturnality, foraging movements and activities patterns at sea. All instrumented pelicans undertook nocturnal trips during a 5-7 day tracking period. Eighty-seven percent of these trips (n = 13 were strictly nocturnal, whereas the remaining occurred during the day and night. Most birds departed from the island after sunset and returned a few hours after sunrise. Birds traveled south of the island for single-day trips at a maximum range of 82.8 km. Overall, 22% of the tracking period was spent at sea, whereas the remaining time was spent on the island. In the intermediate section of the trip (between inbound and outbound commutes, birds spent 77% of the trip time in floating bouts interspersed by short flying bouts, the former being on average three times longer than the latter. Taken together, the high sinuosity of the bird's tracks during floating bouts, the exclusively nocturnal trips of most individuals, and the fact that all birds returned to the island within a few hours after sunrise suggest that pelicans were actively feeding at night. The nocturnal foraging strategy of Peruvian pelicans may reduce food competition with the sympatric and strictly diurnal Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, Peruvian boobies (Sula variegata and Blue-footed boobies (S. nebouxii, which were present on the island in large numbers. Likewise, plankton bioluminescence might be used by pelicans as indirect cues to locate anchovies during their upward migration at night. The foraging success of pelicans at night may be enhanced by seizing prey close to the sea surface using a sit-and-wait strategy.

  4. Performance instrumentation for the Intel IPSC/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, D.C. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This book describes an instrumentation system that can accurately record the occurrence of parallel program events during execution and later use the event traces to aid in program evaluation. The trust of the system involves the presentation of event traces visually through a number of graphic tools. Visual presentation of the data is included. Additional tools which compile summary statistics to provide a global view of program performance are discussed.

  5. A Study of Business Incubators: Models, Best Practices, and Recommendations for NASA and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide NASA-Kennedy Space Center with information and recommendations to support establishing one or more technology-based business incubators In Florida. The study involved assembling information about incubators: why they succeed, why they fail, how they are organized, and what services they provide. Consequently, this study focuses on widely-recognized "best practices," needed to establish successful technology- based business incubators. The findings are used to optimize the design and implementation of one or more technology-based business incubators to be established in Florida. Recommendations reflect both the essential characteristics of successful incubators and the optimal business demographics in Florida. Appendix A provides a fuller description of the objectives of the study. Technology-based business incubators are an increasing catalyst of new business development across the USi Incubators focus on providing entrepreneurs and small start-up firms with a wide array of support services necessary to bring forth new products and processes based on technologies developed in the nation's federal and private laboratories and universities. Appendix B provides extensive discussion of findings relative to technology- based business incubators.

  6. Comparison of five incubation systems for rat liver slices using functional and viability parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olinga, P; Groen, K; Hof, IH; DeKanter, R; Leeman, WR; Rutten, AAJJL; VanTwillert, K; Groothuis, GMM; Koster, H

    1997-01-01

    Precision-cut liver slices are presently used for various research objects, e.g. to study metabolism, transport, and toxicity of xenobiotics. Various incubation systems are presently employed, but a systematic comparison between these incubation systems with respect to preservation of slice function

  7. Avian incubation inhibits growth and diversification of bacterial assemblages on eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawkey, Matthew D; Firestone, Mary K; Brodie, Eoin L; Beissinger, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Microbial infection is a critical source of mortality for early life stages of oviparous vertebrates, but parental defenses against infection are less well known. Avian incubation has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of trans-shell infection by limiting microbial growth of pathogenic bacteria on eggshells, while enhancing growth of commensal or beneficial bacteria that inhibit or competitively exclude pathogens. We tested this hypothesis by comparing bacterial assemblages on naturally incubated and experimentally unincubated eggs at laying and late incubation using a universal 16S rRNA microarray containing probes for over 8000 bacterial taxa. Before treatment, bacterial assemblages on individual eggs from both treatment groups were dissimilar to one another, as measured by clustering in non-metric dimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination space. After treatment, assemblages of unincubated eggs were similar to one another, but those of incubated eggs were not. Furthermore, assemblages of unincubated eggs were characterized by high abundance of six indicator species while incubated eggs had no indicator species. Bacterial taxon richness remained static on incubated eggs, but increased significantly on unincubated eggs, especially in several families of Gram-negative bacteria. The relative abundance of individual bacterial taxa did not change on incubated eggs, but that of 82 bacterial taxa, including some known to infect the interior of eggs, increased on unincubated eggs. Thus, incubation inhibits all of the relatively few bacteria that grow on eggshells, and does not appear to promote growth of any bacteria.

  8. Are they really helping? : an assessment of evolving business incubators'value proposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruneel, Johan; Ratinho, Tiago; Clarysse, Bart; Groen, Arend J.

    2010-01-01

    Most studies about business incubation describe an array of available services but often fail to present the tenants’ assessment quality. We set out to investigate if business incubators differ in terms of their value proposition. To do so, we identify three distinct generations of business

  9. Microbial infection affects egg viability and incubation behavior in a tropical passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark I. Cook; Steven R. Beissinger; Gary A. Toranzos; Roberto A. Arendt Rodriguez

    2004-01-01

    Many avian species initiate incubation before clutch completion, which causes eggs to hatch asynchronously. This influences brood competitive dynamics and often results in nestling mortality. The prevailing hypotheses contend that parents incubate early because asynchronous hatching provides fitness benefits to parents or surviving offspring. An alternative idea is...

  10. Avian incubation inhibits growth and diversification of bacterial assemblages on eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Shawkey

    Full Text Available Microbial infection is a critical source of mortality for early life stages of oviparous vertebrates, but parental defenses against infection are less well known. Avian incubation has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of trans-shell infection by limiting microbial growth of pathogenic bacteria on eggshells, while enhancing growth of commensal or beneficial bacteria that inhibit or competitively exclude pathogens. We tested this hypothesis by comparing bacterial assemblages on naturally incubated and experimentally unincubated eggs at laying and late incubation using a universal 16S rRNA microarray containing probes for over 8000 bacterial taxa. Before treatment, bacterial assemblages on individual eggs from both treatment groups were dissimilar to one another, as measured by clustering in non-metric dimensional scaling (NMDS ordination space. After treatment, assemblages of unincubated eggs were similar to one another, but those of incubated eggs were not. Furthermore, assemblages of unincubated eggs were characterized by high abundance of six indicator species while incubated eggs had no indicator species. Bacterial taxon richness remained static on incubated eggs, but increased significantly on unincubated eggs, especially in several families of Gram-negative bacteria. The relative abundance of individual bacterial taxa did not change on incubated eggs, but that of 82 bacterial taxa, including some known to infect the interior of eggs, increased on unincubated eggs. Thus, incubation inhibits all of the relatively few bacteria that grow on eggshells, and does not appear to promote growth of any bacteria.

  11. Comparison of five incubation systems for rat liver slices using functional and viability parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olinga, P; Groen, K; Hof, IH; DeKanter, R; Leeman, WR; Rutten, AAJJL; VanTwillert, K; Groothuis, GMM; Koster, H

    1997-01-01

    Precision-cut liver slices are presently used for various research objects, e.g. to study metabolism, transport, and toxicity of xenobiotics. Various incubation systems are presently employed, but a systematic comparison between these incubation systems with respect to preservation of slice function

  12. Incubation in the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris : Resolution of the Conflict between Egg Care and Foraging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, R.H.; Tinbergen, J.M.; Biebach, H.

    1985-01-01

    Complementary studies on Starlings nesting on the Frisian island Schiermonnikoog included estimation of total energy expenditure of the parent birds, evaluation of the cost of incubation, experiments on the effect of manipulated nest temperature on incubation rhythm, and observation of prey intake r

  13. Automatic Incubator-type Temperature Control System for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    An automatic air-cooling incubator is proposed to replace the manual water-cooling blanket to control the brain tissue temperature for brain hypothermia treatment. Its feasibility is theoretically discussed as follows: First, an adult patient with the cooling incubator is modeled as a linear dynamical patient-incubator biothermal system. The patient is represented by an 18-compartment structure and described by its state equations. The air-cooling incubator provides almost same cooling effect as the water-cooling blanket, if a light breeze of speed around 3 m/s is circulated in the incubator. Then, in order to control the brain temperature automatically, an adaptive-optimal control algorithm is adopted, while the patient-blanket therapeutic system is considered as a reference model. Finally, the brain temperature of the patient-incubator biothermal system is controlled to follow up the given reference temperature course, in which an adaptive algorithm is confirmed useful for unknown environmental change and/or metabolic rate change of the patient in the incubating system. Thus, the present work ensures the development of the automatic air-cooling incubator for a better temperature regulation of the brain hypothermia treatment in ICU.

  14. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  15. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  16. Aircrew Screening Instruments Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    available tools . Several vendors indicated that they will have new selection instruments available within a few months. These are not listed. As noted...AFCAPS-FR-2011-0012 AIRCREW SCREENING INSTRUMENTS REVIEW Diane L. Damos Damos Aviation Services, Inc...June 2007 – August 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aircrew Screening Instruments Review 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA3089-06-F-0385 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  17. Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havskov, Jens; Alguacil, Gerardo

    Here is unique and comprehensive coverage of modern seismic instrumentation, based on the authors' practical experience of a quarter-century in seismology and geophysics. Their goal is to provide not only detailed information on the basics of seismic instruments but also to survey equipment on the market, blending this with only the amount of theory needed to understand the basic principles. Seismologists and technicians working with seismological instruments will find here the answers to their practical problems.

  18. Assessment and Certification of Neonatal Incubator Sensors through an Inferential Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Medeiros de Araújo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurement and diagnostic systems based on electronic sensors have been increasingly essential in the standardization of hospital equipment. The technical standard IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission 60601-2-19 establishes requirements for neonatal incubators and specifies the calibration procedure and validation tests for such devices using sensors systems. This paper proposes a new procedure based on an inferential neural network to evaluate and calibrate a neonatal incubator. The proposal presents significant advantages over the standard calibration process, i.e., the number of sensors is drastically reduced, and it runs with the incubator under operation. Since the sensors used in the new calibration process are already installed in the commercial incubator, no additional hardware is necessary; and the calibration necessity can be diagnosed in real time without the presence of technical professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Experimental tests involving the aforementioned calibration system are carried out in a commercial incubator in order to validate the proposal.

  19. Comparison of medium, temperature, and length of incubation for detection of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang D Hua; Evans, Kaye D; Goh, Rosalinda A; Tan, Grace L; Peterson, Ellena M

    2012-07-01

    Campylobacter (Campy; BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD), Spectra VRE (Remel, Lenexa, KS), and bile-esculin-azide-vancomycin (BEAV; Remel) agars were compared for their ability to detect vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in 750 stool specimens. The media were compared at 24 h and 48 h of incubation at 35°C and 42°C. When incubated for 24 h at 35°C, Campy was the most sensitive (97.8%) and specific (99.9%) but was comparable to Spectra, which has a sensitivity of 95.6% and a specificity of 99.1%, whereas BEAV was significantly less sensitive (90%) and specific (96.1%). Incubation at 42°C or extended incubation at 35°C for 48 h yielded no advantage over incubation at 35°C for 24 h.

  20. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  1. Assessment and certification of neonatal incubator sensors through an inferential neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, José Medeiros; de Menezes, José Maria Pires; Moura de Albuquerque, Alberto Alexandre; da Mota Almeida, Otacílio; Ugulino de Araújo, Fábio Meneghetti

    2013-11-15

    Measurement and diagnostic systems based on electronic sensors have been increasingly essential in the standardization of hospital equipment. The technical standard IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) 60601-2-19 establishes requirements for neonatal incubators and specifies the calibration procedure and validation tests for such devices using sensors systems. This paper proposes a new procedure based on an inferential neural network to evaluate and calibrate a neonatal incubator. The proposal presents significant advantages over the standard calibration process, i.e., the number of sensors is drastically reduced, and it runs with the incubator under operation. Since the sensors used in the new calibration process are already installed in the commercial incubator, no additional hardware is necessary; and the calibration necessity can be diagnosed in real time without the presence of technical professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Experimental tests involving the aforementioned calibration system are carried out in a commercial incubator in order to validate the proposal.

