WorldWideScience

Sample records for instructions requesting explanations

  1. Examining elementary teachers' knowledge and instruction of scientific explanations for fostering children's explanations in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebke, Heidi Lynn

    This study employed an embedded mixed methods multi-case study design (Creswell, 2014) with six early childhood (grades K-2) teachers to examine a) what changes occurred to their subject matter knowledge (SMK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching scientific explanations while participating in a professional development program, b) how they planned for and implemented scientific explanation instruction within a teacher developed unit on properties of matter, and c) what affordances their instruction of scientific explanations had on fostering their students' abilities to generate explanations in science. Several quantitative and qualitative measures were collected and analyzed in accordance to this studies conceptual framework, which consisted of ten instructional practices teachers should consider assimilating or accommodating into their knowledge base (i.e., SMK & PCK) for teaching scientific explanations. Results of this study indicate there was little to no positive change in the teachers' substantive and syntactic SMK. However, all six teachers did make significant changes to all five components of their PCK for teaching explanations in science. While planning for scientific explanation instruction, all six teachers' contributed some ideas for how to incorporate seven of the ten instructional practices for scientific explanations within the properties of matter unit they co-developed. When enacting the unit, the six teachers' employed seven to nine of the instructional practices to varying levels of effectiveness, as measured by researcher developed rubrics. Given the six teachers' scientific explanation instruction, many students did show improvement in their ability to formulate a scientific explanation, particularly their ability to provide multiple pieces of evidence. Implications for professional developers, teacher educators, researchers, policy makers, and elementary teachers regarding how to prepare teachers for and support students

  2. Normative study of theme identifiability: Instructions with and without explanation of the false memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Maria Soledad; Cadavid, Sara

    2016-12-01

    False-memory illusions have been widely studied using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm (DRM). In this paradigm, words semantically related to a single nonpresented critical word are studied. In a later memory test, critical words are often falsely recalled and recognized. The present normative study was conducted to measure the theme identifiability of 60 associative word lists in Spanish that include six words (e.g., stove, coat, blanket, scarf, chill, and bonnet) that are simultaneously associated with three critical words (e.g., HEAT, COLD, and WINTER; Beato & Díez, Psicothema, 26, 457-463, 2011). Different levels of backward associative strength were used in the construction of the DRM lists. In addition, we used two types of instructions to obtain theme identifiability. In the without-explanation condition, traditional instructions were used, requesting participants to write the theme list. In the with-explanation condition, the false-memory effect and how the lists were built were explained, and an example of a DRM list and critical words was shown. Participants then had to discover the critical words. The results showed that all lists produced theme identifiability. Moreover, some lists had a higher theme identifiability rate (e.g., 61 % for the critical words LOVE, BOYFRIEND, COUPLE) than others (e.g., 24 % for CITY, PLACE, VILLAGE). After comparing the theme identifiabilities in the different conditions, the results indicated higher theme identifiability when the false-memory effect was explained than without such an explanation. Overall, these new normative data provide a useful tool for those experiments that, for example, aim to analyze the wide differences observed in false memory with DRM lists and the role of theme identifiability.

  3. Learning from instructional explanations: effects of prompts based on the active-constructive-interactive framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, Julian; Müller, Claudia; Roelle, Detlev; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active learning hypothesis, the learners received either (1) complete explanations and engaging prompts designed to elicit active activities or (2) explanations that were reduced by inferences and inference prompts designed to engage learners in constructing the withheld information. Furthermore, in order to explore how interactive learning activities can be elicited, we gave the learners who had difficulties in constructing the prompted inferences adapted remedial explanations with either (3) unspecific engaging prompts or (4) revision prompts. In support of the active learning hypothesis, we found that the learners who received reduced explanations and inference prompts outperformed the learners who received complete explanations and engaging prompts. Moreover, revision prompts were more effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1) a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2) a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive learning hypothesis, the learners who received

  4. Unraveling the Effects of Critical Thinking Instructions, Practice, and Self-Explanation on Students' Reasoning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of critical thinking skills is considered an important goal in higher education, but it is still unclear which specific instructional techniques are effective for fostering it. The main aim of this study was to unravel the impact of critical thinking instructions, practice, and self-explanation prompts during practice, on students'…

  5. Experience and Explanation: Using Videogames to Prepare Students for Formal Instruction in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Dylan A.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Well-designed digital games can deliver powerful experiences that are difficult to provide through traditional instruction, while traditional instruction can deliver formal explanations that are not a natural fit for gameplay. Combined, they can accomplish more than either can alone. An experiment tested this claim using the topic of statistics,…

  6. 75 FR 75453 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Technical Data Letter of Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Request; Technical Data Letter of Explanation AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION: Notice....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract These technical data letters of explanation will assure the Bureau of Industry and Security that U.S.-origin technical data will be exported only for...

  7. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  8. Self-Explanation, An Instructional Strategy to Foster Clinical Reasoning in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Chamberland

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical reasoning is a critical and complex skill that medical students have to develop in the course of their training. Although research on medical expertise has successfully examined the different components of that skill, designing educational interventions that support the development of clinical reasoning in students remains a challenge for medical educators. The theory of medical expertise describes how students׳ medical knowledge develops and is progressively restructured during their training and in particular through clinical exposure to patient problems. Instructional strategies to foster students’ learning from practice with clinical cases are scarce. This article describes the use of self-explanation as such a strategy. Self-explanation is an active learning technique of proven effectiveness in other domains which consists of having students explaining to themselves information on to-be-learned materials. The mechanisms through which self-explanation fosters learning are described. Self-explanation promotes knowledge development and revision of mental representations through elaboration on new information, organisation and integration of new knowledge into existing cognitive structures and monitoring of the learning process. Subsequently, the article shows how self-explanation has recently been investigated in medicine as an instructional strategy to support students׳ clinical reasoning. Available studies have demonstrated that students׳ diagnostic performance improves when they use self-explanation while solving clinical problems of a less familiar clinical topic. Unfamiliarity seems to trigger more self-explanations and to stimulate students to reactivate relevant biomedical knowledge, which could lead to the development of more coherent representations of diseases. The benefit of students׳ self-explanation is increased when it is combined with listening to residents׳ self-explanation examples and with prompts. The

  9. Experience and Explanation: Using Videogames to Prepare Students for Formal Instruction in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Dylan A.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2014-08-01

    Well-designed digital games can deliver powerful experiences that are difficult to provide through traditional instruction, while traditional instruction can deliver formal explanations that are not a natural fit for gameplay. Combined, they can accomplish more than either can alone. An experiment tested this claim using the topic of statistics, where people's everyday experiences often conflict with normative statistical theories and a videogame might provide an alternate set of experiences for students to draw upon. The research used a game called Stats Invaders!, a variant of the classic videogame Space Invaders. In Stats Invaders!, the locations of descending alien invaders follow probability distributions, and players need to infer the shape of the distributions to play well. The experiment tested whether the game developed participants' intuitions about the structure of random events and thereby prepared them for future learning from a subsequent written passage on probability distributions. Community-college students who played the game and then read the passage learned more than participants who only read the passage.

  10. Unraveling the effects of critical thinking instructions, practice, and self-explanation on students’ reasoning performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of critical thinking skills is considered an important goal in higher education, but it is still unclear which specific instructional techniques are effective for fostering it. The main aim of this study was to unravel the impact of critical thinking instructions, practice, and

  11. Vocational Education Program/Course Inventory Form PCI. Explanation and Instructional Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Sacramento.

    This manual for teachers, administrators, and counselors both explains the Program/Course Inventory (PCI), a data collection instrument, and provides instructions for completing the PCI form. The first section describes the PCI developed by the Ventura County Superintendent of Schools staff to collect data that define vocational education…

  12. Surveying Libraries to Identify Best Practices for a Menu Approach for Library Instruction Requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Benjes-Small

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A challenging situation has developed in regards to library instruction. With increases in both the quantity of information and the variety of information technologies being made available to researchers, the information literacy landscape is getting more complex. Simultaneously, the time allotted for library instruction is remaining essentially the same. In order to market the breadth of content available for library instruction sessions and to promote collaboration between librarians and teaching faculty in order to create optimal instruction sessions an 'a la carte menu' approach to library instruction requests was adopted by Radford University in 2004. Since the late 1990s a number of community colleges and universities have included some type of menu in their instruction request forms or documentation and the authors desired to understand what approach these institutions had taken and whether they were effective in marketing instruction and improving communication between library instructors and teaching faculty. They analyzed forty-seven adaptations of the menu available on the web and surveyed the librarians who created them. In this article the authors present the findings of the web analysis and the survey, and recommendations are given for using the menu approach to library instruction requests.

  13. Supporting students' scientific explanations: A case study investigating the synergy focusing on a teacher's practices when providing instruction and using mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delen, Ibrahim

    Engage students in constructing scientific practices is a critical component of science instruction. Therefore a number of researchers have developed software programs to help students and teachers in this hard task. The Zydeco group, designed a mobile application called Zydeco, which enables students to collect data inside and outside the classroom, and then use the data to create scientific explanations by using claim-evidence-reasoning framework. Previous technologies designed to support scientific explanations focused on how these programs improve students' scientific explanations, but these programs ignored how scientific explanation technologies can support teacher practices. Thus, to increase our knowledge how different scaffolds can work together, this study aimed to portray the synergy between a teacher's instructional practices (part 1) and using supports within a mobile devices (part 2) to support students in constructing explanations. Synergy can be thought of as generic and content-specific scaffolds working together to enable students to accomplish challenging tasks, such as creating explanations that they would not normally be able to do without the scaffolds working together. Providing instruction (part 1) focused on understanding how the teacher scaffolds students' initial understanding of the claim-evidence-reasoning (CER) framework. The second component of examining synergy (part 2: using mobile devices) investigated how this teacher used mobile devices to provide feedback when students created explanations. The synergy between providing instruction and using mobile devices was investigated by analyzing a middle school teacher's practices in two different units (plants and water quality). Next, this study focused on describing how the level of synergy influenced the quality of students' scientific explanations. Finally, I investigated the role of focused teaching intervention sessions to inform teacher in relation to students' performance. In

  14. 77 FR 57576 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection to OMB and Comment Request: Legal Instructions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... connection with the assignment, legal documents (e.g., mortgage, mortgage note, security agreement, title... Information Collection to OMB and Comment Request: Legal Instructions Concerning Applications for Full... mortgages to HUD. In connection with the assignment, legal documents (e.g., mortgage, mortgage note...

  15. Kindergarten girls "illuminating" their identities-in-practice through science instruction framed in explanation building: From the shadows into the light

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDyre, Alicia M.

    Recent research on young children's learning has revealed that they are capable of sophisticated scientific reasoning and has prompted a new era of reform framed around the integration of three main strands -- core disciplinary ideas, scientific and engineering practices, and cross-cutting themes. Given the documented issues with girls in science in later grades, I chose to examine their participation in scientific norms and practices in kindergarten to gain insights into their identities-in-practice. From the perspective of identity as an enactment of self, I used the lens identities-in-practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991) to examine the impact that having classroom science instruction framed around constructing explanations with evidence would have on the girls in the class. In this study, I drew from theories of sociocultural learning, positioning, and identities-in-practice to study: a) the norms of participation, b) the authoring and positioning of girls, and c) the identities-in-practice that the girls' enacted in the kindergarten science classroom. Using a research design informed by qualitative methods and participant observation, I analyzed data using a constant comparative approach and crafted case studies of four girls in the science classroom. Three assertions were generated from this study: a) Identity-in-practice manifests differently in different literacy practices and shows how students chose to be science students across time and activities- a focus on one literacy practice alone is insufficient to understand identity; b) The ways in which the teacher positions girls, especially "quiet" girls, is essential for engaging them in productive participation in science discourse and learning; and c) A focus on classroom science instruction grounded in constructing explanations from evidence provided a consistent framework for students' writing and talking, which facilitated the establishment of expectations and norms of participation for all students

  16. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Acceptance of Disability: Understanding Intentions to Request Instructional Accommodations in Post-Secondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, JoAnn

    2013-01-01

    Graduating high-school students with disabilities are making the decision to pursue a post-secondary education in greater numbers. While many students with disabilities self-identify at enrollment as having a disability and thereby qualify for instructional accommodations, few of them request accommodations to assist with meeting course…

  17. Evaluating Teachers' Support Requests When Just-in-Time Instructional Support is Provided to Introduce a Primary Level Web-Based Reading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eileen; Anderson, Alissa; Piquette-Tomei, Noella; Savage, Robert; Mueller, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Support requests were documented for 10 teachers (4 kindergarten, 4 grade one, and 2 grade one/two teachers) who received just-in-time instructional support over a 2 1/2 month period while implementing a novel reading software program as part of their literacy instruction. In-class observations were made of each instructional session. Analysis of…

  18. Effectiveness of the use of question-driven levels of inquiry based instruction (QD-LOIBI) assisted visual multimedia supported teaching material on enhancing scientific explanation ability senior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandi, A.; Muslim; Samsudin, A.; Hermita, N.; Supriyatman

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of the use of Question-Driven Levels of Inquiry Based Instruction (QD-LOIBI) assisted visual multimedia supported teaching materials on enhancing senior high school students scientific explanation ability has been studied. QD-LOIBI was designed by following five-levels of inquiry proposed by Wenning. Visual multimedia used in teaching materials included image (photo), virtual simulation and video phenomena. QD-LOIBI assisted teaching materials supported by visual multimedia were tried out on senior high school students at one high school in one district in West Java. A quasi-experiment method with design one experiment group (n = 31) and one control group (n = 32) were used. Experimental group were given QD-LOIBI assisted teaching material supported by visual multimedia, whereas the control group were given QD-LOIBI assisted teaching materials not supported visual multimedia. Data on the ability of scientific explanation in both groups were collected by scientific explanation ability test in essay form concerning kinetic gas theory concept. The results showed that the number of students in the experimental class that has increased the category and quality of scientific explanation is greater than in the control class. These results indicate that the use of multimedia supported instructional materials developed for implementation of QD-LOIBI can improve students’ ability to provide explanations supported by scientific evidence gained from practicum activities and applicable concepts, laws, principles or theories.

  19. Eliciting explanations: Constraints on when self-explanation aids learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Loehr, Abbey M

    2017-10-01

    Generating explanations for oneself in an attempt to make sense of new information (i.e., self-explanation) is often a powerful learning technique. Despite its general effectiveness, in a growing number of studies, prompting for self-explanation improved some aspects of learning, but reduced learning of other aspects. Drawing on this recent research, as well as on research comparing self-explanation under different conditions, we propose four constraints on the effectiveness of self-explanation. First, self-explanation promotes attention to particular types of information, so it is better suited to promote particular learning outcomes in particular types of domains, such as transfer in domains guided by general principles or heuristics. Second, self-explaining a variety of types of information can improve learning, but explaining one's own solution methods or choices may reduce learning under certain conditions. Third, explanation prompts focus effort on particular aspects of the to-be-learned material, potentially drawing effort away from other important information. Explanation prompts must be carefully designed to align with target learning outcomes. Fourth, prompted self-explanation often promotes learning better than unguided studying, but alternative instructional techniques may be more effective under some conditions. Attention to these constraints should optimize the effectiveness of self-explanation as an instructional technique in future research and practice.

  20. Creating visual explanations improves learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Eliza; Tversky, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Many topics in science are notoriously difficult for students to learn. Mechanisms and processes outside student experience present particular challenges. While instruction typically involves visualizations, students usually explain in words. Because visual explanations can show parts and processes of complex systems directly, creating them should have benefits beyond creating verbal explanations. We compared learning from creating visual or verbal explanations for two STEM domains, a mechanical system (bicycle pump) and a chemical system (bonding). Both kinds of explanations were analyzed for content and learning assess by a post-test. For the mechanical system, creating a visual explanation increased understanding particularly for participants of low spatial ability. For the chemical system, creating both visual and verbal explanations improved learning without new teaching. Creating a visual explanation was superior and benefitted participants of both high and low spatial ability. Visual explanations often included crucial yet invisible features. The greater effectiveness of visual explanations appears attributable to the checks they provide for completeness and coherence as well as to their roles as platforms for inference. The benefits should generalize to other domains like the social sciences, history, and archeology where important information can be visualized. Together, the findings provide support for the use of learner-generated visual explanations as a powerful learning tool.

  1. Motivated Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ePatterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.

  2. Pragmatic Instruction May Not Be Necessary among Heritage Speakers of Spanish: A Study on Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros García, María J.; Bachelor, Jeremy W.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the pragmatic competence of U.S. heritage speakers of Spanish in an attempt to determine (a) the degree of pragmatic transfer from English to Spanish experienced by heritage speakers when producing different types of requests in Spanish; and (b) how to best teach pragmatics to students of Spanish as a Heritage Language (SHL).…

  3. 77 FR 40383 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Labor Condition Application and Instructions for H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... information collection, Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control Number 1205- 0310, containing Form ETA... for Nonimmigrants (electronic version); Form ETA 9035CP--General Instructions for the 9035 & 9035E... Information Form. OMB Control Number: 1205-0310. Affected Public: Businesses or other for-profits, not-for...

  4. The Effect of Consciousness-Raising Instruction on the Pragmatic Development of Apology and Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Ali; Eslami, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research in interlanguage pragmatics (ILP) has documented that some features of pragmatics lend themselves well to instruction. Due to the abundant teaching approaches, nevertheless, it is still controversial which are most conducive to learning. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the effectiveness of…

  5. Scientific Explanations and Piagetian Operational Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Joel E.; Maddux, Cleborne D.

    1982-01-01

    Examined effects of operational levels of ninth-grade (N=16) and college (N=40) students on causal explanations they recalled after instruction. Results indicate concrete/formal students recalled explanations requiring chaining of two implication statements while formal subjects outperformed concrete subjects in reconstruction of complex…

  6. An Explicit/Implicit Lead to Producing Requests: Eliciting Learners’ Awareness or Soliciting Metapragmatic Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Ariana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate the extent to which two types of pragmatic instruction -explicit versus implicit- affect learners’ knowledge in terms of their awareness and production of request strategies. Thirty students with the same level of proficiency were divided into two groups (explicit and implicit. They were exposed to listening excerpts taken from the book Tactics for Listening, with the focus on request making strategies. While the explicit group was equipped with direct awareness-raising tasks and written metapragmatic explanations on the use of appropriate requests, the implicit group was provided with a set of implicit awareness-raising tasks. Outcomes of the study demonstrate that pragmatic instruction of requesting improved learners’ awareness of both groups. Also an improvement of learners’ production of requests did take place in both groups after the interventional period. However, the explicit group outperformed the implicit one as far as production of request making was concerned.

  7. Promoting Vicarious Learning of Physics Using Deep Questions with Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Scotty D.; Gholson, Barry; Brittingham, Joshua K.; Williams, Joah L.; Shubeck, Keith T.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored the role of vicarious "self" explanations in facilitating student learning gains during computer-presented instruction. In Exp. 1, college students with low or high knowledge on Newton's laws were tested in four conditions: (a) monologue (M), (b) questions (Q), (c) explanation (E), and (d) question + explanation (Q + E).…

  8. Explanations - Styles of explanation in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, John

    2004-06-01

    Our lives, states of health, relationships, behavior, experiences of the natural world, and the technologies that shape our contemporary existence are subject to a superfluity of competing, multi-faceted and sometimes incompatible explanations. Widespread confusion about the nature of "explanation" and its scope and limits pervades popular exposition of the natural sciences, popular history and philosophy of science. This fascinating book explores the way explanations work, why they vary between disciplines, periods, and cultures, and whether they have any necessary boundaries. In other words, Explanations aims to achieve a better understanding of explanation, both within the sciences and the humanities. It features contributions from expert writers from a wide range of disciplines, including science, philosophy, mathematics, and social anthropology.

  9. Analogy, explanation, and proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, John E.; Licato, John; Bringsjord, Selmer

    2014-01-01

    People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic) whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof). What do the cognitive operations underlying the inference that the milk is sour have in common with the proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This seemingly small difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning to understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence. PMID:25414655

  10. Great Explanations: Opinionated Explanations for Recommendation

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Khalil; Lawlor, Aonghus; Rafter, Rachael; Smyth, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Explaining recommendations helps users to make better, more satisfying decisions. We describe a novel approach to explanation for recommender systems, one that drives the recommendation process, while at the same time providing the user with useful insights into the reason why items have been chosen and the trade-os they may need to consider when making their choice. We describe this approach in the context ofa case-based recommender system that harnesses opinions mined from user-generated re...

  11. Analogy, Explanation, and Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eHummel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  12. Algorithms and Their Explanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benini, M.; Gobbo, F.; Beckmann, A.; Csuhaj-Varjú, E.; Meer, K.

    2014-01-01

    By analysing the explanation of the classical heapsort algorithm via the method of levels of abstraction mainly due to Floridi, we give a concrete and precise example of how to deal with algorithmic knowledge. To do so, we introduce a concept already implicit in the method, the ‘gradient of

  13. The Best Explanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Anders Trærup

    information so that it is easy to read and understand. And answer structure matters—imagine assembling a piece of IKEA furniture if the order of instructions is scrambled. In general, text is structured by discourse relations, and discourse markers (DMs, e.g. however, moreover, then) are the most apparent...

  14. Explanations and expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2015-01-01

    drug use ‘aetiologies’ drawn upon by the interviewees. These cover childhood experiences, self-medication, the influence of friends and cannabis use as a specific lifestyle. A central argument of the article is that these explanations not only concern the past but also point towards the future......This article analyses how young people enrolled in drug addiction treatment in Copenhagen, Denmark, explain their cannabis careers and how they view their possibilities for quitting drug use again. Inspired by Mead and narrative studies of health and illness, the article identifies four different...

  15. Constructing Scientific Explanations: a System of Analysis for Students' Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Vanessa; Freire, Sofia; Baptista, Mónica

    2017-08-01

    This article describes a system of analysis aimed at characterizing students' scientific explanations. Science education literature and reform documents have been highlighting the importance of scientific explanations for students' conceptual understanding and for their understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge. Nevertheless, and despite general agreement regarding the potential of having students construct their own explanations, a consensual notion of scientific explanation has still not been reached. As a result, within science education literature, there are several frameworks defining scientific explanations, with different foci as well as different notions of what accounts as a good explanation. Considering this, and based on a more ample project, we developed a system of analysis to characterize students' explanations. It was conceptualized and developed based on theories and models of scientific explanations, science education literature, and from examples of students' explanations collected by an open-ended questionnaire. With this paper, it is our goal to present the system of analysis, illustrating it with specific examples of students' collected explanations. In addition, we expect to point out its adequacy and utility for analyzing and characterizing students' scientific explanations as well as for tracing their progression.

  16. Library Instruction. SPEC Kit 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    At the request of the Pennsylvania State University Library, the Office of Management Studies surveyed Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members requesting information and documentation illustrating the organization, nature, and level of the library instruction function at their institutions. A review of the responses from 64 of the 94 ARL…

  17. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

  18. Impact of Self-Explanation and Analogical Comparison Support on Learning Processes, Motivation, Metacognition, and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, J. Elizabeth

    Research examining analogical comparison and self-explanation has produced a robust set of findings about learning and transfer supported by each instructional technique. However, it is unclear how the types of knowledge generated through each technique differ, which has important implications for cognitive theory as well as instructional practice. I conducted a pair of experiments to directly compare the effects of instructional prompts supporting self-explanation, analogical comparison, and the study of instructional explanations across a number of fine-grained learning process, motivation, metacognition, and transfer measures. Experiment 1 explored these questions using sequence extrapolation problems, and results showed no differences between self-explanation and analogical comparison support conditions on any measure. Experiment 2 explored the same questions in a science domain. I evaluated condition effects on transfer outcomes; self-reported self-explanation, analogical comparison, and metacognitive processes; and achievement goals. I also examined relations between transfer and self-reported processes and goals. Receiving materials with analogical comparison support and reporting greater levels of analogical comparison were both associated with worse transfer performance, while reporting greater levels of self-explanation was associated with better performance. Learners' self-reports of self-explanation and analogical comparison were not related to condition assignment, suggesting that the questionnaires did not measure the same processes promoted by the intervention, or that individual differences in processing are robust even when learners are instructed to engage in self-explanation or analogical comparison.

