WorldWideScience

Sample records for instrument hubble space

  1. New Hubble Servicing Mission to upgrade instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The history of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope is dominated by the familiar sharp images and amazing discoveries that have had an unprecedented scientific impact on our view of the world and our understanding of the universe. Nevertheless, such important contributions to science and humankind have only been possible as result of regular upgrades and enhancements to Hubble’s instrumentation. Using the Space Shuttle for this fifth Servicing Mission underlines the important role that astronauts have played and continue to play in increasing the Space Telescope’s lifespan and scientific power. Since the loss of Columbia in 2003, the Shuttle has been successfully launched on three missions, confirming that improvements made to it have established the required high level of safety for the spacecraft and its crew. “There is never going to be an end to the science that we can do with a machine like Hubble”, says David Southwood, ESA’s Director of Science. “Hubble is our way of exploring our origins. Everyone should be proud that there is a European element to it and that we all are part of its success at some level.” This Servicing Mission will not just ensure that Hubble can function for perhaps as much as another ten years; it will also increase its capabilities significantly in key areas. This highly visible mission is expected to take place in 2008 and will feature several space walks. As part of the upgrade, two new scientific instruments will be installed: the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and Wide Field Camera 3. Each has advanced technology sensors that will dramatically improve Hubble’s potential for discovery and enable it to observe faint light from the youngest stars and galaxies in the universe. With such an astounding increase in its science capabilities, this orbital observatory will continue to penetrate the most distant regions of outer space and reveal breathtaking phenomena. “Today, Hubble is producing more science than ever before in

  2. Hubble Space Telescope: Faint object spectrograph instrument handbook. Version 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Holland C. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) has undergone substantial rework since the 1985 FOS Instrument Handbook was published, and we are now more knowledgeable regarding the spacecraft and instrument operations requirements and constraints. The formal system for observation specification has also evolved considerably, as the GTO programs were defined in detail. This supplement to the FOS Instrument Handbook addresses the important aspects of these changes, to facilitate proper selection and specification of FOS observing programs. Since the Handbook was published, the FOS red detector has been replaced twice, first with the best available spare in 1985 (which proved to have a poor, and steadily degrading red response), and later with a newly developed Digicon, which exhibits a high, stable efficiency and a dark-count rate less than half that of its predecessors. Also, the FOS optical train was realigned in 1987-88 to eliminate considerable beam-vignetting losses, and the collimators were both removed and recoated for greater reflectivity. Following the optics and detector rework, the FOS was carefully recalibrated (although only ambient measurements were possible, so the far-UV characteristics could not be re-evaluated directly). The resulting efficiency curves, including improved estimates of the telescope throughput, are shown. A number of changes in the observing-mode specifications and addition of several optional parameters resulted as the Proposal Instructions were honed during the last year. Target-brightness limitations, which have only recently been formulated carefully, are described. Although these restrictions are very conservative, it is imperative that the detector safety be guarded closely, especially during the initial stages of flight operations. Restrictions on the use of the internal calibration lamps and aperture-illumination sources (TA LEDs), also resulting from detector safety considerations, are outlined. Finally, many changes have been made to

  3. Building the Hubble Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'dell, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the design for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is discussed. The HST optical system is described and illustrated. The financial and policy issues related to the development of the HST are considered. The actual construction of the HST optical telescope is examined. Also, consideration is given to the plans for the HST launch

  4. HUBBLE VISION: A Planetarium Show About Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, a planetarium show called "Hubble: Report From Orbit" outlining the current achievements of the Hubble Space Telescope was produced by the independent planetarium production company Loch Ness Productions, for distribution to facilities around the world. The program was subsequently converted to video. In 1994, that program was updated and re-produced under the name "Hubble Vision" and offered to the planetarium community. It is periodically updated and remains a sought-after and valuable resource within the community. This paper describes the production of the program, and the role of the astronomical community in the show's production (and subsequent updates). The paper is accompanied by a video presentation of Hubble Vision.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope via the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Christopher P.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) makes available a wide variety of information concerning the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) via the Space Telescope Electronic Information Service (STEIS). STEIS is accessible via anonymous ftp, gopher, WAIS, and WWW. The information on STEIS includes how to propose for time on the HST, the current status of HST, reports on the scientific instruments, the observing schedule, data reduction software, calibration files, and a set of publicly available images in JPEG, GIF and TIFF format. STEIS serves both the astronomical community as well as the larger Internet community. WWW is currently the most widely used interface to STEIS. Future developments on STEIS are expected to include larger amounts of hypertext, especially HST images and educational material of interest to students, educators, and the general public, and the ability to query proposal status.

  6. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not

  7. Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, Thomas H.; Bush, John R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) electrical power system (EPS) is supplying between 2000 and 2400 W of continuous power to the electrical loads. The major components of the EPS are the 5000-W back surface field reflector solar array, the six nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) 22-cell 88-Ah batteries, and the charge current controllers, which, in conjunction with the flight computer, control battery charging. The operation of the HST EPS and the results of the HST NiH2 six-battery test are discussed, and preliminary flight data are reviewed. The HST NiH2 six-battery test is a breadboard of the HST EPS on test at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  8. Astronaut Anna Fisher in NBS Training For Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown is astronaut Anna Fisher training on a mock-up of a modular section of the HST for an axial scientific instrument change out.

  9. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope, Faint Object Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This drawing illustrates Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's), Faint Object Camera (FOC). The FOC reflects light down one of two optical pathways. The light enters a detector after passing through filters or through devices that can block out light from bright objects. Light from bright objects is blocked out to enable the FOC to see background images. The detector intensifies the image, then records it much like a television camera. For faint objects, images can be built up over long exposure times. The total image is translated into digital data, transmitted to Earth, and then reconstructed. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope: Should NASA Proceed with a Servicing Mission?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) estimates that without a servicing mission to replace key components, the Hubble Space Telescope will cease scientific operations in 2008 instead of 2010...

  12. Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, B. E.; Boggess, A.; Gull, T. R.; Heap, S. R.; Krueger, V. L.; Maran, S. P.; Melcher, R. W.; Rebar, F. J.; Vitagliano, H. D.; Green, R. F.; Wolff, S. C.; Hutchings, J. B.; Jenkins, E. B.; Linsky, J. L.; Moos, H. W.; Roesler, F.; Shine, R. A.; Timothy, J. G.; Weistrop, D. E.; Bottema, M.; Meyer, W.

    1986-01-01

    The preliminary design for the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), which has been selected by NASA for definition study for future flight as a second-generation instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is presented. STIS is a two-dimensional spectrograph that will operate from 1050 A to 11,000 A at the limiting HST resolution of 0.05 arcsec FWHM, with spectral resolutions of 100, 1200, 20,000, and 100,000 and a maximum field-of-view of 50 x 50 arcsec. Its basic operating modes include echelle model, long slit mode, slitless spectrograph mode, coronographic spectroscopy, photon time-tagging, and direct imaging. Research objectives are active galactic nuclei, the intergalactic medium, global properties of galaxies, the origin of stellar systems, stelalr spectral variability, and spectrographic mapping of solar system processes.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Image of Omega Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This sturning image, taken by the newly installed Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is an image of the center of the Omega Nebula. It is a hotbed of newly born stars wrapped in colorful blankets of glowing gas and cradled in an enormous cold, dark hydrogen cloud. The region of nebula shown in this photograph is about 3,500 times wider than our solar system. The nebula, also called M17 and the Swan Nebula, resides 5,500 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The Swan Nebula is illuminated by ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars, located just beyond the upper-right corner of the image. The powerful radiation from these stars evaporates and erodes the dense cloud of cold gas within which the stars formed. The blistered walls of the hollow cloud shine primarily in the blue, green, and red light emitted by excited atoms of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Particularly striking is the rose-like feature, seen to the right of center, which glows in the red light emitted by hydrogen and sulfur. As the infant stars evaporate the surrounding cloud, they expose dense pockets of gas that may contain developing stars. One isolated pocket is seen at the center of the brightest region of the nebula. Other dense pockets of gas have formed the remarkable feature jutting inward from the left edge of the image. The color image is constructed from four separate images taken in these filters: blue, near infrared, hydrogen alpha, and doubly ionized oxygen. Credit: NASA, H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (USCS/LO), M. Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  15. European astronomers' successes with the Hubble Space Telescope*

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    [Figure: Laguna Nebula] Their work spans all aspects of astronomy, from the planets to the most distant galaxies and quasars, and the following examples are just a few European highlights from Hubble's second phase, 1994-96. A scarcity of midget stars Stars less massive and fainter than the Sun are much numerous in the Milky Way Galaxy than the big bright stars that catch the eye. Guido De Marchi and Francesco Paresce of the European Southern Observatory as Garching, Germany, have counted them. With the wide-field WFPC2 camera, they have taken sample censuses within six globular clusters, which are large gatherings of stars orbiting independently in the Galaxy. In every case they find that the commonest stars have an output of light that is only one-hundredth of the Sun's. They are ten times more numerous than stars like the Sun. More significant for theories of the Universe is a scarcity of very faint stars. Some astronomers have suggested that vast numbers of such stars could account for the mysterious dark matter, which makes stars and galaxies move about more rapidly than expected from the mass of visible matter. But that would require an ever-growing count of objects at low brightnesses, and De Marchi and Paresce find the opposite to be the case -- the numbers diminish. There may be a minimum size below which Nature finds starmaking difficult. The few examples of very small stars seen so far by astronomers may be, not the heralds of a multitude of dark-matter stars, but rareties. Unchanging habits in starmaking Confirmation that very small stars are scarce comes from Gerry Gilmore of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge (UK). He leads a European team that analyses long-exposure images in the WFPC2 camera, obtained as a by-product when another instrument is examining a selected object. The result is an almost random sample of well-observed stars and galaxies. The most remarkable general conclusion is that the make-up of stellar populations never seems to

  16. Hubble Space Telescope nickel hydrogen battery system briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, David; Saldana, David; Rao, Gopal

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Mission; system constraints; battery specification; battery module; simplified block diagram; cell design summary; present status; voltage decay; system depth of discharge; pressure since launch; system capacity; eclipse time vs. trickle charge; capacity test objectives; and capacity during tests.

  17. Update on the Status of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Aloisi, A.; Bostroem, K. A.; Cox, C.; Debes, J. H.; DiFelice, A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Hodge, P.; Holland, S.; Lindsay, K.; Lockwood, S. A.; Mason, E.; Oliveira, C. M.; Penton, S. V.; Proffitt, C. R.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Taylor, J. M.; Wheeler, T.

    2013-06-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) has been on orbit for approximately 16 years as one of the 2nd generation instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Its operations were interrupted by an electronics failure in 2004, but STIS was successfully repaired in May 2009 during Service Mission 4 (SM4) allowing it to resume science observations. The Instrument team continues to monitor its performance and work towards improving the quality of its products. Here we present updated information on the status of the FUV and NUV MAMA and the CCD detectors onboard STIS and describe recent changes to the STIS calibration pipeline. We also discuss the status of efforts to apply a pixel-based correction for charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) effects to STIS CCD data. These techniques show promise for ameliorating the effects of ongoing radiation damage on the quality of STIS CCD data.

  18. Eyes on the Universe: The Legacy of the Hubble Space Telescope and Looking to the Future with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the Hubble Space Telescope has revolutionized our understanding of the Universe. Most recently, the complete refurbishment of Hubble in 2009 has given new life to the telescope and the new science instruments have already produced groundbreaking science results, revealing some of the most distant galaxy candidates ever discovered. Despite the remarkable advances in astrophysics that Hubble has provided, the new questions that have arisen demand a new space telescope with new technologies and capabilities. I will present the exciting new technology development and science goals of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, which is currently being built and tested and will be launched this decade.

  19. Nickel-hydrogen battery testing for Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Randy M.; Whitt, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors identify objectives and provide data from several nickel-hydrogen battery tests designed to evaluate the possibility of launching Ni-H2 batteries on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Test results from a 14-cell battery, a 12-cell battery, and a 4-cell pack are presented. Results of a thermal vacuum test to verify the battery-module/bay heat rejection capacity are reported. A 6-battery system simulation breadboard is described, and test results are presented.

  20. The Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, D. E.; Armantrout, J. D.; Standlee, D. J.; Baker, R. C.; Lanier, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Details are presented of the HST (Hubble Space Telescope) battery cell, battery package, and module mechanical and electrical designs. Also included are a summary of acceptance, qualification, and vibration tests and thermal vacuum testing. Unique details of battery cell charge retention performance characteristics associated with prelaunch hold conditions are discussed. Special charge control methods to minimize thermal dissipation during pad charging operations are summarized. This module design meets all NASA fracture control requirements for manned missions.

  1. Thick Disks in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Tompkins, Brittany; Jenks, Leah G., E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    Thick disk evolution is studied using edge-on galaxies in two Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field Parallels. The galaxies were separated into 72 clumpy types and 35 spiral types with bulges. Perpendicular light profiles in F435W, F606W, and F814W ( B , V , and I ) passbands were measured at 1 pixel intervals along the major axes and fitted to sech{sup 2} functions convolved with the instrument line spread function (LSF). The LSF was determined from the average point spread function of ∼20 stars in each passband and field, convolved with a line of uniform brightness to simulate disk blurring. A spread function for a clumpy disk was also used for comparison. The resulting scale heights were found to be proportional to galactic mass, with the average height for a 10{sup 10±0.5} M {sub ⊙} galaxy at z = 2 ± 0.5 equal to 0.63 ± 0.24 kpc. This value is probably the result of a blend between thin and thick disk components that cannot be resolved. Evidence for such two-component structure is present in an inverse correlation between height and midplane surface brightness. Models suggest that the thick disk is observed best between the clumps, and there the average scale height is 1.06 ± 0.43 kpc for the same mass and redshift. A 0.63 ± 0.68 mag V − I color differential with height is also evidence for a mixture of thin and thick components.

  2. Determination and characterization of the Hubble Space Telescope pointing stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. J.; Connor, C. T.; del Toro, Y.; Andersen, G. C.; Bely, Pierre Y.; Decker, J.; Franz, O. G.; Wasserman, L. H.; van Altena, William F.

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was designed to maintian a pointing stability (jitter) of 0.007 arc seconds rms throughout every observing period, which can last from a few seconds to several orbits. On-orbit measurements indicate that the hardware excitation induced by the reaction wheels. gyros, high gain antennae, science instrument mechanisms and tape recorders are well within specifications. Unexpectedly, the solar arrays because the dominant source of jitter. Every passage through an orbital terminator produces vibrations which emanate from the solar arrays due to thermal effects, which affect the relative positional stability. Broadband frequencies centered about 0.11 and 0.65 Hz were detected in the frequency content of the vehicle jitter. On-board modifications to the control law have attenuated the disturbance torques and reduced the vehicle jitter close to specification. Replacement of the solar arrays in December, 1993, should eliminate the torque distubances. Astrometric science observations are extremely susceptible to corruption from vehicle jitter. The removal of vehicle jitter from astrometric Transfer function scans of binary stars is explained in detail. A binary star separation of 16 milli-seconds of arc has been achieved, a separation resolution of 10 to 12 milli-seconds of arc appears feasible, with a binary star magnitude of 9 m(sub V). The achievement of this resolution is in part due to vehicle jitter removal. Comparison of vehicle jitter measurements from the position path of the vehicle control law, or from the guiding Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS), are shown to be equivalent to approximately 0.001 arc second.

  3. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the important discoveries of the last decade, from dwarf planets in the outer Solar System to the mysterious dark energy that overcomes gravity to accelerate the expansion of the Universe. The next decade will be equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. An infrared-optimized 6.5m space telescope, Webb is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the early universe and to peer into the dusty gas clouds where stars and planets are born. With MEMS technology, a deployed primary mirror and a tennis-court sized sunshield, the mission presents many technical challenges. I will describe Webb's scientific goals, its design and recent progress in constructing the observatory. Webb is scheduled for launch in 2014.

  4. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z greater than 6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z greater than 10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (less than 50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In addition to JWST's ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems, and discuss recent progress in constructing the observatory.

  5. The Hubble Space Telescope from concept to success

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2016-01-01

    The highly successful Hubble Space Telescope was meant to change our view and understanding of the universe. Within weeks of its launch in 1990, however, the space community was shocked to find out that the primary mirror of the telescope was flawed. It was only the skills of scientists and engineers on the ground and the daring talents of astronauts sent to service the telescope in December 1993 that saved the mission. For over two decades NASA had developed the capabilities to service a payload in orbit. This involved numerous studies and the creation of a ground-based infrastructure to support the challenging missions. Unique tools and EVA hardware supported the skills developed in crew training that then enabled astronauts to complete a demanding series of spacewalks. Drawing upon first hand interviews with those closely involved in the project over thirty years ago this story explains the development of the servicing mission concept and the hurdles that had to be overcome to not only launch the telescope...

  6. Spike: Artificial intelligence scheduling for Hubble space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mark; Miller, Glenn; Sponsler, Jeff; Vick, Shon; Jackson, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Efficient utilization of spacecraft resources is essential, but the accompanying scheduling problems are often computationally intractable and are difficult to approximate because of the presence of numerous interacting constraints. Artificial intelligence techniques were applied to the scheduling of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This presents a particularly challenging problem since a yearlong observing program can contain some tens of thousands of exposures which are subject to a large number of scientific, operational, spacecraft, and environmental constraints. New techniques were developed for machine reasoning about scheduling constraints and goals, especially in cases where uncertainty is an important scheduling consideration and where resolving conflicts among conflicting preferences is essential. These technique were utilized in a set of workstation based scheduling tools (Spike) for HST. Graphical displays of activities, constraints, and schedules are an important feature of the system. High level scheduling strategies using both rule based and neural network approaches were developed. While the specific constraints implemented are those most relevant to HST, the framework developed is far more general and could easily handle other kinds of scheduling problems. The concept and implementation of the Spike system are described along with some experiments in adapting Spike to other spacecraft scheduling domains.

  7. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PHOTOMETRY OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nantais, Julie B.; Huchra, John P.; Zezas, Andreas; Gazeas, Kosmas; Strader, Jay

    2011-01-01

    We perform aperture photometry and profile fitting on 419 globular cluster (GC) candidates with m V ≤ 23 mag identified in Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys BVI imaging, and estimate the effective radii of the clusters. We identify 85 previously known spectroscopically confirmed clusters, and newly identify 136 objects as good cluster candidates within the 3σ color and size ranges defined by the spectroscopically confirmed clusters, yielding a total of 221 probable GCs. The luminosity function peak for the 221 probable GCs with estimated total dereddening applied is V ∼ (20.26 ± 0.13) mag, corresponding to a distance of ∼3.7 ± 0.3 Mpc. The blue and red GC candidates, and the metal-rich and metal-poor spectroscopically confirmed clusters, respectively, are similar in half-light radius. Red confirmed clusters are about 6% larger in median half-light radius than blue confirmed clusters, and red and blue good GC candidates are nearly identical in half-light radius. The total population of confirmed and 'good' candidates shows an increase in half-light radius as a function of galactocentric distance.

  8. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .4. Association of sources with Hubble Deep Field galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the identification of sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 6.7 and 15 mu m in the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region. We conservatively associate ISO sources with objects in existing optical and near-infrared HDF catalogues using the likelihood ratio method, confirming...... these results (and, in one case, clarifying them) with independent visual searches, We find 15 ISO sources to be reliably associated with bright [I-814(AB) HDF, and one with an I-814(AB)=19.9 star, while a further 11 are associated with objects in the Hubble Flanking Fields (10 galaxies...... and one star), Amongst optically bright HDF galaxies, ISO tends to detect luminous, star-forming galaxies at fairly high redshift and with disturbed morphologies, in preference to nearby ellipticals....

  9. Crew of Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission visits Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Hubble Space telescope servicing mission in December (STS-61) was a great success and the fully refurbished orbiting telescope produced absolutely remarkable first results just two weeks ago. The 7-member crew who carried out the mission will soon be in Europe to share their experience with the Press, ESA space specialists and the European space community. Public conferences will also be held in Switzerland, the home country of ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier. The visit of the STS-61 crew is scheduled as follows: Friday 11 February, 1994 - ESA Paris, France Presentation and Press Conference Location: ESA, 8/10 Rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris time: 16:00 hrs - 17:30 hrs contact: ESA, Public Relations Office Tel. (+33) 1 42 73 71 55 Fax. (+33) 1 42 73 76 90 Monday 14 February, 1994 - British Aerospace, Bristol, United Kingdom Presentation and Press Conference Location: British Aerospace, FPC 333, Filton, Bristol BS12 7QW time: 10:00 hrs - 12:00 hrs contact: BAe, Public Relations Tel. (+44) 272 36 33 69 Tel. (+44) 272 36 33 68 Tuesday 15 February, 1994 - ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands Presentation and Press Conference Location: Noordwijk Space Expo, Keplerlaan 3, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, the Netherlands time: 09:30 hrs - 12:00 hrs contact: ESTEC Public Relations Office Tel. (+31) 1719 8 3006 Fax. (+31) 1719 17 400 Wednesday 16 February, 1944 - ESO, Garching - Munich, Germany Presentation and Press Conference Location: European Southern Observatory, Karl- Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching -Munich, Germany time: to be decided contact: ESO Information Service Tel. (+49) 89 32 006 276 Fax. (+49) 89 320 23 62 Thursday 17 February, 1994 - Bern, Switzerland a. Presentation and Press Conference Location: Hotel Bern, Zeughausgasse 9, 3001 Bern, Switzerland time: 09:30 hrs contact: Press & Information Service of the Federal Dept. for Education & Sciences Tel. (+41) 31 322 80 34 Fax. (+41) 31 312 30 15 b. Public conference Location: University of Bern, Institute of Physics

  10. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ASTROMETRY OF THE PROCYON SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L.; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Nelan, Edmund P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Demarque, Pierre; Girard, Terrence M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Holberg, Jay B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1541 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gudehus, Donald [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Mason, Brian D. [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave., Washington, DC 20392 (United States); Burleigh, Matthew R.; Barstow, Martin A., E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-10

    The nearby star Procyon is a visual binary containing the F5 IV-V subgiant Procyon A, orbited in a 40.84-year period by the faint DQZ white dwarf (WD) Procyon B. Using images obtained over two decades with the Hubble Space Telescope, and historical measurements back to the 19th century, we have determined precise orbital elements. Combined with measurements of the parallax and the motion of the A component, these elements yield dynamical masses of 1.478 ± 0.012 M{sub ⊙} and 0.592 ± 0.006 M{sub ⊙} for A and B, respectively. The mass of Procyon A agrees well with theoretical predictions based on asteroseismology and its temperature and luminosity. Use of a standard core-overshoot model agrees best for a surprisingly high amount of core overshoot. Under these modeling assumptions, Procyon A’s age is ∼2.7 Gyr. Procyon B’s location in the H-R diagram is in excellent agreement with theoretical cooling tracks for WDs of its dynamical mass. Its position in the mass–radius plane is also consistent with theory, assuming a carbon–oxygen core and a helium-dominated atmosphere. Its progenitor’s mass was 1.9–2.2 M{sub ⊙}, depending on its amount of core overshoot. Several astrophysical puzzles remain. In the progenitor system, the stars at periastron were separated by only ∼5 AU, which might have led to tidal interactions and even mass transfer; yet there is no direct evidence that these have occurred. Moreover the orbital eccentricity has remained high (∼0.40). The mass of Procyon B is somewhat lower than anticipated from the initial-to-final-mass relation seen in open clusters. The presence of heavy elements in its atmosphere requires ongoing accretion, but the place of origin is uncertain.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope EVA Power Ratchet Tool redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Paul W.; Park, Chan; Brown, Lee

    The Power Ratchet Tool (PRT) is a self contained, power-driven, 3/8 inch drive ratchet wrench which will be used by astronauts during Extravehicular Activities (EVA). This battery-powered tool is controlled by a dedicated electonic controller. The PRT was flown during the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Deployment Mission STS-31 to deploy the solar arrays if the automatic mechanisms failed. The PRT is currently intended for use during the first HST Servicing Mission STS-61 as a general purpose power tool. The PRT consists of three major components; the wrench, the controller, and the battery module. Fourteen discrete combinations of torque, turns, and speed may be programmed into the controller before the EVA. The crewmember selects the desired parameter profile by a switch mounted on the controller. The tool may also be used in the manual mode as a non-powered ratchet wrench. The power is provided by a silver-zinc battery module, which fits into the controller and is replaceable during an EVA. The original PRT did not meet the design specification of torque output and hours of operation. To increase efficiency and reliability the PRT underwent a redesign effort. The majority of this effort focused on the wrench. The original PRT drive train consisted of a low torque, high speed brushless DC motor, a face gear set, and a planocentric gear assembly. The total gear reduction was 300:1. The new PRT wrench consists of a low speed, high torque brushless DC motor, two planetary gear sets and a bevel gear set. The total gear reduction is now 75:1. A spline clutch has also been added to disengage the drive train in the manual mode. The design changes to the controller will consist of only those modifications necessary to accomodate the redesigned wrench.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Astrometry of the Procyon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Howard E.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Demarque, Pierre; Girard, Terrence M.; Holberg, Jay B.; Gudehus, Donald; Mason, Brian D.; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Burleigh, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The nearby star Procyon is a visual binary containing the F5 IV-V subgiant Procyon A, orbited in a 40.84-year period by the faint DQZ white dwarf (WD) Procyon B. Using images obtained over two decades with the Hubble Space Telescope, and historical measurements back to the 19th century, we have determined precise orbital elements. Combined with measurements of the parallax and the motion of the A component, these elements yield dynamical masses of 1.478 plus or minus 0.012M and 0.592 plus or minus 0.006M for A and B, respectively. The mass of Procyon A agrees well with theoretical predictions based on asteroseismology and its temperature and luminosity. Use of a standard core-overshoot model agrees best for a surprisingly high amount of core overshoot. Under these modeling assumptions, Procyon A's age is approximately 2.7 Gyr. Procyon B's location in the H-R diagram is in excellent agreement with theoretical cooling tracks for WDs of its dynamical mass. Its position in the mass-radius plane is also consistent with theory, assuming a carbon-oxygen core and a helium-dominated atmosphere. Its progenitor's mass was 1.9-2.2M, depending on its amount of core overshoot. Several astrophysical puzzles remain. In the progenitor system, the stars at periastron were separated by only approximately AU, which might have led to tidal interactions and even mass transfer; yet there is no direct evidence that these have occurred. Moreover the orbital eccentricity has remained high (approximately 0.40). The mass of Procyon B is somewhat lower than anticipated from the initial-to-final-mass relation seen in open clusters. The presence of heavy elements in its atmosphere requires ongoing accretion, but the place of origin is uncertain.

  13. Distance determinations to shield galaxies from Hubble space telescope imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M.; Cave, Ian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Juërgen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Saintonge, Amélie, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2014-04-10

    The Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarf (SHIELD) galaxies is an ongoing multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey based on their inferred low H I mass and low baryonic mass, and all systems have recent star formation. Thus, the SHIELD sample probes the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function for star-forming galaxies. Here, we measure the distances to the 12 SHIELD galaxies to be between 5 and 12 Mpc by applying the tip of the red giant method to the resolved stellar populations imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. Based on these distances, the H I masses in the sample range from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 6 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, with a median H I mass of 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. The tip of the red giant branch distances are up to 73% farther than flow-model estimates in the ALFALFA catalog. Because of the relatively large uncertainties of flow-model distances, we are biased toward selecting galaxies from the ALFALFA catalog where the flow model underestimates the true distances. The measured distances allow for an assessment of the native environments around the sample members. Five of the galaxies are part of the NGC 672 and NGC 784 groups, which together constitute a single structure. One galaxy is part of a larger linear ensemble of nine systems that stretches 1.6 Mpc from end to end. Three galaxies reside in regions with 1-9 neighbors, and four galaxies are truly isolated with no known system identified within a radius of 1 Mpc.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Image, Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The colorful streamers that float across the sky in this photo taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were created by the universe's biggest firecracker, the titanic supernova explosion of a massive star. The light from the exploding star reached Earth 320 years ago, nearly a century before the United States celebrated its birth with a bang. The dead star's shredded remains are called Cassiopeia A, or 'Cas A' for short. Cas A is the youngest known supernova remnant in our Milky Way Galaxy and resides 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia, so the star actually blew up 10,000 years before the light reached Earth in the late 1600s. This HST image of Cas A shows for the first time that the debris is arranged into thousands of small, cooling knots of gas. This material eventually will be recycled into building new generations of stars and planets. Our own Sun and planets are constructed from the debris of supernovae that exploded billions of years ago. This photo shows the upper rim of the super nova remnant's expanding shell. Near the top of the image are dozens of tiny clumps of matter. Each small clump, originally just a small fragment of the star, is tens of times larger than the diameter of our solar system. The colors highlight parts of the debris where chemical elements are glowing. The dark blue fragments, for example, are richest in oxygen; the red material is rich in sulfur. The images were taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in January 2000 and January 2002. Image Credit: NASA and HST team (Stoics/AURA). Acknowledgment: R. Fesen (Darmouth) and J. Morse ( Univ. of Colorado).

  15. Space instrumentation: physics and astronomy in harmony?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderin, M

    2008-01-01

    Surrey Satellite Technology Limited was formed as a company in 1985 and has been involved in 23 small satellite missions, making it the most successful and experienced small satellite supplier in the world. The challenge of getting a satellite into space takes a dedicated multidisciplinary team of physicists and engineers working together to achieve a common goal. In this paper the author will look at the breakdown of the teams for a number of space projects including NigeriaSAT1; one of the satellites that make up the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), which produces high quality commercial images for monitoring agriculture and the environment as well as dedicating a proportion of it's time to disaster monitoring. Commercial projects like this will be contrasted to instruments such as the Integral Field Unit (IFU) for the NIRSpec instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST is the replacement for the Hubble Space telescope). Although both projects have been running through commercial contracts at SSTL, how does the final goal of the instrument influence the synergy between the physics and the engineering needed to make it, and what, if any, economic differences are seen?

  16. Hubble Space Telescope: a Vision to 2020 and Beyond: The Hubble Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolger, Louis-Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The Hubble Source Catalog (HSC) is an initiative centered on what science would be enabled by a master catalog of all the sources HST has imaged over its lifetime. The first version of this catalog was released in early 2015, and included approximately 30 million sources from archived direct imaging with WFPC2, ACS (through 2011), and WFC3 (to 2014). Version 2, scheduled for release in early 2016, will feed off the Hubble Legacy Archive DR9 release, updating the ACS sources with more detections, and more direct imaging, through to mid-2015. This talk will overview the properties and goals of the HSC in terms of its source detection, object resolution, confusion limits, and overall astrometric and photometric precision. I will also discuss the connections to other MAST activities (e.g., the Discovery Portal interface), to STScI and user products (e.g., the Spectroscopic Catalog and High-Level Science Products), and to community resources (e.g., Pan-STARRS, SDSS, and eventually GAIA). The HSC successfully amalgamates the diverse observations with HST, and despite the limitations in uniformity on the sky, will be an important reference for JWST, LSST, and other future telescopes.

  17. Hubble space telescope: The GO and GTO observing programs, version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Ron

    1992-01-01

    A portion of the observing time with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was awarded by NASA to scientists involved in the development of the HST and its instruments. These scientists are the Guaranteed Time Observers (GTO's). Observing time was also awarded to General Observers (GO's) on the basis of the proposal reviews in 1989 and 1991. The majority of the 1989 programs have been completed during 'Cycle 1', while the 1991 programs will be completed during 'Cycle 2', nominally a 12-month period beginning July 1992. This document presents abstracts of these GO and GTO programs, and detailed listings of the specific targets and exposures contained in them. These programs and exposures are protected by NASA policy, as detailed in the HST Call for Proposals (CP), and are not to be duplicated by new programs.

  18. New Cosmic Horizons: Space Astronomy from the V2 to the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, David

    2001-02-01

    Preface; 1. The sounding rocket era; 2. The start of the space race; 3. Initial exploration of the Solar System; 4. Lunar exploration; 5. Mars and Venus; early results; 6. Mars and Venus; the middle period; 7. Venus, Mars and cometary spacecraft post-1980; 8. Early missions to the outer planets; 9. The Voyager missions to the outer planets; 10. The Sun; 11. Early spacecraft observations of non-solar system sources; 12. A period of rapid growth; 13. The high energy astronomy observatory programme; 14. IUE, IRAS and Exosat - spacecraft for the early 1980s; 15. Hiatus; 16. Business as usual; 17. The Hubble Space Telescope.

  19. Finding our Origins with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is planning a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope designed to study the origins of galaxies, stars, planets and life in the universe. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss the origin and evolution of galaxies, beginning with the Big Bang and tracing what we have learned with Hubble through to the present day. He will show that results from studies with Hubble have led to plans for its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. Webb is scheduled to launch in 2014, and is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the distant past and to penetrate the dusty clouds of gas where stars are still forming today. He will compare Webb to Hubble, and discuss recent progress in the construction of the observatory.

  20. Hartmann wavefront sensing of the corrective optics for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Pam S.; Eichhorn, William L.; Wilson, Mark E.

    1994-06-01

    There is no doubt that astronomy with the `new, improved' Hubble Space Telescope will significantly advance our knowledge and understanding of the universe for years to come. The Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) was designed to restore the image quality to nearly diffraction limited performance for three of the first generation instruments; the faint object camera, the faint object spectrograph, and the Goddard high resolution spectrograph. Spectacular images have been obtained from the faint object camera after the installation of the corrective optics during the first servicing mission in December of 1993. About 85% of the light in the central core of the corrected image is contained within a circle with a diameter of 0.2 arcsec. This is a vast improvement over the previous 15 to 17% encircled energies obtained before COSTAR. Clearly COSTAR is a success. One reason for the overwhelming success of COSTAR was the ambitious and comprehensive test program conducted by various groups throughout the program. For optical testing of COSTAR on the ground, engineers at Ball Aerospace designed and built the refractive Hubble simulator to produce known amounts of spherical aberration and astigmatism at specific points in the field of view. The design goal for this refractive aberrated simulator (RAS) was to match the aberrations of the Hubble Space Telescope to within (lambda) /20 rms over the field at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. When the COSTAR optics were combined with the RAS optics, the corrected COSTAR output images were produced. These COSTAR images were recorded with a high resolution 1024 by 1024 array CCD camera, the Ball image analyzer (BIA). The image quality criteria used for assessment of COSTAR performance was encircled energy in the COSTAR focal plane. This test with the BIA was very important because it was a direct measurement of the point spread function. But it was difficult with this test to say anything quantitative about the

  1. Metrical connection in space-time, Newton's and Hubble's laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory of gravitation in general relativity is not scale invariant. Here, we follow Dirac's proposition of a scale invariant theory of gravitation (i.e. a theory in which the equations keep their form when a transformation of scale is made). We examine some concepts of Weyl's geometry, like the metrical connection, the scale transformations and invariance, and we discuss their consequences for the equation of the geodetic motion and for its Newtonian limit. Under general conditions, we show that the only non-vanishing component of the coefficient of metrical connection may be identified with Hubble's constant. In this framework, the equivalent to the Newtonian approximation for the equation of motion contains an additional acceleration term Hdr vector /dt, which produces an expansion of gravitational systems. The velocity of this expansion is shown to increase linearly with the distance between interacting objects. The relative importance of this new expansion term to the Newtonian one varies like (2rhosub(c)/rho)sup(1/2), where rhosub(c) is the critical density of the Einsteinde Sitter model and rho is the mean density of the considered gravitational configuration. Thus, this 'generalized expansion' is important essentially for systems of mean density not too much above the critical density. Finally, our main conclusion is that in the integrable Weyl geometry, Hubble's law - like Newton's law - would appear as an intrinsic property of gravitation, being only the most visible manifestation of a general effect characterizing the gravitational interaction. (orig.) [de

  2. Hubble Space Telescope - Scientific, Technological and Social Contributions to the Public Discourse on Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has unified the world with a sense of awe and wonder for 2 I years and is currently more scientifically powerful than ever. I will present highlights of discoveries made with the Hubble Space Telescope, including details of planetary weather, star formation, extra-solar planets, colliding galaxies, and a universe expanding with the acceleration of dark energy. I will also present the unique technical challenges and triumphs of this phenomenal observatory, and discuss how our discoveries in the cosmos affect our sense of human unity, significance, and wonder.

  3. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .1. Data reduction, maps and sky coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.B.G.; Eaton, N.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present deep imaging at 6.7 and 15 mu m from the CAM instrument on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), centred on the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). These are the deepest integrations published to date at these wavelengths in any region of sky. We discuss the observational strategy and the data...... reduction. The observed source density appears to approach the CAM confusion limit at 15 mu m, and fluctuations in the 6.7-mu m sky background may be identifiable with similar spatial fluctuations in the HDF galaxy counts. ISO appears to be detecting comparable field galaxy populations to the HDF, and our...

  4. Charge retention test experiences on Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Dave E.; Driscoll, J. R.; Armantrout, J. D.; Baker, R. C.; Wajsgras, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen battery module was designed by Lockheed Missile & Space Co (LMSC) and manufactured by Eagle-Picher Ind. (EPI) for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) for the nickel-cadmium batteries originally selected for this low earth orbit mission. The design features of the HST nickel hydrogen battery are described and the results of an extended charge retention test are summarized.

  5. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .2. Source detection and photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, P.; Oliver, S.J.; Serjeant, S.B.G.

    1997-01-01

    We present positions and fluxes of point sources found in the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) images of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) at 6.7 and 15 mu m. We have constructed algorithmically selected 'complete' flux-limited samples of 19 sources in the 15-mu m image, and seven sources in the 6.7-mu m...

  6. A guide to hubble space telescope objects their selection, location, and significance

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, James L

    2015-01-01

    From the authors of "How to Find the Apollo Landing Sites," this is a guide to connecting the view above with the history of recent scientific discoveries from the Hubble Space Telescope. Each selected HST photo is shown with a sky map and a photograph or drawing to illustrate where to find it and how it should appear from a backyard telescope. Here is the casual observer's chance to locate the deep space objects visually, and appreciate the historic Hubble photos in comparison to what is visible from a backyard telescope. HST objects of all types are addressed, from Messier objects, Caldwell objects, and NGC objects, and are arranged in terms of what can be seen during the seasons. Additionally, the reader is given an historical perspective on the work of Edwin Hubble, while locating and viewing the deep space objects that changed astronomy forever.  Countless people have seen the amazing photographs taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. But how many people can actually point out where in the sky ...

  7. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments

  8. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marsh, Kenneth A., E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  9. The Hubble Space Telescope: UV, Visible, and Near-Infrared Pursuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope continues to push the limits on world-class astrophysics. Cameras including the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the new panchromatic Wide Field Camera 3 which was installed nu last year's successful servicing mission S2N4,o{fer imaging from near-infrared through ultraviolet wavelengths. Spectroscopic studies of sources from black holes to exoplanet atmospheres are making great advances through the versatile use of STIS, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The new Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, also installed last year, is the most sensitive UV spectrograph to fly io space and is uniquely suited to address particular scientific questions on galaxy halos, the intergalactic medium, and the cosmic web. With these outstanding capabilities on HST come complex needs for laboratory astrophysics support including atomic and line identification data. I will provide an overview of Hubble's current capabilities and the scientific programs and goals that particularly benefit from the studies of laboratory astrophysics.

  10. Asteroseismology of the Transiting Exoplanet Host HD 17156 with Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; McCullough, Peter R.; Nelan, Edmund P.

    2011-01-01

    light curve. Using the density constraint from asteroseismology, and stellar evolution modeling results in M * = 1.285 ± 0.026 M sun, R * = 1.507 ± 0.012 R sun, and a stellar age of 3.2 ± 0.3 Gyr. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science......Observations conducted with the Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) providing high cadence and precision time-series photometry were obtained over 10 consecutive days in 2008 December on the host star of the transiting exoplanet HD 17156b. During this time, 1.0 × 1012 photons...... Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555....

  11. Characterizing the Evolution of Circumstellar Systems with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Gemini Planet Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Schuyler; Schuyler G. Wolff

    2018-01-01

    The study of circumstellar disks at a variety of evolutionary stages is essential to understand the physical processes leading to planet formation. The recent development of high contrast instruments designed to directly image the structures surrounding nearby stars, such as the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and coronagraphic data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have made detailed studies of circumstellar systems possible. In my thesis work I detail the observation and characterization of three systems. GPI polarization data for the transition disk, PDS 66 shows a double ring and gap structure with a temporally variable azimuthal asymmetry. This evolved morphology could indicate shadowing from some feature in the innermost regions of the disk, a gap-clearing planet, or a localized change in the dust properties of the disk. Millimeter continuum data of the DH Tau system places limits on the dust mass that is contributing to the strong accretion signature on the wide-separation planetary mass companion, DH Tau b. The lower than expected dust mass constrains the possible formation mechanism, with core accretion followed by dynamical scattering being the most likely. Finally, I present HST scattered light observations of the flared, edge-on protoplanetary disk ESO H$\\alpha$ 569. I combine these data with a spectral energy distribution to model the key structural parameters such as the geometry (disk outer radius, vertical scale height, radial flaring profile), total mass, and dust grain properties in the disk using the radiative transfer code MCFOST. In order to conduct this work, I developed a new tool set to optimize the fitting of disk parameters using the MCMC code \\texttt{emcee} to efficiently explore the high dimensional parameter space. This approach allows us to self-consistently and simultaneously fit a wide variety of observables in order to place constraints on the physical properties of a given disk, while also rigorously assessing the uncertainties in

  12. Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery testing: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, Thomas H.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) began testing the HST Ni-H2 Six Battery Test and the 'Flight Spare Battery' Tests approximately one year before the launch of the HST. These tests are operated and reported on by the MSFC, but are managed and funded by Goddard Space Flight Center in direct support of the HST program. The HST Ni-H2 batteries are built from Eagle Picher RNH-90-3 cells. The HST EPS (electrical power system) is a direct energy transfer power system. The HST Ni-H2 Six Battery Test is a breadboard of the HST EPS. The batteries in the test are composed of test module cells and packaged into three battery modules identical to the flight modules. This test is the HST EPS testbed. The 'Flight Spare Battery' Test is a simulation of one of the six battery channels on the HST. The cells in the test are from the flight spare lot of cells, which are the same lot of cells that three of the six HST flight batteries are made from. This test is the battery life test for the HST program.

  13. A knowledge-based system for monitoring the electrical power system of the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Pat

    1987-01-01

    The design and the prototype for the expert system for the Hubble Space Telescope's electrical power system are discussed. This prototype demonstrated the capability to use real time data from a 32k telemetry stream and to perform operational health and safety status monitoring, detect trends such as battery degradation, and detect anomalies such as solar array failures. This prototype, along with the pointing control system and data management system expert systems, forms the initial Telemetry Analysis for Lockheed Operated Spacecraft (TALOS) capability.

  14. Thermally Induced Vibrations of the Hubble Space Telescope's Solar Array 3 in a Test Simulated Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Derrick A.; Haile, William B.; Turczyn, Mark T.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) conducted a disturbance verification test on a flight Solar Array 3 (SA3) for the Hubble Space Telescope using the ESA Large Space Simulator (LSS) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The LSS cyclically illuminated the SA3 to simulate orbital temperature changes in a vacuum environment. Data acquisition systems measured signals from force transducers and accelerometers resulting from thermally induced vibrations of the SAI The LSS with its seismic mass boundary provided an excellent background environment for this test. This paper discusses the analysis performed on the measured transient SA3 responses and provides a summary of the results.

  15. O-6 Optical Property Degradation of the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera-2 Pick Off Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Karen M.; Hughes, D. W.; Lauer, H. V.; Burkett, P. J.; Reed, B. B.

    2011-01-01

    Degradation in the performance of optical components can be greatly affected by exposure to the space environment. Many factors can contribute to such degradation including surface contaminants; outgassing; vacuum, UV, and atomic oxygen exposure; temperature cycling; or combinations of parameters. In-situ observations give important clues to degradation processes, but there are relatively few opportunities to correlate those observations with post-flight ground analyses. The return of instruments from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) after its final servicing mission in May 2009 provided such an opportunity. Among the instruments returned from HST was the Wide-Field Planetary Camera-2 (WFPC-2), which had been exposed to the space environment for 16 years. This work focuses on the identifying the sources of degradation in the performance of the Pick-off mirror (POM) from WFPC-2. Techniques including surface reflectivity measurements, spectroscopic ellipsometry, FTIR (and ATR-FTIR) analyses, SEM/EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with and without ion milling, and wet and dry physical surface sampling were performed. Destructive and contact analyses took place only after completion of the non-destructive measurements. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was then repeated to determine the extent of contaminant removal by the destructive techniques, providing insight into the nature and extent of polymerization of the contaminant layer.

  16. Theoretical colours and isochrones for some Hubble Space Telescope colour systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, B.; Bell, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Synthetic spectra for effective temperatures of 4000-7250 K, logarithmic surface gravities typical of dwarfs and subgiants, and metallicities from solar values to 0.001 of the solar metallicity were used to derive a grid of synthetic surface brightness magnitudes for 21 of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera (WFC) band passes. The absolute magnitudes of these 21 band passes are also obtained for a set of globular cluster isochrones with different helium abundances, metallicities, oxygen abundances, and ages. The usefulness and efficiency of different sets of broad and intermediate bandwidth WFC colors for determining ages and metallicities for globular clusters are evaluated.

  17. Artificial neural network for the determination of Hubble Space Telescope aberration from stellar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Todd K.; Sandler, David G.

    1993-01-01

    An artificial-neural-network method, first developed for the measurement and control of atmospheric phase distortion, using stellar images, was used to estimate the optical aberration of the Hubble Space Telescope. A total of 26 estimates of distortion was obtained from 23 stellar images acquired at several secondary-mirror axial positions. The results were expressed as coefficients of eight orthogonal Zernike polynomials: focus through third-order spherical. For all modes other than spherical the measured aberration was small. The average spherical aberration of the estimates was -0.299 micron rms, which is in good agreement with predictions obtained when iterative phase-retrieval algorithms were used.

  18. The HST/WFC3 Quicklook Project: A User Interface to Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Matthew; Bajaj, Varun; Bowers, Ariel; Dulude, Michael; Durbin, Meredith; Gosmeyer, Catherine; Gunning, Heather; Khandrika, Harish; Martlin, Catherine; Sunnquist, Ben; Viana, Alex

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument, comprised of two detectors, UVIS (Ultraviolet-Visible) and IR (Infrared), has been acquiring ~ 50-100 images daily since its installation in 2009. The WFC3 Quicklook project provides a means for instrument analysts to store, calibrate, monitor, and interact with these data through the various Quicklook systems: (1) a ~ 175 TB filesystem, which stores the entire WFC3 archive on disk, (2) a MySQL database, which stores image header data, (3) a Python-based automation platform, which currently executes 22 unique calibration/monitoring scripts, (4) a Python-based code library, which provides system functionality such as logging, downloading tools, database connection objects, and filesystem management, and (5) a Python/Flask-based web interface to the Quicklook system. The Quicklook project has enabled large-scale WFC3 analyses and calibrations, such as the monitoring of the health and stability of the WFC3 instrument, the measurement of ~ 20 million WFC3/UVIS Point Spread Functions (PSFs), the creation of WFC3/IR persistence calibration products, and many others.

  19. Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of high-redshift quasars with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C. D.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Webb, Wayne; Petry, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of three bright high-redshift low-polarization quasars (LPQs) was obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Two of the quasars, PG 1634+706 and PG 2302+029, had polarizations p approximately = 0.5%-1.0% throughout the ultraviolet, and showed no significant variation of polarization amplitude or position angle with wavelength. PG 2302+029 was also marginally (2.4 sigma) circularly polarized in the optical continuum. For the highest redshift quasar, PG 1222+228 (Ton 1530), the polarization was measured down to rest wavelengths below 800 A. Although the continuum of PG 1222+228 was weakened by Lyman limit absorption from an intergalactic gas cloud, the polarization increased sharply from 1% to about 4.5%, a change of 4 sigma significance. This abrupt rise in polarization does not appear attributable to any known instrumental artifact. These UV polarizations were only slightly less than those previously observed for these same objects in the optical. The polarization spectra were flat with a typical slope of the polarized flux pF(sub nu) proportional to nu(exp -0.8 +/- 0.5). Unlike the case of several high luminosity Seyfert 1 nuclei studied previously, polarization caused by scattering from dust grains does not provide the best fit to the polarization spectra of these luminous quasars. These observed spectra are consistent with a wavelength-independent polarization proportional to the total nonstellar light or, possibly, to the contribution of the blue thermal component. The polarization spectra have insufficient signal-to-noise to locate the scatterers with respect to the continuum source and the much larger broad line region. A decrease in amplitude and rotation of the position angle of the polarization vector at the shortest wavelengths, which could result from general relativistic effects near a spinning black hole, was not observed. In fact, in PG 1222+228, the polarization was observed to

  20. The Chrysalis Opens? Photometry from the η Carinae Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Project, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. C.; Davidson, Kris; Koppelman, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    During the past decade η Car has brightened markedly, possibly indicating a change of state. Here we summarize photometry gathered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) as part of the HST Treasury Project on this object. Our data include Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) CCD acquisition images, Advanced Camera for Surveys HRC images in four filters, and synthetic photometry in flux-calibrated STIS spectra. The HST's spatial resolution allows us to examine the central star separate from the bright circumstellar ejecta. Its apparent brightness continued to increase briskly during 2002-2006, especially after the mid-2003 spectroscopic event. If this trend continues, the central star will soon become brighter than its ejecta, quite different from the state that existed only a few years ago. One precedent may be the rapid change observed in 1938-1953. We conjecture that the star's mass-loss rate has been decreasing throughout the past century. This research was conducted as part of the η Car Hubble Space Telescope Treasury project via grant GO-9973 from the Space Telescope Science Institute. HST is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Some of the data presented in this paper were obtained from the Multimission Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute (MAST). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support for MAST for non-HST data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NAG5-7584 and by other grants and contracts.

  1. NASA Astrophysics E/PO: A Quarter Century of Discovery and Inspiration with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirdeh, Hussein; Straughn, Amber; Smith, Denise Anne; Eisenhamer, Bonnie

    2015-08-01

    April 24, 2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. In its quarter-century in orbit, the Hubble Space Telescope has transformed the way we understand the Universe, helped us find our place among the stars, and paved the way to incredible advancements in science and technology.In this presentation, we explain how NASA and ESA, including the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and partners, is using the 25th anniversary of Hubble’s launch as a unique opportunity to communicate to students, educators, and the public the significance of the past quarter-century of discovery with the Hubble Space Telescope. We describe the various programs, resources, and experiences we are utilizing to enhancethe public understanding of Hubble’s many contributions to the scientific world. These include educator professional development opportunities, exhibits, events, traditional and social media, and resources for educators (formal k-12, informal, and higher education). We also highlight how we are capitalizing on Hubble’s cultural popularity to make the scientific connection to NASA’s next Great Observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope.This presentation highlights many of the opportunities by which students, educators, and the public are joining in the anniversary activities, both in-person and online. Find out more at hubble25th.org and follow #Hubble25 on social media.

  2. Proper Motions of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging. IV. Measurement for Sculptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton; Bristow, Paul; Olszewski, Edward W.; Harris, Hugh C.; Mateo, Mario; Minniti, Dante; Tinney, Christopher G.

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a measurement of the proper motion of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy determined from images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph in the imaging mode. Each of two distinct fields contains a quasi-stellar object that serves as the ``reference point.'' The measured proper motion of Sculptor, expressed in the equatorial coordinate system, is (μα, μδ)=(9+/-13, 2+/-13) mas century-1. Removing the contributions from the motion of the Sun and the motion of the local standard of rest produces the proper motion in the Galactic rest frame: (μGrfα, μGrfδ)=(-23+/-13, 45+/-13) mas century-1. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center has a radial component of Vr=79+/-6 km s-1 and a tangential component of Vt=198+/-50 km s-1. Integrating the motion of Sculptor in a realistic potential for the Milky Way produces orbital elements. The perigalacticon and apogalacticon are 68 (31, 83) and 122 (97, 313) kpc, respectively, where the values in the parentheses represent the 95% confidence interval derived from Monte Carlo experiments. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.29 (0.26, 0.60), and the orbital period is 2.2 (1.5, 4.9) Gyr. Sculptor is on a polar orbit around the Milky Way: the angle of inclination is 86° (83°, 90°). Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  3. Dynamical 3-Space: Supernovae and the Hubble Expansion — the Older Universe without Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We apply the new dynamics of 3-space to cosmology by deriving a Hubble expansion solution. This dynamics involves two constants; G and — the fine structure constant. This solution gives an excellent parameter-free fit to the recent supernova and gamma- ray burst redshift data without the need for “dark energy” or “dark matter”. The data and theory together imply an older age for the universe of some 14.7Gyrs. The 3-space dynamics has explained the bore hole anomaly, spiral galaxy flat rotation speeds, the masses of black holes in spherical galaxies, gravitational light bending and lensing, all without invoking “dark matter” or “dark energy”. These developments imply that a new understanding of the universe is now available.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Photometry of Hodge 301: An ``Old'' Star Cluster in 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebel, Eva K.; Chu, You-Hua

    2000-02-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Planetary Camera UVI data for Hodge 301, the little-studied cluster 3' northwest of the central ionizing cluster R136 in 30 Doradus. The average reddening of Hodge 301 is found to be =0.28+/-0.05 mag from published infrared and ultraviolet photometry. Using two different sets of evolutionary models, we derive an age of about 20-25 Myr for Hodge 301, which makes it roughly 10 times as old as R136. Hodge 301 is the most prominent representative of the oldest population in the 30 Dor starburst region, a region that has undergone multiple star formation events. This range of ages is an important consideration for the modeling of starburst regions. Hodge 301 shows a widened upper main sequence largely caused by Be stars. We present a list of Be star candidates. The slope of the initial mass function for intermediate-mass, main-sequence stars ranging from 10 to 1.3 Msolar is found to be Γ=-1.4+/-0.1, in good agreement with a Salpeter law. There is no indication for a truncation or change of slope of the initial mass function (IMF) within this mass range. In accordance with the age of Hodge 301, no obvious pre-main-sequence stars are seen down to about 1 Msolar. We estimate that up to 41+/-7 stars with masses more than 12 Msolar may have turned into supernovae since the formation of the cluster. Multiple supernova explosions are the most likely origin of the extremely violent gas motions and the diffuse X-ray emission observed in the cluster surroundings. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Trigonometric Parallax of Polaris B, Companion of the Nearest Cepheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Howard E.; Nelan, Edmund P.; Remage Evans, Nancy; Schaefer, Gail H.; Harmer, Dianne

    2018-01-01

    Polaris, the nearest and brightest Cepheid, is a potential anchor point for the Leavitt period–luminosity relation. However, its distance is a matter of contention, with recent advocacy for a parallax of ∼10 mas, in contrast with the Hipparcos measurement of 7.54 ± 0.11 mas. We report an independent trigonometric parallax determination, using the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Polaris itself is too bright for FGS, so we measured its eighth-magnitude companion Polaris B, relative to a network of background reference stars. We converted the FGS relative parallax to absolute, using estimated distances to the reference stars from ground-based photometry and spectral classification. Our result, 6.26 ± 0.24 mas, is even smaller than that found by Hipparcos. We note other objects for which Hipparcos appears to have overestimated parallaxes, including the well-established case of the Pleiades. We consider possible sources of systematic error in the FGS parallax, but find no evidence they are significant. If our “long” distance is correct, the high luminosity of Polaris indicates that it is pulsating in the second overtone of its fundamental mode. Our results raise several puzzles, including a long pulsation period for Polaris compared to second-overtone pulsators in the Magellanic Clouds, and a conflict between the isochrone age of Polaris B (∼2.1 Gyr) and the much younger age of Polaris A. We discuss possibilities that B is not a physical companion of A, in spite of the strong evidence that it is, or that one of the stars is a merger remnant. These issues may be resolved when Gaia provides parallaxes for both stars. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of cD Galaxies and Their Globular Cluster Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Andrés; Côté, Patrick; West, Michael J.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Minniti, Dante; Rejkuba, Marina

    2004-01-01

    We have used WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain F450W and F814W images of four cD galaxies (NGC 541 in Abell 194, NGC 2832 in Abell 779, NGC 4839 in Abell 1656, and NGC 7768 in Abell 2666) in the range 5400 km s-1cluster (GC) systems reveals no anomalies in terms of specific frequencies, metallicity gradients, average metallicities, or the metallicity offset between the globular clusters and the host galaxy. We show that the latter offset appears roughly constant at Δ[Fe/H]~0.8 dex for early-type galaxies spanning a luminosity range of roughly 4 orders of magnitude. We combine the globular cluster metallicity distributions with an empirical technique described in a series of earlier papers to investigate the form of the protogalactic mass spectrum in these cD galaxies. We find that the observed GC metallicity distributions are consistent with those expected if cD galaxies form through the cannibalism of numerous galaxies and protogalactic fragments that formed their stars and globular clusters before capture and disruption. However, the properties of their GC systems suggest that dynamical friction is not the primary mechanism by which these galaxies are assembled. We argue that cD's instead form rapidly, via hierarchical merging, prior to cluster virialization. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 Based in part on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, for VLT program 68.D-0130(A).

  7. Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey for Resolved Companions of Galactic Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.; Tingle, Evan; Karovska, Margarita; Pillitteri, Ignazio

    2016-05-01

    We have conducted an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of 70 Galactic Cepheids, typically within 1 kpc, with the aim of finding resolved physical companions. The WFC3 field typically covers the 0.1 pc area where companions are expected. In this paper, we identify 39 Cepheids having candidate companions, based on their positions in color-magnitude diagrams, and having separations ⩾ 5'' from the Cepheids. We use follow-up observations of 14 of these candidates with XMM-Newton, and of one of them with ROSAT, to separate X-ray-active young stars (probable physical companions) from field stars (chance alignments). Our preliminary estimate, based on the optical and X-ray observations, is that only 3% of the Cepheids in the sample have wide companions. Our survey easily detects resolved main-sequence companions as faint as spectral type K. Thus the fact that the two most probable companions (those of FF Aql and RV Sco) are earlier than type K is not simply a function of the detection limit. We find no physical companions having separations larger than 4000 au in the X-ray survey. Two Cepheids are exceptions in that they do have young companions at significantly larger separations (δ Cep and S Nor), but both belong to a cluster or a loose association, so our working model is that they are not gravitationally bound binary members, but rather cluster/association members. All of these properties provide constraints on both star formation and subsequent dynamical evolution. The low frequency of true physical companions at separations > 5'' is confirmed by examination of the subset of the nearest Cepheids and also the density of the fields. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  8. A natural language query system for Hubble Space Telescope proposal selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornick, Thomas; Cohen, William; Miller, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    The proposal selection process for the Hubble Space Telescope is assisted by a robust and easy to use query program (TACOS). The system parses an English subset language sentence regardless of the order of the keyword phases, allowing the user a greater flexibility than a standard command query language. Capabilities for macro and procedure definition are also integrated. The system was designed for flexibility in both use and maintenance. In addition, TACOS can be applied to any knowledge domain that can be expressed in terms of a single reaction. The system was implemented mostly in Common LISP. The TACOS design is described in detail, with particular attention given to the implementation methods of sentence processing.

  9. Long term trending of engineering data for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ross M.

    1993-01-01

    A major goal in spacecraft engineering analysis is the detection of component failures before the fact. Trending is the process of monitoring subsystem states to discern unusual behaviors. This involves reducing vast amounts of data about a component or subsystem into a form that helps humans discern underlying patterns and correlations. A long term trending system has been developed for the Hubble Space Telescope. Besides processing the data for 988 distinct telemetry measurements each day, it produces plots of 477 important parameters for the entire 24 hours. Daily updates to the trend files also produce 339 thirty day trend plots each month. The total system combines command procedures to control the execution of the C-based data processing program, user-written FORTRAN routines, and commercial off-the-shelf plotting software. This paper includes a discussion the performance of the trending system and of its limitations.