  2. Gas exchange and hatchability of chicken eggs incubated at simulated high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschedijk, A H

    1985-02-01

    Chicken eggs laid at sea level were incubated at sea level (control conditions), at a simulated altitude of 5.5 km without any further measures (natural conditions), and at a simulated altitude of 5.7 km at optimal incubator gas composition (optimal conditions). Under optimal conditions the incubator relative humidity was 70% throughout incubation, the gas mixture supplied to the incubator contained 45% O2-55% N2, and the ventilation rate was reduced to 6% of control in order to maintain the normal air-space gas tensions and to compensate for the increased eggshell conductance at altitude. The embryos that developed under control conditions showed a normal CO2 production with 94% hatchability of fertile eggs. Under natural conditions at altitude all embryos died within a few days. Optimal conditions resulted in an almost normal gas exchange and in an improvement of hatchability from 0 to 81% of fertile eggs.

  3. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  4. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  5. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  6. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  7. Cyclic variations in incubation conditions induce adaptive responses to later heat exposure in chickens: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, T; Bedrani, L; Berri, C; Métayer-Coustard, S; Praud, C; Coustham, V; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Duclos, M J; Tesseraud, S; Rideau, N; Hennequet-Antier, C; Everaert, N; Yahav, S; Collin, A

    2015-01-01

    Selection programs have enabled broiler chickens to gain muscle mass without similar enlargement of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems that are essential for thermoregulatory efficiency. Meat-type chickens cope with high ambient temperature by reducing feed intake and growth during chronic and moderate heat exposure. In case of acute heat exposure, a dramatic increase in morbidity and mortality can occur. In order to alleviate heat stress in the long term, research has recently focused on early thermal manipulation. Aimed at stimulation of long-term thermotolerance, the thermal manipulation of embryos is a method based on fine tuning of incubation conditions, taking into account the level and duration of increases in temperature and relative humidity during a critical period of embryogenesis. The consequences of thermal manipulation on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens have been explored to ensure the potential application of this strategy. The physiological basis of the method is the induction of epigenetic and metabolic mechanisms that control body temperature in the long term. Early thermal manipulation can enhance poultry resistance to environmental changes without much effect on growth performance. This review presents the main strategies of early heat exposure and the physiological concepts on which these methods were based. The cellular mechanisms potentially underlying the adaptive response are discussed as well as the potential interest of thermal manipulation of embryos for poultry production.

  8. Effects of Total Dissolved Gas on Chum Salmon Fry Incubating in the Lower Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Panther, Jenny; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Dawley, Earl M.; Elston, Ralph A.

    2008-01-30

    This report describes research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 2007 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to characterize the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) on the incubating fry of chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) in the lower Columbia River. The tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of three objectives are summarized: * to conduct a field monitoring program at the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites, collecting empirical data on TDG to obtain a more thorough understanding of TDG levels during different river stage scenarios (i.e., high-water year versus low-water year) * to conduct laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry at gas levels likely to occur downstream from Bonneville Dam * to sample chum salmon sac fry during Bonneville Dam spill operations to determine if there is a physiological response to TDG levels. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the study methdology and results are provided in Appendixes A through D.

  9. TEDI: the TripleSpec Exoplanet Discovery Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Edelstein, Jerry; Erskine, David J; Feuerstein, W Michael; Marckwordt, Mario; Wishnow, Ed; Lloyd, James P; Herter, Terry; Muirhead, Phillip; Gull, George E; Henderson, Charles; Parshley, Stephen C

    2007-01-01

    The TEDI (TripleSpec - Exoplanet Discovery Instrument) will be the first instrument fielded specifically for finding low-mass stellar companions. The instrument is a near infra-red interferometric spectrometer used as a radial velocimeter. TEDI joins Externally Dispersed Interferometery (EDI) with an efficient, medium-resolution, near IR (0.9 - 2.4 micron) echelle spectrometer, TripleSpec, at the Palomar 200" telescope. We describe the instrument and its radial velocimetry demonstration program to observe cool stars.

  10. The SeaWinds Scatterometer Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.; Graf, J.; Freilich, M.; Long, D.; Spencer, M.; Tsai, W.; Lisman, D.; Winn, C.

    1994-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer instrument is currently being developed by NASA/JPL, as part of the NASA EOS Program, for flight on the Hapanese ADEOS II mission in 1999. This Ku-band radar scatterometer will infer surface wind speed and direction by measuring the radar normalized backscatter cross-section over several different azimuth angles. This paper presents the design characteristics of and operational approach to the instrument itself.

  11. The effects of heterospecifics and climatic conditions on incubation behavior within a mixed-species colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Hothem, Roger L.; Howe, Kristy H.; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Parental incubation behavior largely influences nest survival, a critical demographic process in avian population dynamics, and behaviors vary across species with different life history breeding strategies. Although research has identified nest survival advantages of mixing colonies, behavioral mechanisms that might explain these effects is largely lacking. We examined parental incubation behavior using video-monitoring techniques on Alcatraz Island, California, of black-crowned night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax(hereinafter, night-heron) in a mixed-species colony with California gulls Larus californicus and western gulls L. occidentalis. We first quantified general nesting behaviors (i.e. incubation constancy, and nest attendance), and a suite of specific nesting behaviors (i.e. inactivity, vigilance, preening, and nest maintenance) with respect to six different daily time periods. We employed linear mixed effects models to investigate environmental and temporal factors as sources of variation in incubation constancy and nest attendance using 211 nest days across three nesting seasons (2010–2012). We found incubation constancy (percent of time on the eggs) and nest attendance (percent of time at the nest) were lower for nests that were located < 3 m from one or more gull nest, which indirectly supports the predator protection hypothesis, whereby heterospecifics provide protection allowing more time for foraging and other self-maintenance activities. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evidence of the influence of one nesting species on the incubation behavior of another. We also identified distinct differences between incubation constancy and nest attentiveness, indicating that these biparental incubating species do not share similar energetic constraints as those that are observed for uniparental species. Additionally, we found that variation in incubation behavior was a function of temperature and precipitation, where the strength of these effects

  12. Microcomputers: Instrument Generation Software. Evaluation Guides. Guide Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter J.

    Designed to assist evaluators in selecting the appropriate software for the generation of various data collection instruments, this guide discusses such key program characteristics as text entry, item storage and manipulation, item retrieval, and printing. Some characteristics of a good instrument generation program are discussed; these include…

  13. The Berkeley SETI program - SERENDIP IV instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthimer, Dan; Bowyer, Stuart; Ng, David; Donnelly, Charles; Cobb, Jeff; Lampton, Michael; Airieau, Sabine

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the hardware design of SERENDIP IV, which will be deployed in early 1997 for a 21-cm sky survey at the National Astronomy and Ionospheric Center's 305-m radio telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. SERENDIP IV is a 167 million channel spectrum analyzer, covering a 100-Mhz bandwidth, with 0.6-Hz resolution and a 1.7-s integration time. SERENDIP IV's modular design incorporates a bank of digital mixers and filters to separate the 100 MHz band into 40 2.5 MHz subbands. Each 2.5 MHz subband is further broken down into 0.6 Hz bins by means of a four million point fast Fourier transform. The resulting power spectra are analyzed by 40 high-speed processors. Narrowband signals having power significantly above background noise levels are recorded along with telescope coordinates, time, and frequency. The data are sent in real time to Berkeley for analysis.

  14. ARO Research Instrumentation Program - IR Spectrometer Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Transport in Mesoporous Semiconducting Thin Film Electrodes”, Argonne National Laboratory 24th Annual Undergraduate Symposium, 7 November, 2014... hysteresis that involves a system of associated cations and anions that cannot move in time with the imposed waveform. We believe this to be an...cycle (■). Data indicate hysteresis in that the anion concentration at the electrode appears to increase as cycles are repeated. This is

  15. Instrumentation Design and Development Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTTC has facilities for design, development and fabrication of: custominstrumentation, mobile instrumentation, miniaturized instrumentation, wirelessinstrumentation,...

  16. BAA instrument no. 93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Instrument no. 93 has been in almost continual use for more than a hundred years. Since it left the workshop of its maker, George Calver, it has kept company with several other notable instruments and has been used by many eminent astronomers. It was added to the Association's collection in 1945.

  17. Instrumentation in endourology

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Rakesh; Monga,Manoj

    2011-01-01

    Success with endourological procedures requires expertise and instrumentation. This review focuses on the instrumentation required for ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and provides a critical assessment of in vitro and clinical studies that have evaluated the comparative effectiveness of these medical devices.

  18. Financial instrument pricing using C++

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, Daniel J

    2004-01-01

    One of the best languages for the development of financial engineering and instrument pricing applications is C++. This book has several features that allow developers to write robust, flexible and extensible software systems. The book is an ANSI/ISO standard, fully object-oriented and interfaces with many third-party applications. It has support for templates and generic programming, massive reusability using templates (?write once?) and support for legacy C applications. In this book, author Daniel J. Duffy brings C++ to the next level by applying it to the design and implementation of class

  19. Factors affecting incubation patterns and sex roles of black oystercatchers in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Caleb S.; Haig, Susan M.; Goldstein, Michael I.; Huso, Manuela M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of human disturbance on avian parental behavior and reproductive success are fundamental to bird conservation. However, many such studies fail to also consider the influence of natural threats, a variable environment, and parental roles. Our work examines interactive relationships of cyclical (time of day, tide, temperature, seasonality) and stochastic (natural/human disturbance) processes with incubation patterns (attendance, bout lengths, recess rates) of the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), a shorebird of conservation concern. We used 24-hour-per-day video monitoring of 13 molecularly-sexed breeding pairs to systematically examine incubation, revealing previously undocumented information that may inform conservation practices for the genus. Seven of 22 video-monitored nests failed, primarily from egg depredation by nocturnally-active mammals. Analyses of 3177 hrs of video footage indicated a near doubling of incubation bout lengths at night, corresponding to the increased risk of nighttime egg predation. Females had higher overall nest attendance (54% vs. 42%) and longer mean incubation bout lengths than males (88 min vs. 73 min). Uninterrupted incubation bouts were over twice as long as bouts interrupted by disturbance. Incubating males departed nests substantially more frequently due to nest-area disturbances than females in one, but not both, years of our study. Our findings suggest that sexes exhibit different, but complimentary, incubation patterns, facilitating efficient egg care in a dynamic environment with several nest threats. We emphasize the importance of considering natural influences when evaluating human threats to shorebird reproductive behavior and success.

  20. Predator-specific effects on incubation behaviour and offspring growth in great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Basso

    Full Text Available In birds, different types of predators may target adults or offspring differentially and at different times of the reproductive cycle. Hence they may also differentially influence incubation behaviour and thus embryonic development and offspring phenotype. This is poorly understood, and we therefore performed a study to assess the effects of the presence of either a nest predator or a predator targeting adults and offspring after fledging on female incubation behaviour in great tits (Parus major, and the subsequent effects on offspring morphological traits. We manipulated perceived predation risk during incubation using taxidermic models of two predators: the short-tailed weasel posing a risk to incubating females and nestlings, and the sparrowhawk posing a risk to adults and offspring after fledging. To disentangle treatment effects induced during incubation from potential carry-over effects of parental behaviour after hatching, we cross-fostered whole broods from manipulated nests with broods from unmanipulated nests. Both predator treatments lead to a reduced on- and off-bout frequency, to a slower decline in on-bout temperature as incubation advanced and showed a negative effect on nestling body mass gain. At the current state of knowledge on predator-induced variation in incubation patterns alternative hypotheses are feasible, and the findings of this study will be useful for guiding future research.