  19. Using Self-Explanations in the Laboratory to Connect Theory and Practice: The Decision/ Explanation/Observation/Inference Writing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzor, Andrea Gay

    2016-01-01

    While many faculty seek to use student-centered, inquiry-based approaches in teaching laboratories, transitioning from traditional to inquiry instruction can be logistically challenging. This paper outlines use of a laboratory notebook and report writing-to-learn method that emphasizes student self-explanations of procedures and outcomes,…

  20. Explanation components as interactive tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlster, W.

    1983-01-01

    The ability to explain itself is probably the most important criterion of the user-friendliness of interactive systems. Explanation aids in the form of simple help functions do not meet this criterion. The reasons for this are outlined. More promising is an explanation component which can give the user intelligible and context-oriented explanations. The essential requirement for this is the development of knowledge-based interactive systems using artificial intelligence methods and techniques. The authors report on experiences with the development of explanation components, in particular a number of examples from the HAM-ANS project. 12 references.

  1. Improving critical thinking : Effects of dispositions and instructions oneconomics students' reasoning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    This experiment investigated the impact of critical thinking dispositions and instructions on economics students' performance on reasoning skills. Participants (. N=. 183) were exposed to one of four conditions: critical thinking instruction, critical thinking instruction with self-explanation

  2. Explanation and inference: Mechanistic and functional explanations guide property generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania eLombrozo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to generalize from the known to the unknown is central to learning and inference. Two experiments explore the relationship between how a property is explained and how that property is generalized to novel species and artifacts. The experiments contrast the consequences of explaining a property mechanistically, by appeal to parts and processes, with the consequences of explaining the property functionally, by appeal to functions and goals. The findings suggest that properties that are explained functionally are more likely to be generalized on the basis of shared functions, with a weaker relationship between mechanistic explanations and generalization on the basis of shared parts and processes. The influence of explanation type on generalization holds even though all participants are provided with the same mechanistic and functional information, and whether an explanation type is freely generated (Experiment 1, experimentally provided (Experiment 2, or experimentally induced (Experiment 2. The experiments also demonstrate that explanations and generalizations of a particular type (mechanistic or functional can be experimentally induced by providing sample explanations of that type, with a comparable effect when the sample explanations come from the same domain or from a different domains. These results suggest that explanations serve as a guide to generalization, and contribute to a growing body of work supporting the value of distinguishing mechanistic and functional explanations.

  3. Explanation and inference: mechanistic and functional explanations guide property generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Gwynne, Nicholas Z

    2014-01-01

    The ability to generalize from the known to the unknown is central to learning and inference. Two experiments explore the relationship between how a property is explained and how that property is generalized to novel species and artifacts. The experiments contrast the consequences of explaining a property mechanistically, by appeal to parts and processes, with the consequences of explaining the property functionally, by appeal to functions and goals. The findings suggest that properties that are explained functionally are more likely to be generalized on the basis of shared functions, with a weaker relationship between mechanistic explanations and generalization on the basis of shared parts and processes. The influence of explanation type on generalization holds even though all participants are provided with the same mechanistic and functional information, and whether an explanation type is freely generated (Experiment 1), experimentally provided (Experiment 2), or experimentally induced (Experiment 2). The experiments also demonstrate that explanations and generalizations of a particular type (mechanistic or functional) can be experimentally induced by providing sample explanations of that type, with a comparable effect when the sample explanations come from the same domain or from a different domains. These results suggest that explanations serve as a guide to generalization, and contribute to a growing body of work supporting the value of distinguishing mechanistic and functional explanations.

  4. Indexing and Exploiting a Discourse History to Generate Context-Sensitive Explanations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Johanna D

    1993-01-01

    ... to their own previous explanations. Based on a study of human-human instructional inter- actions, we are categorizing the uses of previous discourse and are developing a computational model of this behavior...

  5. Automated Explanation for Educational Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthers, Daniel D.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques available for generating explanations for teaching purposes are surveyed, and the way in which they are combined in a computer program that provides explanations is described. The program responds to questions in the physical sciences. Potential contributions of this technology to computer-based education are…

  6. Sequential and simultaneous multiple explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Litchfield

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two experiments comparing variants of multiple explanation applied in the early stages of a judgment task (a case involving employee theft where participants are not given a menu of response options. Because prior research has focused on situations where response options are provided to judges, we identify relevant dependent variables that an intervention might affect when such options are not given. We use these variables to build a causal model of intervention that illustrates both the intended effects of multiple explanation and some potentially competing processes that it may trigger. Although multiple explanation clearly conveys some benefits (e.g., willingness to delay action to engage in information search, increased detail, quality and confidence in alternative explanations in the present experiments, we also found evidence that it may initiate or enhance processes that attenuate its advantages (e.g., feelings that one does not need more data if one has multiple good explanations.

  7. WPPSS debacle: explanations and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Principal explanations for the WPPSS events to date can be more or less satisfactorily derived. Five explanations appear to dominate: (1) the long and previously successful history of public power in the Pacific Northwest; (2) overoptimism by architect/engineers and consulting engineers about construction costs and construction durations; (3) laxness by bond counsel in scrutinizing and disclosing potential legal impediments to the various transactions involved; (4) WPPSS easy access to capital markets, combined with naivete in those markets; and (5) the inability of WPPSS to manage and oversee the construction process. This paper explains the specific reasons for, and the importance of, each of these five explanations for the WPPSS debacle. It then develops lessons and conclusions for the future which can be derived from this debacle. 12 references

  8. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  9. Economic explanations for concurrent sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent sourcing is a phenomenon where firms simultaneously make and buy the same good, i.e. they simultaneously use the governance modes of market and hierarchy. Though concurrent sourcing seems to be widespread, few studies of sourcing have focused on this phenomenon. This paper reviews...... different economic explanations for why firms use concurrent sourcing. The distinctive features of the explanations are compared, and it is discussed how they may serve as a springboard for research on concurrent sourcing. Managerial implications are also offered....

  10. Turing patterns and biological explanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, Maria

    2017-01-01

    , promoting theory exploration, and acting as constitutive parts of empirically adequate explanations of naturally occurring phenomena, such as biological pattern formation. Focusing on the roles that minimal model explanations play in science motivates the adoption of a broader diachronic view of scientific......Turing patterns are a class of minimal mathematical models that have been used to discover and conceptualize certain abstract features of early biological development. This paper examines a range of these minimal models in order to articulate and elaborate a philosophical analysis...

  11. Women Administrators as Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…

  12. Supernatural Explanations: Science or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the advice of supposedly authoritative sources, the a priori exclusion of supernatural explanations or claims from scientific scrutiny is not appropriate. This paper shows how supernatural hypotheses or claims should be treated by science and, in the process, differentiates scientific and non-scientific hypotheses or claims.…

  13. Sublime Views and Beautiful Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan; Hatch, Mary Jo

    To create a generative theory that provides beautiful explanations and sublime views requires both a crafts and an art approach to scientific theorizing. The search for generativity leads scholars to perform various theorizing moves between the confines of simple, yet eloquent beauty...

  14. Interactive Instruction in Bayesian Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam; Breslav, Simon; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2018-01-01

    An instructional approach is presented to improve human performance in solving Bayesian inference problems. Starting from the original text of the classic Mammography Problem, the textual expression is modified and visualizations are added according to Mayer’s principles of instruction. These pri......An instructional approach is presented to improve human performance in solving Bayesian inference problems. Starting from the original text of the classic Mammography Problem, the textual expression is modified and visualizations are added according to Mayer’s principles of instruction....... These principles concern coherence, personalization, signaling, segmenting, multimedia, spatial contiguity, and pretraining. Principles of self-explanation and interactivity are also applied. Four experiments on the Mammography Problem showed that these principles help participants answer the questions...... that an instructional approach to improving human performance in Bayesian inference is a promising direction....

  15. Generating explanations via analogical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Christian; Gentner, Dedre

    2017-10-01

    Generating explanations can be highly effective in promoting learning in both adults and children. Our interest is in the mechanisms that underlie this effect and in whether and how they operate in early learning. In adult reasoning, explanation may call on many subprocesses-including comparison, counterfactual reasoning, and reasoning by exclusion; but it is unlikely that all these processes are available to young children. We propose that one process that may serve both children and adults is comparison. In this study, we asked whether children would use the results of a comparison experience when asked to explain why a model skyscraper was stable. We focused on a challenging principle-that diagonal cross-bracing lends stability to physical structures (Gentner et al., Cognitive Science, 40, 224-240, 2016). Six-year-olds either received no training or interacted with model skyscrapers in one of three different conditions, designed to vary in their potential to invite and support comparison. In the Single Model condition, children interacted with a single braced model. In the comparison conditions (Low Alignability and High Alignability), children compared braced and unbraced models. Following experience with the models, children were asked to explain why the braced model was stable. They then received two transfer tasks. We found that children who received highly alignable pairs were most likely to (a) produce brace-based explanations and (b) transfer the brace principle to a dissimilar context. This provides evidence that children can benefit from analogical comparison in generating explanations and also suggests limitations on this ability.

  16. Instruction and Pragmatic Change during Study Abroad Email Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcón-Soler, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with the effect of instruction and study abroad (SA) on pragmatic knowledge. More specifically, the focus is on gains in explicit knowledge of request mitigators, and whether learners draw on this knowledge when they perform email requests. Email requests produced by 60 Spanish students staying abroad (30 treatment/30 control…

  17. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  18. Disciplining young children: the role of verbal instructions and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, N J; Williams, G E; Friman, P C; Christophersen, E R

    1995-08-01

    Pediatricians are often asked to advise parents who are having difficulty managing the oppositional behaviors of their toddlers and preschool-age children. A large number of articles provide advice to pediatricians and parents on effective disciplinary strategies. However, despite the fact that verbal explanations, reasoning, and instructions are commonly used by parents, few articles directly address the use of these strategies to affect children's behavior. In this paper, we review studies that explicitly investigate the ability of adults' verbal explanations or instructions to alter the behavior of young children. These studies suggest that under most circumstances, verbal explanations and instructions are not effective in changing young children's problem behaviors. We then discuss how theories in developmental and behavioral psychology help explain the limitations of using verbal reasoning and instructions to change young children's problem behaviors. Finally, we provide some recommendations for parents on the use of verbal explanations and instructions in disciplining young children.

  19. Inside case-based explanation

    CERN Document Server

    Schank, Roger C; Riesbeck, Christopher K

    2014-01-01

    This book is the third volume in a series that provides a hands-on perspective on the evolving theories associated with Roger Schank and his students. The primary focus of this volume is on constructing explanations. All of the chapters relate to the problem of building computer programs that can develop hypotheses about what might have caused an observed event. Because most researchers in natural language processing don't really want to work on inference, memory, and learning issues, most of their sample text fragments are chosen carefully to de-emphasize the need for non text-related reasoni

  20. Guided Instruction Improves Elementary Student Learning and Self-Efficacy in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hushman, Carolyn J.; Marley, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the amount of instructional guidance affects science learning and self-efficacy. Sixty 9- and 10-year-old children were randomly assigned to one of the following three instructional conditions: (a) guided instruction consisting of examples and student-generated explanations, (b) direct instruction consisting of a…

  1. Experiences and Explanations of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    Research on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) usually presents the disorder from either a neurobiological perspective, describing the disorder as an impairment in executive functions, or from a critical, sociological perspective, whereby ADHD is explained as a consequence...... of the medicalization of deviant behaviour. Neither of these perspectives tells us about the experience of living with ADHD, or explains how ADHD unfolds within specific contexts and relations. Experiences and Explanations of ADHD addresses this lacuna by exploring bodily experiences of ADHD and people’s experiences...... of obtaining a diagnosis. Drawing on in-depth interviews with adults diagnosed with ADHD, the book provides an examination of how the diagnosis is understood, used and acted upon by the people receiving the diagnosis. This book delves into the phenomenology of ADHD and uncovers the experiences of a highly...

  2. Pluralism, Pragmatism and Functional Explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Jamie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While many philosophers speak of ‘pluralism’ within philosophy of biology, there has been little said about what such pluralism amounts to or what its underlying assumptions are. This has provoked so me anxiety about whether pluralism is compatible with their commitment to naturalism (Cussins 1992. This paper surveys three prominent pluralist positions (Sandra Mitchell and Michael Dietrich’s (2006 ‘integrative pluralism’, and both Peter Godfrey-Smith’s (1993 and Beth Preston’s (1998 pluralist analyses of functional explanations in evolutionary biology and demonstrates how all three are committed to a form of pragmatism. This analysis both clarifies the justification and grounding of pluralism and allows these pluralisms to avoid the criticisms of Cussins. I close by making some more general points about pluralism and its relationship to history and integration.

  3. The Interrelations between Diagrammatic Representations and Verbal Explanations in Learning from Social Science Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rozenblit, Sarah

    1988-01-01

    Describes study that examined the instructional effectiveness of abstract diagrams and verbal explanations in learning from social science texts. The control and treatment groups of adult learners at Everyman's University (Israel) are described, verbal and visual aptitude tests are explained, and results are analyzed. (25 references) (Author/LRW)

  4. Tell Me Why! Content Knowledge Predicts Process-Orientation of Math Researchers' and Math Teachers' Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachner, Andreas; Nückles, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated the impact of instructors' different knowledge bases on the quality of their instructional explanations. In Study 1, we asked 20 mathematics teachers (with high pedagogical content knowledge, but lower content knowledge) and 15 mathematicians (with lower pedagogical content knowledge, but high content knowledge) to…

  5. Scientific explanation in school: An enactive view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim-Didi, Khadeeja

    This study explores explanation-in-action, a corollary to an enactive orientation to cognition. Explanation, understood this way is identified as a semiotic, perceptually driven activity, where the interactions that arise between students that enable the engagement to continue indicate a certain tentative coherence of meaning that is brought forth in interaction in a constraining environment. Challenging summary state views of explanation as statement, this study explores the evolution of scientific explanation in two Grade Eight Maldivian classrooms. Enactivism, understood across different embodied cognitive systems, reconfigures the discourse on explanation by re-orienting the form in which explanation is understood. The notion of explanation-in-action as a topological function implicates the boundary of the cognitive system in the action. Further, it also recognizes that embedding boundaries and the dynamics that create the boundaries can constrain the explanation that occurs in different domains. In effect, the study calls for reconfiguring validation as in-action---as the constraining dynamic feature that emerges in the ongoing explanation-in-action. In the study I pay attention to the different boundaries of some systemic configurations in the classroom. I consider how the boundary conditions create the possibility for signification, and therefore, explanation. This research suggests that in explaining-in-action students are able to draw on the enabling possibilities of personal boundaries and the constraining social boundaries to further structure their explaining in ways that are local to the task at hand.

  6. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P.J. [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  7. Model-based explanation of plant knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuskonen, P J [VTT Electronics, Oulu (Finland). Embedded Software

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with computer explanation of knowledge related to design and operation of industrial plants. The needs for explanation are motivated through case studies and literature reviews. A general framework for analysing plant explanations is presented. Prototypes demonstrate key mechanisms for implementing parts of the framework. Power plants, steel mills, paper factories, and high energy physics control systems are studied to set requirements for explanation. The main problems are seen to be either lack or abundance of information. Design knowledge in particular is found missing at plants. Support systems and automation should be enhanced with ways to explain plant knowledge to the plant staff. A framework is formulated for analysing explanations of plant knowledge. It consists of three parts: 1. a typology of explanation, organised by the class of knowledge (factual, functional, or strategic) and by the target of explanation (processes, automation, or support systems), 2. an identification of explanation tasks generic for the plant domain, and 3. an identification of essential model types for explanation (structural, behavioural, functional, and teleological). The tasks use the models to create the explanations of the given classes. Key mechanisms are discussed to implement the generic explanation tasks. Knowledge representations based on objects and their relations form a vocabulary to model and present plant knowledge. A particular class of models, means-end models, are used to explain plant knowledge. Explanations are generated through searches in the models. Hypertext is adopted to communicate explanations over dialogue based on context. The results are demonstrated in prototypes. The VICE prototype explains the reasoning of an expert system for diagnosis of rotating machines at power plants. The Justifier prototype explains design knowledge obtained from an object-oriented plant design tool. Enhanced access mechanisms into on-line documentation are

  8. Why the Difference Between Explanation and Argument Matters to Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandt, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Contributing to the recent debate on whether or not explanations ought to be differentiated from arguments, this article argues that the distinction matters to science education. I articulate the distinction in terms of explanations and arguments having to meet different standards of adequacy. Standards of explanatory adequacy are important because they correspond to what counts as a good explanation in a science classroom, whereas a focus on evidence-based argumentation can obscure such standards of what makes an explanation explanatory. I provide further reasons for the relevance of not conflating explanations with arguments (and having standards of explanatory adequacy in view). First, what guides the adoption of the particular standards of explanatory adequacy that are relevant in a scientific case is the explanatory aim pursued in this context. Apart from explanatory aims being an important aspect of the nature of science, including explanatory aims in classroom instruction also promotes students seeing explanations as more than facts, and engages them in developing explanations as responses to interesting explanatory problems. Second, it is of relevance to science curricula that science aims at intervening in natural processes, not only for technological applications, but also as part of experimental discovery. Not any argument enables intervention in nature, as successful intervention specifically presupposes causal explanations. Students can fruitfully explore in the classroom how an explanatory account suggests different options for intervention.

  9. Mesopause Jumps: Observations and Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebken, F. J.; Becker, E.; Höffner, J.; Viehl, T. P.; Latteck, R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent high resolution temperature measurements by resonance lidar at Davis (69°S) occasionally showed a sudden mesopause altitude increase by 5km and an associated mesopause temperature decrease by 10K. We present further observations which are closely related to this `mesopause jump', namely the increase of mean height of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) observed by a VHF radar, very strong westward winds in the upper mesosphere measured by an MF radar, and relatively large eastward winds in the stratosphere taken from reanalysis. We compare to similar observations in the Northern Hemisphere, namely at ALOMAR (69°N) where such mesopause jumps have never been observed. We present a detailed explanation of mesopause jumps. They occur only when stratospheric winds are moderately eastward and mesospheric winds are very large (westward). Under these conditions, gravity waves with comparatively large eastward phase speeds can pass the stratosphere and propagate to the lower thermosphere because their vertical wavelengths in the mesosphere are rather large which implies reduced dynamical stability. When finally breaking in the lower thermosphere, these waves drive an enhanced residual circulation that causes a cold and high-altitude mesopause. The conditions for a mesopause jump occur only in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and are associated with the late breakdown of the polar vortex.Mesopause jumps are primarily, but not only, observed prior and close to solstice. We also show that during the onset of PMSE in the SH, stratospheric zonal winds are still eastward (up to 30m/s), and that the onset is not closely related to the transition of the stratospheric circulation.

  10. 78 FR 27241 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Benefits Form and Instructions have been revised to remove the request for a social security number, update... new category of survivors was added under the PSOB Program. Approval is requested for new mechanisms...

  11. Experimental Philosophy of Explanation Rising: The Case for a Plurality of Concepts of Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    This paper brings together results from the philosophy and the psychology of explanation to argue that there are multiple concepts of explanation in human psychology. Specifically, it is shown that pluralism about explanation coheres with the multiplicity of models of explanation available in the philosophy of science, and it is supported by evidence from the psychology of explanatory judgment. Focusing on the case of a norm of explanatory power, the paper concludes by responding to the worry that if there is a plurality of concepts of explanation, one will not be able to normatively evaluate what counts as good explanation. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Kinds and problems of geomorphological explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nicholas J.

    2007-07-01

    What characterises satisfactory explanations in geomorphology is a key methodological question deserving continued analysis. In turn it raises the issue of the role played by methodology within the science. At its best, methodology can provide helpful distinctions, identify key issues and yield guidance for researchers. The substantive context for debates on explanation is the apparent complexity and difficulty of geomorphology as a science, which is arguably no greater than that of other Earth or environmental sciences. The logical view of explanation dominant in the 1950s and 1960s still has value, but a broader view is needed of explanations, related to the questions geomorphologists (and others) ask and to the answers that they find interesting. Answers may be sought in terms of purpose, history, mechanisms and statistics. Arguments over what is supposed to be reductionism can be clarified by underlining that both micro- and macro-explanations may be helpful. Although many geomorphologists aspire to mechanistic explanations, they often stop short at statistical explanations, making use of convenient functional forms such as power laws. Explanations have both social and psychological dimensions, the former much stressed in history of science and recent science studies, the latter deserving greater emphasis at present. Complicated models raise the question of how far it can be said that geomorphologists understand them in totality. A bestiary of poor explanations is needed, so that geomorphologists are not seduced by weak arguments and because they often serve as steps towards better explanations. Circular arguments, ad hoc explanations, and mistaking the name of the problem for the solution are cases in point.

  13. Students' explanations in complex learning of disciplinary programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camilo

    low ability to do programming engage in a more thorough explanation process than students with high ability. This dissertation concludes proposing an adaptation to the instructional principles of worked-examples for the context of CSE education.

  14. Explanation and Categorization: How "Why?" Informs "What?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania

    2009-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that explanation and categorization are intimately related. This paper explores the hypothesis that explanations can help structure conceptual representations, and thereby influence the relative importance of features in categorization decisions. In particular, features may be differentially important…

  15. Animation, audio, and spatial ability: Optimizing multimedia for scientific explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroghlanian, Carol May

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation and spatial ability in a computer based instructional program for biology. The program presented instructional material via text or audio with lean text and included eight instructional sequences presented either via static illustrations or animations. High school students enrolled in a biology course were blocked by spatial ability and randomly assigned to one of four treatments (Text-Static Illustration Audio-Static Illustration, Text-Animation, Audio-Animation). The study examined the effects of instructional mode (Text vs. Audio), illustration mode (Static Illustration vs. Animation) and spatial ability (Low vs. High) on practice and posttest achievement, attitude and time. Results for practice achievement indicated that high spatial ability participants achieved more than low spatial ability participants. Similar results for posttest achievement and spatial ability were not found. Participants in the Static Illustration treatments achieved the same as participants in the Animation treatments on both the practice and posttest. Likewise, participants in the Text treatments achieved the same as participants in the Audio treatments on both the practice and posttest. In terms of attitude, participants responded favorably to the computer based instructional program. They found the program interesting, felt the static illustrations or animations made the explanations easier to understand and concentrated on learning the material. Furthermore, participants in the Animation treatments felt the information was easier to understand than participants in the Static Illustration treatments. However, no difference for any attitude item was found for participants in the Text as compared to those in the Audio treatments. Significant differences were found by Spatial Ability for three attitude items concerning concentration and interest. In all three items, the low spatial ability participants responded more positively

  16. Editorial - Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise

    2007-01-01

    Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....

  17. Instructable autonomous agents. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Scott Bradley

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to current intelligent systems, which must be laboriously programmed for each task they are meant to perform, instructable agents can be taught new tasks and associated knowledge. This thesis presents a general theory of learning from tutorial instruction and its use to produce an instructable agent. Tutorial instruction is a particularly powerful form of instruction, because it allows the instructor to communicate whatever kind of knowledge a student needs at whatever point it is needed. To exploit this broad flexibility, however, a tutorable agent must support a full range of interaction with its instructor to learn a full range of knowledge. Thus, unlike most machine learning tasks, which target deep learning of a single kind of knowledge from a single kind of input, tutorability requires a breadth of learning from a broad range of instructional interactions. The theory of learning from tutorial instruction presented here has two parts. First, a computational model of an intelligent agent, the problem space computational model, indicates the types of knowledge that determine an agent's performance, and thus, that should be acquirable via instruction. Second, a learning technique, called situated explanation specifies how the agent learns general knowledge from instruction. The theory is embodied by an implemented agent, Instructo-Soar, built within the Soar architecture. Instructo-Soar is able to learn hierarchies of completely new tasks, to extend task knowledge to apply in new situations, and in fact to acquire every type of knowledge it uses during task performance - control knowledge, knowledge of operators' effects, state inferences, etc. - from interactive natural language instructions. This variety of learning occurs by applying the situated explanation technique to a variety of instructional interactions involving a variety of types of instructions (commands, statements, conditionals, etc.). By taking seriously the requirements of flexible

  18. Qualitative explanations for red giant formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, R.; Nigam, A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent research on giant formation has focused on the need for qualitative explanations. The explanations have the following general, qualitative form: the polytrope n assumes a certain value, that makes (d ln r)/(d ln z) take on a very large value; large increases in r can then be explained in terms of small changes in the variable z. This form is applicable to all the explanations current in the literature: they all have (1) either implicitly or explicitly, both a hydrostatic component and a luminosity-opacity component, and (2) a reliance on singular solutions. Dimensional analysis reveals that power laws that assume the polytrope n to 5 are identical in both the hydrostatic and luminosity-based explanations. 12 refs

  19. Research traditions and evolutionary explanations in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méthot, Pierre-Olivier

    2011-02-01

    In this article, I argue that distinguishing 'evolutionary' from 'Darwinian' medicine will help us assess the variety of roles that evolutionary explanations can play in a number of medical contexts. Because the boundaries of evolutionary and Darwinian medicine overlap to some extent, however, they are best described as distinct 'research traditions' rather than as competing paradigms. But while evolutionary medicine does not stand out as a new scientific field of its own, Darwinian medicine is united by a number of distinctive theoretical and methodological claims. For example, evolutionary medicine and Darwinian medicine can be distinguished with respect to the styles of evolutionary explanations they employ. While the former primarily involves 'forward looking' explanations, the latter depends mostly on 'backward looking' explanations. A forward looking explanation tries to predict the effects of ongoing evolutionary processes on human health and disease in contemporary environments (e.g., hospitals). In contrast, a backward looking explanation typically applies evolutionary principles from the vantage point of humans' distant biological past in order to assess present states of health and disease. Both approaches, however, are concerned with the prevention and control of human diseases. In conclusion, I raise some concerns about the claim that 'nothing in medicine makes sense except in the light of evolution'.