  10. CONFRONTING THREE-DIMENSIONAL TIME-DEPENDENT JET SIMULATIONS WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staff, Jan E.; Niebergal, Brian P.; Ouyed, Rachid; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Cai, Kai

    2010-01-01

    We perform state-of-the-art, three-dimensional, time-dependent simulations of magnetized disk winds, carried out to simulation scales of 60 AU, in order to confront optical Hubble Space Telescope observations of protostellar jets. We 'observe' the optical forbidden line emission produced by shocks within our simulated jets and compare these with actual observations. Our simulations reproduce the rich structure of time-varying jets, including jet rotation far from the source, an inner (up to 400 km s -1 ) and outer (less than 100 km s -1 ) component of the jet, and jet widths of up to 20 AU in agreement with observed jets. These simulations when compared with the data are able to constrain disk wind models. In particular, models featuring a disk magnetic field with a modest radial spatial variation across the disk are favored.

  11. Dynamic auroral storms on Saturn as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J D; Badman, S V; Baines, K H; Brown, R H; Bunce, E J; Clarke, J T; Cowley, S W H; Crary, F J; Dougherty, M K; Gérard, J-C; Grocott, A; Grodent, D; Kurth, W S; Melin, H; Mitchell, D G; Pryor, W R; Stallard, T S

    2014-05-28

    We present observations of significant dynamics within two UV auroral storms observed on Saturn using the Hubble Space Telescope in April/May 2013. Specifically, we discuss bursts of auroral emission observed at the poleward boundary of a solar wind-induced auroral storm, propagating at ∼330% rigid corotation from near ∼01 h LT toward ∼08 h LT. We suggest that these are indicative of ongoing, bursty reconnection of lobe flux in the magnetotail, providing strong evidence that Saturn's auroral storms are caused by large-scale flux closure. We also discuss the later evolution of a similar storm and show that the emission maps to the trailing region of an energetic neutral atom enhancement. We thus identify the auroral form with the upward field-aligned continuity currents flowing into the associated partial ring current.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Ultraviolet Light Curves Reveal Interesting Properties of CC Sculptoris and RZ Leonis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Toloza, Odette; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Pala, Anna F. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Dai, Zhibin [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming, 650216 (China); Waagen, Elizabeth O. [AAVSO, 48 Bay State Rd, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M., E-mail: szkody@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Time-tag ultraviolet data obtained on the Hubble Space Telescope in 2013 reveal interesting variability related to the white dwarf spin in the two cataclysmic variables RZ Leo and CC Scl. RZ Leo shows a period at 220 s and its harmonic at 110 s, thus identifying it as a likely Intermediate Polar (IP). The spin signal is not visible in a short single night of ground-based data in 2016, but the shorter exposures in that data set indicate a possible partial eclipse. The much larger UV amplitude of the spin signal in the known IP CC Scl allows the spin of 389 s, previously only seen at outburst, to be visible at quiescence. Spectra created from the peaks and troughs of the spin times indicate a hotter temperature of several thousand degrees during the peak phases, with multiple components contributing to the UV light.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Two groups have recently used the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC 2) to acquire new high-resolution images of the planet Neptune. Members of the WFPC-2 Science Team, lead by John Trauger, acquired the first series of images on 27 through 29 June 1994. These were the highest resolution images of Neptune taken since the Voyager-2 flyby in August of 1989. A more comprehensive program is currently being conducted by Heidi Hammel and Wes Lockwood. These two sets of observations are providing a wealth of new information about the structure, composition, and meteorology of this distant planet's atmosphere.Neptune is currently the most distant planet from the sun, with an orbital radius of 4.5 billion kilometers (2.8 billion miles, or 30 Astronomical Units). Even though its diameter is about four times that of the Earth (49,420 vs. 12,742 km), ground-based telescopes reveal a tiny blue disk that subtends less than 1/1200 of a degree (2.3 arc-seconds). Neptune has therefore been a particularly challenging object to study from the ground because its disk is badly blurred by the Earth's atmosphere. In spite of this, ground-based astronomers had learned a great deal about this planet since its position was first predicted by John C. Adams and Urbain Leverrier in 1845. For example, they had determined that Neptune was composed primarily of hydrogen and helium gas, and that its blue color caused by the presence of trace amounts of the gas methane, which absorbs red light. They had also detected bright cloud features whose brightness changed with time, and tracked these clouds to infer a rotation period between 17 and 22 hours.When the Voyager-2 spacecraft flew past the Neptune in 1989, its instruments revealed a surprising array of meteorological phenomena, including strong winds, bright, high-altitude clouds, and two large dark spots attributed to long-lived giant storm systems. These bright clouds and dark spots were tracked as they moved

  14. Multi-Epoch Hubble Space Telescope Observations of IZw18 : Characterization of Variable Stars at Ultra-Low Metallicities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorentino, G.; Ramos, R. Contreras; Clementini, G.; Marconi, M.; Musella, I.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    Variable stars have been identified for the first time in the very metal-poor blue compact dwarf galaxy IZw18, using deep multi-band (F606W, F814W) time-series photometry obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We detected 34 candidate variable stars in the

  15. STS 31 PAYLOAD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ENCLOSED IN AN AIR-TIGHT PLASTIC BAG FOR PROTECTION IN VERTICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Preparations are made to enclose the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] inside an air-tight plastic bag in the VPF. Processing of the 94- inch primary mirror telescope for launch on the Discovery in March 1990, involves working within strict controls to prevent contamination.

  16. Atmospheric Characterization of Five Hot Jupiters with the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee; Mandell, Avi M.

    2014-01-01

    We probe the structure and composition of the atmospheres of five hot Jupiter exoplanets using the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument. We use the G141 grism (1.1-1.7 micrometers) to study TrES-2b, TrES-4b, and CoRoT-1b in transit; TrES-3b in secondary eclipse; and WASP-4b in both. This wavelength region includes a predicted absorption feature from water at 1.4 micrometers, which we expect to be nondegenerate with the other molecules that are likely to be abundant for hydrocarbon-poor (e.g., solar composition) hot Jupiter atmospheres. We divide our wavelength regions into 10 bins. For each bin we produce a spectrophotometric light curve spanning the time of transit or eclipse. We correct these light curves for instrumental systematics without reference to an instrument model. For our transmission spectra, our mean 1s precision per bin corresponds to variations of 2.1, 2.8, and 3.0 atmospheric scale heights for TrES-2b, TrES-4b, and CoRoT-1b, respectively. We find featureless spectra for these three planets. We are unable to extract a robust transmission spectrum for WASP-4b. For our dayside emission spectra, our mean 1 sigma precision per bin corresponds to a planet-to-star flux ratio of 1.5 x 10(exp -4) and 2.1 x 10(exp -4) for WASP-4b and TrES-3b, respectively. We combine these estimates with previous broadband measurements and conclude that for both planets isothermal atmospheres are disfavored. We find no signs of features due to water. We confirm that WFC3 is suitable for studies of transiting exoplanets, but in staring mode multivisit campaigns are necessary to place strong constraints on water abundance.

  17. Atmospheric characterization of five hot Jupiters with the wide field Camera 3 on the Hubble space telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Mandell, Avi M., E-mail: sranjan@cfa.harvard.edu [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    We probe the structure and composition of the atmospheres of five hot Jupiter exoplanets using the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument. We use the G141 grism (1.1-1.7 μm) to study TrES-2b, TrES-4b, and CoRoT-1b in transit; TrES-3b in secondary eclipse; and WASP-4b in both. This wavelength region includes a predicted absorption feature from water at 1.4 μm, which we expect to be nondegenerate with the other molecules that are likely to be abundant for hydrocarbon-poor (e.g., solar composition) hot Jupiter atmospheres. We divide our wavelength regions into 10 bins. For each bin we produce a spectrophotometric light curve spanning the time of transit or eclipse. We correct these light curves for instrumental systematics without reference to an instrument model. For our transmission spectra, our mean 1σ precision per bin corresponds to variations of 2.1, 2.8, and 3.0 atmospheric scale heights for TrES-2b, TrES-4b, and CoRoT-1b, respectively. We find featureless spectra for these three planets. We are unable to extract a robust transmission spectrum for WASP-4b. For our dayside emission spectra, our mean 1σ precision per bin corresponds to a planet-to-star flux ratio of 1.5 × 10{sup –4} and 2.1 × 10{sup –4} for WASP-4b and TrES-3b, respectively. We combine these estimates with previous broadband measurements and conclude that for both planets isothermal atmospheres are disfavored. We find no signs of features due to water. We confirm that WFC3 is suitable for studies of transiting exoplanets, but in staring mode multivisit campaigns are necessary to place strong constraints on water abundance.

  18. LQG and maximum entropy control design for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Richter, Stephen

    Solar array vibrations are responsible for serious pointing control problems on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The original HST control law was not designed to attenuate these disturbances because they were not perceived to be a problem prior to launch. However, significant solar array vibrations do occur due to large changes in the thermal environment as the HST orbits the earth. Using classical techniques, Marshall Space Flight Center in conjunction with Lockheed Missiles and Space Company developed modified HST controllers that were able to suppress the influence of the vibrations of the solar arrays on the line-of-sight (LOS) performance. Substantial LOS improvement was observed when two of these controllers were implemented on orbit. This paper describes the development of modified HST controllers by using modern control techniques, particularly linear-quadratic-gaussian (LQG) design and Maximum Entropy robust control design, a generalization of LQG that incorporates robustness constraints with respect to modal errors. The fundamental issues are discussed candidly and controllers designed using these modern techniques are described.

  19. Proper Motions of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging. III. Measurement for Ursa Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton; Bristow, Paul; Olszewski, Edward W.; Harris, Hugh C.; Mateo, Mario; Minniti, Dante; Tinney, Christopher G.

    2005-07-01

    This article presents a measurement of the proper motion of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy determined from images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope in two distinct fields. Each field contains a quasi-stellar object that serves as the ``reference point.'' The measured proper motion for Ursa Minor, expressed in the equatorial coordinate system, is (μα,μδ)=(-50+/-17,22+/-16) mas century-1. Removing the contributions of the solar motion and the motion of the local standard of rest yields the proper motion in the Galactic rest frame: (μGrfα,μGrfδ)=(-8+/-17,38+/-16) mas century-1. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center has a radial component of Vr=-75+/-44 km s-1 and a tangential component of Vt=144+/-50 km s-1. Integrating the motion of Ursa Minor in a realistic potential for the Milky Way produces orbital elements. The perigalacticon and apogalacticon are 40 (10, 76) and 89 (78, 160) kpc, respectively, where the values in the parentheses represent the 95% confidence intervals derived from Monte Carlo experiments. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.39 (0.09, 0.79), and the orbital period is 1.5 (1.1, 2.7) Gyr. The orbit is retrograde and inclined by 124° (94°, 136°) to the Galactic plane. Ursa Minor is not a likely member of a proposed stream of galaxies on similar orbits around the Milky Way, nor is the plane of its orbit coincident with a recently proposed planar alignment of galaxies around the Milky Way. Comparing the orbits of Ursa Minor and Carina shows no reason for the different star formation histories of these two galaxies. Ursa Minor must contain dark matter to have a high probability of having survived disruption by the Galactic tidal force until the present. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  20. 3D-HST: A Wide-field Grism Spectroscopic Survey with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Kriek, Mariska; Nelson, Erica; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Bezanson, Rachel; da Cunha, Elisabete; Erb, Dawn K.; Fan, Xiaohui; Förster Schreiber, Natascha; Illingworth, Garth D.; Labbé, Ivo; Leja, Joel; Lundgren, Britt; Magee, Dan; Marchesini, Danilo; McCarthy, Patrick; Momcheva, Ivelina; Muzzin, Adam; Quadri, Ryan; Steidel, Charles C.; Tal, Tomer; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Williams, Anna

    2012-06-01

    We present 3D-HST, a near-infrared spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope for studying the physical processes that shape galaxies in the distant universe. 3D-HST provides rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of ~7000 galaxies at 1 < z < 3.5, the epoch when ~60% of all star formation took place, the number density of quasars peaked, the first galaxies stopped forming stars, and the structural regularity that we see in galaxies today must have emerged. 3D-HST will cover three quarters (625 arcmin2) of the CANDELS Treasury survey area with two orbits of primary WFC3/G141 grism coverage and two to four orbits with the ACS/G800L grism in parallel. In the IR, these exposure times yield a continuum signal-to-noise ratio of ~5 per resolution element at H 140 ~ 23.1 and a 5σ emission-line sensitivity of ~5 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 for typical objects, improving by a factor of ~2 for compact sources in images with low sky background levels. The WFC3/G141 spectra provide continuous wavelength coverage from 1.1 to 1.6 μm at a spatial resolution of ~0farcs13, which, combined with their depth, makes them a unique resource for studying galaxy evolution. We present an overview of the preliminary reduction and analysis of the grism observations, including emission-line and redshift measurements from combined fits to the extracted grism spectra and photometry from ancillary multi-wavelength catalogs. The present analysis yields redshift estimates with a precision of σ(z) = 0.0034(1 + z), or σ(v) ≈ 1000 km s-1. We illustrate how the generalized nature of the survey yields near-infrared spectra of remarkable quality for many different types of objects, including a quasar at z = 4.7, quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2, and the most distant T-type brown dwarf star known. The combination of the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys will provide the definitive imaging and spectroscopic data set for studies of the 1 < z < 3.5 universe until the launch of the James Webb Space

  1. UPDATED ANALYSIS OF THE UPWIND INTERPLANETARY HYDROGEN VELOCITY AS OBSERVED BY THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE DURING SOLAR CYCLE 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, Frederic E.; Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi; Harris, Walter M.

    2011-01-01

    The interplanetary hydrogen (IPH), a population of neutrals that fill the space between planets inside the heliosphere, carries the signature of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the heliospheric interface. As the incoming ISM-ionized component deflects at the heliopause, charge exchange reactions decelerate the bulk motion of the neutrals that penetrate the heliosphere. Inside the heliosphere, the IPH bulk velocity is further affected by solar gravity, radiation pressure, and ionization processes, with the latter two processes dependent on solar activity. Solar cycle 23 provided the first partial temporal map of the IPH velocity, including measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectrometers (Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) instrument. We present an updated analysis of IPH velocity measurements from GHRS and STIS and compare these results with those of SWAN and two different time-dependent models. Our reanalysis of STIS data reveals a significant change in IPH velocity relative to earlier reports, because of the contamination by geocoronal oxygen that was not accounted for. While current models of the heliospheric interface predict the observed IPH velocity for solar maximum, they are not consistent with data covering solar minimum. With updates to the HST data points, we now find that all data can be fit by the existing models to within 1σ, with the exception of SWAN observations taken at solar minimum (1997/1998). We conclude that the current data lack the temporal coverage and/or precision necessary to determine the detailed characteristics of the solar cycle dependence. Hence, new observations are merited.

  2. DISENTANGLING AGN AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFT USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: jsbridge@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ∼ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope /Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/H β line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ∼40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/H β gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ∼ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  3. SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS IN A METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTER WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stello, Dennis; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    We present analyses of variability in the red giant stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397, based on data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We use a nonstandard data reduction approach to turn a 23 day observing run originally aimed at imaging the white dwarf population, into time-series photometry of the cluster's highly saturated red giant stars. With this technique we obtain noise levels in the final power spectra down to 50 parts per million, which allows us to search for low-amplitude solar-like oscillations. We compare the observed excess power seen in the power spectra with estimates of the typical frequency range, frequency spacing, and amplitude from scaling the solar oscillations. We see evidence that the detected variability is consistent with solar-like oscillations in at least one and perhaps up to four stars. With metallicities 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of the Sun, these stars present so far the best evidence of solar-like oscillations in such a low-metallicity environment.

  4. DISENTANGLING AGN AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFT USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ∼ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope /Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/H β line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ∼40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/H β gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ∼ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  5. Hubble 15 years of discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Kornmesser, M

    2006-01-01

    Hubble: 15 Years of Discovery was a key element of the European Space Agency's 15th anniversary celebration activities for the 1990 launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. As an observatory in space, Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects of all time, both in terms of scientific output and its immediate public appeal.

  6. Proper Motions of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging. V. Final Measurement for Fornax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton; Bristow, Paul; Olszewski, Edward W.; Harris, Hugh C.; Mateo, Mario; Minniti, Dante; Tinney, Christopher G.

    2007-03-01

    The measured proper motion of Fornax, expressed in the equatorial coordinate system, is (μα,μδ)=(47.6+/-4.6,-36.0+/-4.1) mas century-1. This proper motion is a weighted mean of four independent measurements for three distinct fields. Each measurement uses a quasi-stellar object as a reference point. Removing the contribution of the motion of the Sun and of the local standard of rest to the measured proper motion produces a Galactic rest-frame proper motion of (μGrfα,μGrfδ)=(24.4+/-4.6,-14.3+/-4.1) mas century-1. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center has a radial component of Vr=-31.8+/-1.7 km s-1 and a tangential component of Vt=196+/-29 km s-1. Integrating the motion of Fornax in a realistic potential for the Milky Way produces orbital elements. The perigalacticon and apogalacticon are 118 (66, 137) and 152 (144, 242) kpc, respectively, where the values in the parentheses represent the 95% confidence intervals derived from Monte Carlo experiments. The eccentricity of the orbit is 0.13 (0.11, 0.38), and the orbital period is 3.2 (2.5, 4.6) Gyr. The orbit is retrograde and inclined by 101° (94°, 107°) to the Galactic plane. Fornax could be a member of a proposed ``stream'' of galaxies and globular clusters; however, the membership of another proposed galaxy in the stream, Sculptor, has been previously ruled out. Fornax is in the Kroupa-Theis-Boily plane, which contains 11 of the Galactic satellite galaxies, but its orbit will take it out of that plane. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  7. System Design and Performance of the Two-Gyro Science Mode For the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Michael; Dunham, Larry

    2005-01-01

    For fifteen years, the science mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) required using at least three of the six on-board rate gyros for attitude control. Failed gyros were eventually replaced through Space Shuttle Servicing Missions. The tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia has resulted in the cancellation of all planned Shuttle based missions to HST. While a robotic servicing mission is currently being planned instead, controlling with alternate sensors to replace failed gyros can extend the HST science gathering until a servicing mission can be performed, and also extend science at HST s end of life. Additionally, sufficient performance may allow a permanent transition to operations with less than 3 gyros (by intentionally turning off working gyros saving them for later use) allowing for an even greater science mission extension. To meet this need, a Two Gyro Science (TGS) mode has been designed and implemented using magnetometers (Magnetic Sensing System - MSS), Fixed Head Star Trackers (FHSTs), and Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) to control vehicle rate about the missing gyro input axis. The development of the TGS capability is the largest re-design of HST operations undertaken, since it affects several major spacecraft subsystems, the most heavily being the Pointing Control System (PCS) and Flight Software (FSW). Additionally, and equally important, are the extensive modifications and enhancements of the Planning and Scheduling system which must now be capable of scheduling science observations while taking into account several new constraints imposed by the TGS operational modes (such as FHST availability and magnetic field geometry) that will impact science gathering efficiency and target availability. This paper discusses the systems engineering design, development, and performance of the TGS mode, now in its final stages of completion.

  8. The new European Hubble archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; Arevalo, Maria; Merin, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The European Hubble Archive (hereafter eHST), hosted at ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre, has been released for public use in October 2015. The eHST is now fully integrated with the other ESA science archives to ensure long-term preservation of the Hubble data, consisting of more than 1 million observations from 10 different scientific instruments. The public HST data, the Hubble Legacy Archive, and the high-level science data products are now all available to scientists through a single, carefully designed and user friendly web interface. In this talk, I will show how the the eHST can help boost archival research, including how to search on sources in the field of view thanks to precise footprints projected onto the sky, how to obtain enhanced previews of imaging data and interactive spectral plots, and how to directly link observations with already published papers. To maximise the scientific exploitation of Hubble's data, the eHST offers connectivity to virtual observatory tools, easily integrates with the recently released Hubble Source Catalog, and is fully accessible through ESA's archives multi-mission interface.

  9. Theoretical colours and isochrones for some Hubble Space Telescope colour systems. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltoglou, G.; Bell, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    A grid of synthetic surface brightness magnitudes for 14 bandpasses of the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Camera is presented, as well as a grid of UBV, uvby, and Faint Object Camera surface brightness magnitudes derived from the Gunn-Stryker spectrophotometric atlas. The synthetic colors are used to examine the transformations between the ground-based Johnson UBV and Stromgren uvby systems and the Faint Object Camera UBV and uvby. Two new four-color systems, similar to the Stromgren system, are proposed for the determination of abundance, temperature, and surface gravity. The synthetic colors are also used to calculate color-magnitude isochrones from the list of theoretical tracks provided by VandenBerg and Bell (1990). It is shown that by using the appropriate filters it is possible to minimize the dependence of this color difference on metallicity. The effects of interstellar reddening on various Faint Object Camera colors are analyzed as well as the observational requirements for obtaining data of a given signal-to-noise for each of the 14 bandpasses.

  10. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE CONSTRAINTS ON THE WINDS AND ASTROSPHERES OF RED GIANT STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Brian E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Müller, Hans-Reinhard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Harper, Graham M., E-mail: brian.wood@nrl.navy.mil [CASA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We report on an ultraviolet spectroscopic survey of red giants observed by the Hubble Space Telescope , focusing on spectra of the Mg ii h and k lines near 2800 Å in order to study stellar chromospheric emission, winds, and astrospheric absorption. We focus on spectral types between K2 III and M5 III, a spectral type range with stars that are noncoronal, but possessing strong, chromospheric winds. We find a very tight relation between Mg ii surface flux and photospheric temperature, supporting the notion that all K2-M5 III stars are emitting at a basal flux level. Wind velocities ( V {sub w} ) are generally found to decrease with spectral type, with V {sub w} decreasing from ∼40 km s{sup −1} at K2 III to ∼20 km s{sup −1} at M5 III. We find two new detections of astrospheric absorption, for σ Pup (K5 III) and γ Eri (M1 III). This absorption signature had previously only been detected for α Tau (K5 III). For the three astrospheric detections, the temperature of the wind after the termination shock (TS) correlates with V {sub w} , but is lower than predicted by the Rankine–Hugoniot shock jump conditions, consistent with the idea that red giant TSs are radiative shocks rather than simple hydrodynamic shocks. A full hydrodynamic simulation of the γ Eri astrosphere is provided to explore this further.

  11. Infall of nearby galaxies into the Virgo cluster as traced with Hubble space telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karachentsev, Igor D. [Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachai-Cherkessian Republic 369167 (Russian Federation); Tully, R. Brent; Wu, Po-Feng [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shaya, Edward J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E., E-mail: ikar@sao.ru [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    We measured the tip of the red giant branch distances to nine galaxies in the direction to the Virgo cluster using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. These distances put seven galaxies (GR 34, UGC 7512, NGC 4517, IC 3583, NGC 4600, VCC 2037, and KDG 215) in front of Virgo and two galaxies (IC 3023 and KDG 177) likely inside the cluster. Distances and radial velocities of the galaxies situated between us and the Virgo core clearly exhibit the infall phenomenon toward the cluster. In the case of spherically symmetric radial infall, we estimate the radius of the 'zero-velocity surface' to be (7.2 ± 0.7) Mpc, which yields a total mass of the Virgo cluster of (8.0 ± 2.3) × 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}, in good agreement with its virial mass estimates. We conclude that the Virgo outskirts do not contain significant amounts of dark matter beyond their virial radius.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope observations of cool white dwarf stars: Detection of new species of heavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Harry; Barnhill, Maurice; Provencal, Judi; Roby, Scott; Bues, Irmela; Cordova, France; Hammond, Gordon; Hintzen, Paul; Koester, Detlev; Liebert, James

    1995-01-01

    Observations of cool white dwarf stars with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has uncovered a number of spectral features from previouslly unobserved species. In this paper we present the data on four cool white dwarfs. We present identifications, equivalent width measurements, and brief summaries of the significance of our findings. The four stars observed are GD 40 (DBZ3, G 74-7 (DAZ), L 745-46A (DZ), and LDS 749B (DBA). Many additional species of heavey elements were detected in GD 40 and G 74-7. In L 745-46A, while the detections are limited to Fe 1, Fe II, and Mg II, the quality of the Mg II h and K line profiles should permit a test of the line broadening theories, which are so crucial to abundance determinations. The clear detection of Mg II h and k in LDS 749 B should, once an abundance determination is made, provide a clear test of the hypothesis that the DBA stars are the result of accretion from the interstellar medium. This star contains no other clear features other than a tantalizing hint of C II 1335 with a P Cygni profile, and some expected He 1 lines.

  13. YOUNG PLANETARY NEBULAE: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING AND A NEW MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Villar, Gregory G.; Morris, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope images of 119 young planetary nebulae (PNs), most of which have not previously been published, we have devised a comprehensive morphological classification system for these objects. This system generalizes a recently devised system for pre-planetary nebulae, which are the immediate progenitors of PNs. Unlike previous classification studies, we have focused primarily on young PNs rather than all PNs, because the former best show the influences or symmetries imposed on them by the dominant physical processes operating at the first and primary stage of the shaping process. Older PNs develop instabilities, interact with the ambient interstellar medium, and are subject to the passage of photoionization fronts, all of which obscure the underlying symmetries and geometries imposed early on. Our classification system is designed to suffer minimal prejudice regarding the underlying physical causes of the different shapes and structures seen in our PN sample, however, in many cases, physical causes are readily suggested by the geometry, along with the kinematics that have been measured in some systems. Secondary characteristics in our system, such as ansae, indicate the impact of a jet upon a slower-moving, prior wind; a waist is the signature of a strong equatorial concentration of matter, whether it be outflowing or in a bound Keplerian disk, and point symmetry indicates a secular trend, presumably precession, in the orientation of the central driver of a rapid, collimated outflow.

  14. FOMALHAUT b: INDEPENDENT ANALYSIS OF THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PUBLIC ARCHIVE DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicher, Raphaël; Marois, Christian; Zuckerman, B.; Macintosh, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The nature and even the existence of a putative planet-mass companion ( F omalhaut b ) to Fomalhaut has been debated since 2008. In the present paper, we reanalyze the multi-epoch ACS/STIS/WFC3 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical/near-infrared images on which the discovery and some other claims were based. We confirm that the HST images do reveal an object in orbit around Fomalhaut, but the detailed results from our analysis differ in some ways from previous discussions. In particular, we do not confirm flux variability over a two-year interval at 0.6 μm wavelength and we detect Fomalhaut b for the first time at the short wavelength of 0.43 μm. We find that the HST image of Fomalhaut b at 0.8 μm may be extended beyond the point-spread function. We cannot determine from our astrometry if Fomalhaut b will cross or not the dust ring. The optical through mid-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of Fomalhaut b cannot be explained as due to direct or scattered radiation from a massive planet. We consider two models to explain the SED: (1) a large circumplanetary disk around an unseen planet and (2) the aftermath of a collision during the past 50-150 yr of two Kuiper-Belt-like objects of radii ∼50 km.

  15. THE PECULIAR EXTINCTION LAW OF SN 2014J MEASURED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; Johansson, J.; Petrushevska, T. [Oskar Klein Centre, Physics Department, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Banerjee, D. P. K.; Venkataraman, V.; Joshi, V.; Ashok, N. M. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); Cao, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kasliwal, M. M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Nugent, P. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field, Annex # 3411, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Stanishev, V., E-mail: rahman@fysik.su.se [CENTRA—Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-06-20

    The wavelength dependence of the extinction of Type Ia SN 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82 has been measured using UV to near-IR photometry obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, the Nordic Optical Telescope, and the Mount Abu Infrared Telescope. This is the first time that the reddening of an SN Ia is characterized over the full wavelength range of 0.2-2 μm. A total-to-selective extinction, R{sub V} ≥ 3.1, is ruled out with high significance. The best fit at maximum using a Galactic type extinction law yields R{sub V} = 1.4 ± 0.1. The observed reddening of SN 2014J is also compatible with a power-law extinction, A {sub λ}/A{sub V} = (λ/λ {sub V}) {sup p} as expected from multiple scattering of light, with p = –2.1 ± 0.1. After correcting for differences in reddening, SN 2014J appears to be very similar to SN 2011fe over the 14 broadband filter light curves used in our study.

  16. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2: THE MYSTERY OF NEON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gebhardt, Henry; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Trump, Jonathan R.; Bridge, Joanna S.; Luo, Bin; Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: grzeimann@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We use near-infrared grism spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope to examine the strength of [Ne III] λ3869 relative to Hβ, [O II] λ3727, and [O III] λ5007 in 236 low-mass (7.5 ≲ log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≲ 10.5) star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 < z < 2.35. By stacking the data by stellar mass, we show that the [Ne III]/[O II] ratios of the z ∼ 2 universe are marginally higher than those seen in a comparable set of local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, and that [Ne III]/[O III] is enhanced by ∼0.2 dex. We consider the possible explanations for this ∼4σ result, including higher oxygen depletion out of the gas phase, denser H II regions, higher production of {sup 22}Ne via Wolf-Rayet stars, and the existence of a larger population of X-ray obscured active galactic nuclei at z ∼ 2 compared to z ∼ 0. None of these simple scenarios, alone, are favored to explain the observed line ratios. We conclude by suggesting several avenues of future observations to further explore the mystery of enhanced [Ne III] emission.

  17. THE GHOSTS SURVEY. I. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radburn-Smith, D. J.; Dalcanton, J. J.; De Jong, R. S.; Streich, D.; Vlajic, M.; Seth, A. C.; Bailin, J.; Bell, E. F.; Brown, T. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Holfeltz, S.; Bullock, J. S.; Courteau, S.; Sick, J.; Holwerda, B. W.; Purcell, C.; Zucker, D. B.

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview of the GHOSTS survey, the largest study to date of the resolved stellar populations in the outskirts of disk galaxies. The sample consists of 14 disk galaxies within 17 Mpc, whose outer disks and halos are imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). In the first paper of this series, we describe the sample, explore the benefits of using resolved stellar populations, and discuss our ACS F606W and F814W photometry. We use artificial star tests to assess completeness and use overlapping regions to estimate photometric uncertainties. The median depth of the survey at 50% completeness is 2.7 mag below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). We comprehensively explore and parameterize contamination from unresolved background galaxies and foreground stars using archival fields of high-redshift ACS observations. Left uncorrected, these would account for 10 0.65xF814W-19.0 detections per mag per arcsec 2 . We therefore identify several selection criteria that typically remove 95% of the contaminants. Even with these culls, background galaxies are a significant limitation to the surface brightness detection limit which, for this survey, is typically V ∼ 30 mag arcsec -2 . The resulting photometric catalogs are publicly available and contain some 3.1 million stars across 76 ACS fields, predominantly of low extinction. The uniform magnitudes of TRGB stars in these fields enable galaxy distance estimates with 2%-7% accuracy.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Mass-losing Supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Joel H.; Weintraub, David A.

    1998-04-01

    The highly luminous M supergiant VY CMa is a massive star that appears to be in its final death throes, losing mass at high rate en route to exploding as a supernova. Subarcsecond-resolution optical images of VY CMa, obtained with the Faint Object Camera (FOC) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, vividly demonstrate that mass loss from VY CMa is highly anisotropic. In the FOC images, the optical ``star'' VY CMa constitutes the bright, well-resolved core of an elongated reflection nebula. The imaged nebula is ~3" (~4500 AU) in extent and is clumpy and highly asymmetric. The images indicate that the bright core, which lies near one edge of the nebula, is pure scattered starlight. We conclude that at optical wavelengths VY CMa is obscured from view along our line of sight by its own dusty envelope. The presence of the extended reflection nebula then suggests that this envelope is highly flattened and/or that the star is surrounded by a massive circumstellar disk. Such axisymmetric circumstellar density structure should have profound effects on post-red supergiant mass loss from VY CMa and, ultimately, on the shaping of the remnant of the supernova that will terminate its post-main-sequence evolution.

  19. Ultracompact Blue Dwarf Galaxies: Hubble Space Telescope Imaging and Stellar Population Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Michael R.; Vacca, William D.; Cid Fernandes, Roberto; Hibbard, John E.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Windhorst, Rogier A.

    2006-11-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys/High Resolution Channel U-, narrow-V-, and I-band images of nine ``ultracompact'' blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We define UCBDs as local (zPOX 186, but the structure of several of them suggests that their current star formation has been triggered by the collisions/mergers of smaller clumps of stars. In one case, HS 0822+3542, the images resolve what may be two small (~100 pc) components that have recently collided, supporting this interpretation. In six of the objects much of the star formation is concentrated in young massive clusters, contributing to their compactness in ground-based images. The evidence that the galaxies consist mainly of ~10 Gyr old stars establishes that they are not protogalaxies, forming their first generation of stars. Their low metallicities are more likely to be the result of the escape of supernova ejecta, rather than youth.

  20. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MAIN-BELT COMET (596) SCHEILA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewitt, David; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Larson, Stephen; Agarwal, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Observations of (596) Scheila during its recent dust outburst. The nucleus remained point-like with absolute magnitude H V = 8.85 ± 0.02 in our data, equal to the pre-outburst value, with no secondary fragments of diameter ≥100 m (for assumed albedos 0.04). We find a coma having a peak scattering cross section ∼2.2x10 4 km 2 , corresponding to a mass in micron-sized particles of ∼4x10 7 kg. The particles are deflected by solar radiation pressure on projected spatial scales ∼2x10 4 km, in the sunward direction, and swept from the vicinity of the nucleus on timescales of weeks. The coma fades by ∼30% between observations on UT 2010 December 27 and 2011 January 4. The observed mass loss is inconsistent with an origin either by rotational instability of the nucleus or by electrostatic ejection of regolith charged by sunlight. Dust ejection could be caused by the sudden but unexplained exposure of buried ice. However, the data are most simply explained by the impact, at ∼5 km s -1 , of a previously unknown asteroid ∼35 m in diameter.

  1. Discovery of an Unusual Optical Transient with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Supernova Cosmology Project; Barbary, Kyle; Dawson, Kyle S.; Tokita, Kouichi; Aldering, Greg; Amanullah, Rahman; Connolly, Natalia V.; Doi, Mamoru; Faccioli, Lorenzo; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fruchter, Andrew S.; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goobar, Ariel; Gude, Alexander; Huang, Xiaosheng; Ihara, Yutaka; Konishi, Kohki; Kowalski, Marek; Lidman, Chris; Meyers, Josh; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nugent, Peter; Perlmutter, Saul; Rubin, David; Schlegel, David; Spadafora, Anthony L.; Suzuki, Nao; Swift, Hannah K.; Takanashi, Naohiro; Thomas, Rollin C.; Yasuda, Naoki

    2008-09-08

    We present observations of SCP 06F6, an unusual optical transient discovered during the Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey. The transient brightened over a period of ~;;100 days, reached a peak magnitude of ~;;21.0 in both i_775 and z_850, and then declined over a similar timescale. There is no host galaxy or progenitor star detected at the location of the transient to a 3 sigma upper limit of i_775 = 26.4 and z_850 = 26.1, giving a corresponding lower limit on the flux increase of a factor of ~;;120. Multiple spectra show five broad absorption bands between 4100 AA and 6500 AA and a mostly featureless continuum longward of 6500 AA. The shape of the lightcurve is inconsistent with microlensing. The transient's spectrum, in addition to being inconsistent with all known supernova types, is not matched to any spectrum in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. We suggest that the transient may be one of a new class.

  2. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2: THE MYSTERY OF NEON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gebhardt, Henry; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Trump, Jonathan R.; Bridge, Joanna S.; Luo, Bin; Schneider, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    We use near-infrared grism spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope to examine the strength of [Ne III] λ3869 relative to Hβ, [O II] λ3727, and [O III] λ5007 in 236 low-mass (7.5 ≲ log (M * /M ☉ ) ≲ 10.5) star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 < z < 2.35. By stacking the data by stellar mass, we show that the [Ne III]/[O II] ratios of the z ∼ 2 universe are marginally higher than those seen in a comparable set of local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, and that [Ne III]/[O III] is enhanced by ∼0.2 dex. We consider the possible explanations for this ∼4σ result, including higher oxygen depletion out of the gas phase, denser H II regions, higher production of 22 Ne via Wolf-Rayet stars, and the existence of a larger population of X-ray obscured active galactic nuclei at z ∼ 2 compared to z ∼ 0. None of these simple scenarios, alone, are favored to explain the observed line ratios. We conclude by suggesting several avenues of future observations to further explore the mystery of enhanced [Ne III] emission

  3. Analyses of Hubble Space Telescope Aluminized-Teflon Multilayer Insulation Blankets Retrieved After 19 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groh, Kim K.; Perry, Bruce A.; Mohammed, Jelila S.; Banks, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Since its launch in April 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has made many important observations from its vantage point in low Earth orbit (LEO). However, as seen during five servicing missions, the outer layer of multilayer insulation (MLI) has become increasingly embrittled and has cracked in many areas. In May 2009, during the 5th servicing mission (called SM4), two MLI blankets were replaced with new insulation and the space-exposed MLI blankets were retrieved for degradation analyses by teams at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The retrieved MLI blankets were from Equipment Bay 8, which received direct sunlight, and Equipment Bay 5, which received grazing sunlight. Each blanket was divided into several regions based on environmental exposure and/or physical appearance. The aluminized-Teflon (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) outer layers of the retrieved MLI blankets have been analyzed for changes in optical, physical, and mechanical properties, along with chemical and morphological changes. Pristine and as-retrieved samples (materials) were heat treated to help understand degradation mechanisms. When compared to pristine material, the analyses have shown how the Al-FEP was severely affected by the space environment. Most notably, the Al-FEP was highly embrittled, fracturing like glass at strains of 1 to 8 percent. Across all measured properties, more significant degradation was observed for Bay 8 material as compared to Bay 5 material. This paper reviews the tensile and bend-test properties, density, thickness, solar absorptance, thermal emittance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) elemental composition measurements, surface and crack morphologies, and atomic oxygen erosion yields of the Al-FEP outer layer of the retrieved HST blankets after 19 years of space exposure.

  4. Impacts on Hubble Space Telescope solar arrays: discrimination between natural and man-made particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Drolshagen, G.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Mandeville, J.-C.; Moussi, A.

    A Post-Flight Investigation was initiated by the European Space Agency to analyze impact fluxes on solar arrays of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), exposed to space for 8.25 years at approximately 600 km altitude. The solar cells were deployed during servicing mission SM-1 (December 1993), and retrieved by shuttle orbiter Columbia in March 2002 (SM-3B). A sub-panel of 2 m2 was cut from the --V2 wing and cells were selected for in-depth analysis. Twelve cells (9.6x10-3 m2) were surveyed for flux of all craters of sizes greater than 5 microns Dco; six at the NHM, and six at ONERA. Cumulative flux plots reveal slightly greater abundance of very small craters than in a comparable survey of SM-1 cells. Analytical scanning electron microscopy was used to locate impact features and to analyse residues at the NHM. 103 features of 3 -- 4000 micron conchoidal detachment diameter (Dco) were located on a total of 17 solar cells. 78 features show identifiable residue: 36 are Space Debris impacts and 42 Micrometeoroid impacts. Of the remaining 25: 4 contain residue of ambiguous origin, 1 is a minor manufacturing flaw, 1 is obscured by contamination, and 19 are unresolved, lacking recognizable residue. Space debris impacts on the SM-3B cells are all less than 80 microns Dco, dominated by Al- rich residue, probably of solid rocket motor origin, some may be unburnt fuel. Three craters may be sodium metal droplet impacts. No residues from paint pigment, aluminium or ferrous alloys, or copper- and tin-bearing metal were found. All craters larger than 100 microns are of micrometeoroid origin, or unresolved. Most residues are magnesium-iron silicate or iron sulfide. A few craters show vesicular Mg, S, Fe and Ni residue. A single Fe Ni metal residue was found, as well as enigmatic Mg- and S-bearing residues, all considered of micrometeoroid origin. A few Fe-, O- and C-bearing residues were classified as of ambiguous origin. The quality and quantity of residue is clearly linked to the

  5. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project.I. Ultraviolet Observations of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on Hubble Space Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rosa, G.; Peterson, B.M.; Ely, J.; Kriss, G.A.; Crenshaw, D.M.; Horne, K.; Korista, K.T.; Netzer, H.; Pogge, R.W.; Arévalo, P.; Barth, A.J.; Bentz, M.C.; Brandt, W.N.; Breeveld, A.A.; Brewer, B.J.; Dalla Bontà, E.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Denney, K.D.; Dietrich, M.; Edelson, R.; Evans, P.A.; Fausnaugh, M.M.; Gehrels, N.; Gelbord, J.M.; Goad, M.R.; Grier, C.J.; Grupe, D.; Hall, P.B.; Kaastra, J.; Kelly, B.C.; Kennea, J.A.; Kochanek, C.S.; Lira, P.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I.M.; Nousek, J.A.; Pancoast, A.; Papadakis, I.; Pei, L.; Schimoia, J.S.; Siegel, M.; Starkey, D.; Treu, T.; Uttley, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vestergaard, M.; Villforth, C.; Yan, H.; Young, S.; Zu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first results from a six-month long reverberation-mapping experiment in the ultraviolet based on 171 observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Significant correlated variability is found in the continuum and

  6. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROPER MOTION (HSTPROMO) CATALOGS OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. I. SAMPLE SELECTION, DATA REDUCTION, AND NGC 7078 RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Watkins, L. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); King, I. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bianchini, P. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chanamé, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul 782-0436, Santiago (Chile); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Cool, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Ferraro, F. R.; Massari, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Ford, H., E-mail: bellini@stsci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We present the first study of high-precision internal proper motions (PMs) in a large sample of globular clusters, based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data obtained over the past decade with the ACS/WFC, ACS/HRC, and WFC3/UVIS instruments. We determine PMs for over 1.3 million stars in the central regions of 22 clusters, with a median number of ∼60,000 stars per cluster. These PMs have the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the internal kinematics of globular clusters by extending past line-of-sight (LOS) velocity measurements to two- or three-dimensional velocities, lower stellar masses, and larger sample sizes. We describe the reduction pipeline that we developed to derive homogeneous PMs from the very heterogeneous archival data. We demonstrate the quality of the measurements through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We also discuss the PM errors introduced by various systematic effects and the techniques that we have developed to correct or remove them to the extent possible. We provide in electronic form the catalog for NGC 7078 (M 15), which consists of 77,837 stars in the central 2.'4. We validate the catalog by comparison with existing PM measurements and LOS velocities and use it to study the dependence of the velocity dispersion on radius, stellar magnitude (or mass) along the main sequence, and direction in the plane of the sky (radial or tangential). Subsequent papers in this series will explore a range of applications in globular-cluster science and will also present the PM catalogs for the other sample clusters.

  7. German activities in optical space instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G.

    2018-04-01

    In the years of space exploration since the mid-sixties, a wide experience in optical space instrumentation has developed in Germany. This experience ranges from large telescopes in the 1 m and larger category with the accompanying focal plane detectors and spectrometers for all regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum (infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays), to miniature cameras for cometary and planetary explorations. The technologies originally developed for space science. are now also utilized in the fields of earth observation and even optical telecommunication. The presentation will cover all these areas, with examples for specific technological or scientific highlights. Special emphasis will be given to the current state-of-the-art instrumentation technologies in scientific institutions and industry, and to the future perspective in approved and planned projects.

  8. The evolution of C/O in dwarf galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope FOS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, D. R.; Skillman, E. D.; Dufour, R. J.; Peimbert, M.; Torres-Peimbert, S.; Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E.; Shields, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    We present UV observations of seven H II regions in low-luminosity dwarf irregular galaxies and the Magellanic Clouds obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in order to measure the C/O abundance ratio in the interstellar medium (ISM) of those galaxies. We measure both O III 1666 A and C III 1909 A in our spectra, enabling us to determine C(+2)/O(+2) with relatively small uncertainties. The results from our HST observations show a continuous increase in C/O with increasing O/H, consistent with a power law having an index of 0.43 +/- 0.09 over the range -4.7 to -3.6 in log (O/H). One possible interpretation of this trend is that the most metal-poor galaxies are the youngest and dominated by the products of early enrichment by massive stars, while more metal-rich galaxies show increasing, delayed contributions of carbon from intermediate-mass stars. Our results also suggest that it may not be appropiate to combine abundances in irregular galaxies with those in spiral galaxies to study the evolution of chemical abundances. Our measured C/O ratios in the most metal-poor galaxies are consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis from massive stars for Weaver & Woosley's best estimate for the 12C(alpha, gamma) 16O nuclear reaction rate, assuming negligible contanmination from carbon produced in intermediate-mass stars in these galaxies. We detect a weak N III 1750 A multiplet in SMC N88A and obtain interesting upper limits for two other objects. Our 2 sigma uppr limits on the 1750 A feature indicate that the N(+2)/O(+2) ratios in these objects are not significantly larger than the N(+)/O(+) ratios measured from optical spectra. This behavior is consistent with predictions of photionization models, although better detections of N III are needed to confirm the results.

  9. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE AND GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS OF V455 ANDROMEDAE POST-OUTBURST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S.; Brown, Justin; Funkhouser, Kelsey [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Gänsicke, Boris T. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Henden, Arne [AAVSO, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sion, Edward M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Townsley, Dean M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Christian, Damian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Falcon, Ross E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Pyrzas, Stylianos, E-mail: szkody@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: anjum@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: boris.gaensicke@warwick.ac.uk, E-mail: arne@aavso.org, E-mail: edward.sion@villanova.edu, E-mail: Dean.M.Townsley@ua.edu, E-mail: damian.christian@csun.edu, E-mail: cylver@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: stylianos.pyrzas@gmail.com [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Avenida Angamos 0619, Antofagasta (Chile)

    2013-09-20

    Hubble Space Telescope spectra obtained in 2010 and 2011, 3 and 4 yr after the large amplitude dwarf nova outburst of V455 And, were combined with optical photometry and spectra to study the cooling of the white dwarf, its spin, and possible pulsation periods after the outburst. The modeling of the ultraviolet (UV) spectra shows that the white dwarf temperature remains ∼600 K hotter than its quiescent value at 3 yr post-outburst, and still a few hundred degrees hotter at 4 yr post-outburst. The white dwarf spin at 67.6 s and its second harmonic at 33.8 s are visible in the optical within a month of outburst and are obvious in the later UV observations in the shortest wavelength continuum and the UV emission lines, indicating an origin in high-temperature regions near the accretion curtains. The UV light curves folded on the spin period show a double-humped modulation consistent with two-pole accretion. The optical photometry 2 yr after outburst shows a group of frequencies present at shorter periods (250-263 s) than the periods ascribed to pulsation at quiescence, and these gradually shift toward the quiescent frequencies (300-360 s) as time progresses past outburst. The most surprising result is that the frequencies near this period in the UV data are only prominent in the emission lines, not the UV continuum, implying an origin away from the white dwarf photosphere. Thus, the connection of this group of periods with non-radial pulsations of the white dwarf remains elusive.

  10. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE NICMOS POLARIZATION OBSERVATIONS OF THREE EDGE-ON MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Burton, Michael G.; Cotera, Angela S.; Hines, Dean C.; Whitney, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    Massive young stellar objects (YSOs), like low-mass YSOs, appear to be surrounded by optically thick envelopes and/or disks and have regions, often bipolar, that are seen in polarized scattered light at near-infrared wavelengths. We are using the 0.''2 spatial resolution of the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) on Hubble Space Telescope to examine the structure of the disks and outflow regions of massive YSOs in star-forming regions within a few kpc of the Sun. Here we report on 2 μm polarimetry of NGC 6334 V and S255 IRS1. NGC 6334 V consists of a double-lobed bright reflection nebula seen against a dark region, probably an optically thick molecular cloud. Our polarization measurements show that the illuminating star lies ∼2'' south of the line connecting the two lobes; we do not detect this star at 2 μm, but there are a small radio source and a mid-infrared source at this location. S255 IRS1 consists of two YSOs (NIRS1 and NIRS3) with overlapping scattered light lobes and luminosities corresponding to early B stars. Included in IRS1 is a cluster of stars from whose polarization we determine the local magnetic field direction. Neither of the YSOs has its scattered light lobes aligned with this magnetic field. The line connecting the scattered light lobes of NIRS1 is twisted symmetrically around the star; the best explanation is that the star is part of a close binary and the outflow axis of NIRS1 is precessing as a result of non-coplanar disk and orbit. The star NIRS3 is also offset from the line connecting its two scattered light lobes. We suggest that all three YSOs show evidence of episodic ejection of material as they accrete from dense, optically thick envelopes.

  11. Hubble space telescope near-ir transmission spectroscopy of the super-Earth HD 97658B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dragomir, Diana [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Kempton, Eliza M.-R. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States); McCullough, P. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Gillon, Michael [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Universiteé de Liége, Liége 1 (Belgium); Homeier, Derek [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon (France); Howard, Andrew W., E-mail: hknutson@caltech.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Recent results from the Kepler mission indicate that super-Earths (planets with masses between 1-10 times that of the Earth) are the most common kind of planet around nearby Sun-like stars. These planets have no direct solar system analogue, and are currently one of the least well-understood classes of extrasolar planets. Many super-Earths have average densities that are consistent with a broad range of bulk compositions, including both water-dominated worlds and rocky planets covered by a thick hydrogen and helium atmosphere. Measurements of the transmission spectra of these planets offer the opportunity to resolve this degeneracy by directly constraining the scale heights and corresponding mean molecular weights of their atmospheres. We present Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared spectroscopy of two transits of the newly discovered transiting super-Earth HD 97658b. We use the Wide Field Camera 3's (WFC3) scanning mode to measure the wavelength-dependent transit depth in 30 individual bandpasses. Our averaged differential transmission spectrum has a median 1σ uncertainty of 23 ppm in individual bins, making this the most precise observation of an exoplanetary transmission spectrum obtained with WFC3 to date. Our data are inconsistent with a cloud-free solar metallicity atmosphere at the 10σ level. They are consistent at the 0.4σ level with a flat line model, as well as effectively flat models corresponding to a metal-rich atmosphere or a solar metallicity atmosphere with a cloud or haze layer located at pressures of 10 mbar or higher.

  12. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SNAPSHOT SEARCH FOR PLANETARY NEBULAE IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OF THE LOCAL GROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E., E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Single stars in ancient globular clusters (GCs) are believed incapable of producing planetary nebulae (PNs), because their post-asymptotic-giant-branch evolutionary timescales are slower than the dissipation timescales for PNs. Nevertheless, four PNs are known in Galactic GCs. Their existence likely requires more exotic evolutionary channels, including stellar mergers and common-envelope binary interactions. I carried out a snapshot imaging search with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for PNs in bright Local Group GCs outside the Milky Way. I used a filter covering the 5007 Å nebular emission line of [O iii], and another one in the nearby continuum, to image 66 GCs. Inclusion of archival HST frames brought the total number of extragalactic GCs imaged at 5007 Å to 75, whose total luminosity slightly exceeds that of the entire Galactic GC system. I found no convincing PNs in these clusters, aside from one PN in a young M31 cluster misclassified as a GC, and two PNs at such large angular separations from an M31 GC that membership is doubtful. In a ground-based spectroscopic survey of 274 old GCs in M31, Jacoby et al. found three candidate PNs. My HST images of one of them suggest that the [O iii] emission actually arises from ambient interstellar medium rather than a PN; for the other two candidates, there are broadband archival UV HST images that show bright, blue point sources that are probably the PNs. In a literature search, I also identified five further PN candidates lying near old GCs in M31, for which follow-up observations are necessary to confirm their membership. The rates of incidence of PNs are similar, and small but nonzero, throughout the GCs of the Local Group.

  13. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Adamo, Angela [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schaerer, Daniel [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire dAstrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Herenz, E. Christian, E-mail: matthew@astro.su.se [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    We report new results regarding the Lyα output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Lyα, Hα, and UV, and maps of Hα/Hβ, Lyα equivalent width (EW), and Lyα/Hα. We present Lyα and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Sérsic profiles, but Lyα profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ≈ 1-2 instead of ≳ 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Lyα that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Lyα than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ≈10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Lyα luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Lyα throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Lyα emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Lyα and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 Å, and one shows f{sub esc}{sup Lyα} of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  14. Accretion Disk Reverberation with Hubble Space Telescope Observations of NGC 4593: Evidence for Diffuse Continuum Lags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cackett, Edward M.; Chiang, Chia-Ying; McHardy, Ian; Edelson, Rick; Goad, Michael R.; Horne, Keith; Korista, Kirk T.

    2018-04-01

    The Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593 was monitored spectroscopically with the Hubble Space Telescope as part of a reverberation mapping campaign that also included Swift, Kepler, and ground-based photometric monitoring. During 2016 July 12–August 6, we obtained 26 spectra across a nearly continuous wavelength range of ∼1150–10000 Å. These were combined with Swift data to produce a UV/optical “lag spectrum,” which shows the interband lag relative to the Swift UVW2 band as a function of wavelength. The broad shape of the lag spectrum appears to follow the τ ∝ λ 4/3 relation seen previously in photometric interband lag measurements of other active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This shape is consistent with the standard thin disk model, but the magnitude of the lags implies a disk that is a factor of ∼3 larger than predicted, again consistent with what has been previously seen in other AGNs. In all cases these large disk sizes, which are also implied by independent gravitational microlensing of higher-mass AGNs, cannot be simply reconciled with the standard model. However, the most striking feature in this higher-resolution lag spectrum is a clear excess around the 3646 Å Balmer jump. This strongly suggests that diffuse emission from gas in the much larger broad-line region (BLR) must also contribute significantly to the interband lags. While the relative contributions of the disk and BLR cannot be uniquely determined in these initial measurements, it is clear that both will need to be considered to comprehensively model and understand AGN lag spectra.

  15. EVIDENCE FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA DIVERSITY FROM ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaofeng [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Lifan [Physics and Astronomy Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Baron, Eddie [Department of Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kromer, Markus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jack, Dennis [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg (Germany); Zhang Tianmeng [National Astronomical Observatory of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Aldering, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire des Hautes Energies, Paris (France); Arnett, W. David [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Baade, Dietrich [European Southern Observatory, 85748 Garching (Germany); Barris, Brian J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Benetti, Stefano; Cappellaro, Enrico [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, 35122 Padova (Italy); Bouchet, Patrice [CEA/DSM/DAPNIA/Service d' Astrophysique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Burrows, Adam S. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Canal, Ramon [Department d' Astronomia i Meterorologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona 8007 (Spain); Carlberg, Raymond G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3J3 (Canada); Di Carlo, Elisa [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Challis, Peter J., E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Harvard/Smithsonian Center Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); and others

    2012-04-20

    We present ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and photometry of four Type Ia supernovae (SNe 2004dt, 2004ef, 2005M, and 2005cf) obtained with the UV prism of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. This data set provides unique spectral time series down to 2000 A. Significant diversity is seen in the near-maximum-light spectra ({approx}2000-3500 A) for this small sample. The corresponding photometric data, together with archival data from Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope observations, provide further evidence of increased dispersion in the UV emission with respect to the optical. The peak luminosities measured in the uvw1/F250W filter are found to correlate with the B-band light-curve shape parameter {Delta}m{sub 15}(B), but with much larger scatter relative to the correlation in the broadband B band (e.g., {approx}0.4 mag versus {approx}0.2 mag for those with 0.8 mag < {Delta}m{sub 15}(B) < 1.7 mag). SN 2004dt is found as an outlier of this correlation (at > 3{sigma}), being brighter than normal SNe Ia such as SN 2005cf by {approx}0.9 mag and {approx}2.0 mag in the uvw1/F250W and uvm2/F220W filters, respectively. We show that different progenitor metallicity or line-expansion velocities alone cannot explain such a large discrepancy. Viewing-angle effects, such as due to an asymmetric explosion, may have a significant influence on the flux emitted in the UV region. Detailed modeling is needed to disentangle and quantify the above effects.

  16. A Hubble Space Telescope imaging study of four FeLoBAL quasar host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawther, D.; Vestergaard, M.; Fan, X.

    2018-04-01

    We study the host galaxies of four Iron Low-Ionization Broad Absorption-line Quasars (FeLoBALs), using Hubble Space Telescope imaging data, investigating the possibility that they represent a transition between an obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ordinary optical quasar. In this scenario, the FeLoBALs represent the early stage of merger-triggered accretion, in which case their host galaxies are expected to show signs of an ongoing or recent merger. Using PSF subtraction techniques, we decompose the images into host galaxy and AGN components at rest-frame ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. The ultraviolet is sensitive to young stars, while the optical probes stellar mass. In the ultraviolet we image at the BAL absorption trough wavelengths so as to decrease the contrast between the quasar and host galaxy emission. We securely detect an extended source for two of the four FeLoBALs in the rest-frame optical; a third host galaxy is marginally detected. In the rest-frame UV we detect no host emission; this constrains the level of unobscured star formation. Thus, the host galaxies have observed properties that are consistent with those of non-BAL quasars with the same nuclear luminosity, i.e. quiescent or moderately star-forming elliptical galaxies. However, we cannot exclude starbursting hosts that have the stellar UV emission obscured by modest amounts of dust reddening. Thus, our findings also allow the merger-induced young quasar scenario. For three objects, we identify possible close companion galaxies that may be gravitationally interacting with the quasar hosts.

  17. Little Blue Dots in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields: Precursors to Globular Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2017-12-01

    Galaxies with stellar masses {10}-7.4 yr‑1 were examined on images of the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field Parallels for Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1-02403. They appear as unresolved “Little Blue Dots” (LBDs). They are less massive and have higher specific star formation rates (sSFRs) than “blueberries” studied by Yang et al. and higher sSFRs than “Blue Nuggets” studied by Tacchella et al. We divided the LBDs into three redshift bins and, for each, stacked the B435, V606, and I814 images convolved to the same stellar point-spread function (PSF). Their radii were determined from PSF deconvolution to be ∼80 to ∼180 pc. The high sSFRs suggest that their entire stellar mass has formed in only 1% of the local age of the universe. The sSFRs at similar epochs in local dwarf galaxies are lower by a factor of ∼100. Assuming that the star formation rate is {ε }{ff}{M}{gas}/{t}{ff} for efficiency {ε }{ff}, gas mass M gas, and free-fall time, t ff, the gas mass and gas-to-star mass ratio are determined. This ratio exceeds 1 for reasonable efficiencies, and is likely to be ∼5 even with a high {ε }{ff} of 0.1. We consider whether these regions are forming today’s globular clusters. With their observed stellar masses, the maximum likely cluster mass is ∼ {10}5 {M}ȯ , but if star formation continues at the current rate for ∼ 10{t}{ff}∼ 50 {Myr} before feedback and gas exhaustion stop it, then the maximum cluster mass could become ∼ {10}6 {M}ȯ .

  18. The Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey Cluster Sample: Methodology and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, E. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Ratnatunga, K. U.; Griffiths, R. E.

    1998-12-01

    We present a new, objectively selected, sample of galaxy overdensities detected in the Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey (MDS). These clusters/groups were found using an automated procedure that involved searching for statistically significant galaxy overdensities. The contrast of the clusters against the field galaxy population is increased when morphological data are used to search around bulge-dominated galaxies. In total, we present 92 overdensities above a probability threshold of 99.5%. We show, via extensive Monte Carlo simulations, that at least 60% of these overdensities are likely to be real clusters and groups and not random line-of-sight superpositions of galaxies. For each overdensity in the MDS cluster sample, we provide a richness and the average of the bulge-to-total ratio of galaxies within each system. This MDS cluster sample potentially contains some of the most distant clusters/groups ever detected, with about 25% of the overdensities having estimated redshifts z > ~0.9. We have made this sample publicly available to facilitate spectroscopic confirmation of these clusters and help more detailed studies of cluster and galaxy evolution. We also report the serendipitous discovery of a new cluster close on the sky to the rich optical cluster Cl l0016+16 at z = 0.546. This new overdensity, HST 001831+16208, may be coincident with both an X-ray source and a radio source. HST 001831+16208 is the third cluster/group discovered near to Cl 0016+16 and appears to strengthen the claims of Connolly et al. of superclustering at high redshift.