  1. Predator-specific effects on incubation behaviour and offspring growth in great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Alessandra; Richner, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    In birds, different types of predators may target adults or offspring differentially and at different times of the reproductive cycle. Hence they may also differentially influence incubation behaviour and thus embryonic development and offspring phenotype. This is poorly understood, and we therefore performed a study to assess the effects of the presence of either a nest predator or a predator targeting adults and offspring after fledging on female incubation behaviour in great tits (Parus major), and the subsequent effects on offspring morphological traits. We manipulated perceived predation risk during incubation using taxidermic models of two predators: the short-tailed weasel posing a risk to incubating females and nestlings, and the sparrowhawk posing a risk to adults and offspring after fledging. To disentangle treatment effects induced during incubation from potential carry-over effects of parental behaviour after hatching, we cross-fostered whole broods from manipulated nests with broods from unmanipulated nests. Both predator treatments lead to a reduced on- and off-bout frequency, to a slower decline in on-bout temperature as incubation advanced and showed a negative effect on nestling body mass gain. At the current state of knowledge on predator-induced variation in incubation patterns alternative hypotheses are feasible, and the findings of this study will be useful for guiding future research.

  2. Academic spin-offs incubation strategies: the case of the Andalusian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rafael Cáceres Carrasco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the incubation strategies developed in the universities of Andalusia, a relatively low-income region of Spain, to promote the creation of university spin-offs. These strategies are also compared to the incubation models noted in the literature. The performance of the university spin-offs created and its relation to the incubation strategies developed by the university are also analysed. The analysis is based on data from a survey of nine public universities that carry out strategies for the promotion of university spin-offs. The result of the analysis shows that university spin-off incubation strategies in Andalusia present specific characteristics not covered by certain models that are well-known in the literature on innovation. Then, a new stage in the process of the university spin-off incubation is proposed. We consider it to be a pre-strategic stage to the academic spin-off incubation strategies. The analysis also finds certain environmental factors associated to those spin-offs promoted by Andalusian universities that achieve the highest level of performance. This result suggests that previous to making any decision involving investment into developing incubation strategies, universities should gauge whether they have sufficient resources and the possibilities of connecting with a Technology Park.

  3. The infant incubator in the neonatal intensive care unit: unresolved issues and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Roberto; Porcella, Annalisa; Fanos, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Since the 19th century, devices termed incubators were developed to maintain thermal stability in low birth weight (LBW) and sick newborns, thus improving their chances of survival. Remarkable progress has been made in the production of infant incubators, which are currently highly technological devices. However, they still need to be improved in many aspects. Regarding the temperature and humidity control, future incubators should minimize heat loss from the neonate and eddies around him/her. An unresolved issue is exposure to high noise levels in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Strategies aimed at modifying the behavior of NICU personnel, along with structural improvements in incubator design, are required to reduce noise exposure. Light environment should be taken into consideration in designing new models of incubators. In fact, ambient NICU illumination may cause visual pathway sequelae or possibly retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), while premature exposure to continuous lighting may adversely affect the rest-activity patterns of the newborn. Accordingly, both the use of incubator covers and circadian lighting in the NICU might attenuate these effects. The impact of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on infant health is still unclear. However, future incubators should be designed to minimize the EMF exposure of the newborn.

  4. A study of the effect of humidification on temperature of incubators in the nursery in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T; Hsieh, E; Hwang, B

    1989-07-01

    To test whether it is necessary to humidify incubators in Taiwan, over a one-year-period, 180 sets of simultaneous recordings including room temperature, room humidity, incubator temperature and incubator humidity were collected. Water was randomly added to half of the incubators. Cultures from those and swab cultures from the other half, or the dry humidifiers were presented simultaneously for examination. Results showed that incubator humidities were unaffected by seasonal changes, while room humidities did change with the seasons. Adding water to incubators could raise the humidity to a significantly higher level (mean +/- SD: 60.70 +/- 7.86%) than in those without water (mean +/- SD: 50.30 +/- 6.45% P less than 0.01). Bacterial growth rate of incubators with water was significantly higher (89.09%) than those without water (37.93%, p less than 0.01), but the organisms cultured could not be related to babids' illnesses on clinical and/or laboratory grounds.

  5. Early efforts in modeling the incubation period of infectious diseases with an acute course of illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The incubation period of infectious diseases, the time from infection with a microorganism to onset of disease, is directly relevant to prevention and control. Since explicit models of the incubation period enhance our understanding of the spread of disease, previous classic studies were revisited, focusing on the modeling methods employed and paying particular attention to relatively unknown historical efforts. The earliest study on the incubation period of pandemic influenza was published in 1919, providing estimates of the incubation period of Spanish flu using the daily incidence on ships departing from several ports in Australia. Although the study explicitly dealt with an unknown time of exposure, the assumed periods of exposure, which had an equal probability of infection, were too long, and thus, likely resulted in slight underestimates of the incubation period. After the suggestion that the incubation period follows lognormal distribution, Japanese epidemiologists extended this assumption to estimates of the time of exposure during a point source outbreak. Although the reason why the incubation period of acute infectious diseases tends to reveal a right-skewed distribution has been explored several times, the validity of the lognormal assumption is yet to be fully clarified. At present, various different distributions are assumed, and the lack of validity in assuming lognormal distribution is particularly apparent in the case of slowly progressing diseases. The present paper indicates that (1 analysis using well-defined short periods of exposure with appropriate statistical methods is critical when the exact time of exposure is unknown, and (2 when assuming a specific distribution for the incubation period, comparisons using different distributions are needed in addition to estimations using different datasets, analyses of the determinants of incubation period, and an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.

  6. Effects of short gamete co-incubation in human in vitro fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Yong; Song Cheng; Zhang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally oocytes have been exposed to sperm overnight for 16-20 h.This long period of co-incubation,however,has been shown to create problems with high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS),which may affect embryo viability and cause hardening of the zona pellucida.Recently,several positive and negative effects of reducing the co-incubation time to 90-120 min were reported.The objective of this review was to discuss whether short exposure of oocytes to sperm in vitro might affect the clinical results and several problems arose in short gamete co-incubation.

  7. Incubation time of heterogeneous growth of islands in the mode of incomplete condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2016-11-01

    The incubation time necessary for the growth of surface islands on heterogeneous nucleation centers to begin has been theoretically analyzed depending on the material gas flow and surface temperature. It is shown that, under heterogeneous growth in the mode of incomplete condensation, the incubation time increases with temperature according to the Arrhenius law and is inversely proportional to the flow, irrespective of the mechanism of diffusion transport to islands. The results obtained have been qualitatively compared with the experimental data on the incubation time for three-dimensional GaN islands arising in the initial stage of self-induced growth of GaN nanowires.

  8. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  9. Jones' instrument technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ernest Beachcroft; Kingham, Edward G; Radnai, Rudolf

    1985-01-01

    Jones' Instrument Technology, Volume 5: Automatic Instruments and Measuring Systems deals with general trends in automatic instruments and measuring systems. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the principles of such devices. A brief review of a considerable number of standards is undertaken, with emphasis on the IEC625 Interface System. Other relevant standards are reviewed, including the interface and backplane bus standards. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a short introduction to the principles of automatic measurements, classification of measuring system

  10. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand....

  11. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  12. Manual of Surgical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia Sánchez Sarría

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical instruments are the group of tools used in surgical procedures. They are very expensive and sophisticated. Consequently, a standardized and meticulous care is essential; they should go through the decontamination, cleaning and sterilization process. These instruments are designed in order to provide surgeons with tools that help them to perform a basic surgical procedure; there are multiple variations and the design depends on their function. This paper aims at showing all surgical instruments that can be used in an operating room during surgery and are not generally included in the medical literature.

  13. Biomedical Sensors and Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    The living body is a difficult object to measure: accurate measurements of physiological signals require sensors and instruments capable of high specificity and selectivity that do not interfere with the systems under study. As a result, detailed knowledge of sensor and instrument properties is required to be able to select the "best" sensor from one of the many designed to meet these challenges. From the underlying principles to practical applications, this updated edition of Biomedical Sensors and Instruments provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the various kinds of biome

  14. Information management: The case of companies participating in the programo of business incubation of Universidade Federal de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to point out the information management strategic profile of companies participating in the program of business incubation of Universidade Federal de Goiás (PROINE-UFG. This new alignment of social network aims to promote the competitiveness of micro and small business by approaching them to the knowledge producers that, in the Brazilian case, are the universities. The strategic information aligning model, proposed by Marchand, was used as the theoretical framework. The research took the design of a case study, as it limited to study the UFG incubation program. Nine companies of PROINE-UFG were investigated. The main conclusions are that the PROINE-UFG companies have a tendency of proactivity. Nevertheless the financial and technological resources are scarce to monitor the external environment as demanded by the strategy. They use few information sources and the interaction with the university is still incipient

  15. Direct Susceptibility testing of Urine samples after 6, 9 and 16 hours incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghatian, Khaled; Littauer, Pia; Llado, Minna Fyhn Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: At present, susceptibility testing of infective bacteria from urine samples, according to EUCAST, is interpretation of zones after 16 hours of incubation. Using a semi-automated sample processing, the Kiestra (BD) system, to incubate of the agar plates and digital image processing...... testing on urine samples. Methods: In total 675 consecutive urine samples from out-patients, were inoculated directly, according to our laboratory standard, as 10µL on each part of a bi-plate (oxoid chomogene agar and 5% horse blood-agar) and 10µL on a MH plate for resistance testing, using an Inoqula...... (Kiestra-BD). The plates were photographed at 6, 9 and 16 hours after incubation. As a gold standard, the susceptibility test was performed according to EUCAST, as a secondary susceptibility testing, for colonies identified on the biplates, and read after 16 hours incubation.The disks used (Oxoid, Termo...

  16. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation with human serum from oxidant-challenged individuals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Hoffer; T Machamid; A Tabak; Y Baum; A Tamir; Y Lerman

    2003-02-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals. These two groups were further subdivided either according to age or to smoking habits. The experiments showed that stimulated superoxide production from PMN was inhibited ( < 0.05) by serum from young smokers as compared to that of young nonsmokers, both from the unexposed group. Incubation of PMN with serum from elderly nonsmoking individuals decreased superoxide production as compared to incubation with serum from young nonsmoking individuals, both from the unexposed group. A decrease in superoxide production by incubation with serum of welders as compared to that of unexposed individuals was significant only when the comparison was carried out between the young, non-smoking subgroups. These findings suggest that age, smoking, and exposure to oxidants induce appearance in serum of factors that affect the PMN function.

  17. The design of multi temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junyu; Xu, Peng; Peng, Zitao; Qiang, Haonan; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is only one monitor of the temperature and humidity in an incubator, which may cause inaccurate or unreliable data, and even endanger the life safety of the baby. In order to solve this problem,we designed a multi-point temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubators. The system uses the STC12C5A60S2 microcontrollers as the sender core chip which is connected to four AM2321 temperature and humidity sensors. We select STM32F103ZET6 core development board as the receiving end,cooperating with Zigbee wireless transmitting and receiving module to realize data acquisition and transmission. This design can realize remote real-time observation data on the computer by communicating with PC via Ethernet. Prototype tests show that the system can effectively collect and display the information of temperature and humidity of multiple incubators at the same time and there are four monitors in each incubator.

  18. Mobile Incubation in Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata: Associated Hatching Failure and Artificial Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Awkerman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Waved albatrosses often relocate their eggs during incubation by placing the egg between the tarsi and shuffling forward. This behavior frequently results in eggs becoming lodged between rocks, accounting for at least 10%, and perhaps as much as 80%, of breeding failures. Because albatross populations worldwide are currently threatened, artificial means of augmenting reproductive success may be necessary to mitigate losses caused by anthropogenic effects. We characterize the frequency and extent of egg movement; test several hypotheses related to microhabitat, timing, and incubation location to explain the behavior; and investigate the utility of repositioning lodged eggs in a location in which breeding birds might resume incubation. Egg rescue increased both the likelihood of continued incubation as well as the hatching rate in our experiment, and provides an efficient, low-cost management option for this species.