  20. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.

  1. Axis: Generating Explanations at Scale with Learnersourcing and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph Jay; Kim, Juho; Rafferty, Anna; Heffernan, Neil; Maldonado, Samuel; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.; Lasecki, Walter S.; Heffernan, Neil

    2016-01-01

    While explanations may help people learn by providing information about why an answer is correct, many problems on online platforms lack high-quality explanations. This paper presents AXIS (Adaptive eXplanation Improvement System), a system for obtaining explanations. AXIS asks learners to generate, revise, and evaluate explanations as they solve…

  2. A new explanation of the extinction paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, M.J.; Sorensen, C.M.; Chakrabarti, A.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a new explanation for the extinction paradox and shows that the canonical explanations are incorrect. This paradox refers to the large size limit of a particle's extinction cross section. It is called a paradox because the geometrical optics approximation, which should be valid in this limit, predicts a cross section that is half of the true value. The new explanation is achieved by formulating the scattered wave in terms of an integral over the particle's surface where the seemingly unrelated Ewald-Oseen theorem appears in the formulation. By expressing the cross section in terms of this surface integral, the Ewald-Oseen theorem is analytically connected to the cross section. Several illustrations are used to reveal the significance of this connection: The paradox is seen to be a consequence of the requirement that the incident wave be canceled within the particle by secondary radiation from its own internal field. Following this, the canonical explanations are examined to reveal serious problems. In the process, the same asymptotic extinction behavior is shown to occur for small highly refractive dielectric particles, and thus is not just a large particle size or small wavelength effect as is often stated. The traditional explanations cannot account for this behavior while the new one actually predicts it. All in all, this work constitutes a fundamental reworking of 60 years of accepted understanding for the cause of the asymptotic behavior of the extinction cross section.

  3. Instructional Partners, Principals, Teachers, and Instructional Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    This handbook examines various topics of interest and concern to teachers as they work with instructional assistants forming a classroom instructional partnership and functioning as a team. These topics include: (1) instructional assistant qualifications; (2) duties--instructional, classroom clerical, auxillary; (3) factors to be considered when…

  4. EXPLAIN AND EXPLORE——THE INDUCTIVE APPROACH TO EFL GRAMMAR INSTRUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuGuoxing

    2004-01-01

    The new role of grammar instruction now is based on the increasing understandings that grammar per se is a comprehensive conglomerate. The paper examines the inductive approach to EFL grammar instruction. It starts with some theoretical considerations on inductive approach to formal grammar instruction, followed by its methodological considerations such as how to deal with grammar generalizations and exceptions, learner variables, and grammar complexity, and proposes a sensitive and dynamic balance of explorations and explanations in EFL grammar instruction.

  5. What works with worked examples: Extending self-explanation and analogical comparison to synthesis problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badeau, Ryan; White, Daniel R.; Ibrahim, Bashirah; Ding, Lin; Heckler, Andrew F.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to solve physics problems that require multiple concepts from across the physics curriculum—"synthesis" problems—is often a goal of physics instruction. Three experiments were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional methods employing worked examples on student performance with synthesis problems; these instructional techniques, analogical comparison and self-explanation, have previously been studied primarily in the context of single-concept problems. Across three experiments with students from introductory calculus-based physics courses, both self-explanation and certain kinds of analogical comparison of worked examples significantly improved student performance on a target synthesis problem, with distinct improvements in recognition of the relevant concepts. More specifically, analogical comparison significantly improved student performance when the comparisons were invoked between worked synthesis examples. In contrast, similar comparisons between corresponding pairs of worked single-concept examples did not significantly improve performance. On a more complicated synthesis problem, self-explanation was significantly more effective than analogical comparison, potentially due to differences in how successfully students encoded the full structure of the worked examples. Finally, we find that the two techniques can be combined for additional benefit, with the trade-off of slightly more time on task.

  6. Theory-based explanation as intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Kara; Markman, Ellen M

    2017-10-01

    Cogent explanations are an indispensable means of providing new information and an essential component of effective education. Beyond this, we argue that there is tremendous untapped potential in using explanations to motivate behavior change. In this article we focus on health interventions. We review four case studies that used carefully tailored explanations to address gaps and misconceptions in people's intuitive theories, providing participants with a conceptual framework for understanding how and why some recommended behavior is an effective way of achieving a health goal. These case studies targeted a variety of health-promoting behaviors: (1) children washing their hands to prevent viral epidemics; (2) parents vaccinating their children to stem the resurgence of infectious diseases; (3) adults completing the full course of an antibiotic prescription to reduce antibiotic resistance; and (4) children eating a variety of healthy foods to improve unhealthy diets. Simply telling people to engage in these behaviors has been largely ineffective-if anything, concern about these issues is mounting. But in each case, teaching participants coherent explanatory frameworks for understanding health recommendations has shown great promise, with such theory-based explanations outperforming state-of-the-art interventions from national health authorities. We contrast theory-based explanations both with simply listing facts, information, and advice and with providing a full-blown educational curriculum, and argue for providing the minimum amount of information required to understand the causal link between a target behavior and a health outcome. We argue that such theory-based explanations lend people the motivation and confidence to act on their new understanding.

  7. Reasoning in explanation-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, N; Hastie, R

    1993-01-01

    A general theory of explanation-based decision making is outlined and the multiple roles of inference processes in the theory are indicated. A typology of formal and informal inference forms, originally proposed by Collins (1978a, 1978b), is introduced as an appropriate framework to represent inferences that occur in the overarching explanation-based process. Results from the analysis of verbal reports of decision processes are presented to demonstrate the centrality and systematic character of reasoning in a representative legal decision-making task.

  8. Foreword: Surface Tensions: Between Explanation and Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauvelt, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Introduces this issue of the journal, which is devoted to new perspectives on critical histories of graphic design. Notes that the essays in this issue offer examples of the variety of interpretative approaches available that serve to question both the previously unchallenged acceptance of historical explanations and the transcendent understanding…

  9. Students' reasons for preferring teleological explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommler, Friederike; Gresch, Helge; Hammann, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    The teleological bias, a major learning obstacle, involves explaining biological phenomena in terms of purposes and goals. To probe the teleological bias, researchers have used acceptance judgement tasks and preference judgement tasks. In the present study, such tasks were used with German high school students (N = 353) for 10 phenomena from human biology, that were explained both teleologically and causally. A sub-sample (n = 26) was interviewed about the reasons for their preferences. The results showed that the students favoured teleological explanations over causal explanations. Although the students explained their preference judgements etiologically (i.e. teleologically and causally), they also referred to a wide range of non-etiological criteria (i.e. familiarity, complexity, relevance and five more criteria). When elaborating on their preference for causal explanations, the students often focused not on the causality of the phenomenon, but on mechanisms whose complexity they found attractive. When explaining their preference for teleological explanations, they often focused not teleologically on purposes and goals, but rather on functions, which they found familiar and relevant. Generally, students' preference judgements rarely allowed for making inferences about causal reasoning and teleological reasoning, an issue that is controversial in the literature. Given that students were largely unaware of causality and teleology, their attention must be directed towards distinguishing between etiological and non-etiological reasoning. Implications for educational practice as well as for future research are discussed.

  10. Social Groups, Explanation and Ontological Holism | Sheehy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper begins from the claim that ontological holism is given prima facie plausibility by the apparently ineliminable role of groups in some descriptions and explanations of the social domain. If the individualist accepts the link between indispensabilty and realism, then individualism must show that groups cannot play the ...

  11. Ontological Order in Scientific Explanation | Park | Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A conceptually sound explanation, I claim, respects the ontological order between properties. A dependent property is to be explained in terms of its underlying property, not the other way around. The applicability of this point goes well beyond the realm of the debate between scientific realists and antirealists.

  12. Age and the Explanation of Crime, Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeten, Gary; Piquero, Alex R.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Age is one of the most robust correlates of criminal behavior. Yet, explanations for this relationship are varied and conflicting. Developmental theories point to a multitude of sociological, psychological, and biological changes that occur during adolescence and adulthood. One prominent criminological perspective outlined by Gottfredson and…

  13. Enhancing human understanding through intelligent explanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mioch, T.; Harbers, M.; Doesburg, W.A. van; Bosch, K. van den

    2007-01-01

    Ambient systems that explain their actions promote the user's understanding as they give the user more insight in the e®ects of their behavior on the environment. In order to provide individualized intelligent explanations, we need not only to evaluate a user's observable behavior, but we also need

  14. Competence Matching Tool - Explanations and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, Eelco; Kärger, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Herder, E., Kärger, P. (2009) Competence Matching Tool - Explanations and Implementation. The document contains the technical specification of the competence matching tool. The tool can be found at http://tencompetence.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/tencompetence/wp7/CompetenceMatcher/ and the location

  15. Separable explanations of neural network decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieger, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Deep Taylor Decomposition is a method used to explain neural network decisions. When applying this method to non-dominant classifications, the resulting explanation does not reflect important features for the chosen classification. We propose that this is caused by the dense layers and propose...

  16. Theism and Inference to the Best Explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holten, W. van

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author critically examines the explanatory role of theistic belief. Although talk of religious beliefs as explanations is commonly employed in the context of religious epistemology, it may also serve to simply characterise one of the functions of religious views of life. It is

  17. Theism and inference to the Best Explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holten, Wilko van

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author critically examines the explanatory role of theistic belief. Although talk of religious beliefs as explanations is commonly employed in the context of religious epistemology, it may also serve to simply characterise one of the functions of religious views of life. It is

  18. Guide to request license for industrial X-rays practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    In this work the instructions it plows described to request license for practices it of industrial x-ray it continued. The instructions but important: they plows license type, purpose of the application, source and equipment, location of local the, program of radiological protection and security

  19. Students' self-explanations while solving unfamiliar cases: the role of biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, Martine; Mamede, Sílvia; St-Onge, Christina; Rivard, Marc-Antoine; Setrakian, Jean; Lévesque, Annie; Lanthier, Luc; Schmidt, Henk G; Rikers, Remy M J P

    2013-11-01

    General guidelines for teaching clinical reasoning have received much attention, despite a paucity of instructional approaches with demonstrated effectiveness. As suggested in a recent experimental study, self-explanation while solving clinical cases may be an effective strategy to foster reasoning in clinical clerks dealing with less familiar cases. However, the mechanisms that mediate this benefit have not been specifically investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the types of knowledge used by students when solving familiar and less familiar clinical cases with self-explanation. In a previous study, 36 third-year medical students diagnosed familiar and less familiar clinical cases either by engaging in self-explanation or not. Based on an analysis of previously collected data, the present study compared the content of self-explanation protocols generated by seven randomly selected students while solving four familiar and four less familiar cases. In total, 56 verbal protocols (28 familiar and 28 less familiar) were segmented and coded using the following categories: paraphrases, biomedical inferences, clinical inferences, monitoring statements and errors. Students provided more self-explanation segments from less familiar cases (M = 275.29) than from familiar cases (M = 248.71, p = 0.046). They provided significantly more paraphrases (p = 0.001) and made more errors (p = 0.008). A significant interaction was found between familiarity and the type of inferences (biomedical versus clinical, p = 0.016). When self-explaining less familiar cases, students provided significantly more biomedical inferences than familiar cases. Lack of familiarity with a case seems to stimulate medical students to engage in more extensive thinking during self-explanation. Less familiar cases seem to activate students' biomedical knowledge, which in turn helps them to create new links between biomedical and clinical knowledge, and eventually construct a more coherent mental

  20. 77 FR 18795 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... initiatives aimed at improving consumers' financial literacy and decision-making skills. \\1\\ 12 U.S.C. s. 5493... consumers' financial decision-making skills and outcomes. Current Actions: New request for a generic..., (Attention: Chris Willey, Chief Information Officer), 1700 G Street NW., Washington, DC 20552. Instructions...

  1. Explanation for the Mystical Practice III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Květoslav Minařík

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Concentration on feet and legs as a whole, with a special focus on their flesh, has an effect on the development of the intellect and deepening of the sensory discernment, because right here, in the legs, in the flesh of the body, the basis of the inner life is situated. The same concentration with a special focus on their bones – and in particular to the bones of knees – eliminates the instability of the usual attention; it is used to stabilize the entire inner life. The current article is a continuation of Explanation for the Mystical Practice I. and Explanation for the Mystical Practice II., published in the previous editions of Spirituality Studies.

  2. An Explanation of Economic Change and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Fusari, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The contribution to the explanation of economic change that this paper sets out is centered on a core of interconnected endogenous variables, mainly innovation, radical uncertainty and entrepreneurship, which current economic analyses consider only in part and separately, sometimes as endogenous but for the most as exogenous. The article (and the formalized model) suppose that the functioning of the economy is not disturbed by the operation of pathological factors mainly concer...

  3. Explanation-based learning in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Renée; DeJong, Gerald F

    2017-10-01

    In explanation-based learning (EBL), domain knowledge is leveraged in order to learn general rules from few examples. An explanation is constructed for initial exemplars and is then generalized into a candidate rule that uses only the relevant features specified in the explanation; if the rule proves accurate for a few additional exemplars, it is adopted. EBL is thus highly efficient because it combines both analytic and empirical evidence. EBL has been proposed as one of the mechanisms that help infants acquire and revise their physical rules. To evaluate this proposal, 11- and 12-month-olds (n = 260) were taught to replace their current support rule (that an object is stable when half or more of its bottom surface is supported) with a more sophisticated rule (that an object is stable when half or more of the entire object is supported). Infants saw teaching events in which asymmetrical objects were placed on a base, followed by static test displays involving a novel asymmetrical object and a novel base. When the teaching events were designed to facilitate EBL, infants learned the new rule with as few as two (12-month-olds) or three (11-month-olds) exemplars. When the teaching events were designed to impede EBL, however, infants failed to learn the rule. Together, these results demonstrate that even infants, with their limited knowledge about the world, benefit from the knowledge-based approach of EBL.

  4. Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, Jack

    2017-08-23

    Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing

  5. Strategy Instruction in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Susan R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments in strategy instruction for mathematics have been conducted using three models (direct instruction, self-instruction, and guided learning) applied to the tasks of computation and word problem solving. Results have implications for effective strategy instruction for learning disabled students. It is recommended that strategy instruction…

  6. Reasoning through Instructional Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapon, Shulamit; diSessa, Andrea A.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to account for students' assessments of the plausibility and applicability of analogical explanations, and individual differences in these assessments, by analyzing properties of students' underlying knowledge systems. We developed a model of explanation and change in explanation focusing on knowledge elements that provide a…

  7. Explanation and observability of diffraction in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrontegui, E.; Muga, J. G.; Munoz, J.; Ban, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction in time (DIT) is a fundamental phenomenon in quantum dynamics due to time-dependent obstacles and slits. It is formally analogous to diffraction of light, and is expected to play an increasing role in the design of coherent matter wave sources, as in the atom laser, to analyze time-of-flight information and emission from ultrafast pulsed excitations, and in applications of coherent matter waves in integrated atom-optical circuits. We demonstrate that DIT emerges robustly in quantum waves emitted by an exponentially decaying source and provide a simple explanation of the phenomenon, as an interference of two characteristic velocities. This allows for its controllability and optimization.

  8. A hadronic explanation of the lepton anomaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertsch, Philipp; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the positron fraction, observed by PAMELA, Fermi-LAT and most recently by AMS-02, has created a lot of interest, fuelled by speculations about an origin in dark matter annihilation in the Galactic halo. However, other channels, e.g. antiprotons or gamma-rays, now severely constrain dark....... This mechanism is guaranteed if hadronic CRs are present and would also lead to observable signatures in other secondary channels like the boron-to-carbon or antiproton-to-proton ratios. If such features were borne out by upcoming AMS-02 data, this would rule out other explanations....

  9. An explanation of the Hiroshima activation dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, W.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Santoro, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    A 1987 study of the radiation from the World War II nuclear weapons applied state-of-the-art data and computer techniques, providing an important advance in reliability of the results. Still, a disturbing disagreement remained between slow-neutron activation measurements and calculations for the Hiroshima event. Newer data have confirmed the validity of the discrepancy. This work examines various potential explanations. Of those examined, only an enhancement to the weapon neutron leakage spectrum in the vicinity of the 2.3 MeV oxygen cross section window can fit the data accurately

  10. Explanation and practice on ISO 9000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Dong Myeong

    2001-01-01

    This book reveals introduction on revision of ISO 9000:2000 with full account and contents of revision and change method change into ISO 9001:2000, the basic principle on ISO 9000:2000 and improvement and aim, definition on explanation, method for detail term, demand for ISO/KS A 9001:2000, quality management system development and transition way, standardization for quality management, manual of quality and making procedure and guide, case of quality manual and procedure and guide and ISO 9001:2000 / KS A 9001:2001 an English-Korean translation.

  11. Cultural border crossing: The interaction between fundamental Christian beliefs and scientific explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimbi, Celestine Nakeli

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the interaction between people's fundamental Christian beliefs and scientific explanations. When people with fundamental Christian beliefs encounter scientific explanations, such explanations may interact with their deeply rooted beliefs in a way that is likely to produce tensions. It is expedient to understand the classroom/professional experiences of such individuals and how they manage these tensions. I will apply Jegede's collateral learning theory as a lens to look at how individuals manage the tensions between their religious and scientific worldviews. Gaining insight into people's experiences in the classroom/work place and how they manage these tensions will potentially inform classroom instruction and ways by which we can help students with fundamental Christian beliefs maintain their pursuit of science related careers by easing the nature of the borders they cross. Sources of data will include participant reported perspectives of how they manage the tensions and observations of real-time resolution of potentially conflicting explanations from their religious and scientific worldviews.

  12. Shuttle requests

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, the shuttle requests: for official visits or bidders' conferences on the CERN site; towards/from the airport or central Geneva; for long distances, shall be made via Fm.Support@cern.ch or by calling 77777. The radio taxi will still be reachable at 76969. TS/FM Group

  13. The status of functional explanation in psychology: reduction and mechanistic explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervais, H.; Looren De Jong, H.

    2013-01-01

    The validity of functional explanations as they are commonly used in psychology has recently come under attack. Kim's supervenience argument purports to prove that higher-level generalizations have no causal powers of their own, and hence are explanatorily irrelevant. In a nutshell, the

  14. Evaluation of Explanation Interfaces in Recommender Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cleger-Tamayo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Explaining interfaces become a useful tool in systems that have a lot of content to evaluate by users. The different interfaces represent a help for the undecided users or those who consider systems as boxed black smart. These systems present recommendations to users based on different learning models. In this paper, we present the different objectives of the explanation interfaces and some of the criteria that you can evaluate, as well as a proposal of metrics to obtain results in the experiments. Finally, we showed the main results of a study with real users and their interaction with e-commerce systems. Among the main results, highlight the positive impact in relation to the time of interaction with the applications and acceptance of the recommendations received.

  15. An explanation of the mysterious quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borissov, O.

    1977-01-01

    The article presents details of a convincing new theory submitted by Russian scientists, concerning the physical nature of quasars. These were discovered in 1963 and for over ten years no satisfactory theory has been forthcoming to explain their seemingly incompatible properties or the associated phenomena. These very distant objects are believed to be sources of the most powerful electromagnetic emission. From the new theory expounded it is concluded that for the first time since their discovery a satisfactory explanation of their nature has been reached. From this it is hoped that the mechanism of energy generation by quasars may ultimately be understood and, though on a much reduced scale, contribute to the solution of energy problems on earth. (R.J.J.)

  16. Bayesianism and inference to the best explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriano IRANZO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bayesianism and Inference to the best explanation (IBE are two different models of inference. Recently there has been some debate about the possibility of “bayesianizing” IBE. Firstly I explore several alternatives to include explanatory considerations in Bayes’s Theorem. Then I distinguish two different interpretations of prior probabilities: “IBE-Bayesianism” (IBE-Bay and “frequentist-Bayesianism” (Freq-Bay. After detailing the content of the latter, I propose a rule for assessing the priors. I also argue that Freq-Bay: (i endorses a role for explanatory value in the assessment of scientific hypotheses; (ii avoids a purely subjectivist reading of prior probabilities; and (iii fits better than IBE-Bayesianism with two basic facts about science, i.e., the prominent role played by empirical testing and the existence of many scientific theories in the past that failed to fulfil their promises and were subsequently abandoned.

  17. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querbes, Adrien; Vaesen, Krist; Houkes, Wybo

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  18. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  19. 40 CFR 1048.220 - How do I amend the maintenance instructions in my application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... step for engines in severe-duty applications. (c) You need not request approval if you are making only... ENGINES Certifying Engine Families § 1048.220 How do I amend the maintenance instructions in my... certification for an engine family if you want to change the emission-related maintenance instructions in a way...

  20. Shuttle requests

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that, to improve the service we provide, a new telephone number - 72500 - has been set up for all shuttle requests concerning: journeys within the CERN site, i.e. official visits or bidders' conferences; journeys to or from the airport or city centre; long-distance journeys. However, it will still be possible to submit requests in writing to Fm.Support@cern. The radio taxi can also still be reached on 76969. The TS/FM group would also like to inform you that details of all light logistics services (transport of persons, distribution and collection of parcels up to 1 tonne, distribution and collection of mail) can be found on the group's website: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/fm/fm.htm TS/FM Group 160239

  1. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION. APPROXIMATELY 85 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, TEACHING MACHINES, RESPONSE MODE, SELF-INSTRUCTION, AND COMPUTER-ASSISTED…

  2. The Instructional Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Many administrators are so overwhelmed by the basic responsibilities of their daily work that there seems to be little or no time left for providing quality leadership in instruction. Instead, schools employ department chairs, instructional specialists, and coordinators to provide instructional leadership. How can administrators find time in the…

  3. Promoting Scientific Thinking and Conceptual Change about Alternative Explanations of Climate Change and Other Controversial Socio-scientific Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, D.; Sinatra, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Critical evaluation and plausibility reappraisal of scientific explanations have been underemphasized in many science classrooms (NRC, 2012). Deep science learning demands that students increase their ability to critically evaluate the quality of scientific knowledge, weigh alternative explanations, and explicitly reappraise their plausibility judgments. Therefore, this lack of instruction about critical evaluation and plausibility reappraisal has, in part, contributed to diminished understanding about complex and controversial topics, such as global climate change. The Model-Evidence Link (MEL) diagram (originally developed by researchers at Rutgers University under an NSF-supported project; Chinn & Buckland, 2012) is an instructional scaffold that promotes students to critically evaluate alternative explanations. We recently developed a climate change MEL and found that the students who used the MEL experienced a significant shift in their plausibility judgments toward the scientifically accepted model of human-induced climate change. Using the MEL for instruction also resulted in conceptual change about the causes of global warming that reflected greater understanding of fundamental scientific principles. Furthermore, students sustained this conceptual change six months after MEL instruction (Lombardi, Sinatra, & Nussbaum, 2013). This presentation will discuss recent educational research that supports use of the MEL to promote critical evaluation, plausibility reappraisal, and conceptual change, and also, how the MEL may be particularly effective for learning about global climate change and other socio-scientific topics. Such instruction to develop these fundamental thinking skills (e.g., critical evaluation and plausibility reappraisal) is demanded by both the Next Generation Science Standards (Achieve, 2013) and the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics (CCSS Initiative-ELA, 2010; CCSS Initiative-Math, 2010), as well as a

  4. The matchmaking paradox: a statistical explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I; Sokolov, Igor M

    2010-01-01

    Medical surveys regarding the number of heterosexual partners per person yield different female and male averages-a result which, from a physical standpoint, is impossible. In this paper we term this puzzle the 'matchmaking paradox', and establish a statistical model explaining it. We consider a bipartite graph with N male and N female nodes (N >> 1), and B bonds connecting them (B >> 1). Each node is associated a random 'attractiveness level', and the bonds connect to the nodes randomly-with probabilities which are proportionate to the nodes' attractiveness levels. The population's average bonds-per-nodes B/N is estimated via a sample average calculated from a survey of size n (n >> 1). A comprehensive statistical analysis of this model is carried out, asserting that (i) the sample average well estimates the population average if and only if the attractiveness levels possess a finite mean; (ii) if the attractiveness levels are governed by a 'fat-tailed' probability law then the sample average displays wild fluctuations and strong skew-thus providing a statistical explanation to the matchmaking paradox.