  19. Photometric and structural properties of NGC 6544: A combined VVV-Hubble space telescope study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Roger E.; Mauro, Francesco; Geisler, Doug [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Moni Bidin, Christian [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile); Dotter, Aaron [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Australia); Bonatto, Charles [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    We combine archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging with wide-field near-infrared photometry to study the neglected metal-poor Galactic globular cluster NGC 6544. A high spatial resolution map of differential reddening over the inner portion of the cluster is constructed, revealing variations of up to half of the total reddening, and the resulting corrected color-magnitude diagrams reveal a sparse blue horizontal branch and centrally concentrated blue straggler population, verified via relative proper motions. Using the corrected photometry to investigate the cluster distance, reddening, and age via direct comparison to well-calibrated photometry of clusters with similar metallicities, we estimate (m – M){sub 0} = 11.96, E(B – V) = 0.79, and an age coeval with M13 to within the relevant uncertainties. Although our data are insufficient to place tight constraints on the reddening law toward NGC 6544, we find no strong evidence that it is non-standard at optical or near-infrared wavelengths. We also provide near-infrared fiducial sequences extending nearly 2 mag below the cluster main sequence turnoff, generated from a statistically decontaminated sample of cluster stars. Lastly, we redetermine the cluster center and construct a radial number density profile which is well fit by an atypically flat power law with a slope of about 1.7. We discuss this result, together with a flattened main sequence luminosity function and inverted mass function, in the context of mass segregation and tidal stripping via interactions with Milky Way potential.

  20. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF Lyα EMISSION AT z ∼ 4.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Finkelstein, Keely D.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Ryan, Russell E.; Hathi, Nimish P.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Anderson, Jay; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    We present the highest redshift detections of resolved Lyα emission, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys F658N narrowband-imaging data taken in parallel with the Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science program in the GOODS Chandra Deep Field-South. We detect Lyα emission from three spectroscopically confirmed z = 4.4 Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs), more than doubling the sample of LAEs with resolved Lyα emission. Comparing the light distribution between the rest-frame ultraviolet continuum and narrowband images, we investigate the escape of Lyα photons at high redshift. While our data do not support a positional offset between the Lyα and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) continuum emission, the half-light radius in one out of the three galaxies is significantly (>1σ) larger in Lyα than in the rest-frame UV continuum. Stacking the three LAEs in both the narrowband and UV continuum images, we find that the Lyα light appears larger than the rest-frame UV at 4.2σ significance. This Lyα flux detected with HST is a factor of 4-10 less than observed in similar filters from the ground. These results together imply that the Lyα emission is not strictly confined to its indigenous star-forming regions. Rather, for at least one object the Lyα emission is more extended, with the missing HST flux possibly existing in a diffuse outer halo. This suggests that the radiative transfer of Lyα photons in high-redshift LAEs is complicated, with the interstellar-medium geometry and/or outflows playing a significant role in galaxies at these redshifts.

  1. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE: EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM INFRARED GRISM OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kuntschner, Harald; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Bond, Howard E.; Meurer, Gerhardt; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    We present grism spectra of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6 to 1.6 μm from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L 0.6-0.95 μm grism data in GOODS-South from the PEARS program, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The Early Release Science (ERS) grism field was observed at a depth of two orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which is presented here. ELGs are studied via the Hα, [O III], and [O II] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 ∼ B(F098M) ≅ 25 mag. Seventeen GOODS-South galaxies that previously only had photometric redshifts now have new grism-spectroscopic redshifts, in some cases with large corrections to the photometric redshifts (Δz ≅ 0.3-0.5). Additionally, one galaxy had no previously measured redshift but now has a secure grism-spectroscopic redshift, for a total of 18 new GOODS-South spectroscopic redshifts. The faintest source in our sample has a magnitude m AB(F098M) = 26.9 mag. The ERS grism data also reflect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample as a function of redshift, consistent with downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes and redshifts to z ∼> 2.

  2. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VIII. PRELIMINARY PUBLIC CATALOG RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Brown, T. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, San Martin Drive 3700, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Piotto, G.; Granata, V.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Cool, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); King, I. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cassisi, S. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S., E-mail: mario.soto@uda.cl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters (GO-13297) has been specifically designed to complement the existing F606W and F814W observations of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Globular Cluster Survey (GO-10775) by observing the most accessible 47 of the previous survey’s 65 clusters in three WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. The new survey also adds super-solar metallicity open cluster NGC 6791 to increase the metallicity diversity. The combined survey provides a homogeneous 5-band data set that can be used to pursue a broad range of scientific investigations. In particular, the chosen UV filters allow the identification of multiple stellar populations by targeting the regions of the spectrum that are sensitive to abundance variations in C, N, and O. In order to provide the community with uniform preliminary catalogs, we have devised an automated procedure that performs high-quality photometry on the new UV observations (along with similar observations of seven other programs in the archive). This procedure finds and measures the potential sources on each individual exposure using library point-spread functions and cross-correlates these observations with the original ACS-Survey catalog. The catalog of 57 clusters we publish here will be useful to identify stars in the different stellar populations, in particular for spectroscopic follow-up. Eventually, we will construct a more sophisticated catalog and artificial-star tests based on an optimal reduction of the UV survey data, but the catalogs presented here give the community the chance to make early use of this HST Treasury survey.

  3. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger; Adamo, Angela; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Herenz, E. Christian

    2014-01-01

    We report new results regarding the Lyα output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Lyα, Hα, and UV, and maps of Hα/Hβ, Lyα equivalent width (EW), and Lyα/Hα. We present Lyα and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Sérsic profiles, but Lyα profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ≈ 1-2 instead of ≳ 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Lyα that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Lyα than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ≈10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Lyα luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Lyα throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Lyα emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Lyα and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 Å, and one shows f esc Lyα of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  4. The universe in a mirror the saga of the Hubble Space Telescope and the visionaries who built it

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmerman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has produced the most stunning images of the cosmos humanity has ever seen. It has transformed our understanding of the universe around us, revealing new information about its age and evolution, the life cycle of stars, and the very existence of black holes, among other startling discoveries. But it took an amazing amount of work and perseverance to get the first space telescope up and running. The Universe in a Mirror tells the story of this telescope and the visionaries responsible for its extraordinary accomplishments. Robert Zimmerman takes readers beh

  5. 3D-HST: A WIDE-FIELD GRISM SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Nelson, Erica; Bezanson, Rachel; Leja, Joel; Lundgren, Britt; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Labbé, Ivo; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Kriek, Mariska; Erb, Dawn K.; Fan, Xiaohui; Förster Schreiber, Natascha; Illingworth, Garth D.; Magee, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We present 3D-HST, a near-infrared spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope for studying the physical processes that shape galaxies in the distant universe. 3D-HST provides rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of ∼7000 galaxies at 1 2 ) of the CANDELS Treasury survey area with two orbits of primary WFC3/G141 grism coverage and two to four orbits with the ACS/G800L grism in parallel. In the IR, these exposure times yield a continuum signal-to-noise ratio of ∼5 per resolution element at H 140 ∼ 23.1 and a 5σ emission-line sensitivity of ∼5 × 10 –17 erg s –1 cm –2 for typical objects, improving by a factor of ∼2 for compact sources in images with low sky background levels. The WFC3/G141 spectra provide continuous wavelength coverage from 1.1 to 1.6 μm at a spatial resolution of ∼0.''13, which, combined with their depth, makes them a unique resource for studying galaxy evolution. We present an overview of the preliminary reduction and analysis of the grism observations, including emission-line and redshift measurements from combined fits to the extracted grism spectra and photometry from ancillary multi-wavelength catalogs. The present analysis yields redshift estimates with a precision of σ(z) = 0.0034(1 + z), or σ(v) ≈ 1000 km s –1 . We illustrate how the generalized nature of the survey yields near-infrared spectra of remarkable quality for many different types of objects, including a quasar at z = 4.7, quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2, and the most distant T-type brown dwarf star known. The combination of the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys will provide the definitive imaging and spectroscopic data set for studies of the 1 < z < 3.5 universe until the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope.

  6. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) science instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R.; Hing, S.M.; Leidich, C.A.; Fazio, G.; Houck, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Concepts of scientific instruments designed to perform infrared astronomical tasks such as imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy are discussed as part of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) project under definition study at NASA/Ames Research Center. The instruments are: the multiband imaging photometer, the infrared array camera, and the infrared spectograph. SIRTF, a cryogenically cooled infrared telescope in the 1-meter range and wavelengths as short as 2.5 microns carrying multiple instruments with high sensitivity and low background performance, provides the capability to carry out basic astronomical investigations such as deep search for very distant protogalaxies, quasi-stellar objects, and missing mass; infrared emission from galaxies; star formation and the interstellar medium; and the composition and structure of the atmospheres of the outer planets in the solar sytem. 8 refs

  7. HST's 10th anniversary, ESA and Hubble : changing our vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    With the astronauts who took part in the most recent Servicing Mission (SM3A) in attendance, ESA is taking the opportunity to give a - first - complete overview of Europe's major contribution to the HST mission. It will also review the first ten years of operations and the outstanding results that have "changed our vision" of the cosmos. A new fully European outreach initiative - the "European Space Agency Hubble Information Centre" - will be presented and officially launched; it has been set up by ESA to provide information on Hubble from a European perspective. A public conference will take place in the afternoon to celebrate Hubble's achievements midway through its life. Ten years of outstanding performance Launched on 24 April 1990, Hubble is now midway through its operating life and it is considered one of the most successful space science missions ever. So far more than 10,000 scientific papers based on Hubble results have been published and European scientists have contributed to more than 25% of these. Not only has Hubble produced a rich harvest of scientific results, it has impressed the man in the street with its beautiful images of the sky. Thousands of headlines all over the world have given direct proof of the public's great interest in the mission - 'The deepest images ever', 'The sharpest view of the Universe', 'Measurements of the earliest galaxies' and many others, all reflecting Hubble's performance as a top-class observatory. The Servicing Missions that keep the observatory and its instruments in prime condition are one of the innovative ideas behind Hubble. Astronauts have serviced Hubble three times, and ESA astronauts have taken part in two of these missions. Claude Nicollier (CH) worked with American colleagues on the First Servicing Mission, when Hubble's initial optical problems were repaired. On the latest, Servicing Mission 3A, both Claude Nicollier and Jean-François Clervoy (F) were members of the crew. Over the next 10 years European

  8. CONSTRAINING DUST AND COLOR VARIATIONS OF HIGH-z SNe USING NICMOS ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobili, S.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present data from the Supernova Cosmology Project for five high redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that were obtained using the NICMOS infrared camera on the Hubble Space Telescope. We add two SNe from this sample to a rest-frame I-band Hubble diagram, doubling the number of high redshift supernovae on this diagram. This I-band Hubble diagram is consistent with a flat universe (Ω M , Ω Λ ) = (0.29, 0.71). A homogeneous distribution of large grain dust in the intergalactic medium (replenishing dust) is incompatible with the data and is excluded at the 5σ confidence level, if the SN host galaxy reddening is corrected assuming R V = 1.75. We use both optical and infrared observations to compare photometric properties of distant SNe Ia with those of nearby objects. We find generally good agreement with the expected color evolution for all SNe except the highest redshift SN in our sample (SN 1997ek at z = 0.863) which shows a peculiar color behavior. We also present spectra obtained from ground-based telescopes for type identification and determination of redshift.

  9. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE ASTEROID 324P/La SAGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David; Li, Jing [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Agarwal, Jessica [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Weaver, Harold [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, Maryland 20723 (United States); Mutchler, Max [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larson, Stephen, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of active asteroid 324P/La Sagra near perihelion show continued mass loss consistent with the sublimation of near-surface ice. Isophotes of the coma measured from a vantage point below the orbital plane are best matched by steady emission of particles having a nominal size  of  a  ∼ 100 μ m. The inferred rate of mass loss, dM{sub d} / dt  ∼ 0.2 kg s{sup −1}, can be supplied by sublimation of water ice in thermal equilibrium with sunlight from an area as small as 930 m{sup 2}, corresponding to about 0.2% of the nucleus surface. Observations taken from a vantage point only 0.°6 from the orbital plane of 324P set a limit to the velocity of ejection of dust in the direction perpendicular to the plane, V {sub ⊥} < 1 m s{sup −1}. Short-term photometric variations of the near-nucleus region, if related to rotation of the underlying nucleus, rule-out periods ≤3.8 hr and suggest that rotation probably does not play a central role in driving the observed mass loss. We estimate that, in the previous orbit, 324P lost about 4 × 10{sup 7} kg in dust particles, corresponding to 6 × 10{sup −5} of the mass of a 550 m spherical nucleus of assumed density ρ  = 1000 kg m{sup −3}. If continued, mass loss at this rate would limit the lifetime of 324P to ∼1.6 × 10{sup 4} orbits (about 10{sup 5} years). To survive for the 100–400 Myr timescales corresponding to dynamical and collisional stability requires a duty cycle of 2 × 10{sup −4} ≤  f{sub d}  ≤ 8 × 10{sup −4}. Unless its time in orbit is overestimated by many orders of magnitude, 324P is revealed as a briefly active member of a vast population of otherwise dormant ice-containing asteroids.

  10. Measuring metallicities with Hubble space telescope/wide-field camera 3 photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Twarog, Bruce [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Walker, Alistair, E-mail: rosst@nmsu.edu, E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu, E-mail: bjat@ku.edu, E-mail: btwarog@ku.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: awalker@ctio.noao.edu [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2014-01-01

    We quantified and calibrated the metallicity and temperature sensitivities of colors derived from nine Wide-Field Camera 3 filters on board the Hubble Space Telescope using Dartmouth isochrones and Kurucz atmosphere models. The theoretical isochrone colors were tested and calibrated against observations of five well studied galactic clusters, M92, NGC 6752, NGC 104, NGC 5927, and NGC 6791, all of which have spectroscopically determined metallicities spanning –2.30 < [Fe/H] <+0.4. We found empirical corrections to the Dartmouth isochrone grid for each of the following color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs): (F555W-F814W, F814W), (F336W-F555W, F814W), (F390M-F555W, F814W), and (F390W-F555W, F814W). Using empirical corrections, we tested the accuracy and spread of the photometric metallicities assigned from CMDs and color-color diagrams (which are necessary to break the age-metallicity degeneracy). Testing three color-color diagrams [(F336W-F555W),(F390M-F555W),(F390W-F555W), versus (F555W-F814W)], we found the colors (F390M-F555W) and (F390W-F555W) to be the best suited to measure photometric metallicities. The color (F390W-F555W) requires much less integration time, but generally produces wider metallicity distributions and, at very low metallicity, the metallicity distribution function (MDF) from (F390W-F555W) is ∼60% wider than that from (F390M-F555W). Using the calibrated isochrones, we recovered the overall cluster metallicity to within ∼0.1 dex in [Fe/H] when using CMDs (i.e., when the distance, reddening, and ages are approximately known). The measured MDF from color-color diagrams shows that this method measures metallicities of stellar clusters of unknown age and metallicity with an accuracy of ∼0.2-0.5 dex using F336W-F555W, ∼0.15-0.25 dex using F390M-F555W, and ∼0.2-0.4 dex with F390W-F555W, with the larger uncertainty pertaining to the lowest metallicity range.

  11. Constraints on z~10 Galaxies from the Deepest Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Thompson, R. I.; Franx, M.

    2005-05-01

    We use all available fields with deep NICMOS imaging to search for J110-dropouts (H160,AB1.8. Eleven such sources were found in all search fields using this criterion. Eight of these are clearly ruled out as credible z~10 sources, either as a result of detections (>2 σ) blueward of J110 or their colors redward of the break (H160-K~1.5) (redder than >~98% of lower redshift dropouts). The nature of the three remaining sources could not be determined from the data. This number appears consistent with the expected contamination from low-redshift interlopers. Analysis of the stacked images for the three candidates also suggests some contamination. Regardless of their true redshifts, the actual number of z~10 sources must be three or fewer. To assess the significance of these results, two lower redshift samples (a z~3.8 B-dropout and z~6 i-dropout sample) were projected to z~7-13 using a (1+z)-1 size scaling (for fixed luminosity). They were added to the image frames and the selection was repeated, giving 15.6 and 4.8 J110-dropouts, respectively. This suggests that to the limit of this probe (~0.3L*z=3), there has been evolution from z~3.8 and possibly from z~6. This is consistent with the strong evolution already noted at z~6 and z~7.5 relative to z~3-4. Even assuming that three sources from this probe are at z~10, the rest-frame continuum UV (~1500 Å) luminosity density at z~10 (integrated down to 0.3L*z=3) is just 0.19+0.13-0.09 times that at z~3.8 (or 0.19+0.15-0.10 times, including the small effect from cosmic variance). However, if none of our sources are at z~10, this ratio has a 1 σ upper limit of 0.07. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  12. The modern trends in space electromagnetic instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, V. E.

    The future trends of the experimental plasma physics development in outer space demand more and more exact and sophisticated scientific instrumentation. Moreover, the situation is complicated by constant reduction of financial support of scientific research, even in leading countries. This resulted in the development of mini; micro and nanosatellites with low price and short preparation time. Consequently, it provoked the creation of new generation of scientific instruments with reduced weight and power consumption but increased level of metrological parameters. The recent state of the development of electromagnetic (EM) sensors for microsatellites is reported. For flux-gate magnetometers (FGM) the reduction of weight as well as power consumption was achieved not only due to the use of new electronic components but also because of the new operation mode development. The scientific and technological study allowed to decrease FGM noise and now the typical noise figure is about 10 picotesla rms at 1 Hz and the record one is below 1 picotesla. The super-light version of search-coil magnetometers (SCM) was created as the result of intensive research. These new SCMs can have about six decades of operational frequency band with upper limit ˜ 1 MHz and noise level of few femtotesla with total weight about 75 grams, including electronics. A new instrument.- wave probe (WP) - which combines three independent sensors in one body - SCM, split Langmuir probe and electric potential sensor - was created. The developed theory confirms that WP can directly measure the wave vector components in space plasmas.

  13. Probing Very Bright End of Galaxy Luminosity Function at z >~ 7 Using Hubble Space Telescope Pure Parallel Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haojing; Yan, Lin; Zamojski, Michel A.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Fan, Xiaohui; Röttgering, Huub J. A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Robertson, Brant E.; Davé, Romeel; Cai, Zheng

    2011-02-01

    We report the first results from the Hubble Infrared Pure Parallel Imaging Extragalactic Survey, which utilizes the pure parallel orbits of the Hubble Space Telescope to do deep imaging along a large number of random sightlines. To date, our analysis includes 26 widely separated fields observed by the Wide Field Camera 3, which amounts to 122.8 arcmin2 in total area. We have found three bright Y 098-dropouts, which are candidate galaxies at z >~ 7.4. One of these objects shows an indication of peculiar variability and its nature is uncertain. The other two objects are among the brightest candidate galaxies at these redshifts known to date (L>2L*). Such very luminous objects could be the progenitors of the high-mass Lyman break galaxies observed at lower redshifts (up to z ~ 5). While our sample is still limited in size, it is much less subject to the uncertainty caused by "cosmic variance" than other samples because it is derived using fields along many random sightlines. We find that the existence of the brightest candidate at z ≈ 7.4 is not well explained by the current luminosity function (LF) estimates at z ≈ 8. However, its inferred surface density could be explained by the prediction from the LFs at z ≈ 7 if it belongs to the high-redshift tail of the galaxy population at z ≈ 7. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 11700 and 11702.

  14. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  15. Results of a technical analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Program Office requested the expertise of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Steering Committee (NAFBSSC) in the conduct of an independent assessment of the HST's battery system to assist in their decision of whether to fly nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen batteries on the telescope. In response, a subcommittee to the NAFBSSC was organized with membership comprised of experts with background in the nickel-cadmium/nickel-hydrogen secondary battery/power systems areas. The work and recommendations of that subcommittee are presented.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging and Spectral Analysis of Two Brown Dwarf Binaries at the L Dwarf/T Dwarf Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Gagliuffi, Daniella C. Bardalez; Gizis, John E.

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed examination of the brown dwarf multiples 2MASS J08503593+1057156 and 2MASS J17281150+3948593, both suspected of harboring components that straddle the L dwarf/T dwarf transition. Resolved photometry from Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS show opposite trends in the relative colors of the components, with the secondary of 2MASS J0850+1057 being redder than its primary, while that of 2MASS J1728+3948 is bluer. We determine near-infrared component types by matching combined-lig...

  17. A Unique test for Hubble's new Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    In mid-October, a team from the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA will perform a difficult, never-before-done test on one of the Hubble Space Telescope's new solar array panels. Two of these panels, or arrays, will be installed by astronauts in November 2001, when the Space Shuttle Columbia visits Hubble on a routine service mission. The test will ensure that the new arrays are solid and vibration free before they are installed on orbit. The test will be conducted at ESA's European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. Because of the array's size, the facility's special features, and ESA's longstanding experience with Hubble's solar arrays, ESTEC is the only place in the world the test can be performed. This test is the latest chapter in a longstanding partnership between ESA and NASA on the Hubble Space Telescope. The Large Space Simulator at ESTEC, ESA's world-class test facility, features a huge vacuum chamber containing a bank of extremely bright lights that simulate the Sun's intensity - including sunrise and sunset. By exposing the solar wing to the light and temperature extremes of Hubble's orbit, engineers can verify how the new set of arrays will act in space. Hubble orbits the Earth once every 90 minutes. During each orbit, the telescope experiences 45 minutes of searing sunlight and 45 minutes of frigid darkness. This test will detect any tiny vibrations, or jitters, caused by these dramatic, repeated changes. Even a small amount of jitter can affect Hubble's sensitive instruments and interfere with observations. Hubble's first set of solar arrays experienced mild jitter and was replaced in 1993 with a much more stable pair. Since that time, advances in solar cell technology have led to the development of even more efficient arrays. In 2001, NASA will take advantage of these improvements, by fitting Hubble with a third-generation set of arrays. Though smaller, this new set generates more power than the previous

  18. UV Luminosity Functions at z~4, 5, and 6 from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and Other Deep Hubble Space Telescope ACS Fields: Evolution and Star Formation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Franx, Marijn; Ford, Holland

    2007-12-01

    We use the ACS BViz data from the HUDF and all other deep HST ACS fields (including the GOODS fields) to find large samples of star-forming galaxies at z~4 and ~5 and to extend our previous z~6 sample. These samples contain 4671, 1416, and 627 B-, V-, and i-dropouts, respectively, and reach to extremely low luminosities [(0.01-0.04)L*z=3 or MUV~-16 to -17], allowing us to determine the rest-frame UV LF and faint-end slope α at z~4-6 to high accuracy. We find faint-end slopes α=-1.73+/-0.05, -1.66+/-0.09, and -1.74+/-0.16 at z~4, ~5, and ~6, respectively, suggesting that the faint-end slope is very steep and shows little evolution with cosmic time. We find that M*UV brightens considerably in the 0.7 Gyr from z~6 to ~4 (by ~0.7 mag from M*UV=-20.24+/-0.19 to -20.98+/-0.10). The observed increase in the characteristic luminosity over this range is almost identical to that expected for the halo mass function, suggesting that the observed evolution is likely due to the hierarchical coalescence and merging of galaxies. The evolution in φ* is not significant. The UV luminosity density at z~6 is modestly lower than (0.45+/-0.09 times) that at z~4 (integrated to -17.5 mag) although a larger change is seen in the dust-corrected SFR density. We thoroughly examine published LF results and assess the reasons for their wide dispersion. We argue that the results reported here are the most robust available. The extremely steep faint-end slopes α found here suggest that lower luminosity galaxies play a significant role in reionizing the universe. Finally, recent search results for galaxies at z~7-8 are used to extend our estimates of the evolution of M* from z~7-8 to z~4. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 9425, 9575, 9803, 9978, 10189, 10339, 10340, and 10632.

  19. Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Microanalysis and Recognition of Micrometeoroid Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V. V.; Colaux, J. L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Postflight surveys of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on the Hubble Space Telescope have located hundreds of features on the 2.2 by 0.8 m curved plate, evidence of hypervelocity impact by small particles during 16 years of exposure to space in low Earth orbit (LEO). The radiator has a 100 - 200 micron surface layer of white paint, overlying 4 mm thick Al alloy, which was not fully penetrated by any impact. Over 460 WFPC2 samples were extracted by coring at JSC. About half were sent to NHM in a collaborative program with NASA, ESA and IBC. The structural and compositional heterogeneity at micrometer scale required microanalysis by electron and ion beam microscopes to determine the nature of the impactors (artificial orbital debris, or natural micrometeoroids, MM). Examples of MM impacts are described elsewhere. Here we describe the development of novel electron beam analysis protocols, required to recognize the subtle traces of MM residues.

  20. Hubble and the Language of Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Z. G.

    2005-12-01

    Images released from the Hubble Space Telescope have been very highly regarded by the astronomy-attentive public for at least a decade. Due in large part to these images, Hubble has become an iconic figure, even among the general public. This iconic status is both a boon and a burden for those who produce the stream of images fl owing from this telescope. While the benefits of attention are fairly obvious, the negative aspects are less visible. One of the most persistent challenges is the need to continue to deliver images that "top" those released before. In part this can be accomplished because of Hubble's upgraded instrumentation. But it can also be a source of pressure that could, if left unchecked, erode ethical boundaries in our communication with the public. These pressures are magnified in an atmosphere of uncertainty with regard to the future of the mission.

  1. A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA AT REDSHIFT 1.55 IN HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE INFRARED OBSERVATIONS FROM CANDELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Jones, David O.; Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Casertano, Stefano; Grogin, Norman A.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Hjorth, Jens; Frederiksen, Teddy F.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Mobasher, Bahram; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Faber, S. M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Hayden, Brian; Graur, Or; Jha, Saurabh W.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) at redshift z = 1.55 with the infrared detector of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3-IR) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This object was discovered in CANDELS imaging data of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and followed as part of the CANDELS+CLASH Supernova project, comprising the SN search components from those two HST multi-cycle treasury programs. This is the highest redshift SN Ia with direct spectroscopic evidence for classification. It is also the first SN Ia at z > 1 found and followed in the infrared, providing a full light curve in rest-frame optical bands. The classification and redshift are securely defined from a combination of multi-band and multi-epoch photometry of the SN, ground-based spectroscopy of the host galaxy, and WFC3-IR grism spectroscopy of both the SN and host. This object is the first of a projected sample at z > 1.5 that will be discovered by the CANDELS and CLASH programs. The full CANDELS+CLASH SN Ia sample will enable unique tests for evolutionary effects that could arise due to differences in SN Ia progenitor systems as a function of redshift. This high-z sample will also allow measurement of the SN Ia rate out to z ≈ 2, providing a complementary constraint on SN Ia progenitor models.

  2. PROBING VERY BRIGHT END OF GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z ∼> 7 USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PURE PARALLEL OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Haojing; Yan Lin; Zamojski, Michel A.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Fan Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Roettgering, Huub J. A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Robertson, Brant E.; Cai Zheng

    2011-01-01

    We report the first results from the Hubble Infrared Pure Parallel Imaging Extragalactic Survey, which utilizes the pure parallel orbits of the Hubble Space Telescope to do deep imaging along a large number of random sightlines. To date, our analysis includes 26 widely separated fields observed by the Wide Field Camera 3, which amounts to 122.8 arcmin 2 in total area. We have found three bright Y 098 -dropouts, which are candidate galaxies at z ∼> 7.4. One of these objects shows an indication of peculiar variability and its nature is uncertain. The other two objects are among the brightest candidate galaxies at these redshifts known to date (L>2L*). Such very luminous objects could be the progenitors of the high-mass Lyman break galaxies observed at lower redshifts (up to z ∼ 5). While our sample is still limited in size, it is much less subject to the uncertainty caused by 'cosmic variance' than other samples because it is derived using fields along many random sightlines. We find that the existence of the brightest candidate at z ∼ 7.4 is not well explained by the current luminosity function (LF) estimates at z ∼ 8. However, its inferred surface density could be explained by the prediction from the LFs at z ∼ 7 if it belongs to the high-redshift tail of the galaxy population at z ∼ 7.

  3. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of the Disk Cluster Population of M31. II. Advanced Camera for Surveys Pointings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienke, O. K.; Hodge, P. W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey of star clusters in M31 based on archival images from the Hubble Space Telescope. Paper I reported results from images obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and this paper reports results from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The ACS survey has yielded a total of 339 star clusters, 52 of which—mostly globular clusters—were found to have been cataloged previously. As for the previous survey, the luminosity function of the clusters drops steeply for absolute magnitudes fainter than MV = -3 the implied cluster mass function has a turnover for masses less than a few hundred solar masses. The color-integrated magnitude diagram of clusters shows three significant features: (1) a group of very red, luminous objects: the globular clusters, (2) a wide range in color for the fainter clusters, representing a considerable range in age and reddening, and (3) a maximum density of clusters centered approximately at V = 21, B - V = 0.30, V - I = 0.50, where there are intermediate-age, intermediate-mass clusters with ages close to 500 million years and masses of about 2000 solar masses. We give a brief qualitative interpretation of the distribution of clusters in the CMDs in terms of their formation and destruction rates. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for research in astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  4. Hubble Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubow, S.; Budavári, T.

    2013-10-01

    We have created an initial catalog of objects observed by the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The catalog is based on observations taken on more than 6000 visits (telescope pointings) of ACS/WFC and more than 25000 visits of WFPC2. The catalog is obtained by cross matching by position in the sky all Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) Source Extractor source lists for these instruments. The source lists describe properties of source detections within a visit. The calculations are performed on a SQL Server database system. First we collect overlapping images into groups, e.g., Eta Car, and determine nearby (approximately matching) pairs of sources from different images within each group. We then apply a novel algorithm for improving the cross matching of pairs of sources by adjusting the astrometry of the images. Next, we combine pairwise matches into maximal sets of possible multi-source matches. We apply a greedy Bayesian method to split the maximal matches into more reliable matches. We test the accuracy of the matches by comparing the fluxes of the matched sources. The result is a set of information that ties together multiple observations of the same object. A byproduct of the catalog is greatly improved relative astrometry for many of the HST images. We also provide information on nondetections that can be used to determine dropouts. With the catalog, for the first time, one can carry out time domain, multi-wavelength studies across a large set of HST data. The catalog is publicly available. Much more can be done to expand the catalog capabilities.

  5. Hubble space telescope servicing mission joint ESA/BAE UK technical press briefing Wednesday 10 March 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    On Wednesday 10 March 1993 astronauts from ESA and NASA will be at British Aerospace Space Systems Limited, Filton, Bristol, UK, training on the replacement set of solar arrays which they are scheduled to fit to the Hubble Space Telescope at year end. You are invited to attend a technical briefing on that day, which will be given by senior representatives of the European Space Agency and British Aerospace. The briefing will include details of the design modifications and status of the solar arrays, together with a brief overview of the scientific results already achieved by the teams of astronomers using the telescope. There will be an opportunity for interviews with the mission specialists in the crew of NASA's Space Shuttle flight STS-61, who will be carrying out the servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope in a series of "Extra-Vehicular Activities - EVA' (space-walks). Five astronauts are expected : Story Musgrave, Colonel Tom Akers, Jeffrey A. Hoffman, Kathryn C. Thornton from NASA and Claude Nicollier from ESA. There will also be a chance to view the solar arrays in the British Aerospace clean room area where the astronauts are working on their familiarisation programme. The briefing will take place on Wednesday 10 March 1993 at British Aerospace Space Systems, Filton, Bristol, UK (on the northern outskirts of the city of Bristol). The event will begin at 10h30 a.m. and end with a buffet lunch running from approximately 01h30 p.m. to 02h30 p.m. In order to assists with arrangements for travel to and from bristol, British Aerospace proposes to run a free coach from and to London Victoria Coach Station - if there proves to be sufficient press interest. This coach would depart from London at approximately 07h50 a.m. and arrive back at around 05h30 p.m. Further details will be available on request when numbers are known. In order to gain access to the site and the briefing it is essential that all attendees are expected and their names are provided in

  6. Automated Morphological Classification in Deep Hubble Space Telescope UBVI Fields: Rapidly and Passively Evolving Faint Galaxy Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odewahn, Stephen C.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Driver, Simon P.; Keel, William C.

    1996-11-01

    We analyze deep Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images in U, B, V, I using artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers, which are based on galaxy surface brightness and light profile (but not on color nor on scale length, rhl). The ANN distinguishes quite well between E/S0, Sabc, and Sd/Irr+M galaxies (M for merging systems) for BJ ~ 24 mag. The faint blue galaxy counts in the B band are dominated by Sd/Irr+M galaxies and can be explained by a moderately steep local luminosity function (LF) undergoing strong luminosity evolution. We suggest that these faint late-type objects (24 mag <~ BJ <~ 28 mag) are a combination of low-luminosity lower redshift dwarf galaxies, plus compact star-forming galaxies and merging systems at z ~= 1--3, possibly the building blocks of the luminous early-type galaxies seen today.

  7. Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor 3: The Parallax of the Cataclysmic Variable RW Triangulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, B. E.; Benedict, G. F.; Lee, J.; Lu, C.-L.; van Altena, W. F.; Deliyannis, C. P.; Girard, T.; Fredrick, L. W.; Nelan, E.; Duncombe, R. L.; Hemenway, P. D.; Jefferys, W. H.; Shelus, P. J.; Franz, O. G.; Wasserman, L. H.

    1999-07-01

    RW Triangulum (RW Tri) is a 13th magnitude nova-like cataclysmic variable star with an orbital period of 0.2319 days (5.56 hr). Infrared observations of RW Tri indicate that its secondary is most likely a late-K dwarf (Dhillon). Past analyses predicted a distance of 270 pc, derived from a blackbody fit to the spectrum of the central part of the disk (Rutten, van Paradijs, & Tinbergen). Recently completed Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor interferometric observations allow us to determine the first trigonometric parallax to RW Tri. This determination puts the distance of RW Tri at 341-31+38, one of the most distant objects with a direct parallax measurement. We compare our result with methods previously employed to estimate distances to cataclysmic variables.

  8. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. III. A QUINTUPLE STELLAR POPULATION IN NGC 2808

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Jerjen, H.; Piotto, G.; Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; D’Antona, F.; Ventura, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present the first results from multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 2808 as an extension of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs (GO-13297 and previous proprietary and HST archive data). Our analysis allowed us to disclose a multiple-stellar-population phenomenon in NGC 2808 even more complex than previously thought. We have separated at least five different populations along the main sequence and the red giant branch (RGB), which we name A, B, C, D, and E (though an even finer subdivision may be suggested by the data). We identified the RGB bump in four out of the five RGBs. To explore the origin of this complex color–magnitude diagram, we have combined our multi-wavelength HST photometry with synthetic spectra, generated by assuming different chemical compositions. The comparison of observed colors with synthetic spectra suggests that the five stellar populations have different contents of light elements and helium. Specifically, if we assume that NGC 2808 is homogeneous in [Fe/H] (as suggested by spectroscopy for Populations B, C, D, E, but lacking for Population A) and that population A has a primordial helium abundance, we find that populations B, C, D, E are enhanced in helium by ΔY ∼ 0.03, 0.03, 0.08, 0.13, respectively. We obtain similar results by comparing the magnitude of the RGB bumps with models. Planned spectroscopic observations will test whether Population A also has the same metallicity, or whether its photometric differences with Population B can be ascribed to small [Fe/H] and [O/H] differences rather than to helium

  9. CANDELS : THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY-THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Strolger, Louis; Casertano, Stefano; Castellano, Marco; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Fontana, Adriano; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; van der Wel, Arjen; Yan, Hao-Jing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter J.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dave, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; de Ravel, Loic; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Frazer, Chris; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Hartley, Will G.; Haeussler, Boris; Herrington, Jessica; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Jha, Saurabh W.; Johnson, Andrew; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Khostovan, Ali A.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Lani, Caterina; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; McPartland, Conor; Mobasher, Bahram; Moreira, Heidi; Mortlock, Alice; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Sami; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Snyder, Diana; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Vargas, Carlos; Villforth, Carolin; Wagner, Cory R.; Wandro, Pat; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z approximate to 1.5-8, and to study

  10. Radiometric characterization of space instrumentation; Radiometrische Charakterisierung von Weltrauminstrumentierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottwald, Alexander [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' UV- und VUV-Radiometrie' ; Klein, Roman; Krumrey, Michael; Mueller, Peter; Paustian, Wolfgang; Reichel, Thomas; Scholze, Frank; Thornagel, Reiner

    2014-09-15

    The calibration of detectors for space experiments using synchrotron radiation is described. Especially considered are spectrographs for the solar radiometry and instruments for X-ray astronomy. (HSI)

  11. Space evaluation of a MOEMs device for space instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frederic; Tangen, Kyrre; Lanzoni, Patrick; Grassi, Emmanuel; Barette, Rudy; Fabron, Christophe; Valenziano, Luca; Marchand, Laurent; Duvet, Ludovic

    2017-11-01

    Large field of view surveys with a high density of objects such as high-z galaxies or stars benefit of multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) technique. This technique is the best approach to eliminate the problem of spectral confusion, to optimize the quality and the SNR of the spectra, to reach fainter limiting fluxes and to maximize the scientific return. Next generation MOS for space like the Near Infrared Multi-Object Spectrograph (NIRSpec) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) require a programmable multi-slit mask. The European EUCLID mission has also considered a MOS instrument in its early study phase. Conventional masks or complex fiber-optics-based mechanisms are not attractive for space. The programmable multi-slit mask requires remote control of the multi-slit configuration in real time. A promising possible solution is the use of MOEMS devices such as micromirror arrays (MMA) [1,2,3] or micro-shutter arrays (MSA) [4]. MMAs are designed for generating reflecting slits, while MSAs generate transmissive slits. MSA has been selected to be the multi-slit device for NIRSpec and is under development at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. In Europe, an effort is currently under way to develop single-crystalline silicon micromirror arrays for future generation infrared multi-object spectroscopy [5]. By placing the programmable slit mask in the focal plane of the telescope, the light from selected objects is directed toward the spectrograph, while the light from other objects and from the sky background is blocked. Visitech is an engineering company experienced in developing DMD solution for industrial customers. The Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) has, over several years, developed different tools for modeling and characterization of MOEMS-based slit masks, especially during the design studies on JWSTNIRSpec [6,7]. ESA has engaged with Visitech and LAM in a technical assessment of using a Digital Micromirror Devices (DMD) from Texas Instruments for

  12. Modular Architecture for the Deep Space Habitat Instrumentation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is focused on developing a continually evolving modular backbone architecture for the Deep Space Habitat (DSH) instrumentation system by integrating new...

  13. CONFIRMATION OF THE COMPACTNESS OF A z = 1.91 QUIESCENT GALAXY WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE'S WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szomoru, Daniel; Franx, Marijn; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Trenti, Michele; Illingworth, Garth D.; Labbe, Ivo; Oesch, Pascal A.; Carollo, C. Marcella

    2010-01-01

    We present very deep Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) photometry of a massive, compact galaxy located in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. This quiescent galaxy has a spectroscopic redshift z = 1.91 and has been identified as an extremely compact galaxy by Daddi et al. We use new H F160W imaging data obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 to measure the deconvolved surface brightness profile to H ∼ 28 mag arcsec -2 . We find that the surface brightness profile is well approximated by an n = 3.7 Sersic profile. Our deconvolved profile is constructed by a new technique which corrects the best-fit Sersic profile with the residual of the fit to the observed image. This allows for galaxy profiles which deviate from a Sersic profile. We determine the effective radius of this galaxy: r e = 0.42 ± 0.14 kpc in the observed H F160W band. We show that this result is robust to deviations from the Sersic model used in the fit. We test the sensitivity of our analysis to faint 'wings' in the profile using simulated galaxy images consisting of a bright compact component and a faint extended component. We find that due to the combination of the WFC3 imaging depth and our method's sensitivity to extended faint emission we can accurately trace the intrinsic surface brightness profile, and that we can therefore confidently rule out the existence of a faint extended envelope around the observed galaxy down to our surface brightness limit. These results confirm that the galaxy lies a factor ∼10 off from the local mass-size relation.

  14. THE FLAT TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b FROM WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Désert, Jean-Michel; Irwin, Jonathan; Miller-Ricci Kempton, Eliza; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nutzman, Philip; McCullough, Peter R.; Burke, Christopher J.; Homeier, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Capitalizing on the observational advantage offered by its tiny M dwarf host, we present Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) grism measurements of the transmission spectrum of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b. These are the first published WFC3 observations of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere. After correcting for a ramp-like instrumental systematic, we achieve nearly photon-limited precision in these observations, finding the transmission spectrum of GJ1214b to be flat between 1.1 and 1.7 μm. Inconsistent with a cloud-free solar composition atmosphere at 8.2σ, the measured achromatic transit depth most likely implies a large mean molecular weight for GJ1214b's outer envelope. A dense atmosphere rules out bulk compositions for GJ1214b that explain its large radius by the presence of a very low density gas layer surrounding the planet. High-altitude clouds can alternatively explain the flat transmission spectrum, but they would need to be optically thick up to 10 mbar or consist of particles with a range of sizes approaching 1 μm in diameter.

  15. THE DEEP BLUE COLOR OF HD 189733b: ALBEDO MEASUREMENTS WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Thomas M.; Aigrain, Suzanne; Barstow, Joanna K. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pont, Frederic; Sing, David K. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Desert, Jean-Michel; Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gibson, Neale [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heng, Kevin [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain, E-mail: tom.evans@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2013-08-01

    We present a secondary eclipse observation for the hot Jupiter HD 189733b across the wavelength range 290-570 nm made using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure geometric albedos of A{sub g} = 0.40 {+-} 0.12 across 290-450 nm and A{sub g} < 0.12 across 450-570 nm at 1{sigma} confidence. The albedo decrease toward longer wavelengths is also apparent when using six wavelength bins over the same wavelength range. This can be interpreted as evidence for optically thick reflective clouds on the dayside hemisphere with sodium absorption suppressing the scattered light signal beyond {approx}450 nm. Our best-fit albedo values imply that HD 189733b would appear a deep blue color at visible wavelengths.

  16. Effects of Heating on Teflon(Registered Trademark) FEP Thermal Control Material from the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim; Gaier, James R.; Hall, Rachelle L.; Norris, Mary Jo; Espe, Matthew P.; Cato, Daveen R.

    1999-01-01

    Metallized Teflon(Registered Trademark) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) thermal control material on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is degrading in the space environment. Teflon(Registered Trademark) FEP thermal control blankets (space-facing FEP) retrieved during the first servicing mission (SM1) were found to be embrittled on solar facing surfaces and contained microscopic cracks. During the second servicing mission (SM2) astronauts noticed that the FEP outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI) covering the telescope was cracked in many locations around the telescope. Large cracks were observed on the light shield, forward shell and equipment bays. A tightly curled piece of cracked FEP from the light shield was retrieved during SM2 and was severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. A Failure Review Board (FRB) was organized to determine the mechanism causing the MLI degradation. Density, x-ray crystallinity and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of FEP retrieved during SM1 were inconsistent with results of FEP retrieved during SM2. Because the retrieved SM2 material curled while in space, it experienced a higher temperature extreme during thermal cycling, estimated at 200 C, than the SM1 material, estimated at 50 C. An investigation on the effects of heating pristine and FEP exposed on HST was therefore conducted. Samples of pristine. SM1, and SM2 FEP were heated to 200 C and evaluated for changes in density and morphology. Elevated temperature exposure was found to have a major impact on the density of the retrieved materials. Characterization of polymer morphology of as-received and heated FEP samples by NMR provided results that were consistent with the density results. These findings have provided insight to the damage mechanisms of FEP in the space environment.

  17. Central Structural Parameters of Early-Type Galaxies as Viewed with Nicmos on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, Swara; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2001-08-01

    We present surface photometry for the central regions of a sample of 33 early-type (E, S0, and S0/a) galaxies observed at 1.6 μm (H band) using the Hubble Space Telescope. Dust absorption has less of an impact on the galaxy morphologies in the near-infrared than found in previous work based on observations at optical wavelengths. When present, dust seems to be most commonly associated with optical line emission. We employ a new technique of two-dimensional fitting to extract quantitative parameters for the bulge light distribution and nuclear point sources, taking into consideration the effects of the point-spread function. By parameterizing the bulge profile with a Nuker law, we confirm that the central surface brightness distributions largely fall into two categories, each of which correlates with the global properties of the galaxies. ``Core'' galaxies tend to be luminous elliptical galaxies with boxy or pure elliptical isophotes, whereas ``power-law'' galaxies are preferentially lower luminosity systems with disky isophotes. The infrared surface brightness profiles are very similar to those in the optical, with notable exceptions being very dusty objects. Similar to the study of Faber et al., based on optical data, we find that galaxy cores obey a set of fundamental plane relations wherein more luminous galaxies with higher central stellar velocity dispersions generally possess larger cores with lower surface brightnesses. Unlike most previous studies, however, we do not find a clear gap in the distribution of inner cusp slopes; several objects have inner cusp slopes (0.3law galaxies. The nature of these intermediate objects is unclear. We draw attention to two objects in the sample that appear to be promising cases of galaxies with isothermal cores that are not the brightest members of a cluster. Unresolved nuclear point sources are found in ~50% of the sample galaxies, roughly independent of profile type, with magnitudes in the range mnucH=12.8 to 17.4 mag

  18. Quality Assurance for Space Instruments Built with COTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Peter Buch; Thuesen, Gøsta Guldbæk; Jørgensen, John Leif

    2005-01-01

    be changed at any time and have major consequences to the components ability to survive the space environment. A safe way to protect to components, which are not Latch-Up immune, is to protect the components with a Latch-Up protection circuit. A strict control has to be established, when procuring COTS......Instruments for space can be built with COTS. However no radiation data are available for COTS, so the only way to ensure that the components can survive the space environment is to irradiate each component. Samples from each Lot have to be irradiated, because the manufac-turing process can...... component, testing and manufacturing the instrument before the instrument is qualified for space. By having a strict control with instrument built with COTS, it is possible to manufacture a reliable instrument as with Rad-Hard components....

  19. Design of the Experimental Exposure Conditions to Simulate Ionizing Radiation Effects on Candidate Replacement Materials for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. Montgomery

    1998-09-01

    In this effort, experimental exposure times for monoenergetic electrons and protons were determined to simulate the space radiation environment effects on Teflon components of the Hubble Space Telescope. Although the energy range of the available laboratory particle accelerators was limited, optimal exposure times for 50 keV, 220 keV, 350 keV, and 500 KeV electrons were calculated that produced a dose-versus-depth profile that approximated the full spectrum profile, and were realizable with existing equipment. For the case of proton exposure, the limited energy range of the laboratory accelerator restricted simulation of the dose to a depth of .5 mil. Also, while optimal exposure times were found for 200 keV, 500 keV and 700 keV protons that simulated the full spectrum dose-versus-depth profile to this depth, they were of such short duration that the existing laboratory could not be controlled to within the required accuracy. In addition to the obvious experimental issues, other areas exist in which the analytical work could be advanced. Improved computer codes for the dose prediction- along with improved methodology for data input and output- would accelerate and make more accurate the calculational aspects. This is particularly true in the case of proton fluxes where a paucity of available predictive software appears to exist. The dated nature of many of the existing Monte Carlo particle/radiation transport codes raises the issue as to whether existing codes are sufficient for this type of analysis. Other areas that would result in greater fidelity of laboratory exposure effects to the space environment is the use of a larger number of monoenergetic particle fluxes and improved optimization algorithms to determine the weighting values.

  20. Solar Effects on Tensile and Optical Properties of Hubble Space Telescope Silver-Teflon(Registered Trademark) Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim, K.; Dever, Joyce A.; Snyder, Aaron; Kaminski, Sharon; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Rapoport, Alison L.; Rucker, Rochelle N.

    2006-01-01

    A section of the retrieved Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array drive arm (SADA) multilayer insulation (MLI), which experienced 8.25 years of space exposure, was analyzed for environmental durability of the top layer of silver-Teflon (DuPont) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Ag-FEP). Because the SADA MLI had solar and anti-solar facing surfaces and was exposed to the space environment for a long duration, it provided a unique opportunity to study solar effects on the environmental degradation of Ag-FEP, a commonly used spacecraft thermal control material. Data obtained included tensile properties, solar absorptance, surface morphology and chemistry. The solar facing surface was found to be extremely embrittled and contained numerous through-thickness cracks. Tensile testing indicated that the solar facing surface lost 60% of its mechanical strength and 90% of its elasticity while the anti-solar facing surface had ductility similar to pristine FEP. The solar absorptance of both the solar facing surface (0.155 plus or minus 0.032) and the anti-solar facing surface (0.208 plus or minus 0.012) were found to be greater than pristine Ag-FEP (0.074). Solar facing and anti-solar facing surfaces were microscopically textured, and locations of isolated contamination were present on the anti-solar surface resulting in increased localized texturing. Yet, the overall texture was significantly more pronounced on the solar facing surface indicating a synergistic effect of combined solar exposure and increased heating with atomic oxygen erosion. The results indicate a very strong dependence of degradation, particularly embrittlement, upon solar exposure with orbital thermal cycling having a significant effect.

  1. Space astronomical telescopes and instruments; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 1-4, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bely, Pierre Y.; Breckinridge, James B.

    The present volume on space astronomical telescopes and instruments discusses lessons from the HST, telescopes on the moon, future space missions, and mirror fabrication and active control. Attention is given to the in-flight performance of the Goddard high-resolution spectrograph of the HST, the initial performance of the high-speed photometer, results from HST fine-guidance sensors, and reconstruction of the HST mirror figure from out-of-focus stellar images. Topics addressed include system concepts for a large UV/optical/IR telescope on the moon, optical design considerations for next-generation space and lunar telescopes, the implications of lunar dust for astronomical observatories, and lunar liquid-mirror telescopes. Also discussed are space design considerations for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, the Hubble extrasolar planet interferometer, Si:Ga focal-plane arrays for satellite and ground-based telescopes, microchannel-plate detectors for space-based astronomy, and a method for making ultralight primary mirrors.

  2. Constraints on the progenitor system of the type Ia supernova 2014J from pre-explosion Hubble space telescope imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Fox, Ori D.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Shen, Ken J.; Zheng, WeiKang; Graham, Melissa L.; Tucker, Brad E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Prato, Lisa [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Schaefer, Gail, E-mail: pkelly@astro.berkeley.edu [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We constrain the properties of the progenitor system of the highly reddened Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2014J in Messier 82 (M82; d ≈ 3.5 Mpc). We determine the supernova (SN) location using Keck-II K-band adaptive optics images, and we find no evidence for flux from a progenitor system in pre-explosion near-ultraviolet through near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. Our upper limits exclude systems having a bright red giant companion, including symbiotic novae with luminosities comparable to that of RS Ophiuchi. While the flux constraints are also inconsistent with predictions for comparatively cool He-donor systems (T ≲ 35,000 K), we cannot preclude a system similar to V445 Puppis. The progenitor constraints are robust across a wide range of R{sub V} and A{sub V} values, but significantly greater values than those inferred from the SN light curve and spectrum would yield proportionally brighter luminosity limits. The comparatively faint flux expected from a binary progenitor system consisting of white dwarf stars would not have been detected in the pre-explosion HST imaging. Infrared HST exposures yield more stringent constraints on the luminosities of very cool (T < 3000 K) companion stars than was possible in the case of SN Ia 2011fe.

  3. Constraints on the progenitor system of the type Ia supernova 2014J from pre-explosion Hubble space telescope imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Fox, Ori D.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Shen, Ken J.; Zheng, WeiKang; Graham, Melissa L.; Tucker, Brad E.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Prato, Lisa; Schaefer, Gail

    2014-01-01

    We constrain the properties of the progenitor system of the highly reddened Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2014J in Messier 82 (M82; d ≈ 3.5 Mpc). We determine the supernova (SN) location using Keck-II K-band adaptive optics images, and we find no evidence for flux from a progenitor system in pre-explosion near-ultraviolet through near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. Our upper limits exclude systems having a bright red giant companion, including symbiotic novae with luminosities comparable to that of RS Ophiuchi. While the flux constraints are also inconsistent with predictions for comparatively cool He-donor systems (T ≲ 35,000 K), we cannot preclude a system similar to V445 Puppis. The progenitor constraints are robust across a wide range of R V and A V values, but significantly greater values than those inferred from the SN light curve and spectrum would yield proportionally brighter luminosity limits. The comparatively faint flux expected from a binary progenitor system consisting of white dwarf stars would not have been detected in the pre-explosion HST imaging. Infrared HST exposures yield more stringent constraints on the luminosities of very cool (T < 3000 K) companion stars than was possible in the case of SN Ia 2011fe.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope and Ground-Based Observations of the Type Iax Supernovae SN 2005hk and SN 2008A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCully, Curtis; Jha, Saurabh W.; Foley, Ryan J.; Chornock, Ryan; Holtzman, Jon A.; Balam, David D.; Branch, David; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Frieman, Joshua; Fynbo, Johan; Galbany, Lluis; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Garnavich, Peter M.; Graham, Melissa L.; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Leloudas, Giorgos; Leonard, Douglas C.; Li, Weidong; Riess, Adam G.; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Sollerman, Jesper; Steele, Thea N.; Thomas, Rollin C.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Zheng, Chen

    2014-04-24

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2005hk and SN 2008A, typical members of the Type Iax class of supernovae (SNe). Here we focus on late-time observations, where these objects deviate most dramatically from all other SN types. Instead of the dominant nebular emission lines that are observed in other SNe at late phases, spectra of SNe 2005hk and 2008A show lines of Fe II, Ca II, and Fe I more than a year past maximum light, along with narrow [Fe II] and [Ca II] emission. We use spectral features to constrain the temperature and density of the ejecta, and find high densities at late times, with ne109 cm–3. Such high densities should yield enhanced cooling of the ejecta, making these objects good candidates to observe the expected "infrared catastrophe," a generic feature of SN Ia models. However, our HST photometry of SN 2008A does not match the predictions of an infrared catastrophe. Moreover, our HST observations rule out a "complete deflagration" that fully disrupts the white dwarf for these peculiar SNe, showing no evidence for unburned material at late times. Deflagration explosion models that leave behind a bound remnant can match some of the observed properties of SNe Iax, but no published model is consistent with all of our observations of SNe 2005hk and 2008A.

  5. Hubble space telescope and ground-based observations of the type Iax supernovae SN 2005hk and SN 2008A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCully, Curtis; Jha, Saurabh W.; Foley, Ryan J.; Chornock, Ryan; Holtzman, Jon A.; Balam, David D.; Branch, David; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Li, Weidong; Frieman, Joshua; Fynbo, Johan; Leloudas, Giorgos; Galbany, Lluis; Garnavich, Peter M.; Graham, Melissa L.; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Leonard, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2005hk and SN 2008A, typical members of the Type Iax class of supernovae (SNe). Here we focus on late-time observations, where these objects deviate most dramatically from all other SN types. Instead of the dominant nebular emission lines that are observed in other SNe at late phases, spectra of SNe 2005hk and 2008A show lines of Fe II, Ca II, and Fe I more than a year past maximum light, along with narrow [Fe II] and [Ca II] emission. We use spectral features to constrain the temperature and density of the ejecta, and find high densities at late times, with n e ≳ 10 9 cm –3 . Such high densities should yield enhanced cooling of the ejecta, making these objects good candidates to observe the expected 'infrared catastrophe', a generic feature of SN Ia models. However, our HST photometry of SN 2008A does not match the predictions of an infrared catastrophe. Moreover, our HST observations rule out a 'complete deflagration' that fully disrupts the white dwarf for these peculiar SNe, showing no evidence for unburned material at late times. Deflagration explosion models that leave behind a bound remnant can match some of the observed properties of SNe Iax, but no published model is consistent with all of our observations of SNe 2005hk and 2008A.

  6. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE DETECTION OF THE DOUBLE PULSAR SYSTEM J0737–3039 IN THE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, Martin [Department of Medical Biophysics, Sunnybrook Hospital M6 623, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto M4N 3M5 (Canada); Kargaltsev, Oleg [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Pavlov, George G., E-mail: mdurant@sri.utoronto.ca, E-mail: kargaltsev@email.gwu.edu, E-mail: pavlov@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We report on detection of the double pulsar system J0737–3039 in the far-UV with the Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar-blind Channel detector aboard Hubble Space Telescope. We measured the energy flux F = (4.6 ± 1.0) × 10{sup –17} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} in the 1250-1550 Å band, which corresponds to the extinction-corrected luminosity L ≈ 1.5 × 10{sup 28} erg s{sup –1} for the distance d = 1.1 kpc and a plausible reddening E(B – V) = 0.1. If the detected emission comes from the entire surface of one of the neutron stars with a 13 km radius, the surface blackbody temperature is in the range T ≅ (2-5) × 10{sup 5} K for a reasonable range of interstellar extinction. Such a temperature requires an internal heating mechanism to operate in old neutron stars, or, less likely, it might be explained by heating of the surface of the less energetic Pulsar B by the relativistic wind of Pulsar A. If the far-ultraviolet emission is non-thermal (e.g., produced in the magnetosphere of Pulsar A), its spectrum exhibits a break between the UV and X-rays.

  7. Hubble space telescope and ground-based observations of the type Iax supernovae SN 2005hk and SN 2008A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCully, Curtis; Jha, Saurabh W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Foley, Ryan J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Chornock, Ryan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Balam, David D. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Branch, David [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Li, Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Frieman, Joshua [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Fynbo, Johan; Leloudas, Giorgos [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Galbany, Lluis [Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Garnavich, Peter M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Graham, Melissa L. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Leonard, Douglas C., E-mail: cmccully@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); and others

    2014-05-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2005hk and SN 2008A, typical members of the Type Iax class of supernovae (SNe). Here we focus on late-time observations, where these objects deviate most dramatically from all other SN types. Instead of the dominant nebular emission lines that are observed in other SNe at late phases, spectra of SNe 2005hk and 2008A show lines of Fe II, Ca II, and Fe I more than a year past maximum light, along with narrow [Fe II] and [Ca II] emission. We use spectral features to constrain the temperature and density of the ejecta, and find high densities at late times, with n{sub e} ≳ 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. Such high densities should yield enhanced cooling of the ejecta, making these objects good candidates to observe the expected 'infrared catastrophe', a generic feature of SN Ia models. However, our HST photometry of SN 2008A does not match the predictions of an infrared catastrophe. Moreover, our HST observations rule out a 'complete deflagration' that fully disrupts the white dwarf for these peculiar SNe, showing no evidence for unburned material at late times. Deflagration explosion models that leave behind a bound remnant can match some of the observed properties of SNe Iax, but no published model is consistent with all of our observations of SNe 2005hk and 2008A.

  8. The UV Spectrum of the Ultracool Dwarf LSR J1835+3259 Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Joachim; Fischer, Christian; Wennmacher, Alexandre; Feldman, Paul D.; Roth, Lorenz; Strobel, Darrell F.; Reiners, Ansgar

    2018-05-01

    An interesting question about ultracool dwarfs recently raised in the literature is whether their emission is purely internally driven or partially powered by external processes similar to planetary aurora known from the solar system. In this work, we present Hubble Space Telescope observations of the energy fluxes of the M8.5 ultracool dwarf LSR J1835+3259 throughout the ultraviolet (UV). The obtained spectra reveal that the object is generally UV-fainter compared with other earlier-type dwarfs. We detect the Mg II doublet at 2800 Å and constrain an average flux throughout the near-UV. In the far-UV without Lyα, the ultracool dwarf is extremely faint with an energy output at least a factor of 250 smaller as expected from auroral emission physically similar to that on Jupiter. We also detect the red wing of the Lyα emission. Our overall finding is that the observed UV spectrum of LSR J1835+3259 resembles the spectrum of mid/late-type M-dwarf stars relatively well, but it is distinct from a spectrum expected from Jupiter-like auroral processes.