  19. Effects of caffeine supplementation in post-thaw human semen over different incubation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariz, J R; Hallak, J

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of caffeine supplementation in post-cryopreservation human semen over different incubation periods. After collection by masturbation, 17 semen samples were analysed according to World Health Organization criteria, processed and cryopreserved with TEST-yolk buffer (1 : 1) in liquid nitrogen. After a thawing protocol, samples were incubated with 2 mm of caffeine for 0, 5, 15, 30 or 60 min, followed by analysis of motility and mitochondrial activity using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB). Mean variance analysis was performed, and P caffeine was associated with an increase in sperm motility, particularly 15-min incubation, suggesting that incubation with caffeine can be an important tool in patients with worsening seminal quality undergoing infertility treatment.

  20. Improving turkey poult quality by correcting incubator humidity to match eggshell conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, M; Ar, A

    1987-06-01

    One of the most important factors determining hatchability of avian eggs is their proper water budget during incubation. We show here that water budget changes of turkey eggs effect not only hatchability but also poult quality. In addition to an increase in hatchability of 3.3%, poult quality was increased by 7.3%. This was achieved by sorting eggs into low (less than 18.5), medium (18.5 to 22.0) and high (greater than 22.0) eggshell mass-specific water vapour, conductance categories and incubating them in matching incubation humidities of 21.8, 26.6 and 31.4 Torr, corresponding to relative humidities of 45, 55 and 65% at 37.5 degrees C, respectively. A total diffusive water loss of 11.5% (range 10 to 14%) of the initial egg mass in 25 d of incubation yielded maximal hatchability and poult quality.

  1. Effect of Eggshell Temperature During Incubation on Embryo Development, Hatchability, and Posthatch Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Brand, van den H.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different eggshell temperature (EST) profiles during incubation on embryo mortality, hatchability, and embryo development. Furthermore, chicks from different EST profiles were reared under low and high housing temperatures to investigate subsequent

  2. Ostrich (Struthio camelus) embryonic development from 7 to 42 days of incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Z; Cloete, S W P; Malecki, I A; Brown, C R

    2017-04-01

    1. Hatching success of ostrich eggs is poor (50-60% of fertile eggs). The current study was designed to identify the timing of key stages in the development of the ostrich embryo. 2. Growth of both embryo and wing length during 42 d of incubation was comparable and approximately linear, with a more or less weekly doubling in size up to 35 d of incubation. 3. The embryo eye size increased more rapidly than beak length and reached a maximum of ~16.2 mm by 28 d of incubation, whereas beak length increased continuously until hatching at 42 d. 4. Linear regression equations were derived from morphometric measurements of embryos between 7 and 42 d. 5. Information stemming from these results can be used to estimate the age of dead-in-shell embryos in an attempt to identify timing of incubation problems that potentially result in low hatchability of fertile eggs.

  3. Challenges and opportunities of innovation and incubators as a tool for knowledge-based economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Mubaraki, Hanadi Mubarak; Busler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ... worldwide.Discussed innovation and incubators as a powerful tool for knowledge-based economy from different perspectives using different criteria to measure the key performance indicators of best practices...

  4. Science incubators: synthesis centers and their role in the research ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Allen; Alberts, Susan; Cranston, Karen; Kingsolver, Joel; Lapp, Hilmar; McClain, Craig; Smith, Robin; Vision, Todd; Weintraub, Jory; Wiegmann, Brian

    2013-01-01

    How should funding agencies enable researchers to explore high-risk but potentially high-reward science? One model that appears to work is the NSF-funded synthesis center, an incubator for community-led, innovative science.

  5. Thermo Scientific Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. BNL has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  6. Modeling Self-reported Instrument Data with Gene Expression Programming%运用基因表达式编程的自陈量表数据建模*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱锦昕; 余嘉元

    2013-01-01

      It is often difficult to represent the complex relations among psychological variables with traditional analytical models like regressions. Supposedly, neural networks and support vector regression machine can be used instead. However, the limitation is that these models are recessive. Gene expression programming (GEP) can be used to handle these models with observable variables. At present, most of the data using GEP models are obtained with objective methods. But a lot of the psychological measurement data are obtained from self-report instruments and are affected by many subjective factors. Could these kinds of data be used in GEP models? How large is the modeling error? Is there any advantage in using the GEP modeling as compared with the multivariate linear regression or the polynomial regression modeling? Is the GEP modeling more accurate than neural networks and support vector regression machine modeling? All the above issues would be explored in this paper.   The responses of 400 middle school students were obtained with the Williams creativity assessment packet and the need for cognition scale. A total of 17 students were deleted because of the abnormality in responses and the data from 383 students were retained for modeling. Common method biases had not been found with the Harman’s single-factor test. Five parameters of gene expression programming were optimized with the uniform design. These parameters were head length, gene number, fitness function, chromosome number and mutation probability. There were nine levels for each parameter, each established under different testing conditions respectively. The condition with maximum fitness was obtained through experiments. The GEP program was repeated 10 times under this condition. The accuracy of the models was calculated and the model with the minimum error was found, of which the expression tree was drawn. The models of the relations between need for cognition and creativity personality

  7. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  8. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  9. Using Web2.0 Aspect fro Designing a New Business Incubation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Brojeni, Roozbeh Abbasi

    2008-01-01

    This thesis work has examined and analyzed a new operating model in business incubation era, based on utilizing the second generation of web. The main objective of this survey is developing a model of representing many of business incubation services, by enlarging the network relationships between entrepreneurs (including innovative start-up firms), in order to let them share their own experiences, business knowledge, and abilities, in a mass-collaborative networking system. Business incubati...

  10. Antipredator behaviour of hatchling snakes: effects of incubation temperature and simulated predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger

    1998-09-01

    All animals that are exposed to predators must distinguish dangerous from nondangerous threats and respond correctly. In reptiles, emerging hatchlings are vulnerable to a wide range of predators, particularly if they emerge during daylight. In these experiments I tested the response of pine snake, Pituophis melanoleucus, hatchlings incubated at 22-23, 27-28, or 32-33 degreesC to visual and vibratory stimuli to examine antipredator behaviour. Emerging hatchlings were exposed to one of five conditions: (1) hawk model, (2) white head model with no facial features, (3) white head model with black eyes, (4) a person, or (5) a vibration without a visual stimulus. I tested the null hypotheses of no differences in response as a function of predator type or incubation temperature. Emergence behaviour when undisturbed was affected by incubating temperature, and antipredatory behaviour was affected by both predator type and incubation temperature. Pine snake hatchlings responded more protectively (withdrawal into tunnels) than defensively (striking), responded with less intensity to a vibration compared with visual predator stimuli, and required longer to respond to a head model without eyes than to all other predator types. Given the relatively small size of hatchlings, it is adaptive for them to withdraw into the nest rather than attack a predator. Hatchlings from eggs that were incubated at medium temperatures required less time to emerge from their underground nests when undisturbed, and had stronger protective responses than snakes incubated at other temperatures. These results suggest that hatchlings incubated at medium temperatures are generally less vulnerable to predators than hatchlings incubated at higher or lower temperatures. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  11. A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure in one hour by pressure incubation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Pradip Nahar ### Abstract In this protocol, we describe a unique ELISA method for the detection of an antigen or antibody, in which ELISA steps are carried out by pressure incubation instead of conventional thermal incubation. Pressure-mediated ELISA (PELISA), carried out in 1 h shows more than a 2-fold increase in absorbance value than the control experiment carried out at the same time and temperature without applying pressure. Estimation of analyte by the 1-h PELISA method...

  12. Dysfunction of Murine Dendritic Cells Induced by Incubation with Tumor Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengguang Gao; Xin Hui; Xianghuo He; Dafang Wan; Jianren Gu

    2008-01-01

    In vivo studies showed that dendritic cell (DC) dysfunction occurred in tumor microcnvironment. As tumors were composed of many kinds of cells, the direct effects of tumor cells on immature DCs (imDCs) are needed for further studies in vitro. In the present study, bone marrow-derived imDCs were incubated with lymphoma, hepatoma and menaloma cells in vitro and surface molecules in imDCs were determined by flow cytometry. Then, imDCs incubated with tumor cells or control imDCs were further pulsed with tumor lysates and then incubated with splenocytes to perform mixed lymphocyte reaction. The DC-dependent tumor antigen-specific T cell proliferation,and IL-12 secretion were determined by flow cytometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively.Finally, the DC-dependent tumor-associated antigen-specific CTL was determined by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The results showed that tumor cell-DC incubation down-regulated the surface molecules in imDCs, such as CD80, CD54, CDllb, CD11a and MHC class Ⅱ molecules. The abilities of DC-dependent antigen-specific T cell proliferation and IL-12 secretion were also decreased by tumor cell incubation in vitro. Most importantly, the ability for antigenic-specific CTL priming of DCs was also decreased by incubation with tumor cells. In the present in vitro study demonstrated that the defective abilities of DCs induced by tumor cell co-incubation and the co-incubation system might be useful for future study of tumor-immune cells direct interaction and for drug screen of immune-modulation.

  13. Development of an Instrument Performance Simulation Capability for an Infrared Correlation Radiometer for Troposheric Carbon Monoxide Measurements From Geo

    Science.gov (United States)

    OsowskiNeil, Doreen; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Boldt, John; Edwards, David

    2010-01-01

    We present the progress toward an analytical performance model of a 2.3 micron infrared correlation radiometer (IRCRg) prototype subsystem for a future geostationary space-borne instrument. The prototype is designed specifically to measure carbon monoxide (CO) from geostationary orbit. NASA's Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission, one of the United States Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey missions, specifies the use of infrared correlation radiometry to measure CO in two spectral regions for this mission. GEO-CAPE will use the robust IRCR measurement technique at geostationary orbit, nearly 50 times farther away than the Terra/MOPITT orbit, to determine hourly changes in CO across a continental domain. The abundance of CO in Earth's troposphere directly affects the concentration of hydroxyl, which regulates the lifetimes of many tropospheric pollutants. In addition, CO is a precursor to ozone formation; CO is used as a tracer to study the transport of global and regional pollutants; and CO is used as an indicator of both natural and anthropogenic air pollution sources and sinks. We have structured our development project to enable rapid evaluation of future spaceborne instrument designs. The project is part of NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. We describe the architecture of the performance model and the planned evaluation of the performance model using laboratory test data.

  14. Challenges in marine instrumentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Desa, E.; Joseph, A.; Chakraborty, B.; Nayak, M.R.; Ranade, G.

    . Acoustic and optical instrumentation combined on the same platform would be able to address these problems. For this autonomous vehicles with extremely low power requirements, long term deployment and data transmission capability via satellites after...

  15. UV and EUV Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K

    2010-01-01

    We describe telescopes and instruments that were developed and used for astronomical research in the ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The wavelength ranges covered by these bands are not uniquely defined. We use the following convention here: The EUV and UV span the regions ~100-912 and 912-3000 Angstroem respectively. The limitation between both ranges is a natural choice, because the hydrogen Lyman absorption edge is located at 912 Angstroem. At smaller wavelengths, astronomical sources are strongly absorbed by the interstellar medium. It also marks a technical limit, because telescopes and instruments are of different design. In the EUV range, the technology is strongly related to that utilized in X-ray astronomy, while in the UV range the instruments in many cases have their roots in optical astronomy. We will, therefore, describe the UV and EUV instruments in appropriate conciseness and refer to the respective chapters of this volume for more technic...

  16. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  17. Instrumentation for Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Richard S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

  18. Hetdex: Virus Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, G. J.; DePoy, D. L.; Tuttle, S.; Marshall, J. L.; Vattiat, B. L.; Prochaska, T.; Chonis, T. S.; Allen, R.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Integral-field-unit Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is made up of 150+ individually compact and identical spectrographs, each fed by a fiber integral-field unit. The instrument provides integral field spectroscopy at wavelengths between 350nm and 550nm of over 33,600 spatial elements per observation, each 1.8 sq. arcsec on the sky, at R 700. The instrument will be fed by a new wide-field corrector (WFC) of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) with increased science field of view as large as 22arcmin diameter and telescope aperture of 10m. This will enable the HETDEX, a large area blind survey of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z VIRUS instrument construction is summarized.