  5. Talking Physics: Two Case Studies on Short Answers and Self-explanation in Learning Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badeau, Ryan C.

    This thesis explores two case studies into the use of short answers and self-explanation to improve student learning in physics. The first set of experiments focuses on the role of short answer questions in the context of computer-based instruction. Through a series of six experiments, we compare and evaluate the performance of computer-assessed short answer questions versus multiple choice for training conceptual topics in physics, controlling for feedback between the two formats. In addition to finding overall similar improvements on subsequent student performance and retention, we identify unique differences in how students interact with the treatments in terms of time spent on feedback and performance on follow-up short answer assessment. In addition, we identify interactions between the level of interactivity of the training, question format, and student attitudinal ratings of each respective training. The second case study focuses on the use of worked examples in the context of multi-concept physics problems - which we call "synthesis problems." For this part of the thesis, four experiments were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional methods employing worked examples on student performance with synthesis problems; these instructional techniques, analogical comparison and self-explanation, have previously been studied primarily in the context of single-concept problems. As such, the work presented here represents a novel focus on extending these two techniques to this class of more complicated physics problem. Across the four experiments, both self-explanation and certain kinds of analogical comparison of worked examples significantly improved student performance on a target synthesis problem, with distinct improvements in recognition of the relevant concepts. More specifically, analogical comparison significantly improved student performance when the comparisons were invoked between worked synthesis examples. In contrast, similar

  6. Pupils' evaluation and generation of evidence and explanation in argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, Amnon; Weinstock, Michael; Neuman, Yair

    2005-03-01

    Studies on argument have found that participants tend to prefer explanations to evidence. This apparent bias toward explanation has been qualified recently by research that has found it to diminish with the availability of evidence. This study examines the use of explanation versus evidence in the context of argumentation with reference to the goals of particular argument situations. Seventy-nine eighth-grade pupils at a regular, urban middle school. The pupils read argumentation scenarios, each having the stated goal of either explaining or proving a claim. The pupils rated the degree to which each of two provided assertions (one a theoretical explanation, and the other evidence-based) helped achieve the goal of the argument. On a second task, the pupils chose which of the two assertions should be more effective in achieving the argument goal. On the third task, the pupils generated either an explanation or evidence for each of the argumentation scenarios. Pupils demonstrated sensitivity to the relative epistemic strength of explanation and evidence. They rated explanations as more advantageous in achieving the explanation goal, and evidence as more advantageous in achieving the proof goal. Conversely, however, when asked to generate or recall an explanation or evidence, pupils produced more explanations than evidence independent of the argumentation goal. The study refines the definition of argumentation context to include specific goals. Pupils were sensitive to the context of the argumentation situation (e.g.goals, availability of evidence). However, they appeared to have a disposition toward explanation when asked to produce an explanation or evidence-based justification.

  7. 76 FR 61148 - Proposed Information Collection (Approval of School Attendance) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... marriages, a change in course of instruction and termination of school attendance. Affected Public... (Approval of School Attendance) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Titles: a. Request for Approval of School...

  8. 75 FR 61244 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8038-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... 8038-R AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... Form 8038-R, Request for Recovery of Overpayments Under Arbitrage Rebate Provisions. DATES: Written... information or copies of the form and instructions should be directed to R. Joseph Durbala at Internal Revenue...

  9. 78 FR 70046 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... parties may file a comment online or on paper, by following the instructions in the Request for Comment... Gans, Attorney, Division of Marketing Practices, Bureau of Consumer Protection, Federal Trade...) = $480,189 Request for Comment You can file a comment online or on paper. For the Commission to consider...

  10. The value of instructional communication in crisis situations: restoring order to chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellnow, Timothy L; Sellnow, Deanna D; Lane, Derek R; Littlefield, Robert S

    2012-04-01

    This article explores the nature of instructional communication in responding to crisis situations. Through the lens of chaos theory, the relevance of instructional messages in restoring order is established. This perspective is further advanced through an explanation of how various learning styles impact the receptivity of various instructional messages during the acute phase of crises. We then summarize an exploratory study focusing on the relationship between learning styles and the demands of instructional messages in crisis situations. We conclude the article with a series of conclusions and implications. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Long multiplication by instruction sequences with backward jump instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    For each function on bit strings, its restriction to bit strings of any given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. Backward jump instructions

  12. The Limits of Materialism: Auspicious for Teleological Explanation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athearn, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    The idea that scientific explanation runs up against certain inherent limits beyond which the field is open for other kinds of explanation is based on flawed assumptions. Modern physical knowledge, as I read it, does contain at least one important implication for theology having to do with how "Creation" is understood, if indeed the term remains usable and suitable.

  13. Mind and Meaning: Piaget and Vygotsky on Causal Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, Harry

    1996-01-01

    Piaget's theory has been characterized as descriptive and not explanatory, not qualifying as causal explanation. Piaget was consistent in showing how his theory was both explanatory and causal. Vygotsky also endorsed causal-genetic explanation but, on the basis of knowledge of only Piaget's earliest works, he claimed that Piaget's theory was not…

  14. Strategic Explanations for a Diagnostic Consultation System. Technical Report #8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasling, Diane Warner; And Others

    This paper examines the problem of automatic explanation of reasoning, or the ability of a program to discuss what it is doing in some understandable way, particularly as part of an expert system. An introduction presents a general framework in which to view explanation and reviews some of the research in this area. This is followed by a…

  15. 5 CFR 1201.101 - Explanation and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... definitions. (a) Explanation. An ex parte communication is an oral or written communication between a decision... outcome of a proceeding before the Board. (2) Decision-making official means any judge, officer or other... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Explanation and definitions. 1201.101...

  16. Teacher Explanation of Physics Concepts: A Video Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, David

    2013-01-01

    Video recordings of Year 11 physics lessons were analyzed to identify key features of teacher explanations. Important features of the explanations used included teachers' ability to move between qualitative and quantitative modes of discussion, attention to what students require to succeed in high stakes examinations, thoughtful use of…

  17. Exploring Dominant Types of Explanations Built by General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of our study was to explore the nature of the explanations generated by science and engineering majors with basic training in chemistry to account for the colligative properties of solutions. The work was motivated by our broader interest in the characterisation of the dominant types of explanations that science college students…

  18. Explanation and teleology in Aristotle's Philosophy of Nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunissen, Mariska Elisabeth Maria Philomena Johannes

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation explores Aristotle’s use of teleology as a principle of explanation, especially as it is used in the natural treatises. Its main purposes are, first, to determine the function, structure, and explanatory power of teleological explanations in four of Aristotle’s natural treatises,

  19. Generative Mechanistic Explanation Building in Undergraduate Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Katelyn M.; Espindola, Melissa R.; Zaepfel, Samantha D.; Bolger, Molly S.

    2017-01-01

    When conducting scientific research, experts in molecular and cellular biology (MCB) use specific reasoning strategies to construct mechanistic explanations for the underlying causal features of molecular phenomena. We explored how undergraduate students applied this scientific practice in MCB. Drawing from studies of explanation building among…

  20. How to Program a Domain Independent Tracer for Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, Alessio; Lusti, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Explanations are essential in the teaching process. Tracers are one possibility to provide students with explanations in an intelligent tutoring system. Their development can be divided into four steps: (a) the definition of the trace model; (b) the extraction of the information from this model; (c) the analysis and abstraction of the extracted…

  1. Structural Equations and Causal Explanations: Some Challenges for Causal SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    One common application of structural equation modeling (SEM) involves expressing and empirically investigating causal explanations. Nonetheless, several aspects of causal explanation that have an impact on behavioral science methodology remain poorly understood. It remains unclear whether applications of SEM should attempt to provide complete…

  2. "Ratio via Machina": Three Standards of Mechanistic Explanation in Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles, Natalie B.; Reed, Isaac Ariail

    2017-01-01

    Recently, sociologists have expended much effort in attempts to define social mechanisms. We intervene in these debates by proposing that sociologists in fact have a choice to make between three standards of what constitutes a good mechanistic explanation: substantial, formal, and metaphorical mechanistic explanation. All three standards are…

  3. An prediction and explanation of 'climatic swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    core-mantle system and their changes in the time have an important role and value for style and intensity of warming and cooling. References [1] Barkin Yu.V. (2002) An explanation of endogenous activity of planets and satellites and its cyclisity. Isvestia sekcii nauk o Zemle Rossiiskoi akademii ectestvennykh nauk. Vyp. 9, М., VINITI, pp. 45-97. In Russian. [2] Barkin Yu.V. (2004) Dynamics of the Earth shells and variations of paleoclimate. Proceedings of Milutin Milankovitch Anniversary Symposium "Paleoclimate and the Earth climate system" (Belgrade, Serbia, 30 August - 2 September, 2004). Belgrade, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Art, pp. 161-164. [3] Barkin Yu.V. (2007) Inversion of periodic and trend variations of climate in opposite hemispheres of the Earth and their mechanism. Proceedings of IUGG XXIV General Assembly, Perugia, Italy 2007: Earth: Our Changing Planet (Perugia, Italy, July 2-13, 2007) (P) - IAPSO, JPS001 "Interannual and Interdecadal Climate Variability", p. 1674. www. iugg2007perugia.it. [4] Barkin Yu.V. (2008) Secular polar drift of the core in present epoch: geodynamical and geophysical consequences and confirmations. General and regional problems of tectonics and geodynamics. Materials of XLI Tectonic Conference. V. 1. -M.:GEOS. p. 55-59. In Russian. [5] Barkin Yu.V. (2009) An explanation of secular variations of a gravity at stations Ny-Alesund, Medicine, Churchill and Syowa. Materials of the International Conference: «Yu.P. Bulashevich's fifth scientific readings. A deep structure. Geodynamics. A thermal field of the Earth. Interpretation of geophysical fields» (Ekaterinburg, 6 - 10 July, 2009). pp. 27-31. In Russian. [6] Barkin Yu.V. (2005) Oscillations of the Earth core, new oceanic tides and dynamical consequences. Materials of XI International Scientific Conference "Structure, geodynamics and mineral genetic processes in lithosphere" (September, 20-22 2005, Syktyvkar, Russia), Publisher of Geology Institute of Komi SC of Ural Section

  4. Programmed Instruction Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, B. F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of teaching machines, invented to restore the important features of personalized instruction as public school class size increased. Examines teaching and learning problems over the past 50 years, including motivation, attention, appreciation, discovery, and creativity in relation to programmed instruction.…

  5. Fashions in Instructional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapper, Christopher K.

    This paper on instructional development notes the trend toward teaching improvement efforts, classifies instructional development centers in terms of their differing philosophies of operation, and identifies some general problems that have been encountered in institutional efforts to improve teaching and learning. Centers in North America, Europe,…

  6. 7 CFR 900.503 - Request for records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Information Availability of Program Information, Staff Manuals and Instructions, and Related Material § 900... with § 1.4(c) of this title is delegated to the Freedom of Information Act Officer of AMS. Requests...

  7. 77 FR 50112 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... the UPD helps to protect the integrity of ACF's award selection process. All ACF discretionary grant... instructions; the Standard Form 424 series, which requests basic information, budget information, and... Planning, Research and Evaluation, 370 L'Enfant Promenade SW., Washington, DC 20447, Attn: ACF Reports...

  8. Generating Explanations for Internet-based Business Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fischer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It is widely established debriefing in business games is important and influences the students' learning performance. Most games only support game statistics instead of explaining solution paths. We suggest the automatic generation of explanations for internet-mediated business games to improve the debriefing quality. As a proof of concept we developed a prototype of an internet-based auction game embedding an open simulation model and an automatic explanation component helping students and teachers to analyse the decision making process. This paper describes the usefulness of automated explanations and the underlying generic software architecture.

  9. Using Principles of Programmed Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Harry

    1971-01-01

    Although programmed instruction in accounting is available, it is limited in scope and in acceptance. Teachers, however, may apply principles of programming to the individualizing of instruction. (Author)

  10. Improve Student Understanding Ability Through Gamification in Instructional Media Based Explicit Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausi, N.; Prabawa, H. W.; Sutarno, H.

    2017-02-01

    In an effort to maximize a student’s academic growth, one of the tools available to educators is the explicit instruction. Explicit instruction is marked by a series of support or scaffold, where the students will be guided through the learning process with a clear statement of purpose and a reason for learning new skills, a clear explanation and demonstration of learning targets, supported and practiced with independent feedback until mastery has been achieved. The technology development trend of todays, requires an adjustment in the development of learning object that supports the achievement of explicit instruction targets. This is where the gamification position is. In the role as a pedagogical strategy, the use of gamification preformance study class is still relatively new. Gamification not only use the game elements and game design techniques in non-game contexts, but also to empower and engage learners with the ability of motivation on learning approach and maintains a relaxed atmosphere. With using Reseach and Development methods, this paper presents the integration of technology (which in this case using the concept of gamification) in explicit instruction settings and the impact on the improvement of students’ understanding.

  11. Gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power: a multivariate explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power and to discover what factors account for these differences. The marginality explanation for these differences suggest that women have less-favorable attitudes toward nuclear power because they are less concerned about energy supplies and economic growth and are less convinced of the benefits of nuclear power for society than are men. The irrationality explanation holds that women are less favorable toward nuclear power because they are less knowledgeable about this technology than are men. The lay-rationality explanation argues that people form attitudes toward nuclear power which are consistent with their relevant beliefs, attitudes and values; thus, this explanation suggests that women's unfavorable attitudes toward nuclear power stem from greater concern about environmental protection, exposing society to risk, and lower faith in science and technology. Data for this study were collected via a mail questionnaire administered to a state wide sample of Washington residents (n= 696)

  12. 32 CFR 516.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Glossary contains explanations of abbreviations and terms. (b) The masculine gender has been used throughout this regulation for simplicity and consistency. Any reference to the masculine gender is intended...

  13. Phase space overpopulation at CERN and possible explanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, S.

    1998-01-01

    By combining information from correlations from Pb+Pb collisions at CERN, one comes to the conclusion that pionic phase space is significantly overpopulated compared to expectations based on chemical equilibrium. A variety of explanations will be addressed. (author)

  14. Social class, sense of control, and social explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Piff, Paul K; Keltner, Dacher

    2009-12-01

    Lower social class is associated with diminished resources and perceived subordinate rank. On the basis of this analysis, the authors predicted that social class would be closely associated with a reduced sense of personal control and that this association would explain why lower class individuals favor contextual over dispositional explanations of social events. Across 4 studies, lower social class individuals, as measured by subjective socioeconomic status (SES), endorsed contextual explanations of economic trends, broad social outcomes, and emotion. Across studies, the sense of control mediated the relation between subjective SES and contextual explanations, and this association was independent of objective SES, ethnicity, political ideology, and self-serving biases. Finally, experimentally inducing a higher sense of control attenuated the tendency for lower subjective SES individuals to make more contextual explanations (Study 4). Implications for future research on social class as well as theoretical distinctions between objective SES and subjective SES are discussed.

  15. Reasoning with alternative explanations in physics: The cognitive accessibility rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, Andrew F.; Bogdan, Abigail M.

    2018-06-01

    A critical component of scientific reasoning is the consideration of alternative explanations. Recognizing that decades of cognitive psychology research have demonstrated that relative cognitive accessibility, or "what comes to mind," strongly affects how people reason in a given context, we articulate a simple "cognitive accessibility rule", namely that alternative explanations are considered less frequently when an explanation with relatively high accessibility is offered first. In a series of four experiments, we test the cognitive accessibility rule in the context of consideration of alternative explanations for six physical scenarios commonly found in introductory physics curricula. First, we administer free recall and recognition tasks to operationally establish and distinguish between the relative accessibility and availability of common explanations for the physical scenarios. Then, we offer either high or low accessibility explanations for the physical scenarios and determine the extent to which students consider alternatives to the given explanations. We find two main results consistent across algebra- and calculus-based university level introductory physics students for multiple answer formats. First, we find evidence that, at least for some contexts, most explanatory factors are cognitively available to students but not cognitively accessible. Second, we empirically verify the cognitive accessibility rule and demonstrate that the rule is strongly predictive, accounting for up to 70% of the variance of the average student consideration of alternative explanations across scenarios. Overall, we find that cognitive accessibility can help to explain biases in the consideration of alternatives in reasoning about simple physical scenarios, and these findings lend support to the growing number of science education studies demonstrating that tasks relevant to science education curricula often involve rapid, automatic, and potentially predictable processes and

  16. Dynamical explanation for the high water abundance detected in Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1979-01-01

    Shock wave chemistry is suggested as the likely explanation for the high water abundance which has been recently detected in Orion by Phyllips et al. The existence of such a shock and its inferred properties are in agreement with other observations of Orion such as the broad velocity feature and H 2 vibration emission. Shock waves are proposed as the likely explanation for high water abundances observed in other sources such as the strong H 2 O masers

  17. Towards an Explanation Generation System for Robots: Analysis and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Meadows

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge in robotics is to reason with incomplete domain knowledge to explain unexpected observations and partial descriptions extracted from sensor observations. Existing explanation generation systems draw on ideas that can be mapped to a multidimensional space of system characteristics, defined by distinctions, such as how they represent knowledge and if and how they reason with heuristic guidance. Instances in this multidimensional space corresponding to existing systems do not support all of the desired explanation generation capabilities for robots. We seek to address this limitation by thoroughly understanding the range of explanation generation capabilities and the interplay between the distinctions that characterize them. Towards this objective, this paper first specifies three fundamental distinctions that can be used to characterize many existing explanation generation systems. We explore and understand the effects of these distinctions by comparing the capabilities of two systems that differ substantially along these axes, using execution scenarios involving a robot waiter assisting in seating people and delivering orders in a restaurant. The second part of the paper uses this study to argue that the desired explanation generation capabilities corresponding to these three distinctions can mostly be achieved by exploiting the complementary strengths of the two systems that were explored. This is followed by a discussion of the capabilities related to other major distinctions to provide detailed recommendations for developing an explanation generation system for robots.

  18. Re-orienting discussions of scientific explanation: A functional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Andrea I

    2015-08-01

    Philosophy of science offers a rich lineage of analysis concerning the nature of scientific explanation, but the vast majority of this work, aiming to provide an analysis of the relation that binds a given explanans to its corresponding explanandum, presumes the proper analytic focus rests at the level of individual explanations. There are, however, other questions we could ask about explanation in science, such as: What role(s) does explanatory practice play in science? Shifting focus away from explanations, as achievements, toward explaining, as a coordinated activity of communities, the functional perspective aims to reveal how the practice of explanatory discourse functions within scientific communities given their more comprehensive aims and practices. In this paper, I outline the functional perspective, argue that taking the functional perspective can reveal important methodological roles for explanation in science, and consequently, that beginning here provides resources for developing more adequate responses to traditional concerns. In particular, through an examination of the ideal gas law, I emphasize the normative status of explanations within scientific communities and discuss how such status underwrites a compelling rationale for explanatory power as a theoretical virtue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Using Interactive Video Instruction To Enhance Public Speaking Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Michael W.; Kennan, William R.

    Noting that interactive video instruction (IVI) should not and cannot replace classroom instruction, this paper offers an introduction to interactive video instruction as an innovative technology that can be used to expand pedagogical opportunities in public speaking instruction. The paper: (1) defines the distinctive features of IVI; (2) assesses…

  20. Ethics instruction in the dental hygiene curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerik, Mark G; Prajer, Renee G; Conrad, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Dental hygiene ethics is an essential component of the dental hygiene curriculum. The accreditation standards for dental hygiene education state that graduates must be competent in applying ethical concepts to the provision and/or support of oral health care services. Although the standards for entry into the profession of dental hygiene emphasize the importance of ethical reasoning, there is little published research specific to ethics instruction in dental hygiene programs. The purpose of this study was to assess how ethics is taught in the dental hygiene curriculum. A 17-item survey was designed and distributed to 261 accredited dental hygiene programs in the United States for a response rate of 56% (N=147). The survey requested that participants provide information on teaching and evaluation methodologies, didactic and clinical hours of instruction, individuals responsible for providing instruction, and the degree of emphasis placed on ethics and integration of ethical reasoning within the dental hygiene curriculum. Results of the survey reflect that dental hygiene programs devote a mean of 20. hours to teaching dental hygiene ethics in the didactic component of the curriculum. With regard to the clinical component of the curriculum, 63% of respondents indicated that 10 or less hours are devoted to ethics instruction. These results show an increase in didactic hours of instruction from previous studies where the mean hours of instruction ranged from 7 to 11.7 hours. Results showed 64% of respondents offered a separate course in ethics; however, 82% of programs surveyed indicated that ethics was incorporated into one or more dental hygiene courses with 98% utilizing dental hygiene faculty to provide instruction. Most programs utilized a variety of instructional methods to teach ethics with the majority employing class discussion and lecture (99% and 97% respectively). The type of institution-technical college, community college, four-year university with a

  1. Computer Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Methodology for developing a computer assisted instruction (CAI) lesson (scripting, programing, and testing) is reviewed. A project done by Informatics Education Ltd. (IEL) for the Department of National Defense (DND) is used as an example. (JT)

  2. Bibliographic Instruction : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.

  3. Psychological Reactance and Resistance Intention in the Classroom: Effects of Perceived Request Politeness and Legitimacy, Relationship Distance, and Teacher Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Sapp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    This research comprises two studies examining the antecedents and outcomes of psychological reactance in teacher requests in the instructional context. In Study 1 we investigated the mediating role of reactance in the relationship of perceived teacher request politeness and teacher-student relationship distance with student resistance intention.…

  4. Introductory Biology Students’ Conceptual Models and Explanations of the Origin of Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Neil; Momsen, Jennifer; Reinagel, Adam; Le, Paul; Taqieddin, Ranya; Long, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Mutation is the key molecular mechanism generating phenotypic variation, which is the basis for evolution. In an introductory biology course, we used a model-based pedagogy that enabled students to integrate their understanding of genetics and evolution within multiple case studies. We used student-generated conceptual models to assess understanding of the origin of variation. By midterm, only a small percentage of students articulated complete and accurate representations of the origin of variation in their models. Targeted feedback was offered through activities requiring students to critically evaluate peers’ models. At semester's end, a substantial proportion of students significantly improved their representation of how variation arises (though one-third still did not include mutation in their models). Students’ written explanations of the origin of variation were mostly consistent with their models, although less effective than models in conveying mechanistic reasoning. This study contributes evidence that articulating the genetic origin of variation is particularly challenging for learners and may require multiple cycles of instruction, assessment, and feedback. To support meaningful learning of the origin of variation, we advocate instruction that explicitly integrates multiple scales of biological organization, assessment that promotes and reveals mechanistic and causal reasoning, and practice with explanatory models with formative feedback. PMID:25185235

  5. A process for developing and revising a learning progression on sea level rise using learners' explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert Christopher

    The purpose of this study was to explore the process of developing a learning progression (LP) on constructing explanations about sea level rise. I used a learning progressions theoretical framework informed by the situated cognition learning theory. During this exploration, I explicitly described my decision-making process as I developed and revised a hypothetical learning progression. Correspondingly, my research question was: What is a process by which a hypothetical learning progression on sea level rise is developed into an empirical learning progression using learners' explanations? To answer this question, I used a qualitative descriptive single case study with multiple embedded cases (Yin, 2014) that employed analytic induction (Denzin, 1970) to analyze data collected on middle school learners (grades 6-8). Data sources included written artifacts, classroom observations, and semi-structured interviews. Additionally, I kept a researcher journal to track my thinking about the learning progression throughout the research study. Using analytic induction to analyze collected data, I developed eight analytic concepts: participant explanation structures varied widely, global warming and ice melt cause sea level rise, participants held alternative conceptions about sea level rise, participants learned about thermal expansion as a fundamental aspect of sea level rise, participants learned to incorporate authentic scientific data, participants' mental models of the ocean varied widely, sea ice melt contributes to sea level rise, and participants held vague and alternative conceptions about how pollution impacts the ocean. I started with a hypothetical learning progression, gathered empirical data via various sources (especially semi-structured interviews), revised the hypothetical learning progression in response to those data, and ended with an empirical learning progression comprising six levels of learner thinking. As a result of developing an empirically based LP

  6. Generative mechanistic explanation building in undergraduate molecular and cellular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Katelyn M.; Espindola, Melissa R.; Zaepfel, Samantha D.; Bolger, Molly S.