  9. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/NEAR-INFRARED CAMERA AND MULTI-OBJECT SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS OF THE GLIMPSE9 STELLAR CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, Maria; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Trombley, Christine; Kudritzki, R. P.; Rich, R. Michael; MacKenty, John

    2010-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope/Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer photometry, and low-resolution K-band spectra of the GLIMPSE9 stellar cluster. The newly obtained color-magnitude diagram shows a cluster sequence with H - K S = ∼1 mag, indicating an interstellar extinction A K s = 1.6 ± 0.2 mag. The spectra of the three brightest stars show deep CO band heads, which indicate red supergiants with spectral type M1-M2. Two 09-B2 supergiants are also identified, which yield a spectrophotometric distance of 4.2 ± 0.4 kpc. Presuming that the population is coeval, we derive an age between 15 and 27 Myr, and a total cluster mass of 1600 ± 400 M sun , integrated down to 1 M sun . In the vicinity of GLIMPSE9 are several H II regions and supernova remnants, all of which (including GLIMPSE9) are probably associated with a giant molecular cloud (GMC) in the inner galaxy. GLIMPSE9 probably represents one episode of massive star formation in this GMC. We have identified several other candidate stellar clusters of the same complex.

  10. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE DETECTION OF THE DOUBLE PULSAR SYSTEM J0737–3039 IN THE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, Martin; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G.

    2014-01-01

    We report on detection of the double pulsar system J0737–3039 in the far-UV with the Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar-blind Channel detector aboard Hubble Space Telescope. We measured the energy flux F = (4.6 ± 1.0) × 10 –17  erg cm –2 s –1 in the 1250-1550 Å band, which corresponds to the extinction-corrected luminosity L ≈ 1.5 × 10 28  erg s –1 for the distance d = 1.1 kpc and a plausible reddening E(B – V) = 0.1. If the detected emission comes from the entire surface of one of the neutron stars with a 13 km radius, the surface blackbody temperature is in the range T ≅ (2-5) × 10 5  K for a reasonable range of interstellar extinction. Such a temperature requires an internal heating mechanism to operate in old neutron stars, or, less likely, it might be explained by heating of the surface of the less energetic Pulsar B by the relativistic wind of Pulsar A. If the far-ultraviolet emission is non-thermal (e.g., produced in the magnetosphere of Pulsar A), its spectrum exhibits a break between the UV and X-rays

  11. NEW OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE υ ANDROMEDAE SYSTEM WITH DATA FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE AND HOBBY-EBERLY TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, Barbara E.; Benedict, G. Fritz.; Martioli, Eder; Barnes, Rory; Korzennik, Sylvain; Nelan, Ed; Butler, R. Paul

    2010-01-01

    We have used high-cadence radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with existing velocities from the Lick, Elodie, Harlan J. Smith, and Whipple 60'' telescopes combined with astrometric data from the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors to refine the orbital parameters and determine the orbital inclinations and position angles of the ascending node of components υ And A c and d. With these inclinations and using M * = 1.31M sun as a primary mass, we determine the actual masses of two of the companions: υ And A c is 13.98 +2.3 -5.3 M JUP , and υ And A d is 10.25 +0.7 -3.3 M JUP . These measurements represent the first astrometric determination of mutual inclination between objects in an extrasolar planetary system, which we find to be 29. 0 9 ± 1 0 . The combined RV measurements also reveal a long-period trend indicating a fourth planet in the system. We investigate the dynamic stability of this system and analyze regions of stability, which suggest a probable mass of υ And A b. Finally, our parallaxes confirm that υ And B is a stellar companion of υ And A.

  12. A STUDY OF THE DARK CORE IN A520 WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE: THE MYSTERY DEEPENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Mahdavi, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94131 (United States); Hoekstra, H. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Babul, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Dalcanton, J. J.; Carroll, P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 weak-lensing study of A520, where a previous analysis of ground-based data suggested the presence of a dark mass concentration. We map the complex mass structure in much greater detail, leveraging more than a factor of three increase in the number density of source galaxies available for lensing analysis. The 'dark core' that is coincident with the X-ray gas peak, but not with any stellar luminosity peak, is now detected with more than 10{sigma} significance. The {approx}1.5 Mpc filamentary structure elongated in the NE-SW direction is also clearly visible. Taken at face value, the comparison among the centroids of dark matter, intracluster medium, and galaxy luminosity is at odds with what has been observed in other merging clusters with a similar geometric configuration. To date, the most remarkable counterexample might be the Bullet Cluster, which shows a distinct bow-shock feature as in A520, but no significant weak-lensing mass concentration around the X-ray gas. With the most up-to-date data, we consider several possible explanations that might lead to the detection of this peculiar feature in A520. However, we conclude that none of these scenarios can be singled out yet as the definite explanation for this puzzle.

  13. ON THE BINARY FREQUENCY OF THE LOWEST MASS MEMBERS OF THE PLEIADES WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E. V.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Liu, Michael C.; Deacon, Niall R.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey of 11 of the lowest mass brown dwarfs in the Pleiades known (25–40 M Jup ). These objects represent the predecessors to T dwarfs in the field. Using a semi-empirical binary point-spread function (PSF)-fitting technique, we are able to probe to 0.″ 03 (0.75 pixel), better than 2x the WFC3/UVIS diffraction limit. We did not find any companions to our targets. From extensive testing of our PSF-fitting method on simulated binaries, we compute detection limits which rule out companions to our targets with mass ratios of ≳0.7 and separations ≳4 AU. Thus, our survey is the first to attain the high angular resolution needed to resolve brown dwarf binaries in the Pleiades at separations that are most common in the field population. We constrain the binary frequency over this range of separation and mass ratio of 25–40 M Jup Pleiades brown dwarfs to be <11% for 1σ (<26% at 2σ). This binary frequency is consistent with both younger and older brown dwarfs in this mass range

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Circumnuclear Environments of the CfA Seyfert Galaxies: Nuclear Spirals and Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Richard W.; Martini, Paul

    2002-01-01

    We present archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the nuclear regions of 43 of the 46 Seyfert galaxies found in the volume limited,spectroscopically complete CfA Redshift Survey sample. Using an improved method of image contrast enhancement, we created detailed high-quality " structure maps " that allow us to study the distributions of dust, star clusters, and emission-line gas in the circumnuclear regions (100-1000 pc scales) and in the associated host galaxy. Essentially all of these Seyfert galaxies have circumnuclear dust structures with morphologies ranging from grand-design two-armed spirals to chaotic dusty disks. In most Seyfert galaxies there is a clear physical connection between the nuclear dust spirals on hundreds of parsec scales and large-scale bars and spiral arms in the host galaxies proper. These connections are particularly striking in the interacting and barred galaxies. Such structures are predicted by numerical simulations of gas flows in barred and interacting galaxies and may be related to the fueling of active galactic nuclei by matter inflow from the host galaxy disks. We see no significant differences in the circumnuclear dust morphologies of Seyfert 1s and 2s, and very few Seyfert 2 nuclei are obscured by large-scale dust structures in the host galaxies. If Sevfert 2s are obscured Sevfert Is, then the obscuration must occur on smaller scales than those probed by HST.

  15. Constraints on the binary properties of mid- to late T dwarfs from Hubble space telescope WFC3 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberasturi, M.; Solano, E.; Burgasser, A. J.; Mora, A.; Martín, E. L.; Reid, I. N.; Looper, D.

    2014-01-01

    We used Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) observations of a sample of 26 nearby (≤20 pc) mid- to late T dwarfs to search for cooler companions and measure the multiplicity statistics of brown dwarfs (BDs). Tightly separated companions were searched for using a double point-spread-function-fitting algorithm. We also compared our detection limits based on simulations to other prior T5+ BD binary programs. No new wide or tight companions were identified, which is consistent with the number of known T5+ binary systems and the resolution limits of WFC3. We use our results to add new constraints to the binary fraction (BF) of T-type BDs. Modeling selection effects and adopting previously derived separation and mass ratio distributions, we find an upper limit total BF of <16% and <25% assuming power law and flat mass ratio distributions, respectively, which are consistent with previous results. We also characterize a handful of targets around the L/T transition.

  16. THE BLACK HOLE MASS-BULGE LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM REVERBERATION MAPPING AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ∼0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH ∝ L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall scaling factor that brings the AGN M BH -σ * relationship into agreement with that of quiescent galaxies. We discuss biases that may be inherent to the AGN and quiescent galaxy samples and could cause the apparent inconsistency in the forms of their M BH -L bulge relationships. Recent work by Graham, however, presents a similar slope of ∼0.8 for the quiescent galaxies and may bring the relationship for AGNs and quiescent galaxies into agreement.

  17. 3rd Symposium on Space Optical Instruments and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains selected and expanded contributions presented at the 3rd Symposium on Space Optical Instruments and Applications in Beijing, China June 28 – 29, 2016. This conference series is organised by the Sino-Holland Space Optical Instruments Laboratory, a cooperation platform between China and the Netherlands. The symposium focused on key technological problems of optical instruments and their applications in a space context. It covered the latest developments, experiments and results regarding theory, instrumentation and applications in space optics. The book is split across five topical sections. The first section covers space optical remote sensing system design, the second advanced optical system design, the third remote sensor calibration and measurement. Remote sensing data processing and information extraction is then presented, followed by a final section on remote sensing data applications. .

  18. Discretization of space and time: mass-energy relation, accelerating expansion of the Universe, Hubble constant

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the gravitational potential energy that at large distance coincides with the Newtonian. In very precise circumstances it coincides with the relativistic mass-energy relation: this shows that the Universe is a black hole in which all bodies are subjected to an acceleration toward the border of the Universe itself. Since the Universe is a black hole with a fixed radius, we can obtain the density of the Unive...

  19. Space Interferometry Mission Instrument Mechanical Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, K.; Stubbs, D.; Kroening, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission, planned for launch in 2006, will measure the positions of celestial objects to an unprecedented accuracy of 4x10 to the power of negative six arc (about 1 billionth of a degree).

  20. The Development of a Virtual Company to Support the Reengineering of the NASA/Goddard Hubble Space Telescope Control Center System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Ken

    1999-01-01

    This is a report to the Third Annual International Virtual Company Conference, on The Development of a Virtual Company to Support the Reengineering of the NASA/Goddard Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Control Center System. It begins with a HST Science "Commercial": Brief Tour of Our Universe showing various pictures taken from the Hubble Space Telescope. The presentation then reviews the project background and goals. Evolution of the Control Center System ("CCS Inc.") is then reviewed. Topics of Interest to "virtual companies" are reviewed: (1) "How To Choose A Team" (2) "Organizational Model" (3) "The Human Component" (4) "'Virtual Trust' Among Teaming Companies" (5) "Unique Challenges to Working Horizontally" (6) "The Cultural Impact" (7) "Lessons Learned".

  1. Hubble space telescope near-ultraviolet spectroscopy of the bright cemp-no star BD+44°493

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Smith, Verne V.; Roederer, Ian U.; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Filler, Dan; Ivans, Inese I.; Lawler, James E.; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Aoki, Wako

    2014-01-01

    We present an elemental-abundance analysis, in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectral range, for the extremely metal-poor star BD+44°493 a ninth magnitude subgiant with [Fe/H] =–3.8 and enhanced carbon, based on data acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. This star is the brightest example of a class of objects that, unlike the great majority of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, does not exhibit over-abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements (CEMP-no). In this paper, we validate the abundance determinations for a number of species that were previously studied in the optical region, and obtain strong upper limits for beryllium and boron, as well as for neutron-capture elements from zirconium to platinum, many of which are not accessible from ground-based spectra. The boron upper limit we obtain for BD+44°493, log ε (B) <–0.70, the first such measurement for a CEMP star, is the lowest yet found for very and extremely metal-poor stars. In addition, we obtain even lower upper limits on the abundances of beryllium, log ε (Be) <–2.3, and lead, log ε (Pb) <–0.23 ([Pb/Fe] <+1.90), than those reported by previous analyses in the optical range. Taken together with the previously measured low abundance of lithium, the very low upper limits on Be and B suggest that BD+44°493 was formed at a very early time, and that it could well be a bona-fide second-generation star. Finally, the Pb upper limit strengthens the argument for non-s-process production of the heavy-element abundance patterns in CEMP-no stars.

  2. Early-type galaxies at intermediate redshift observed with Hubble space telescope WFC3: perspectives on recent star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Michael J. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K. [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University 134, Shinchon-dong, Sudaemun-gu, Seoul 120-179 (Korea, Republic of); Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Kaviraj, Sugata [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Ryan, Russell E. Jr.; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM, UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Dopita, Michael A. [Research School of Physics and Astronomy, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-12-01

    We present an analysis of the stellar populations of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) with spectroscopic redshifts (0.35 ≲ z ≲ 1.5) from observations in the Early Release Science program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We fit one- and two-component synthetic stellar models to the ETGs UV-optical-near-IR spectral energy distributions and find that a large fraction (∼40%) are likely to have experienced a minor (f{sub YC} ≲ 10% of stellar mass) burst of recent (t{sub YC} ≲ 1 Gyr) star formation. The measured age and mass fraction of the young stellar populations do not strongly trend with measurements of galaxy morphology. We note that massive (M > 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉}) recent star-forming ETGs appear to have larger sizes. Furthermore, high-mass, quiescent ETGs identified with likely companions populate a distinct region in the size-mass parameter space, in comparison with the distribution of massive ETGs with evidence of recent star formation (RSF). We conclude that both mechanisms of quenching star formation in disk-like ETGs and (gas-rich, minor) merger activity contribute to the formation of young stars and the size-mass evolution of intermediate redshift ETGs. The number of ETGs for which we have both HST WFC3 panchromatic (especially UV) imaging and spectroscopically confirmed redshifts is relatively small, therefore, a conclusion about the relative roles of both of these mechanisms remains an open question.

  3. Constraints on water vapor and sulfur dioxide at Ceres: Exploiting the sensitivity of the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lorenz

    2018-05-01

    Far-ultraviolet observations of dwarf-planet (1) Ceres were obtained on several occasions in 2015 and 2016 by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), both on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We report a search for neutral gas emissions at hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur lines around Ceres from a potential teneous exosphere. No detectable exosphere emissions are present in any of the analyzed HST observations. We apply analytical models to relate the derived upper limits for the atomic species to a water exosphere (for H and O) and a sulfur dioxide exosphere (for S and O), respectively. The H and O upper limits constrain the H2O production rate at the surface to (2 - 4) ×1026 molecules s-1 or lower, similar to or slightly larger than previous detections and upper limits. With low fluxes of energetic protons measured in the solar wind prior to the HST observations and the obtained non-detections, an assessment of the recently suggested sputter-generated water exosphere during solar energetic particle events is not possible. Investigating a sulfur dioxide-based exosphere, we find that the O and S upper limits constrain the SO2 density at the surface to values ∼ 1010 times lower than the equilibrium vapor pressure density. This result implies that SO2 is not present on Ceres' sunlit surface, contrary to previous findings in HST ultraviolet reflectance spectra but in agreement with the absence of SO2 infrared spectral features as observed by the Dawn spacecraft.

  4. Far-ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Recent Comets with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold A.; A’Hearn, Michael F.; Combi, Michael R.; Dello Russo, Neil

    2018-05-01

    Since its launch in 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has served as a platform with unique capabilities for remote observations of comets in the far-ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Successive generations of imagers and spectrographs have seen large advances in sensitivity and spectral resolution enabling observations of the diverse properties of a representative number of comets during the past 25 years. To date, four comets have been observed in the far-ultraviolet by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), the last spectrograph to be installed in HST, in 2009: 103P/Hartley 2, C/2009 P1 (Garradd), C/2012 S1 (ISON), and C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy). COS has unprecedented sensitivity, but limited spatial information in its 2.″5 diameter circular aperture, and our objective was to determine the CO production rates from measurements of the CO Fourth Positive system in the spectral range of 1400–1700 Å. In the two brightest comets, 19 bands of this system were clearly identified. The water production rates were derived from nearly concurrent observations of the OH (0,0) band at 3085 Å by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The derived CO/{{{H}}}2{{O}} production rate ratio ranged from ∼0.3% for Hartley 2 to ∼22% for Garradd. In addition, strong partially resolved emission features due to multiplets of S I, centered at 1429 Å and 1479 Å, and of C I at 1561 Å and 1657 Å, were observed in all four comets. Weak emission from several lines of the {{{H}}}2 Lyman band system, excited by solar Lyα and Lyβ pumped fluorescence, were detected in comet Lovejoy.

  5. INVESTIGATING THE CORE MORPHOLOGY-SEYFERT CLASS RELATIONSHIP WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ARCHIVAL IMAGES OF LOCAL SEYFERT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Hegel, P. R.; Kim, Hwihyun; Windhorst, R. A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Tamura, Kazuyuki [Naruto University of Education, Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi 772-8502 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has provided a successful explanation for the observed diversity of AGNs in the local universe. However, recent analysis of multi-wavelength spectral and image data suggests that the unified model is only a partial theory of AGNs, and may need to be augmented to remain consistent with all observations. Recent studies using high spatial resolution ground- and space-based observations of local AGNs show that Seyfert class and the ''core'' (r {approx}< 1 kpc) host-galaxy morphology are correlated. Currently, this relationship has only been established qualitatively, by visual inspection of the core morphologies of low-redshift (z < 0.035) Seyfert host galaxies. We re-establish this empirical relationship in Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging by visual inspection of a catalog of 85 local (D < 63 Mpc) Seyfert galaxies. We also attempt to re-establish the core morphology-Seyfert class relationship using an automated, non-parametric technique that combines both existing classification parameter methods (the adapted CAS and G-M {sub 20}) and a new method which implements the Source Extractor software for feature detection in unsharp-mask images. This new method is designed explicitly to detect dust features in the images. We use our automated approach to classify the morphology of the AGN cores and determine that Sy2 galaxies visually appear, on average, to have more dust features than Sy1. With the exception of this ''dustiness'' however, we do not measure a strong correlation between the dust morphology and the Seyfert class of the host galaxy using quantitative techniques. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of the unified model.

  6. A Lyman Break Galaxy in the Epoch of Reionization from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Grism Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel K.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Dey, Arjun; Hathi, Nimish; hide

    2013-01-01

    Slitless grism spectroscopy from space offers dramatic advantages for studying high redshift galaxies: high spatial resolution to match the compact sizes of the targets, a dark and uniform sky background, and simultaneous observation over fields ranging from five square arcminutes (HST) to over 1000 square arcminutes (Euclid). Here we present observations of a galaxy at z = 6.57 the end of the reioinization epoch identified using slitless HST grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) and reconfirmed with Keck + DEIMOS. This high redshift identification is enabled by the depth of the PEARS survey. Substantially higher redshifts are precluded for PEARS data by the declining sensitivity of the ACS grism at greater than lambda 0.95 micrometers. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms.

  7. Hubble space telescope/advanced camera for surveys confirmation of the dark substructure in A520

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, M. J.; Hoekstra, H.; Mahdavi, A.; Babul, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a weak-lensing study of the cluster A520 based on Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data. The excellent data quality provides a mean source density of ∼109 arcmin –2 , which improves both resolution and significance of the mass reconstruction compared to a previous study based on Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images. We take care in removing instrumental effects such as the charge trailing due to radiation damage of the detector and the position-dependent point-spread function. This new ACS analysis confirms the previous claims that a substantial amount of dark mass is present between two luminous subclusters where we observe very little light. The centroid of the dark peak in the current ACS analysis is offset to the southwest by ∼1' with respect to the centroid from the WFPC2 analysis. Interestingly, this new centroid is in better agreement with the location where the X-ray emission is strongest, and the mass-to-light ratio estimated with this centroid is much higher (813 ± 78 M ☉ /L R☉ ) than the previous value; the aperture mass with the WFPC2 centroid provides a consistent mass. Although we cannot provide a definite explanation for the dark peak, we discuss a revised scenario, wherein dark matter with a more conventional range (σ DM /m DM < 1 cm 2 g –1 ) of self-interacting cross-section can lead to the detection of this dark substructure. If supported by detailed numerical simulations, this hypothesis opens up the possibility that the A520 system can be used to establish a lower limit of the self-interacting cross-section of dark matter.

  8. Properties of the nuclei and comae of 10 ecliptic comets from Hubble Space Telescope multi-orbit observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, P. L.; Toth, I.; Weaver, H. A.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Jorda, L.

    2011-04-01

    We report on our on-going effort to detect and characterize cometary nuclei with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). During cycle 9 (2000 July to 2001 June), we performed multi-orbit observations of 10 ecliptic comets with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Nominally, eight contiguous orbits covering a time interval of ˜11 h were devoted to each comet but a few orbits were occasionally lost. In addition to the standard R band, we could additionally observe four of them in the V band and the two brightest ones in the B band. Time series photometry was used to constrain the size, shape and rotational period of the 10 nuclei. Assuming a geometric albedo of 0.04 for the R band, a linear phase law with a coefficient of 0.04 mag deg-1 and an opposition effect similar to that of comet 19P/Borrelly, we determined the following mean values of the effective radii 47P/Ashbrook-Jackson: 2.86±0.08 km, 61P/Shajn-Schaldach: 0.62±0.02 km, 70P/Kojima: 1.83±0.05 km, 74P/Smirnova-Chernykh: 2.23±0.04 km, 76P/West-Kohoutek-Ikemura: 0.30±0.02 km, 82P/Gehrels 3: 0.69±0.02 km, 86P/Wild 3: 0.41±0.03 km, 87P/Bus: 0.270.01 km, 110P/Hartley 3: 2.15±0.04 km and 147P/Kushida-Muramatsu: 0.21±0.01 km. Because of the limited time coverage (˜11 h), the rotational periods could not be accurately determined, multiple solutions were sometime found and three periods were not constrained at all. Our estimates range from ˜5 to ˜32 h. The lower limits for the ratio a/b of the semi-axis of the equivalent spheroids range from 1.10 (70P) to 2.20 (87P). The four nuclei for which we could measure (V-R) are all significantly redder than the Sun, with 86P/Wild 3 (V-R) = 0.86 ± 0.10 appearing as an ultrared object. We finally determined the dust activity parameter Afρ of their coma in the R band, the colour indices and the reflectivity spectra of four of them. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the

  9. ASIM - an Instrument Suite for the International Space Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Torsten; Crosby, B.; Huang, T.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    ASIM (Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor) is an instrument suite for studies of severe thunderstorms and their effects on the atmosphere and ionosphere. The instruments are designed to observe transient luminous events (TLEs)—sprites, blue jets and elves—and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs...

  10. UPPER LIMITS ON THE MASSES OF 105 SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH ARCHIVAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beifiori, A.; Corsini, E. M.; Bonta, E. Dalla; Pizzella, A.; Coccato, L.; Bertola, F.; Sarzi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the modeling of the central emission-line width measured over subarcsecond apertures with the Hubble Space Telescope, we present stringent upper bounds on the mass of the central supermassive black hole, M . , for a sample of 105 nearby galaxies (D c (58-419 km s -1 ). For the vast majority of the objects, the derived M . upper limits run parallel and above the well-known M . -σ c relation independently of the galaxy distance, suggesting that our nebular line-width measurements trace rather well the nuclear gravitational potential. For values of σ c between 90 and 220 km s -1 , 68% of our upper limits falls immediately above the M . -σ c relation without exceeding the expected M . values by more than a factor 4.1. No systematic trends or offsets are observed in this σ c range as a function of the galaxy Hubble type or with respect to the presence of a bar. For 6 of our 12 M . upper limits with σ c -1 , our line-width measurements are more sensitive to the stellar contribution to the gravitational potential, either due to the presence of a nuclear stellar cluster or because of a greater distance compared to the other galaxies at the low-σ c end of the M . -σ c relation. Conversely, our M . upper bounds appear to lie closer to the expected M . in the most massive elliptical galaxies with values of σ c above 220 km s -1 . Such a flattening of the M . -σ c relation at its high-σ c end would appear consistent with a coevolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies driven by dry mergers, although better and more consistent measurements for σ c and K-band luminosity are needed for these kinds of objects before systematic effects can be ruled out.

  11. CANDELS: THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY—THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Casertano, Stefano; Dahlen, Tomas; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Dolch, Timothy; Strolger, Louis; Castellano, Marco; Dickinson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z ≈ 1.5-8, and to study Type Ia supernovae at z > 1.5. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive multi-wavelength observations. The primary CANDELS data consist of imaging obtained in the Wide Field Camera 3 infrared channel (WFC3/IR) and the WFC3 ultraviolet/optical channel, along with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The CANDELS/Deep survey covers ∼125 arcmin 2 within GOODS-N and GOODS-S, while the remainder consists of the CANDELS/Wide survey, achieving a total of ∼800 arcmin 2 across GOODS and three additional fields (Extended Groth Strip, COSMOS, and Ultra-Deep Survey). We summarize the observational aspects of the survey as motivated by the scientific goals and present a detailed description of the data reduction procedures and products from the survey. Our data reduction methods utilize the most up-to-date calibration files and image combination procedures. We have paid special attention to correcting a range of instrumental effects, including charge transfer efficiency degradation for ACS, removal of electronic bias-striping present in ACS data after Servicing Mission 4, and persistence effects and other artifacts in WFC3/IR. For each field, we release mosaics for individual epochs and eventual mosaics containing data from all epochs combined, to facilitate photometric variability studies and the deepest possible photometry. A more detailed overview of the science goals and observational design of the survey are presented in a companion paper.

  12. THE EXPANDING NEBULAR REMNANT OF THE RECURRENT NOVA RS OPHIUCHI (2006). II. MODELING OF COMBINED HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING AND GROUND-BASED SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Bode, M. F.; Darnley, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    We report Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging, obtained 155 and 449 days after the 2006 outburst of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi, together with ground-based spectroscopic observations, obtained from the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional en San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico and at the Observatorio AstrofIsico Guillermo Haro, at Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. The observations at the first epoch were used as inputs to model the geometry and kinematic structure of the evolving RS Oph nebular remnant. We find that the modeled remnant comprises two distinct co-aligned bipolar components; a low-velocity, high-density innermost (hour glass) region and a more extended, high-velocity (dumbbell) structure. This overall structure is in agreement with that deduced from radio observations and optical interferometry at earlier epochs. We find that the asymmetry observed in the west lobe is an instrumental effect caused by the profile of the HST filter and hence demonstrate that this lobe is approaching the observer. We then conclude that the system has an inclination to the line of sight of 39 +10 -10 . This is in agreement with the inclination of the binary orbit and lends support to the proposal that this morphology is due to the interaction of the outburst ejecta with either an accretion disk around the central white dwarf and/or a pre-existing red giant wind that is significantly denser in the equatorial regions of the binary than at the poles. The second epoch HST observation was also modeled. However, as no spectra were taken at this epoch, it is more difficult to constrain any model. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that between the two HST epochs the outer dumbbell structure seems to have expanded linearly. For the central (hour glass) region, there may be evidence of deceleration, but it is harder to draw firm conclusions in this case.

  13. INFRARED TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF THE EXOPLANETS HD 209458b AND XO-1b USING THE WIDE FIELD CAMERA-3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deming, Drake; Wilkins, Ashlee [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); McCullough, Peter; Crouzet, Nicolas [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Agol, Eric; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian [NASA Astrobiology Institute' s Virtual Planetary Laboratory (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Desert, Jean-Michel; Knutson, Heather A.; Line, Michael [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Haynes, Korey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Magic, Zazralt [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Mandell, Avi M.; Clampin, Mark [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ranjan, Sukrit; Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Seager, Sara, E-mail: ddeming@astro.umd.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); and others

    2013-09-10

    Exoplanetary transmission spectroscopy in the near-infrared using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) NICMOS is currently ambiguous because different observational groups claim different results from the same data, depending on their analysis methodologies. Spatial scanning with HST/WFC3 provides an opportunity to resolve this ambiguity. We here report WFC3 spectroscopy of the giant planets HD 209458b and XO-1b in transit, using spatial scanning mode for maximum photon-collecting efficiency. We introduce an analysis technique that derives the exoplanetary transmission spectrum without the necessity of explicitly decorrelating instrumental effects, and achieves nearly photon-limited precision even at the high flux levels collected in spatial scan mode. Our errors are within 6% (XO-1) and 26% (HD 209458b) of the photon-limit at a resolving power of {lambda}/{delta}{lambda} {approx} 70, and are better than 0.01% per spectral channel. Both planets exhibit water absorption of approximately 200 ppm at the water peak near 1.38 {mu}m. Our result for XO-1b contradicts the much larger absorption derived from NICMOS spectroscopy. The weak water absorption we measure for HD 209458b is reminiscent of the weakness of sodium absorption in the first transmission spectroscopy of an exoplanet atmosphere by Charbonneau et al. Model atmospheres having uniformly distributed extra opacity of 0.012 cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} account approximately for both our water measurement and the sodium absorption. Our results for HD 209458b support the picture advocated by Pont et al. in which weak molecular absorptions are superposed on a transmission spectrum that is dominated by continuous opacity due to haze and/or dust. However, the extra opacity needed for HD 209458b is grayer than for HD 189733b, with a weaker Rayleigh component.

  14. Delayed star formation in isolated dwarf galaxies: Hubble space telescope star formation history of the Aquarius dwarf irregular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Andrew A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001 Australia (Australia); Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55441 (United States); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 Canada (Canada); Brooks, Alyson M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Leaman, Ryan, E-mail: andrew.cole@utas.edu.au, E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: alan.mcconnachie@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: abrooks@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: rleaman@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    We have obtained deep images of the highly isolated (d = 1 Mpc) Aquarius dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 210) with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. The resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaches more than a magnitude below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, allowing us to derive the star formation history (SFH) over the entire lifetime of the galaxy with a timing precision of ≈10% of the lookback time. Using a maximum likelihood fit to the CMD we find that only ≈10% of all star formation in Aquarius took place more than 10 Gyr ago (lookback time equivalent to redshift z ≈ 2). The star formation rate increased dramatically ≈6-8 Gyr ago (z ≈ 0.7-1.1) and then declined until the present time. The only known galaxy with a more extreme confirmed delay in star formation is Leo A, a galaxy of similar M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}, dynamical mass, mean metallicity, and degree of isolation. The delayed stellar mass growth in these galaxies does not track the mean dark matter accretion rate from CDM simulations. The similarities between Leo A and Aquarius suggest that if gas is not removed from dwarf galaxies by interactions or feedback, it can linger for several gigayears without cooling in sufficient quantity to form stars efficiently. We discuss possible causes for the delay in star formation including suppression by reionization and late-time mergers. We find reasonable agreement between our measured SFHs and select cosmological simulations of isolated dwarfs. Because star formation and merger processes are both stochastic in nature, delayed star formation in various degrees is predicted to be a characteristic (but not a universal) feature of isolated small galaxies.

  15. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  16. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2014-01-01

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10 5 M ☉ to 30% for galaxies with M > 10 7 M ☉ ) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  17. EXTINCTION AND DUST GEOMETRY IN M83 H II REGIONS: AN HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WFC3 STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guilin; Calzetti, Daniela; Hong, Sungryong [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Whitmore, Bradley [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chandar, Rupali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); O' Connell, Robert W. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Blair, William P. [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cohen, Seth H.; Kim, Hwihyun [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Frogel, Jay A., E-mail: liu@pha.jhu.edu [Galaxies Unlimited, Lutherville, MD 21093 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 narrow-band imaging of the starburst galaxy M83 targeting the hydrogen recombination lines (Hβ, Hα, and Paβ), which we use to investigate the dust extinction in the H II regions. We derive extinction maps with 6 pc spatial resolution from two combinations of hydrogen lines (Hα/Hβ and Hα/Paβ), and show that the longer wavelengths probe larger optical depths, with A{sub V} values larger by ≳1 mag than those derived from the shorter wavelengths. This difference leads to a factor ≳2 discrepancy in the extinction-corrected Hα luminosity, a significant effect when studying extragalactic H II regions. By comparing these observations to a series of simple models, we conclude that a large diversity of absorber/emitter geometric configurations can account for the data, implying a more complex physical structure than the classical foreground ''dust screen'' assumption. However, most data points are bracketed by the foreground screen and a model where dust and emitters are uniformly mixed. When averaged over large (≳100-200 pc) scales, the extinction becomes consistent with a ''dust screen'', suggesting that other geometries tend to be restricted to more local scales. Moreover, the extinction in any region can be described by a combination of the foreground screen and the uniform mixture model with weights of 1/3 and 2/3 in the center (≲2 kpc), respectively, and 2/3 and 1/3 for the rest of the disk. This simple prescription significantly improves the accuracy of the dust extinction corrections and can be especially useful for pixel-based analyses of galaxies similar to M83.

  18. Probing the Metal Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium at z = 5–6 Using the Hubble Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Oppenheimer, Ben

    2017-01-01

    We test the galactic outflow model by probing associated galaxies of four strong intergalactic C iv absorbers at z = 5–6 using the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) ramp narrowband filters. The four strong C iv absorbers reside at z = 5.74, 5.52, 4.95, and 4.87, with column densities ranging from N Civ = 10 13.8 to 10 14.8 cm −2 . At z = 5.74, we detect an i-dropout Ly α emitter (LAE) candidate with a projected impact parameter of 42 physical kpc from the C iv absorber. This LAE candidate has a Ly α -based star formation rate (SFR Lyα ) of 2 M ⊙ yr −1 and a UV-based SFR of 4 M ⊙ yr −1 . Although we cannot completely rule out that this i-dropout emitter may be an [O ii] interloper, its measured properties are consistent with the C iv powered galaxy at z = 5.74. For C iv absorbers at z = 4.95 and z = 4.87, although we detect two LAE candidates with impact parameters of 160 and 200 kpc, such distances are larger than that predicted from the simulations. Therefore, we treat them as nondetections. For the system at z = 5.52, we do not detect LAE candidates, placing a 3 σ upper limit of SFR Lyα ≈ 1.5 M ⊙ yr −1 . In summary, in these four cases, we only detect one plausible C iv source at z = 5.74. Combining the modest SFR of the one detection and the three nondetections, our HST observations strongly support that smaller galaxies (SFR Lyα ≲ 2 M ⊙ yr −1 ) are main sources of intergalactic C iv absorbers, and such small galaxies play a major role in the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium at z ≳ 5.

  19. WHITE DWARF-RED DWARF SYSTEMS RESOLVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. II. FULL SNAPSHOT SURVEY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farihi, J.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.

    2010-01-01

    Results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys high-resolution imaging campaign of 90 white dwarfs with known or suspected low-mass stellar and substellar companions. Of the 72 targets that remain candidate and confirmed white dwarfs with near-infrared excess, 43 are spatially resolved into two or more components, and a total of 12 systems are potentially triples. For 68 systems where a comparison is possible, 50% have significant photometric distance mismatches between their white dwarf and M dwarf components, suggesting that white dwarf parameters derived spectroscopically are often biased due to the cool companion. Interestingly, 9 of the 30 binaries known to have emission lines are found to be visual pairs and hence widely separated, indicating an intrinsically active cool star and not irradiation from the white dwarf. There is a possible, slight deficit of earlier spectral types (bluer colors) among the spatially unresolved companions, exactly the opposite of expectations if significant mass is transferred to the companion during the common envelope phase. Using the best available distance estimates, the low-mass companions to white dwarfs exhibit a bimodal distribution in projected separation. This result supports the hypothesis that during the giant phases of the white dwarf progenitor, any unevolved companions either migrate inward to short periods of hours to days, or outward to periods of hundreds to thousands of years. No intermediate projected separations of a few to several AU are found among these pairs. However, a few double M dwarfs (within triples) are spatially resolved in this range, empirically demonstrating that such separations were readily detectable among the binaries with white dwarfs. A straightforward and testable prediction emerges: all spatially unresolved, low-mass stellar and substellar companions to white dwarfs should be in short-period orbits. This result has implications for substellar companion and

  20. Brown dwarf photospheres are patchy: A Hubble space telescope near-infrared spectroscopic survey finds frequent low-level variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenzli, Esther; Apai, Dániel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Reid, I. Neill; Flateau, Davin

    2014-01-01

    Condensate clouds strongly impact the spectra of brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Recent discoveries of variable L/T transition dwarfs argued for patchy clouds in at least some ultracool atmospheres. This study aims to measure the frequency and level of spectral variability in brown dwarfs and to search for correlations with spectral type. We used Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 to obtain spectroscopic time series for 22 brown dwarfs of spectral types ranging from L5 to T6 at 1.1-1.7 μm for ≈40 minutes per object. Using Bayesian analysis, we find six brown dwarfs with confident (p > 95%) variability in the relative flux in at least one wavelength region at sub-percent precision, and five brown dwarfs with tentative (p > 68%) variability. We derive a minimum variability fraction f min =27 −7 +11 % over all covered spectral types. The fraction of variables is equal within errors for mid-L, late-L, and mid-T spectral types; for early-T dwarfs we do not find any confident variable but the sample is too small to derive meaningful limits. For some objects, the variability occurs primarily in the flux peak in the J or H band, others are variable throughout the spectrum or only in specific absorption regions. Four sources may have broadband peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 1%. Our measurements are not sensitive to very long periods, inclinations near pole-on and rotationally symmetric heterogeneity. The detection statistics are consistent with most brown dwarf photospheres being patchy. While multiple-percent near-infrared variability may be rare and confined to the L/T transition, low-level heterogeneities are a frequent characteristic of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  1. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters - XII. The RGB bumps of multiple stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagioia, E. P.; Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Cassisi, S.; Aparicio, A. J.; Piotto, G.; Anderson, J.; Barbuy, B.; Bedin, L. R.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T.; D'Antona, F.; Nardiello, D.; Ortolani, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Renzini, A.; Salaris, M.; Sarajedini, A.; van der Marel, R.; Vesperini, E.

    2018-04-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters is providing a major breakthrough in our knowledge of globular clusters (GCs) and their stellar populations. Among the main results, we discovered that all the studied GCs host two main discrete groups consisting of first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) stars. We exploit the multiwavelength photometry from this project to investigate, for the first time, the Red Giant Branch Bump (RGBB) of the two generations in a large sample of GCs. We identified, with high statistical significance, the RGBB of 1G and 2G stars in 26 GCs and found that their magnitude separation as a function of the filter wavelength follows comparable trends. The comparison of observations to synthetic spectra reveals that the RGBB luminosity depends on the stellar chemical composition and that the 2G RGBB is consistent with stars enhanced in He and N and depleted in C and O with respect to 1G stars. For metal-poor GCs the 1G and 2G RGBB relative luminosity in optical bands mostly depends on helium content, Y. We used the RGBB observations in F606W and F814W bands to infer the relative helium abundance of 1G and 2G stars in 18 GCs, finding an average helium enhancement ΔY = 0.011 ± 0.002 of 2G stars with respect to 1G stars. This is the first determination of the average difference in helium abundance of multiple populations in a large number of clusters and provides a lower limit to the maximum internal variation of helium in GCs.

  2. THE EXTENDED HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SUPERNOVA SURVEY: THE RATE OF CORE COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE TO z {approx} 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlen, Tomas; Riess, Adam G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strolger, Louis-Gregory [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Mattila, Seppo; Kankare, Erkki [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Mobasher, Bahram, E-mail: dahlen@stsci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We use a sample of 45 core collapse supernovae detected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope to derive the core collapse supernova rate in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 1.3. In redshift bins centered on (z) = 0.39, (z) = 0.73, and (z) = 1.11, we find rates of 3.00{sup +1.28}{sub -0.94} {sup +1.04}{sub -0.57}, 7.39{sup +1.86}{sub -1.52} {sup +3.20}{sub -1.60}, and 9.57{sup +3.76}{sub -2.80} {sup +4.96}{sub -2.80}, respectively, given in units of yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} 10{sup -4} h {sup 3}{sub 70}. The rates have been corrected for host galaxy extinction, including supernovae missed in highly dust-enshrouded environments in infrared bright galaxies. The first errors are statistical while the second ones are the estimated systematic errors. We perform a detailed discussion of possible sources of systematic errors and note that these start to dominate over statistical errors at z > 0.5, emphasizing the need to better control the systematic effects. For example, a better understanding of the amount of dust extinction in the host galaxies and knowledge of the supernova luminosity function, in particular the fraction of faint M {approx}> -15 supernovae, is needed to better constrain the rates. When comparing our results with the core collapse supernova rate based on the star formation rate, we find a good agreement, consistent with the supernova rate following the star formation rate, as expected.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Afterglow, Supernova and Host Galaxy Associated with the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, A.J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Hounsell, R. A.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Graham, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst, GRB 130427A. At z=0.34 this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E(sub iso) greater than 10(exp 54) erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated supernova. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability and and invariant PSF of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host and supernova contributions to the observed light approximately 17 rest-frame days after the burst utilising a host subtraction spectrum obtained 1 year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism observations show that the associated supernova, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, vph approximately 15,000 kilometers per second). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second), but SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second but this SN is significantly fainter, and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated approximately 4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 Solar Mass yr(exp-1)), possibly interacting disc galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it are also strikingly similar to those of GRB980425SN 1998bw. The similarity of supernovae and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  4. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF TWO BROWN DWARF BINARIES AT THE L DWARF/T DWARF TRANSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Bardalez-Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Gizis, John E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed examination of the brown dwarf multiples 2MASS J08503593+1057156 and 2MASS J17281150+3948593, both suspected of harboring components that straddle the L dwarf/T dwarf transition. Resolved photometry from Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS shows opposite trends in the relative colors of the components, with the secondary of 2MASS J0850+1057 being redder than its primary, while that of 2MASS J1728+3948 is bluer. We determine near-infrared component types by matching combined-light, near-infrared spectral data to binary templates, with component spectra scaled to resolved NICMOS and K p photometry. Combinations of L7 + L6 for 2MASS J0850+1057 and L5 + L6.5 for 2MASS J1728+3948 are inferred. Remarkably, the primary of 2MASS J0850+1057 appears to have a later-type classification compared to its secondary, despite being 0.8-1.2 mag brighter in the near-infrared, while the primary of 2MASS J1728+3948 is unusually early for its combined-light optical classification. Comparison to absolute magnitude/spectral type trends also distinguishes these components, with 2MASS J0850+1057A being ∼1 mag brighter and 2MASS J1728+3948A ∼ 0.5 mag fainter than equivalently classified field counterparts. We deduce that thick condensate clouds are likely responsible for the unusual properties of 2MASS J1728+3948A, while 2MASS J0850+1057A is either an inflated young brown dwarf or a tight unresolved binary, making it potentially part of a wide, low-mass, hierarchical quintuple system.

  5. Hubble space telescope observations of the afterglow, supernova, and host galaxy associated with the extremely bright GRB 130427A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Fruchter, A. S.; Hounsell, R. A.; Graham, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pian, E. [INAF, Trieste Astronomical Observatory, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Mazzali, P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2 Liverpool Science Park 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cano, Z. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Science and Technology Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Pe' er, A. [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Misra, K., E-mail: a.j.levan@warwick.ac.uk [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital-263 002 (India)

    2014-09-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 130427A. At z = 0.34, this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova (SN) and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E {sub iso} > 10{sup 54} erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated SN. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability, and invariant point-spread function of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host, and SN contributions to the observed light ∼17 rest-frame days after the burst, utilizing a host subtraction spectrum obtained one year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys grism observations show that the associated SN, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, v {sub ph} ∼ 15, 000 km s{sup –1}). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v {sub ph} ∼ 30, 000 km s{sup –1}), but this SN is significantly fainter and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated ∼4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), possibly interacting disk galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size, and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it, are also strikingly similar to those of GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. The similarity of the SNe and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests that broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  6. Critical Science Instrument Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Scott O.; Kubalak, David A.; Gracey, Renee M.; Sabatke, Derek S.; Howard, Joseph M.; Telfer, Randal C.; Zielinski, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the critical instrument alignment terms associated with the six-degree of freedom alignment of each the Science Instrument (SI) in the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), including focus, pupil shear, pupil clocking, and boresight. We present the test methods used during cryogenic-vacuum tests to directly measure the performance of each parameter, the requirements levied on each, and the impact of any violations of these requirements at the instrument and Observatory level.

  7. The New Horizons and Hubble Space Telescope search for rings, dust, and debris in the Pluto-Charon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Tod R.; Throop, Henry B.; Showalter, Mark R.; Weaver, Harold A.; Stern, S. Alan; Spencer, John R.; Buie, Marc W.; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Porter, Simon B.; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Young, Leslie A.; Olkin, Cathy B.; Ennico, Kimberly; New Horizons Science Team

    2018-02-01

    We conducted an extensive search for dust or debris rings in the Pluto-Charon system before, during, and after the New Horizons encounter in July 2015. Methodologies included attempting to detect features by back-scattered light during the approach to Pluto (phase angle α ∼ 15°), in situ detection of impacting particles, a search for stellar occultations near the time of closest approach, and by forward-scattered light imaging during departure (α ∼ 165°). An extensive search using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) prior to the encounter also contributed to the final ring limits. No rings, debris, or dust features were observed, but our new detection limits provide a substantially improved picture of the environment throughout the Pluto-Charon system. Searches for rings in back-scattered light covered the range 35,000-250,000 km from the system barycenter, a zone that starts interior to the orbit of Styx, the innermost minor satellite, and extends out to four times the orbital radius of Hydra, the outermost known satellite. We obtained our firmest limits using data from the New Horizons LORRI camera in the inner half of this region. Our limits on the normal I/F of an unseen ring depends on the radial scale of the rings: 2 ×10-8 (3σ) for 1500 km wide rings, 1 ×10-8 for 6000 km rings, and 7 ×10-9 for 12,000 km rings. Beyond ∼ 100, 000 km from Pluto, HST observations limit normal I/F to ∼ 8 ×10-8 . Searches for dust features from forward-scattered light extended from the surface of Pluto to the Pluto-Charon Hill sphere (rHill = 6.4 ×106 km). No evidence for rings or dust clouds was detected to normal I/F limits of ∼ 8.9 ×10-7 on ∼ 104 km scales. Four stellar occulation observations also probed the space interior to Hydra, but again no dust or debris was detected. The Student Dust Counter detected one particle impact 3.6 × 106 km from Pluto, but this is consistent with the interplanetary space environment established during the cruise of New

  8. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teegarden, B.J

    1999-02-11

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world.

  9. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world

  10. S-COSMOS: The Spitzer Legacy Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope ACS 2 deg2 COSMOS Field I: Survey Strategy and First Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D. B.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; Ilbert, O.; Scoville, N.; Surace, J. A.; Frayer, D. T.; Sheth, K.; Helou, G.; Brooke, T.; Bhattacharya, B.; Yan, L.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Barnes, J. E.; Blain, A. W.; Calzetti, D.; Capak, P.; Carilli, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Comastri, A.; Daddi, E.; Ellis, R. S.; Elvis, M.; Fall, S. M.; Franceschini, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Hasinger, G.; Impey, C.; Koekemoer, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, M. C.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Renzini, A.; Rich, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Shopbell, P. L.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Urry, C. M.; Williams, J. P.

    2007-09-01

    The COSMOS Spitzer survey (S-COSMOS) is a Legacy program (Cycles 2+3) designed to carry out a uniform deep survey of the full 2 deg2 COSMOS field in all seven Spitzer bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.6, 8.0, 24.0, 70.0, and 160.0 μm). This paper describes the survey parameters, mapping strategy, data reduction procedures, achieved sensitivities to date, and the complete data set for future reference. We show that the observed infrared backgrounds in the S-COSMOS field are within 10% of the predicted background levels. The fluctuations in the background at 24 μm have been measured and do not show any significant contribution from cirrus, as expected. In addition, we report on the number of asteroid detections in the low Galactic latitude COSMOS field. We use the Cycle 2 S-COSMOS data to determine preliminary number counts, and compare our results with those from previous Spitzer Legacy surveys (e.g., SWIRE, GOODS). The results from this ``first analysis'' confirm that the S-COSMOS survey will have sufficient sensitivity with IRAC to detect ~L* disks and spheroids out to z>~3, and with MIPS to detect ultraluminous starbursts and AGNs out to z~3 at 24 μm and out to z~1.5-2 at 70 and 160 μm. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; the European Southern Observatory under Large Program 175.A-0839, Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which are operated by AURA under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the National Radio Astronomy

  11. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PIXEL ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTING FACE-ON SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 5194 (M51A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Hong Soo; Ree, Chang Hee; Kyeong, Jaemann; Chung, Jiwon

    2011-01-01

    A pixel analysis is carried out on the interacting face-on spiral galaxy NGC 5194 (M51A), using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images in the F435W, F555W, and F814W (BVI) bands. After 4 x 4 binning of the HST/ACS images to secure a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for each pixel, we derive several quantities describing the pixel color-magnitude diagram (pCMD) of NGC 5194: blue/red color cut, red pixel sequence parameters, blue pixel sequence parameters, and blue-to-red pixel ratio. The red sequence pixels are mostly older than 1 Gyr, while the blue sequence pixels are mostly younger than 1 Gyr, in their luminosity-weighted mean stellar ages. The color variation in the red pixel sequence from V = 20 mag arcsec -2 to V = 17 mag arcsec -2 corresponds to a metallicity variation of Δ[Fe/H] ∼2 or an optical depth variation of Δτ V ∼ 4 by dust, but the actual sequence is thought to originate from the combination of those two effects. At V -2 , the color variation in the blue pixel sequence corresponds to an age variation from 5 Myr to 300 Myr under the assumption of solar metallicity and τ V = 1. To investigate the spatial distributions of stellar populations, we divide pixel stellar populations using the pixel color-color diagram and population synthesis models. As a result, we find that the pixel population distributions across the spiral arms agree with a compressing process by spiral density waves: dense dust → newly formed stars. The tidal interaction between NGC 5194 and NGC 5195 appears to enhance the star formation at the tidal bridge connecting the two galaxies. We find that the pixels corresponding to the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) area of NGC 5194 show a tight sequence at the bright-end of the pCMD, which are in the region of R ∼ 100 pc and may be a photometric indicator of AGN properties.

  12. THE MASS OF HD 38529c FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ASTROMETRY AND HIGH-PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Bean, Jacob L.; Barnes, Rory; Harrison, Thomas E.; Hatzes, Artie; Martioli, Eder; Nelan, Edmund P.

    2010-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor astrometric observations of the G4 IV star HD 38529 are combined with the results of the analysis of extensive ground-based radial velocity (RV) data to determine the mass of the outermost of two previously known companions. Our new RVs obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and velocities from the Carnegie-California group now span over 11 yr. With these data we obtain improved RV orbital elements for both the inner companion, HD 38529b, and the outer companion, HD 38529c. We identify a rotational period of HD 38529 (P rot = 31.65 ± 0fd17) with Fine Guidance Sensor photometry. The inferred star spot fraction is consistent with the remaining scatter in velocities being caused by spot-related stellar activity. We then model the combined astrometric and RV measurements to obtain the parallax, proper motion, perturbation period, perturbation inclination, and perturbation size due to HD 38529c. For HD 38529c we find P = 2136.1 ± 0.3 d, perturbation semimajor axis α = 1.05 ± 0.06 mas, and inclination i = 48. 0 3 ± 3. 0 7. Assuming a primary mass M * = 1.48 M sun , we obtain a companion mass M c = 17.6 +1.5 -1.2 M Jup , 3σ above a 13 M Jup deuterium burning, brown dwarf lower limit. Dynamical simulations incorporating this accurate mass for HD 38529c indicate that a near-Saturn mass planet could exist between the two known companions. We find weak evidence of an additional low amplitude signal that can be modeled as a planetary-mass (∼0.17 M Jup ) companion at P ∼194 days. Including this component in our modeling lowers the error of the mass determined for HD 38529c. Additional observations (RVs and/or Gaia astrometry) are required to validate an interpretation of HD 38529d as a planetary-mass companion. If confirmed, the resulting HD 38529 planetary system may be an example of a 'Packed Planetary System'.

  13. Probing the Metal Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium at z = 5–6 Using the Hubble Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Zheng [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dave, Romeel [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Finlator, Kristian [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Oppenheimer, Ben, E-mail: zcai@ucolick.org [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2017-11-01

    We test the galactic outflow model by probing associated galaxies of four strong intergalactic C iv absorbers at z = 5–6 using the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) ramp narrowband filters. The four strong C iv absorbers reside at z = 5.74, 5.52, 4.95, and 4.87, with column densities ranging from N {sub Civ} = 10{sup 13.8} to 10{sup 14.8} cm{sup −2}. At z = 5.74, we detect an i-dropout Ly α emitter (LAE) candidate with a projected impact parameter of 42 physical kpc from the C iv absorber. This LAE candidate has a Ly α -based star formation rate (SFR{sub Lyα} ) of 2 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} and a UV-based SFR of 4 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Although we cannot completely rule out that this i-dropout emitter may be an [O ii] interloper, its measured properties are consistent with the C iv powered galaxy at z = 5.74. For C iv absorbers at z = 4.95 and z = 4.87, although we detect two LAE candidates with impact parameters of 160 and 200 kpc, such distances are larger than that predicted from the simulations. Therefore, we treat them as nondetections. For the system at z = 5.52, we do not detect LAE candidates, placing a 3 σ upper limit of SFR{sub Lyα} ≈ 1.5 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. In summary, in these four cases, we only detect one plausible C iv source at z = 5.74. Combining the modest SFR of the one detection and the three nondetections, our HST observations strongly support that smaller galaxies (SFR{sub Lyα} ≲ 2 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) are main sources of intergalactic C iv absorbers, and such small galaxies play a major role in the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium at z ≳ 5.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Extended [O III]λ 5007 Emission in Nearby QSO2s: New Constraints on AGN Host Galaxy Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Travis C.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.; Longo Micchi, L. F.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Revalski, M.; Vestergaard, M.; Elvis, M.; Gaskell, C. M.; Hamann, F.; Ho, L. C.; Hutchings, J.; Mushotzky, R.; Netzer, H.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Straughn, A.; Turner, T. J.; Ward, M. J.

    2018-04-01

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope survey of extended [O III] λ5007 emission for a sample of 12 nearby (z continuing to be kinematically influenced by the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) out to an average radius of ∼1130 pc. These findings question the effectiveness of AGNs being capable of clearing material from their host bulge in the nearby universe and suggest that disruption of gas by AGN activity may prevent star formation without requiring evacuation. Additionally, we find a dichotomy in our targets when comparing [O III] radial extent and nuclear FWHM, where QSO2s with compact [O III] morphologies typically possess broader nuclear emission lines.

  15. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .3. Source counts and P(D) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, S.J.; Goldschmidt, P.; Franceschini, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present source counts at 6.7 and 15 mu m from our maps of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region, reaching 38.6 mu Jy at 6.7 mu m and 255 mu Jy at 15 mu m. These are the first ever extragalactic number counts to be presented at 6.7 mu m, and are three decades fainter than IRAS at 12 mu m. Both...

  16. HFF-DeepSpace Photometric Catalogs of the 12 Hubble Frontier Fields, Clusters, and Parallels: Photometry, Photometric Redshifts, and Stellar Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Heath V.; Lange-Vagle, Daniel; Marchesini, Danilo; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Ferrarese, Laura; Stefanon, Mauro; Kado-Fong, Erin; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Oesch, Pascal A.; Feinstein, Adina D.; Labbé, Ivo; Lundgren, Britt; Martis, Nicholas; Muzzin, Adam; Nedkova, Kalina; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen

    2018-03-01

    We present Hubble multi-wavelength photometric catalogs, including (up to) 17 filters with the Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3 from the ultra-violet to near-infrared for the Hubble Frontier Fields and associated parallels. We have constructed homogeneous photometric catalogs for all six clusters and their parallels. To further expand these data catalogs, we have added ultra-deep K S -band imaging at 2.2 μm from the Very Large Telescope HAWK-I and Keck-I MOSFIRE instruments. We also add post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), as well as archival IRAC 5.8 and 8.0 μm imaging when available. We introduce the public release of the multi-wavelength (0.2–8 μm) photometric catalogs, and we describe the unique steps applied for the construction of these catalogs. Particular emphasis is given to the source detection band, the contamination of light from the bright cluster galaxies (bCGs), and intra-cluster light (ICL). In addition to the photometric catalogs, we provide catalogs of photometric redshifts and stellar population properties. Furthermore, this includes all the images used in the construction of the catalogs, including the combined models of bCGs and ICL, the residual images, segmentation maps, and more. These catalogs are a robust data set of the Hubble Frontier Fields and will be an important aid in designing future surveys, as well as planning follow-up programs with current and future observatories to answer key questions remaining about first light, reionization, the assembly of galaxies, and many more topics, most notably by identifying high-redshift sources to target.

  17. THE DEEPEST HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAM OF M32. EVIDENCE FOR INTERMEDIATE-AGE POPULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monachesi, Antonela; Trager, Scott C.; Lauer, Tod R.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Freedman, Wendy; Dressler, Alan; Grillmair, Carl

    2011-01-01

    We present the deepest optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD) to date of the local elliptical galaxy M32. We have obtained F435W and F555W photometries based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys/High-Resolution Channel images for a region 110'' from the center of M32 (F1) and a background field (F2) about 320'' away from M32 center. Due to the high resolution of our Nyquist-sampled images, the small photometric errors, and the depth of our data (the CMD of M32 goes as deep as F435W ∼ 28.5 at 50% completeness level), we obtain the most detailed resolved photometric study of M32 yet. Deconvolution of HST images proves to be superior than other standard methods to derive stellar photometry on extremely crowded HST images, as its photometric errors are ∼2x smaller than other methods tried. The location of the strong red clump in the CMD suggests a mean age between 8 and 10 Gyr for [Fe/H] = -0.2 dex in M32. We detect for the first time a red giant branch bump and an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) bump in M32 which, together with the red clump, allow us to constrain the age and metallicity of the dominant population in this region of M32. These features indicate that the mean age of M32's population at ∼2' from its center is between 5 and 10 Gyr. We see evidence of an intermediate-age population in M32 mainly due to the presence of AGB stars rising to M F555W ∼ -2.0. Our detection of a blue component of stars (blue plume) may indicate for the first time the presence of a young stellar population, with ages of the order of 0.5 Gyr, in our M32 field. However, it is likely that the brighter stars of this blue plume belong to the disk of M31 rather than to M32. The fainter stars populating the blue plume indicate the presence of stars not younger than 1 Gyr and/or BSSs in M32. The CMD of M32 displays a wide color distribution of red giant branch stars indicating an intrinsic spread in metallicity with a peak at [Fe/H] ∼ -0.2. There is not a

  18. Precise Estimates of the Physical Parameters for the Exoplanet System HD 17156 Enabled by Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Transit and Asteroseismic Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutzman, Philip; Gilliland, Ronald L.; McCullough, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of three distinct transits of HD 17156b obtained with the Fine Guidance Sensors on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We analyzed both the transit photometry and previously published radial velocities to find the planet-star radius ratio Rp /R sstarf = 0.07454 ± 0.00035, in......We present observations of three distinct transits of HD 17156b obtained with the Fine Guidance Sensors on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We analyzed both the transit photometry and previously published radial velocities to find the planet-star radius ratio Rp /R sstarf = 0.07454 ± 0......-composition gas giant of the same mass and equilibrium temperature. For the three transits, we determine the times of mid-transit to a precision of 6.2 s, 7.6 s, and 6.9 s, and the transit times for HD 17156 do not show any significant departures from a constant period. The joint analysis of transit photometry...