  19. Foot-mediated incubation: Nazca booby (Sula granti) feet as surrogate brood patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Stephanie M; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Anderson, David J

    2003-01-01

    Incubation in most avian species involves transferring heat from parent to egg through a highly vascularized brood patch. Some birds, however, do not develop a brood patch. Unusual among birds, these species hold their eggs under the webs of their feet, but the role of the feet in heat transfer is uncertain. Often the webs are positioned between the feathered abdomen and the egg during incubation, suggesting that either the abdomen, the feet, or both could transfer heat to the egg. We studied heat transfer from foot webs to eggs during incubation in Nazca boobies by spatially separating the feet from the abdomen using an oversized egg. We found that feet transfer heat to eggs independently of any heat that may be transferred from the abdomen. In addition, we found that incubating boobies had significantly greater vascularization in their foot webs, measured as a percentage of web area covered by vessels, than nonincubating boobies. We also found that males, whether incubating or nonincubating, had significantly less web vascularization than females. We concluded that vascularized Nazca booby feet function in the same way during incubation that vascularized brood patches do, acting as surrogate brood patches.

  20. Sod1 deficiency reduces incubation time in mouse models of prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Akhtar

    Full Text Available Prion infections, causing neurodegenerative conditions such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep and BSE in cattle are characterised by prolonged and variable incubation periods that are faithfully reproduced in mouse models. Incubation time is partly determined by genetic factors including polymorphisms in the prion protein gene. Quantitative trait loci studies in mice and human genome-wide association studies have confirmed that multiple genes are involved. Candidate gene approaches have also been used and identified App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 as affecting incubation times. In this study we looked for an association between App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 representative SNPs and prion disease incubation time in the Northport heterogeneous stock of mice inoculated with the Chandler/RML prion strain. No association was seen with App, however, significant associations were seen with Il1-r1 (P = 0.02 and Sod1 (P<0.0001 suggesting that polymorphisms at these loci contribute to the natural variation observed in incubation time. Furthermore, following challenge with Chandler/RML, ME7 and MRC2 prion strains, Sod1 deficient mice showed highly significant reductions in incubation time of 20, 13 and 24%, respectively. No differences were detected in Sod1 expression or activity. Our data confirm the protective role of endogenous Sod1 in prion disease.

  1. Incubating rainbow trout in soft water increased their later sensitivity to cadmium and zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Hennessy, Daniel P.; Dillon, Frank S.

    2010-01-01

    Water hardness is well known to affect the toxicity of some metals; however, reports on the influence of hardness during incubation or acclimation on later toxicity to metals have been conflicting. We incubated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) near the confluence of two streams, one with soft water and one with very-soft water (average incubation hardnesses of about 21 and 11 mg/L as CaCO3, respectively). After developing to the swim-up stage, the fish were exposed for 96-h to a mixture of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in water with a hardness of 27 mg/L as CaCO3. The fish incubated in the higher hardness water were about two times more resistant than the fish incubated in the extremely soft water. This difference was similar or greater than the difference that would have been predicted by criteria hardness equations had the fish been tested in the different acclimation waters. We think it is plausible that the energy demands for fish to maintain homeostasis in the lower hardness water make the fish more sensitive to metals that inhibit ionoregulation such as Cd and Zn. We suggest that if important decisions were to be based upon test results, assumptions of adequate hardness acclimation should be carefully considered and short acclimation periods avoided. If practical, incubating rainbow trout in the control waters to be tested may reduce uncertainties in the possible influences of differing rearing water hardness on the test results.

  2. Composition and location of simulated lake-shore redds influence incubation success in kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincel, M.J.; Chipps, S.R.; Bennett, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for improving spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), were explored by quantifying incubation success of embryos exposed to three substrate treatments in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, USA. Substrate treatments included no modification that used existing gravels in the lake (EXISTING), a cleaned substrate treatment where existing gravels were sifted in the water column to remove silt (CLEANED) and the addition of new, silt-free gravel (ADDED). Incubation success was evaluated using Whitlock-Vibert incubation boxes buried within each substrate treatment that contained recently fertilised embryos. Upon retrieval, live and dead sac fry and eyed eggs were enumerated to determine incubation success (sac fry and eyed eggs ?? 100/number of fertilised embryos). Incubation success varied significantly among locations and redd treatments. In general, incubation success among ADDED redds (0.0-13.0%) was significantly lower than that for EXISTING (1.4-61.0%) and CLEANED (0.4-62.5%) redds. Adding new gravel to spawning areas changed the morphometry of the gravel-water interface and probably exposed embryos to disturbance from wave action and reduced embryo survival. Moreover, efforts to improve spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee should consider water depth and location (e.g. protected shorelines) as important variables. Adding clean gravel to existing spawning areas may provide little benefit if water depth or lake-bottom morphometry are altered. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. An application of computational fluid mechanics to the air flow in an infant incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Hanai, S; Horio, H; Hasegawa, T

    1992-01-01

    An application of the computational fluid mechanical method to the air flow in a two-dimensional model of an infant incubator was described. The air flow in a numerical model was simulated and the Navier-Stokes equations were directly solved using a finite-volume method incorporating a body-fitted coordinate system on a mini-supercomputer. The model was based on a real infant incubator, slightly simplified for the sake of computing speed, and included a model of a baby. The number of computation grids was 101 x 61 = 6161. The calculation was carried out under the condition of unsteady, starting airflow and the results were examined by the means of color graphics animation. There were several very large scale eddies in the incubator free space, and their global structure did not show strong changes once they were established. Although the global structure did not change, small scale eddies were shown to be produced around the air inlet and convected down through the free space of the incubator. From these results, we believe that assuming steady and uniform flow in the incubator may not always be relevant when considering heat loss of a baby in an incubator. The steady and uniform flow has been previously assumed either implicitly or explicitly by most of the authors.

  4. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  5. Modeling of Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Rolf; Hansen, Uwe

    Signal processing techniques in acoustics address many concerns. Included are such things as wave propagation variables, amplitude considerations, spectral content, wavelength, and phase. Phase is primarily of concern when waves interact with each other, as well as with a medium, and the imposition of boundary conditions leads to normal mode vibrations. Such conditions are prevalent in all musical instruments, and thus relevant signal processing techniques are essential to both understanding and modeling the structure of musical instruments and the sound radiated.

  6. Management Approach for Earth Venture Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Diane L.; Dutta, Sanghamitra

    2013-01-01

    The Earth Venture Instrument (EVI) element of the Earth Venture Program calls for developing instruments for participation on a NASA-arranged spaceflight mission of opportunity to conduct innovative, integrated, hypothesis or scientific question-driven approaches to pressing Earth system science issues. This paper discusses the EVI element and the management approach being used to manage both an instrument development activity as well as the host accommodations activity. In particular the focus will be on the approach being used for the first EVI (EVI-1) selected instrument, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), which will be hosted on a commercial GEO satellite and some of the challenges encountered to date and corresponding mitigations that are associated with the management structure for the TEMPO Mission and the architecture of EVI.

  7. Environmental qualification of the protoflight MODIS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Thomas L.; Bates, Duane M.; Bell, James L., Jr.; Hoelter, Roger L.; Kent, Craig J.; Kus, Steven M.; La Komski, David M.; Leonard, John A.; Mehrten, John A.; Neumann, Jay R.; Rogers, David L.; Wolverton, Thomas E.

    1998-10-01

    A key milestone in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth project was achieved with the completion of Environmental Qualification testing of the Protoflight Model (PFM) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. Completing this task paved the way for MODIS to be integrated onto the EOS AM spacecraft which is to be launched as the keystone of the EOS system. Qualification of the PFM MODIS instrument required conducting an extensive test program in four different test facilities. Accomplishing environmental qualification testing, while meeting the stringent contamination and operational requirements for the MODIS instrument, required us to address a variety of issues and tasks. The main tasks included: developing special ground support test equipment, developing special tenting and handling equipment to protect the instrument from being contaminated during off-site environmental vibration an electromagnetic compatibility testing, designing and developing a state-of-the-art thermal-vacuum test chamber, and defining detailed test operations to fully characterize the instrument's electrical, optical and mechanical performance before, during and after each environmental test sequence. Selected penalty test were streamlined for characterizing the instrument whenever design changes or improved test techniques were incorporated to ensure all requirements had been met while maintaining a fully qualified instrument.

  8. Cross-instrument Analysis Correlation Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-28

    This program has been designed to assist with the tracking of a sample from one analytical instrument to another such as SEM, microscopes, micro x-ray diffraction and other instruments where particular positions/locations on the sample are examined, photographed, etc. The software is designed to easily enter the position of fiducials and locations of interest such that in a future session in the same of different instrument the positions of interest can be re-found through using the known location fiducials in the current and reference session to transform the point into the current sessions coordinate system. The software is dialog box driven guiding the user through the necessary data entry and program choices. Information is stored in a series of text based extensible markup language (XML) files.

  9. Minimal Function Graphs are not Instrumented

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mycroft, Alan; Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    The minimal function graph semantics of Jones and Mycroft is a standard denotational semantics modified to include only `reachable' parts of a program. We show that it may be expressed directly in terms of the standard semantics without the need for instrumentation at the expression level and, in...

  10. Electronic Instrumentation at the Liberal Arts College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keedy, Curtis R.; Abele, John C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a two-term course in electronic instrumentation for chemistry and physics students. The first term focuses on analog circuits and the measurement of voltage, current, and impendance. The second-term course focuses on digital pulses/logic, microcomputer organization, and assembly language programing and interfacing to experiments. (JN)

  11. Locating Tests and Measurement Instruments for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastel, Kristen; Morris-Knower, Jim; Marsalis, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Extension educators, staff, and specialists need to use surveys and other measurement instruments to assess their programming and conduct other research. Challenges in locating tests and measurement tools, however, include lack of time and lack of familiarity with techniques that can be used to find them. This article discusses library resources…

  12. Arsenic fractionation and bioaccessibility in two alkaline Texas soils incubated with sodium arsenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rupali; Makris, Konstantinos C; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2007-05-01

    Elevated arsenic (As) concentrations in urban soils with prolonged arsenical pesticide application history have increased the risk associated with accidental hand-to-mouth soil ingestion by children. Earlier work by the authors suggested that the conservative statement of 100% As bioaccessibility in soils was not valid for a set of acidic soils incubated with sodium arsenate. In this study, two alkaline Texas soils incubated with a commonly used As pesticide (sodium arsenate) were evaluated for their potential in reducing soil As bioaccessibility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of incubation time and As load on soil As fractionation and bioaccessibility. Soils were subjected to a sequential As fractionation scheme, and bioaccessible As was quantified using an in vitro stomach phase test. Results showed a reduction in the water-soluble As fraction with incubation time (after 4 months), which remained unchanged after 12 months. This reduction with time was accompanied by an increase in the NaOH- and H(2)SO(4)-extractable As fractions, suggesting As sorption by amorphous Fe/Al hydroxides and/or Ca/Mg compounds, respectively. Organic/sulfides-bound As increased with incubation time after 12 months but not after 4 months of incubation. The aging effect was also observed with the amount of bioaccessible As at all As loads, showing significant positive correlations with the water-extractable and exchangeable As fractions. Bioaccessible As concentrations even after 12 months of incubation were not significantly reduced, suggesting that natural attenuation might prove inadequate to control As bioaccessibility in these alkaline soils.