    2017-09-01

    When conducting scientific research, experts in molecular and cellular biology (MCB) use specific reasoning strategies to construct mechanistic explanations for the underlying causal features of molecular phenomena. We explored how undergraduate students applied this scientific practice in MCB. Drawing from studies of explanation building among scientists, we created and applied a theoretical framework to explore the strategies students use to construct explanations for 'novel' biological phenomena. Specifically, we explored how students navigated the multi-level nature of complex biological systems using generative mechanistic reasoning. Interviews were conducted with introductory and upper-division biology students at a large public university in the United States. Results of qualitative coding revealed key features of students' explanation building. Students used modular thinking to consider the functional subdivisions of the system, which they 'filled in' to varying degrees with mechanistic elements. They also hypothesised the involvement of mechanistic entities and instantiated abstract schema to adapt their explanations to unfamiliar biological contexts. Finally, we explored the flexible thinking that students used to hypothesise the impact of mutations on multi-leveled biological systems. Results revealed a number of ways that students drew mechanistic connections between molecules, functional modules (sets of molecules with an emergent function), cells, tissues, organisms and populations.

  7. Hierarchy, causation and explanation: ubiquity, locality and pluralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquity of top-down causal explanations within and across the sciences is prima facie evidence for the existence of top-down causation. Much debate has been focused on whether top-down causation is coherent or in conflict with reductionism. Less attention has been given to the question of whether these representations of hierarchical relations pick out a single, common hierarchy. A negative answer to this question undermines a commonplace view that the world is divided into stratified ‘levels’ of organization and suggests that attributions of causal responsibility in different hierarchical representations may not have a meaningful basis for comparison. Representations used in top-down and bottom-up explanations are primarily ‘local’ and tied to distinct domains of science, illustrated here by protein structure and folding. This locality suggests that no single metaphysical account of hierarchy for causal relations to obtain within emerges from the epistemology of scientific explanation. Instead, a pluralist perspective is recommended—many different kinds of top-down causation (explanation) can exist alongside many different kinds of bottom-up causation (explanation). Pluralism makes plausible why different senses of top-down causation can be coherent and not in conflict with reductionism, thereby illustrating a productive interface between philosophical analysis and scientific inquiry. PMID:23386966

  8. Investigating Island Evolution: A Galapagos-Based Lesson Using the 5E Instructional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Anthony V.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces an inquiry-based lesson plan on evolution and the Galapagos Islands. Uses the 5E instructional model which includes phases of engagement, exploration, explanation, elaboration, and evaluation. Includes information on species for exploration and elaboration purposes, and a general rubric for student evaluation. (YDS)

  9. Inclusive differentiated instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ljiljana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive differentiated instruction is a new model of didactic instruction, theoretically described and established in this paper for the first time, after being experimentally verified through teaching of the mother tongue (instruction in reading and literature. Inclusive individually planned instruction is based on a phenomenological and constructivist didactic instructional paradigm. This type of teaching is essentially developmental and person-oriented. The key stages of inclusive differentiated instruction of literature are: 1 recognition of individual students' potential and educational needs regarding reading and work on literary texts; 2 planning and preparation of inclusive individually planned instruction in reading and literature; 3 actual class teaching of lessons thus prepared; and 4 evaluation of the student achievement following inclusive differentiated instruction in reading and literature. A highly important element of the planning and preparation of inclusive differentiated instruction is the creation of student profiles and inclusive individualized syllabi. Individualized syllabi specify the following: 1. a brief student profile; 2. the student position on the continuum of the learning outcomes of instruction in the Serbian language; 3. reverse-engineered macro-plan stages of instruction in the Serbian language (3.1. identifying expected outcomes and fundamental qualities of learners' work, 3.2. defining acceptable proofs of their realisation, 3.3. planning learning and teaching experiences, and 3.4. providing material and technical requisites for teaching; 4 the contents and procedure of individualized lessons targeting the student; 5 a plan of syllabus implementation monitoring and evaluation. The continuum of the learning outcomes of inclusive differentiated instruction in literature exists at three main levels, A, B and C. The three levels are: A reading techniques and learning about the main literary theory concepts; B

  10. On the nature of explanation: A PDP approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchland, Paul M.

    1990-06-01

    Neural network models of sensory processing and associative memory provide the resources for a new theory of what explanatory understanding consists in. That theory finds the theoretically important factors to reside not at the level of propositions and the relations between them, but at the level of the activation patterns across large populations of neurons. The theory portrays explanatory understanding, perceptual recognition, and abductive inference as being different instances of the same more general sort of cognitive achievement, viz. prototype activation. It thus effects a unification of the theories of explanation, perception, and ampliative inference. It also finds systematic unity in the wide diversity of types of explanation (causal, functional, mathematical, intentional, reductive, etc.), a chronic problem for theories of explanation in the logico-linguistic tradition. Finally, it is free of the many defects, both logical and psychological, that plague models in that older tradition.

  11. Making context explicit for explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezillon, P. [Univ. Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Intelligent systems may be improved by making context explicit in problem solving. This is a lesson drawn from a study of the reasons why a number of knowledge-based systems (KBSs) failed. We discuss the interest to make context explicit in explanation generation and incremental knowledge acquisition, two important aspects of intelligent systems that aim to cooperate with users. We show how context can be used to better explain and incrementally acquire knowledge. The advantages of using context in explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition are discussed through SEPIT, an expert system for supporting diagnosis and explanation through simulation of power plants. We point out how the limitations of such systems may be overcome by making context explicit.

  12. Towards to An Explanation for Conceptual Change: A Mechanistic Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari

    2014-07-01

    Conceptual change is one of the most studied fields in science education and psychology of learning. However, there are still some foundational issues in conceptual change research on which no clear consensus has emerged. Firstly, there is no agreement on what changes in belief and concept systems constitute conceptual change and what changes do not. Secondly, there is no consensus on what the specific mechanisms of conceptual change are. Thirdly, there is no common explanatory framework of how to explain conceptual change. In this paper a sketch for explanations of conceptual change is outlined. According to this account, the explanation for conceptual change requires (1) a description for the information processing task and (2) a sufficiently accurate and detailed description of the cognitive mechanisms responsible for the task. The scope and limits of this type of explanation are discussed.

  13. Is the bias for function-based explanations culturally universal? Children from China endorse teleological explanations of natural phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Zhu, Liqi; Li, Jing; Kelemen, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Young children in Western cultures tend to endorse teleological (function-based) explanations broadly across many domains, even when scientifically unwarranted. For instance, in contrast to Western adults, they explicitly endorse the idea that mountains were created for climbing, just like hats were created for warmth. Is this bias a product of culture, or a product of universal aspects of human cognition? In two studies, we explored whether adults and children in Mainland China, a highly secular, non-Western culture, show a bias for teleological explanations. When explaining both object properties (Exp. 1) and origins (Exp. 2), we found evidence that they do. While Chinese adults restricted teleological explanations to scientifically warranted cases, Chinese children endorsed them more broadly, extending them across different kinds of natural phenomena. This bias decreased with rising grade level across first, second and fourth grade. Overall, these data provide evidence that children’s bias for teleological explanations is not solely a product of Western Abrahamic cultures. Instead, it extends to other cultures including the East Asian secular culture of modern-day China. This suggests that the bias for function-based explanations may be driven by universal aspects of human cognition. PMID:28110152

  14. Testing the Transivity Explanation of the Allais Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses a two-dimensional version of a standard common consequence experiment to test the intransitivity explanation of Allais-paradox-type violations of expected utility theory. We compare the common consequence effect of two choice problems differing only with respect to whether...... intransitivity as an explanation of the Allais Paradox. The question whether violations of expected utility are mainly due to intransitivity or to violation of independence is important since it is exactly on this issue the main new decision theories differ...

  15. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  16. The Importance of Qualitative Research for Causal Explanation in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of causation has long been controversial in qualitative research, and many qualitative researchers have rejected causal explanation as incompatible with an interpretivist or constructivist approach. This rejection conflates causation with the positivist "theory" of causation, and ignores an alternative understanding of causation,…

  17. Why have socio-economic explanations between favoured over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    explanations trump cultural ones in the South African HIV aetiological literature? In this article, we explore how three factors (a belief in monogamy as a universal norm, HIV's emergence in a time of the construction of non-racialism, and a simplified understanding of HIV epidemiology) have intersected to produce this bias ...

  18. Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces: A Cognitive Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Adam J.; Kalakanis, Lisa; Langlois, Judith H.

    1999-01-01

    Four studies assessed a cognitive explanation for development of infants' preference for attractive faces: cognitive averaging and preferences for mathematically averaged faces, or prototypes. Findings indicated that adults and 6-month olds prefer prototypical, mathematically averaged faces and that 6-month olds can abstract the central tendency…

  19. Children Balance Theories and Evidence in Exploration, Explanation, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Friel, Daniel; Schulz, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children, mean: 62 months). Center and Mass Theory children who…

  20. Children balance theories and evidence in exploration, explanation, and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonawitz, E.B.; van Schijndel, T.J.P.; Friel, D.; Schulz, L.

    2012-01-01

    We look at the effect of evidence and prior beliefs on exploration, explanation and learning. In Experiment 1, we tested children both with and without differential prior beliefs about balance relationships (Center Theorists, mean: 82 months; Mass Theorists, mean: 89 months; No Theory children,

  1. Explanations of Freud's Psychoanalysis Theories on the Lives and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines some of the various explanations of Freud's theories on a selected number of Western Artist and their works. It highlights the impact of his findings on the authenticity of the concept as regards, dreams, the Oedipus complex and imagery. Its objective is to prove that a number of Western European artist ...

  2. Psychosocial explanations of complaints in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, A; Mazeland, H; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    BACKGROUND: Dutch GPs are frequently consulted by patients presenting physical complaints which have a psychosocial cause. Until now, this type of complaint has often been the subject of study, but the way in which psychosocial explanations for complaints are broached and discussed has not yet been

  3. Prediction and explanation over DL-Lite data streams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available the popular DL-Lite family, and study the logic foundations of prediction and explanation over DL-Lite data streams, i.e., reasoning from finite segments of streaming data to conjectures about the content of the streams in the future or in the past. We propose...

  4. Social selection is a powerful explanation for prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M

    2016-01-01

    Cultural group selection helps explain human cooperation, but social selection offers a complementary, more powerful explanation. Just as sexual selection shapes extreme traits that increase matings, social selection shapes extreme traits that make individuals preferred social partners. Self-interested partner choices create strong and possibly runaway selection for prosocial traits, without requiring group selection, kin selection, or reciprocity.

  5. Phase space overpopulation at CERN and possible explanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, S.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. By combining information from correlations from Pb+Pb collisions at CERN, one comes to the conclusion that pionic phase space is significantly overpopulated compared to expectations based on chemical equilibrium. A variety of explanations will be addressed. (author)

  6. A skin-picking disorder case report: a psychopathological explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 44-year-old woman, without known previous psychiatric history, hospitalized after a significant hemorrhage caused by self-inflicted deep facial dermal lesions (with muscle exposition. Psychopathological possible explanations of this case, as in similar reviewed ones, are related to frustration, aggression, and impulsivity.

  7. Social class, psychosocial factors and disease : from deception towards explanation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchor, Adelita Vijaynti

    1994-01-01

    This thesis deals with the question of the extent to which socioeconomic status (sas) is related to disease. The main focus is the explanation of this relation, applying a muitifactor approach aimed at the integration of socioeconomic, psychosocial factors and health-related behavior. ... Zie:

  8. Scientific explanations in Greek upper secondary physics textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velentzas, Athanasios; Halkia, Krystallia

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an analysis of the structure of scientific explanations included in physics textbooks of upper secondary schools in Greece was completed. In scientific explanations for specific phenomena found in the sample textbooks, the explanandum is a logical consequence of the explanans, which in all cases include at least one scientific law (and/or principle, model or rule) previously presented, as well as statements concerning a specific case or specific conditions. The same structure is also followed in most of the cases in which the textbook authors explain regularities (i.e. laws, rules) as consequences of one or more general law or principle of physics. Finally, a number of the physics laws and principles presented in textbooks are not deduced as consequences from other, more general laws, but they are formulated axiomatically or inductively derived and the authors argue for their validity. Since, as it was found, the scientific explanations presented in the textbooks used in the study have similar structures to the explanations in internationally known textbooks, the findings of the present work may be of interest not only to science educators in Greece, but also to the community of science educators in other countries.

  9. Education's impact on explanations of radical right-wing voting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, M.; Tolsma, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the reactions to the large demographic changes in Europe due to migration has been the rise of radical right-wing parties. Previous research has shown that education is one of the most relevant explanations of this voting behaviour. By pooling the European Social Surveys from 2002, 2004, 2006

  10. Designing Automated Guidance to Promote Productive Revision of Science Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansomboon, Charissa; Gerard, Libby F.; Vitale, Jonathan M.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2017-01-01

    Supporting students to revise their written explanations in science can help students to integrate disparate ideas and develop a coherent, generative account of complex scientific topics. Using natural language processing to analyze student written work, we compare forms of automated guidance designed to motivate productive revision and help…

  11. A Self-Categorization Explanation for Opinion Consensus Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinguang; Reid, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The public expression of opinions (and related communicative activities) hinges upon the perception of opinion consensus. Current explanations for opinion consensus perceptions typically focus on egocentric and other biases, rather than functional cognitions. Using self-categorization theory we showed that opinion consensus perceptions flow from…

  12. Examining the Effects of Two Computer Programming Learning Strategies: Self-Explanation versus Reading Questions and Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study described here explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on learning the computer programming language JavaScript. Students’ test performance and perceptions of effectiveness toward the two strategies were examined. An online interactive tutorial instruction implementing worked-examples and multimedia learning principles was developed for this study. Participants were 147 high school students (ages 14 to 18 of a computer introductory course in six periods which were randomly divided into two groups (n = 78; n = 69 of three periods each. The two groups alternated learning strategies to learn five lessons. Students’ prerequisite knowledge of XHTML and motivation to learn computer programming languages were measured before starting the tutorial. Students largely expressed their preference toward self-explanation over reading questions and answers. They thought self-explanation incurred much more work yet was more effective. However, the two learning strategies did not have differential effects on students’ test performance. The seeming discrepancy arising from students’ preferred strategy and their test performance was discussed in the areas of familiar versus new strategy, difficulty of learning materials and testing method, and experimental duration.

  13. Apparel. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Patti

    This instructional guide for a one-half credit technological laboratory course for grades 10-12 focuses on apparel from the perspectives of personal decision making related to apparel, the apparel industry, and career preparation. Introductory materials are a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and…

  14. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  15. Windows into Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher-Reed, Christina; Rotella, Sam A.

    2017-01-01

    Administrators are often removed from the daily instructional realities in classrooms, while teachers aren't given enough opportunities to lead in their schools, write Christina Steinbacher-Reed and Sam A. Rotella Jr. The result is a wall that prevents the two parties from collaborating in a way that improves school culture, teaching practices,…

  16. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CATALOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Vocational Agriculture Instructional Materials Service, Columbus.

    THE TITLE, IDENTIFICATION NUMBER, DATE OF PUBLICATION, PAGINATION, A BRIEF DESCRIPTION, AND PRICE ARE GIVEN FOR EACH OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND AUDIOVISUAL AIDS INCLUDED IN THIS CATALOG. TOPICS COVERED ARE FIELD CORPS, HORTICULTURE, ANIMAL SCIENCE, SOILS, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, AND FARMING PROGRAMS. AN ORDER FORM IS INCLUDED. (JM)

  17. Computers in writing instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Helen J.; van der Geest, Thea; Smit-Kreuzen, Marlies

    1992-01-01

    For computers to be useful in writing instruction, innovations should be valuable for students and feasible for teachers to implement. Research findings yield contradictory results in measuring the effects of different uses of computers in writing, in part because of the methodological complexity of

  18. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  19. Job Instruction Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Richard H.

    Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees on the job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee's supervisor but can be a co-worker. The JIT technique consists of a series of steps that a supervisor or other instructor follows…

  20. Nuclear Energy. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  1. Wind Power. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  2. Instructional Psychology 1976 - 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    business it is to carry out applied work in the design of instructional content and delivery. These organizations include specialized divisions of...34learning disabilities" label: An experimental analysis. Comtemporary Educational Psychology, 1977, 2, 292-297. Allington, R. L. Sensitivity to

  3. Reviews in instructional video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were

  4. Computer-assisted instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss

  5. Scaffolding in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On-The-Job Training, developed as direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training. This method is still widely in use today because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. This paper is intended to be a study of the methods used in education in Knowledge Society, with more specific aspects in training the trainers; as a result of this approach, it promotes scaffolding in assisted instruction as a reflection of the digital age for the learning process. Training the trainers in old environment with default techniques and designing the learning process in assisted instruction, as an application of the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD to the area of computer literacy for the younger users, generate diversity in educational communities and requires standards for technology infrastructure, standards for the content, developed as a concepts map, and applications for personalized in-struction, based on ZPD theory.

  6. Characteristics of Instructional Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Mobina; Taspolat, Ata; Kaya, Omer Sami; Sapanca, Hamza Fatih

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, video plays a significant role in education in terms of its integration into traditional classes, the principal delivery system of information in classes particularly in online courses as well as serving as a foundation of many blended classes. Hence, education is adopting a modern approach of instruction with the target of moving away…

  7. Facility transition instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facility transition instruction was initiated in response to the need for a common, streamlined process for facility transitions and to capture the knowledge and experience that has accumulated over the last few years. The instruction serves as an educational resource and defines the process for transitioning facilities to long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Generally, these facilities do not have identified operations missions and must be transitioned from operational status to a safe and stable configuration for long-term S and M. The instruction can be applied to a wide range of facilities--from process canyon complexes like the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility or B Plant, to stand-alone, lower hazard facilities like the 242B/BL facility. The facility transition process is implemented (under the direction of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office [RL] Assistant Manager-Environmental) by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. management, with input and interaction with the appropriate RL division and Hanford site contractors as noted in the instruction. The application of the steps identified herein and the early participation of all organizations involved are expected to provide a cost-effective, safe, and smooth transition from operational status to deactivation and S and M for a wide range of Hanford Site facilities

  8. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  9. Listening strategies instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueroles López, Marta

    2017-01-01

    , who presented similar level of Spanish, needs, educational and cultural background, but did not receive such a training. The listening strategies instruction consisted in integrating the development of listening strategies into a regular course of Spanish as a foreign language. Data referring...

  10. Inquiry-Oriented Instruction: A Conceptualization of the Instructional Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, George; Johnson, Estrella; Keene, Karen; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Research has highlighted that inquiry-based learning (IBL) instruction leads to many positive student outcomes in undergraduate mathematics. Although this research points to the value of IBL instruction, the practices of IBL instructors are not well-understood. Here, we offer a characterization of a particular form of IBL instruction:…

  11. 78 FR 65298 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... programs aim to achieve 100% retention, reliance on data from the portal, and the mechanisms for providing... continue to request explanations for any retention rate below 100%. Text boxes are provided for grantees to...,234. Total Burden Cost (capital/startup): None. Total Burden Cost (operating/maintenance): None. Dated...

  12. Computer-Based Video Instruction to Teach Students with Intellectual Disabilities to Use Public Bus Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda; O'Brien, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of computer-based video instruction (CBVI) to teach three young adults with moderate intellectual disabilities to push a "request to stop bus signal" and exit a city bus in response to target landmarks. A multiple probe design across three students and one bus route was used to evaluate effectiveness of…

  13. Personalized Learning Instructional Staff Survey Results (Spring 2014). Working Paper WR-1062-BMGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler-Evans, Kyle; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Pane, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to descriptively summarize instructional staff responses to a survey administered by RAND in 23 personalized learning (PL) schools in Spring 2014. This work was performed at the request of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), as part of a multi-year evaluation contract. The 23 schools were selected from a…

  14. Images of Germany, Past and Present: A Film Collection. Series I, Instructional Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethe House, New York, NY.

    This set of lessons accompanies a series of 30-minute films for teaching about Germany. Available to educators throughout the United States upon request, the 17 films and accompanying instructional activities focus on culture, politics, economics, society, and sports and are appropriate for middle and high school students. Permission is granted to…

  15. The Effects of Planned Instruction on Iranian L2 Learners' Interlanguage Pragmatic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Esmaeili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The most compelling evidence that instruction in L2pragmatics is necessary comes from learners whoselanguage proficiency is advanced but their communicative actsfrequently contain pragmatic errors. The current studyevaluated the impact of explicit instruction on EFL learner'sawareness and production of three speech acts of request,apology, and complaint. It also probed whether learners’language proficiency plays any role in incorporatingpragmatic instruction into the L2 classroom. The instructionlasted for about 12 weeks. Achievement in L2 pragmaticswas assessed based on a pretest-posttest plan usingMultiple-Choice Discourse Comprehension Test (MDCTand Written Discourse Completion Test (WDCT. Thesignificant gains made by the experimental groups receivinginstruction support the claim recently made by instructionalpragmatics that explicit instruction does facilitate thedevelopment of pragmatically appropriate use of language.Yet, learners’ level of language proficiency had no significantrole in the incorporation of the instruction. Furthertheoretical issues are also discussed.

  16. Instructional Leadership Practices in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…

  17. Putting instruction sequences into effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made to define the concept of execution of an instruction sequence. It is found to be a special case of directly putting into effect of an instruction sequence. Directly putting into effect of an instruction sequences comprises interpretation as well as execution. Directly putting into

  18. The Measurement of Instructional Accomplishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Lawrence E.; Vargas, Ernest A.

    Instructional System Technology in recent years has been characterized by an increase in individualized instruction and the modularization of the curriculum. In traditional systems the learners are forced to take blocks of instruction the size of entire courses and these are much too large. The courses can now be broken down into conceptual…

  19. Intelligent Frameworks for Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy describing various uses of artificial intelligence techniques in automated instructional development systems. Instructional systems development is discussed in relation to the design of computer-based instructional courseware; two systems being developed at the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory are reviewed; and further research…

  20. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) is an instruction processing paradigm that has been in the spot- light due to its adoption by the next generation of Intel. Processors starting with the IA-64. The EPIC processing paradigm is an evolution of the Very Long Instruction. Word (VLIW) paradigm. This article gives an ...

  1. Motivational elements in user instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loorbach, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Concerning the design of user instructions, two view can be distinguished. The traditional view considers instructions as purely instrumental documents. The more and more emerging affective view still assumes that above all, instructions should enable readers to perform tasks. But in order to

  2. Self-Explanation and Explanatory Feedback in Games: Individual Differences, Gameplay, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Stephen S.; Clark, Douglas B.; Adams, Deanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of two explanation-based approaches for increasing learning in educational games. The first involves asking students to explain their answers (self-explanation) and the second involves providing correct explanations (explanatory feedback). This study (1) compared self-explanation and explanatory…

  3. Instructional immediacy in elearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkem, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Instructor immediacy has been positively associated with many desirable academic outcomes including increased student learning. This study extends existing understanding of instructional immediacy behaviours in elearning by describing postgraduate nursing students' reflections on their own experience. An exploratory, descriptive survey design was used to collect qualitative data. Participants were asked what behaviours or activities help to create rapport or a positive interpersonal connection (immediacy) between students and their online teacher(s). Thematic analysis of the data revealed three main themes: acknowledging and affirming student's personal and professional responsibilities; providing clear and timely information; and utilising rich media. These findings give lecturers insight into instructional strategies they may adopt to increase immediacy in elearning and hence improve student learning outcomes.