  19. European agreement on James Webb Space Telescope's Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Artist's impression of the JWST hi-res Size hi-res: 1601 kb Credits: ESA Artist's impression of the JWST An artist's impression of the selected design for the JWST spacecraft. Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace are the prime contractors for JWST. Artist's impression of the JWST Credits: ESA Artist's impression of the JWST An artist's impression of the selected design for the JWST spacecraft. Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace are the prime contractors for JWST. Observing the first light, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will help to solve outstanding questions about our place in the evolving Universe. MIRI, the Mid-Infrared Instrument, is one of the four instruments on board the JWST, the mission scheduled to follow on the heritage of Hubble in 2011. MIRI will be built in cooperation between Europe and the United States (NASA), both equally contributing to its funding. MIRI’s optics, core of the instrument, will be provided by a consortium of European institutes. According to this formal agreement, ESA will manage and co-ordinate the whole development of the European part of MIRI and act as the sole interface with NASA, which is leading the JWST project. This marks a difference with respect to the previous ESA scientific missions. In the past the funding and the development of the scientific instruments was agreed by the participating ESA Member States on the basis of purely informal arrangements with ESA. In this case, the Member States involved in MIRI have agreed on formally guaranteeing the required level of funding on the basis of a multi-lateral international agreement, which still keeps scientists in key roles. Over the past years, missions have become more complex and demanding, and more costly within an ever tighter budget. They also require a more and more specific expertise which is spread throughout the vast European scientific community. As a result, a new management procedure for co-ordination of payload development has become a necessity to

  20. Micro-dosemeter instrument (MIDN) for assessing risk in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisacane, V. L.; Dolecek, Q. E.; Malak, H.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Zaider, M.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Rusek, A.; Sivertz, M.; Dicello, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation in space generally produces higher dose rates than that on the Earth's surface, and contributions from primary galactic and solar events increase with altitude within the magnetosphere. Presently, no personnel monitor is available to astronauts for real-time monitoring of dose, radiation quality and regulatory risk. This group is developing a prototypic instrument for use in an unknown, time-varying radiation field. This micro-dosemeter-dosemeter nucleon instrument is for use in a space-suit, spacecraft, remote rover and other applications. It provides absorbed dose, dose rate and dose equivalent in real time so that action can be taken to reduce exposure. Such a system has applications in health physics, anti-terrorism and radiation-hardening of electronics as well. The space system is described and results of ground-based studies are presented and compared with predictions of transport codes. An early prototype in 2007 was successfully launched, the only solid-state micro-dosemeter to have flown in space. Published by Oxford Univ. Press on behalf of the US Government 2011. (authors)

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Metallized Teflon(registered trademark) FEP Thermal Control Materials: On-Orbit Degradation and Post-Retrieval Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Hansen, Patricia A.; Dever, J. A.; deGroh, K. K.; Banks, B.; Wang, L.; He, C.

    1988-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Second Servicing Mission (SM2), degradation of unsupported Teflon(Registered Trademark) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), used as the outer layer of the multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets, was evident as large cracks on the telescope light shield. A sample of the degraded outer layer was retrieved during the mission and returned to Earth for ground testing and evaluation. The results of the Teflon(Registered Trademark) FEP sample evaluation and additional testing of pristine Teflon(Registered Trademark) FEP led the investigative team to theorize that the HST damage was caused by thermal cycling with deep-layer damage from electron and proton radiation which allowed the propagation of cracks along stress concentrations , and that the damage increased with the combined total dose of electrons, protons, UV and x-rays along with thermal cycling. This paper discusses the testing and evaluation of the retrieved Teflon(Registered Trademark) FEP.

  2. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 Hubble Deep Field (HDF) galaxies reliably detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For two galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining II...... galaxies there is a clear midinfrared excess, which we interpret as emission from dust associated with a strong starburst. 10 of these galaxies are spirals or interacting pairs, while the remaining one is an elliptical with a prominent nucleus and broad emission lines. We give a new discussion of how...... compared with nearby normal galaxies, We discuss the implications of our detections for the history of star and heavy element formation in the Universe, Although uncertainties in the calibration, reliability of source detection, associations and starburst models remain, it is clear that dust plays...

  3. SUPERNOVA REMNANTS AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM OF M83: IMAGING AND PHOTOMETRY WITH THE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Blair, William P.; Kuntz, Kip D.; Long, Knox S.; Mutchler, Max; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bond, Howard E.; MacKenty, John; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael; Frogel, Jay A.; O'Connell, Robert; Hall, Donald; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick; Paresce, Francesco; Saha, Abhijit

    2010-01-01

    We present Wide Field Camera 3 images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope within a single field in the southern grand design star-forming galaxy M83. Based on their size, morphology, and photometry in continuum-subtracted Hα, [S II], Hβ, [O III], and [O II] filters, we have identified 60 supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, as well as a handful of young ejecta-dominated candidates. A catalog of these remnants, their sizes and, where possible, their Hα fluxes are given. Radiative ages and pre-shock densities are derived from those SNRs that have good photometry. The ages lie in the range 2.62 rad /yr) 0 /cm -3 min = 16 +7 -5 M sun . Finally, we give evidence for the likely detection of the remnant of the historical supernova, SN1968L.

  4. Instrumentation and Controls evaluation for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Oakes, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    Design of control and protection systems should be coordinated with the design of the neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and mechanical aspects of the core and plant at the earliest possible stage of concept development. An integrated systematic design approach is necessary to prevent uncoordinated choices in one technology area from imposing impractical or impossible requirements in another. Significant development and qualification will be required for virtually every aspect of reactor control and instrumentation. In-core instrumentation widely used in commercial light water reactors will not likely be usable in the higher temperatures of a space power plant. Thermocouples for temperature measurement and gamma thermometers for flux measurement appear to be the only viable candidates. Recent developments in ex-core neutron detectors may provide achievable alternatives to in-core measurements. Reliable electronic equipment and high-temperature actuators will require major development efforts

  5. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D. O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. C.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L. J.; Bright, S. N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Dale, D. A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Evans, A. S.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Grebel, E. K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Krumholz, M. R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M. W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-06-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify their genuine nature, produce multiband photometry (from NUV to NIR), and derive their physical properties via spectral energy distribution fitting analyses. We use the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628 as a test case for demonstrating the impact that LEGUS will have on our understanding of the formation and evolution of YSCs and compact stellar associations within their host galaxy. Our analysis of the cluster luminosity function from the UV to the NIR finds a steepening at the bright end and at all wavelengths suggesting a dearth of luminous clusters. The cluster mass function of NGC 628 is consistent with a power-law distribution of slopes ˜ -2 and a truncation of a few times 105 {M}⊙ . After their formation, YSCs and compact associations follow different evolutionary paths. YSCs survive for a longer time frame, confirming their being potentially bound systems. Associations disappear on timescales comparable to hierarchically organized star-forming regions, suggesting that they are expanding systems. We find mass-independent cluster disruption in the inner region of NGC 628, while in the outer part of the galaxy there is little or no disruption. We observe faster disruption rates for low mass (≤104 {M}⊙ ) clusters, suggesting that a mass-dependent component is necessary to fully describe the YSC disruption process in NGC 628. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  6. Effects of thermal deformation on optical instruments for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segato, E.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; Cremonese, G.

    2017-11-01

    Optical instruments for space missions work in hostile environment, it's thus necessary to accurately study the effects of ambient parameters variations on the equipment. In particular optical instruments are very sensitive to ambient conditions, especially temperature. This variable can cause dilatations and misalignments of the optical elements, and can also lead to rise of dangerous stresses in the optics. Their displacements and the deformations degrade the quality of the sampled images. In this work a method for studying the effects of the temperature variations on the performance of imaging instrument is presented. The optics and their mountings are modeled and processed by a thermo-mechanical Finite Element Model (FEM) analysis, then the output data, which describe the deformations of the optical element surfaces, are elaborated using an ad hoc MATLAB routine: a non-linear least square optimization algorithm is adopted to determine the surface equations (plane, spherical, nth polynomial) which best fit the data. The obtained mathematical surface representations are then directly imported into ZEMAX for sequential raytracing analysis. The results are the variations of the Spot Diagrams, of the MTF curves and of the Diffraction Ensquared Energy due to simulated thermal loads. This method has been successfully applied to the Stereo Camera for the BepiColombo mission reproducing expected operative conditions. The results help to design and compare different optical housing systems for a feasible solution and show that it is preferable to use kinematic constraints on prisms and lenses to minimize the variation of the optical performance of the Stereo Camera.

  7. Beyond the Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    about the distances to galaxies and thereby about the expansion rate of the Universe. A simple way to determine the distance to a remote galaxy is by measuring its redshift, calculate its velocity from the redshift and divide this by the Hubble constant, H0. For instance, the measured redshift of the parent galaxy of SN 1995K (0.478) yields a velocity of 116,000 km/sec, somewhat more than one-third of the speed of light (300,000 km/sec). From the universal expansion rate, described by the Hubble constant (H0 = 20 km/sec per million lightyears as found by some studies), this velocity would indicate a distance to the supernova and its parent galaxy of about 5,800 million lightyears. The explosion of the supernova would thus have taken place 5,800 million years ago, i.e. about 1,000 million years before the solar system was formed. However, such a simple calculation works only for relatively ``nearby'' objects, perhaps out to some hundred million lightyears. When we look much further into space, we also look far back in time and it is not excluded that the universal expansion rate, i.e. the Hubble constant, may have been different at earlier epochs. This means that unless we know the change of the Hubble constant with time, we cannot determine reliable distances of distant galaxies from their measured redshifts and velocities. At the same time, knowledge about such change or lack of the same will provide unique information about the time elapsed since the Universe began to expand (the ``Big Bang''), that is, the age of the Universe and also its ultimate fate. The Deceleration Parameter q0 Cosmologists are therefore eager to determine not only the current expansion rate (i.e., the Hubble constant, H0) but also its possible change with time (known as the deceleration parameter, q0). Although a highly accurate value of H0 has still not become available, increasing attention is now given to the observational determination of the second parameter, cf. also the Appendix at the

  8. Cosmological Hubble constant and nuclear Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbuniev, Amelia; Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang and the evolution of the dense and highly excited nuclear matter formed by relativistic nuclear collisions are investigated and compared. Values of the Hubble constants for cosmological and nuclear processes are obtained. For nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies the nuclear Hubble constant is obtained in the frame of different models involving the hydrodynamic flow of the nuclear matter. Significant difference in the values of the two Hubble constant - cosmological and nuclear - is observed

  9. The Mass of the Candidate Exoplanet Companion to HD 33636 from Hubble Space Telescope Astrometry and High-Precision Radial Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jacob L.; McArthur, Barbara E.; Benedict, G. Fritz; Harrison, Thomas E.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Nelan, Edmund; Smith, Verne V.

    2007-08-01

    We have determined a dynamical mass for the companion to HD 33636 that indicates it is a low-mass star instead of an exoplanet. Our result is based on an analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) astrometry and ground-based radial velocity data. We have obtained high-cadence radial velocity measurements spanning 1.3 yr of HD 33636 with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We combined these data with previously published velocities to create a data set that spans 9 yr. We used this data set to search for, and place mass limits on, the existence of additional companions in the HD 33636 system. Our high-precision astrometric observations of the system with the HST Fine Guidance Sensor 1r span 1.2 yr. We simultaneously modeled the radial velocity and astrometry data to determine the parallax, proper motion, and perturbation orbit parameters of HD 33636. Our derived parallax, πabs=35.6+/-0.2 mas, agrees within the uncertainties with the Hipparcos value. We find a perturbation period P=2117.3+/-0.8 days, semimajor axis aA=14.2+/-0.2 mas, and system inclination i=4.1deg+/-0.1deg. Assuming the mass of the primary star to be MA=1.02+/-0.03 Msolar, we obtain a companion mass MB=142+/-11 MJup=0.14+/-0.01 Msolar. The much larger true mass of the companion relative to its minimum mass estimated from the spectroscopic orbit parameters (Msini=9.3 MJup) is due to the nearly face-on orbit orientation. This result demonstrates the value of follow-up astrometric observations to determine the true masses of exoplanet candidates detected with the radial velocity method. Based on data obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). The HST observations were obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. The HET is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, Pennsylvania State University, Stanford

  10. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  11. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  12. Hubble Observes Surface of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Scientists for the first time have made images of the surface of Saturn's giant, haze-shrouded moon, Titan. They mapped light and dark features over the surface of the satellite during nearly a complete 16-day rotation. One prominent bright area they discovered is a surface feature 2,500 miles across, about the size of the continent of Australia.Titan, larger than Mercury and slightly smaller than Mars, is the only body in the solar system, other than Earth, that may have oceans and rainfall on its surface, albeit oceans and rain of ethane-methane rather than water. Scientists suspect that Titan's present environment -- although colder than minus 289 degrees Fahrenheit, so cold that water ice would be as hard as granite -- might be similar to that on Earth billions of years ago, before life began pumping oxygen into the atmosphere.Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and his team took the images with the Hubble Space Telescope during 14 observing runs between Oct. 4 - 18. Smith announced the team's first results last week at the 26th annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Sciences in Bethesda, Md. Co-investigators on the team are Mark Lemmon, a doctoral candidate with the UA Lunar and Planetary Laboratory; John Caldwell of York University, Canada; Larry Sromovsky of the University of Wisconsin; and Michael Allison of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York City.Titan's atmosphere, about four times as dense as Earth's atmosphere, is primarily nitrogen laced with such poisonous substances as methane and ethane. This thick, orange, hydrocarbon haze was impenetrable to cameras aboard the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft that flew by the Saturn system in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The haze is formed as methane in the atmosphere is destroyed by sunlight. The hydrocarbons produced by this methane destruction form a smog similar to that found over large cities, but is much thicker

  13. IMF dependence of the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's ionosphere, and its relation to the UV auroral oval observed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of Saturn's magnetospheric magnetic field structure on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, together with the corresponding variations of the open-closed field line boundary in the ionosphere. Specifically we investigate the interval from 8 to 30 January 2004, when UV images of Saturn's southern aurora were obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST, and simultaneous interplanetary measurements were provided by the Cassini spacecraft located near the ecliptic ~0.2 AU upstream of Saturn and ~0.5 AU off the planet-Sun line towards dawn. Using the paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere, we calculate the magnetospheric magnetic field structure for several values of the IMF vector representative of interplanetary compression regions. Variations in the magnetic structure lead to different shapes and areas of the open field line region in the ionosphere. Comparison with the HST auroral images shows that the area of the computed open flux region is generally comparable to that enclosed by the auroral oval, and sometimes agrees in detail with its poleward boundary, though more typically being displaced by a few degrees in the tailward direction.

  14. CHEERS Results from NGC 3393. II. Investigating the Extended Narrow-line Region Using Deep Chandra Observations and Hubble Space Telescope Narrow-line Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksym, W. Peter; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Paggi, Alessandro; Raymond, John [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Junfeng [Department of Astronomy, Physics Building, Xiamen University Xiamen, Fujian, 361005 (China); Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa, E-mail: walter.maksym@cfa.harvard.edu [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, IF, CP 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-07-20

    The CHandra Extended Emission Line Region Survey (CHEERS) is an X-ray study of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) designed to take full advantage of Chandra 's unique angular resolution by spatially resolving feedback signatures and effects. In the second paper of a series on CHEERS target NGC 3393, we examine deep high-resolution Chandra images and compare them with Hubble Space Telescope narrow-line images of [O iii], [S ii], and H α , as well as previously unpublished mid-ultraviolet (MUV) images. The X-rays provide unprecedented evidence that the S-shaped arms that envelope the nuclear radio outflows extend only ≲0.″2 (≲50 pc) across. The high-resolution multiwavelength data suggest that the extended narrow-line region is a complex multiphase structure in the circumnuclear interstellar medium (ISM). Its ionization structure is highly stratified with respect to outflow-driven bubbles in the bicone and varies dramatically on scales of ∼10 pc. Multiple findings show likely contributions from shocks to the feedback in regions where radio outflows from the AGN most directly influence the ISM. These findings include H α evidence for gas compression and extended MUV emission and are in agreement with existing STIS kinematics. Extended filamentary structure in the X-rays and optical suggests the presence of an undetected plasma component, whose existence could be tested with deeper radio observations.

  15. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VII. IMPLICATIONS FROM THE NEARLY UNIVERSAL NATURE OF HORIZONTAL BRANCH DISCONTINUITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T. M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); D’Antona, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy); Salaris, M. [Astrophysics Research Institute,Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, IC2 Building, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Dalessandro, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Piotto, G.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,”Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sweigart, A. V. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Aparicio, A., E-mail: tbrown@stsci.edu, E-mail: jayander@stsci, E-mail: bellini@stsci.edu, E-mail: cassisi@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: pietrinferni@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: dantona@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: M.Salaris@ljmu.ac.uk, E-mail: milone@mso.anu.edu.au [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Calle Vía Láctea s/n. E38200 — La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    The UV-initiative Hubble Space Telescope Treasury survey of Galactic globular clusters provides a new window into the phenomena that shape the morphological features of the horizontal branch (HB). Using this large and homogeneous catalog of UV and blue photometry, we demonstrate that the HB exhibits discontinuities that are remarkably consistent in color (effective temperature). This consistency is apparent even among some of the most massive clusters hosting multiple distinct sub-populations (such as NGC 2808, ω Cen, and NGC 6715), demonstrating that these phenomena are primarily driven by atmospheric physics that is independent of the underlying population properties. However, inconsistencies arise in the metal-rich clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441, where the discontinuity within the blue HB (BHB) distribution shifts ∼1000–2000 K hotter. We demonstrate that this shift is likely due to a large helium enhancement in the BHB stars of these clusters, which in turn affects the surface convection and evolution of such stars. Our survey also increases the number of Galactic globular clusters known to host blue-hook stars (also known as late hot flashers) from 6 to 23 clusters. These clusters are biased toward the bright end of the globular cluster luminosity function, confirming that blue-hook stars tend to form in the most massive clusters with significant self-enrichment.

  16. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PRE-PERIHELION ACS/WFC IMAGING POLARIMETRY OF COMET ISON (C/2012 S1) AT 3.81 AU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Dean C.; Mutchler, Max; Hammer, Derek [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Videen, Gorden; Sitko, Michael L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padmavati A. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Zubko, Evgenij; Muinonen, Karri [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Shkuratov, Yuriy; Kaydash, Vadim G. [Astronomical Institute of V. N. Karazin University, Kharkov, 61058 (Ukraine); Knight, Matthew M. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We present polarization images of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on UTC 2013 May 8 (r {sub h} = 3.81 AU, Δ = 4.34 AU), when the phase angle was α ≈ 12.°16. This phase angle is approximately centered in the negative polarization branch for cometary dust. The region beyond 1000 km (∼0.32 arcsec ≈ 6 pixels) from the nucleus shows a negative polarization amplitude of p% ∼ –1.6%. Within 1000 km of the nucleus, the polarization position angle rotates to be approximately perpendicular to the scattering plane, with an amplitude p% ∼ +2.5%. Such positive polarization has been observed previously as a characteristic feature of cometary jets, and we show that Comet ISON does indeed harbor a jet-like feature. These HST observations of Comet ISON represent the first visible light, imaging polarimetry with subarcsecond spatial resolution of a Nearly Isotropic Comet beyond 3.8 AU from the Sun at a small phase angle. The observations provide an early glimpse of the properties of the cometary dust preserved in this Oort-Cloud comet.

  17. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE AND HI IMAGING OF STRONG RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING IN THE COMA SPIRAL NGC 4921: DENSE CLOUD DECOUPLING AND EVIDENCE FOR MAGNETIC BINDING IN THE ISM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Abramson, Anne [Yale University Astronomy Department, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Bravo-Alfaro, Hector, E-mail: jeff.kenney@yale.edu [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS/UPMC, 98bis, Boulevard Arago F-75014, Paris (France)

    2015-08-15

    Remarkable dust extinction features in the deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) V and I images of the face-on Coma cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4921 show in unprecedented ways how ram pressure strips the ISM from the disk of a spiral galaxy. New VLA HI maps show a truncated and highly asymmetric HI disk with a compressed HI distribution in the NW, providing evidence for ram pressure acting from the NW. Where the HI distribution is truncated in the NW region, HST images show a well-defined, continuous front of dust that extends over 90° and 20 kpc. This dust front separates the dusty from dust-free regions of the galaxy, and we interpret it as galaxy ISM swept up near the leading side of the ICM–ISM interaction. We identify and characterize 100 pc–1 kpc scale substructure within this dust front caused by ram pressure, including head–tail filaments, C-shaped filaments, and long smooth dust fronts. The morphology of these features strongly suggests that dense gas clouds partially decouple from surrounding lower density gas during stripping, but decoupling is inhibited, possibly by magnetic fields that link and bind distant parts of the ISM.

  18. Discovery of a z = 7.452 High Equivalent Width Lyα Emitter from the Hubble Space Telescope  Faint Infrared Grism Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Rebecca L.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Ryan, Russell; Tilvi, Vithal; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Finkelstein, Keely; Jung, Intae; Christensen, Lise; Cimatti, Andrea; Ferreras, Ignacio; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Hathi, Nimish; O’Connell, Robert; Östlin, Göran; Pasquali, Anna; Pharo, John; Rothberg, Barry; Windhorst, Rogier A.; The FIGS Team

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of an unbiased search for Lyα emission from continuum-selected 5.6 data set consists of 160 orbits of G102 slitless grism spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope(HST)/WFC3 as part of the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS; PI: Malhotra), which obtains deep slitless spectra of all sources in four fields, and was designed to minimize contamination in observations of previously identified high-redshift galaxy candidates. The FIGS data can potentially spectroscopically confirm the redshifts of galaxies, and as Lyα emission is resonantly scattered by neutral gas, FIGS can also constrain the ionization state of the intergalactic medium during the epoch of reionization. These data have sufficient depth to detect Lyα emission in this epoch, as Tilvi et al. have published the FIGS detection of previously known Lyα emission at z = 7.51. The FIGS data use five separate roll angles of HST to mitigate the contamination by nearby galaxies. We created a method that accounts for and removes the contamination from surrounding galaxies and also removes any dispersed continuum light from each individual spectrum. We searched for significant (>4σ) emission lines using two different automated detection methods, free of any visual inspection biases. Applying these methods on photometrically selected high-redshift candidates between 5.6 7 (140.3 ± 19.0 Å).

  19. A Hubble Space Telescope survey for novae in M87 - III. Are novae good standard candles 15 d after maximum brightness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shara, Michael M.; Doyle, Trisha F.; Pagnotta, Ashley; Garland, James T.; Lauer, Tod R.; Zurek, David; Baltz, Edward A.; Goerl, Ariel; Kovetz, Attay; Machac, Tamara; Madrid, Juan P.; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Neill, J. D.; Prialnik, Dina; Welch, D. L.; Yaron, Ofer

    2018-02-01

    Ten weeks of daily imaging of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has yielded 41 nova light curves of unprecedented quality for extragalactic cataclysmic variables. We have recently used these light curves to demonstrate that the observational scatter in the so-called maximum-magnitude rate of decline (MMRD) relation for classical novae is so large as to render the nova-MMRD useless as a standard candle. Here, we demonstrate that a modified Buscombe-de Vaucouleurs hypothesis, namely that novae with decline times t2 > 10 d converge to nearly the same absolute magnitude about two weeks after maximum light in a giant elliptical galaxy, is supported by our M87 nova data. For 13 novae with daily sampled light curves, well determined times of maximum light in both the F606W and F814W filters, and decline times t2 > 10 d we find that M87 novae display M606W,15 = -6.37 ± 0.46 and M814W,15 = -6.11 ± 0.43. If very fast novae with decline times t2 < 10 d are excluded, the distances to novae in elliptical galaxies with stellar binary populations similar to those of M87 should be determinable with 1σ accuracies of ± 20 per cent with the above calibrations.

  20. GALACTIC-SCALE ABSORPTION OUTFLOW IN THE LOW-LUMINOSITY QUASAR IRAS F04250-5718: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, Doug; Borguet, Benoit; Arav, Nahum; Dunn, Jay P.; Penton, Steve; Kriss, Gerard A.; Korista, Kirk; Bautista, Manuel; Costantini, Elisa; Kaastra, Jelle; Steenbrugge, Katrien; Ignacio Gonzalez-Serrano, J.; Benn, Chris; Aoki, Kentaro; Behar, Ehud; Micheal Crenshaw, D.; Everett, John; Gabel, Jack; Moe, Maxwell; Scott, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We present absorption line analysis of the outflow in the quasar IRAS F04250-5718. Far-ultraviolet data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope reveal intrinsic narrow absorption lines from high ionization ions (e.g., C IV, N V, and O VI) as well as low ionization ions (e.g., C II and Si III). We identify three kinematic components with central velocities ranging from ∼-50 to ∼-230 km s -1 . Velocity-dependent, non-black saturation is evident from the line profiles of the high ionization ions. From the non-detection of absorption from a metastable level of C II, we are able to determine that the electron number density in the main component of the outflow is ∼ -3 . Photoionization analysis yields an ionization parameter log U H ∼ -1.6 ± 0.2, which accounts for changes in the metallicity of the outflow and the shape of the incident spectrum. We also consider solutions with two ionization parameters. If the ionization structure of the outflow is due to photoionization by the active galactic nucleus, we determine that the distance to this component from the central source is ∼>3 kpc. Due to the large distance determined for the main kinematic component, we discuss the possibility that this outflow is part of a galactic wind.

  1. CHEERS Results from NGC 3393. II. Investigating the Extended Narrow-line Region Using Deep Chandra Observations and Hubble Space Telescope Narrow-line Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym, W. Peter; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Paggi, Alessandro; Raymond, John; Wang, Junfeng; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2017-07-01

    The CHandra Extended Emission Line Region Survey (CHEERS) is an X-ray study of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) designed to take full advantage of Chandra's unique angular resolution by spatially resolving feedback signatures and effects. In the second paper of a series on CHEERS target NGC 3393, we examine deep high-resolution Chandra images and compare them with Hubble Space Telescope narrow-line images of [O III], [S II], and Hα, as well as previously unpublished mid-ultraviolet (MUV) images. The X-rays provide unprecedented evidence that the S-shaped arms that envelope the nuclear radio outflows extend only ≲0.″2 (≲50 pc) across. The high-resolution multiwavelength data suggest that the extended narrow-line region is a complex multiphase structure in the circumnuclear interstellar medium (ISM). Its ionization structure is highly stratified with respect to outflow-driven bubbles in the bicone and varies dramatically on scales of ˜10 pc. Multiple findings show likely contributions from shocks to the feedback in regions where radio outflows from the AGN most directly influence the ISM. These findings include Hα evidence for gas compression and extended MUV emission and are in agreement with existing STIS kinematics. Extended filamentary structure in the X-rays and optical suggests the presence of an undetected plasma component, whose existence could be tested with deeper radio observations.

  2. CHEERS Results from NGC 3393. II. Investigating the Extended Narrow-line Region Using Deep Chandra Observations and Hubble Space Telescope Narrow-line Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksym, W. Peter; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Paggi, Alessandro; Raymond, John; Wang, Junfeng; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2017-01-01

    The CHandra Extended Emission Line Region Survey (CHEERS) is an X-ray study of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) designed to take full advantage of Chandra 's unique angular resolution by spatially resolving feedback signatures and effects. In the second paper of a series on CHEERS target NGC 3393, we examine deep high-resolution Chandra images and compare them with Hubble Space Telescope narrow-line images of [O iii], [S ii], and H α , as well as previously unpublished mid-ultraviolet (MUV) images. The X-rays provide unprecedented evidence that the S-shaped arms that envelope the nuclear radio outflows extend only ≲0.″2 (≲50 pc) across. The high-resolution multiwavelength data suggest that the extended narrow-line region is a complex multiphase structure in the circumnuclear interstellar medium (ISM). Its ionization structure is highly stratified with respect to outflow-driven bubbles in the bicone and varies dramatically on scales of ∼10 pc. Multiple findings show likely contributions from shocks to the feedback in regions where radio outflows from the AGN most directly influence the ISM. These findings include H α evidence for gas compression and extended MUV emission and are in agreement with existing STIS kinematics. Extended filamentary structure in the X-rays and optical suggests the presence of an undetected plasma component, whose existence could be tested with deeper radio observations.

  3. A Deep Search with the Hubble Space Telescope for Late-Time Supernova Signatures in the Hosts of XRF 011030 and XRF 020427

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, Andrew; Patel, Sandeep; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fruchter, Andrew; Rhoads, James; Rol, Evert; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Gorosabel, Javier; Hiorth, Jens; Wijers, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    X-ray flashes (XRFs) are, like gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), thought to signal the collapse of massive stars in distant galaxies. Many models posit that the isotropic equivalent energies of XRFs are lower than those for GRBs, such that they are visible fiom a reduced range of distances when compared with GRBs. Here we present the results of two-epoch Hubble Space Telescope imaging of two XRFs. These images, taken approximately 45 and 200 days postburst, reveal no evidence of an associated supernova in either case. Supernovae such as SN 1998bw would have been visible out to z approximately 1.5 in each case, while fainter supernovae such as SN 2002ap would have been visible to z approximately 1. If the XRFs lie at such large distances, their energies would not fit the observed correlation between the GRB peak energy and isotropic energy release (E(sub p) proportional to E(sub iso)(sup 1/2), in which soft bursts are less energetic. We conclude that, should these XRFs reside at low redshifts (z less than 0.6), either their line of sight is heavily extinguished, they are associated with extremely faint supernovae, or, unlike GRBs, these XRFs do not have temporally coincident supernovae.

  4. A PANCHROMATIC CATALOG OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT IN THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A.; Kaviraj, S.; Crockett, R. M.; Silk, J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Hathi, N. P.; McCarthy, P. J.; Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Koekemoer, A.; Bond, H. E.; Yan, H.; Kimble, R. A.; Balick, B.; Calzetti, D.; Disney, M. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Hall, D. N. B.

    2012-01-01

    In the first of a series of forthcoming publications, we present a panchromatic catalog of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) from observations in the Early Release Science (ERS) program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) field. Our ETGs span a large redshift range, 0.35 ∼ 11 * [M ☉ ] 12 . By transforming the observed photometry into the Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV and NUV, Johnson V, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey g' and r' bandpasses we identify a noteworthy diversity in the rest-frame UV-optical colors and find the mean rest-frame (FUV–V) = 3.5 and (NUV–V) = 3.3, with 1σ standard deviations ≅1.0. The blue rest-frame UV-optical colors observed for most of the ETGs are evidence for star formation during the preceding gigayear, but no systems exhibit UV-optical photometry consistent with major recent (∼<50 Myr) starbursts. Future publications which address the diversity of stellar populations likely to be present in these ETGs, and the potential mechanisms by which recent star formation episodes are activated, are discussed.

  5. Lunar EVA Dosimetry: MIcroDosimeter iNstrument (MIDN) System Suitable for Space Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MIDN PROTOTYPE FLIGHT INSTRUMENT 1. Based on our experience with the MIDN development, we designed and developed an advanced version of the instrument. 2. A...

  6. A Cluster Of Activities On Coma From The Hubble Space Telescope, StarDate, And McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Jogee, S.; Fricke, K.; Preston, S.

    2011-01-01

    With a goal of providing a vast audience of students, teachers, the general public, and Spanish-speakers with activities to learn about research on the Coma cluster of galaxies based on the HST ACS Treasury survey of Coma, McDonald Observatory used a many-faceted approach. Since this research offered an unprecedented legacy dataset, part of the challenge was to convey the importance of this project to a diverse audience. The methodology was to create different products for different (overlapping) audiences. Five radio programs were produced in English and Spanish for distribution on over 500 radio stations in the US and Mexico with a listening audience of over 2 million; in addition to the radio listeners, there were over 13,000 downloads of the English scripts and almost 6000 of the Spanish. Images were prepared for use in the StarDate Online Astronomy Picture of the Week, for ViewSpace (used in museums), and for the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. A high-school level activity on the Coma Cluster was prepared and distributed both on-line and in an upgraded printed version of the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. This guide has been distributed to over 1700 teachers nationally. A YouTube video about careers and research in astronomy using the Coma cluster as an example was produced. Just as the activities were varied, so were the evaluation methods. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant/Contract/Agreement No. HST-EO-10861.35-A issued through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations of GRB 000301C: CCD imaging and near-ultraviolet MAMA spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smette, A.; Fruchter, A.S.; Gull, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    We present Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of the optical transient (OT) counterpart of the c-ray burster GRB 000301C obtained 5 days after the burst, on 2000 March 6. CCD clear-aperture imaging reveals a R similar or equal to 21.50 +/- 0.15 source with no apparent host galaxy...... Telescope images appear to lie on the stellar field of a host galaxy, and as the large H I column density measured here and in later ground-based observations is unlikely on a random line of sight, we believe we are probably seeing absorption from H I in the host galaxy. In any case, this represents...

  8. New Constraints on ΩM, ΩΛ, and w from an Independent Set of 11 High-Redshift Supernovae Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, R. A.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Blanc, G.; Burns, M. S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S. E.; Doi, M.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Folatelli, G.; Fruchter, A. S.; Garavini, G.; Garmond, S.; Garton, K.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.; Howell, D. A.; Kim, A. G.; Lee, B. C.; Lidman, C.; Mendez, J.; Nobili, S.; Nugent, P. E.; Pain, R.; Panagia, N.; Pennypacker, C. R.; Perlmutter, S.; Quimby, R.; Raux, J.; Regnault, N.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Sainton, G.; Schaefer, B.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stanishev, V.; Sullivan, M.; Walton, N. A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yasuda, N.

    2003-11-01

    We report measurements of ΩM, ΩΛ, and w from 11 supernovae (SNe) at z=0.36-0.86 with high-quality light curves measured using WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This is an independent set of high-redshift SNe that confirms previous SN evidence for an accelerating universe. The high-quality light curves available from photometry on WFPC2 make it possible for these 11 SNe alone to provide measurements of the cosmological parameters comparable in statistical weight to the previous results. Combined with earlier Supernova Cosmology Project data, the new SNe yield a measurement of the mass density ΩM=0.25+0.07-0.06(statistical)+/-0.04 (identified systematics), or equivalently, a cosmological constant of ΩΛ=0.75+0.06-0.07(statistical)+/-0.04 (identified systematics), under the assumptions of a flat universe and that the dark energy equation-of-state parameter has a constant value w=-1. When the SN results are combined with independent flat-universe measurements of ΩM from cosmic microwave background and galaxy redshift distortion data, they provide a measurement of w=-1.05+0.15-0.20(statistical)+/-0.09 (identified systematic), if w is assumed to be constant in time. In addition to high-precision light-curve measurements, the new data offer greatly improved color measurements of the high-redshift SNe and hence improved host galaxy extinction estimates. These extinction measurements show no anomalous negative E(B-V) at high redshift. The precision of the measurements is such that it is possible to perform a host galaxy extinction correction directly for individual SNe without any assumptions or priors on the parent E(B-V) distribution. Our cosmological fits using full extinction corrections confirm that dark energy is required with P(ΩΛ>0)>0.99, a result consistent with previous and current SN analyses that rely on the identification of a low-extinction subset or prior assumptions concerning the intrinsic extinction distribution. Based in part on

  9. The space instrument SOVAP of the PICARD mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conscience, C.; Meftah, M.; Chevalier, A.; Dewitte, S.; Crommelynck, D.,

    2011-09-01

    PICARD is a Satellite dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of the absolute total and spectral solar irradiance, the diameter and solar shape and the Sun's interior probed by helioseismology method. Its objectives are the study of the origin of the solar variability and the study of the relations between the Sun and the Earth's climate. PICARD was launched on June 15, 2010. The Satellite was placed into the heliosynchronous orbit of 735 km with inclination of 98.28 degrees. The payload consists in two absolute radiometers measuring the TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) and an imaging telescope to determine the solar diameter, the limb shape and asphericity. SOVAP (SOlar VAriability Picard) is an experiment developed by the Belgian STCE (Solar Terrestrial Center of Excellence) with a contribution of the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) composed of an absolute radiometer provided by the RMIB (Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium) to measure the TSI and a bolometer provided by the ROB (Royal Observatory of Belgium). The continuous observation of the solar irradiance at the highest possible precision and accuracy is an important objective of the Earth climate change. This requires: high quality metrology in the space environment. In this article, we describe the SOVAP instrument, its performances and uncertainties on the measurements of the TSI.

  10. The emergent 1.1-1.7 μm spectrum of the exoplanet COROT-2B as measured using the Hubble space telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Knutson, Heather; McCullough, Peter; Ranjan, Sukrit

    2014-01-01

    We have used Hubble/WFC3 and the G141 grism to measure the secondary eclipse of the transiting, very hot Jupiter CoRoT-2b in the 1.1-1.7 μm spectral region. We find an eclipse depth averaged over this band equal to 395 −45 +69 parts per million, equivalent to a blackbody temperature of 1788 ± 18 K. We study and characterize several WFC3 instrumental effects, especially the 'hook' phenomenon described by Deming et al. We use data from several transiting exoplanet systems to find a quantitative relation between the amplitude of the hook and the exposure level of a given pixel. Although the uncertainties in this relation are too large to allow us to develop an empirical correction for our data, our study provides a useful guide for optimizing exposure levels in future WFC3 observations. We derive the planet's spectrum using a differential method. The planet-to-star contrast increases to longer wavelength within the WFC3 bandpass, but without water absorption or emission to a 3σ limit of 85 ppm. The slope of the WFC3 spectrum is significantly less than the slope of the best-fit blackbody. We compare all existing eclipse data for this planet to a blackbody spectrum, and to spectra from both solar abundance and carbon-rich (C/O = 1) models. A blackbody spectrum is an acceptable fit to the full data set. Extra continuous opacity due to clouds or haze, and flattened temperature profiles, are strong candidates to produce quasi-blackbody spectra, and to account for the amplitude of the optical eclipses. Our results show ambiguous evidence for a temperature inversion in this planet.

  11. The emergent 1.1-1.7 μm spectrum of the exoplanet COROT-2B as measured using the Hubble space telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Knutson, Heather [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCullough, Peter [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ranjan, Sukrit, E-mail: awilkins@astro.umd.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We have used Hubble/WFC3 and the G141 grism to measure the secondary eclipse of the transiting, very hot Jupiter CoRoT-2b in the 1.1-1.7 μm spectral region. We find an eclipse depth averaged over this band equal to 395{sub −45}{sup +69} parts per million, equivalent to a blackbody temperature of 1788 ± 18 K. We study and characterize several WFC3 instrumental effects, especially the 'hook' phenomenon described by Deming et al. We use data from several transiting exoplanet systems to find a quantitative relation between the amplitude of the hook and the exposure level of a given pixel. Although the uncertainties in this relation are too large to allow us to develop an empirical correction for our data, our study provides a useful guide for optimizing exposure levels in future WFC3 observations. We derive the planet's spectrum using a differential method. The planet-to-star contrast increases to longer wavelength within the WFC3 bandpass, but without water absorption or emission to a 3σ limit of 85 ppm. The slope of the WFC3 spectrum is significantly less than the slope of the best-fit blackbody. We compare all existing eclipse data for this planet to a blackbody spectrum, and to spectra from both solar abundance and carbon-rich (C/O = 1) models. A blackbody spectrum is an acceptable fit to the full data set. Extra continuous opacity due to clouds or haze, and flattened temperature profiles, are strong candidates to produce quasi-blackbody spectra, and to account for the amplitude of the optical eclipses. Our results show ambiguous evidence for a temperature inversion in this planet.

  12. UV/Visible Telescope with Hubble Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    Submission Overview: Our primary objective is to convey a sense of the significant advances possible in astrophysics investigations for major Cosmic Origins COR program goals with a 2.4m telescope asset outfitted with one or more advanced UV visible instruments. Several compelling science objectives were identified based on community meetings these science objectives drove the conceptual design of instruments studied by the COR Program Office during July September 2012. This RFI submission encapsulates the results of that study, and suggests that a more detailed look into the instrument suite should be conducted to prove viability and affordability to support the demonstrated scientific value. This study was conducted in the context of a larger effort to consider the options available for a mission to dispose safely of Hubble hence, the overall architecture considered for the mission we studied for the 2.4m telescope asset included resource sharing. This mitigates combined cost and risk and provides naturally for a continued US leadership role in astrophysics with an advanced, general-purpose UV visible space telescope.

  13. INVESTIGATING THE CORE MORPHOLOGY-SEYFERT CLASS RELATIONSHIP WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ARCHIVAL IMAGES OF LOCAL SEYFERT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Hegel, P. R.; Kim, Hwihyun; Windhorst, R. A.; Tamura, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has provided a successful explanation for the observed diversity of AGNs in the local universe. However, recent analysis of multi-wavelength spectral and image data suggests that the unified model is only a partial theory of AGNs, and may need to be augmented to remain consistent with all observations. Recent studies using high spatial resolution ground- and space-based observations of local AGNs show that Seyfert class and the ''core'' (r ∼ 20 ) and a new method which implements the Source Extractor software for feature detection in unsharp-mask images. This new method is designed explicitly to detect dust features in the images. We use our automated approach to classify the morphology of the AGN cores and determine that Sy2 galaxies visually appear, on average, to have more dust features than Sy1. With the exception of this ''dustiness'' however, we do not measure a strong correlation between the dust morphology and the Seyfert class of the host galaxy using quantitative techniques. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of the unified model.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope-NICMOS Observations of M31'S Metal-Rich Globular Clusters and Their Surrounding Fields. I. Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Andrew W.; Frogel, Jay A.; Freedman, Wendy; Gallart, Carme; Jablonka, Pascale; Ortolani, Sergio; Renzini, Alvio; Rich, R. Michael; Davies, Roger

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers are always anxious to push their observations to the limit-basing results on objects at the detection threshold, spectral features barely stronger than the noise, or photometry in very crowded regions. In this paper we present a careful analysis of photometry in crowded regions and show how image blending affects the results and interpretation of such data. Although this analysis is specifically for our NICMOS observations in M31, the techniques we develop can be applied to any imaging data taken in crowded fields; we show how the effects of image blending will limit even the Next Generation Space Telescope. We have obtained HST-NICMOS observations of five of M31's most metal-rich globular clusters. These data allow photometry of individual stars in the clusters and their surrounding fields. However, to achieve our goals-obtain accurate luminosity functions to compare with their Galactic counterparts, determine metallicities from the slope of the giant branch, identify long-period variables, and estimate ages from the AGB tip luminosity-we must be able to disentangle the true properties of the population from the observational effects associated with measurements made in very crowded fields. We thus use three different techniques to analyze the effects of crowding on our data, including the insertion of artificial stars (traditional completeness tests) and the creation of completely artificial clusters. These computer simulations are used to derive threshold- and critical-blending radii for each cluster, which determine how close to the cluster center reliable photometry can be achieved. The simulations also allow us to quantify and correct for the effects of blending on the slope and width of the RGB at different surface brightness levels. We then use these results to estimate the limits blending will place on future space-based observations. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science

  15. ALADIN: an atmospheric laser Doppler wind lidar instrument for wind velocity measurements from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, R.; Ghibaudo, JB.; Labandibar, JY.; Willetts, D.; Vaughan, M.; Pearson, G.; Harris, M.; Flamant, P. H.; Salamitou, P.; Dabas, A.; Charasse, R.; Midavaine, T.; Royer, M.; Heimel, H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "ALADIN: an atmospheric laser Doppler wind lidar instrument for wind velocity measurements from space," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  16. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: THE INTERNAL KINEMATICS OF THE MULTIPLE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN NGC 2808

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Marel, R. P. van der; Vesperini, E.; Hong, J.; Piotto, G.; Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Bedin, L. R.; Renzini, A.; Cassisi, S.; D’Antona, F.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous observational studies have revealed the ubiquitous presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters and cast many difficult challenges for the study of the formation and dynamical history of these stellar systems. In this Letter we present the results of a study of the kinematic properties of multiple populations in NGC 2808 based on high-precision Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion measurements. In a recent study, Milone et al. identified five distinct populations (A–E) in NGC 2808. Populations D and E coincide with the helium-enhanced populations in the middle and the blue main sequences (mMS and bMS) previously discovered by Piotto et al.; populations A–C correspond to the redder main sequence that, in Piotto et al., was associated with the primordial stellar population. Our analysis shows that, in the outermost regions probed (between about 1.5 and 2 times the cluster half-light radius), the velocity distribution of populations D and E is radially anisotropic (the deviation from an isotropic distribution is significant at the ∼3.5σ level). Stars of populations D and E have a smaller tangential velocity dispersion than those of populations A–C, while no significant differences are found in the radial velocity dispersion. We present the results of a numerical simulation showing that the observed differences between the kinematics of these stellar populations are consistent with the expected kinematic fingerprint of the diffusion toward the cluster outer regions of stellar populations initially more centrally concentrated

  17. Recent Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Light Echoes of Supernova 2014J in M 82 and Supernova 2016adj in Centaurus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Stephen S.; Hyder, Ali; Sugerman, Ben; Crotts, Arlin P. S.

    2017-06-01

    We report on our ongoing use of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging to monitor the scattered light echoes of recent heavily-extincted supernovae in two nearby, albeit unusual, galaxies.Supernova 2014J was a highly-reddened Type Ia supernova that erupted in the nearby irregular star-forming galaxy M 82 in 2014 January. It was discovered to have light echo by Crotts (2016) in early epoch HST imaging and has been further described by Yang, et al. (2017) based on HST imaging through late 2014. Our ongoing monitoring in the WFC3 F438W, F555W, and F814W filters shows that, consistent with Crotts (2106) and Yang, et al. (2017), throughout 2015 and 2016 the main light echo arc expanded through a dust complex located approximately 230 pc in the foreground of the supernova. This main light echo has, however, faded dramatically in our most recent HST imaging from 2017 March. The supernova itself has also faded to undetectable levels by 2017 March.Supernova 2016adj is a highly-reddened core-collapse supernova that erupted inside the unusual dust lane of the nearby giant elliptical galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) in 2016 February. It was discovered to have a light echo by Sugerman & Lawrence (2016) in early epoch HST imaging in 2016 April. Our ongoing monitoring in the WFC3 F438W, F547M, and F814W filters shows a slightly elliptical series of light echo arc segments hosted by a tilted dust complex ranging approximately 150--225 pc in the foreground of the supernova. The supernova itself has also faded to undetectable levels by 2017 April.References: Crotts, A. P. S., ApJL, 804, L37 (2016); Yang et al., ApJ, 834, 60 (2017); Sugerman, B. and Lawrence, S., ATel #8890 (2016).

  18. Inflows, Outflows, and a Giant Donor in the Remarkable Recurrent Nova M31N 2008-12a?—Hubble Space Telescope Photometry of the 2015 Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnley, M. J.; Hounsell, R.; Godon, P.; Perley, D. A.; Henze, M.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Williams, B. F.; Williams, S. C.; Bode, M. F.; Harman, D. J.; Hornoch, K.; Link, M.; Ness, J.-U.; Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Sion, E. M.; Shafter, A. W.; Shara, M. M.

    2017-11-01

    The recurrent nova M31N 2008-12a experiences annual eruptions, contains a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, and has the largest mass accretion rate in any nova system. In this paper, we present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3/UVIS photometry of the late decline of the 2015 eruption. We couple these new data with archival HST observations of the quiescent system and Keck spectroscopy of the 2014 eruption. The late-time photometry reveals a rapid decline to a minimum luminosity state, before a possible recovery/rebrightening in the run up to the next eruption. Comparison with accretion disk models supports the survival of the accretion disk during the eruptions, and uncovers a quiescent disk mass accretion rate of the order of {10}-6 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, which may rise beyond {10}-5 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1 during the super-soft source phase—both of which could be problematic for a number of well-established nova eruption models. Such large accretion rates, close to the Eddington limit, might be expected to be accompanied by additional mass loss from the disk through a wind and even through collimated outflows. The archival HST observations, combined with the disk modeling, provide the first constraints on the mass donor: {L}{donor}={103}-11+12 {L}⊙ ,{R}{donor}={14.14}-0.47+0.46 {R}⊙ , and {T}{eff,{donor}}=4890+/- 110 K, which may be consistent with an irradiated M31 red-clump star. Such a donor would require a system orbital period ≳ 5 days. Our updated analysis predicts that the M31N 2008-12a WD could reach the Chandrasekhar mass in < 20 kyr.

  19. A NEW CEPHEID DISTANCE TO THE GIANT SPIRAL M101 BASED ON IMAGE SUBTRACTION OF HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappee, Benjamin J.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2011-01-01

    We accurately determine a new Cepheid distance to M101 (NGC 5457) using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys V and I time series photometry of two fields within the galaxy. We make a slight modification to the ISIS image subtraction package to obtain optimal differential light curves from HST data. We discovered 827 Cepheids with periods between 3 and 80 days, the largest extragalactic sample of Cepheids observed with HST by a factor of two. With this large Cepheid sample, we find that the relative distance of M101 from the Large Magellanic Cloud is Δμ LMC = 10.63 ± 0.04 (random) ± 0.06 (systematic) mag. If we use the geometrically determined maser distance to NGC 4258 as our distance anchor, the distance modulus of M101 is μ 0 = 29.04 ± 0.05 (random) ± 0.18 (systematic) mag or D = 6.4 ± 0.2 (random) ± 0.5 (systematic) Mpc. The uncertainty is dominated by the maser distance estimate (±0.15 mag), which should improve over the next few years. We determine a steep metallicity dependence, γ, for our Cepheid sample through two methods, yielding γ = -0.80 ± 0.21 (random) ± 0.06 (systematic) mag dex -1 and γ = -0.72 +0.22 -0.25 (random) ± 0.06 (systematic) mag dex -1 . We see marginal evidence for variations in the Wesenheit period-luminosity relation slope as a function of deprojected galactocentric radius. We also use the tip of the red giant branch method to independently determine the distance modulus to M101 of μ 0 = 29.05 ± 0.06 (random) ± 0.12 (systematic) mag.

  20. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters - XIV. Multiple stellar populations within M 15 and their radial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardiello, D.; Milone, A. P.; Piotto, G.; Anderson, J.; Bedin, L. R.; Bellini, A.; Cassisi, S.; Libralato, M.; Marino, A. F.

    2018-06-01

    In the context of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Survey of Galactic globular clusters (GCs), we derived high-precision, multi-band photometry to investigate the multiple stellar populations in the massive and metal-poor GC M 15. By creating for red-giant branch (RGB) stars of the cluster a `chromosome map', which is a pseudo two-colour diagram made with appropriate combination of F275W, F336W, F438W, and F814W magnitudes, we revealed colour spreads around two of the three already known stellar populations. These spreads cannot be produced by photometric errors alone and could hide the existence of (two) additional populations. This discovery increases the complexity of the multiple-population phenomenon in M 15. Our analysis shows that M 15 exhibits a faint sub-giant branch (SGB), which is also detected in colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) made with optical magnitudes only. This poorly populated SGB includes about 5 per cent of the total number of SGB stars and evolves into a red RGB in the mF336W versus mF336W - mF814W CMD, suggesting that M 15 belongs to the class of Type II GCs. We measured the relative number of stars in each population at various radial distances from the cluster centre, showing that all of these populations share the same radial distribution within statistic uncertainties. These new findings are discussed in the context of the formation and evolution scenarios of the multiple populations.

  1. CHANDRA X-RAY AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF OPTICALLY SELECTED KILOPARSEC-SCALE BINARY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST GALAXY MORPHOLOGY AND AGN ACTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C.; Liu, Xin; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W ( U -band) and F105W ( Y -band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope . Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U − Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Ultra-compact High Velocity Cloud AGC 226067: A Stripped Remnant in the Virgo Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, D. J.; Crnojević, D. [Texas Tech University, Physics and Astronomy Department, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Seth, A. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Spekkens, K. [Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, Ontario, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Strader, J. [Center for Data Intensive and Time Domain Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 567 Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Adams, E. A. K. [ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7900 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Caldwell, N.; Randall, S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guhathakurta, P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kenney, J. [Yale University Astronomy Department, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Simon, J. D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Toloba, E. [Department of Physics, University of the Pacific, 3601 Pacific Avenue, Stockton, CA 95211 (United States); Willman, B., E-mail: david.sand@ttu.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    We analyze the optical counterpart to the ultra-compact high velocity cloud AGC 226067, utilizing imaging taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope . The color–magnitude diagram of the main body of AGC 226067 reveals an exclusively young stellar population, with an age of ∼7–50 Myr, and is consistent with a metallicity of [Fe/H] ∼ −0.3 as previous work has measured via H ii region spectroscopy. Additionally, the color–magnitude diagram is consistent with a distance of D ≈ 17 Mpc, suggesting an association with the Virgo cluster. A secondary stellar system located ∼1.′6 (∼8 kpc) away in projection has a similar stellar population. The lack of an old red giant branch (≳5 Gyr) is contrasted with a serendipitously discovered Virgo dwarf in the ACS field of view (Dw J122147+132853), and the total diffuse light from AGC 226067 is consistent with the luminosity function of the resolved ∼7–50 Myr stellar population. The main body of AGC 226067 has a M {sub V} = −11.3 ± 0.3, or M {sub stars} = 5.4 ± 1.3 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ⊙} given the stellar population. We searched 20 deg{sup 2} of imaging data adjacent to AGC 226067 in the Virgo Cluster, and found two similar stellar systems dominated by a blue stellar population, far from any massive galaxy counterpart—if this population has star-formation properties that are similar to those of AGC 226067, it implies ∼0.1 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} in Virgo intracluster star formation. Given its unusual stellar population, AGC 226067 is likely a stripped remnant and is plausibly the result of compressed gas from the ram pressure stripped M86 subgroup (∼350 kpc away in projection) as it falls into the Virgo Cluster.

  3. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J.E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D.O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Whitmore, B.C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L.J.; Bright, S.N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J.E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; Dale, D.A.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-01-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify

  4. THE LUMINOSITY, MASS, AND AGE DISTRIBUTIONS OF COMPACT STAR CLUSTERS IN M83 BASED ON HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandar, Rupali; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard; Kim, Hwihyun; Kaleida, Catherine; Calzetti, Daniela; Saha, Abhijit; O'Connell, Robert; Balick, Bruce; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick; Paresce, Francesco; Silk, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The newly installed Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope has been used to obtain multi-band images of the nearby spiral galaxy M83. These new observations are the deepest and highest resolution images ever taken of a grand-design spiral, particularly in the near-ultraviolet, and allow us to better differentiate compact star clusters from individual stars and to measure the luminosities of even faint clusters in the U band. We find that the luminosity function (LF) for clusters outside of the very crowded starburst nucleus can be approximated by a power law, dN/dL ∝ L α , with α = -2.04 ± 0.08, down to M V ∼ -5.5. We test the sensitivity of the LF to different selection techniques, filters, binning, and aperture correction determinations, and find that none of these contribute significantly to uncertainties in α. We estimate ages and masses for the clusters by comparing their measured UBVI, Hα colors with predictions from single stellar population models. The age distribution of the clusters can be approximated by a power law, dN/dτ ∝ τ γ , with γ = -0.9 ± 0.2, for M ∼> few x 10 3 M sun and τ ∼ 8 yr. This indicates that clusters are disrupted quickly, with ∼80%-90% disrupted each decade in age over this time. The mass function of clusters over the same M-τ range is a power law, dN/dM ∝ M β , with β = -1.94 ± 0.16, and does not have bends or show curvature at either high or low masses. Therefore, we do not find evidence for a physical upper mass limit, M C , or for the earlier disruption of lower mass clusters when compared with higher mass clusters, i.e., mass-dependent disruption. We briefly discuss these implications for the formation and disruption of the clusters.

  5. Hubble space telescope grism spectroscopy of extreme starbursts across cosmic time: The role of dwarf galaxies in the star formation history of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, EPFL, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Malkan, Matthew; Ross, Nathaniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Charlot, Stephane; Lehnert, Matthew [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Lee, Janice [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bedregal, Alejandro [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bunker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, OX13RH (United Kingdom); Colbert, James W.; Rafelski, Marc [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Hathi, Nimish [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Siana, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    Near infrared slitless spectroscopy with the Wide Field Camera 3, on board the Hubble Space Telescope, offers a unique opportunity to study low-mass galaxy populations at high redshift (z ∼ 1-2). While most high-z surveys are biased toward massive galaxies, we are able to select sources via their emission lines that have very faint continua. We investigate the star formation rate (SFR)-stellar mass (M{sub *}) relation for about 1000 emission line galaxies identified over a wide redshift range of 0.3 ≲ z ≲ 2.3. We use the Hα emission as an accurate SFR indicator and correct the broadband photometry for the strong nebular contribution to derive accurate stellar masses down to M{sub *} ∼10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}. We focus here on a subsample of galaxies that show extremely strong emission lines (EELGs) with rest-frame equivalent widths ranging from 200 to 1500 Å. This population consists of outliers to the normal SFR-M{sub *} sequence with much higher specific SFRs (>10 Gyr{sup –1}). While on-sequence galaxies follow continuous star formation processes, EELGs are thought to be caught during an extreme burst of star formation that can double their stellar mass in a period of less than 100 Myr. The contribution of the starburst population to the total star formation density appears to be larger than what has been reported for more massive galaxies in previous studies. In the complete mass range 8.2 < log(M{sub *}/M{sub ☉}) <10 and a SFR lower completeness limit of about 2 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (10 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) at z ∼ 1 (z ∼ 2), we find that starbursts having EW{sub rest}(Hα) > 300, 200, and 100 Å contribute up to ∼13%, 18%, and 34%, respectively, to the total SFR of emission-line-selected sample at z ∼ 1-2. The comparison with samples of massive galaxies shows an increase in the contribution of starbursts toward lower masses.

  6. ASTROMETRY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE: TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAXES OF PLANETARY NEBULA NUCLEI NGC 6853, NGC 7293, ABELL 31, AND DeHt 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Harrison, Thomas E.; Harris, Hugh C.; Nelan, Edmund; Bond, Howard E.; Patterson, Richard J.; Ciardullo, Robin

    2009-01-01

    We present absolute parallaxes and relative proper motions for the central stars of the planetary nebulae NGC 6853 (The Dumbbell), NGC 7293 (The Helix), Abell 31, and DeHt 5. This paper details our reduction and analysis using DeHt 5 as an example. We obtain these planetary nebula nuclei (PNNi) parallaxes with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors FGS 1r and FGS 3, white-light interferometers on the Hubble Space Telescope. Proper motions, spectral classifications and VJHKT 2 M and DDO51 photometry of the stars comprising the astrometric reference frames provide spectrophotometric estimates of reference star absolute parallaxes. Introducing these into our model as observations with error, we determine absolute parallaxes for each PNN. Weighted averaging with previous independent parallax measurements yields an average parallax precision, σ π /π = 5%. Derived distances are: d NGC6853 = 405 +28 -25 pc, d NGC7293 = 216 +14 -12 pc, d Abell31 = 621 +91 -70 pc, and d DeHt5 = 345 +19 -17 pc. These PNNi distances are all smaller than previously derived from spectroscopic analyses of the central stars. To obtain absolute magnitudes from these distances requires estimates of interstellar extinction. We average extinction measurements culled from the literature, from reddening based on PNNi intrinsic colors derived from model SEDs, and an assumption that each PNN experiences the same rate of extinction as a function of distance as do the reference stars nearest (in angular separation) to each central star. We also apply Lutz-Kelker bias corrections. The absolute magnitudes and effective temperatures permit estimates of PNNi radii through both the Stefan-Boltzmann relation and Eddington fluxes. Comparing absolute magnitudes with post-AGB models provides mass estimates. Masses cluster around 0.57 M odot , close to the peak of the white dwarf mass distribution. Adding a few more PNNi with well-determined distances and masses, we compare all the PNNi with cooler white

  7. A PANCHROMATIC CATALOG OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT IN THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Kaviraj, S.; Crockett, R. M.; Silk, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Hathi, N. P.; McCarthy, P. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Koekemoer, A.; Bond, H. E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Yan, H. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kimble, R. A. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Disney, M. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Physics and Astronomy, The Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, J. A. [Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Hall, D. N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2012-03-01

    In the first of a series of forthcoming publications, we present a panchromatic catalog of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) from observations in the Early Release Science (ERS) program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) field. Our ETGs span a large redshift range, 0.35 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.5, with each redshift spectroscopically confirmed by previous published surveys of the ERS field. We combine our measured WFC3 ERS and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) GOODS-S photometry to gain continuous sensitivity from the rest-frame far-UV to near-IR emission for each ETG. The superior spatial resolution of the HST over this panchromatic baseline allows us to classify the ETGs by their small-scale internal structures, as well as their local environment. By fitting stellar population spectral templates to the broadband photometry of the ETGs, we determine that the average masses of the ETGs are comparable to the characteristic stellar mass of massive galaxies, 10{sup 11} < M{sub *}[M{sub Sun }]<10{sup 12}. By transforming the observed photometry into the Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV and NUV, Johnson V, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey g' and r' bandpasses we identify a noteworthy diversity in the rest-frame UV-optical colors and find the mean rest-frame (FUV-V) = 3.5 and (NUV-V) = 3.3, with 1{sigma} standard deviations {approx_equal}1.0. The blue rest-frame UV-optical colors observed for most of the ETGs are evidence for star formation during the preceding gigayear, but no systems exhibit UV-optical photometry consistent with major recent ({approx}<50 Myr) starbursts. Future publications which address the diversity of stellar populations likely to be present in these ETGs, and the potential mechanisms by which recent star formation episodes are activated, are discussed.