  13. Neutral temperature range in incubators: performance of equipment in current use and new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, J P; Bach, V; Farges, G

    1997-01-01

    Low-birth-weight neonates should be nursed at thermoneutrality inside incubators. Thermoneutrality control is essential to enhance body growth and to reduce neonatal illnesses and mortality. Guidelines have been published to provide the thermoneutral range, but the recommendations did not always take into account all ambient and physiological parameters influencing thermoneutrality. In most marketed incubators, the heat supply is controlled through convective air flow (closed incubators) or through radiant power density (radiant warmer beds). The heating unit (on/off cycling or adjustable proportional control) is activated by an error signal calculated from the difference between a controlled temperature and a reference value preset by the clinician. The controlled variable can be either the incubator air or the skin temperature of the anterior abdominal region of the neonate. The neonate's size, thermal properties of the mattress and of incubator walls, air temperature and humidity, air velocity, incubator wall temperatures all influence the heat exchanges between the neonate and the surroundings, and, consequently, modify the obtention of thermoneutrality. Moreover, studies of the physiological mechanisms by which the neonate regulates body heat storage suggest that metabolic rate, behavior, vigilance level, nursing care, and heater control processes should also be taken into account. Little attention has been paid to these factors, and incubator performances are often disappointing. This article reviews the different factors that modify thermoneutral condition. An attempt is made to suggest new ways to design equipment incorporating these factors in algorithms controlling heater processes in order to reach the optimal thermal environment in which the neonate should be nursed.

  14. Effects of eggshell cuticle removal and incubation humidity on embryonic development and hatchability of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, E D; Brake, J; Gildersleeve, R P

    1987-05-01

    The effects of eggshell cuticle removal and two levels of incubation humidity 28.3 C [50% relative humidity (RH)] and 30.0 C (55% RH) wetbulb temperature (WB) on embryonic mortality and hatchability were determined from broiler hatching eggs laid during 38, 42, 48, and 54 weeks of age. Variables measured were: egg weight loss during the first 17 days of incubation, hatch at Days 19.5 and 20.5 of incubation, hatch of fertile eggs, stage of embryonic mortality, and chick weight at 21.5 days of incubation. Day 0 to 17 percentage egg weight loss was increased when the incubation humidity was lowered and the loss was greater than that observed after cuticle removal. A greater percentage of chicks hatched on Day 19.5 at 28.3 C than at 30.0 C WB. The percentage hatch of 38-week fertile eggs was improved at the higher humidity; the higher humidity also decreased late dead and increased pipped embryonic mortalities. Cuticle removal decreased early dead and increased late dead mortality. At Week 38 cuticle removal and lower humidity resulted in a decrease in chick weight at 21.5 days of incubation. For Weeks 42, 48, and 54 combined, pipped mortality was increased by higher humidity and late dead mortality was increased by cuticle removal. Water loss from the egg was increased by cuticle removal or by lowering incubation humidity from 30.0 C to 28.3 C WB, or by both, but lowering humidity was more effective. Changes in humidity and cuticle removal may affect vital gas exchange to different degrees.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  16. Current, pressure gauge, and other data from instruments attached to fixed platforms in the Bering Sea as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 16 September 1977 to 20 September 1978 (NODC Accession 8000024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current, pressure gauge, and other data were collected from instruments attached to fixed platforms in the Bering Sea from the 16 September 1977 to 20 September...

  17. The keyboard instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Ralph A

    2014-06-01

    Now that the field of performing arts medicine has been in existence for over three decades, we are approaching a key point: we should start to see more articles that bring together the data that have been collected from several studies in order to draw more robust conclusions. Review articles and their more structured relative, the meta-analysis, can help to improve our understanding of a particular topic, comparing and synthesizing the results of previous research that has been done on that subject area. One way this could be done would be to review the research that has been carried out on the performance-related problems associated with playing a particular instrument or group of instruments. While I am not going to do that myself, I hope that others will. In this editorial, I will do a very selective review of the playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) associated with one instrument group (the keyboard instruments), focusing on the most played instrument in that group (the piano;).

  18. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  19. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  20. Time allocation between feeding and incubation in uniparental arctic-breeding shorebirds: energy reserves provide leeway in a tight schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, I.Y.M.; Schekkerman, H.

    2006-01-01

    Birds with uniparental incubation may face a time allocation problem between incubation and feeding. Eggs need regular warming to hatch successfully, but the parent must leave the nest to feed and safeguard its own survival. Time allocation during incubation is likely to depend on factors influencin

  1. Construction of Agricultural University Students’ Entrepreneurship Incubation Base – Taking Sichuan Agricultural University as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Yao; Jianping Xie; Linchun He

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, as an effective practice in university students’ entrepreneurship education, construction of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base has been rapidly developed in different universities. This paper takes construction of the entrepreneurship incubation base in Sichuan Agricultural University as a case study, analyzes the current status of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base and makes a discussion on establishment of management institution, f...

  2. Time allocation between feeding and incubation in uniparental arctic-breeding shorebirds: energy reserves provide leeway in a tight schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, I.Y.M.; Schekkerman, H.

    2006-01-01

    Birds with uniparental incubation may face a time allocation problem between incubation and feeding. Eggs need regular warming to hatch successfully, but the parent must leave the nest to feed and safeguard its own survival. Time allocation during incubation is likely to depend on factors

  3. Developing a Model for a "Ladder of Incubation" Linked to Higher and Further Education Institutions in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisey, Pam; Gornall, Lynne; Jones, Paul; Thomas, Brychan

    2005-01-01

    Business incubators play a critical role in economic regeneration through the development and support of new and sustainable enterprises. Many UK incubator projects are funded by the European Commission through the higher education sector. This study compares and contrasts six business incubation case studies and identifies significant criteria…

  4. Functioning of the students business-incubators on the base of leading Ukrainian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Tulchinska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is the research of business-incubators functioning in Ukraine as a component of innovative infrastructure in general and student business-incubators in particular and developing criteria for evaluating their activity. The results of the analysis. It was determined that purpose of student innovation business incubator should be protection and representation of students interests through innovative transformation of students ideas, projects in the ready-made high technology products and/or existing innovative enterprises by providing organizational, administrative, information and consulting, scientific and methodological support. The result of research is specified on tasks for student innovative business-incubators, and services which they can provide for the creation of innovative businesses. Two components of work of the student innovative business-incubator are delimited. They include projection and educational component. The projection component includes consistent work starting from the student and preparing a business project to realization of projects. Educational component includes activities of students preparing to realization projects. It was established, that the presence at the university of student business incubators generating space for knowledge, allows to get perspective developments which may become the basis for small business. Students will demonstrate their skills not only in innovative developments but also as entrepreneurs. The creation of such innovative structure will help to combine students efforts at engineering, economic, legal, linguistic specialties and provide real practical professional experience during the education at the university. Creation of innovative student business incubators provides better commercialization of innovations, increases rationalization activity and activity as inventor, improves the level of students welfare, combines education, research

  5. Aethalometer™ Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Aethalometer is an instrument that provides a real-time readout of the concentration of “Black” or “Elemental” carbon aerosol particles (BC or E) in an air stream (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). It is a self-contained instrument that measures the rate of change of optical transmission through a spot on a filter where aerosol is being continuously collected and uses the information to calculate the concentration of optically absorbing material in the sampled air stream. The instrument measures the transmitted light intensities through the “sensing” portion of the filter, on which the aerosol spot is being collected, and a “reference” portion of the filter as a check on the stability of the optical source. A mass flowmeter monitors the sample air flow rate. The data from these three measurements is used to determine the mean BC content of the air stream.

  6. 3D Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bershady, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    In this Chapter we review the challenges of, and opportunities for, 3D spectroscopy, and how these have lead to new and different approaches to sampling astronomical information. We describe and categorize existing instruments on 4m and 10m telescopes. Our primary focus is on grating-dispersed spectrographs. We discuss how to optimize dispersive elements, such as VPH gratings, to achieve adequate spectral resolution, high throughput, and efficient data packing to maximize spatial sampling for 3D spectroscopy. We review and compare the various coupling methods that make these spectrographs ``3D,'' including fibers, lenslets, slicers, and filtered multi-slits. We also describe Fabry-Perot and spatial-heterodyne interferometers, pointing out their advantages as field-widened systems relative to conventional, grating-dispersed spectrographs. We explore the parameter space all these instruments sample, highlighting regimes open for exploitation. Present instruments provide a foil for future development. We give an...

  7. ISSUERS OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rules laid down by Romanian Capital Market Law and the regulations put in force for its implementation apply to issuers of financial instruments admitted to trading on the regulated market established in Romania. But the issuers remain companies incorporated under Company Law of 1990. Such dual regulations need increased attention in order to observe the legal status of the issuers/companies and financial instruments/shares. Romanian legislator has chosen to implement in Capital Market Law special rules regarding the administration of the issuers of financial instruments, not only rules regarding admitting and maintaining to a regulated market. Thus issuers are, in Romanian Law perspective, special company that should comply special rule regarding board of administration and general shareholders meeting.

  8. Calibration of Geodetic Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bajtala

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of metrology and security systems of unification, correctness and standard reproducibilities belong to the preferred requirements of theory and technical practice in geodesy. Requirements on the control and verification of measured instruments and equipments increase and the importance and up-to-date of calibration get into the foreground. Calibration possibilities of length-scales (of electronic rangefinders and angle-scales (of horizontal circles of geodetic instruments. Calibration of electronic rangefinders on the linear comparative baseline in terrain. Primary standard of planar angle – optical traverse and its exploitation for calibration of the horizontal circles of theodolites. The calibration equipment of the Institute of Slovak Metrology in Bratislava. The Calibration process and results from the calibration of horizontal circles of selected geodetic instruments.

  9. Factors related to shell deaths during artificial incubation of ostrich eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Brand

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available he ostrich industry experiences a high rate of embryonic mortalities during artificial incubation of eggs. Embryonic deaths were studied from data recorded on 37 740 fertile eggs incubated artificially during the 1998-2005 breeding seasons. Roughly 10 000 eggs that sustained embryonic mortalities were classified according to the stage and nature of death, i.e. before 21 days of incubation, after 21 days of incubation, deaths after pipping and rotten eggs. Although infection may have played a role in ~1300 rotten eggs, no detailed knowledge of the pathogens involved was available. The remainder of deaths could not be related to pathogens and the deaths were thus generally referred to as non-infectious. The overall level of embryonic mortality in all the eggs studied was 28.5 %. Overall embryonic mortality was affected by incubator, with higher levels (57.0 % found in eggs incubated in an African Incubator(R and also in eggs that were transferred between incubators during incubation (38.1 %. Overall embryonic mortality also increased in eggs produced by older females. Eggs produced in the autumn had the highest level of embryonic mortality at 53.6 %, whereas eggs produced in the winter had a marginally higher level of embryonic mortalities of 29.2 % compared with eggs produced during summer (27.4 %. Eggs produced by South African (SA Black males crossed to Zimbabwean Blue females had high levels of embryonic losses of 45.7 %. The embryonic mortality of eggs produced by SA Blacks or Zimbabwean Blue breeding birds subjected to pure breeding was similar at ~33-34 %, but embryonic mortality was improved in eggs produced by Zimbabwean Blue males crossed to SA Black females (27 %. Embryonic mortality was increased in eggs that were set directly (32.0 % or subjected to longer than 6 days of storage (43.5 %. Embryonic mortality was affected by year. The results that were obtained will assist in determining non-infectious factors that have a negative

  10. Effect of incubation humidity and flock age on hatchability traits and posthatch growth in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hanoun, A M; Rizk, R E; Shahein, E H A; Hassan, N S; Brake, J

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of incubation relative humidity (RH) from 14 to 24 d of incubation during 3 parental ages on hatchability and posthatching growth of Pekin ducklings. Egg production was divided into 3 age groups (25-35, 36-55, and 56-65 wk). A total of 21,600 hatching eggs was subjected to 55, 60, 65, and 70% RH from 14 to 24 d, whereas standard conditions were used from 0 to 14 d and 24 to 28 d of incubation. All eggs were individually weighed before setting in the incubator and again at 14 and 24 d of incubation to determine egg weight loss. A sample of 20 eggs from unhatched and hatched eggs from each group were randomly taken on the hatching day and used to determine eggshell thickness and pore number. Duckling weight at hatching was recorded and BW gain, feed consumption, feed conversion, and viability were then recorded to 21 d of age. Egg weight increased with hen age but did not differ by incubation treatment. Increasing RH from 55% to 60, 65, and 70% decreased percentage egg weight loss in a stepwise manner irrespective of parental age. Shell thickness was less for hatched eggs compared with nonhatched eggs within each parental age. Shell thickness decreased while pore density increased with increased parental age for both nonhatched and hatched eggs. The lowest embryonic mortality among the incubation periods (14-24 and 0-24 d) and best hatchability of fertile eggs was recorded with 60% RH during the first parental age (25-35 wk), 65% RH during 36-55 wk of age, and 70% RH during 56-65 wk of age. The best incubation results were directly associated with the greatest duckling BW at hatching and at 21 d of age, BW gain, feed conversion, and viability during each parental age period. It was concluded that duck eggs produced within a specific parental age period require a specific incubation RH to attain the best hatchability and posthatching duckling performance.