  4. Dynamical 3-Space: Alternative Explanation of the "Dark Matter Ring"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available NASA has claimed the discovery of a “Ring of Dark Matter” in the galaxy cluster CL 0024 +17, see Jee M.J. et al. arXiv:0705.2171, based upon gravitational lensing data. Here we show that the lensing can be given an alternative explanation that does not involve “dark matter”. This explanation comes from the new dynamics of 3-space. This dynamics involves two constant G and alpha — the fine structure constant. This dynamics has explained the bore hole anomaly, spiral galaxy flat rotation speeds, the masses of black holes in spherical galaxies, gravitational light bending and lensing, all without invoking “dark matter”, and also the supernova redshift data without the need for “dark energy”.

  5. Nursing Teaching Strategies by Encouraging Students’ Questioning, Argumentation and Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Neri de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing students need to develop competences in the field of explanation, argumentation and questioning as they are pivotal to foster a relationship with their patients and achieve a greater humanisation of care. The objective of this paper is to analyse the perception of 1st-year nursing students with regard to the humanisation of care provided to patients by encouraging them to discuss real-life episodes. The study is qualitative and content analysis used the students’ questions, explanations and argumentation as core discourses. Among other conclusions, results point towards the importance of promoting activities that encourage the different nursing students’ discourses and the ability to understand the humanisation and dehumanisation patterns arising from the real-life episodes used as case study.

  6. A Critique of Instructional

    OpenAIRE

    McKernan, James

    2010-01-01

    The ‘objectives model’ of curriculum planning, predicated upon behavioural performances, has become the dominant form of curriculum planning in Europe and elsewhere in the world. This paper argues that the objectives model is satisfactory for training or instruction, but falls down when applied to a true sense of ‘education’. The paper outlines 13 limitations on the use of educational objectives. It is argued that those interested in using objectives are guided by evaluation as assessment rat...

  7. Introductory biology students' conceptual models and explanations of the origin of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Elena Bray; Shaw, Neil; Momsen, Jennifer; Reinagel, Adam; Le, Paul; Taqieddin, Ranya; Long, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Mutation is the key molecular mechanism generating phenotypic variation, which is the basis for evolution. In an introductory biology course, we used a model-based pedagogy that enabled students to integrate their understanding of genetics and evolution within multiple case studies. We used student-generated conceptual models to assess understanding of the origin of variation. By midterm, only a small percentage of students articulated complete and accurate representations of the origin of variation in their models. Targeted feedback was offered through activities requiring students to critically evaluate peers' models. At semester's end, a substantial proportion of students significantly improved their representation of how variation arises (though one-third still did not include mutation in their models). Students' written explanations of the origin of variation were mostly consistent with their models, although less effective than models in conveying mechanistic reasoning. This study contributes evidence that articulating the genetic origin of variation is particularly challenging for learners and may require multiple cycles of instruction, assessment, and feedback. To support meaningful learning of the origin of variation, we advocate instruction that explicitly integrates multiple scales of biological organization, assessment that promotes and reveals mechanistic and causal reasoning, and practice with explanatory models with formative feedback. © 2014 E. Bray Speth et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Mechanisms of cold fusion: comprehensive explanations by the Nattoh model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki

    1995-01-01

    The phenomena of cold fusion seem to be very complicated; inconsistent data between the production rates of heat, neutrons, tritiums and heliums. Our thoughts need to drastically change in order to appropriately understand the mechanisms of cold fusion. Here, a review is described for the Nattoh model, that has been developed extensively to provide comprehensive explanations for the mechanisms of cold fusion. Important experimental findings that prove the model are described. Furthermore several subjects including impacts on other fields are also discussed. (author)

  9. Causation at Different Levels: Tracking the Commitments of Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter; Kertész, Gergely

    2011-01-01

    connections transparent. These general commitments get confronted with two claims made by certain proponents of the mechanistic approach: William Bechtel often argues that within the mechanistic framework it is possible to balance between reducing higher levels and maintaining their autonomy at the same time...... their autonomy at the same time than standard reductive accounts are, and that what mechanistic explanations are able to do at best is showing that downward causation does not exist....

  10. Diquarks as an explanation for psi's R, and everything else

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavkovic, M [Stanford Univ., Calif. (USA). School of Medicine

    1976-06-05

    In order to overcome some contradictions and limitations in the charm model without introducing new quantum numbers, a new quark model is required. The letter presents a candidate for such a model. Some tests of the model are discussed including the explanation of the observed behaviour of R=sigma(e/sup +/e/sup -/..-->..hadrons)/sigma(e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..--> mu..sup(+)..mu..sup(-)) and the narrow width of psi's. Moreover some predictions of the model are illustrated.

  11. An Explanation of Nakamoto's Analysis of Double-spend Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Ozisik, A. Pinar; Levine, Brian Neil

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental attack against blockchain systems is the double-spend attack. In this tutorial, we provide a very detailed explanation of just one section of Satoshi Nakamoto's original paper where the attack's probability of success is stated. We show the derivation of the mathematics relied upon by Nakamoto to create a model of the attack. We also validate the model with a Monte Carlo simulation, and we determine which model component is not perfect.

  12. Effective Multicultural Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin T. Thompson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The reason why the Trayvon Martin murder trial and similar court cases create a philosophical rift in our nation is due in part to flaws in the delivery of multicultural education. Traditional multicultural instruction does not prepare citizens for the subtleties and complexities of race relations. This study investigates critical strategies and practices that address multicultural missing gaps. I also seek to fill a void in the literature created by a lack of student input regarding teaching strategies that encourage lifelong learning. Students (N = 337 enrolled at a Midwestern university were asked to rate the efficacy of selected instructional strategies. Utilizing a 9-point Likert-type scale, students gave themselves a personal growth rating of 7.15 (SD = 1.47. Variables important to predicting that growth (R2 = .56, p < .0005 were a six-factor variable known as a non-color-blind instructional approach (t = 10.509, p ≤ .0005, allowing students an opportunity to form their own opinions apart from the instructor (t = 4.797, p ≤ .0005, and a state law that mandated multicultural training (t = 3.234, p = .001. Results demonstrated that utilizing a 35% traditional and 65% critical pedagogy mixture when teaching multicultural education helped promote win/win scenarios for education candidates hoping to become difference makers.

  13. Superfluous neuroscience information makes explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Duque, Diego; Evans, Jessica; Christian, Colton; Hodges, Sara D

    2015-05-01

    Does the presence of irrelevant neuroscience information make explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing? Do fMRI pictures further increase that allure? To help answer these questions, 385 college students in four experiments read brief descriptions of psychological phenomena, each one accompanied by an explanation of varying quality (good vs. circular) and followed by superfluous information of various types. Ancillary measures assessed participants' analytical thinking, beliefs on dualism and free will, and admiration for different sciences. In Experiment 1, superfluous neuroscience information increased the judged quality of the argument for both good and bad explanations, whereas accompanying fMRI pictures had no impact above and beyond the neuroscience text, suggesting a bias that is conceptual rather than pictorial. Superfluous neuroscience information was more alluring than social science information (Experiment 2) and more alluring than information from prestigious "hard sciences" (Experiments 3 and 4). Analytical thinking did not protect against the neuroscience bias, nor did a belief in dualism or free will. We conclude that the "allure of neuroscience" bias is conceptual, specific to neuroscience, and not easily accounted for by the prestige of the discipline. It may stem from the lay belief that the brain is the best explanans for mental phenomena.

  14. An ancient explanation of presbyopia based on binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    Presbyopia, understood as the age-related loss of ability to clearly see near objects, was known to ancient Greeks. However, few references to it can be found in ancient manuscripts. A relevant discussion on presbyopia appears in a book called Symposiacs written by Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus around 100 A.C. In this work, Plutarch provided four explanations of presbyopia, associated with different theories of vision. One of the explanations is particularly interesting as it is based on a binocular theory of vision. In this theory, vision is produced when visual rays, emanating from the eyes, form visual cones that impinge on the objects to be seen. Visual rays coming from old people's eyes, it was supposed, are weaker than those from younger people's eyes; so the theory, to be logically coherent, implies that this effect is compensated by the increase in light intensity due to the overlapping, at a certain distance, of the visual cones coming from both eyes. Thus, it benefits the reader to move the reading text further away from the eyes in order to increase the fusion area of both visual cones. The historical hypothesis taking into consideration that the astronomer Hipparchus of Nicaea was the source of Plutarch's explanation of the theory is discussed. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Competing explanations for adopting energy innovations for new office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, Walter J.V.; Hovens, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    An integrative model to explain potential adopters' decisions to adopt energy innovations was adapted and applied in the field of new office building construction. We tested the relative effects of competing theoretical explanations (derived from economics, innovation science and policy science) on the decision to adopt. The research covered 35 projects representing 9% of the total volume of new office construction in the Netherlands between 2000 and mid-2002. Two levels of explanations for adopting innovations were derived: (a) the potential adopter's weighed assessments of the innovations and his or her nature of decision making and (b) explanation of those first-level variables. Using multiple regression techniques, we determined the relative influence on innovation-adoption of variables covering economy and technology, government intervention, company characteristics, and influences from market and society. The decision to adopt 'mature' innovations, in contrast to 'young' innovations, is based more on routine procedures than project-specific considerations. Policies need to take this difference into consideration. We also show evidence that in promoting adoption of E-innovations for new office buildings the Dutch system of applying Energy Performance Standards and subsidies proofs to be effective

  16. Selective effects of explanation on learning during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H; Lombrozo, Tania

    2014-10-01

    Two studies examined the specificity of effects of explanation on learning by prompting 3- to 6-year-old children to explain a mechanical toy and comparing what they learned about the toy's causal and non-causal properties with children who only observed the toy, both with and without accompanying verbalization. In Study 1, children were experimentally assigned to either explain or observe the mechanical toy. In Study 2, children were classified according to whether the content of their response to an undirected prompt involved explanation. Dependent measures included whether children understood the toy's functional-mechanical relationships, remembered perceptual features of the toy, effectively reconstructed the toy, and (for Study 2) generalized the function of the toy when constructing a new one. Results demonstrate that across age groups, explanation promotes causal learning and generalization but does not improve (and in younger children can even impair) memory for causally irrelevant perceptual details. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Verbal-motor attention-focusing instructions influence kinematics and performance on a golf-putting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzert, Jörn; Maurer, Heiko; Reiser, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined how varying the content of verbal-motor instructions and requesting an internal versus external focus influenced the kinematics and outcome of a golf putting task. On Day 1, 30 novices performed 120 trials with the instruction to focus attention either on performing a pendulum-like movement (internal) or on the desired ball path (external). After 20 retention trials on Day 2, they performed 20 transfer trials with the opposite instruction. Group differences for retention and a group by block interaction showed that external instruction enhanced movement outcome. Kinematic data indicated that specific instruction content influenced outcomes by eliciting changes in movement execution. Switching from the external to the internal focus instruction resulted in a more pendulum-like movement.

  18. Revisiting cognitive and learning styles in computer-assisted instruction: not so useful after all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A

    2012-06-01

    In a previous systematic review, the author proposed that adaptation to learners' cognitive and learning styles (CLSs) could improve the efficiency of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). In the present article, he questions that proposition, arguing that CLSs do not make a substantive difference in CAI. To support this argument, the author performed an updated systematic literature search, pooled new findings with those from the previous review, and reinterpreted this evidence with a focus on aptitude-treatment interactions. (An aptitude-treatment interaction occurs when a student with attribute 1 learns better with instructional approach A than with approach B, whereas a student with attribute 2 learns better with instructional approach B).Of 65 analyses reported in 48 studies, only 9 analyses (14%) showed significant interactions between CLS and instructional approach. It seems that aptitude-treatment interactions with CLSs are at best infrequent and small in magnitude. There are several possible explanations for this lack of effect. First, the influence of strong instructional methods likely dominates the impact of CLSs. Second, current methods for assessing CLSs lack validity evidence and are inadequate to accurately characterize the individual learner. Third, theories are vague, and empiric evidence is virtually nonexistent to guide the planning of style-targeted instructional designs. Adaptation to learners' CLSs thus seems unlikely to enhance CAI. The author recommends that educators focus on employing strong instructional methods. Educators might also consider assessing and adapting to learners' prior knowledge or allowing learners to select among alternate instructional approaches.

  19. Children's success at detecting circular explanations and their interest in future learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Candice M; Danovitch, Judith H; Rowles, Sydney P; Campbell, Ian L

    2017-10-01

    These studies explore elementary-school-aged children's ability to evaluate circular explanations and whether they respond to receiving weak explanations by expressing interest in additional learning. In the first study, 6-, 8-, and 10-year-olds (n = 53) heard why questions about unfamiliar animals. For each question, they rated the quality of single explanations and later selected the best explanation between pairs of circular and noncircular explanations. When judging single explanations, 8- and 10-year-olds, and to some extent 6-year-olds, provided higher ratings for noncircular explanations compared to circular ones. When selecting between pairs of explanations, all age groups preferred noncircular explanations to circular ones, but older children did so more consistently than 6-year-olds. Children who recognized the weakness of the single circular explanations were more interested in receiving additional information about the question topics. In Study 2, all three age groups (n = 87) provided higher ratings for noncircular explanations compared to circular ones when listening to responses to how questions, but older children showed a greater distinction in their ratings than 6-year-olds. Moreover, the link between recognizing circular explanations as weak and interest in future learning could not be accounted for solely by individual differences in verbal intelligence. These findings illustrate the developmental trajectory of explanation evaluation and support that recognition of weak explanations is linked to interest in future learning across the elementary years. Implications for education are discussed.

  20. Re-enactment of the Radiation Protection ordinance - explanations for its application in practice. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegl, A.; Bischof, W.

    2001-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Association (Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz) decided to publish explanations for the practical application of the amended Radiation Protection Ordinance, if possible immediately at the time of promulgation. The purpose of this publication is to provide as many advice seekers as possible with whatever information they need for their purposes. The material has therefore been divided into chapters each dedicated to a specific user group. Dedicated chapters containing all the important information for the respective target group have been provided for hospitals and physicians, general and special applications of ionising radiation in industry and trade, companies that perform services in areas or installations exposed to radiation, nuclear power plants and companies affected by the new protective regulations concerning natural radiation. These chapters are supplemented with contributions on generic topics such as the principles of radiation protection, new developments in dosimetry, transport and storage of radioactive substances, expertise and instruction and qualification approval. The section on general topics is rounded off by the transitory regulations, which are crucially important

  1. USING GOOGLE+ FOR INSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YEE

    Full Text Available Introduced in July, 2011 in a beta test of invited users only, the new social media service Google+ (or G+ quickly spread by word of mouth, and Google leader Larry Page (2011 blogged that within sixteen days it had 10 million users. By August, it had 25 million users (Cashmore, 2011. Even with slower growth ahead (still with no marketing budget, the service looks likely to crest 100 million users perhaps as early as ten months, a feat that took Facebook three years. Other social networks, most notably Facebook and Twitter, have been used increasingly as instructional tools, since they are platforms with which students are already familiar (Maloney, 2007; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007. Selwyn (2009 found that students often eschew official channels for communication in favor of less formal community-based formats such as Facebook, implying a growing need for instructional communication tools that will be used willingly by students. The question is whether Google+ can be used like Twitter or Facebook to augment instruction, or even, perhaps, to improve upon those predecessors for academic purposes. Google+ is like Twitter in that anyone can follow a given user’s posts. There is no direct “friend” relationship required to read the posts written by others. However, it also approximates some features of Facebook. Rather than friends sorted into “lists” like in Facebook, Google+ allows users to place feeds into one or more “circles,” the better to monitor (or control the flow of information to and from different audiences. Circles are more intuitive, and more central to the experience, than the Facebook lists. They provide an explicit organizational structure, compared to the less-obvious listing functionality, which feels like an afterthought, found in Facebook.

  2. A Study of the Relationship between Gender, Salary, and Student Ratings of Instruction at a Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magel, Rhonda C.; Doetkott, Curt; Cao, Li

    2017-01-01

    Salary studies in the United States and some other countries show a gap between male and female faculty salaries in higher education that widens over time. The present study examines one possible explanation, particularly at research universities, by examining changes in faculty salaries in relation to student ratings of instruction. Student…

  3. AWA RMAT Service Requests -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Lotus Notes application used by local support to request AWA Tier 3 support (RMATS). Consolidates and automates several routine IT support tasks and facilitates more...

  4. EST Vocabulary Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia D.S. Bell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the investigation on the instruction of EST (English for Science and Technology vocabulary, in terms of receptive use of the language. It evaluates the effectiveness of two teaching approaches to the acquisition of vocabulary. The first approach consisted of teaching vocabulary through the use of dictionaries, where the words were merely translated into the learners’ L1 or defined in the target language thus promoting superficial level of word processing. The second approach employed activities promoting deep level of word processing. Data were analysed quantitatively. Results indicated that the two approaches seem to have some equipotentiality, as far as EST vocabulary is concerned.

  5. The Mere Exposure Instruction Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Pieter; Mertens, Gaëtan; Smith, Colin Tucker; De Houwer, Jan

    2017-09-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to the well-established finding that people evaluate a stimulus more positively after repeated exposure to that stimulus. We investigated whether a change in stimulus evaluation can occur also when participants are not repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, but are merely instructed that one stimulus will occur frequently and another stimulus will occur infrequently. We report seven experiments showing that (1) mere exposure instructions influence implicit stimulus evaluations as measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT), personalized Implicit Association Test (pIAT), or Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), but not with an Evaluative Priming Task (EPT), (2) mere exposure instructions influence explicit evaluations, and (3) the instruction effect depends on participants' memory of which stimulus will be presented more frequently. We discuss how these findings inform us about the boundary conditions of mere exposure instruction effects, as well as the mental processes that underlie mere exposure and mere exposure instruction effects.

  6. Use of tablets for instruction and learning in microbiology labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karen Louise; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Georgsen, Marianne

    of this project are to develop a technological infrastructure to support students’ work in the lab and to develop teaching and learning resources. Our research question is: How is teaching and learning in the laboratory influenced by the tablets and the following multimodal teaching and learning materials...... and taken notes by hand. Use of tablets in the lab offers new opportunities. In September 2012, nine tablets were introduced into one of the labs of the college. Groups of students use the tablets to access documents, watch video instructions, and to document results and procedures digitally. The objectives......? The empirical part of the project has been documented through field observations in the lab (in writing and with photos). We have found the following to be characteristic of the work of the students: the students use the tablets collaboratively, take more photos than requested, use the video based instructions...

  7. HIV in Japan: Epidemiologic puzzles and ethnographic explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. DiStefano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Japan is widely perceived to have a low level of HIV occurrence; however, its HIV epidemics also have been the subject of considerable misunderstanding globally. I used a ground truthing conceptual framework to meet two aims: first, to determine how accurately official surveillance data represented Japan's two largest epidemics (urban Kansai and Tokyo as understood and experienced on the ground; and second, to identify explanations for why the HIV epidemics were unfolding as officially reported. I used primarily ethnographic methods while drawing upon epidemiology, and compared government surveillance data to observations at community and institutional sites (459 pages of field notes; 175 persons observed, qualitative interviews with stakeholders in local HIV epidemics (n = 32, and document research (n = 116. This revealed seven epidemiologic puzzles involving officially reported trends and conspicuously missing information. Ethnographically grounded explanations are presented for each. These included factors driving the epidemics, which ranged from waning government and public attention to HIV, to gaps in sex education and disruptive leadership changes in public institutions approximately every two years. Factors constraining the epidemics also contributed to explanations. These ranged from subsidized medical treatment for most people living with HIV, to strong partnerships between government and a well-developed, non-governmental sector of HIV interventionists, and protective norms and built environments in the sex industry. Local and regional HIV epidemics were experienced and understood as worse than government reports indicated, and ground-level data often contradicted official knowledge. Results thus call into question epidemiologic trends, including recent stabilization of the national epidemic, and suggest the need for revisions to the surveillance system and strategies that address factors driving and constraining the epidemics. Based

  8. Tutorial dialogues and gist explanations of genetic breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Colin L; Wolfe, Christopher R; Reyna, Valerie F; Cedillos-Whynott, Elizabeth M; Brust-Renck, Priscila G; Weil, Audrey M

    2015-09-01

    The intelligent tutoring system (ITS) BRCA Gist is a Web-based tutor developed using the Shareable Knowledge Objects (SKO) platform that uses latent semantic analysis to engage women in natural-language dialogues to teach about breast cancer risk. BRCA Gist appears to be the first ITS designed to assist patients' health decision making. Two studies provide fine-grained analyses of the verbal interactions between BRCA Gist and women responding to five questions pertaining to breast cancer and genetic risk. We examined how "gist explanations" generated by participants during natural-language dialogues related to outcomes. Using reliable rubrics, scripts of the participants' verbal interactions with BRCA Gist were rated for content and for the appropriateness of the tutor's responses. Human researchers' scores for the content covered by the participants were strongly correlated with the coverage scores generated by BRCA Gist, indicating that BRCA Gist accurately assesses the extent to which people respond appropriately. In Study 1, participants' performance during the dialogues was consistently associated with learning outcomes about breast cancer risk. Study 2 was a field study with a more diverse population. Participants with an undergraduate degree or less education who were randomly assigned to BRCA Gist scored higher on tests of knowledge than those assigned to the National Cancer Institute website or than a control group. We replicated findings that the more expected content that participants included in their gist explanations, the better they performed on outcome measures. As fuzzy-trace theory suggests, encouraging people to develop and elaborate upon gist explanations appears to improve learning, comprehension, and decision making.

  9. Style investing: behavioral explanations of stock market anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, T.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract PhD-project The aim of this thesis is to explore the mechanisms of style investing. My project consists of two parts, each with an individual goal: 1. The first objective will be to analyze the implications of the dynamics of value and growth strategies for the US stock market. 2. The second objective will be to find explanations for stock returns by introducing the effects of collective preferences of investors into the dynamics of stock markets. We introduce style popularity as an ...

  10. Coding Scheme for Assessment of Students’ Explanations and Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Gojkošek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the process of analyzing students’ explanations and predictions for interaction between brightness enhancement film and beam of white light, a need for objective and reliable assessment instrumentarose. Consequently, we developed a codingscheme that was mostly inspired by the rubrics for self-assessment of scientific abilities. In the paper we present the grading categories that were integrated in the coding scheme, and descriptions of criteria used for evaluation of students work. We report the results of reliability analysis of new assessment tool and present some examples of its application.

  11. Radiometric method and abnormal explanation of landslide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Shulin; Sun Zhanxue; Luo Liangsheng

    2003-01-01

    Radioactivity exploration mechanism of landslide is researched. Radioactive measure technical and its anomaly explanation models of application is introduced. Test verification result of landslide body geological form (boundary and landslide body thickness) in the district of Wanzhou 233 of Chongqing city ancients landslide and the Yunyang new county Zhaiba landslide shows, it can be used in determining the body boundary (reason) line, investigating the underground current direction and landslide body moving direction, explaining that calculation of weathered zone thickness of landslide body. It can also increase the geological effect of landslide exploration in adaption with geology and drilling

  12. Flip-Floppers and Wafflers: Explanations and Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    to this literature by showing that repositioning’s influence on evaluations depends on beliefs citizens make concerning why the policy switch occurred, beliefs that are, in turn, structured by the communication environment surrounding such switches. Specifically, I use two large national survey experiments to show...... that repositioning elites who provide a satisfactory explanation for their change in position escape evaluative harm from their actions and that this occurs even among individuals who lost proximity from the elite’s change in position and among those from a different party as the elite. This study thus has important...

  13. The conceptual analysis of the instructional process: Research findings on students’ teacher reflections in art education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Hajdušková

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the linking pedagogical theory to teaching practicewith the aim to improve quality of education through its analytic reflection by teachersor student teachers. The text deals with the original method of didactic reflection– concept analysis. Concept analysis is characterized as a methodical instrument forreflection and evaluation of the instruction. It is based on investigation of didacticcontent transformation in educational processes and it is oriented to creative approachand experiential learning in the instruction. The explanation uses the results of research(2009–2010 on the state of didactic skills and pedagogical content knowledge of arteducation teachers during their didactic training.