  8. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion

  9. Current Hypersonic and Space Vehicle Flight Test and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-22

    ground station hardware and software. B. Space- based Platforms There are already in place several satellite based options to collecting and... Transceive data over very long range at low to very high altitudes DARPA: XS-1 Ground Based Aircraft Based Space Based Future Data...412TW-PA-15264 AIR FORCE TEST CENTER EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE , CALIFORNIA AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE REPORT

  10. Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic space instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Gabby; Venema, Lars; Navarro, Ramón

    2017-11-01

    NOVA is involved in the development and realization of various optical astronomical instruments for groundbased as well as space telescopes, with a focus on nearand mid-infrared instrumentation. NOVA has developed a suite of scientific instruments with cryogenic optics for the ESO VLT and VLTI instruments: VISIR, MIDI, the SPIFFI 2Kcamera for SINFONI, X-shooter and MATISSE. Other projects include the cryogenic optics for MIRI for the James Webb Space Telescope and several E-ELT instruments. Mounting optics is always a compromise between firmly fixing the optics and preventing stresses within the optics. The fixing should ensure mechanical stability and thus accurate positioning in various gravity orientations, temperature ranges, during launch, transport or earthquake. On the other hand, the fixings can induce deformations and sometimes birefringence in the optics and thus cause optical errors. Even cracking or breaking of the optics is a risk, especially when using brittle infrared optical materials at the cryogenic temperatures required in instruments for infrared astronomy, where differential expansion of various materials amounts easily to several millimeters per meter. Special kinematic mounts are therefore needed to ensure both accurate positioning and low stress. This paper concentrates on the opto-mechanical design of optics mountings, especially for large transmission optics in cryogenic circumstances in space instruments. It describes the development of temperature-invariant ("a-thermal") kinematic designs, their implementation in ground based instrumentation and ways to make them suitable for space instruments.

  11. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument: overview of 14 years in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levelt, Pieternel F.; Joiner, Joanna; Tamminen, Johanna; Pepijn Veefkind, J.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Stein Zweers, Deborah C.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Streets, David G.; Eskes, Henk; van der A, Ronald; McLinden, Chris; Fioletov, Vitali; Carn, Simon; de Laat, Jos; DeLand, Matthew; Marchenko, Sergey; McPeters, Richard; Ziemke, Jerald; Fu, Dejian; Liu, Xiong; Pickering, Kenneth; Apituley, Arnoud; González Abad, Gonzalo; Arola, Antti; Boersma, Folkert; Miller, Christopher Chan; Chance, Kelly; de Graaf, Martin; Hakkarainen, Janne; Hassinen, Seppo; Ialongo, Iolanda; Kleipool, Quintus; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Lamsal, Lok; Newman, Paul; Nowlan, Caroline; Suleiman, Raid; Gijsbert Tilstra, Lieuwe; Torres, Omar; Wang, Huiqun; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    This overview paper highlights the successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite spanning a period of nearly 14 years. Data from OMI has been used in a wide range of applications and research resulting in many new findings. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. With the operational very fast delivery (VFD; direct readout) and near real-time (NRT) availability of the data, OMI also plays an important role in the development of operational services in the atmospheric chemistry domain.

  12. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument: overview of 14 years in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Levelt

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This overview paper highlights the successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on board the Aura satellite spanning a period of nearly 14 years. Data from OMI has been used in a wide range of applications and research resulting in many new findings. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. With the operational very fast delivery (VFD; direct readout and near real-time (NRT availability of the data, OMI also plays an important role in the development of operational services in the atmospheric chemistry domain.

  13. Toward biotechnology in space: High-throughput instruments for in situ biological research beyond Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kianoosh; Pohorille, Andrew

    2017-11-15

    Space biotechnology is a nascent field aimed at applying tools of modern biology to advance our goals in space exploration. These advances rely on our ability to exploit in situ high throughput techniques for amplification and sequencing DNA, and measuring levels of RNA transcripts, proteins and metabolites in a cell. These techniques, collectively known as "omics" techniques have already revolutionized terrestrial biology. A number of on-going efforts are aimed at developing instruments to carry out "omics" research in space, in particular on board the International Space Station and small satellites. For space applications these instruments require substantial and creative reengineering that includes automation, miniaturization and ensuring that the device is resistant to conditions in space and works independently of the direction of the gravity vector. Different paths taken to meet these requirements for different "omics" instruments are the subjects of this review. The advantages and disadvantages of these instruments and technological solutions and their level of readiness for deployment in space are discussed. Considering that effects of space environments on terrestrial organisms appear to be global, it is argued that high throughput instruments are essential to advance (1) biomedical and physiological studies to control and reduce space-related stressors on living systems, (2) application of biology to life support and in situ resource utilization, (3) planetary protection, and (4) basic research about the limits on life in space. It is also argued that carrying out measurements in situ provides considerable advantages over the traditional space biology paradigm that relies on post-flight data analysis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Cost prediction model for various payloads and instruments for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    The following cost parameters of the space shuttle were undertaken: (1) to develop a cost prediction model for various payload classes of instruments and experiments for the Space Shuttle Orbiter; and (2) to show the implications of various payload classes on the cost of: reliability analysis, quality assurance, environmental design requirements, documentation, parts selection, and other reliability enhancing activities.

  15. Editorial: Special issue on smart optical instruments and systems for space applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING; Fei

    2015-01-01

    Optical systems are playing more and more important roles for space applications,such as high accurate attitude determination and remote sensing systems etc.Innovations in optical systems have brought great advantages,some even revolutionary for the space applications.Accordingly,in this special issue of Smart Optical systems and instruments

  16. Wavefront-Error Performance Characterization for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Science Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, David L.; Smith, J. Scott; Zielinski, Thomas P.; Telfer, Randal; Tournois, Severine C.; Moore, Dustin B.; Fienup, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The science instruments (SIs) comprising the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) were tested in three cryogenic-vacuum test campaigns in the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)'s Space Environment Simulator (SES). In this paper, we describe the results of optical wavefront-error performance characterization of the SIs. The wavefront error is determined using image-based wavefront sensing (also known as phase retrieval), and the primary data used by this process are focus sweeps, a series of images recorded by the instrument under test in its as-used configuration, in which the focal plane is systematically changed from one image to the next. High-precision determination of the wavefront error also requires several sources of secondary data, including 1) spectrum, apodization, and wavefront-error characterization of the optical ground-support equipment (OGSE) illumination module, called the OTE Simulator (OSIM), 2) plate scale measurements made using a Pseudo-Nonredundant Mask (PNRM), and 3) pupil geometry predictions as a function of SI and field point, which are complicated because of a tricontagon-shaped outer perimeter and small holes that appear in the exit pupil due to the way that different light sources are injected into the optical path by the OGSE. One set of wavefront-error tests, for the coronagraphic channel of the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) Longwave instruments, was performed using data from transverse translation diversity sweeps instead of focus sweeps, in which a sub-aperture is translated andor rotated across the exit pupil of the system.Several optical-performance requirements that were verified during this ISIM-level testing are levied on the uncertainties of various wavefront-error-related quantities rather than on the wavefront errors themselves. This paper also describes the methodology, based on Monte Carlo simulations of the wavefront-sensing analysis of focus-sweep data, used to establish the

  17. Hubble Legacy Archive And The Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jessica; Whitmore, B.; Eisenhamer, B.; Bishop, M.; Knisely, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) hosts the Image of the Month (IOTM) Series. The HLA is a joint project of STScI, the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC). The HLA is designed optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope by providing online enhanced Hubble products and advanced browsing capabilities. The IOTM's are created for astronomers and the public to highlight various features within HLA, such as the "Interactive Display", "Footprint” and "Inventory” features to name a few. We have been working with the Office of Public Outreach (OPO) to create a standards based educational module for middle school to high school students of the IOTM: Rings and the Moons of Uranus. The set of Uranus activities are highlighted by a movie that displays the orbit of five of Uranus’ largest satellites. We made the movie based on eight visits of Uranus from 2000-06-16 to 2000-06-18, using the PC chip on the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and filter F850LP (proposal ID: 8680). Students will be engaged in activities that will allow them to "discover” the rings and satellites around Uranus, calculate the orbit of the satellites, and introduces students to analyze real data from Hubble.

  18. Double-theodolite measurement system used in the image calibration of space photographic instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; QIAO Yan-feng; SU Wan-xin; LIU Ze-xun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of characterizing the image of space photographic instrument is to gain the space included angles from three coordinate axes in the three-dimensional coordinate of the image and the directionality of the three axes of coordinate in the frame of axes of the instrument. The two reference frames will keep in the same direction finally by adjusting according to space angles. This problem was solved by a new high-precision measurement system composed of a double-theodolite and a set of communication system. In the survey system, two TDA5005 total stations from Leica Company will be selected as the double-theodolite and the interdependence of both coordinate systems can be achieved by moving the stations only at one time. Therefore, this measurement system provides a highly efficient and high-precision surveying method to the image calibration of the space photographic instrument. According to the experiment, its measuring accuracy can reach arc-second level.

  19. Hubble expansion in static spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossler, Otto E.; Froehlich, Dieter; Movassagh, Ramis; Moore, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A recently proposed mechanism for light-path expansion in a static spacetime is based on the moving-lenses paradigm. Since the latter is valid independently of whether space expands or not, a static universe can be used to better see the implications. The moving-lenses paradigm is related to the paradigm of dynamical friction. If this is correct, a Hubble-like law is implicit. It is described quantitatively. A bent in the Hubble-like line is predictably implied. The main underlying assumption is Price's Principle (PI 3 ). If the theory is sound, the greatest remaining problem in cosmology becomes the origin of hydrogen. Since Blandford's jet production mechanism for quasars is too weak, a generalized Hawking radiation hidden in the walls of cosmic voids is invoked. A second prediction is empirical: slow pattern changes in the cosmic microwave background. A third is ultra-high redshifts for Giacconi quasars. Bruno's eternal universe in the spirit of Augustine becomes a bit less outlandish

  20. A low-power timing discriminator for space instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoto, P.; Medale, J.-L.; Aoustin, C.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

    2004-01-01

    A front-end electronics for three-dimensional time-of-flight space plasma analyzers has been developed. These mass spectrometers, allowing the determination of the distribution functions of the main ion species, are based on the selection of the ion energy per charge and arrival direction using an electrostatic analyzer, and on the determination of their velocity from the time separating a start and a stop pulse. The start pulse is provided by the collection on a microchannel plate (MCP) of secondary electrons emitted when each ion crosses a thin carbon foil. The stop pulse is provided by the ion hitting a second MCP. The aim of the electronics presented in this article is to process the signals provided by MCPs to generate logic pulses, allowing the measurement of precise time differences. The design consists of an amplifier and a timing discriminator which performs a timing compensation to eliminate the time walk. A first version of the circuit has been developed and achieves a time walk of ∼400 ps for an input amplitude dynamic range of 25 dB. The total power dissipation per channel is ∼14 mW at an event rate of 100 KHz and ∼19 mW at a rate of 1 MHz. The influence of the temperature on the circuit behavior has been investigated. The performances of the circuit in a complete detector were also evaluated. This circuit is designed to be used in various designs for future missions

  1. The rhesus measurement system: A new instrument for space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Julie E.; Hines, John W.

    1993-01-01

    The Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) is a research environment designed to study the effects of microgravity using rhesus primates as human surrogates. This experimental model allows investigators to study numerous aspects of microgravity exposure without compromising crew member activities. Currently, the RRF is slated for two missions to collect its data, the first mission is SLS-3, due to fly in late 1995. The RRF is a joint effort between the United States and France. The science and hardware portions of the project are being shared between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and France's Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The RRF is composed of many different subsystems in order to acquire data, provide life support, environmental enrichment, computer facilities and measurement capabilities for two rhesus primates aboard a nominal sixteen day mission. One of these subsystems is the Rhesus Measurement System (RMS). The RMS is designed to obtain in-flight physiological measurements from sensors interfaced with the subject. The RMS will acquire, preprocess, and transfer the physiologic data to the Flight Data System (FDS) for relay to the ground during flight. The measurements which will be taken by the RMS during the first flight will be respiration, measured at two different sites; electromyogram (EMG) at three different sites; electroencephalogram (EEG); electrocardiogram (ECG); and body temperature. These measurements taken by the RMS will assist the research team in meeting the science objectives of the RRF project.

  2. ECLSS Integration Analysis: Advanced ECLSS Subsystem and Instrumentation Technology Study for the Space Exploration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In his July 1989 space policy speech, President Bush proposed a long range continuing commitment to space exploration and development. Included in his goals were the establishment of permanent lunar and Mars habitats and the development of extended duration space transportation. In both cases, a major issue is the availability of qualified sensor technologies for use in real-time monitoring and control of integrated physical/chemical/biological (p/c/b) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). The purpose of this study is to determine the most promising instrumentation technologies for future ECLSS applications. The study approach is as follows: 1. Precursor ECLSS Subsystem Technology Trade Study - A database of existing and advanced Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) and Water Recovery and Management (WRM) ECLSS subsystem technologies was created. A trade study was performed to recommend AR and WRM subsystem technologies for future lunar and Mars mission scenarios. The purpose of this trade study was to begin defining future ECLSS instrumentation requirements as a precursor to determining the instrumentation technologies that will be applicable to future ECLS systems. 2. Instrumentation Survey - An instrumentation database of Chemical, Microbial, Conductivity, Humidity, Flowrate, Pressure, and Temperature sensors was created. Each page of the sensor database report contains information for one type of sensor, including a description of the operating principles, specifications, and the reference(s) from which the information was obtained. This section includes a cursory look at the history of instrumentation on U.S. spacecraft. 3. Results and Recommendations - Instrumentation technologies were recommended for further research and optimization based on a consideration of both of the above sections. A sensor or monitor technology was recommended based on its applicability to future ECLS systems, as defined by the ECLSS Trade Study (1), and on whether its

  3. Space traveller to see stars born 13bn years ago

    CERN Multimedia

    Radford, T

    2004-01-01

    British scientists are working on the James Webb telescope, successor to tje Hubble space telescope. A supersensitive camera called Miri - mid infrared instrument - being built by an international team, will be a key part of the European and American instrument (1 page)

  4. Enhancing Hubble's vision service missions that expanded our view of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2016-01-01

    After a 20-year struggle to place a large, sophisticated optical telescope in orbit the Hubble Space Telescope was finally launched in 1990, though its primary mirror was soon found to be flawed. A dramatic mission in 1993 installed corrective optics so that the intended science program could finally begin. Those events are related in a companion to this book, The Hubble Space Telescope: From Concept to Success.   Enhancing Hubble’s Vision: Service Missions That Expanded Our View of the Universe tells the story of the four missions between 1997 and 2009 that repaired, serviced and upgraded the instruments on the telescope to maintain its state-of-the-art capabilities. It draws on first hand interviews with those closely involved in the project. The spacewalking skills and experiences gained from maintaining and upgrading Hubble had direct application to the construction of the International Space Station and help with its maintenance. These skills can be applied to future human and robotic satellite servic...

  5. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  6. Dismantling Hubble's Legacy?

    OpenAIRE

    Way, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Hubble is famous for a number of discoveries that are well known to amateur and professional astronomers, students and the general public. The origins of these discoveries are examined and it is demonstrated that, in each case, a great deal of supporting evidence was already in place. In some cases the discoveries had either already been made, or competing versions were not adopted for complex scientific and sociological reasons.

  7. System Definition of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Ray; Aymergen, Cagatay; VanCampen, Julie; Abell, James; Smith, Miles; Driggers, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides the critical functions and the environment for the four science instruments on JWST. This complex system development across many international organizations presents unique challenges and unique solutions. Here we describe how the requirement flow has been coordinated through the documentation system, how the tools and processes are used to minimize impact to the development of the affected interfaces, how the system design has matured, how the design review process operates, and how the system implementation is managed through reporting to ensure a truly world class scientific instrument compliment is created as the final product.

  8. Cryo-Vacuum Testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Davila, P. S.; Drury, M. P.; Glazer, S. D.; Krom, J. R.; Lundquist, R. A.; Mann, S. D.; McGuffey, D. B.; Perry, R. L.; Ramey, D. D.

    2011-01-01

    With delivery of the science instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) expected in 2012, current plans call for the first cryo-vacuum test of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) to be carried out at GSFC in early 2013. Plans are well underway for conducting this ambitious test, which will perform critical verifications of a number of optical, thermal, and operational requirements of the IS 1M hardware, at its deep cryogenic operating temperature. We describe here the facilities, goals, methods, and timeline for this important Integration & Test milestone in the JWST program.

  9. Ambient Optomechanical Alignment and Pupil Metrology for the Flight Instruments Aboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; hide

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope science instruments are in the final stages of being integrated into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element. Each instrument is tied into a common coordinate system through mechanical references that are used for optical alignment and metrology within ISIM after element-level assembly. In addition, a set of ground support equipment (GSE) consisting of large, precisely calibrated, ambient, and cryogenic structures are used as alignment references and gauges during various phases of integration and test (I&T). This GSE, the flight instruments, and ISIM structure feature different types of complimentary metrology targeting. These GSE targets are used to establish and track six degrees of freedom instrument alignment during I&T in the vehicle coordinate system (VCS). This paper describes the optomechanical metrology conducted during science instrument integration and alignment in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) cleanroom at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The measurement of each instrument's ambient entrance pupil location in the telescope coordinate system is discussed. The construction of the database of target locations and the development of metrology uncertainties is also discussed.

  10. High-Performance Reaction Wheel Optimization for Fine-Pointing Space Platforms: Minimizing Induced Vibration Effects on Jitter Performance plus Lessons Learned from Hubble Space Telescope for Current and Future Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasha, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) applies large-diameter optics (2.5-m primary mirror) for diffraction-limited resolution spanning an extended wavelength range (approx. 100-2500 nm). Its Pointing Control System (PCS) Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWAs), in the Support Systems Module (SSM), acquired an unprecedented set of high-sensitivity Induced Vibration (IV) data for 5 flight-certified RWAs: dwelling at set rotation rates. Focused on 4 key ratios, force and moment harmonic values (in 3 local principal directions) are extracted in the RWA operating range (0-3000 RPM). The IV test data, obtained under ambient lab conditions, are investigated in detail, evaluated, compiled, and curve-fitted; variational trends, core causes, and unforeseen anomalies are addressed. In aggregate, these values constitute a statistically-valid basis to quantify ground test-to-test variations and facilitate extrapolations to on-orbit conditions. Accumulated knowledge of bearing-rotor vibrational sources, corresponding harmonic contributions, and salient elements of IV key variability factors are discussed. An evolved methodology is presented for absolute assessments and relative comparisons of macro-level IV signal magnitude due to micro-level construction-assembly geometric details/imperfections stemming from both electrical drive and primary bearing design parameters. Based upon studies of same-size/similar-design momentum wheels' IV changes, upper estimates due to transitions from ground tests to orbital conditions are derived. Recommended HST RWA choices are discussed relative to system optimization/tradeoffs of Line-Of-Sight (LOS) vector-pointing focal-plane error driven by higher IV transmissibilities through low-damped structural dynamics that stimulate optical elements. Unique analytical disturbance results for orbital HST accelerations are described applicable to microgravity efforts. Conclusions, lessons learned, historical context/insights, and perspectives on future applications

  11. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  12. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  13. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  14. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  15. The Phase-Space Transformer Instrument (PASTIS) and the Phase-Space Transformation on Ultra-Cold Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henggeler, W.; Boehm, M.

    2003-11-01

    Both reports - part I by Wolfgang Henggeler and part II by Martin Boehm - serve as a comprehensive basis for the realisation of a PST (phase-space transformation) instrument coupled either to cold or ultra-cold neutrons, respectively. This publication accidentally coincides with the 200 th birthday of the Austrian physicist C.A. Doppler who discovered the principle (i.e., the effect denoted later by his name) giving rise to the phase-space transformation described in the present work. (author)

  16. Space-compatible strain gauges as an integration aid for the James Webb Space Telescope Mid-Infrared Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samara-Ratna, Piyal; Sykes, Jon; Bicknell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Space instruments are designed to be highly optimised, mass efficient hardware required to operate in extreme environments. Building and testing is extremely costly, and damage that appears to have no impact on performance at normal ambient conditions can have disastrous implications when...... to protect the structure from damage. Compatible with space flight requirements, the gauges have been used in both ambient and cryogenic environments and were successfully used to support various tasks including integration to the spacecraft. The article also discusses limitations to using the strain gauge...

  17. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning the development of pressure instrumentation for the space shuttle main engine is reported. The following specific topics were addressed: (1) transducer design and materials, (2) silicon piezoresistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures, (3) chip mounting characterization, and (4) frequency response optimization.

  18. Large micro-mirror arrays: key components in future space instruments for Universe and Earth Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamkotsian Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In future space missions for Universe and Earth Observation, scientific return could be optimized using MOEMS devices. Micro-mirror arrays are used for designing new generation of instruments, multi-object spectrographs in Universe Observation and programmable wide field spectrographs in Earth Observation. Mock-ups have been designed and built for both applications and they show very promising results.

  19. Apollo experience report: Development flight instrumentation. [telemetry equipment for space flight test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, N. B.

    1974-01-01

    Development flight instrumentation was delivered for 25 Apollo vehicles as Government-furnished equipment. The problems and philosophies of an activity that was concerned with supplying telemetry equipment to a space-flight test program are discussed. Equipment delivery dates, system-design details, and flight-performance information for each mission also are included.

  20. The CFRP primary structure of the MIRI instrument onboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels Christian; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Schroll, J

    2004-01-01

    The design of the Primary Structure of the Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI) onboard the NASA/ESA James Webb Space Telescope will be presented. The main design driver is the energy flow from the 35 K "hot" satellite interface to the 7 K "cold" MIRI interface. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP...

  1. Space dosimetry measurement results using the Pille instrument during the EUROMIR/NASAMIR space flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejja, I.; Apathy, J.; Deme, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Pille dosimeter developed in Hungary for space applications is described briefly, and its two versions are presented for the two space flights. The results of the EUROMIR mission in 1995-1996 are discussed for positional dosimetric applications. The characteristic dose rates at various space stations in the Salyut range are displayed. The NASAMIR4 mission between January 1997 and September 1998 are also discussed from the dosimetric point of view. The results of the measurements are presented and a preliminary analysis is reported. (R.P.)

  2. The Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Jackson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H_0 values of around 72–74 km s^–1 Mpc^–1, with typical errors of 2–3 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67–68 km s^–1 Mpc^–1 and typical errors of 1–2 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  3. Optical Performance of Breadboard Amon-Ra Imaging Channel Instrument for Deep Space Albedo Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hyun Park

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The AmonRa instrument, the primary payload of the international EARTHSHINE mission, is designed for measurement of deep space albedo from L1 halo orbit. We report the optical design, tolerance analysis and the optical performance of the breadborad AmonRa imaging channel instrument optimized for the mission science requirements. In particular, an advanced wavefront feedback process control technique was used for the instrumentation process including part fabrication, system alignment and integration. The measured performances for the complete breadboard system are the RMS 0.091 wave(test wavelength: 632.8 nm in wavefront error, the ensquared energy of 61.7%(in 14 μ m and the MTF of 35.3%(Nyquist frequency: 35.7 mm^{-1} at the center field. These resulting optical system performances prove that the breadboard AmonRa instrument, as built, satisfies the science requirements of the EARTHSHINE mission.

  4. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  5. The GOES-16 Energetic Heavy Ion Instrument Proton and Helium Fluxes for Space Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) was built by the University of New Hampshire, subcontracted to Assurance Technology Corporation, as part of the Space Environmental In-Situ Suite (SEISS) on the new GOES-16 satellite, in geostationary Earth orbit. The EHIS measures energetic ions in space over the range 10-200 MeV for protons, and energy ranges for heavy ions corresponding to the same stopping range. Though an operational satellite instrument, EHIS will supply high quality data for scientific studies. For the GOES Level 1-B and Level 2 data products, protons and helium are distinguished in the EHIS using discriminator trigger logic. Measurements are provided in five energy bands. The instrumental cadence of these rates is 3 seconds. However, the primary Level 1-B proton and helium data products are 1-minute and 5-minute averages. The data latency is 1 minute, so data products can be used for real-time predictions as well as general science studies. Protons and helium, comprising approximately 99% of all energetic ions in space are of great importance for Space Weather predictions. We discuss the preliminary EHIS proton and helium data results and their application to Space Weather. The EHIS instrument development project was funded by NASA under contract NNG06HX01C.

  6. CIMEX: a prototype Instrument to observe from space the amazon forest In the near and shortwave infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, François; Dantes, Didier; Savaria, Eric; Selingardi, Mario Luis; Montes, Amauri Silva

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "CIMEX: a prototype Instrument to observe from space the amazon forest In the near and shortwave infrared," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  7. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  8. The Carnegie Hubble Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Scowcroft, Vicky; Mnso, Andy; Persson, S. E.; Rigby, Jane; Sturch, Laura; Stetson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview of and preliminary results from an ongoing comprehensive program that has a goal of determining the Hubble constant to a systematic accuracy of 2%. As part of this program, we are currently obtaining 3.6 micron data using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on Spitzer, and the program is designed to include JWST in the future. We demonstrate that the mid-infrared period-luminosity relation for Cepheids at 3.6 microns is the most accurate means of measuring Cepheid distances to date. At 3.6 microns, it is possible to minimize the known remaining systematic uncertainties in the Cepheid extragalactic distance scale. We discuss the advantages of 3.6 micron observations in minimizing systematic effects in the Cepheid calibration of the Hubble constant including the absolute zero point, extinction corrections, and the effects of metallicity on the colors and magnitudes of Cepheids. We are undertaking three independent tests of the sensitivity of the mid-IR Cepheid Leavitt Law to metallicity, which when combined will allow a robust constraint on the effect. Finally, we are providing a new mid-IR Tully-Fisher relation for spiral galaxies.

  9. HUBBLE SPIES MOST DISTANT SUPERNOVA EVER SEEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers pinpointed a blaze of light from the farthest supernova ever seen, a dying star that exploded 10 billion years ago. The detection and analysis of this supernova, called 1997ff, is greatly bolstering the case for the existence of a mysterious form of dark energy pervading the cosmos, making galaxies hurl ever faster away from each other. The supernova also offers the first glimpse of the universe slowing down soon after the Big Bang, before it began speeding up. This panel of images, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, shows the supernova's cosmic neighborhood; its home galaxy; and the dying star itself. Astronomers found this supernova in 1997 during a second look at the northern Hubble Deep Field [top panel], a tiny region of sky first explored by the Hubble telescope in 1995. The image shows the myriad of galaxies Hubble spied when it peered across more than 10 billion years of time and space. The white box marks the area where the supernova dwells. The photo at bottom left is a close-up view of that region. The white arrow points to the exploding star's home galaxy, a faint elliptical. Its redness is due to the billions of old stars residing there. The picture at bottom right shows the supernova itself, distinguished by the white dot in the center. Although this stellar explosion is among the brightest beacons in the universe, it could not be seen directly in the Hubble images. The stellar blast is so distant from Earth that its light is buried in the glow of its host galaxy. To find the supernova, astronomers compared two pictures of the 'deep field' taken two years apart. One image was of the original Hubble Deep Field; the other, the follow-up deep-field picture taken in 1997. Using special computer software, astronomers then measured the light from the galaxies in both images. Noting any changes in light output between the two pictures, the computer identified a blob of light in the 1997 picture

  10. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Allam, Sahar S.; Budavári, Tamás; Casertano, Stefano; Downes, Ronald A.; Donaldson, Thomas; Fall, S. Michael; Lubow, Stephen H.; Quick, Lee; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wallace, Geoff; White, Richard L.

    2016-06-01

    The Hubble Source Catalog is designed to help optimize science from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by combining the tens of thousands of visit-based source lists in the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) into a single master catalog. Version 1 of the Hubble Source Catalog includes WFPC2, ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS, and WFC3/IR photometric data generated using SExtractor software to produce the individual source lists. The catalog includes roughly 80 million detections of 30 million objects involving 112 different detector/filter combinations, and about 160,000 HST exposures. Source lists from Data Release 8 of the HLA are matched using an algorithm developed by Budavári & Lubow. The mean photometric accuracy for the catalog as a whole is better than 0.10 mag, with relative accuracy as good as 0.02 mag in certain circumstances (e.g., bright isolated stars). The relative astrometric residuals are typically within 10 mas, with a value for the mode (I.e., most common value) of 2.3 mas. The absolute astrometric accuracy is better than 0''\\hspace{-0.5em}. 1 for most sources, but can be much larger for a fraction of fields that could not be matched to the PanSTARRS, SDSS, or 2MASS reference systems. In this paper we describe the database design with emphasis on those aspects that enable the users to fully exploit the catalog while avoiding common misunderstandings and potential pitfalls. We provide usage examples to illustrate some of the science capabilities and data quality characteristics, and briefly discuss plans for future improvements to the Hubble Source Catalog.

  11. HUBBLE PINPOINTS WHITE DWARFS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, dying stars - called white dwarfs - are giving astronomers a fresh reading on one of the biggest questions in astronomy: How old is the universe? The ancient white dwarfs in M4 are about 12 to 13 billion years old. After accounting for the time it took the cluster to form after the big bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates for the universe's age. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles pinpoint the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within arm's reach of the universe's age. M4 is 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Scorpius. Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 made the observations from January through April 2001. These optical observations were combined to

  12. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  13. The Top-of-Instrument corrections for nuclei with AMS on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, N. G.; Heil, M.

    2018-05-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance, high precision magnetic spectrometer on the International Space Station (ISS). The top-of-instrument correction for nuclei flux measurements with AMS accounts for backgrounds due to the fragmentation of nuclei with higher charge. Upon entry in the detector, nuclei may interact with AMS materials and split into fragments of lower charge based on their cross-section. The redundancy of charge measurements along the particle trajectory with AMS allows for the determination of inelastic interactions and for the selection of high purity nuclei samples with small uncertainties. The top-of-instrument corrections for nuclei with 2 < Z ≤ 6 are presented.

  14. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, II: Design and Build

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, G. S.; Wright, David; Goodson, G. B.

    2015-01-01

    The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides measurements over the wavelength range 5 to 28: 5 µm. MIRI has, within a single "package," four key scientific functions: photometric imaging, coronagraphy, single-source low-spectral resolving power (R similar...... in terms of the "as-built" instrument. It also describes the test program that led to delivery of the tested and calibrated Flight Model to NASA in 2012, and the confirmation after delivery of the key interface requirements....

  15. Towards a Generic and Adaptive System-On-Chip Controller for Space Exploration Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Xabier; Keymeulen, Didier; Yiu, Patrick; Berisford, Dan; Hand, Kevin; Carlson, Robert; Ozer, Emre

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces one of the first efforts conducted at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to develop a generic System-on-Chip (SoC) platform to control science instruments that are proposed for future NASA missions. The SoC platform is named APEX-SoC, where APEX stands for Advanced Processor for space Exploration, and is based on a hybrid Xilinx Zynq that combines an FPGA and an ARM Cortex-A9 dual-core processor on a single chip. The Zynq implements a generic and customizable on-chip infrastructure that can be reused with a variety of instruments, and it has been coupled with a set of off-chip components that are necessary to deal with the different instruments. We have taken JPL’s Compositional InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (CIRIS), which is proposed for NASA icy moons missions, as a use-case scenario to demonstrate that the entire data processing, control and interface of an instrument can be implemented on a single device using the on-chip infrastructure described in this paper. We show that the performance results achieved in this preliminary version of the instrumentation controller are sufficient to fulfill the science requirements demanded to the CIRIS instrument in future NASA missions, such as Europa.

  16. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  17. Delivering Hubble Discoveries to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, B.; Villard, R.; Weaver, D.; Cordes, K.; Knisely, L.

    2013-04-01

    Today's classrooms are significantly influenced by current news events, delivered instantly into the classroom via the Internet. Educators are challenged daily to transform these events into student learning opportunities. In the case of space science, current news events may be the only chance for educators and students to explore the marvels of the Universe. Inspired by these circumstances, the education and news teams developed the Star Witness News science content reading series. These online news stories (also available in downloadable PDF format) mirror the content of Hubble press releases and are designed for upper elementary and middle school level readers to enjoy. Educators can use Star Witness News stories to reinforce students' reading skills while exposing students to the latest Hubble discoveries.

  18. Novel reconfigurable wide-beam radio interferometer for space physics instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George; Honary, Farideh

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the instrumentation design of a novel wide-beam interferometer system for radio astronomy studies. The system measures the Earth's or another planet's atmospheric layers attenuation of the highly energetic galactic electron emissions superimposed on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and other last scattering surface galactic and extragalactic radio astronomical background emissions. Right ascension coordinates are surveyed in a unique manner in terms of digital signal processing flexibility, compared to existing wide-beam instrumentations, allowing higher resolution analysis of the captured Space Physics events. The system provides a prototyping platform for other Space Physics projects, since a modular software and hardware design approach has been followed. The system is reconfigurable to meet a variety of testing scenarios.

  19. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - a fully automated, miniaturized instrument for measuring gene expression in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio; Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kianoosh

    2012-07-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecrafts opens the doors to a large number of experiments on the influence of space environment on biological systems that will profoundly impact our ability to conduct safe and effective space travel, and might also shed light on terrestrial physiology or biological function and human disease and aging processes. Measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, determine metabolic basis of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance, test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration, and monitor both the spacecraft environment and crew health. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology and medicine. Accordingly, supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measuring microbial expression of thousands of genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing bacterial cell walls, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing it on a microarray and (4) providing electrochemical readout, all in a microfluidics cartridge. The prototype under development is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by the NASA Small Spacecraft Office. The first target application is to cultivate and measure gene expression of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, i.e. a cyanobacterium known to exhibit remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions

  20. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, I: Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieke, G. H.; Wright, G. S.; Böker, T.

    2015-01-01

    MIRI (the Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope [JWST]) operates from 5 to 28: 5 μm and combines over this range: (1) unprecedented sensitivity levels; (2) subarcsecond angular resolution; (3) freedom from atmospheric interference; (4) the inherent stability of observing...... in space; and (5) a suite of versatile capabilities including imaging, low- and medium-resolution spectroscopy (with an integral field unit), and coronagraphy. We illustrate the potential uses of this unique combination of capabilities with various science examples: (1) imaging exoplanets; (2) transit...

  1. Thermal vacuum test of space equipment: tests of SIR-2 instrument Chandrayaan-1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, P.

    2008-11-01

    We describe the reasons of proceeding Thermal-Vacuum tests for space electronic. We will answer on following questions: why teams are doing TV tests, what kind of phases should be simulated, which situations are the most critical during TV tests, what kind of results should be expected, which errors can be detect. As an example, will be shown TV-test of SIR-2 instrument for Chandrayaan-1 moon mission.

  2. Cryo Testing of tbe James Webb Space Telescope's Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCampen, Julie

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope will be integrated and tested at the Environmental Test Facilities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The cryogenic thermal vacuum testing of the ISIM will be the most difficult and problematic portion of the GSFC Integration and Test flow. The test is to validate the coupled interface of the science instruments and the ISIM structure and to sufficiently stress that interface while validating image quality of the science instruments. The instruments and the structure are not made from the same materials and have different CTE. Test objectives and verification rationale are currently being evaluated in Phase B of the project plan. The test program will encounter engineering challenges and limitations, which are derived by cost and technology many of which can be mitigated by facility upgrades, creative GSE, and thorough forethought. The cryogenic testing of the ISIM will involve a number of risks such as the implementation of unique metrology techniques, mechanical, electrical and optical simulators housed within the cryogenic vacuum environment. These potential risks are investigated and possible solutions are proposed.

  3. "HUBBLE, the astronomer, the telescope, the results"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental discoveries made by Edwin Hubble in the first quarter of the last century will be presented. The space telescope bearing his name will be introduced, as well as the strategy put in place by NASA and the European Space Agency for its operation and its maintenance on-orbit. The personal experience of the speaker having participated in two of five servicing mission will be exposed and illustrated by pictures taken on-orbit. Finally, the main results obtained by the orbital observatory will be presented, in particular the ones related to the large scale structure of the Universe and its early history

  4. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  5. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - A Fully Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kia; Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecraft opens the door to a large number of high-value experiments on the influence of the space environment on biological systems. For example, measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and determine the metabolic bases of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology, and medicine. Supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measurement of expression of several hundreds of microbial genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing cell walls of bacteria sampled from cultures grown in space, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing the RNA on a microarray and (4) providing readout of the microarray signal, all in a single microfluidics cartridge. The device is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by NASA Ames' Small Spacecraft Division. To meet space and other technical constraints imposed by these platforms, a number of technical innovations are being implemented. The integration and end-to-end technological and biological validation of the instrument are carried out using as a model the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, known for its remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions. Each step in the measurement process-lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification, and hybridization to an array-is assessed through comparison of the results obtained using the instrument with

  6. BEAUTY IN THE EYE OF HUBBLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A dying star, IC 4406, dubbed the 'Retina Nebula' is revealed in this month's Hubble Heritage image. Like many other so-called planetary nebulae, IC 4406 exhibits a high degree of symmetry; the left and right halves of the Hubble image are nearly mirror images of the other. If we could fly around IC4406 in a starship, we would see that the gas and dust form a vast donut of material streaming outward from the dying star. From Earth, we are viewing the donut from the side. This side view allows us to see the intricate tendrils of dust that have been compared to the eye's retina. In other planetary nebulae, like the Ring Nebula (NGC 6720), we view the donut from the top. The donut of material confines the intense radiation coming from the remnant of the dying star. Gas on the inside of the donut is ionized by light from the central star and glows. Light from oxygen atoms is rendered blue in this image; hydrogen is shown as green, and nitrogen as red. The range of color in the final image shows the differences in concentration of these three gases in the nebula. Unseen in the Hubble image is a larger zone of neutral gas that is not emitting visible light, but which can be seen by radio telescopes. One of the most interesting features of IC 4406 is the irregular lattice of dark lanes that criss-cross the center of the nebula. These lanes are about 160 astronomical units wide (1 astronomical unit is the distance between the Earth and Sun). They are located right at the boundary between the hot glowing gas that produces the visual light imaged here and the neutral gas seen with radio telescopes. We see the lanes in silhouette because they have a density of dust and gas that is a thousand times higher than the rest of the nebula. The dust lanes are like a rather open mesh veil that has been wrapped around the bright donut. The fate of these dense knots of material is unknown. Will they survive the nebula's expansion and become dark denizens of the space between the stars

  7. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosenfield, Philip; Weisz, Daniel R.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Lang, Dustin; Lauer, Tod R.; Dong Hui; Kalirai, Jason S.; Boyer, Martha L.; Gordon, Karl D.; Seth, Anil C.; Dolphin, Andrew; Bell, Eric F.; Bianchi, Luciana C.; Caldwell, Nelson; Dorman, Claire E.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Girardi, Léo

    2012-01-01

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope Multi-Cycle Treasury program to image ∼1/3 of M31's star-forming disk in six filters, spanning from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR). We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) to resolve the galaxy into millions of individual stars with projected radii from 0 to 20 kpc. The full survey will cover a contiguous 0.5 deg 2 area in 828 orbits. Imaging is being obtained in the F275W and F336W filters on the WFC3/UVIS camera, F475W and F814W on ACS/WFC, and F110W and F160W on WFC3/IR. The resulting wavelength coverage gives excellent constraints on stellar temperature, bolometric luminosity, and extinction for most spectral types. The data produce photometry with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4 at m F275W = 25.1, m F336W = 24.9, m F475W = 27.9, m F814W = 27.1, m F110W = 25.5, and m F160W = 24.6 for single pointings in the uncrowded outer disk; in the inner disk, however, the optical and NIR data are crowding limited, and the deepest reliable magnitudes are up to 5 mag brighter. Observations are carried out in two orbits per pointing, split between WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR cameras in primary mode, with ACS/WFC run in parallel. All pointings are dithered to produce Nyquist-sampled images in F475W, F814W, and F160W. We describe the observing strategy, photometry, astrometry, and data products available for the survey, along with extensive testing of photometric stability, crowding errors, spatially dependent photometric biases, and telescope pointing control. We also report on initial fits to the structure of M31's disk, derived from the density of red giant branch stars, in a way that is independent of assumed mass-to-light ratios and is robust to variations in dust extinction. These fits also show that the 10 kpc ring is not just a region of enhanced recent star formation, but is instead a dynamical structure containing a significant overdensity of

  8. Remote sensing optical instrumentation for enhanced space weather monitoring from the L1 and L5 Lagrange points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, S.; Puschmann, K. G.; Luntama, J. P.

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Space Situational Awareness Programme (SSA), ESA has initiated the assessment of two missions currently foreseen to be implemented to enable enhanced space weather monitoring. These missions utilize the positioning of satellites at the Lagrangian L1 and L5 points. These Phase 0 or Pre-Phase A mission studies are about to be completed and will thereby have soon passed the Mission Definition Review. Phase A studies are planned to start in 2017. The space weather monitoring system currently considers four remote sensing optical instruments and several in-situ instruments to analyse the Sun and the solar wind conditions, in order to provide early warnings of increased solar activity and to identify and mitigate potential threats to society and ground, airborne and space based infrastructure. The suggested optical instruments take heritage from ESA and NASA science missions like SOHO, STEREO and Solar Orbiter, but the instruments are foreseen to be optimized for operational space weather monitoring purposes with high reliability and robustness demands. The instruments are required to provide high quality measurements particularly during severe space weather events. The program intends to utilize the results of the on-going ESA instrument prototyping and technology development activities, and to initiate pre-developments of the operational space weather instruments to ensure the required maturity before the mission implementation.

  9. Inflows, Outflows, and a Giant Donor in the Remarkable Recurrent Nova M31N 2008-12a?-Hubble Space Telescope Photometry of the 2015 Eruption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Darnley, M.J.; Hounsell, R.; Godon, M.; Perley, D.A.; Henze, M.; Kuindersma, S.; Williams, B. F.; Williams, S.C.; Bode, M.F.; Harman, D. J.; Hornoch, Kamil; Link, M.; Ness, J.-U.; Ribeiro, V.A.R.M.; Sion, E. M.; Shafter, A.W.; Shara, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 849, č. 2 (2017), 96/1-96/17 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion * accretion disks * cataclysmic variables Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  10. No Neon, but Jets in the Remarkable Recurrent Nova M31N 2008-12a?-Hubble Space Telescope Spectroscopy of the 2015 Eruption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Darnley, M.J.; Hounsell, R.; Godon, M.; Perley, D.A.; Henze, M.; Kuindersma, S.; Williams, B. F.; Williams, S.C.; Bode, M.F.; Harman, D. J.; Hornoch, Kamil; Link, M.; Ness, J.-U.; Ribeiro, V.A.R.M.; Sion, E. M.; Shafter, A.W.; Shara, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 847, č. 1 (2017), 35/1-35/14 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : resolution imaging spectrometer * ultraviolet spectral evolution * x-ray Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  11. Instrumentation for optical remote sensing from space; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cannes, France, November 27-29, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, John S. (Editor); Lear, John W. (Editor); Russak, Sidney L. (Editor); Monfils, Andre (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Papers are presented on such topics as the development of the Imaging Spectrometer for Shuttle and space platform applications; the in-flight calibration of pushbroom remote sensing instruments for the SPOT program; buttable detector arrays for 1.55-1.7 micron imaging; the design of the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite; and SAGE II design and in-orbit performance. Consideration is also given to the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B/C instruments; the Venus Radar Mapper multimode radar system design; various ISO instruments (ISOCAM, ISOPHOT, and SWS and LWS); and instrumentation for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility.

  12. IMF dependence of the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's ionosphere, and its relation to the UV auroral oval observed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of Saturn's magnetospheric magnetic field structure on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, together with the corresponding variations of the open-closed field line boundary in the ionosphere. Specifically we investigate the interval from 8 to 30 January 2004, when UV images of Saturn's southern aurora were obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST, and simultaneous interplanetary measurements were provided by the Cassini spacecraft located near the ecliptic ~0.2 AU upstream of Saturn and ~0.5 AU off the planet-Sun line towards dawn. Using the paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere, we calculate the magnetospheric magnetic field structure for several values of the IMF vector representative of interplanetary compression regions. Variations in the magnetic structure lead to different shapes and areas of the open field line region in the ionosphere. Comparison with the HST auroral images shows that the area of the computed open flux region is generally comparable to that enclosed by the auroral oval, and sometimes agrees in detail with its poleward boundary, though more typically being displaced by a few degrees in the tailward direction.

  13. Hubble Captures Volcanic Eruption Plume From Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a picture of a 400-km-high (250-mile-high) plume of gas and dust from a volcanic eruption on Io, Jupiter's large innermost moon.Io was passing in front of Jupiter when this image was taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in July 1996. The plume appears as an orange patch just off the edge of Io in the eight o'clock position, against the blue background of Jupiter's clouds. Io's volcanic eruptions blasts material hundreds of kilometers into space in giant plumes of gas and dust. In this image, material must have been blown out of the volcano at more than 2,000 mph to form a plume of this size, which is the largest yet seen on Io.Until now, these plumes have only been seen by spacecraft near Jupiter, and their detection from the Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope opens up new opportunities for long-term studies of these remarkable phenomena.The plume seen here is from Pele, one of Io's most powerful volcanos. Pele's eruptions have been seen before. In March 1979, the Voyager 1 spacecraft recorded a 300-km-high eruption cloud from Pele. But the volcano was inactive when the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by Jupiter in July 1979. This Hubble observation is the first glimpse of a Pele eruption plume since the Voyager expeditions.Io's volcanic plumes are much taller than those produced by terrestrial volcanos because of a combination of factors. The moon's thin atmosphere offers no resistance to the expanding volcanic gases; its weak gravity (one-sixth that of Earth) allows material to climb higher before falling; and its biggest volcanos are more powerful than most of Earth's volcanos.This image is a contrast-enhanced composite of an ultraviolet image (2600 Angstrom wavelength), shown in blue, and a violet image (4100 Angstrom wavelength), shown in orange. The orange color probably occurs because of the absorption and/or scattering of ultraviolet light in the plume. This light from Jupiter passes through the plume and is

  14. Freeman's transorbital lobotomy as an anomaly: A material culture examination of surgical instruments and operative spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brianne M; Stam, Henderikus J

    2015-05-01

    In 1946, Walter Freeman introduced the transorbital ice pick lobotomy. Touted as a procedure that could be learned and subsequently performed by psychiatrists outside of the operating room, the technique was quickly criticized by neurosurgeons. In this article, we take a material culture approach to consider 2 grounds upon which neurosurgeons based their objections-surgical instruments and operative spaces. On both counts, Freeman was in contravention of established normative neurosurgical practices and, ultimately, his technique was exposed as an anomaly by neurosurgeons. Despite its rejection, the transorbital lobotomy became entrenched in contemporary memory and remains the emblematic procedure of the psychosurgery era. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Comparison of elemental contents of Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Sam Chung; Sun Ha Kim; Gwang Min Sun; Jong Myoung Lim; Jong Hwa Moon; Kye Hong Lee; Young Jin Kim; Jong Il Choi; Ju Woon Lee

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of mineral contents in space foods is needed to obtain an information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as the investigation on the effects of human nutrition and health based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. Recently, six items of new Korean space foods (KSFs) such as kimchi, bibimbap, bulgogi, a ramen, a mulberry beverage and a fruit punch which was developed by the KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were examined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five biological certified reference materials, NIST SRM were used for analytical quality control. The results were compared with those of common Korean foods reported, and these results will be applied toward the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  16. Technique for increasing dynamic range of space-borne ion composition instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, J.L.; Miller, G.P.; Santos, A. de los; Pollock, C.J.; Pope, S.E.; Valek, P. W.; Young, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic range of ion composition spectrometers is limited by several factors, including saturation of particle counters and spillover of signals from highly dominant species into channels tuned to minor species. Instruments designed for composition measurements of hot plasmas in space can suffer greatly from both of these problems because of the wide energy range required and the wide disparity in fluxes encountered in various regions of interest. In order to detect minor ions in regions of very weak fluxes, geometry factors need to be as large as possible within the mass and volume resources available. As a result, problems with saturation by the dominant fluxes and spillover to minor-ion channels in plasma regions with intense fluxes become especially acute. This article reports on a technique for solving the dynamic-range problem in the few eV to several keV energy/charge range that is of central importance for space physics research where the dominant ion is of low mass/charge (typically H + ), and the minor ions are of higher mass/charge (typically O + ). The technique involves employing a radio-frequency modulation of the deflection electric field in the back section of an electrostatic analyzer in a time-of-flight instrument. This technique is shown to reduce H + counts by a controllable amount of up to factors of 1000 while reducing O + counts by only a few percent that can be calibrated

  17. New earth system model for optical performance evaluation of space instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Sug-Whan; Breault, Robert P

    2017-03-06

    In this study, a new global earth system model is introduced for evaluating the optical performance of space instruments. Simultaneous imaging and spectroscopic results are provided using this global earth system model with fully resolved spatial, spectral, and temporal coverage of sub-models of the Earth. The sun sub-model is a Lambertian scattering sphere with a 6-h scale and 295 lines of solar spectral irradiance. The atmospheric sub-model has a 15-layer three-dimensional (3D) ellipsoid structure. The land sub-model uses spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) defined by a semi-empirical parametric kernel model. The ocean is modeled with the ocean spectral albedo after subtracting the total integrated scattering of the sun-glint scatter model. A hypothetical two-mirror Cassegrain telescope with a 300-mm-diameter aperture and 21.504 mm × 21.504-mm focal plane imaging instrument is designed. The simulated image results are compared with observational data from HRI-VIS measurements during the EPOXI mission for approximately 24 h from UTC Mar. 18, 2008. Next, the defocus mapping result and edge spread function (ESF) measuring result show that the distance between the primary and secondary mirror increases by 55.498 μm from the diffraction-limited condition. The shift of the focal plane is determined to be 5.813 mm shorter than that of the defocused focal plane, and this result is confirmed through the estimation of point spread function (PSF) measurements. This study shows that the earth system model combined with an instrument model is a powerful tool that can greatly help the development phase of instrument missions.

  18. CeSiCò - a new technology for lightweight and cost effective space instruments structures and mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devilliers, Christophe; Krödel, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Alenia Space and ECM have jointly developed a new ceramic material to produce lightweight, stiff, stable and cost effective structures and mirrors for space instrument the CesicÒ. Its intrinsic properties, added to ample manufacturing capabilities allow to manufacture stiff and lightweight cost effective mirrors and structure for space instruments. Different scale 1 flight representative CesicÒ optical structures have been manufactured and successfully tested under very strong dynamic environment and cryogenic condition down to 30K CesicÒ is also envisaged for large and lightweight space telescopes mirrors, a large CesicÒ 1 meter class mirror with an area mass of less than 25 Kg/m2 has been sized again launch loads and WFE performance and manufactured. CesicÒ applicability for large focal plane have been demonstrated through different scale 1 breadboards. Based on these successful results, AlcatelAleniaSpace and ECM are now in position to propose for space this technology with new innovative concepts thanks to the CesicÒ manufacturing capabilities. CesicÒ has therefore been selected for the structure and mirrors parts of a flight instrument payload and the manufacturing of the flight hardware is already underway. An high temperature high gain lightweight antenna breadboard is also under manufacturing for Bepi colombo mission. CesicÒ is therefore a good candidate for future challenging space instruments and is currently proposed for Japan and US space projects.

  19. Constraining the evolution of the Hubble Parameter using cosmic chronometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Hugh

    2017-08-01

    Substantial investment is being made in space- and ground-based missions with the goal of revealing the nature of the observed cosmic acceleration. This is one of the most important unsolved problems in cosmology today.We propose here to constrain the evolution of the Hubble parameter [H(z)] between 1.3 fundamental nature of dark energy.

  20. A Guided Inquiry on Hubble Plots and the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forringer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…

  1. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Galaxies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in both time and space, predicts that conformity to Benford's law will improve as more data on distances to galaxies becomes available. Con- versely, with the logical derivation of this law presented here, the recent empirical observations may beviewed as independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law. Key words.

  2. DUST EXTINCTION FROM BALMER DECREMENTS OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE-FIELD-CAMERA 3 SPECTROSCOPY FROM THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Masters, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Henry, A. L.; Martin, C. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Scarlata, C.; Bedregal, A. G. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Atek, H.; Colbert, J. W. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teplitz, H. I.; Rafelski, M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bunker, A., E-mail: albertod@ucr.edu [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Spectroscopic observations of H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines of 128 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 are presented. These data were taken with slitless spectroscopy using the G102 and G141 grisms of the Wide-Field-Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey. Interstellar dust extinction is measured from stacked spectra that cover the Balmer decrement (H{alpha}/H{beta}). We present dust extinction as a function of H{alpha} luminosity (down to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}), galaxy stellar mass (reaching 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }), and rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width. The faintest galaxies are two times fainter in H{alpha} luminosity than galaxies previously studied at z {approx} 1.5. An evolution is observed where galaxies of the same H{alpha} luminosity have lower extinction at higher redshifts, whereas no evolution is found within our error bars with stellar mass. The lower H{alpha} luminosity galaxies in our sample are found to be consistent with no dust extinction. We find an anti-correlation of the [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} flux ratio as a function of luminosity where galaxies with L {sub H{alpha}} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} are brighter in [O III] {lambda}5007 than H{alpha}. This trend is evident even after extinction correction, suggesting that the increased [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} ratio in low-luminosity galaxies is likely due to lower metallicity and/or higher ionization parameters.

  3. A Physical Model-based Correction for Charge Traps in the Hubble Space Telescope ’s Wide Field Camera 3 Near-IR Detector and Its Applications to Transiting Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yifan; Apai, Dániel; Schneider, Glenn [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lew, Ben W. P., E-mail: yzhou@as.arizona.edu [Department of Planetary Science/Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1640 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85718 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-IR channel is extensively used in time-resolved observations, especially for transiting exoplanet spectroscopy as well as brown dwarf and directly imaged exoplanet rotational phase mapping. The ramp effect is the dominant source of systematics in the WFC3 for time-resolved observations, which limits its photometric precision. Current mitigation strategies are based on empirical fits and require additional orbits to help the telescope reach a thermal equilibrium . We show that the ramp-effect profiles can be explained and corrected with high fidelity using charge trapping theories. We also present a model for this process that can be used to predict and to correct charge trap systematics. Our model is based on a very small number of parameters that are intrinsic to the detector. We find that these parameters are very stable between the different data sets, and we provide best-fit values. Our model is tested with more than 120 orbits (∼40 visits) of WFC3 observations and is proved to be able to provide near photon noise limited corrections for observations made with both staring and scanning modes of transiting exoplanets as well as for starting-mode observations of brown dwarfs. After our model correction, the light curve of the first orbit in each visit has the same photometric precision as subsequent orbits, so data from the first orbit no longer need to be discarded. Near-IR arrays with the same physical characteristics (e.g., JWST/NIRCam ) may also benefit from the extension of this model if similar systematic profiles are observed.

  4. Comparison and determination of elemental composition in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sam Chung; Sun-Ha Kim; Gwang-Min Sun; Jong-Hwa Moon; Jong-Il Choi; Beom-Seok Song; Jae-Hun Kim

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of mineral contents in several kinds of foods is needed to obtain information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as an investigation on the effects of human health and nutrition based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. In 2012, six kinds of new Korean space foods (KSF) such as sweet pumpkin porridge, dakgalbi (spicy grilled chicken), Manila clam porridge, ox leg bone-cabbage soup, ginseng-chicken porridge, and chicken curry rice were developed by KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were determined using an instrumental neutron activation analysis. A certified reference material associated with a biological food sample was used for analytical quality control. The analytical results were evaluated according to the elemental concentrations with KSF samples and compared with the reported values. These results will be applied toward the identification of gamma-irradiated foods. (author)

  5. Hubble 2020: Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Long time base observations of the outer planets are critical in understanding the atmospheric dynamics and evolution of the gas giants. We propose yearly monitoring of each giant planet for the remainder of Hubble's lifetime to provide a lasting legacy of increasingly valuable data for time-domain studies. The Hubble Space Telescope is a unique asset to planetary science, allowing high spatial resolution data with absolute photometric knowledge. For the outer planets, gas/ice giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, many phenomena happen on timescales of years to decades, and the data we propose are beyond the scope of a typical GO program. Hubble is the only platform that can provide high spatial resolution global studies of cloud coloration, activity, and motion on a consistent time basis to help constrain the underlying mechanics.

  6. Cosmic Collisions The Hubble Atlas of Merging Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Martin, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Lars Lindberg Christensen, Raquel Yumi Shida & Davide De Martin Cosmic Collisions: The Hubble Atlas of Merging Galaxies Like majestic ships in the grandest night, galaxies can slip ever closer until their mutual gravitational interaction begins to mold them into intricate figures that are finally, and irreversibly, woven together. It is an immense cosmic dance, choreographed by gravity. Cosmic Collisions contains a hundred new, many thus far unpublished, images of colliding galaxies from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. It is believed that many present-day galaxies, including the Milky Way, were assembled from such a coalescence of smaller galaxies, occurring over billions of years. Triggered by the colossal and violent interaction between the galaxies, stars form from large clouds of gas in firework bursts, creating brilliant blue star clusters. The importance of these cosmic encounters reaches far beyond the stunning Hubble images. They may, in fact, be among the most important processes that shape ...

  7. Applications of telecommunication technology for optical instrumentation with an emphasis on space-time duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Howe, James William

    -speed operation, and electronic control of signals. Finally, we devote much attention to the paradigm of space-time duality and temporal imaging which allows the electro-optic phase modulators used in our instrumentation to be framed as temporal analogs of diffractive optical elements such as lenses and prisms. We show how the concepts of "time-lenses" and "time-prisms" give an intuitive understanding of our work as well as insight for the general development of optical instrumentation.

  8. An instrument for real time detection of contamination in space environmental tests chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R. G.; Harmon, H. N.

    1972-01-01

    An instrument for in situ vacuum detection of surface reflectance changes at 1216A was designed. Using successive reflections, this instrument is more sensitive as an indicator of reflectance changes than similar instruments having only a single reflection. The selection of each component of the instrument and its operational performance is discussed.

  9. HUBBLE CAPTURES MERGER BETWEEN QUASAR AND GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows evidence fo r a merger between a quasar and a companion galaxy. This surprising result might require theorists to rethink their explanations for the nature of quasars, the most energetic objects in the universe. The bright central object is the quasar itself, located several billion light-years away. The two wisps on the (left) of the bright central object are remnants of a bright galaxy that have been disrupted by the mutual gravitational attraction between the quasar and the companion galaxy. This provides clear evidence for a merger between the two objects. Since their discovery in 1963, quasars (quasi-stellar objects) have been enigmatic because they emit prodigious amounts of energy from a very compact source. The most widely accepted model is that a quasar is powered by a supermassive black hole in the core of a galaxy. These new observations proved a challenge for theorists as no current models predict the complex quasar interactions unveiled by Hubble. The image was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. Credit: John Bahcall, Institute for Advanced Study, NASA.