  11. Effect of Incubation Time and Sucrose Addition on the Characteristics of Cheese Whey Yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Nursiwi, A.; Sari, A. M.; Widowati, E.; Sanjaya, A. P.; Esnadewi, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of incubation time and concentration of sucrose addition on the characteristics of cheese whey yogurt (lactic acid content, pH, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, viscosity) and sensory characteristics (color, odor, flavor, consistency, and overalls) were investigated. The cheese whey yogurt fermentation process was carried out for 24h and 36h with the addition of sucrose 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) of total solid, respectively. The results showed that the lactic acid content, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and viscosity of cheese whey yogurt were affected by the incubation time and sucrose addition. The level of pH of yogurt which was incubated at 24h and 36h were relatively in the same levels, which were 4.51 up to 4.63. Due the sensory characteristic of cheese whey yogurt the panellists gave the high score for the cheese whey yogurt which was incubated at 24h and sucrose addition 12% (w/w) of total solid. The cheese whey yogurt has 0.41% lactic acid content; pH 4.51; 7.09 log total lactic acid bacteria cells / ml; 5.78% antioxidant activity; and 5.97 cP viscosity. The best sensory and physico-chemical characteristic of cheese whey yogurt was achieved by 24h incubation time and 12% concentration of sucrose addition.

  12. Exposing broiler eggs to green, red and white light during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, G S

    2017-07-01

    Previous work has shown that exposing broiler eggs to white light during incubation can improve hatchability and post-hatch animal welfare. It was hypothesized that due to how different wavelengths of light can affect avian physiology differently, and how pigmented eggshells filter light that different monochromatic wavelengths would have differential effects on hatchability and post-hatch animal welfare indicators. To determine, we incubated chicken eggs (n=6912) under either no light (dark), green light, red light or white light; the light level was 250 lux. White and red light were observed to increase hatch of fertile (P0.05). Fear response of during isolation and tonic immobility was reduced (P0.05) from dark incubated broilers. All light incubated broilers had lower (Plight and red light that is a component of it are possibly the key spectrum to improving hatchability and lower fear and stress susceptibility, whereas green light is not as effective. Incubating broiler eggs under these spectrums could be used to improve hatchery efficiency and post-hatch animal welfare at the same time.

  13. Experimental cooling during incubation leads to reduced innate immunity and body condition in nestling tree swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardia, Daniel R; Pérez, Jonathan H; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2010-06-22

    Nest microclimate can have strong effects that can carry over to later life-history stages. We experimentally cooled the nests of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Females incubating in cooled nests reduced incubation time and allowed egg temperatures to drop, leading to extended incubation periods. We partially cross-fostered nestlings to test carry-over effects of cooling during incubation on nestling innate constitutive immunity, assessed through bacteria killing ability (BKA) of blood. Nestlings that had been cooled as eggs showed a lower ability to kill bacteria than control nestlings, regardless of the treatment of their foster mother. However, there was no effect of treatment of rearing females on nestling BKA in control nestlings, even though cooled females made significantly fewer feeding visits than did control females. This suggests that the effect of cooling occurred during incubation and was not due to carry-over effects on nestling condition. Nestlings that were exposed to experimental cooling as embryos had lower residual body mass and absolute body mass at all four ages measured. Our results indicate that environmental conditions and trade-offs experienced during one stage of development can have important carry-over effects on later life-history stages.

  14. Female but not male zebra finches adjust heat output in response to increased incubation demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Lindström, Jan; McCafferty, Dominic J; Nager, Ruedi G

    2014-04-15

    In many incubating birds, heat transfer from parent to egg is facilitated by the brood patch, an area of ventral abdominal skin that becomes highly vascularised, swells and loses its down feathers around the time of laying. Only the female develops a brood patch in most passerine species, but males of some species can incubate and maintain the eggs at similar temperatures to females even without a brood patch. Here we used a novel application of infrared thermography to examine sex differences in parental care from a physiological perspective. Using incubating male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a species in which the male lacks a brood patch, we measured the surface temperature of the ventral plumage overlying the abdomen and a reference area that does not contact the eggs (thorax) twice per pair. In half of the pairs, clutch size was experimentally enlarged between the two sets of measurements to increase incubation demand. We found that the temperature differential between abdomen and thorax plumage was greater in females than in males, and that abdomen plumage was warmer after clutch enlargement than before in females but not in males. These findings are consistent with morphological sex differences in brood patch development and suggest that male and female zebra finches differ in the way they regulate abdomen versus general body surface temperature in response to variation in incubation demand.

  15. Dissolution and aggregation of Cu nanoparticles in culture media: effects of incubation temperature and particles size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingxiangyu [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (China); Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, Department of Environment (Spain); Schuster, Michael [Technische Universität München, Department of Chemistry (Germany); Navas, José María, E-mail: jmnavas@inia.es [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, Department of Environment (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Here, the effects of incubation temperature and particle size on the dissolution and aggregation behavior of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in culture media were investigated over 96 h, equivalent to the time period for acute cell toxicity tests. Three CuNPs with the nominal sizes of 25, 50, and 100 nm and one type of micro-sized particles (MPs, ∼500 nm) were examined in culture media used for human and fish hepatoma cell lines acute tests. A large decrease in sizes of CuNPs in the culture media was observed in the first 24 h incubation, and subsequently the sizes of CuNPs changed slightly over the following 72 h. Moreover, the decreasing rate in size was significantly dependent on the incubation temperature; the higher the incubation temperature, the larger the decreasing rate in size. In addition to that, we also found that the release of copper ions depended on the incubation temperature. Moreover, the dissolution rate of Cu particles increased very fast in the first 24 h, with a slight increase over the following 72 h.

  16. Biodegradation of the low concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil by microbial consortium during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Lin, Xin; Li, Peijun; Liu, Wan; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Chukwuka, K S

    2009-12-30

    The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (8.15 mg PAHs kg(-1) soil) in aged contaminated soil by isolated microbial consortium (five fungi and three bacteria) during the incubation of 64d is reported. The applied treatments were: (1) biodegradation by adding microbial consortium in sterile soils (BM); (2) biodegradation by adding microbial consortium in non-sterile soils (BMN); and (3) biodegradation by in situ "natural" microbes in non-sterile soils (BNN). The fungi in BM and BMN soils grew rapidly 0-4d during the incubation and then reached a relative equilibrium. In contrast the fungi in BNN soil remained at a constant level for the entire time. Comparison with the fungi, the bacteria in BNN soils grew rapidly during the incubation 0-2d and then reached a relative equilibrium, and those in BM and BMN soils grew slowly during the incubation of 64 d. After 64 d of incubation, the PAH biodegradations were 35%, 40.7% and 41.3% in BNN, BMN and BM, respectively. The significant release of sequestrated PAHs in aged contaminated soil was observed in this experiment, especially in the BM soil. Therefore, although bioaugmentation of introduced microbial consortium increased significantly the biodegradation of PAHs in aged contaminated soil with low PAH concentration, the creation of optimum of the environmental situation might be the best way to use bioremediation successfully in the field.

  17. Influence of incubation temperature on biofilm formation and corrosion of carbon steel by Serratia marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harimawan, Ardiyan; Devianto, Hary; Kurniawan, Ignatius Chandra; Utomo, Josephine Christine

    2017-01-01

    Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) or biocorrosion is one type of corrosion, directly or indirectly influenced by microbial activities, by forming biofilm and adhering on the metal surface. When forming biofilm, the microorganisms can produce extracellular products which influence the cathodic and anodic reactions on metal surfaces. This will result in electrochemical changes in the interface between the biofilm and the metal surface, leading to corrosion and deterioration of the metal. MIC might be caused by various types of microorganism which leads to different corrosion mechanism and reaction kinetics. Furthermore, this process will also be influenced by various environmental conditions, such as pH and temperature. This research is aimed to determine the effect of incubation temperature on corrosion of carbon steel caused by Serratia marcescens in a mixture solution of synthetic seawater with Luria Bertani medium with a ratio of 4:1. The incubation was performed for 19 days with incubation temperature of 30, 37, and 50°C. The analyses of biofilm were conducted by total plate count (TPC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Biofilm was found to be evenly growth on the surface and increasing with increasing incubation temperature. It consists of functional group of alcohol, alkane, amine, nitro, sulfate, carboxylic acid, and polysulfide. The analyses of the corrosion were conducted by gravimetric and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Higher incubation temperature was found to increase the corrosion rate. However, the corrosion products were not detected by XRD analysis.

  18. Effects of incubation substrates on hatch timing and success of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act in 1994 because several decades of failed spawning had put the population at risk of extinction. Natural spawning is known to occur at several locations in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but there is little natural recruitment. Microhabitat where embryo incubation occurs is known to be an important factor in white sturgeon reproductive success. This study was conducted to address questions regarding the suitability of different substrates as egg attachment and incubation sites for these fish. A comparative laboratory study using six types of incubation substrates—clean river rocks, periphyton- and algae-covered rocks, waterlogged wood, sand, riparian vegetation, and clean glass plates—tested the hypothesis that survival to hatch of white sturgeon eggs differs among incubation substrates. The results showed that sand was unsuitable as an incubation substrate, as the adhesive embryos were easily dislodged. Periphyton- and algae-covered rocks had the lowest hatch success, and all other substrates had similar hatch success.

  19. Deimination level and peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 expression are elevated in astrocytes with increased incubation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Algeciras, Mabel; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K; Serra, Horacio M

    2015-09-01

    Astrocytes respond to environmental cues, including changes in temperatures. Increased deimination, observed in many progressive neurological diseases, is thought to be contributed by astrocytes. We determined the level of deimination and expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in isolated primary astrocytes in response to changes on either side (31°C and 41°C) of the optimal temperature (37°C). We investigated changes in the astrocytes by using a number of established markers and accounted for cell death with the CellTiter-Blue assay. We found increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, ALDH1L1, and J1-31, resulting from increased incubation temperature and increased expression of TSP1, S100β, and AQP4, resulting from decreased incubation temperature vs. optimal temperature, suggesting activation of different biochemical pathways in astrocytes associated with different incubation temperatures. Mass spectrometric analyses support such trends. The PAD2 level was increased only as a result of increased incubation temperature with a commensurate increased level of deimination. Actin cytoskeleton and iso[4]LGE, a lipid peroxidase modification, also showed an increase with higher incubation temperature. Altogether, these results suggest that temperature, as an environmental cue, activates astrocytes in a different manner on either side of the optimal temperature and that increase in deimination is associated only with the higher temperature side of the spectrum.

  20. Rancang Bangun Incubator dengan Suhu dan Kelembaban Udara Terkendali untuk Penetesan Telur Ulat Sutera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Made Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silkworms were the poikilothermic animals with life cycle strongly affected by environment condition such as temperature, humidity, light and wind. In other the silkworm’s egg hatcheries uniformly at the same day, it was considered necessary to use the temperature and humidity controllable room (incubation room according to their optimum hatcheries condition. The incubation room consisted of four actuators i.e: the heater, the cooler, the mist maker, and the water content absorber. All of that actuators were controlled based on the output signal from the sensor (SHT11. In this research the temperature was controlled at the value of 25°C, while the humidity was controlled at the value of 75 %. The experimental result of the incubator machine without silkworm egg shown that the incubator was able to control the temperature at the value of 25°C with maximum 25.4°C. It was also able to control humidity at optimum interval i.e: 73.9 % to 76.1 %. Experimental result with silkworm egg showed that the incubator was able to increase the uniformity of the hatcheries day, even though the hatcheries day was late about two days compared to the conventional method.