  14. Guide to request license for the use of nuclear meters, analytic devices and of detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    In this work they are reflected the steps to continue to request license for the use of nuclear meters. the main instructions to continue are to give all the data of the responsible for the department, data of the team, classification and norms and the facilities

  15. 76 FR 4091 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Certification Requirements for NOAA's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Certification Requirements for NOAA's Hydrographic Product Quality Assurance Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... and instructions should be directed to David B. Enabnit, (301) 713-2770 x132, [email protected]noaa.gov...

  16. 77 FR 40341 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for Appointment in the NOAA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Application for Appointment in the NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department... and instructions should be directed to Eric Johnson, (301) 713-7727 or [email protected]noaa.gov...

  17. 78 FR 26035 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... technology to minimize the information collection burden. 1. Type of Information Collection Request: Revision..., such as Part B. The instructions have also been changed to guide plans on when to use this optional... with 45 CFR part 46 or equivalent federal regulations and applicable state or local law or regulations...

  18. 78 FR 41082 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Collection; Comments Requested: Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... financial management. Other: None. Congress passed a bankruptcy law that requires individuals who file for...; Comments Requested: Application for Approval as a Provider of a Personal Financial Management Instructional... other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting...

  19. 78 FR 69938 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... 8453-R AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... Form 8453-R, Declaration and Signature for Electronic Filing of Forms 8947 and 8963. DATES: Written... copies of the form and instructions should be directed to R. Joseph Durbala, (202) 622-3634, at Internal...

  20. 76 FR 53420 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... information collection request (ICR) entitled the Application Instructions Training and Technical Assistance... Community Service, Ralph Morales at (202) 606-6829 Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology...

  1. 78 FR 22527 - Army Science Board Request for Information on Technology and Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... require both a CD and a hard copy of the response. The size of the CD submission will be limited to 20 MB. The hard copy format specifications include 12 point font, single-spaced, single-sided, 8.5 by 11... universities. Submission Instructions and Format: To respond to this request for information, interested...

  2. 76 FR 47183 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... parties may file a comment online or on paper, by following the instructions in the Request for Comment... No. P084401'' on your comment, and file your comment online at https://ftcpublic.commentworks.com/ftc... Funeral Rule should be addressed to Craig Tregillus, Attorney, Division of Marketing Practices, Bureau of...

  3. 78 FR 38041 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... parties may file a comment online or on paper, by following the instructions in the Request for Comment... your comment and file your comment online at https://ftcpublic.commentworks.com/ftc/tsrrulepra2 by...: Craig Tregillus, Attorney, Division of Marketing Practices, Bureau of Consumer Protection, Federal Trade...

  4. 76 FR 44307 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... information collection request (ICR) entitled the Martin Luther King, Jr. Day of Service application...: Martin Luther King, Jr. Day of Service Application Instructions. OMB Number: 3045-0110. Agency Number... funding of Martin Luther King, Jr. Day of Service Grants. Total Respondents: 50. Frequency: Annual...

  5. 77 FR 22058 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... public comments about our intention to request the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) approval for a... the online instructions for submitting comments. Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility... Pavement Types in the FHWA Traffic Noise Model: Regulatory and Procedural Changes. Background: The Federal...

  6. The Instructional Network: Using Facebook to Enhance Undergraduate Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter; Gregory, Karen; Eddy, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is a website with over one billion users worldwide that is synonymous with social-networking. However, in this study, Facebook is used as an "instructional network". Two sections of an undergraduate calculus course were used to study the effects of participating in a Facebook group devoted solely to instruction. One section was…

  7. Improving Reading Instruction through Research-Based Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Vickie Lynn

    2010-01-01

    The diverse population of students in grades 1- 3 at a suburban elementary school has created a challenge for teachers when differentiating instruction in reading. The purpose of this doctoral project study was to explore the lived experiences of these teachers as they have acquired research-based instructional strategies in reading that support…

  8. The Difficulties of Reductionistic Explanation of Moral Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyyedAli Asghari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Moral reductionist believes that the reality of moral qualities are the same qualities which can be expressed with immoral words. Such an ontological view has an epistemological aspect which states our understanding of moral facts is either our understanding of immoral facts or our deductions of immoral understanding. From moral reductionists and especially the naturalists’ point of view, the ability to explain moral knowledge without resorting to some theories such as moral intuition is considered to be an important advantage and even a strong reason for their view. Therefore, the present paper is going to study the reductionistic explanations about moral knowledge and justifications of moral believes. We have come to the conclusion that among the explanations presented by the naturalists, analytic knowledge has the same problems which have discredited the theory of analytic reductionism. Also, deducing value from non-value is either facing the logical gap of is-must; or if there is a meaningful descriptive-valuable link, we can’t finally come to unconditional moral results.

  9. Misconceptions about optics: An effect of misleading explanations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favale, Fabrizio; Bondani, Maria

    2014-07-01

    During our activities of physics dissemination with High School students especially concerning optics, we are used to distribute a questionnaire about colors and image formation by mirrors and lenses. The answers to some questions clearly show misconceptions and naïve ideas about colors, ray tracing, image formation in reflection and refraction. These misconceptions are widespread and do not depend on the gender, the level, and the age of the students: they seem to depend on some wrong ideas and explanatory models that are not changed by the curricular studies at school. In fact, the same errors are present in groups of students before and after taking optics courses at High School. On the other hand we have also found some misleading explanations of the phenomena both in textbooks and websites. Most of the time, errors occur in the explanatory drawings accompanying the text, which are based on some hybrid description of the optical processes: sometimes the description of the path of the ray light is confused with the image reconstruction by the lenses. We think that to partially avoid some errors it is important to use a teaching path centered on the actual path of the rays and not on what eyes see (the vision). Here we present the results of data collected from more than 200 students and some considerations about figures and explanations found in textbooks.

  10. Acceleration of particles by black holes: Kinematic explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2011-01-01

    A new simple and general explanation of the effect of acceleration of particles by black holes to infinite energies in the center of mass frame is suggested. It is based on kinematics of particles moving near the horizon. This effect arises when particles of two kinds collide near the horizon. For massive particles, the first kind represents a particle with the generic energy and angular momentum (I call them ''usual''). Near the horizon, such a particle has a velocity almost equal to that of light in the frame that corotates with a black hole (the frame is static if a black hole is static). The second kind (called ''critical'') consists of particles with the velocity v< c near the horizon due to special relationship between the energy and angular momentum (or charge). As a result, the relative velocity approaches the speed of light c, and the Lorentz factor grows unbound. This explanation applies both to generic rotating black holes and charged ones (even for radial motion of particles). If one of the colliding particles is massless (photon), the critical particle is distinguished by the fact that its frequency is finite near the horizon. The existence (or absence) of the effect is determined depending on competition of two factors--gravitational blue shift for a photon propagating towards a black hole and the Doppler effect due to transformation from the locally nonrotating frame to a comoving one. Classification of all possible types of collisions is suggested depending on whether massive or massless particle is critical or usual.

  11. Particle physics explanations for ultra-high energy cosmic ray events

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this talk I briefly summarize several proposed particle physics explanations: a breakdown ... as primaries, and magnetic monopoles with mass below 1010 GeV as primaries. .... these monopoles would be the ultimate test of this explanation.

  12. Self-Explanation and Explanatory Feedback in Games: Individual Differences, Gameplay, and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Killingsworth, Stephen; Clark, Douglas; Adams, Deanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of two explanation-based approaches for increasing learning in educational games. The first involves asking students to explain their answers (self-explanation) and the second involves providing correct explanations (explanatory feedback). This study (1) compared self-explanation and explanatory feedback features embedded into a game designed to teach Newtonian dynamics and (2) investigated relationships between learning and individual differenc...

  13. BASIC Instructional Program: System Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dageforde, Mary L.

    This report documents the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP), a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language, as implemented in the MAINSAIL language, a machine-independent revision of SAIL which should facilitate implementation of BIP on other computing systems. Eight instructional modules which make up…

  14. Designing Instructional Materials: Some Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lucille; Pett, Dennis

    Guidelines for the design of instructional materials are outlined in this paper. The principles of design are presented in five major categories: (1) general design (structural appeal and personal appeal); (2) instructional design (attention, memory, concept learning, and attitude change); (3) visual design (media considerations, pictures, graphs…

  15. Cognitive Approaches to Automated Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regian, J. Wesley, Ed.; Shute, Valerie J., Ed.

    This book contains a snapshot of state-of-the-art research on the design of automated instructional systems. Selected cognitive psychologists were asked to describe their approach to instruction and cognitive diagnosis, the theoretical basis of the approach, its utility and applicability, and the knowledge engineering or task analysis methods…

  16. Physics Instruction for Radiologic Technologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Edward L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the Denver collaborative training program in radiologic technology with emphasis upon identification of core topics, preparation of quality instructional materials, and use of innovative teaching techniques, such as computer-assisted instruction and video tape presentations. Included is a 10-week course outline. (CC)

  17. Active Learning through Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…

  18. Adaptive instruction and pupil achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtveen, A.A M; Booy, N; de Jong, Robert (Rob); van de Grift, W.J C M

    In this article the results are reported of a quasi-experiment on effects of adaptive instruction on reading results of children in the first year of reading instruction in Dutch primary schools. The research involved 456 pupils from 23 schools (12 experimental and 11 control group schools).

  19. Instructional Theory for Teaching Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Jan R.; Dinham, Sarah M.

    Metatheoretical analysis of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and Gagne's Theory of Instruction using the Dickoff and James paradigm produced two instructional systems for basic statistics. The systems were tested with a pretest-posttest control group design utilizing students enrolled in an introductory-level graduate statistics…

  20. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolli, Carlo; O' Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2017-10-17

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  1. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolli, Carlo; O'Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2018-01-23

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  2. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....

  3. Causal explanation, intentionality, and prediction: Evaluating the Criticism of "Deductivism"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2001-01-01

    In a number of influential contributions, Tony Lawson has attacked a view of science that he refers to as deductivism, and criticized economists for implicitly using it in their research. Lawson argues that deductivism is simply the covering-law model, also known as the causal model of scientific...... critisizes the use of universal laws in social science, especially in economics. This view cannot be as easily dismissed as his general criticism of causal explanation. We argue that a number of arguments often used against the existence of (correct) universal laws in the social sciences can be put...... into question. First, it is argued that entities need not be identical, or even remotely alike, to be applicable to the same law. What is necessary is that they have common properties, e.g. mass in physics, and that the law relates to that property (section 6). Second, one might take the so-called model...

  4. Cognitive science as an interface between rational and mechanistic explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2014-04-01

    Cognitive science views thought as computation; and computation, by its very nature, can be understood in both rational and mechanistic terms. In rational terms, a computation solves some information processing problem (e.g., mapping sensory information into a description of the external world; parsing a sentence; selecting among a set of possible actions). In mechanistic terms, a computation corresponds to causal chain of events in a physical device (in engineering context, a silicon chip; in biological context, the nervous system). The discipline is thus at the interface between two very different styles of explanation--as the papers in the current special issue well illustrate, it explores the interplay of rational and mechanistic forces. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. A flavor-safe composite explanation of $R_K$

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, Adrian

    2017-05-04

    In these proceedings we discuss a flavor-safe explanation of the anomaly found in $R_K= {\\cal B}(B \\to K \\mu^+ \\mu^-)/{\\cal B}(B \\to K e^+ e^-)$ by LHCb, within the framework of composite Higgs models. We present a model featuring a non-negligible degree of compositeness for all three generations of right-handed leptons, which leads to a violation of lepton-flavor universality in neutral current interactions while other constraints from quark- and lepton-flavor physics are met. Moreoever, the particular embedding of the lepton sector considered in this setup provides a parametrically enhanded contribution to the Higgs mass that can weak considerably the need for ultra-light top partners.

  6. Disordered locality as an explanation for the dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Smolin, Lee

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a novel explanation of the dark energy as a manifestation of macroscopic nonlocality coming from quantum gravity, as proposed by Markopoulou [F. Markopoulou (private communication)]. It has been previously suggested that in a transition from an early quantum geometric phase of the Universe to a low temperature phase characterized by an emergent spacetime metric, locality might have been 'disordered'. This means that there is a mismatch of micro-locality, as determined by the microscopic quantum dynamics and macro-locality as determined by the classical metric that governs the emergent low energy physics. In this paper we discuss the consequences for cosmology by studying a simple extension of the standard cosmological models with disordered locality. We show that the consequences can include a naturally small vacuum energy.

  7. Explanation of significant differences for the TNX groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1997-01-01

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) is being issued by the Department of Energy (DOE), the lead agency for the Savannah River Site (SRS), with concurrence by the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV (EPA) and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to announce changes in the interim remediation strategy selected for the TNX Groundwater Operable Unit. The TNX Area is located adjacent to the Savannah River in the southwestern portion of SRS. The remedy selected in the Interim Record of Decision (IROD) to achieve the interim action goals was the Hybrid Groundwater Corrective Action (HGCA). The HGCA consisted of a recirculation well system and an air stripper with a series of groundwater extraction wells. The original remediation strategy needs to be modified because the recirculation well system was determined to be ineffective in this area due to geological factors and the nature of the contamination

  8. An Explanation of True Dreams: Aristotle and Jung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sanai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The naturalistic explanation of realized dream (or dreams that come true means that this phenomen will be explained regardless of supernatural agents. Aristotle in Parva naturalia and Jung in his works explained dream visionary. In this article by scrutiny on these thinkers’ theory, we will indicate the naturalistic approach to dream that is far- fetched for followers of metaphysics. In spite of this fact that Aristotle and Jung both belongs to different historical contexts, they have common aspects in terms of naturalistic method; in the universal or broad sense of word, but in terms of content both explain the true dream by the term “coincidence” or accidental conformity between objective events and psychological affairs. It also seems that the notion of Neutral monism in Jung is adaptive to Hylomorphism in Aristotle psychology, and this, provides a path for naturalistic approach to dream as one forms of consciousness.

  9. Theories of International Relations and the Explanation of Foreign Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUSELLI, Gino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 50 years after the publication of the first and influential article in international relations (IR analyzing foreign aid motivations, A theory of foreign aid, by Hans Morgenthau, IR scholarship has not yet accomplished a consistent theoretical body explaining international development cooperation. Most of the empirical studies on foreign aid have been contributions from other disciplines, especially economics. Research from the field of international relations has been mostly descriptive or poorly connected with IR paradigms.This article proposes to analyze motivations of foreign aid allocations decisions of donors. These motivations will be examined from the theoretical perspective of the international relations scholarship. In this way, it is sought to contribute, from the discipline of IR, to the explanation of the process in which developed countries make transfers of resources to developing countries.

  10. Rethinking the health selection explanation for health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P

    1991-01-01

    As one of several explanations for class differentials in health, health selection has received remarkably little systematic attention in the inequalities debate. It is widely regarded as having (at best) a very minor role in the production of inequalities, and a theoretical debt to social Darwinism. This paper examines the validity of those assumptions in terms of the evidence which has emerged since the publication of the 'Black Report'. It is suggested that it is too easy to write off health selection as of little or no significance, and that reconceptualising the issue within a specifically sociological perspective owing much to labelling theory offers much greater potential for understanding the processes involved. From this perspective, health selection has many of the features of discrimination of the sort that characterises race and sex.

  11. HELPDESK TROUBLESHOOTING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    As of the 08/03/2004 all the repair requests and other communication concerning the CERN tertiary buildings that so far have been transmitted to the TCR via 72201 will be handled directly by the FM helpdesk under the phone number 77777, i.e. problems on systems and equipment as: • Electricity and lighting in office buildings, halls and workshops • Heating and air conditioning in office buildings, halls and workshops • Lifts (excluded the ones in shafts) • Motorised doors • Building structure and equipment: roofs, doors, windows, blinds, etc. • Plumbing • Toilets • Cleaning (CERN wide) • Restaurant equipment • Roads and green areas • Wastes collection The FM Helpdesk is available between 07h30 and 18h30. Troubleshooting requests, complaints and work requests will only be accepted during these opening hours. Outside these opening hours and for any problem in a machine building or on equipment that is ...

  12. Challenges in Request Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis

    2014-01-01

    and its customers. The study provides an insight into a new area of supply chain management, including the process activity flow and challenges involved across the process. Furthermore, the method is dyadic including the customer in the case study, which is rare in related research....... profitability. This research study seeks to investigate the challenges of RQM in practice. Existing demand chain management literature is used as a basis for developing a RQM framework. RQM is investigated through an explorative research design in a dyadic B2B case study including a global industrial company......Request management (RQM) is a new term used for managing customer requests for new products. It is the counterpart to typical product development processes, which has no direct customer involvement. It is essential to manage customer requests in a structured and efficient way to obtain...

  13. Bothered by abstractness or engaged by cohesion? Experts' explanations enhance novices' deep-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachner, Andreas; Nückles, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Experts' explanations have been shown to better enhance novices' transfer as compared with advanced students' explanations. Based on research on expertise and text comprehension, we investigated whether the abstractness or the cohesion of experts' and intermediates' explanations accounted for novices' learning. In Study 1, we showed that the superior cohesion of experts' explanations accounted for most of novices' transfer, whereas the degree of abstractness did not impact novices' transfer performance. In Study 2, we investigated novices' processing while learning with experts' and intermediates' explanations. We found that novices studying experts' explanations actively self-regulated their processing of the explanations, as they showed mainly deep-processing activities, whereas novices learning with intermediates' explanations were mainly engaged in shallow-processing activities by paraphrasing the explanations. Thus, we concluded that subject-matter expertise is a crucial prerequisite for instructors. Despite the abstract character of experts' explanations, their subject-matter expertise enables them to generate highly cohesive explanations that serve as a valuable scaffold for students' construction of flexible knowledge by engaging them in deep-level processing. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Request for All - Generalized Request Framework for PhEDEx

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, C-H; Ratnikova, N.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Zhang, X.; Magini, N.

    2014-01-01

    PhEDEx has been serving CMS community since 2004 as the data broker. Every PhEDEx operation is initiated by a request, such as request to move data, request to delete data, and so on. A request has it own life cycle, including creation, approval, notification, and book keeping and the details depend on its type. Currently, only two kinds of requests, transfer and deletion, are fully integrated in PhEDEx. They are tailored specifically to the operations workflows. To be able to serve a new type of request it generally means a fair amount of development work.After several years of operation, we have gathered enough experience to rethink the request handling in PhEDEx. Generalized Request Project is set to abstract such experience and come up with a request system which is not tied into current workflow yet it is general enough to accommodate current and future requests.The challenges are dealing with different stages in a requests life cycle, complexity of approval process and complexity of the ability and auth...

  15. Instructed officers Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This law contains instructions on the prevention of radiological and contains 4 articles Article I: describe the responsibilities of the institutions that operate within the scope of radiological protection in terms of the number of radiation protection officers and personal Supervisors who available in the practices radiation field. Article II: talking about the conditions of radiation protection officers that must be available in the main officers and working field in larg institutions and thecondition of specific requirements for large enterprises of work permits in the field of radiological work that issued by the Council. Article III: the functions and duties of officers in the prevention of radiological oversee the development of radiation protection programmes in the planning stages, construction and preparing the rules of local labour and what it lead of such tasks.Article IV: radiation protection officers powers: to modify and approve the programme of prevention and radiation safety at the company, stop any unsafe steps, amend the steps of the usage, operation of materials, devices and so on

  16. At Your Request

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduijn, A.S.; Gameren, van Yvonne; Vasse, Emmelyne; Roos, de N.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition in hospitals may be combatted by improving the meal service. Aim: To evaluate whether At Your Request®, a meal service concept by Sodexo with a restaurant style menu card and room service, improved patient satisfaction, nutritional status, and food intake

  17. Personal Information Request Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    PC Forms Inc. 834-4048

    To apply for information under the Privacy Act, complete this form or a written request mentioning the Act. Describe the information being sought and provide any relevant details necessary to help the. International Development Research Centre. (IDRC) find it. If you require assistance, refer to. Info Source (Sources of ...

  18. Logic Programming with Requests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Schreye, Danny; Etalle, Sandro; van Raamsdonk, Femke

    1999-01-01

    We propose an extension of logic programming where the user can specify, together with the initial query, the information he is interested in by means of a request. This allows one to extract a result from an incomplete computation, such as the prefix of an infinite derivation. The classical

  19. The discourse of causal explanations in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Tammy Jayne Anne

    Researchers and educators working from a systemic functional linguistic perspective have provided a body of work on science discourse which offers an excellent starting point for examining the linguistic aspects of the development of causal discourse in school science, discourse which Derewianka (1995) claimed is critical to success in secondary school. No work has yet described the development of causal language by identifying the linguistic features present in oral discourse or by comparing the causal discourse of native and non-native (ESL) speakers of English. The current research responds to this gap by examining the oral discourse collected from ESL and non-ESL students at the primary and high school grades. Specifically, it asks the following questions: (1) How do the teachers and students in these four contexts develop causal explanations and their relevant taxonomies through classroom interactions? (2) What are the causal discourse features being used by the students in these four contexts to construct oral causal explanations? The findings of the social practice analysis showed that the teachers in the four contexts differed in their approaches to teaching, with the primary school mainstream teacher focusing largely on the hands-on practice , the primary school ESL teacher moving from practice to theory, the high school mainstream teacher moving from theory to practice, and the high school ESL teacher relying primarily on theory. The findings from the quantitative, small corpus approach suggest that the developmental path of cause which has been identified in the writing of experts shows up not only in written texts but also in the oral texts which learners construct. Moreover, this move appears when the discourse of high school ESL and non-ESL students is compared, suggesting a developmental progression in the acquisition of these features by these students. The findings also reveal that the knowledge constructed, as shown by the concept maps created

  20. Motivational Measure of the Instruction Compared: Instruction Based on the ARCS Motivation Theory vs Traditional Instruction in Blended Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Ozgur M.; Akdemir, Omur

    2012-01-01

    The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different…

  1. Zoology by Self-Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Keith; Hammond, Roger

    1976-01-01

    A historical account is given of how a conventional university first-year undergraduate course in zoology has been replaced by a self-instructional one. Advantages and problems are weighed, and successful student achievement and interest are described. (LBH)

  2. A Fallibilistic Model for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses models in inquiry and of instruction based on critical Fallibilistic philosophy, developed by Karl R. Popper, which holds that all knowledge grows by conjecture and refutation. Classroom applications of strategies which result from the model are presented. (JP)

  3. Instructional Style Meets Classroom Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan

    1991-01-01

    Nine elementary teachers explain how they design their classrooms to match and support their instructional styles. The teachers focus on whole language programs, student portfolios, science activity set-ups, technology transformation, learning center strategies, and space utilization. (SM)

  4. Intelligent Tools and Instructional Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, William R; Sams, Michelle; Belleville, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This intelligent tools and instructional simulations project was an investigation into the utility of a knowledge-based performance support system to support learning and on-task performance for using...

  5. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Insolves LLC, Piketon, OH (United States)

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  6. Measurement Control Workshop Instructional Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, Philip; Crawford, Cary; McGinnis, Brent

    2014-01-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  7. Adaptive Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talla, Surendranath

    2000-01-01

    .... With in this context, we ask ourselves the following questions. 1. Can application performance be improved if the compiler had the freedom to pick the instruction set on a per application basis? 2...

  8. Virtual science instructional strategies: A set of actual practices as perceived by secondary science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Tammy J.

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this proposed research study was to identify actual teaching practices/instructional strategies for online science courses. The identification of these teaching practices/instructional strategies could be used to compile a set of teaching practices/instructional strategies for virtual high school and online academy science instructors. This study could assist online science instructors by determining which teaching practices/instructional strategies were preferred for the online teaching environment. The literature reviewed the role of online and face-to-face instructional strategies, then discussed and elaborated on the science instructional strategies used by teachers, specifically at the secondary level. The current literature did not reflect an integration of these areas of study. Therefore, the connectedness of these two types of instructional strategies and the creation of a set of preferred instructional practices for online science instruction was deemed necessary. For the purpose of this study, the researcher designed a survey for face-to-face and online teachers to identify preferred teaching practices, instructional strategies, and types of technology used when teaching high school science students. The survey also requested demographic data information from the faculty members, including years of experience, subject(s) taught, and whether the teacher taught in a traditional classroom or online, to determine if any of those elements affect differences in faculty perceptions with regard to the questions under investigation. The findings from the current study added to the literature by demonstrating the differences and the similarities that exist between online and face-to-face instruction. Both forms of instruction tend to rely on student-centered approaches to teaching. There were many skills that were similar in that both types of instructors tend to focus on implementing the scientific method. The primary difference is the use of

  9. Rating Instructional Conversations: A Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, Robert; Goldenberg, Claude; Gallimore, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    The current focus on more effective ways to foster literacy in school-age children, especially language minority students, has led to the development of alternative instructional approaches. One such approach is the instructional conversation (IC), based on early work in the Hawaiian Kamehameha Elementary Education Project (KEEP), on neo-Vygotskian theory, and on recent classroom-based research on reading comprehension. The present report outlines preliminary efforts to operationaliz...