  10. Astronomers celebrate a year of new Hubble results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    "We are beginning to understand that because of these observations we are going to have to change the way we look at the Universe," said ESA's Dr Duccio Macchetto, Associate Director for Science Programs at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The European Space Agency plays a major role in the Hubble Space Telescope programme. The Agency provided one of the telescope's four major instruments, called the Faint Object Camera, and two sets of electricity-generating solar arrays. In addition, 15 ESA scientific and technical staff work at the STScI. In return for this contribution, European astronomers are entitled to 15 percent of the telescope's observing time, although currently they account for 20 percent of all observations. "This is a testimony to the quality of the European science community", said Dr Roger Bonnet, Director of Science at ESA. "We are only guaranteed 15 percent of the telescope's use, but consistently receive much more than that." Astronomers from universities, observatories and research institutes across Europe lead more than 60 investigations planned for the telescope's fifth observing cycle, which begins this summer. Many more Europeans contribute to teams led by other astronomers. Looking back to the very start of time European astronomer Dr Peter Jakobsen used ESA's Faint Object Camera to confirm that helium was present in the early Universe. Astronomers had long predicted that 90 percent of the newly born Universe consisted of hydrogen, with helium making up the remainder. Before the refurbished Hubble came along, it was easy to detect the hydrogen, but the primordial helium remained elusive. The ultraviolet capabilities of the telescope, combined with the improvement in spatial resolution following the repair, made it possible for Dr Jakobsen to obtain an image of a quasar close to the edge of the known Universe. A spectral analysis of this picture revealed the quasar's light, which took 13 billion years

  11. Hubble Space Telescope  Wide Field Camera 3 Observations of Escaping Lyman Continuum Radiation from Galaxies and Weak AGN at Redshifts z ∼ 2.3–4.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brent M.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Jansen, Rolf A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Jiang, Linhua; Dijkstra, Mark; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Bielby, Richard; Inoue, Akio K.; MacKenty, John W.; O’Connell, Robert W.; Silk, Joseph I.

    2018-02-01

    We present observations of escaping Lyman Continuum (LyC) radiation from 34 massive star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and 12 weak AGN with reliably measured spectroscopic redshifts at z≃ 2.3{--}4.1. We analyzed Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) mosaics of the Early Release Science (ERS) field in three UVIS filters to sample the rest-frame LyC over this redshift range. With our best current assessment of the WFC3 systematics, we provide 1σ upper limits for the average LyC emission of galaxies at = 2.35, 2.75, and 3.60 to ∼28.5, 28.1, and 30.7 mag in image stacks of 11–15 galaxies in the WFC3/UVIS F225W, F275W, and F336W, respectively. The LyC flux of weak AGN at = 2.62 and 3.32 are detected at 28.3 and 27.4 mag with S/Ns of ∼2.7 and 2.5 in F275W and F336W for stacks of 7 and 3 AGN, respectively, while AGN at = 2.37 are constrained to ≳27.9 mag at 1σ in a stack of 2 AGN. The stacked AGN LyC light profiles are flatter than their corresponding non-ionizing UV continuum profiles out to radii of r≲ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 9, which may indicate a radial dependence of porosity in the ISM. With synthetic stellar SEDs fit to UV continuum measurements longward of {{Ly}}α and IGM transmission models, we constrain the absolute LyC escape fractions to {f}{esc}{abs}≃ {22}-22+44% at = 2.35 and ≲55% at = 2.75 and 3.60, respectively. All available data for galaxies, including published work, suggests a more sudden increase of {f}{esc} with redshift at z≃ 2. Dust accumulating in (massive) galaxies over cosmic time correlates with increased H I column density, which may lead to reducing {f}{esc} more suddenly at z≲ 2. This may suggest that SFGs collectively contributed to maintaining cosmic reionization at redshifts z≳ 2{--}4, while AGN likely dominated reionization at z≲ 2.

  12. Detection of gamma-ray bursts with the ECLAIRs instrument onboard the space mission SVOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antier-Farfar, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Discovered in the early 1970's, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are amazing cosmic phenomena appearing randomly on the sky and releasing large amounts of energy mainly through gamma-ray emission. Although their origin is still under debate, they are believed to be produced by some of the most violent explosions in the Universe leading to the formation of stellar black-holes. GRBs are detected by their prompt emission, an intense short burst of gamma-rays (from a few milliseconds to few minutes), and are followed by a lived-afterglow emission observed on longer timescales from the X-ray to the radio domain. My thesis participates to the development of the SVOM mission, which a Chinese-French mission to be launched in 2021, devoted to the study of GRBs and involving space and ground instruments. My work is focussed on the main instrument ECLAIRs, a hard X-ray coded mask imaging camera, in charge of the near real-time detection and localization of the prompt emission of GRBs. During my thesis, I studied the scientific performances of ECLAIRs and in particular the number of GRBs expected to be detected by ECLAIRs and their characteristics. For this purpose, I performed simulations using the prototypes of the embedded trigger algorithms combined with the model of the ECLAIRs instrument. The input data of the simulations include a background model and a synthetic population of gamma-ray bursts generated from existing catalogs (CGRO, HETE-2, Fermi and Swift). As a result, I estimated precisely the ECLAIRs detection efficiency of the algorithms and I predicted the number of GRBs to be detected by ECLAIRs: 40 to 70 GRBs per year. Moreover, the study highlighted that ECLAIRs will be particularly sensitive to the X-ray rich GRB population. My thesis provided additional studies about the localization performance, the rate of false alarm and the characteristics of the triggers of the algorithms. Finally, I also proposed two new methods for the detection of GRBs.The preliminary

  13. On-Orbit Gradiometry with the scientific instrument of the French Space Mission MICROSCOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulon, B.; Baghi, Q.; Panet, I.; Rodrigues, M.; Metris, G.; Touboul, P.

    2017-12-01

    The MICROSCOPE mission is fully dedicated to the in-orbit test of the universality of free fall, the so-called Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Based on a CNES Myriade microsatellite launched on the 25th of April 2016, MICROSCOPE is a CNES-ESA-ONERA-CNRS-OCA mission, the scientific objective of which is to test of the Equivalence Principle with an extraordinary accuracy at the level of 10-15. The measurement will be obtained from the T-SAGE (Twin Space Accelerometer for Gravitational Experimentation) instrument constituted by two ultrasensitive differential accelerometers. One differential electrostatic accelerometer, labeled SU-EP, contains, at its center, two proof masses made of Titanium and Platinum and is used for the test. The twin accelerometer, labeled SU-REF, contains two Platinum proof masses and is used as a reference instrument. Separated by a 17 cm-length arm, they are embarked in a very stable and soft environment on board a satellite equipped with a drag-free control system and orbiting on a sun synchronous circular orbit at 710 km above the Earth. In addition to the WEP test, this configuration can be interesting for various applications, and one of the proposed ideas is to use MICROSCOPE data for the measurement of Earth's gravitational gradient. Considering the gradiometer formed by the inner Platinum proof-masses of the two differential accelerometers and the arm along the Y-axis of the instrument which is perpendicular to the orbital plane, possibly 3 components of the gradient can be measured: Txy, Tyy and Tzy. Preliminary studies suggest that the errors can be lower than 10mE. Taking advantage of its higher altitude with respect to GOCE, the low frequency signature of Earth's potential seen by MICROSCOPE could provide an additional observable in gradiometry to discriminate between different models describing the large scales of the mass distribution in the Earth's deep mantle. The poster will shortly present the MICROSCOPE mission

  14. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Bisogni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cosmological model is at present not tested between the redshift of the farthest observed supernovae (z ~ 1.4 and that of the Cosmic Microwave Background (z ~ 1,100. Here we introduce a new method to measure the cosmological parameters: we show that quasars can be used as “standard candles” by employing the non-linear relation between their intrinsic UV and X-ray emission as an absolute distance indicator. We built a sample of ~1,900 quasars with available UV and X-ray observations, and produced a Hubble Diagram up to z ~ 5. The analysis of the quasar Hubble Diagram, when used in combination with supernovae, provides robust constraints on the matter and energy content in the cosmos. The application of this method to forthcoming, larger quasar samples, will also provide tight constraints on the dark energy equation of state and its possible evolution with time.

  15. The Hubble Constant from SN Refsdal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Ferrero, J.; Diego, J. M.; Miranda, V.; Bernstein, G. M.

    2018-02-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations from 2015 December 11 detected the expected fifth counter-image of supernova (SN) Refsdal at z = 1.49. In this Letter, we compare the time-delay predictions from numerous models with the measured value derived by Kelly et al. from very early data in the light curve of the SN Refsdal and find a best value for {H}0={64}-11+9 {km} {{{s}}}-1 {{Mpc}}-1 (68% CL), in excellent agreement with predictions from cosmic microwave background and recent weak lensing data + baryon acoustic oscillations + Big Bang nucleosynthesis (from the DES Collaboration). This is the first constraint on H 0 derived from time delays between multiple-lensed SN images, and the first with a galaxy cluster lens, subject to systematic effects different from other time-delay H 0 estimates. Additional time-delay measurements from new multiply imaged SNe will allow derivation of competitive constraints on H 0.

  16. Public policies for managing urban growth and protecting open space: policy instruments and lessons learned in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Jennifer O. Fletcher

    2003-01-01

    The public sector in the United States has responded to growing concern about the social and environmental costs of sprawling development patterns by creating a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth and protect open space. These techniques have been implemented at the local, regional, state and, to a limited extent, national levels. This...

  17. Solar system anomalies: Revisiting Hubble's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, R.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a new metric recently published [R. Plamondon and C. Ouellet-Plamondon, in On Recent Developments in Theoretical and Experimental General Relativity, Astrophysics, and Relativistic Field Theories, edited by K. Rosquist, R. T. Jantzen, and R. Ruffini (World Scientific, Singapore, 2015), p. 1301] for studying the space-time geometry of a static symmetric massive object. This metric depends on a complementary error function (erfc) potential that characterizes the emergent gravitation field predicted by the model. This results in two types of deviations as compared to computations made on the basis of a Newtonian potential: a constant and a radial outcome. One key feature of the metric is that it postulates the existence of an intrinsic physical constant σ , the massive object-specific proper length that scales measurements in its surroundings. Although σ must be evaluated experimentally, we use a heuristic to estimate its value and point out some latent relationships between the Hubble constant, the secular increase in the astronomical unit, and the Pioneers delay. Indeed, highlighting the systematic errors that emerge when the effect of σ is neglected, one can link the Hubble constant H 0 to σ Sun and the secular increase V AU to σ Earth . The accuracy of the resulting numerical predictions, H 0 = 74 . 42 ( 0 . 02 ) ( km / s ) / Mpc and V AU ≅ 7.8 cm yr-1 , calls for more investigations of this new metric by specific experts. Moreover, we investigate the expected impacts of the new metric on the flyby anomalies, and we revisit the Pioneers delay. It is shown that both phenomena could be partly taken into account within the context of this unifying paradigm, with quite accurate numerical predictions. A correction for the osculating asymptotic velocity at the perigee of the order of 10 mm/s and an inward radial acceleration of 8 . 34 × 10 - 10 m / s 2 affecting the Pioneer ! space crafts could be explained by this new model.

  18. Climatological lower thermosphere winds as seen by ground-based and space-based instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Forbes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons are made between climatological dynamic fields obtained from ground-based (GB and space-based (SB instruments with a view towards identifying SB/GB intercalibration issues for TIMED and other future aeronomy satellite missions. SB measurements are made from the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS. The GB data originate from meteor radars at Obninsk, (55° N, 37° E, Shigaraki (35° N, 136° E and Jakarta (6° S, 107° E and MF spaced-antenna radars at Hawaii (22° N, 160° W, Christmas I. (2° N, 158° W and Adelaide (35° S, 138° E. We focus on monthly-mean prevailing, diurnal and semidiurnal wind components at 96km, averaged over the 1991-1999 period. We perform space-based (SB analyses for 90° longitude sectors including the GB sites, as well as for the zonal mean. Taking the monthly prevailing zonal winds from these stations as a whole, on average, SB zonal winds exceed GB determinations by ~63%, whereas meridional winds are in much better agreement. The origin of this discrepancy remains unknown, and should receive high priority in initial GB/SB comparisons during the TIMED mission. We perform detailed comparisons between monthly climatologies from Jakarta and the geographically conjugate sites of Shigaraki and Adelaide, including some analyses of interannual variations. SB prevailing, diurnal and semidiurnal tides exceed those measured over Jakarta by factors, on the average, of the order of 2.0, 1.6, 1.3, respectively, for the eastward wind, although much variability exists. For the meridional component, SB/GB ratios for the diurnal and semidiurnal tide are about 1.6 and 1.7. Prevailing and tidal amplitudes at Adelaide are significantly lower than SB values, whereas similar net differences do not occur at the conjugate Northern Hemisphere location of Shigaraki. Adelaide diurnal phases lag SB phases by several hours, but excellent agreement between the two data

  19. NCU-SWIP Space Weather Instrumentation Payload - Intelligent Sensors On Efficient Real-Time Distributed LUTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Tse-Liang; Dmitriev, Alexei; Chu, Yen-Hsyang; Jiang, Shyh-Biau; Chen, Li-Wu

    The NCU-SWIP - Space Weather Instrumentation Payload is developed for simultaneous in-situ and remote measurement of space weather parameters for cross verifications. The measurements include in-situ electron density, electron temperature, magnetic field, the deceleration of satellite due to neutral wind, and remotely the linear cumulative intensities of oxygen ion air-glows at 135.6nm and 630.0nm along the flight path in forward, nader, and backward directions for tomographic reconstruction of the electron density distribution underneath. This instrument package is suitable for micro satellite constellation to establish nominal space weather profiles and, thus, to detect abnormal variations as the signs of ionospheric disturbances induced by severe atmospheric weather, or earth quake - mantle movement through their Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Mechanism. NCU-SWIP is constructed with intelligent sensor modules connected by common bus with their functionalities managed by an efficient distributed real-time system LUTOS. The same hierarchy can be applied to the level of satellite constellation. For example SWIP's in a constellation in coordination with the GNSS Occultation Experiment TriG planned for the Formosa-7 constellation, data can be cross correlated for verification and refinement for real-time, stable and reliable measurements. A SWIP will be contributed to the construction of a MAI Micro Satellite for verification. The SWIP consists of two separate modules: the SWIP main control module and the SWIP-PMTomo sensor module. They are respectively a 1.5kg W120xL120xH100 (in mm) box with forward facing 120mmPhi circular disk probe on a boom top edged at 470mm height and a 7.2kg W126xL590x372H (in mm) slab containing 3 legs looking downwards along the flight path, while consuming the maximum electricity of 10W and 12W. The sensors are 1) ETPEDP measuring 16bits floating potentials for electron temperature range of 1000K to 3000K and 24bits electron

  20. Hubble again views Saturn's Rings Edge-on

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Saturn's magnificent ring system is seen tilted edge-on -- for the second time this year -- in this NASA Hubble Space Telescope picture taken on August 10, 1995, when the planet was 895 million miles (1,440 million kilometers) away. Hubble snapped the image as Earth sped back across Saturn's ring plane to the sunlit side of the rings. Last May 22, Earth dipped below the ring plane, giving observers a brief look at the backlit side of the rings. Ring-plane crossing events occur approximately every 15 years. Earthbound observers won't have as good a view until the year 2038. Several of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are from left to right, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Mimas. 'The Hubble data shows numerous faint satellites close to the bright rings, but it will take a couple of months to precisely identify them,' according to Steve Larson (University of Arizona). During the May ring plane crossing, Hubble detected two, and possibly four, new moons orbiting Saturn. These new observations also provide a better view of the faint E ring, 'to help determine the size of particles and whether they will pose a collision hazard to the Cassini spacecraft,' said Larson. The picture was taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in wide field mode. This image is a composite view, where a long exposure of the faint rings has been combined with a shorter exposure of Saturn's disk to bring out more detail. When viewed edge-on, the rings are so dim they almost disappear because they are very thin -- probably less than a mile thick.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  1. HUBBLE provides multiple views of how to feed a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Although the cause-and-effect relationships are not yet clear, the views provided by complementary images from two instruments aboard the Hubble Space Telescope are giving astronomers new insights into the powerful forces being exerted in this complex maelstrom. Researchers believe these forces may even have shifted the axis of the massive black hole from its expected orientation. The Hubble wide-field camera visible image of the merged Centaurus A galaxy, also called NGC 5128, shows in sharp clarity a dramatic dark lane of dust girdling the galaxy. Blue clusters of newborn stars are clearly resolved, and silhouettes of dust filaments are interspersed with blazing orange-glowing gas. Located only 10 million light-years away, this peculiar-looking galaxy contains the closest active galactic nucleus to Earth and has long been considered an example of an elliptical galaxy disrupted by a recent collision with a smaller companion spiral galaxy. Using the infrared vision of Hubble, astronomers have penetrated this wall of dust for the first time to see a twisted disk of hot gas swept up in the black hole's gravitational whirlpool. The suspected black hole is so dense it contains the mass of perhaps a billion stars, compacted into a small region of space not much larger than our Solar System. Resolving features as small as seven light-years across, Hubble has shown astronomers that the hot gas disk is tilted in a different direction from the black hole's axis -- like a wobbly wheel around an axle. The black hole's axis is identified by the orientation of a high-speed jet of material, glowing in X-rays and radio frequencies, blasted from the black hole at 1/100th the speed of light. This gas disk presumably fueling the black hole may have formed so recently it is not yet aligned to the black hole's spin axis, or it may simply be influenced more by the galaxy's gravitational tug than by the black hole's. "This black hole is doing its own thing. Aside from receiving fresh

  2. Hubble peers inside a celestial geode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    celestial geode hi-res Size hi-res: 148 Kb Credits: ESA/NASA, Yäel Nazé (University of Liège, Belgium) and You-Hua Chu (University of Illinois, Urbana, USA) Hubble peers inside a celestial geode In this unusual image, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captures a rare view of the celestial equivalent of a geode - a gas cavity carved by the stellar wind and intense ultraviolet radiation from a young hot star. Real geodes are handball-sized, hollow rocks that start out as bubbles in volcanic or sedimentary rock. Only when these inconspicuous round rocks are split in half by a geologist, do we get a chance to appreciate the inside of the rock cavity that is lined with crystals. In the case of Hubble's 35 light-year diameter ‘celestial geode’ the transparency of its bubble-like cavity of interstellar gas and dust reveals the treasures of its interior. Low resolution version (JPG format) 148 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 1929 Kb Acknowledgment: This image was created with the help of the ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator. Real geodes are handball-sized, hollow rocks that start out as bubbles in volcanic or sedimentary rock. Only when these inconspicuous round rocks are split in half by a geologist, do we get a chance to appreciate the inside of the rock cavity that is lined with crystals. In the case of Hubble's 35 light-year diameter ‘celestial geode’ the transparency of its bubble-like cavity of interstellar gas and dust reveals the treasures of its interior. The object, called N44F, is being inflated by a torrent of fast-moving particles (what astronomers call a 'stellar wind') from an exceptionally hot star (the bright star just below the centre of the bubble) once buried inside a cold dense cloud. Compared with our Sun (which is losing mass through the so-called 'solar wind'), the central star in N44F is ejecting more than a 100 million times more mass per second and the hurricane of particles moves much faster at 7 million km per hour

  3. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ACS IMAGING OF THE GOALS SAMPLE: QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES WITH L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-C.; Evans, A. S.; Privon, G. C., E-mail: dkim@nrao.edu, E-mail: aevans@virginia.edu, E-mail: gcp8y@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2013-05-10

    A Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys study of the structural properties of 85 luminous and ultraluminous (L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun }) infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample is presented. Two-dimensional GALFIT analysis has been performed on F814W ''I-band'' images to decompose each galaxy, as appropriate, into bulge, disk, central point-spread function (PSF) and stellar bar components. The fraction of bulge-less disk systems is observed to be higher in LIRGs (35%) than in ULIRGs (20%), with the disk+bulge systems making up the dominant fraction of both LIRGs (55%) and ULIRGs (45%). Further, bulge+disk systems are the dominant late-stage merger galaxy type and are the dominant type for LIRGs and ULIRGs at almost every stage of galaxy-galaxy nuclear separation. The mean I-band host absolute magnitude of the GOALS galaxies is -22.64 {+-} 0.62 mag (1.8{sup +1.4}{sub -0.4} L{sup *}{sub I}), and the mean bulge absolute magnitude in GOALS galaxies is about 1.1 mag fainter than the mean host magnitude. Almost all ULIRGs have bulge magnitudes at the high end (-20.6 to -23.5 mag) of the GOALS bulge magnitude range. Mass ratios in the GOALS binary systems are consistent with most of the galaxies being the result of major mergers, and an examination of the residual-to-host intensity ratios in GOALS binary systems suggests that smaller companions suffer more tidal distortion than the larger companions. We find approximately twice as many bars in GOALS disk+bulge systems (32.8%) than in pure-disk mergers (15.9%) but most of the disk+bulge systems that contain bars are disk-dominated with small bulges. The bar-to-host intensity ratio, bar half-light radius, and bar ellipticity in GOALS galaxies are similar to those found in nearby spiral galaxies. The fraction of stellar bars decreases toward later merger stages and smaller nuclear separations, indicating that bars are

  4. Weighing 'El Gordo' with a precision scale: Hubble space telescope weak-lensing analysis of the merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102–4915 at z = 0.87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, M. James; Ng, Karen Y.; Hughes, John P.; Menanteau, Felipe; Sifón, Cristóbal; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Infante, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope weak-lensing study of the merging galaxy cluster 'El Gordo' (ACT-CL J0102–4915) at z = 0.87 discovered by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) collaboration as the strongest Sunyaev-Zel'dovich decrement in its ∼1000 deg 2 survey. Our weak-lensing analysis confirms that ACT-CL J0102–4915 is indeed an extreme system consisting of two massive (≳ 10 15 M ☉ each) subclusters with a projected separation of ∼0.7 h 70 −1 Mpc. This binary mass structure revealed by our lensing study is consistent with the cluster galaxy distribution and the dynamical study carried out with 89 spectroscopic members. We estimate the mass of ACT-CL J0102–4915 by simultaneously fitting two axisymmetric Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profiles allowing their centers to vary. We use only a single parameter for the NFW mass profile by enforcing the mass-concentration relation from numerical simulations. Our Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo analysis shows that the masses of the northwestern (NW) and the southeastern (SE) components are M 200c =(1.38±0.22)×10 15 h 70 −1 M ⊙ and (0.78±0.20)×10 15 h 70 −1 M ⊙ , respectively, where the quoted errors include only 1σ statistical uncertainties determined by the finite number of source galaxies. These mass estimates are subject to additional uncertainties (20%-30%) due to the possible presence of triaxiality, correlated/uncorrelated large scale structure, and departure of the cluster profile from the NFW model. The lensing-based velocity dispersions are 1133 −61 +58 km s −1 and 1064 −66 +62 km s −1 for the NW and SE components, respectively, which are consistent with their spectroscopic measurements (1290 ± 134 km s –1 and 1089 ± 200 km s –1 , respectively). The centroids of both components are tightly constrained (∼4'') and close to the optical luminosity centers. The X-ray and mass peaks are spatially offset by ∼8'' (∼62 h 70 −1 kpc), which is

  5. Weighing 'El Gordo' with a precision scale: Hubble space telescope weak-lensing analysis of the merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102–4915 at z = 0.87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, M. James; Ng, Karen Y. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hughes, John P.; Menanteau, Felipe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghysen Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sifón, Cristóbal [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Mandelbaum, Rachel [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Barrientos, L. Felipe; Infante, Leopoldo [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Ponticia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2014-04-10

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope weak-lensing study of the merging galaxy cluster 'El Gordo' (ACT-CL J0102–4915) at z = 0.87 discovered by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) collaboration as the strongest Sunyaev-Zel'dovich decrement in its ∼1000 deg{sup 2} survey. Our weak-lensing analysis confirms that ACT-CL J0102–4915 is indeed an extreme system consisting of two massive (≳ 10{sup 15} M {sub ☉} each) subclusters with a projected separation of ∼0.7 h{sub 70}{sup −1} Mpc. This binary mass structure revealed by our lensing study is consistent with the cluster galaxy distribution and the dynamical study carried out with 89 spectroscopic members. We estimate the mass of ACT-CL J0102–4915 by simultaneously fitting two axisymmetric Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profiles allowing their centers to vary. We use only a single parameter for the NFW mass profile by enforcing the mass-concentration relation from numerical simulations. Our Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo analysis shows that the masses of the northwestern (NW) and the southeastern (SE) components are M{sub 200c}=(1.38±0.22)×10{sup 15} h{sub 70}{sup −1} M{sub ⊙} and (0.78±0.20)×10{sup 15} h{sub 70}{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}, respectively, where the quoted errors include only 1σ statistical uncertainties determined by the finite number of source galaxies. These mass estimates are subject to additional uncertainties (20%-30%) due to the possible presence of triaxiality, correlated/uncorrelated large scale structure, and departure of the cluster profile from the NFW model. The lensing-based velocity dispersions are 1133{sub −61}{sup +58} km s{sup −1} and 1064{sub −66}{sup +62} km s{sup −1} for the NW and SE components, respectively, which are consistent with their spectroscopic measurements (1290 ± 134 km s{sup –1} and 1089 ± 200 km s{sup –1}, respectively). The centroids of both components are tightly constrained (∼4'') and close to the optical luminosity

  6. Electrostatic Studies for the 2008 Hubble Service Repair Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, C. R.; Clements, J. S.; Calle, C. I.

    2012-01-01

    High vacuum triboelectric testing of space materials was required to identify possible Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) concerns for the astronauts in space during electronics board replacement on the Hubble Space Telescope. Testing under high vacuum conditions with common materials resulted in some interesting results. Many materials were able to charge to high levels which did not dissipate quickly even when grounded. Certain materials were able to charge up in contact with grounded metals while others were not. An interesting result was that like materials did not exchange electrostatic charge under high vacuum conditions. The most surprising experimental result is the lack of brush discharges from charged insulators under high vacuum conditions.

  7. Measurement of Hubble constant: non-Gaussian errors in HST Key Project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Meghendra [Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, 226021 India (India); Gupta, Shashikant; Pandey, Ashwini [Amity University Haryana, Gurgaon, Haryana, 122413 India (India); Sharma, Satendra, E-mail: meghendrasingh_db@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: shashikantgupta.astro@gmail.com, E-mail: satyamkashwini@gmail.com, E-mail: ssharma_phy@yahoo.co.uk [Yobe State University, Damaturu, Yobe State (Nigeria)

    2016-08-01

    Assuming the Central Limit Theorem, experimental uncertainties in any data set are expected to follow the Gaussian distribution with zero mean. We propose an elegant method based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic to test the above; and apply it on the measurement of Hubble constant which determines the expansion rate of the Universe. The measurements were made using Hubble Space Telescope. Our analysis shows that the uncertainties in the above measurement are non-Gaussian.

  8. A Unique Outside Neutron and Gamma Ray Instrumentation Development Test Facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; Floyd, S.; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Parsons, A.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.

    2010-01-01

    An outside neutron and gamma ray instrumentation test facility has been constructed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to evaluate conceptual designs of gamma ray and neutron systems that we intend to propose for future planetary lander and rover missions. We will describe this test facility and its current capabilities for operation of planetary in situ instrumentation, utilizing a l4 MeV pulsed neutron generator as the gamma ray excitation source with gamma ray and neutron detectors, in an open field with the ability to remotely monitor and operate experiments from a safe distance at an on-site building. The advantage of a permanent test facility with the ability to operate a neutron generator outside and the flexibility to modify testing configurations is essential for efficient testing of this type of technology. Until now, there have been no outdoor test facilities for realistically testing neutron and gamma ray instruments planned for solar system exploration

  9. An LDEF 2 dust instrument for discrimination between orbital debris and natural particles in near-Earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzzolino, A. J.; Simpson, J. A.; Mckibben, R. B.; Voss, H. D.; Gursky, H.

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of a space dust instrument which would be ideally suited to carry out near-Earth dust measurements on a possible Long Duraction Exposure Facility reflight mission (LDEF 2) is discussed. As a model for the trajectory portion of the instrument proposed for LDEF 2, the characteristics of a SPAce DUSt instrument (SPADUS) currently under development for flight on the USA ARGOS mission to measure the flux, mass, velocity, and trajectory of near-Earth dust is summarized. Since natural (cosmic) dust and man-made dust particles (orbital debris) have different velocity and trajectory distributions, they are distinguished by means of the SPADUS velocity/trajectory information. The SPADUS measurements will cover the dust mass range approximately 5 x 10(exp -12) g (2 microns diameter) to approximately 1 x 10(exp -5) g (200 microns diameter), with an expected mean error in particle trajectory of approximately 7 deg (isotropic flux). Arrays of capture cell devices positioned behind the trajectory instrumentation would provide for Earth-based chemical and isotopic analysis of captured dust. The SPADUS measurement principles, characteristics, its role in the ARGOS mission, and its application to an LDEF 2 mission are summarized.

  10. Control and acquisition system of a space instrument for cosmic ray measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M.; Martín, C.; Quesada, M.; Meziat, D.; Medina, J.; Sánchez, S.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.

    2000-04-01

    The PESCA Instrument Control and Acquisition System (PICAS) design, building and tests are presented. The purpose of the PESCA instrument is the study of the Solar Energetic Particles and the Anomalous Cosmic Rays. It is, therefore, a satellite on-board instrument. The PICAS is basically a computer, composed of a microprocessor with a memory block and a set of interfaces for the communication with the rest of the instrument and the satellite. The PICAS manages all the comunication processes with the satellite, that comprises the order reception from the ground station, and the telemetry sending, that includes scientific data and housekeeping data. By means of telecommands, the PICAS is completely controllable from the ground. The PICAS is also a reliable data acquisition system that guarantees the correct reception of the Cosmic Rays data collected in the ground.

  11. The chinese space program as the image instrument of the great China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lemus Delgado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the Chinese space program and how the bureaucratic elite acts to convert China as a leading nation in international arena. This article assumes that, beyond the scientific advances that space exploration has in multiple fields of knowledge, the support to the space program depicts a way to project a positive image of China. This image is a China rising in the international community. The author discusses how space missions and the discourse around the space program strengthen national pride. Thus, China’s space program projects the image of a Greater China. The article concludes that the space program shows that China is modernizing rapidly and is able to be a world power.

  12. HUBBLE CAPTURES THE HEART OF STAR BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) has captured a flurry of star birth near the heart of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1808. On the left are two images, one superimposed over the other. The black-and-white picture is a ground-based view of the entire galaxy. The color inset image, taken with the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), provides a close-up view of the galaxy's center, the hotbed of vigorous star formation. The ground-based image shows that the galaxy has an unusual, warped shape. Most spiral galaxies are flat disks, but this one has curls of dust and gas at its outer spiral arms (upper right-hand corner and lower left-hand corner). This peculiar shape is evidence that NGC 1808 may have had a close interaction with another nearby galaxy, NGC 1792, which is not in the picture Such an interaction could have hurled gas towards the nucleus of NGC 1808, triggering the exceptionally high rate of star birth seen in the WFPC2 inset image. The WFPC2 inset picture is a composite of images using colored filters that isolate red and infrared light as well as light from glowing hydrogen. The red and infrared light (seen as yellow) highlight older stars, while hydrogen (seen as blue) reveals areas of star birth. Colors were assigned to this false-color image to emphasize the vigorous star formation taking place around the galaxy's center. NGC 1808 is called a barred spiral galaxy because of the straight lines of star formation on both sides of the bright nucleus. This star formation may have been triggered by the rotation of the bar, or by matter which is streaming along the bar towards the central region (and feeding the star burst). Filaments of dust are being ejected from the core into a faint halo of stars surrounding the galaxy's disk (towards the upper left corner) by massive stars that have exploded as supernovae in the star burst region. The portion of the galaxy seen in this 'wide-field' image is

  13. The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, Elena; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; Van Der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Cignoni, M.; De Marchi, G.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S.; Gordon, K. D.; Gouliermis, D.; Grebel, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D. F.

    2014-01-01

    The Tarantula Nebula (a.k.a. 30 Doradus) in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the most famous objects in astronomy, with first astronomical references being more than 150 years old. Today the Tarantula Nebula and its ionizing cluster R136 are considered one of the few known starburst regions in the Local Group and an ideal test bed to investigate the temporal and spatial evolution of a prototypical starburst on a sub-cluster scale. The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is a panchromatic imaging survey of the stellar populations and ionized gas in the Tarantula Nebula that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (eBook that explains how stars form and evolve using images from HTTP. The eBook utilizes emerging technology that works in conjunction with the built-in accessibility features in the Apple iPad to allow totally blind users to interactively explore complex astronomical images.

  14. 3D printing of surgical instruments for long-duration space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Julielynn Y; Pfahnl, Andreas C

    2014-07-01

    The first off-Earth fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer will explore thermoplastic manufacturing capabilities in microgravity. This study evaluated the feasibility of FDM 3D printing 10 acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic surgical instruments on Earth. Three-point bending tests compared stiffness and yield strength between FDM 3D printed and conventionally manufactured ABS thermoplastic. To evaluate the relative speed of using four printed instruments compared to conventional instruments, 13 surgeons completed simulated prepping, draping, incising, and suturing tasks. Each surgeon ranked the performance of six printed instruments using a 5-point Likert scale. At a thickness of 5.75 mm or more, the FDM printing process had a less than 10% detrimental effect on the tested yield strength and stiffness of horizontally printed ABS thermoplastic relative to conventional ABS thermoplastic. Significant weakness was observed when a bending load was applied transversely to a 3D printed layer. All timed tasks were successfully performed using a printed sponge stick, towel clamp, scalpel handle, and toothed forceps. There was no substantial difference in time to completion of simulated surgical tasks with control vs. 3D printed instruments. Of the surgeons, 100%, 92%, 85%, 77%, 77%, and 69% agreed that the printed smooth and tissue forceps, curved and straight hemostats, tissue and right angle clamps, respectively, would perform adequately. It is feasible to 3D print ABS thermoplastic surgical instruments on Earth. Loadbearing structures were designed to be thicker, when possible. Printing orientations were selected so that the printing layering direction of critical structures would not be transverse to bending loads.

  15. Carnegie Hubble Program: A Mid-Infrared Calibration of the Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Scowcroft, Victoria; Burns, Chris; Monson, Andy; Persson, S. Eric; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Using a mid-infrared calibration of the Cepheid distance scale based on recent observations at 3.6 micrometers with the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have obtained a new, high-accuracy calibration of the Hubble constant. We have established the mid-IR zero point of the Leavitt law (the Cepheid period-luminosity relation) using time-averaged 3.6 micrometers data for 10 high-metallicity, MilkyWay Cepheids having independently measured trigonometric parallaxes. We have adopted the slope of the PL relation using time-averaged 3.6micrometers data for 80 long-period Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Cepheids falling in the period range 0.8 < log(P) < 1.8.We find a new reddening-corrected distance to the LMC of 18.477 +/- 0.033 (systematic) mag. We re-examine the systematic uncertainties in H(sub 0), also taking into account new data over the past decade. In combination with the new Spitzer calibration, the systematic uncertainty in H(sub 0) over that obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project has decreased by over a factor of three. Applying the Spitzer calibration to the Key Project sample, we find a value of H(sub 0) = 74.3 with a systematic uncertainty of +/-2.1 (systematic) kilometers per second Mpc(sup -1), corresponding to a 2.8% systematic uncertainty in the Hubble constant. This result, in combination with WMAP7measurements of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and assuming a flat universe, yields a value of the equation of state for dark energy, w(sub 0) = -1.09 +/- 0.10. Alternatively, relaxing the constraints on flatness and the numbers of relativistic species, and combining our results with those of WMAP7, Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations yield w(sub 0) = -1.08 +/- 0.10 and a value of N(sub eff) = 4.13 +/- 0.67, mildly consistent with the existence of a fourth neutrino species.

  16. HUBBLE'S ULTRAVIOLET VIEWS OF NEARBY GALAXIES YIELD CLUES TO EARLY UNIVERSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers are using these three NASA Hubble Space Telescope images to help tackle the question of why distant galaxies have such odd shapes, appearing markedly different from the typical elliptical and spiral galaxies seen in the nearby universe. Do faraway galaxies look weird because they are truly weird? Or, are they actually normal galaxies that look like oddballs, because astronomers are getting an incomplete picture of them, seeing only the brightest pieces? Light from these galaxies travels great distances (billions of light-years) to reach Earth. During its journey, the light is 'stretched' due to the expansion of space. As a result, the light is no longer visible, but has been shifted to the infrared where present instruments are less sensitive. About the only light astronomers can see comes from regions where hot, young stars reside. These stars emit mostly ultraviolet light. But this light is stretched, appearing as visible light by the time it reaches Earth. Studying these distant galaxies is like trying to put together a puzzle with some of the pieces missing. What, then, do distant galaxies really look like? Astronomers studied 37 nearby galaxies to find out. By viewing these galaxies in ultraviolet light, astronomers can compare their shapes with those of their distant relatives. These three Hubble telescope pictures, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, represent a sampling from that survey. Astronomers observed the galaxies in ultraviolet and visible light to study all the stars that make up these 'cities of stars.' The results of their survey support the idea that astronomers are detecting the 'tip of the iceberg' of very distant galaxies. Based on these Hubble ultraviolet images, not all the faraway galaxies necessarily possess intrinsically odd shapes. The results are being presented today at the 197th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Diego, CA. The central region of the 'star-burst' spiral galaxy at far left

  17. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Cryo-Vacuum (CV) Test Campaign Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Calinda; Whitehouse, Paul; Lui, Yan; Banks, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    JWST Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) has completed its system-level testing program at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In March 2016, ISIM was successfully delivered for integration with the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) after the successful verification of the system through a series of three cryo-vacuum (CV) tests. The first test served as a risk reduction test; the second test provided the initial verification of the fully-integrated flight instruments; and the third test verified the system in its final flight configuration. The complexity of the mission has generated challenging requirements that demand highly reliable system performance and capabilities from the Space Environment Simulator (SES) vacuum chamber. As JWST progressed through its CV testing campaign, deficiencies in the test configuration and support equipment were uncovered from one test to the next. Subsequent upgrades and modifications were implemented to improve the facility support capabilities required to achieve test requirements. This paper: (1) provides an overview of the integrated mechanical and thermal facility systems required to achieve the objectives of JWST ISIM testing, (2) compares the overall facility performance and instrumentation results from the three ISIM CV tests, and (3) summarizes lessons learned from the ISIM testing campaign.

  18. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. The spacecraft environment subjects the traveler to noise, chemical and microbiological contaminants, increased radiation, and variable gravity forces. As humans prepare for long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond, effective measures must be developed, verified and implemented to ensure mission success. Limited biomedical quantitative capabilities are currently available onboard the ISS. Therefore, the development of versatile instruments to perform space biological analysis and to monitor astronauts' health is needed. We are developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring gene expression on small spacecraft in order to better understand the influence of the space environment on biological systems. This low-cost, low-power, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation. The current system will support growth of microorganisms, extract and purify the RNA, hybridize it to the array, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis, and transmit the measurements to Earth. The system will help discover how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and how pathogenic bacteria sometimes increase their virulence in space, facilitating the development of adequate countermeasures to decrease risks associated with human spaceflight. The current stand-alone technology could be used as an integrated platform onboard the ISS to perform similar genetic analyses on any biological systems from the tree of life. Additionally, with some modification the system could be implemented to perform real-time in-situ microbial monitoring of the ISS environment (air, surface and water samples) and the astronaut's microbiome using 16SrRNA microarray technology. Furthermore, the current system can be enhanced

  19. The 1997 HST Calibration Workshop with a New Generation of Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casertano, S. (Editor); Jedrzejewski, R. (Editor); Keyes, T. (Editor); Stevens, M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Second Servicing mission in early 1997 has brought major changes to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Two of the original instruments, Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) and Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS), were taken out, and replaced by completely new instruments, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Near Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrograph (NICMOS). Two new types of detectors were installed, and for the first time, HST gained infrared capabilities. A new Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) was installed, with an alignment mechanism that could improve substantially both guiding and astrometric capabilities. With all these changes come new challenges. The characterization of the new instruments has required a major effort, both by their respective Investigation Definition Teams and at the Space Telescope Science Institute. All necessary final calibrations for the retired spectrographs needed to be carried out, and their properties definitively characterized. At the same time, work has continued to improve our understanding of the instruments that have remained on board. The results of these activities were discussed in the 1997 HST (Hubble Space Telescope) Calibration Workshop. The main focus of the Workshop was to provide users with the tools and the understanding they need to use HST's instruments and archival data to the best of their possibilities. This book contains the written record of the Workshop. As such, it should provide a valuable tool to all interested in using existing HST data or in proposing for new observations.

  20. Automated space processing payloads study. Volume 3: Equipment development resource requirements. [instrument packages and the space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Facilities are described on which detailed preliminary design was undertaken and which may be used on early space shuttle missions in the 1979-1982 time-frame. The major hardware components making up each facility are identified, and development schedules for the major hardware items and the payload buildup are included. Cost data for the facilities, and the assumptions and ground rules supporting these data are given along with a recommended listing of supporting research and technology needed to ensure confidence in the ability to achieve successful development of the equipment and technology.

  1. Detection of pigments of halophilic endoliths from gypsum: Raman portable instrument and European Space Agency's prototype analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culka, Adam; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Hutchinson, Ian; Ingley, Richard; McHugh, Melissa; Oren, Aharon; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Jehlička, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A prototype instrument, under development at the University of Leicester, for the future European Space Agency (ESA) ExoMars mission, was used for the analysis of microbial pigments within a stratified gypsum crust from a hypersaline saltern evaporation pond at Eilat (Israel). Additionally, the same samples were analysed using a miniaturized Raman spectrometer, featuring the same 532 nm excitation. The differences in the position of the specific bands, attributed to carotenoid pigments from different coloured layers, were minor when analysed by the ESA prototype instrument; therefore, making it difficult to distinguish among the different pigments. The portable Delta Nu Advantage instrument allowed for the discrimination of microbial carotenoids from the orange/green and purple layers. The purpose of this study was to complement previous laboratory results with new data and experience with portable or handheld Raman systems, even with a dedicated prototype Raman system for the exploration of Mars. The latter is equipped with an excitation wavelength falling within the carotenoid polyene resonance region. The ESA prototype Raman instrument detected the carotenoid pigments (biomarkers) with ease, although further detailed distinctions among them were not achieved. PMID:25368354

  2. Detection of pigments of halophilic endoliths from gypsum: Raman portable instrument and European Space Agency's prototype analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culka, Adam; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Hutchinson, Ian; Ingley, Richard; McHugh, Melissa; Oren, Aharon; Edwards, Howell G M; Jehlička, Jan

    2014-12-13

    A prototype instrument, under development at the University of Leicester, for the future European Space Agency (ESA) ExoMars mission, was used for the analysis of microbial pigments within a stratified gypsum crust from a hypersaline saltern evaporation pond at Eilat (Israel). Additionally, the same samples were analysed using a miniaturized Raman spectrometer, featuring the same 532 nm excitation. The differences in the position of the specific bands, attributed to carotenoid pigments from different coloured layers, were minor when analysed by the ESA prototype instrument; therefore, making it difficult to distinguish among the different pigments. The portable Delta Nu Advantage instrument allowed for the discrimination of microbial carotenoids from the orange/green and purple layers. The purpose of this study was to complement previous laboratory results with new data and experience with portable or handheld Raman systems, even with a dedicated prototype Raman system for the exploration of Mars. The latter is equipped with an excitation wavelength falling within the carotenoid polyene resonance region. The ESA prototype Raman instrument detected the carotenoid pigments (biomarkers) with ease, although further detailed distinctions among them were not achieved. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Sun, Gwang Min; Moon, Jong Hwa; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun

    2012-01-01

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA

  4. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Sun, Gwang Min; Moon, Jong Hwa; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA.

  5. The Astronomy and Space Science Concept Inventory: Assessment Instruments Aligned with the K-12 National Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on those K-12 national standards which involve astronomy and space science. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we have constructed 211 unique items that measure the degree to which students abandon such ideas for accepted scientific views. Piloted nationally with 7599 students and their 88 teachers spanning grades 5-12, the items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC Standards and AAAS Benchmarks. Teachers generally perform well on items covering the standards of the grade level at which they teach, exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. Teachers dramatically overestimate their students’ performance, perhaps because they are unaware of their students’ misconceptions. Examples are given showing how the developed instruments can be used to assess the effectiveness of instruction and to evaluate the impact of professional development activities for teachers.

  6. Planetary nebulae: 20 years of Hubble inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, Bruce

    2012-08-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has served the critical roles of microscope and movie camera in the past 20 years of research on planetary nebulae (``PNe''). We have glimpsed the details of the evolving structures of neutral and ionized post-AGB objects, built ingenious heuristic models that mimic these structures, and constrained most of the relevant physical processes with careful observations and interpretation. We have searched for close physical binary stars with spatial resolution ~50 AU at 1 AU, located jets emerging from the nucleus at speeds up to 2000 km s-1 and matched newly discovered molecular and X-ray emission regions to physical substructures in order to better understand how stellar winds and ionizing radiation interact to form the lovely symmetries that are observed. Ultraviolet spectra of CNO in PNe help to uncover how stars process deep inside AGB stars with unstable nuclear burning zones. HST broadband imaging has been at the forefront of uncovering surprisingly complex wind morphologies produced at the tip of the AGB, and has led to an increasing realization of the potentially vital roles of close binary stars and emerging magnetic fields in shaping stellar winds.

  7. The Orbitrap mass analyzer as a space instrument for the understanding of prebiotic chemistry in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuitton, Véronique; Briois, Christelle; Makarov, Alexander

    Over the past decade, it has become apparent that organic molecules are widespread in our Solar System and beyond. The better understand of the prebiotic chemistry leading to their formation is a primary objective of many ongoing space missions. Cassini-Huygens revealed the existence of very large molecular structures in Titan's atmosphere as well as on its surface, in the form of dune deposits, but their exact nature remains elusive. One key science goal of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover is to assess the presence of organics on the red planet. Rosetta will characterize the elemental and isotopic composition of the gas and dust ejected from comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, while amino acids have been detected in meteorites. This search for complex organics relies heavily on mass spectrometry, which has the remarkable ability to analyze and quantify species from almost any type of sample (provided that the appropriate sampling and ionizing method is used). Because of the harsh constraints of the spatial environment, the mass resolution of the spectrometers onboard current space probes is quite limited compared to laboratory instruments, leading to significant limitations in the scientific return of the data collected. Therefore, future in situ solar system exploration missions would significantly benefit from instruments relying on High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). Since 2009, 5 French laboratories (LPC2E, IPAG, LATMOS, LISA, CSNSM) involved in the chemical investigation of solar system bodies form a Consortium to develop HRMS for future space exploration, based on the use of the Orbitrap technology (C. Briois et al., 2014, to be submitted). The work is undertaken in close collaboration with the Thermo Fisher Scientific Company, which commercializes Orbitrap based laboratory instruments. The Orbitrap is an electrostatic mass analyzer, it is compact, lightweight, and can reach a good sensitivity and dynamic range. A prototype is under development at

  8. Strategy For Implementing The UN "Zero-Gravity Instrument Project" To Promote Space Science Among School Children In Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, O.; Agbaje, G.; Akinyede, J.

    2015-12-01

    The United Nations "Zero Gravity Instrument Project" (ZGIP) is one of the activities coordinated under the Space Education Outreach Program (SEOP) of the African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in English (ARCSSTE-E) to popularize space science among pre-collegiate youths in Nigeria. The vision of ZGIP is to promote space education and research in microgravity. This paper will deliberate on the strategy used to implement the ZGIP to introduce school children to authentic scientific data and inquiry. The paper highlights how the students learned to collect scientific data in a laboratory environment, analyzed the data with specialized software, obtained results, interpreted and presented the results of their study in a standard format to the scientific community. About 100 school children, aged between 7 and 21 years, from ten public and private schools located in Osun State, Nigeria participated in the pilot phase of the ZGIP which commenced with a 1-day workshop in March 2014. During the inauguration workshop, the participants were introduced to the environment of outer space, with special emphasis on the concept of microgravity. They were also taught the basic principle of operation of the Clinostat, a Zero-Gravity Instrument donated to ARCSSTE-E by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UN-OOSA), Vienna, under the Human Space Technology Initiative (UN-HSTI). At the end of the workshop, each school designed a project, and had a period of 1 week, on a planned time-table, to work in the laboratory of ARCSSTE-E where they utilized the clinostat to examine the germination of indigenous plant seeds in simulated microgravity conditions. The paper also documents the post-laboratory investigation activities, which included presentation of the results in a poster competition and an evaluation of the project. The enthusiasm displayed by the students, coupled with the favorable responses recorded during an oral interview conducted to

  9. Linear Ion Traps in Space: The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) Instrument and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Ricardo; Brinckerhoff, William; Mahaffy, Paul; van Amerom, Friso; Danell, Ryan; Pinnick, Veronica; Li, Xiang; Hovmand, Lars; Getty, Stephanie; Grubisic, Andrej; Goesmann, Fred; Cottin, Hervé

    2015-11-01

    Historically, quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) instruments have been used to explore a wide survey of planetary targets in our solar system, from Venus (Pioneer Venus) to Saturn (Cassini-Huygens). However, linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometers have found a niche as smaller, versatile alternatives to traditional quadrupole analyzers.The core astrobiological experiment of ESA’s ExoMars Program is the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) onboard the ExoMars 2018 rover. The MOMA instrument is centered on a linear (or 2-D) ion trap mass spectrometer. As opposed to 3-D traps, LIT-based instruments accommodate two symmetrical ion injection pathways, enabling two complementary ion sources to be used. In the case of MOMA, these two analytical approaches are laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) at Mars ambient pressures, and traditional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). The LIT analyzer employed by MOMA also offers: higher ion capacity compared to a 3-D trap of the same volume; redundant detection subassemblies for extended lifetime; and, a link to heritage QMS designs and assembly logistics. The MOMA engineering test unit (ETU) has demonstrated the detection of organics in the presence of wt.%-levels of perchlorate, effective ion enhancement via stored waveform inverse Fourier transform (SWIFT), and derivation of structural information through tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).A more progressive linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LITMS), funded by the NASA ROSES MatISSE Program, is being developed at NASA GSFC and promises to augment the capabilities of the MOMA instrument by way of: an expanded mass range (i.e., 20 - 2000 Da); detection of both positive and negative ions; spatially resolved (<1 mm) characterization of individual rock core layers; and, evolved gas analysis and GCMS with pyrolysis up to 1300° C (enabling breakdown of refractory phases). The Advanced Resolution Organic Molecule Analyzer (AROMA) instrument, being developed through NASA

  10. Semi-custom integrated circuit amplifier and level discriminator for nuclear and space instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, S.F.; Cafferty, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development an extra fast current feedback amplifier and a level discriminator employing a dielectrically-isolated bipolar, semi-custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) process. These devices are specifically designed for instruments aboard spacecrafts or in portable packages requiring low power and weight. The amplifier adopts current feedback for a unity-gain bandwidth of 90 MHz while consuming 50 mW. The level discriminator uses a complementary output driver for balanced positive and negative response times. The power consumption of these devices can be programmed by external resistors for optimal speed and power trade-off

  11. Semi-custom integrated circuit amplifier and level discriminator for nuclear and space instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, S.F.; Cafferty, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports an extra fast current feedback amplifier and a level discriminator developed employing a dielectrically isolated bipolar, semi-custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) process. These devices are specifically designed for instruments aboard spacecrafts or in portable packages requiring low power and weight. The amplifier adopts current feedback for a unity- gain bandwidth of 90 MHz while consuming 50 mW. The level discriminator uses a complementary output driver for balanced positive and negative response times. The power consumption of these devices can be programmed by external resistors for optimal speed and power trade-off

  12. UVUDF: Ultraviolet imaging of the Hubble ultra deep field with wide-field camera 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Rafelski, Marc; Colbert, James W.; Hanish, Daniel J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Bond, Nicholas A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; De Mello, Duilia F. [Laboratory for Observational Cosmology, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brown, Thomas M.; Coe, Dan; Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Gronwall, Caryl [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Ravindranath, Swara, E-mail: hit@ipac.caltech.edu [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India); and others

    2013-12-01

    We present an overview of a 90 orbit Hubble Space Telescope treasury program to obtain near-ultraviolet imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field using the Wide Field Camera 3 UVIS detector with the F225W, F275W, and F336W filters. This survey is designed to: (1) investigate the episode of peak star formation activity in galaxies at 1 < z < 2.5; (2) probe the evolution of massive galaxies by resolving sub-galactic units (clumps); (3) examine the escape fraction of ionizing radiation from galaxies at z ∼ 2-3; (4) greatly improve the reliability of photometric redshift estimates; and (5) measure the star formation rate efficiency of neutral atomic-dominated hydrogen gas at z ∼ 1-3. In this overview paper, we describe the survey details and data reduction challenges, including both the necessity of specialized calibrations and the effects of charge transfer inefficiency. We provide a stark demonstration of the effects of charge transfer inefficiency on resultant data products, which when uncorrected, result in uncertain photometry, elongation of morphology in the readout direction, and loss of faint sources far from the readout. We agree with the STScI recommendation that future UVIS observations that require very sensitive measurements use the instrument's capability to add background light through a 'post-flash'. Preliminary results on number counts of UV-selected galaxies and morphology of galaxies at z ∼ 1 are presented. We find that the number density of UV dropouts at redshifts 1.7, 2.1, and 2.7 is largely consistent with the number predicted by published luminosity functions. We also confirm that the image mosaics have sufficient sensitivity and resolution to support the analysis of the evolution of star-forming clumps, reaching 28-29th magnitude depth at 5σ in a 0.''2 radius aperture depending on filter and observing epoch.

  13. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P. J.; Johnson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning the utilization of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology for space shuttle main engine applications is reported. The following specific topics were addressed: (1) transducer design and materials, (2) silicon piezoresistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures, (3) chip mounting characterization, and (4) frequency response optimization.

  14. The RFI situation for a space-based low-frequency radio astronomy instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Space based ultra-long wavelength radio astronomy has recently gained a lot of interest. Techniques to open the virtually unexplored frequency band below 30 MHz are becoming within reach at this moment. Due to the ionosphere and the radio interference (RFI) on Earth exploring this frequency band

  15. Space telescope phase B definition study. Volume 2A: Science instruments, f24 field camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, R. P.; Mccarthy, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The analysis and design of the F/24 field camera for the space telescope are discussed. The camera was designed for application to the radial bay of the optical telescope assembly and has an on axis field of view of 3 arc-minutes by 3 arc-minutes.

  16. The JPSS CrIS Instrument and the Evolution of Space-Based Infrared Sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glumb, Ronald; Suwinski, Lawrence; Wells, Steven; Glumb, Anna; Malloy, Rebecca; Colton, Marie

    2018-01-01

    This paper will summarize the development of infrared sounders since the 1970s, describe the technological hurdles that were overcome to provide ever-increasing performance capabilities, and highlight the radiometric performance of the CrIS instrument on JPSS-1 (CrIS-JPSS1). This includes details of the CrIS-JPSS1 measured noise-equivalent spectral radiance (NEdN) performance, radiometric uncertainty performance utilizing a new and improved internal calibration target, short-term and long-term repeatability, spectral uncertainty, and spectral stability. In addition, the full-resolution operating modes for CrIS-JPSS1 will be reviewed, including a discussion of how these modes will be used during on-orbit characterization tests. We will provide a brief update of CrIS-SNPP on-obit performance and the production status of the CrIS instruments for JPSS-2 through JPSS-4. Current technological challenges will also be reviewed, including how ongoing research and development is enabling improvements to future sounders. The expanding usage of infrared sounding data will also be discussed, including demonstration of value via data assimilation, the roles of the public/private sector in communicating the importance of sounding data for long-term observations, and the long road to success from research to operational data products.

  17. Management of the camera electronics programme for the World Space Observatory ultraviolet WUVS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Gayatri; Clapp, Matthew; Salter, Mike; Waltham, Nick; Beardsley, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) is a major international collaboration led by Russia and will study the universe at ultraviolet wavelengths between 115 nm and 320 nm. The WSO Ultraviolet Spectrograph (WUVS) subsystem is led by a consortium of Russian institutes and consists of three spectrographs. RAL Space is contracted by e2v technologies Ltd to provide the CCD readout electronics for each of the three WUVS channels. The programme involves the design, manufacturing, assembly and testing of each Camera Electronics Box (CEB), its associated Interconnection Module (ICM), Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) and harness. An overview of the programme will be presented, from the initial design phase culminating in the development of an Engineering Model (EM) through qualification whereby an Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) will undergo environmental testing to characterize the performance of the CEB against the space environment, to the delivery of the Flight Models (FMs). The paper will discuss the challenges faced managing a large, dynamic project. This includes managing significant changes in fundamental requirements mid-programme as a result of external political issues which forced a complete re-design of an existing CEB with extensive space heritage but containing many ITAR controlled electronic components to a new, more efficient solution, free of ITAR controlled parts. The methodology and processes used to ensure the demanding schedule is maintained through each stage of the project will be presented including an insight into planning, decision-making, communication, risk management, and resource management; all essential to the continued success of the programme.

  18. Cosmic Ray Investigation in the Stratosphere and Space: Results from Instruments on Russian Satellites and Balloons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Logachev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected activities aimed to investigate cosmic ray fluxes and to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms behind, over a long-time period using space research tools in the former USSR/Russia and Slovakia, are reviewed, and some of the results obtained are presented. As the selection is connected with the institutes where the authors are working, it represents only a partial review of this wide topic.

  19. Space Power Program, Instrumentation and Control System Architecture, Preconceptual Design, for Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JM Ross

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this letter is to forward the Prometheus preconceptual Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system architecture (Enclosure (1)) to NR for information as part of the Prometheus closeout work. The preconceptual 1 and C system architecture was considered a key planning document for development of the I and C system for Project Prometheus. This architecture was intended to set the technical approach for the entire I and C system. It defines interfaces to other spacecraft systems, defines hardware blocks for future development, and provides a basis for accurate cost and schedule estimates. Since the system requirements are not known at this time, it was anticipated that the architecture would evolve as the design of the reactor module was matured

  20. Dynamic cell culture system: a new cell cultivation instrument for biological experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmunder, F. K.; Nordau, C. G.; Tschopp, A.; Huber, B.; Cogoli, A.

    1988-01-01

    The prototype of a miniaturized cell cultivation instrument for animal cell culture experiments aboard Spacelab is presented (Dynamic cell culture system: DCCS). The cell chamber is completely filled and has a working volume of 200 microliters. Medium exchange is achieved with a self-powered osmotic pump (flowrate 1 microliter h-1). The reservoir volume of culture medium is 230 microliters. The system is neither mechanically stirred nor equipped with sensors. Hamster kidney (Hak) cells growing on Cytodex 3 microcarriers were used to test the biological performance of the DCCS. Growth characteristics in the DCCS, as judged by maximal cell density, glucose consumption, lactic acid secretion and pH, were similar to those in cell culture tubes.

  1. Space Power Program, Instrumentation and Control System Architecture, Pre-conceptual Design, for Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JM Ross

    2005-10-20

    The purpose of this letter is to forward the Prometheus preconceptual Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system architecture (Enclosure (1)) to NR for information as part of the Prometheus closeout work. The preconceptual 1&C system architecture was considered a key planning document for development of the I&C system for Project Prometheus. This architecture was intended to set the technical approach for the entire I&C system. It defines interfaces to other spacecraft systems, defines hardware blocks for future development, and provides a basis for accurate cost and schedule estimates. Since the system requirements are not known at this time, it was anticipated that the architecture would evolve as the design of the reactor module was matured.