  1. Increasing hatchability of turkey eggs by matching incubator humidity to shell conductance of individual eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, M; Nir, A; Ar, A

    1984-08-01

    One of the most important factors determining hatchability of avian eggs is the proper water balance of the eggs during incubation. In turkey eggs, a total diffusive water loss (F) of 12 +/- 1% SD initial egg mass in 28 days, yielded maximal hatchability irrespective of the combination of eggshell water vapor conductance (G) and incubator humidity (PI), which brought about this water loss. A good correlation was found between G as obtained at the beginning of incubation and the final F in a given PI. The G in a random sample of 1256 fresh turkey eggs was normally distributed around the mean of 18.70 +/- 2.87 SD milligrams (100 g X day X torr)-1 (Coefficient of variation = 15.3%). The distribution of G in eggs with dead in the shell embryos had, in addition, two more peaks of G values [around 22.5 and 13.0 mg (100 g X day X torr)-1]. When eggs were sorted into low (less than 17), medium (17 to 20), and high (greater than 20) G categories, and incubated at low (19.4), medium (26.6), and high (33.9) torr PI, respectively, hatchability increased by a factor of 1.08. Poor hatchabilities were obtained in mismatching humidities and conductances. It seems that hatchability success may be experimentally improved if a correct rate of water loss is fitted to sorted eggs during incubation.

  2. Web-based remote monitoring of infant incubators in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D I; Huh, S J; Lee, T S; Kim, I Y

    2003-09-01

    A web-based real-time operating, management, and monitoring system for checking temperature and humidity within infant incubators using the Intranet has been developed and installed in the infant Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We have created a pilot system which has a temperature and humidity sensor and a measuring module in each incubator, which is connected to a web-server board via an RS485 port. The system transmits signals using standard web-based TCP/IP so that users can access the system from any Internet-connected personal computer in the hospital. Using this method, the system gathers temperature and humidity data transmitted from the measuring modules via the RS485 port on the web-server board and creates a web document containing these data. The system manager can maintain centralized supervisory monitoring of the situations in all incubators while sitting within the infant ICU at a work space equipped with a personal computer. The system can be set to monitor unusual circumstances and to emit an alarm signal expressed as a sound or a light on a measuring module connected to the related incubator. If the system is configured with a large number of incubators connected to a centralized supervisory monitoring station, it will improve convenience and assure meaningful improvement in response to incidents that require intervention.

  3. Cold spots in neonatal incubators are hot spots for microbial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goffau, Marcus C; Bergman, Klasien A; de Vries, Hendrik J; Meessen, Nico E L; Degener, John E; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J M

    2011-12-01

    Thermal stability is essential for the survival and well-being of preterm neonates. This is achieved in neonatal incubators by raising the ambient temperature and humidity to sufficiently high levels. However, potentially pathogenic microorganisms also can thrive in such warm and humid environments. We therefore investigated whether the level of microbial contamination (i.e., the bacterial load) inside neonatal incubators can be predicted on the basis of their average temperature and relative humidity settings, paying special attention to local temperature differences. Swab samples were taken from the warmest and coldest spots found within Caleo incubators, and these were plated to determine the number of microbial CFU per location. In incubators with high average temperature (≥ 34°C) and relative humidity (≥ 60%) values, the level of microbial contamination was significantly higher at cold spots than at hot spots. This relates to the fact that the local equilibrium relative humidity at cold spots is sufficiently high to sustain microbial growth. The abundance of staphylococci, which are the main causative agents of late-onset sepsis in preterm neonates, was found to be elevated significantly in cold areas. These findings can be used to improve basic incubator hygiene.

  4. DOE Handbook: Guide to good practices evaluation instrument examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Training evaluation determines a training program`s effectiveness in meeting its intended purpose: producing competent employees. Evaluation is the quality assurance component of a systematic approach to training program. This guide provides information on evaluation instruments used to gather employee, supervisor, and instructor feedback to identify strengths and weaknesses of training programs at DOE facilities. It should be used in conjunction with ``DOE Training Program Handbook: A Systematic Approach to Training`` and ``DOE Handbook, Alternative Systematic Approaches to Training.``

  5. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  6. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  8. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  9. [Hardening of dental instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasev, G P

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of prolonging the service life of stomatological instruments by the local hardening of their working parts is discussed. Such hardening should be achieved by using hard and wear-resistant materials. The examples of hardening dental elevators and hard-alloy dental drills are given. New trends in the local hardening of instruments are the treatment of their working parts with laser beams, the application of coating on their surface by the gas-detonation method. The results of research work and trials are presented.

  10. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  11. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  12. Evaluation Strategies in Financial Education: Evaluation with Imperfect Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lauren; Dudensing, Rebekka; Granovsky, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    Program evaluation often suffers due to time constraints, imperfect instruments, incomplete data, and the need to report standardized metrics. This article about the evaluation process for the Wi$eUp financial education program showcases the difficulties inherent in evaluation and suggests best practices for assessing program effectiveness. We…

  13. Instrumentation, Control, and Intelligent Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-09-01

    Abundant and affordable energy is required for U.S. economic stability and national security. Advanced nuclear power plants offer the best near-term potential to generate abundant, affordable, and sustainable electricity and hydrogen without appreciable generation of greenhouse gases. To that end, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with leading the revitalization of nuclear power in the U.S. The INL vision is to become the preeminent nuclear energy laboratory with synergistic, world-class, multi-program capabilities and partnerships by 2015. The vision focuses on four essential destinations: (1) Be the preeminent internationally-recognized nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration laboratory; (2) Be a major center for national security technology development and demonstration; (3) Be a multi-program national laboratory with world-class capabilities; (4) Foster academic, industry, government, and international collaborations to produce the needed investment, programs, and expertise. Crucial to that effort is the inclusion of research in advanced instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems (ICIS) for use in current and advanced power and energy security systems to enable increased performance, reliability, security, and safety. For nuclear energy plants, ICIS will extend the lifetime of power plant systems, increase performance and power output, and ensure reliable operation within the system's safety margin; for national security applications, ICIS will enable increased protection of our nation's critical infrastructure. In general, ICIS will cost-effectively increase performance for all energy security systems.

  14. Airborne Geodetic Imaging Using the L-band UAVSAR Instrument (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, S.; Zebker, H. A.; Jones, C. E.; Michel, T.; Chapman, B. D.; Muellerschoen, R.; Fore, A.; Simard, M.

    2009-12-01

    Radar interferometry using both airborne and spaceborne platforms has become an integral tool in geodetics sciences over the past 3 decades for both fine resolution topographic mapping and for measuring surface deformation from a variety of both natural and anthropogenic sources. The UAVSAR instrument, employing an L-band actively electronically scanned antenna, had its genesis in the ESTO Instrument Incubator Program and after 3 years of development has begun the regular collection of science data in support of various geodetic applications. System design was motivated by solid Earth applications where repeat pass radar interferometry can be used to measure subtle deformation of the surface, however flexibility and extensibility to support other applications were also major design drivers. Initial testing and deployments are being carried out with the NASA Gulfstream III aircraft, which has been modified to accommodate the radar pod and has been equipped with precision autopilot capability developed by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. With this the aircraft can fly within a 10 m diameter tube on any specified trajectory necessary for repeat-pass radar interferometric applications. To maintain the required pointing for repeat-pass interferometric applications we have employed an actively scanned antenna steered using INU measurement data. This talk will present some early deformation results made by the UAVSAR instrument over volcanoes (Mt St Helens), landslides near Parkfield CA, ice sheet motion in Greenland and Iceland, anthropogenic induced surface deformation from oil pumping near Lost Hills, CA and changes in agricultural surfaces in California’s San Joaquin Valley. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Virtual Instrument Based on GPIB Interface Bus1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao,Ying; Qi,Hanhong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced the technique of GPIB businterface. Through the controlling of the GPIB interface board,the computer controlled the current source and the voltmeter, both of which have GPIB bus interface, and a virtual instrument testing system for I~V curve was composed. The virtual instrument front panel and the background graphical control program in Labview environment accomplish virtual instrument testing task along with the hardware system.

  16. A Theory for the Incubation Period Following a Stress Reduction During Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    1978-01-01

    A dislocation model is presented for the phenomena following a stress reduction during creep. It is suggested that an incubation period for the production of new mobile dislocations arises because attractive junctions on the verge of breaking just before the stress reduction are no longer so after...... the stress reduction. The breaking stress of the junctions must be lowered by climb movements in the surrounding network before the junctions can break and release new mobile dislocations. On the basis of these concepts, an expression is derived for the length of the incubation period. This theoretical...... incubation period is much shorter than the time needed to establish an equilibrium structure at the new lower stress. The dependence of dislocation line tension upon line length is taken into account; as a result of this, recovery rates are predicted to depend on stress to a power larger than three...

  17. Male songbirds provide indirect parental care by guarding females during incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, B.C.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Across many taxa, guarding of fertile mates is a widespread tactic that enhances paternity assurance. However, guarding of mates can also occur during the nonfertile period, and the fitness benefits of this behavior are unclear. Male songbirds, for example, sometimes guard nonfertile females during foraging recesses from incubation. We hypothesized that guarding postreproductive mates may have important, but unrecognized, benefits by enhancing female foraging efficiency, thereby increasing time spent incubating eggs. We tested the hypothesis in 2 songbird species by examining female behavior during natural and experimentally induced absences of males. Male absence caused increased vigilance in foraging females that decreased their efficiency and resulted in less time spent incubating eggs. Male guarding of nonfertile females can thus provide a previously unrecognized form of indirect parental care.

  18. In vitro incubation of human spermatozoa promotes reactive oxygen species generation and DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicaré, J; Caille, A; Zumoffen, C; Ghersevich, S; Bahamondes, L; Munuce, M J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative process associated with sperm capacitation and its impact on DNA fragmentation and sperm function. Redox activity and lipid peroxidation were analysed in human spermatozoa after 3, 6 and 22 h of incubation in Ham's F10 medium plus bovine albumin at 37° and 5% CO2 for capacitation. DNA status, tyrosine phosphorylation pattern and induced acrosome reaction were evaluated after capacitating conditions. At 22 h of incubation, there was a significant (P DNA fragmentation. These results indicate that when spermatozoa are incubated for several hours (22 h), a common practice in assisted reproductive techniques, an increase in oxidative sperm metabolism and in the proportion of fragmented DNA should be expected. However, there was no effect on any of the other functional parameters associated with sperm fertilising capacity. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. N Mineralisation from Bioresources Incubated at 12.5°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Ives

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils treated with lime-amended biosolids (LAB, poppy seed waste (PSW, anaerobically digested biosolids (ADB and poppy mulch (PM and incubated at 12.5°C for 56 days released 45%, 36%, 25%, and −8%, respectively, of total applied N as plant available nitrogen (PAN by the end of the incubation. The mineralisation rates were contrary to expectations based on the C : N ratios of the four products: LAB (5 : 1, PSW (7 : 1, ADB (3 : 1, and PM (16 : 1. PM showed a significant negative priming effect over the incubation period. These results have implications for production agriculture in temperate regions where application and incorporation of bio-resources traditionally occurs in autumn and spring when soil and air temperatures are relatively low. Current application times may not be suitable for nitrogen release to satisfy crop demand.

  20. Effect of particle size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation in incubated maize and soybean meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    by 88% in maize, 84% in maize–SBM and 75% in SBM after 2 h of incubation (Pmodel was fitted to the feeds with microbial phytase to analyse the effect......The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of screen size (1, 2 and 3 mm) and microbial phytase (0 and 1000 FTU/kg as-fed) on phytate degradation in maize (100% maize), soybean meal (100% SBM) and maize–SBM (75% maize and 25% SBM) incubated in water for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h at 38°C...... reduced APS by 48% in maize, 30% in SBM and 26% in maize–SBM. No interaction between screen size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation was observed, but the interaction between microbial phytase and incubation time was significant (P