  2. Rodent bone densitometer on the International Space Station: Instrument design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinger, John C.; Barton, Kenneth; Faget, Paul; Todd, Paul; Boland, Eugene

    2016-07-01

    The study of bone loss dynamics, mechanisms and countermeasures has been a publicly stated purpose of biomedical research aboard the International Space Station. Rodent research has always played a major role in terrestrial laboratories studying bone loss. The "gold standard" for assessing bone loss in human patients has been dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). DEXA is also widely applied to the study of bone loss in laboratory animals, so this technology has been added to the ISS inventory of analytical tools in the form of the ISS Bone Densitometer (BD) designed, constructed, tested and integrated by Techshot, Inc. (Greenville, Indiana, USA). The BD is a re-packaged COTS device known as PIXImus (GE-Lunar, USA), which was installed on ISS in November 2014 after launching on SpaceX-4. To facilitate operations in microgravity and to meet spaceflight facility and safety requirements the commercial x-ray source, control electronics and imaging system were modified and packaged by Techshot into a drawer that fits into a single EXPRESS Locker replacement. A space-rated "Exam Box" is also supplied for containment of the anesthetized subject during transfer into the BD and during exposure. The commercial software package controls four paired-energy exposures, 80 and 35 kV, and applies DEXA algorithms to the fluorescence images and displays bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content, lean mass, fat mass, total mass and per cent fat. The BD is therefore also a means for measuring mass and body composition making it a versatile tool for many types of rodent studies on orbit. The BD has been operated multiple times on orbit, and its performance has not differed significantly from its performance on the ground. It has been shown to measure body mass with a precision of +/- 0.1 g and on-orbit accuracy of -0.3 g. It is expected to detect BMD losses of approximately 2%. The image data are stored in a manner that allows post-test data analysis especially including the

  3. The SPICE concept - An approach to providing geometric and other ancillary information needed for interpretation of data returned from space science instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Charles H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Navigation Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF), acting under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, and with substantial participation of the planetary science community, is designing and implementing an ancillary data system - called SPICE - to assist scientists in planning and interpreting scientific observations taken from spaceborne instruments. The principal objective of the implemented SPICE system is that it will hold the essential geometric and related ancillary information needed to recover the full value of science instrument data, and that it will facilitate correlations of individual instrument datasets with data obtained from other instruments on the same or other spacecraft.

  4. Instrumented roll technology for the design space development of roller compaction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesarikar, Vishwas V; Vatsaraj, Nipa; Patel, Chandrakant; Early, William; Pandey, Preetanshu; Sprockel, Omar; Gao, Zhihui; Jerzewski, Robert; Miller, Ronald; Levin, Michael

    2012-04-15

    Instrumented roll technology on Alexanderwerk WP120 roller compactor was developed and utilized successfully for the measurement of normal stress on ribbon during the process. The effects of process parameters such as roll speed (4-12 rpm), feed screw speed (19-53 rpm), and hydraulic roll pressure (40-70 bar) on normal stress and ribbon density were studied using placebo and active pre-blends. The placebo blend consisted of 1:1 ratio of microcrystalline cellulose PH102 and anhydrous lactose with sodium croscarmellose, colloidal silicon dioxide, and magnesium stearate. The active pre-blends were prepared using various combinations of one active ingredient (3-17%, w/w) and lubricant (0.1-0.9%, w/w) levels with remaining excipients same as placebo. Three force transducers (load cells) were installed linearly along the width of the roll, equidistant from each other with one transducer located in the center. Normal stress values recorded by side sensors and were lower than normal stress values recorded by middle sensor and showed greater variability than middle sensor. Normal stress was found to be directly proportional to hydraulic pressure and inversely to screw to roll speed ratio. For active pre-blends, normal stress was also a function of compressibility. For placebo pre-blends, ribbon density increased as normal stress increased. For active pre-blends, in addition to normal stress, ribbon density was also a function of gap. Models developed using placebo were found to predict ribbon densities of active blends with good accuracy and the prediction error decreased as the drug concentration of active blend decreased. Effective angle of internal friction and compressibility properties of active pre blend may be used as key indicators for predicting ribbon densities of active blend using placebo ribbon density model. Feasibility of on-line prediction of ribbon density during roller compaction was demonstrated using porosity-pressure data of pre-blend and normal stress

  5. Future space-based direct imaging platforms: high fidelity simulations and instrument testbed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian A.; Eberhardt, Andrew; SAINT, VNC, LUVOIR

    2017-06-01

    The direct detection and characterization of habitable zone (HZ) Earth-like exoplanets is predicated on light gathering power of a large telescope operating with tens of millicarcsecond angular resolution, and at contrast scales on the order of 0.1 ppb. Accessing a statistically significant sample of planets to search for habitable worlds will likely build on the knowledge and insfrastructure gained through JWST, later advancing to assembly in space or formation flying approaches that may eventually be used to achieve even greater photometric sensitivity or resolution. in order to address contrast, a means of starlight suppression is needed that contends with complex aperture diffraction. The Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) is one such approach that destructively interferes starlight to enable detection and characterization of extrasolar objects.The VNC is being incorporated into an end-to-end telescope-coronagraph system demonstrator called the Segmented Aperture Interferometric Nulling Testbed (SAINT). Development of the VNC has a rich legacy, and successfully demonstrating its capability with SAINT will mark milestones towards meeting the high-contrast direct imaging needs of future large space telescopes. SAINT merges the VNC with an actively-controlled segmented aperture telescope via a fine pointing system and aims to demonstrate 1e-8 contrast nulling of a segmented aperture at an inner working angle of four diffraction radii over a 20 nm visible bandpass. The system comprises four detectors for wavefront sensing, one of which is the high-contrast focal plane. The detectors provide feedback to control the segmented telescope primary mirror, a fast steering mirror, a segmented deformable mirror, and a delay stage. All of these components must work in concert with passive optical elements that are designed, fabricated, and aligned pairwise to achieve the requisite wavefront symmetry needed to push the state of the art in broadband destructive interferometric

  6. The Far-Field Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Tod

    1995-07-01

    We request deep, near-IR (F814W) WFPC2 images of five nearby Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG) to calibrate the BCG Hubble diagram by the Surface Brightness Fluctuation (SBF) method. Lauer & Postman (1992) show that the BCG Hubble diagram measured out to 15,000 km s^-1 is highly linear. Calibration of the Hubble diagram zeropoint by SBF will thus yield an accurate far-field measure of H_0 based on the entire volume within 15,000 km s^-1, thus circumventing any strong biases caused by local peculiar velocity fields. This method of reaching the far field is contrasted with those using distance ratios between Virgo and Coma, or any other limited sample of clusters. HST is required as the ground-based SBF method is limited to team developed the SBF method, the first BCG Hubble diagram based on a full-sky, volume-limited BCG sample, played major roles in the calibration of WFPC and WFPC2, and are conducting observations of local galaxies that will validate the SBF zeropoint (through GTO programs). This work uses the SBF method to tie both the Cepheid and Local Group giant-branch distances generated by HST to the large scale Hubble flow, which is most accurately traced by BCGs.

  7. The James Webb Space Telescope's Plan for Operations and Instrument Capabilities for Observations in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Stansberry, John A.; Sonneborn, George; Thomas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is optimized for observations in the near- and mid-infrared and will provide essential observations for targets that cannot be conducted from the ground or other missions during its lifetime. The state-of-the-art science instruments, along with the telescope's moving target tracking, will enable the infrared study, with unprecedented detail, for nearly every object (Mars and beyond) in the Solar System. The goals of this special issue are to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community. Key science goals for various targets, observing capabilities for JWST, and highlights for the complementary nature with other missions/observatories are described in this paper.

  8. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Space: New Views from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Frolov, Alexander D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) >satellite instrument can resolve pollution events in tropical and mid-latitudes, Over the past several years, we have developed tropospheric ozone data sets by two methods. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMSdirect method [Hudson et at., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution, Absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke; Herman et at., 1997 Hsu et al., 1999), a standard TOMS product, provide transport and/or source marker information to interpret tropospheric ozone. For the Nimbus 7/TOMS observing period (1979-1992), modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) appears as two maps/month at I-degree latitude 2-degree longitude resolution at a homepage and digital data are available (20S to 20N) by ftp at http://metosrv2. umd.edu/tropo/ 14y_data.d. Preliminary modified-residual TTO data from the operational Earth-Probe/TOMS (1996- present) are posted in near-real-time at the same website. Analyses with the new tropospheric ozone and aerosol data are illustrated by the following (I)Signals in tropical tropospheric ozone column and smoke amount during ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events, e.g. 1982-1983 and the intense ENSO induced biomass fires of 1997-1998 over the Indonesian region [Thompson et a[, 2000a, Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. (2) Trends in tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols in various tropical regions (Atlantic, Pacific, Africa, Brazil). No significant trends were found for ozone from1980-1990 [Thompson and Hudson, 19991 although smoke aerosols increased during the period [Hsu et al.,1999]. (3) Temporal and spatial offsets

  9. The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) and its Contributions to Space Weather Research, the Flare Energy Budget, and Instrument Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) is an empirical model of the solar irradiance spectrum from 0.1 to 190 nm at 1 nm spectral resolution and on a 1-minute time cadence. The goal of FISM is to provide accurate solar spectral irradiances over the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV: 0-200 nm) range as input for ionospheric and thermospheric models. The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the FISM model, and also how the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) will contribute to improving FISM. Some current studies will then be presented that use FISM estimations of the solar VUV irradiance to quantify the contributions of the increased irradiance from flares to Earth's increased thermospheric and ionospheric densites. Initial results will also be presented from a study looking at the electron density increases in the Martian atmosphere during a solar flare. Results will also be shown quantifying the VUV contributions to the total flare energy budget for both the impulsive and gradual phases of solar flares. Lastly, an example of how FISM can be used to simplify the design of future solar VUV irradiance instruments will be discussed, using the future NOAA GOES-R Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Sensors (EXIS) space weather instrument.

  10. Testing the isotropy of the Hubble expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Migkas, K.; Plionis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: We have used the Union2.1 SNIa compilation to search for possible Hubble expansion anisotropies, dividing the sky in 9 solid angles containing roughly the same number of SNIa, as well as in two Galactic hemispheres. We identified only one sky region, containing 82 SNIa (~15% of total sample with z > 0.02), that indeed appears to share a Hubble expansion significantly different from the rest of the sample. However, this behaviour can be attributed to the joint "erratic" behaviour of ...

  11. Self-Raman Nd:YVO4 Laser and Electro-Optic Technology for Space-Based Sodium Lidar Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Janches, Diego; Jones, Sarah L.; Blagojevic, Branimir; Chen, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a laser and electro-optic technology to remotely measure Sodium (Na) by adapting existing lidar technology with space flight heritage. The developed instrumentation will serve as the core for the planning of an Heliophysics mission targeted to study the composition and dynamics of Earth's mesosphere based on a spaceborne lidar that will measure the mesospheric Na layer. We present performance results from our diode-pumped tunable Q-switched self-Raman c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser with intra-cavity frequency doubling that produces multi-watt 589 nm wavelength output. The c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser has a fundamental wavelength that is tunable from 1063-1067 nanometers. A CW (Continuous Wave) External Cavity diode laser is used as a injection seeder to provide single-frequency grating tunable output around 1066 nanometers. The injection-seeded self-Raman shifted Nd:VO4 laser is tuned across the sodium vapor D2 line at 589 nanometers. We will review technologies that provide strong leverage for the sodium lidar laser system with strong heritage from the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS). These include a space-qualified frequency-doubled 9 watts-at-532-nanometer wavelength Nd:YVO4 laser, a tandem interference filter temperature-stabilized fused-silica-etalon receiver and high-bandwidth photon-counting detectors.

  12. The Hubble Legacy Archive: Data Processing in the Era of AstroDrizzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Hubble Legacy Archive Team, The Hubble Source Catalog Team

    2015-01-01

    The Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) expands the utility of Hubble Space Telescope wide-field imaging data by providing high-level composite images and source lists, perusable and immediately available online. The latest HLA data release (DR8.0) marks a fundamental change in how these image combinations are produced, using DrizzlePac tools and Astrodrizzle to reduce geometric distortion and provide improved source catalogs for all publicly available data. We detail the HLA data processing and source list schemas, what products are newly updated and available for WFC3 and ACS, and how these data products are further utilized in the production of the Hubble Source Catalog. We also discuss plans for future development, including updates to WFPC2 products and field mosaics.

  13. On the determination of the Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, V.G.; Harutyunyan, V.V.; Kocharyan, A.A.

    1990-10-01

    The possibility of an alternative determination of the distance scale of the Universe and the Hubble constant based on the numerical analysis of the hierarchical nature of the large scale Universe (galaxies, clusters and superclusters) is proposed. The results of computer experiments performed by means of special numerical algorithms are represented. (author). 9 refs, 7 figs

  14. Dark Energy and the Hubble Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.

    The Big Bang predicted by Friedmann could not be empirically discovered in the 1920th, since global cosmological distances (more than 300-1000 Mpc) were not available for observations at that time. Lemaitre and Hubble studied receding motions of galaxies at local distances of less than 20-30 Mpc and found that the motions followed the (nearly) linear velocity-distance relation, known now as Hubble's law. For decades, the real nature of this phenomenon has remained a mystery, in Sandage's words. After the discovery of dark energy, it was suggested that the dynamics of local expansion flows is dominated by omnipresent dark energy, and it is the dark energy antigravity that is able to introduce the linear velocity-distance relation to the flows. It implies that Hubble's law observed at local distances was in fact the first observational manifestation of dark energy. If this is the case, the commonly accepted criteria of scientific discovery lead to the conclusion: In 1927, Lemaitre discovered dark energy and Hubble confirmed this in 1929.

  15. Hubble expansion in a Euclidean framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1979-01-01

    There now seems to be strong evidence for a non-cosmological interpretation of the QSO redshift - in any case, so strong that it is of interest to investigate the consequences. The purpose of this paper is to construct a model of the Hubble expansion which is as far as possible from the conventional Big Bang model without coming in conflict with any well-established observational results (while introducing no new laws of physics). This leads to an essentially Euclidean metagalactic model (see Table I) with very little mass outside one-third or half of the Hubble radius. The total kinetic energy of the Hubble expansion need only to be about 5% of the rest mass energy. Present observations support backwards in time extrapolation of the Hubble expansion to a 'minimum size galaxy' Rsub(m), which may have any value in 0 26 cm. Other arguments speak in favor of a size close to the upper value, say Rsub(m) = 10 26 cm (Table II). As this size is probably about 100 times the Schwarzschild limit, an essentially Euclidean description is allowed. The kinetic energy of the Hubble expansion may derive from an intense QSO-like activity in the minimum size metagalaxy, with an energy release corresponding to the annihilation of a few solar masses per galaxy per year. Some of the conclusions based on the Big Bang hypothesis are criticized and in several cases alternative interpretations are suggested. A comparison between the Euclidean and the conventional models is given in Table III. (orig.)

  16. Instruments and techniques for analysing the time-resolved transverse phase space distribution of high-brightness electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, Jeniffa

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the instruments and techniques used to characterise the transverse phase space distribution of high-brightness electron beams. In particular, methods are considered allowing to measure the emittance as a function of the longitudinal coordinate within the bunch (slice emittance) with a resolution in the ps to sub-ps range. The main objective of this work is the analysis of techniques applicable for the time-resolved phase space characterisation for future high-brightness electron beam sources and single-pass accelerators based on these. The competence built up by understanding and comparing different techniques is to be used for the design and operation of slice diagnostic systems for the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project (BERLinPro). In the framework of the thesis, two methods applicable for slice emittance measurements are considered, namely the zero-phasing technique and the use of a transverse deflector. These methods combine the conventional quadrupole scan technique with a transfer of the longitudinal distribution into a transverse distribution. Measurements were performed within different collaborative projects. The experimental setup, the measurement itself and the data analysis are discussed as well as measurement results and simulations. In addition, the phase space tomography technique is introduced. In contrast to quadrupole scan-based techniques, tomography is model-independent and can reconstruct the phase space distribution from simple projected measurements. The developed image reconstruction routine based on the Maximum Entropy algorithm is introduced. The quality of the reconstruction is tested using different model distributions, simulated data and measurement data. The results of the tests are presented. The adequacy of the investigated techniques, the experimental procedures as well as the developed data analysis tools could be verified. The experimental and practical experience gathered during this work, the

  17. PACMan to Help Sort Hubble Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Every year, astronomers submit over a thousand proposals requesting time on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Currently, humans must sort through each of these proposals by hand before sending them off for review. Could this burden be shifted to computers?A Problem of VolumeAstronomer Molly Peeples gathered stats on the HST submissions sent in last week for the upcoming HST Cycle 25 (the deadline was Friday night), relative to previous years. This years proposal round broke the record, with over 1200 proposals submitted in total for Cycle 25. [Molly Peeples]Each proposal cycle for HST time attracts on the order of 1100 proposals accounting for far more HST time than is available. The proposals are therefore carefully reviewed by around 150 international members of the astronomy community during a six-month process to select those with the highest scientific merit.Ideally, each proposal will be read by reviewers that have scientific expertise relevant to the proposal topic: if a proposal requests HST time to study star formation, for instance, then the reviewers assigned to it should have research expertise in star formation.How does this matching of proposals to reviewers occur? The current method relies on self-reported categorization of the submitted proposals. This is unreliable, however; proposals are often mis-categorized by submitters due to misunderstanding or ambiguous cases.As a result, the Science Policies Group at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) which oversees the review of HST proposals must go through each of the proposals by hand and re-categorize them. The proposals are then matched to reviewers with self-declared expertise in the same category.With the number of HST proposals on the rise and the expectation that the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will elicit even more proposals for time than Hubble scientists at STScI and NASA are now asking: could the human hours necessary for this task be spared? Could a computer program

  18. New design and new challenge for space large ultralightweight and stable Zerodur© mirror for future high resolution observation instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devilliers, C.; Du Jeu, C.; Costes, V.; Suau, A.; Girault, N.; Cornillon, L.

    2017-11-01

    Space telescopes pupil diameter increases continuously to reach higher resolutions and associated optical scheme become more sensitive. As a consequence the size of these telescopes but also their stability requirements increase. Therefore, mass of space telescopes becomes a strong design driver to be still compatible with price competitive launcher capabilities. Moreover satellite agility requirements are more and more severe and instruments shall be compatible with quick evolution of thermal environment.

  19. MOVING OBJECTS IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, Alexandros [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Von Hippel, Ted, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: ted.vonhippel@erau.edu [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 S. Clyde Morris Blvd., Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We identify proper motion objects in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) using the optical data from the original UDF program in 2004 and the near-infrared data from the 128 orbit UDF 2012 campaign. There are 12 sources brighter than I = 27 mag that display >3{sigma} significant proper motions. We do not find any proper motion objects fainter than this magnitude limit. Combining optical and near-infrared photometry, we model the spectral energy distribution of each point-source using stellar templates and state-of-the-art white dwarf models. For I {<=} 27 mag, we identify 23 stars with K0-M6 spectral types and two faint blue objects that are clearly old, thick disk white dwarfs. We measure a thick disk white dwarf space density of 0.1-1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} pc{sup -3} from these two objects. There are no halo white dwarfs in the UDF down to I = 27 mag. Combining the Hubble Deep Field North, South, and the UDF data, we do not see any evidence for dark matter in the form of faint halo white dwarfs, and the observed population of white dwarfs can be explained with the standard Galactic models.

  20. Caliste-SO X-ray micro-camera for the STIX instrument on-board Solar Orbiter space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuris, A.; Hurford, G.; Bednarzik, M.; Limousin, O.; Gevin, O.; Le Mer, I.; Martignac, J.; Horeau, B.; Grimm, O.; Resanovic, R.; Krucker, S.; Orleański, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is an instrument on the Solar-Orbiter space mission that performs hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy of solar flares. It consists of 32 collimators with grids and 32 spectrometer units called Caliste-SO for indirect Fourier-transform imaging. Each Caliste-SO device integrates a 1 cm 2 CdTe pixel sensor with a low-noise low-power analog front-end ASIC and circuits for supply regulation and filtering. The ASIC named IDeF-X HD is designed by CEA/Irfu (France) whereas CdTe-based semiconductor detectors are provided by the Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). The design of the hybrid, based on 3D Plus technology (France), is well suited for STIX spectroscopic requirements (1 keV FWHM at 6 keV, 4 keV low-level threshold) and system constraints (4 W power and 5 kg mass). The performance of the sub-assemblies and the design of the first Caliste-SO prototype are presented.

  1. HUBBLE'S PANORAMIC PORTRAIT OF A VAST STAR-FORMING REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a panoramic portrait of a vast, sculpted landscape of gas and dust where thousands of stars are being born. This fertile star-forming region, called the 30 Doradus Nebula, has a sparkling stellar centerpiece: the most spectacular cluster of massive stars in our cosmic neighborhood of about 25 galaxies. The mosaic picture shows that ultraviolet radiation and high-speed material unleashed by the stars in the cluster, called R136 [the large blue blob left of center], are weaving a tapestry of creation and destruction, triggering the collapse of looming gas and dust clouds and forming pillar-like structures that are incubators for nascent stars. The photo offers an unprecedented, detailed view of the entire inner region of 30 Doradus, measuring 200 light-years wide by 150 light-years high. The nebula resides in the Large Magellanic Cloud (a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way), 170,000 light-years from Earth. Nebulas like 30 Doradus are the 'signposts' of recent star birth. High-energy ultraviolet radiation from the young, hot, massive stars in R136 causes the surrounding gaseous material to glow. Previous Hubble telescope observations showed that R136 contains several dozen of the most massive stars known, each about 100 times the mass of the Sun and about 10 times as hot. These stellar behemoths all formed at the same time about 2 million years ago. The stars in R136 are producing intense 'stellar winds' (streams of material traveling at several million miles an hour), which are wreaking havoc on the gas and dust in the surrounding neighborhood. The winds are pushing the gas away from the cluster and compressing the inner regions of the surrounding gas and dust clouds [the pinkish material]. The intense pressure is triggering the collapse of parts of the clouds, producing a new generation of star formation around the central cluster. The new stellar nursery is about 30 to 50 light-years from R136. Most of the stars in the

  2. Kodak Mirror Assembly Tested at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This photo (a frontal view) is of one of many segments of the Eastman-Kodak mirror assembly being tested for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). MSFC is supporting Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in developing the JWST by taking numerous measurements to predict its future performance. The tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber cooled to approximate the super cold temperatures found in space. During its 27 years of operation, the facility has performed testing in support of a wide array of projects, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Solar A, Chandra technology development, Chandra High Resolution Mirror Assembly and science instruments, Constellation X-Ray Mission, and Solar X-Ray Imager, currently operating on a Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite. The JWST is NASA's next generation space telescope, a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, named in honor of NASA's second administrator, James E. Webb. It is scheduled for launch in 2010 aboard an expendable launch vehicle. It will take about 3 months for the spacecraft to reach its destination, an orbit of 940,000 miles in space.

  3. Selections from 2017: Hubble Survey Explores Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2017, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume in January.CANDELS Multi-Wavelength Catalogs: Source Identification and Photometry in the CANDELS COSMOSSurvey FieldPublished January2017Main takeaway:A publication led byHooshang Nayyeri(UC Irvine and UC Riverside) early this year details acatalog of sources built using the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey(CANDELS), a survey carried out by cameras on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The catalogliststhe properties of 38,000 distant galaxies visiblewithin the COSMOS field, a two-square-degree equatorial field explored in depthto answer cosmological questions.Why its interesting:Illustration showing the three-dimensional map of the dark matter distribution in theCOSMOS field. [Adapted from NASA/ESA/R. Massey(California Institute of Technology)]The depth and resolution of the CANDELS observations areuseful for addressingseveral major science goals, including the following:Studying the most distant objects in the universe at the epoch of reionization in the cosmic dawn.Understanding galaxy formation and evolution during the peak epoch of star formation in the cosmic high noon.Studying star formation from deep ultravioletobservations and studying cosmology from supernova observations.Why CANDELS is a major endeavor:CANDELS isthe largest multi-cycle treasury program ever approved on the Hubble Space Telescope using over 900 orbits between 2010 and 2013 withtwo cameras on board the spacecraftto study galaxy formation and evolution throughout cosmic time. The CANDELS images are all publicly available, and the new catalogrepresents an enormous source of information about distant objectsin our universe.CitationH. Nayyeri et al 2017 ApJS 228 7. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/228/1/7

  4. Challenges with Electrical, Electronics, and Electromechanical Parts for James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jah, Muzar A.; Jeffers, Basil S.

    2016-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the space-based observatory that will extend the knowledge gained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Hubble focuses on optical and ultraviolet wavelengths while JWST focuses on the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, to see the earliest stars and galaxies that formed in the Universe and to look deep into nearby dust clouds to study the formation of stars and planets. JWST, which commenced creation in 1996, is scheduled to launch in 2018. It includes a suite of four instruments, the spacecraft bus, optical telescope element, Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM, the platform to hold the instruments), and a sunshield. The mass of JWST is approximately 6200 kg, including observatory, on-orbit consumables and launch vehicle adaptor. Many challenges were overcome while providing the electrical and electronic components for the Goddard Space Flight Center hardware builds. Other difficulties encountered included developing components to work at cryogenic temperatures, failures of electronic components during development and flight builds, Integration and Test electronic parts problems, and managing technical issues with international partners. This paper will present the context of JWST from a EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) perspective with examples of challenges and lessons learned throughout the design, development, and fabrication of JWST in cooperation with our associated partners including the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the European Space Agency (ESA), Lockheed Martin and their respective associated partners. Technical challenges and lessons learned will be discussed.

  5. Planetary Conjunction: Economics, Politics, and Partnering In Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Andrade Gutierrez Quimica Ltda, Centro Tecnico Aerospacial, Empresa Brasileira de Telecomunicacões, Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco, and Instituto...Activity (EVA) During Space Transportation System (STS) -82, a Servicing Mission for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).........................33 13...responsible for the solar array that would power Hubble while in orbit.63 Figure 12: An Extravehicular Activity (EVA) During Space Transportation

  6. A 2.4% DETERMINATION OF THE LOCAL VALUE OF THE HUBBLE CONSTANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riess, Adam G.; Scolnic, Dan; Jones, David O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Macri, Lucas M.; Hoffmann, Samantha L.; Yuan, Wenlong; Brown, Peter J. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Casertano, Stefano [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Tucker, Brad E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Reid, Mark J.; Challis, Peter [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Chornock, Ryan [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Foley, Ryan J., E-mail: ariess@stsci.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to reduce the uncertainty in the local value of the Hubble constant from 3.3% to 2.4%. The bulk of this improvement comes from new near-infrared (NIR) observations of Cepheid variables in 11 host galaxies of recent type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), more than doubling the sample of reliable SNe Ia having a Cepheid-calibrated distance to a total of 19; these in turn leverage the magnitude-redshift relation based on ∼300 SNe Ia at z < 0.15. All 19 hosts as well as the megamaser system NGC 4258 have been observed with WFC3 in the optical and NIR, thus nullifying cross-instrument zeropoint errors in the relative distance estimates from Cepheids. Other noteworthy improvements include a 33% reduction in the systematic uncertainty in the maser distance to NGC 4258, a larger sample of Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a more robust distance to the LMC based on late-type detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs), HST observations of Cepheids in M31, and new HST -based trigonometric parallaxes for Milky Way (MW) Cepheids. We consider four geometric distance calibrations of Cepheids: (i) megamasers in NGC 4258, (ii) 8 DEBs in the LMC, (iii) 15 MW Cepheids with parallaxes measured with HST /FGS, HST /WFC3 spatial scanning and/or Hipparcos , and (iv) 2 DEBs in M31. The Hubble constant from each is 72.25 ± 2.51, 72.04 ± 2.67, 76.18 ± 2.37, and 74.50 ± 3.27 km s{sup 1} Mpc{sup 1}, respectively. Our best estimate of H {sub 0} = 73.24 ± 1.74 km s{sup 1} Mpc{sup 1} combines the anchors NGC 4258, MW, and LMC, yielding a 2.4% determination (all quoted uncertainties include fully propagated statistical and systematic components). This value is 3.4 σ higher than 66.93 ± 0.62 km s{sup 1} Mpc{sup 1} predicted by ΛCDM with 3 neutrino flavors having a mass of 0.06 eV and the new Planck data, but the discrepancy reduces to 2.1 σ relative to the prediction of 69.3 ± 0.7 km s{sup 1} Mpc{sup 1} based on the

  7. Space qualification of an automotive microcontroller for the DREAMS-P/H pressure and humidity instrument on board the ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkanen, T.; Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Genzer, M.; Hieta, M.; Haukka, H.; Kemppinen, O.

    2015-10-01

    Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has developed a novel kind of pressure and humidity instrument for the Schiaparelli Mars lander, which is a part of the ExoMars 2016 mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) [1]. The DREAMS-P pressure instrument and DREAMS-H humidity instrument are part of the DREAMS science package on board the lander. DREAMS-P (seen in Fig. 1 and DREAMS-H were evolved from earlier planetary pressure and humidity instrument designs by FMI with a completely redesigned control and data unit. Instead of using the conventional approach of utilizing a space grade processor component, a commercial off the shelf microcontroller was selected for handling the pressure and humidity measurements. The new controller is based on the Freescale MC9S12XEP100 16-bit automotive microcontroller. Coordinated by FMI, a batch of these microcontroller units (MCUs) went through a custom qualification process in order to accept the component for spaceflight on board a Mars lander.

  8. Hubble Servicing Challenges Drive Innovation of Shuttle Rendezvous Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John L.; Walker, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing, performed by Space Shuttle crews, has contributed to what is arguably one of the most successful astronomy missions ever flown. Both nominal and contingency proximity operations techniques were developed to enable successful servicing, while lowering the risk of damage to HST systems, and improve crew safety. Influencing the development of these techniques were the challenges presented by plume impingement and HST performance anomalies. The design of both the HST and the Space Shuttle was completed before the potential of HST contamination and structural damage by shuttle RCS jet plume impingement was fully understood. Relative navigation during proximity operations has been challenging, as HST was not equipped with relative navigation aids. Since HST reached orbit in 1990, proximity operations design for servicing missions has evolved as insight into plume contamination and dynamic pressure has improved and new relative navigation tools have become available. Servicing missions have provided NASA with opportunities to gain insight into servicing mission design and development of nominal and contingency procedures. The HST servicing experiences and lessons learned are applicable to other programs that perform on-orbit servicing and rendezvous, both human and robotic.

  9. Angular scattering of 1–50 keV ions through graphene and thin carbon foils: Potential applications for space plasma instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Robert W.; Allegrini, Frédéric; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Nicolaou, Georgios; Bedworth, Peter; Sinton, Steve; Trattner, Karlheinz J.

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental results for the angular scattering of ∼1–50 keV H, He, C, O, N, Ne, and Ar ions transiting through graphene foils and compare them with scattering through nominal ∼0.5 μg cm −2 carbon foils. Thin carbon foils play a critical role in time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers and energetic neutral atom sensors in space. These instruments take advantage of the charge exchange and secondary electron emission produced as ions or neutral atoms transit these foils. This interaction also produces angular scattering and energy straggling for the incident ion or neutral atom that acts to decrease the performance of a given instrument. Our results show that the angular scattering of ions through graphene is less pronounced than through the state-of-the-art 0.5 μg cm −2 carbon foils used in space-based particle detectors. At energies less than 50 keV, the scattering angle half width at half maximum, ψ 1/2 , for ∼3–5 atoms thick graphene is up to a factor of 3.5 smaller than for 0.5 μg cm −2 (∼20 atoms thick) carbon foils. Thus, graphene foils have the potential to improve the performance of space-based plasma instruments for energies below ∼50 keV

  10. UVUDF: Ultraviolet Imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field with Wide-Field Camera 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Rafelski, Marc; Kurczynski, Peter; Bond, Nicholas A.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Atek, Hakim; Brown, Thomas M.; Coe, Dan; Colbert, James W.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Gronwall, Caryl; Hanish, Daniel J.; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; de Mello, Duilia F.; Ravindranath, Swara; Ryan, Russell E.; Siana, Brian D.; Scarlata, Claudia; Soto, Emmaris; Voyer, Elysse N.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2013-12-01

    We present an overview of a 90 orbit Hubble Space Telescope treasury program to obtain near-ultraviolet imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field using the Wide Field Camera 3 UVIS detector with the F225W, F275W, and F336W filters. This survey is designed to: (1) investigate the episode of peak star formation activity in galaxies at 1 dropouts at redshifts 1.7, 2.1, and 2.7 is largely consistent with the number predicted by published luminosity functions. We also confirm that the image mosaics have sufficient sensitivity and resolution to support the analysis of the evolution of star-forming clumps, reaching 28-29th magnitude depth at 5σ in a 0.''2 radius aperture depending on filter and observing epoch. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are #12534.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Astrometry of the Procyon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-10

    subtraction effectively removes 85%–90% of the flux . As shown by the red boxes in Figure 3, we used only relatively small regions containing high-S/N...the Procyon system. The stability of planets orbiting the individual stars in a binary system has been studied numerically by, among others, Holman...orbits in the Procyon system are about 3.7 years for a planet orbiting Procyon A, and 2.8 years for one orbiting Procyon B. We calculated the

  12. The Carnegie-Chicago Hubble Program. II. The Distance to IC 1613: The Tip of the Red Giant Branch and RR Lyrae Period-luminosity Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Dylan; Beaton, Rachael L.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Jang, In-Sung; Hoyt, Taylor J.; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Monson, Andrew J.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Scowcroft, Victoria; Seibert, Mark

    2017-08-01

    IC 1613 is an isolated dwarf galaxy within the Local Group. Low foreground and internal extinction, low metallicity, and low crowding make it an invaluable testbed for the calibration of the local distance ladder. We present new, high-fidelity distance estimates to IC 1613 via its Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) and its RR Lyrae (RRL) variables as part of the Carnegie-Chicago Hubble Program, which seeks an alternate local route to H 0 using Population II stars. We have measured a TRGB magnitude {I}{ACS}{TRGB}=20.35+/- {0.01}{stat}+/- {0.01}{sys} mag using wide-field observations obtained from the IMACS camera on the Magellan-Baade telescope. We have further constructed optical and near-infrared RRL light curves using archival BI- and new H-band observations from the ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR instruments on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In advance of future Gaia data releases, we set provisional values for the TRGB luminosity via the Large Magellanic Cloud and Galactic RRL zero-points via HST parallaxes. We find corresponding true distance moduli {μ }0{TRGB}=24.30+/- {0.03}{stat}+/- {0.05}{sys} {mag} and =24.28+/- {0.04}{stat+{sys}} mag. We compare our results to a body of recent publications on IC 1613 and find no statistically significant difference between the distances derived from Population I and II stars. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #10505 and #13691. Additional observations are credited to the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington for the use of Magellan-Baade IMACS. Presented as part of a dissertation to the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. degree.

  13. Quasar Host Galaxies/Neptune Rotation/Galaxy Building Blocks/Hubble Deep Field/Saturn Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Computerized animations simulate a quasar erupting in the core of a normal spiral galaxy, the collision of two interacting galaxies, and the evolution of the universe. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images show six quasars' host galaxies (including spirals, ellipticals, and colliding galaxies) and six clumps of galaxies approximately 11 billion light years away. A false color time lapse movie of Neptune displays the planet's 16-hour rotation, and the evolution of a storm on Saturn is seen though a video of the planet's rotation. A zoom sequence starts with a ground-based image of the constellation Ursa major and ends with the Hubble Deep Field through progressively narrower and deeper views.

  14. Validation of Atmosphere/Ionosphere Signals Associated with Major Earthquakes by Multi-Instrument Space-Borne and Ground Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Hattori, Katsumi; Parrot, Michel; Liu, J. Y.; Yang, T. F.; Arellano-Baeza, Alonso; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    ) eahquakes. Results have revealed the presence of related variations of these parameters implying their connection with the earthquake process. The second phase (B) of this validation included 102 major earthquakes (M>5.9) in Taiwan and Japan. We have found anomalous behavior before all of these events with no false negatives. False alarm ratio for false positives is less then 10% and has been calculated for the same month of the earthquake occurrence for the entire period of analysis (2003-2009). The commonalities for detecting atmospheric/ionospheric anomalies are: i.) Regularly appearance over regions of maximum stress (i.e., along plate boundaries); ii.) Anomaly existence over land and sea; and iii) association with M>5.9 earthquakes not deeper than 100km. Due to their long duration over the same region these anomalies are not consistent with a meteorological origin. Our initial results from the ISTF validation of multi-instrument space-borne and ground observations show a systematic appearance of atmospheric anomalies near the epicentral area, one to seven (average) days prior to the largest earthquakes, and suggest that it could be explained by a coupling process between the observed physical parameters and the pre-earthquake preparation processes.

  15. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  16. The ESA Hubble 15th Anniversary Campaign: A Trans-European collaboration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoulias, Manolis; Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Kornmesser, Martin

    2006-08-01

    On April 24th 2005, NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope had been in orbit for 15 years. The anniversary was celebrated by ESA with the production of an 83 min. scientific movie and a 120 pages book, both titled ``Hubble, 15 years of discovery''. In order to cross language and distribution barriers a network of 16 translators and 22 partners from more than 10 countries was established. The DVD was distributed in approximately 700,000 copies throughout Europe. The project was amongst the largest of its kind with respect to collaboration, distribution and audience impact. It clearly demonstrated how international collaboration can produce effective cross-cultural educational and outreach products for astronomy.

  17. Space telescope phase B definition study. Volume 2A: Science instruments, high speed point/area photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of a high speed point/area photometer for the space telescope are summarized. The scientific objectives, photometer requirements, and design concepts are presented.

  18. Space telescope phase B definition study. Volume 2A: Science instruments, f48/96 planetary camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, R. P.; Mccarthy, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of the f48/96 planetary camera for the space telescope are discussed. The camera design is for application to the axial module position of the optical telescope assembly.

  19. The Mechanical Design of a Kinematic Mount for the Mid Infrared Instrument Focal Plane Module on the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Michael P.; Moore, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    The detector assembly for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is mechanically supported in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) Assembly with an efficient hexapod design. The kinematic mount design allows for precision adjustment of the detector boresight to assembly alignment fiducials and maintains optical alignment requirements during flight conditions of launch and cryogenic operations below 7 Kelvin. This kinematic mounting technique is able to be implemented in a variety of optical-mechanical designs and is capable of micron level adjustment control and stability over wide dynamic and temperature ranges.

  20. Infrared observations of giant elliptical galaxies: (V-K) colors and the infrared Hubble diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasdalen, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The (V-K) colors of giant elliptical galaxies as a function of redshift are discussed. Present data are consistent with mild color evolution at z approximately 0.45. An infrared Hubble (redshift-magnitude) diagram is given. Cosmological models with q 0 =0 and no luminosity evolution are clearly excluded by the present data. A wide variety of models including those with q 0 =0 are permissible if luminosity evolution is included. Instrumental and programmatic implications of these results are summarized. (Auth.)

  1. Space Particle Data from Combined X-ray Dosimeter (CXD) and Burst Detection Dosimeter (BDD) instruments on the GPS constellation from 2014-01-01 to 2014-01-31 (NCEI Accession 0150968)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Energetic particle data from the CXD and BDD instrument on the GPS constellation are available to the space weather research community. The release of these data...

  2. An updated Type II supernova Hubble diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, E. E. E.; Kotak, R.; Leibundgut, B.; Taubenberger, S.; Hillebrandt, W.; Kromer, M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Smith, K.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2018-03-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of nine Type II-P/L supernovae (SNe) with redshifts in the 0.045 ≲ z ≲ 0.335 range, with a view to re-examining their utility as distance indicators. Specifically, we apply the expanding photosphere method (EPM) and the standardized candle method (SCM) to each target, and find that both methods yield distances that are in reasonable agreement with each other. The current record-holder for the highest-redshift spectroscopically confirmed supernova (SN) II-P is PS1-13bni (z = 0.335-0.012+0.009), and illustrates the promise of Type II SNe as cosmological tools. We updated existing EPM and SCM Hubble diagrams by adding our sample to those previously published. Within the context of Type II SN distance measuring techniques, we investigated two related questions. First, we explored the possibility of utilising spectral lines other than the traditionally used Fe IIλ5169 to infer the photospheric velocity of SN ejecta. Using local well-observed objects, we derive an epoch-dependent relation between the strong Balmer line and Fe IIλ5169 velocities that is applicable 30 to 40 days post-explosion. Motivated in part by the continuum of key observables such as rise time and decline rates exhibited from II-P to II-L SNe, we assessed the possibility of using Hubble-flow Type II-L SNe as distance indicators. These yield similar distances as the Type II-P SNe. Although these initial results are encouraging, a significantly larger sample of SNe II-L would be required to draw definitive conclusions. Tables A.1, A.3, A.5, A.7, A.9, A.11, A.13, A.15 and A.17 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A25

  3. The Hubble Legacy Archive ACS grism data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, M.; Rosati, P.; Fosbury, R.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Nilsson, K. K.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    A public release of slitless spectra, obtained with ACS/WFC and the G800L grism, is presented. Spectra were automatically extracted in a uniform way from 153 archival fields (or "associations") distributed across the two Galactic caps, covering all observations to 2008. The ACS G800L grism provides a wavelength range of 0.55-1.00 μm, with a dispersion of 40 Å/pixel and a resolution of ~80 Å for point-like sources. The ACS G800L images and matched direct images were reduced with an automatic pipeline that handles all steps from archive retrieval, alignment and astrometric calibration, direct image combination, catalogue generation, spectral extraction and collection of metadata. The large number of extracted spectra (73,581) demanded automatic methods for quality control and an automated classification algorithm was trained on the visual inspection of several thousand spectra. The final sample of quality controlled spectra includes 47 919 datasets (65% of the total number of extracted spectra) for 32 149 unique objects, with a median iAB-band magnitude of 23.7, reaching 26.5 AB for the faintest objects. Each released dataset contains science-ready 1D and 2D spectra, as well as multi-band image cutouts of corresponding sources and a useful preview page summarising the direct and slitless data, astrometric and photometric parameters. This release is part of the continuing effort to enhance the content of the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) with highly processed data products which significantly facilitate the scientific exploitation of the Hubble data. In order to characterize the slitless spectra, emission-line flux and equivalent width sensitivity of the ACS data were compared with public ground-based spectra in the GOODS-South field. An example list of emission line galaxies with two or more identified lines is also included, covering the redshift range 0.2 - 4.6. Almost all redshift determinations outside of the GOODS fields are new. The scope of science projects

  4. THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD (UDF12): OBSERVATIONAL OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ellis, Richard S.; Schenker, Matthew A. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Cirasuolo, Michele; Wild, V.; Targett, T. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Charlot, Stephane [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014, Paris (France); Furlanetto, Steven R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We present the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field campaign (UDF12), a large 128 orbit Cycle 19 Hubble Space Telescope program aimed at extending previous Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/IR observations of the UDF by quadrupling the exposure time in the F105W filter, imaging in an additional F140W filter, and extending the F160W exposure time by 50%, as well as adding an extremely deep parallel field with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the F814W filter with a total exposure time of 128 orbits. The principal scientific goal of this project is to determine whether galaxies reionized the universe; our observations are designed to provide a robust determination of the star formation density at z ∼> 8, improve measurements of the ultraviolet continuum slope at z ∼ 7-8, facilitate the construction of new samples of z ∼ 9-10 candidates, and enable the detection of sources up to z ∼ 12. For this project we committed to combining these and other WFC3/IR imaging observations of the UDF area into a single homogeneous dataset to provide the deepest near-infrared observations of the sky. In this paper we present the observational overview of the project and describe the procedures used in reducing the data as well as the final products that were produced. We present the details of several special procedures that we implemented to correct calibration issues in the data for both the WFC3/IR observations of the main UDF field and our deep 128 orbit ACS/WFC F814W parallel field image, including treatment for persistence, correction for time-variable sky backgrounds, and astrometric alignment to an accuracy of a few milliarcseconds. We release the full, combined mosaics comprising a single, unified set of mosaics of the UDF, providing the deepest near-infrared blank-field view of the universe currently achievable, reaching magnitudes as deep as AB ∼ 30 mag in the near-infrared, and yielding a legacy dataset on this field.

  5. THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD (UDF12): OBSERVATIONAL OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ellis, Richard S.; Schenker, Matthew A.; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Cirasuolo, Michele; Wild, V.; Targett, T.; Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P.; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Charlot, Stephane; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field campaign (UDF12), a large 128 orbit Cycle 19 Hubble Space Telescope program aimed at extending previous Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/IR observations of the UDF by quadrupling the exposure time in the F105W filter, imaging in an additional F140W filter, and extending the F160W exposure time by 50%, as well as adding an extremely deep parallel field with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in the F814W filter with a total exposure time of 128 orbits. The principal scientific goal of this project is to determine whether galaxies reionized the universe; our observations are designed to provide a robust determination of the star formation density at z ∼> 8, improve measurements of the ultraviolet continuum slope at z ∼ 7-8, facilitate the construction of new samples of z ∼ 9-10 candidates, and enable the detection of sources up to z ∼ 12. For this project we committed to combining these and other WFC3/IR imaging observations of the UDF area into a single homogeneous dataset to provide the deepest near-infrared observations of the sky. In this paper we present the observational overview of the project and describe the procedures used in reducing the data as well as the final products that were produced. We present the details of several special procedures that we implemented to correct calibration issues in the data for both the WFC3/IR observations of the main UDF field and our deep 128 orbit ACS/WFC F814W parallel field image, including treatment for persistence, correction for time-variable sky backgrounds, and astrometric alignment to an accuracy of a few milliarcseconds. We release the full, combined mosaics comprising a single, unified set of mosaics of the UDF, providing the deepest near-infrared blank-field view of the universe currently achievable, reaching magnitudes as deep as AB ∼ 30 mag in the near-infrared, and yielding a legacy dataset on this field

  6. Hubble induced mass after inflation in spectator field models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Tomohiro [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Harigaya, Keisuke, E-mail: tomofuji@stanford.edu, E-mail: keisukeh@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Spectator field models such as the curvaton scenario and the modulated reheating are attractive scenarios for the generation of the cosmic curvature perturbation, as the constraints on inflation models are relaxed. In this paper, we discuss the effect of Hubble induced masses on the dynamics of spectator fields after inflation. We pay particular attention to the Hubble induced mass by the kinetic energy of an oscillating inflaton, which is generically unsuppressed but often overlooked. In the curvaton scenario, the Hubble induced mass relaxes the constraint on the property of the inflaton and the curvaton, such as the reheating temperature and the inflation scale. We comment on the implication of our discussion for baryogenesis in the curvaton scenario. In the modulated reheating, the predictions of models e.g. the non-gaussianity can be considerably altered. Furthermore, we propose a new model of the modulated reheating utilizing the Hubble induced mass which realizes a wide range of the local non-gaussianity parameter.

  7. Hubble's View of Little Blue Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of tiny, star-forming galaxy is the latest in a zoo of detections shedding light on our early universe. What can we learn from the unique little blue dots found in archival Hubble data?Peas, Berries, and DotsGreen pea galaxies identified by citizen scientists with Galaxy Zoo. [Richard Nowell Carolin Cardamone]As telescope capabilities improve and we develop increasingly deeper large-scale surveys of our universe, we continue to learn more about small, faraway galaxies. In recent years, increasing sensitivity first enabled the detection of green peas luminous, compact, low-mass (10 billion solar masses; compare this to the Milky Ways 1 trillion solar masses!) galaxies with high rates of star formation.Not long thereafter, we discovered galaxies that form stars similarly rapidly, but are even smaller only 330 million solar masses, spanning less than 3,000 light-years in size. These tiny powerhouses were termed blueberries for their distinctive color.Now, scientists Debra and Bruce Elmegreen (of Vassar College and IBM Research Division, respectively) report the discovery of galaxies that have even higher star formation rates and even lower masses: little blue dots.Exploring Tiny Star FactoriesThe Elmegreens discovered these unique galaxies by exploring archival Hubble data. The Hubble Frontier Fields data consist of deep images of six distant galaxy clusters and the parallel fields next to them. It was in the archival data for two Frontier Field Parallels, those for clusters Abell 2744 and MAS J0416.1-2403, that the authors noticed several galaxies that stand out as tiny, bright, blue objects that are nearly point sources.Top: a few examples of the little blue dots recently identified in two Hubble Frontier Field Parallels. Bottom: stacked images for three different groups of little blue dots. [Elmegreen Elmegreen 2017]The authors performed a search through the two Frontier Field Parallels, discovering a total of 55 little blue dots

  8. Price of shifting the Hubble constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evslin, Jarah; Sen, Anjan A.; Ruchika

    2018-05-01

    An anisotropic measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature fixes the product of the Hubble constant and the acoustic scale H0rd. Therefore, regardless of the dark energy dynamics, to accommodate a higher value of H0 one needs a lower rd and so necessarily a modification of early time cosmology. One must either reduce the age of the Universe at the drag epoch or else the speed of sound in the primordial plasma. The first can be achieved, for example, with dark radiation or very early dark energy, automatically preserving the angular size of the acoustic scale in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with no modifications to post-recombination dark energy. However, it is known that the simplest such modifications fall afoul of CMB constraints at higher multipoles. As an example, we combine anisotropic BAO with geometric measurements from strong lensing time delays from H0LiCOW and megamasers from the Megamaser Cosmology Project to measure rd, with and without the local distance ladder measurement of H0. We find that the best fit value of rd is indeed quite insensitive to the dark energy model and is also hardly affected by the inclusion of the local distance ladder data.

  9. Replacement vs. Renovation: The Reincarnation of Hubble Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurek, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    At the original Hubble Middle School, neither the views (a congested Roosevelt Road and glimpses of downtown Wheaton) nor the century-old facility that offered them was very inspiring. Built at the start of the 20th century, the 250,000-square-foot building was converted from Wheaton Central High School to Hubble Middle School in the early 1980s.…

  10. Exploring the Birth and Evolution of the Universe: How Detectors Have Revolutionized Space Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Samuel H.

    2012-01-01

    The past century has seen tremendous advances in the capability of instruments used for astronomical imaging and spectroscopy. Capabilities of instruments have expanded in many dimensions; the scale of telescopes has grown tremendously, the wavelengths used for astronomy have grown from visible light to the full electromagnetic spectrum, extending from gamma rays to low frequency radio waves. Additional advances have been enabled by the availability of space facilities, which eliminate the effects of the earths atmosphere and magnetosphere, and allow cooling of instruments to avoid instrumental thermal radiation. Even with all these advances, the increase in capability of detection systems has produced truly revolutionary improvements in capability. Today, I will describe the advances in astronomical detection from the photographic plates of the early 20th century to the giant high efficiency focal planes being developed for modern space and ground based astronomical instrument. I will review the demanding performance requirements set by space astronomy, and show how the detector community has risen to the challenge in producing high performance detectors for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the James Webb Space Telescope, now under development.

  11. Views from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2002-01-01

    Only in the last century have human beings flown in space and men and machines have explored the worlds of our solar system. Robots have gone to most of the our neighboring worlds, the valleys of Mars and the clouds and moons of Jupiter. Instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope have looked into deep space. Those of us on the earth have been able to participate as vicarious explorers through the records, and experiences and the photographs that have been returned. At the beginning of the space program hardly anyone thought of photographs from space as anything more than a branch of industrial photography. There were pictures of the spaceships, and launches and of astronauts in training, but these were all pictures taken on the ground. When John Glenn became America's first man in orbit, bringing a camera was an afterthought. An Ansco Autoset was purchased in a drug store and hastily modified so the astronaut could use it more easily while in his pressure suit. In 1962, everything that Glenn did was deemed an experiment. At the beginning of the program, no one knew for certain whether weightlessness would prevent a man from seeing, or from breathing, or from eating and swallowing. Photography was deemed nothing more than a recreational extra. Not only was little expected of those first pictures taken from space, but there was serious concern that taking pictures of other nations from orbit would be seen as an act of ill will and even one of war- as sovereign sensitive nations would resent having pictures taken by Americans orbiting overhead. A few years earlier, in 1957, in reaction to the Soviet launch of the first Sputnik satellite, scientists told congressman of the necessity of orbiting our own robot spacecraft-they predicted that one day we would take daily pictures of the world's weather. Congressman were incredulous. But space photography developed quickly. For security purposes, spy satellites took over many of the responsibilities we had depended upon

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hubble Source Catalog (V1 and V2) (Whitmore+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, B. C.; Allam, S. S.; Budavari, T.; Casertano, S.; Downes, R. A.; Donaldson, T.; Fall, S. M.; Lubow, S. H.; Quick, L.; Strolger, L.-G.; Wallace, G.; White, R. L.

    2016-10-01

    The HSC v1 contains members of the WFPC2, ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR Source Extractor source lists from HLA version DR8 (data release 8). The crossmatching process involves adjusting the relative astrometry of overlapping images so as to minimize positional offsets between closely aligned sources in different images. After correction, the astrometric residuals of crossmatched sources are significantly reduced, to typically less than 10mas. The relative astrometry is supported by using Pan-STARRS, SDSS, and 2MASS as the astrometric backbone for initial corrections. In addition, the catalog includes source nondetections. The crossmatching algorithms and the properties of the initial (Beta 0.1) catalog are described in Budavari & Lubow (2012ApJ...761..188B). The HSC v2 contains members of the WFPC2, ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR Source Extractor source lists from HLA version DR9.1 (data release 9.1). The crossmatching process involves adjusting the relative astrometry of overlapping images so as to minimize positional offsets between closely aligned sources in different images. After correction, the astrometric residuals of crossmatched sources are significantly reduced, to typically less than 10mas. The relative astrometry is supported by using Pan-STARRS, SDSS, and 2MASS as the astrometric backbone for initial corrections. In addition, the catalog includes source nondetections. The crossmatching algorithms and the properties of the initial (Beta 0.1) catalog are described in Budavari & Lubow (2012ApJ...761..188B). Hubble Source Catalog Acknowledgement: Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and obtained from the Hubble Legacy Archive, which is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI/NASA), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF/ESAC/ESA) and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC/NRC/CSA). (2 data files).

  13. Primordial black holes, cosmic rays and instrumental developments for the Cerenkov imager of the AMS space experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudoul, G.

    2003-09-01

    The AMS experiment will be implemented on the International Space Station in 2006 for 3 years. It will study cosmic rays and should open a new window to look for dark matter and antimatter in the Universe. This work is, first, devoted to the experimental study of the Cherenkov (RICH) detector of AMS which will determine with a good accuracy the velocity and electric charge of the incoming particles. The chosen photodetectors, the electronic tests, the general schematics, the prototypes operating (including beam tests at CERN) are described into the details. The second part is made of theoretical investigations of some cosmic ray physics problems and to a possible exotic source: evaporating primordial black holes. The astrophysical, cosmological and gravitational (including speculative string gravity approaches) consequences of their possible existence are reviewed in details. (author)

  14. The space telescope: A study of NASA, science, technology, and politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert William

    1989-01-01

    Scientific, technological, economic, and political aspects of NASA efforts to orbit a large astronomical telescope are examined in a critical historical review based on extensive interviews with participants and analysis of published and unpublished sources. The scientific advantages of large space telescopes are explained; early plans for space observatories are summarized; the history of NASA and its major programs is surveyed; the redesign of the original Large Space Telescope for Shuttle deployability is discussed; the impact of the yearly funding negotiations with Congress on the development of the final Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is described; and the implications of the HST story for the future of large space science projects are explored. Drawings, photographs, a description of the HST instruments and systems, and lists of the major contractors and institutions participating in the HST program are provided.

  15. Gravity waves as a probe of the Hubble expansion rate during an electroweak scale phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Zhou Peng

    2010-01-01

    Just as big bang nucleosynthesis allows us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was around 1 MeV, the measurement of gravity waves from electroweak scale first order phase transitions may allow us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was at the electroweak scale. We compute the simple transformation rule for the gravity wave spectrum under the scaling transformation of the Hubble expansion rate. We then apply this directly to the scenario of quintessence kination domination and show how gravity wave spectra would shift relative to Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and Big Bang Observer projected sensitivities.

  16. Hubble 3D: A Science and Hollywood Collaboration Made (Nearly) in Heaven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-04-01

    Just 2 days after the 2010 Academy Awards® ceremony in early March bestowed Oscars® for motion picture achievements, NASA deputy administrator Lori Garver touted a new film about the Hubble Space Telescope, Hubble 3D, for best drama, special effects, screenplay, actors and actress, and director and producer. The 43-minute IMAX and Warner Brothers Pictures production, which opened in theaters on 19 March, is an example of the ability of Hollywood and the science community to partner in providing a dynamic educational and entertaining product, according to a number of people associated with the film. Sharing the red carpet at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D. C., with astronauts and others to mark the world premiere, Garver said the film shows the drama of the astronauts’ efforts to repair the telescope while traveling 17,000 miles per hour and performing grueling space walks (see Figure 1). “We have literally opened our eyes on the universe through this telescope,” she said. “This is a taxpayer-funded agency, and we are giving back to the public the very story that they paid for.”

  17. NASA and ESA astronauts visit ESO. Hubble repair team meets European astronomers in Garching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    On Wednesday, February 16, 1994, seven NASA and ESA astronauts and their spouses will spend a day at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. They are the members of the STS-61 crew that successfully repaired the Hubble Space Telescope during a Space Shuttle mission in December 1993. This will be the only stop in Germany during their current tour of various European countries. ESO houses the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST/ECF), a joint venture by the European Space Agency and ESO. This group of astronomers and computer specialists provide all services needed by European astronomers for observations with the Space Telescope. Currently, the European share is about 20 of the total time available at this telescope. During this visit, a Press Conference will be held on Wednesday, February 16, 11:45 - 12:30 at the ESO Headquarters Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2 D-85748 Garching bei Munchen. Please note that participation in this Press Conference is by invitation only. Media representatives may obtain invitations from Mrs. E. Volk, ESO Information Service at this address (Tel.: +49-89-32006276; Fax.: +49-89-3202362), until Friday, February 11, 1994. After the Press Conference, between 12:30 - 14:00, a light refreshment will be served at the ESO Headquarters to all participants. >From 14:00 - 15:30, the astronauts will meet with students and teachers from the many scientific institutes in Garching in the course of an open presentation at the large lecture hall of the Physics Department of the Technical University. It is a 10 minute walk from ESO to the hall. Later the same day, the astronauts will be back at ESO for a private discussion of various space astronomy issues with their astronomer colleagues, many of whom are users of the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as ground-based telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory and elsewhere. The astronauts continue to Switzerland in the evening.

  18. High-resolution space-time characterization of convective rain cells: implications on spatial aggregation and temporal sampling operated by coarser resolution instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco; Morin, Efrat

    2017-04-01

    Forecasting the occurrence of flash floods and debris flows is fundamental to save lives and protect infrastructures and properties. These natural hazards are generated by high-intensity convective storms, on space-time scales that cannot be properly monitored by conventional instrumentation. Consequently, a number of early-warning systems are nowadays based on remote sensing precipitation observations, e.g. from weather radars or satellites, that proved effective in a wide range of situations. However, the uncertainty affecting rainfall estimates represents an important issue undermining the operational use of early-warning systems. The uncertainty related to remote sensing estimates results from (a) an instrumental component, intrinsic of the measurement operation, and (b) a discretization component, caused by the discretization of the continuous rainfall process. Improved understanding on these sources of uncertainty will provide crucial information to modelers and decision makers. This study aims at advancing knowledge on the (b) discretization component. To do so, we take advantage of an extremely-high resolution X-Band weather radar (60 m, 1 min) recently installed in the Eastern Mediterranean. The instrument monitors a semiarid to arid transition area also covered by an accurate C-Band weather radar and by a relatively sparse rain gauge network ( 1 gauge/ 450 km2). Radar quantitative precipitation estimation includes corrections reducing the errors due to ground echoes, orographic beam blockage and attenuation of the signal in heavy rain. Intense, convection-rich, flooding events recently occurred in the area serve a