  10. PLE-based instruction concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorcik, Tomas

    2017-11-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of a PLE (Personal Learning Environment)-based teaching model suitable for implementation in the instruction of upper primary school students. The paper describes the individual stages of the model and its use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) tools. The Personal Learning Environment is a form of instruction which allows for the meaningful use of information and communication technologies (including mobile technologies) in their entirety.

  11. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.; Cruz, S.L.

    1985-08-01

    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND83-8036. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy 5630 series Orders, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  12. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.

    1981-03-01

    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, Building 968 at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND78-8018. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy Manual, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  13. Extending positive CLASS results across multiple instructors and multiple classes of Modeling Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, Eric; Traxler, Adrienne; de la Garza, Jorge; Kramer, Laird H.

    2013-12-01

    We report on a multiyear study of student attitudes measured with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey in calculus-based introductory physics taught with the Modeling Instruction curriculum. We find that five of six instructors and eight of nine sections using Modeling Instruction showed significantly improved attitudes from pre- to postcourse. Cohen’s d effect sizes range from 0.08 to 0.95 for individual instructors. The average effect was d=0.45, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.26-0.64). These results build on previously published results showing positive shifts in attitudes from Modeling Instruction classes. We interpret these data in light of other published positive attitudinal shifts and explore mechanistic explanations for similarities and differences with other published positive shifts.

  14. Extending positive CLASS results across multiple instructors and multiple classes of Modeling Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Brewe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on a multiyear study of student attitudes measured with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey in calculus-based introductory physics taught with the Modeling Instruction curriculum. We find that five of six instructors and eight of nine sections using Modeling Instruction showed significantly improved attitudes from pre- to postcourse. Cohen’s d effect sizes range from 0.08 to 0.95 for individual instructors. The average effect was d=0.45, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.26–0.64. These results build on previously published results showing positive shifts in attitudes from Modeling Instruction classes. We interpret these data in light of other published positive attitudinal shifts and explore mechanistic explanations for similarities and differences with other published positive shifts.

  15. Mind the gap! Automated concept map feedback supports students in writing cohesive explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachner, Andreas; Burkhart, Christian; Nückles, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Many students are challenged with the demand of writing cohesive explanations. To support students in writing cohesive explanations, we developed a computer-based feedback tool that visualizes cohesion deficits of students' explanations in a concept map. We conducted three studies to investigate the effectiveness of such feedback as well as the underlying cognitive processes. In Study 1, we found that the concept map helped students identify potential cohesion gaps in their drafts and plan remedial revisions. In Study 2, students with concept map feedback conducted revisions that resulted in more locally and globally cohesive, and also more comprehensible, explanations than the explanations of students who revised without concept map feedback. In Study 3, we replicated the findings of Study 2 by and large. More importantly, students who had received concept map feedback on a training explanation 1 week later wrote a transfer explanation without feedback that was more cohesive than the explanation of students who had received no feedback on their training explanation. The automated concept map feedback appears to particularly support the evaluation phase of the revision process. Furthermore, the feedback enabled novice writers to acquire sustainable skills in writing cohesive explanations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Multimedia instructions and cognitive load theory: effects of modality and cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbers, Huib K; Martens, Rob L; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G

    2004-03-01

    Recent research on the influence of presentation format on the effectiveness of multimedia instructions has yielded some interesting results. According to cognitive load theory (Sweller, Van Merriënboer, & Paas, 1998) and Mayer's theory of multimedia learning (Mayer, 2001), replacing visual text with spoken text (the modality effect) and adding visual cues relating elements of a picture to the text (the cueing effect) both increase the effectiveness of multimedia instructions in terms of better learning results or less mental effort spent. The aim of this study was to test the generalisability of the modality and cueing effect in a classroom setting. The participants were 111 second-year students from the Department of Education at the University of Gent in Belgium (age between 19 and 25 years). The participants studied a web-based multimedia lesson on instructional design for about one hour. Afterwards they completed a retention and a transfer test. During both the instruction and the tests, self-report measures of mental effort were administered. Adding visual cues to the pictures resulted in higher retention scores, while replacing visual text with spoken text resulted in lower retention and transfer scores. Only a weak cueing effect and even a reverse modality effect have been found, indicating that both effects do not easily generalise to non-laboratory settings. A possible explanation for the reversed modality effect is that the multimedia instructions in this study were learner-paced, as opposed to the system-paced instructions used in earlier research.

  17. Instructional support and implementation structure during elementary teachers' science education simulation use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonczi, Amanda L.; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2016-07-01

    This investigation sought to identify patterns in elementary science teachers' computer simulation use, particularly implementation structures and instructional supports commonly employed by teachers. Data included video-recorded science lessons of 96 elementary teachers who used computer simulations in one or more science lessons. Results indicated teachers used a one-to-one student-to-computer ratio most often either during class-wide individual computer use or during a rotating station structure. Worksheets, general support, and peer collaboration were the most common forms of instructional support. The least common instructional support forms included lesson pacing, initial play, and a closure discussion. Students' simulation use was supported in the fewest ways during a rotating station structure. Results suggest that simulation professional development with elementary teachers needs to explicitly focus on implementation structures and instructional support to enhance participants' pedagogical knowledge and improve instructional simulation use. In addition, research is needed to provide theoretical explanations for the observed patterns that should subsequently be addressed in supporting teachers' instructional simulation use during professional development or in teacher preparation programs.

  18. Instructional Technology and Objectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir S. Gur

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectification refers to the way in which everything (including human beings is treated as an object, raw material, or resource to be manipulated and used. In this article, objectification refers to the way that education is often reduced to the packaging and delivery of information. A critique of objectification in instructional technology is presented. In the context of Heidegger’s critique of technology, the authors claim that objectification in education is metaphysical in the sense that the intelligibility (being of education is equated with ready-to-use packages, and thus is reduced to delivery and transmission of objects. The embodiment dimension of teaching and learning can help us in resisting this reduction. The authors argue that objectification increases bureaucratic control over the teaching process and deskills teachers; and by which teachers are proletarianized. The authors conclude that instructional designers should create structures in which a care relation and dialogue between students and teachers can take place. Résumé: L’objectification réfère à la façon dont tout (incluant les être humains est traité comme un objet, une matière première ou une ressource qui peut être manipulée et utilisée. Dans cet article, l’objectification réfère à la façon dont l’éducation est souvent réduite à la mise en boîte et à la livraison de l’information. Une critique de l’objectification en technologie éducative est présentée. Dans le contexte de la critique de la technologie par Heidegger, les auteurs prétendent que l’objectification en éducation est métaphysique dans le sens que l’intelligibilité (être de l’éducation équivaut à la mise en boîte prêt-à –utiliser, et se résume donc à la livraison et à la transmission d’objets. L’incarnation de l’enseignement et de l’apprentissage peuvent nous aider à résister à cette réduction. Les auteurs arguent que l

  19. Antimicrobial resistance and biological governance: explanations for policy failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinga, D; Rayner, G; Lang, T

    2015-10-01

    The paper reviews the state of policy on antimicrobial use and the growth of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AMR was anticipated at the time of the first use of antibiotics by their originators. For decades, reports and scientific papers have expressed concern about AMR at global and national policy levels, yet the problem, first exposed a half-century ago, worsened. The paper considers the explanations for this policy failure and the state of arguments about ways forward. These include: a deficit of economic incentivisation; complex interventions in behavioural dynamics; joint and separate shifts in medical and animal health regimes; consumerism; belief in technology; and a narrative that in a 'war on bugs' nature can be beaten by human ingenuity. The paper suggests that these narratives underplay the biological realities of the human-animal-biosphere being in constant flux, an understanding which requires an ecological public health analysis of AMR policy development and failure. The paper suggests that effective policy change requires simultaneous actions across policy levels. No single solution is possible, since AMR is the result of long-term human intervention which has accelerated certain trends in the evolution of a microbial ecosystem shared by humans, animals and other biological organisms inhabiting that ecosystem. Viewing the AMR crisis today through an ecological public health lens has the advantage of reuniting the social-ecological and bio-ecological perspectives which have been separated within public health. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Strategy in the 20th Century: Explanations from History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Silveira Conke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we argue that an historical perspective helps to understand some of the strategic choices made by organizations. More specifically, the purpose here is to describe the great influence of historical events (related to economy, politics, technological advancement etc. on the creation, acceptance, spreading and / or establishment of the strategic theories and tools developed since the beginning of the 20th century. Texts that usually discuss management and history outline only the Industrial Revolution or the transition from feudalism to capitalism, underestimating other historical forces that offer additional explanations to the evolution of strategic thinking. As a result of an extensive bibliographical research, we were able to identify four periods where the strategic theories developed reveal suitable responses to the challenges created by the environment: in the first one (1900-1938, strategy is concerned with organization and control of business activities, resembling the ideas developed by Scientific Administration; in the second period (1939-1964, strategic planning is formalized and the area is broadly recognized; the next decades (1965-1989 are characterized by competition and uncertainty, making strategy focus on problems emerged from the outside; finally, on the turn of the century (1990-2010, the unlimited information availability enhances the need for strategists’ conceptual and practical knowledge. Also, as a final contribution, we suggest two possible trends to the future of strategy.

  1. Why did Kant reject physiological explanations in his anthropology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    One of Kant's central tenets concerning the human sciences is the claim that one need not, and should not, use a physiological vocabulary if one studies human cognitions, feelings, desires, and actions from the point of view of his 'pragmatic' anthropology. The claim is well known, but the arguments Kant advances for it have not been closely discussed. I argue against misguided interpretations of the claim, and I present his actual reasons in favor of it. Contemporary critics of a 'physiological anthropology' reject physiological explanations of mental states as more or less epistemologically dubious. Kant does not favor such ignorance claims--and this is for the good, since none of these claims was sufficiently justified at that time. Instead, he develops an original irrelevance thesis concerning the empirical knowledge of the physiological basis of the mind. His arguments for this claim derive from his original and, up to now, little understood criticism of a certain conception of pragmatic history, related to his anthropological insights concerning our ability to create new rules of action, the social dynamics of human action, and the relative inconstancy of human nature. The irrelevance thesis also changes his views of the goal and methodology of anthropology. Kant thereby argues for a distinctive approach in quest for a general 'science of man'.

  2. The logic of counterfactual analysis in case-study explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James; Barrenechea, Rodrigo

    2017-12-19

    In this paper, we develop a set-theoretic and possible worlds approach to counterfactual analysis in case-study explanation. Using this approach, we first consider four kinds of counterfactuals: necessary condition counterfactuals, SUIN condition counterfactuals, sufficient condition counterfactuals, and INUS condition counterfactuals. We explore the distinctive causal claims entailed in each, and conclude that necessary condition and SUIN condition counterfactuals are the most useful types for hypothesis assessment in case-study research. We then turn attention to the development of a rigorous understanding of the 'minimal-rewrite' rule, linking this rule to insights from set theory about the relative importance of necessary conditions. We show why, logically speaking, a comparative analysis of two necessary condition counterfactuals will tend to favour small events and contingent happenings. A third section then presents new tools for specifying the level of generality of the events in a counterfactual. We show why and how the goals of formulating empirically important versus empirically plausible counterfactuals stand in tension with one another. Finally, we use our framework to link counterfactual analysis to causal sequences, which in turn provides advantages for conducting counterfactual projections. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  3. Simultaneous explanation of the RK and R (D (*)) puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; Datta, Alakabha; London, David; Shivashankara, Shanmuka

    2015-03-01

    At present, there are several hints of lepton flavor non-universality. The LHCb Collaboration has measured RK ≡ B (B+ →K+μ+μ-) / B (B+ →K+e+e-), and the BaBar Collaboration has measured R (D (*)) ≡ B (B bar →D (*) +τ-νbarτ) / B (B bar →D (*) +ℓ-νbarℓ) (ℓ = e , μ). In all cases, the experimental results differ from the standard model predictions by 2- 3 σ. Recently, an explanation of the RK puzzle was proposed in which new physics (NP) generates a neutral-current operator involving only third-generation particles. Now, assuming the scale of NP is much larger than the weak scale, this NP operator must be made invariant under the full SU (3)C × SU (2)L × U(1)Y gauge group. In this Letter, we note that, when this is done, a new charged-current operator can appear, and this can explain the R (D (*)) puzzle. A more precise measurement of the double ratio R (D) / R (D*) can rule out this model.

  4. Method and metaphysics in Clements's and Gleason's ecological explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Christopher

    2007-03-01

    To generate explanatory theory, ecologists must wrestle with how to represent the extremely many, diverse causes behind phenomena in their domain. Early twentieth-century plant ecologists Frederic E. Clements and Henry A. Gleason provide a textbook example of different approaches to explaining vegetation, with Clements allegedly committed, despite abundant exceptions, to a law of vegetation, and Gleason denying the law in favor of less organized phenomena. However, examining Clements's approach to explanation reveals him not to be expressing a law, and instead to be developing an explanatory structure without laws, capable of progressively integrating causal complexity. Moreover, Clements and Gleason largely agree on the causes of vegetation; but, since causal understanding here underdetermines representation, they differ on how to integrate recognized causes into general theory--that is, in their methodologies. Observers of the case may have mistakenly assumed that scientific representation across the disciplines typically aims at laws like Newton's, and that representations always reveal scientists' metaphysical commitments. Ironically, in the present case, this assumption seems to have been made even by observers who regard Clements as nai ve for his alleged commitment to an ecological law.

  5. Vigorous convection as the explanation for Pluto's polygonal terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, A J; Melosh, H J; Steckloff, J K; Freed, A M

    2016-06-02

    Pluto's surface is surprisingly young and geologically active. One of its youngest terrains is the near-equatorial region informally named Sputnik Planum, which is a topographic basin filled by nitrogen (N2) ice mixed with minor amounts of CH4 and CO ices. Nearly the entire surface of the region is divided into irregular polygons about 20-30 kilometres in diameter, whose centres rise tens of metres above their sides. The edges of this region exhibit bulk flow features without polygons. Both thermal contraction and convection have been proposed to explain this terrain, but polygons formed from thermal contraction (analogous to ice-wedges or mud-crack networks) of N2 are inconsistent with the observations on Pluto of non-brittle deformation within the N2-ice sheet. Here we report a parameterized convection model to compute the Rayleigh number of the N2 ice and show that it is vigorously convecting, making Rayleigh-Bénard convection the most likely explanation for these polygons. The diameter of Sputnik Planum's polygons and the dimensions of the 'floating mountains' (the hills of of water ice along the edges of the polygons) suggest that its N2 ice is about ten kilometres thick. The estimated convection velocity of 1.5 centimetres a year indicates a surface age of only around a million years.

  6. Intelligent Instructional Systems in Military Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J.D.; Zdybel, Frank

    Intelligent instructional systems can be distinguished from more conventional approaches by the automation of instructional interaction and choice of strategy. This approach promises to reduce the costs of instructional materials preparation and to increase the adaptability and individualization of the instruction delivered. Tutorial simulation…

  7. Beyond Punnett Squares: Student Word Association and Explanations of Phenotypic Variation through an Integrative Quantitative Genetics Unit Investigating Anthocyanin Inheritance and Expression in Brassica rapa Fast Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amber R.; Williams, Paul H.; McGee, Seth A.; Dósa, Katalin; Pfammatter, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Genetics instruction in introductory biology is often confined to Mendelian genetics and avoids the complexities of variation in quantitative traits. Given the driving question “What determines variation in phenotype (Pv)? (Pv=Genotypic variation Gv + environmental variation Ev),” we developed a 4-wk unit for an inquiry-based laboratory course focused on the inheritance and expression of a quantitative trait in varying environments. We utilized Brassica rapa Fast Plants as a model organism to study variation in the phenotype anthocyanin pigment intensity. As an initial curriculum assessment, we used free word association to examine students’ cognitive structures before and after the unit and explanations in students’ final research posters with particular focus on variation (Pv = Gv + Ev). Comparison of pre- and postunit word frequency revealed a shift in words and a pattern of co-occurring concepts indicative of change in cognitive structure, with particular focus on “variation” as a proposed threshold concept and primary goal for students’ explanations. Given review of 53 posters, we found ∼50% of students capable of intermediate to high-level explanations combining both Gv and Ev influence on expression of anthocyanin intensity (Pv). While far from “plug and play,” this conceptually rich, inquiry-based unit holds promise for effective integration of quantitative and Mendelian genetics. PMID:25185225

  8. Society by Numbers : Studies on Model-Based Explanations in the Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Kuorikoski, Jaakko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to provide conceptual tools for the social scientist for clarifying, evaluating and comparing explanations of social phenomena based on formal mathematical models. The focus is on relatively simple theoretical models and simulations, not statistical models. These studies apply a theory of explanation according to which explanation is about tracing objective relations of dependence, knowledge of which enables answers to contrastive why and how-questions. This th...

  9. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Pyhälä

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental change (GEC is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC - particularly in small-scale societies - and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014 that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i cognition, (ii culture and knowledge, and (iii possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a "meta-language" around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  10. L'enseignement des langues secondes standard aux minorites culturelles a Bruxelles (Standard Second Language Instruction to Cultural Minorities in Brussels).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vriendt, Sera

    Three major issues in the second language instruction of migrant primary school children in Brussels are discussed: (1) how to develop communicative competence; (2) how to ensure correct pronunciation; and (3) how to improve nonverbal communication. In the case of pronunciation, a "soft" method without explanation about articulation or…

  11. Helpdesk troubleshooting requests

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind all CERN users that the FM Help Desk handles all work and repair requests and other enquiries relating to CERN's tertiary buildings, in particular the following systems and equipment: Electricity and lighting in office buildings, halls and workshops Heating, ventilation and air conditioning in office buildings, halls and workshops Lifts (excluding those in underground areas) Motorised doors Buildings and their equipment: roofs, doors, windows, blinds, etc. Plumbing Toilets Cleaning (all buildings and underground areas) Restaurant equipment Roads and green areas Waste collection The FM Helpdesk is open between 7.30 a.m. and 6.30 p.m. and can be contacted on Tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). Troubleshooting requests, complaints and work requests will only be accepted during these hours. Outside these hours and for any problems relating to non-tertiary buildings or to equipment not included in the above list, please contact the TI Control Room on Tel. 72201, 24 hours a d...

  12. HELPDESK TROUBLESHOOTING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    FM and CSE Group, TS Department

    2004-01-01

    As of the 08/03/2004 all the repair requests and other communication concerning the CERN tertiary buildings that so far have been transmitted to the TCR via 72201 will be handled directly by the FM helpdesk under the phone number 77777, i.e. problems on systems and equipment as: Electricity and lighting in office buildings, halls and workshops Heating and air conditioning in office buildings, halls and workshops Lifts (excluded the ones in shafts) Motorised doors Building structure and equipment: roofs, doors, windows, blinds, etc. Plumbing Toilets Cleaning (CERN wide) Restaurant equipment Roads and green areas Wastes collection The FM Helpdesk is available between 07h30 and 18h30. Troubleshooting requests, complaints and work requests will only be accepted during these opening hours. Outside these opening hours and for any problem in a machine building or on equipment that is not in the list above, you shall continue to contact the TCR under 72201 - 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Machine buildings are ...

  13. HELPDESK TROUBLESHOOTING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2004-01-01

    As of the 08/03/2004 all the repair requests and other communication concerning the CERN tertiary buildings that so far have been transmitted to the TCR via 72201 will be handled directly by the FM helpdesk under the phone number 77777, i.e. problems on systems and equipment as: Electricity and lighting in office buildings, halls and workshops Heating and air conditioning in office buildings, halls and workshops Lifts (excluded the ones in shafts) Motorised doors Building structure and equipment: roofs, doors, windows, blinds, etc. Plumbing Toilets Cleaning (CERN wide) Restaurant equipment Roads and green areas Wastes collection The FM Helpdesk is available between 07h30 and 18h30. Troubleshooting requests, complaints and work requests will only be accepted during these opening hours. Outside these opening hours and for any problem in a machine building or on equipment that is not in the list above, you shall continue to contact the TCR under 72201 - 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Machine buildings are e...

  14. 78 FR 55696 - Request for Comment on Petition Filed by Purple Communications, Inc. Regarding the Provision of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Commission's VRS Reform Order regarding the use of Internet Protocol Captioned Telephone Service (IP CTS... requested clarification would force Purple and other IP CTS providers to cease the provision of IP CTS using...-B402, Washington, DC 20554, or via email to [email protected] . For detailed instructions for submitting...

  15. 78 FR 66759 - Information Collection Request Sent to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ...; Depredation Order for Blackbirds, Grackles, Cowbirds, Magpies, and Crows AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Information Collection Request (ICR) to OMB for review and approval. We summarize the ICR below and describe...-2482 (telephone). You may review the ICR online at http://www.reginfo.gov . Follow the instructions to...

  16. Request for medical records or medical records in Brazil (Justice, Public Prosecution and Police x Medical Confidentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fernandes Remédio Marques

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The request medical records for the instruction of criminal investigations, administrative and judicial proceedings is a reality in Brazil and arouses many questions. This article aims, in the light of the legislation and case law, bring some clarification on the subject, with no claim to exhaust it.

  17. 78 FR 19362 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel W.L. STEWART III; Invitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013 0026] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel W.L. STEWART III; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY.... STEWART III is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Yacht Club Regatta and Sailing Instruction Support...

  18. RelaisILL instructions in English

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Julie Cassone

    . RelaisILL is IDRC's document delivery and interlibrary loan request and tracking system. Follow the steps below to order journal articles and books through interlibrary loan. Note: Grantees can only request articles and book chapters, which ...

  19. Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request template is used to document changes to scope, cost, schedule, or operational performance metrics for SSA's Major...

  20. Best practices in writing instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner

  1. ExplaNet: A Collaborative Learning Tool and Hybrid Recommender System for Student-Authored Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Jessica; Madhyastha, Tara; Shakouri, Ali

    2008-01-01

    ExplaNet is a web-based, anonymous, asynchronous explanation-sharing network. Instructors post questions to the network and students submit explanatory answers. Students then view and rank the explanations submitted by their peers before optionally resubmitting a final and revised answer. Three classroom evaluations of ExplaNet showed that by…

  2. Developing Explanations and Developing Understanding: Students Explain the Phases of the Moon Using Visual Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnafes, Orit

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical model of the process by which students construct and elaborate explanations of scientific phenomena using visual representations. The model describes progress in the underlying conceptual processes in students' explanations as a reorganization of fine-grained knowledge elements based on the Knowledge in Pieces…

  3. Investigating the Development of Chinese Oral Explanation and Justification in Singapore Primary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Explanation and justification require cognitive ability which selects and organises relevant information in a logical way, and linguistic ability which enables speakers to encode the information with linguistic knowledge. This study aims to investigate the development of Chinese oral explanation and justification in Singapore primary students. The…

  4. Sex Differences in Social Behavior: Are the Social Role and Evolutionary Explanations Compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    1996-01-01

    Examines competing claims of two explanations of sex differences in social behavior, social role theory, and evolutionary psychology. Findings associated with social role theory are weighed against evolutionary explanations. It is suggested that evolutionary theory better accounts for the overall pattern of sex differences and for their origins.…

  5. Learning the Language of Evolution: Lexical Ambiguity and Word Meaning in Student Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Meghan A.; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Our study investigates the challenges introduced by students' use of lexically ambiguous language in evolutionary explanations. Specifically, we examined students' meaning of five key terms incorporated into their written evolutionary explanations: "pressure", "select", "adapt", "need", and "must". We utilized a new technological tool known as the…

  6. Simple explanations and reasoning: From philosophy of science to expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary prototype of a simple explanation system was constructed. Although the system, based on the idea of storytelling, did not incorporate all of the principles of simple explanation, it did demonstrate the potential of the approach. The system incorporated a hypertext system, an inference engine, and facilities for constructing contrast type explanations. The continued development of such a system should prove to be valuable. By extending the resources of the expert system paradigm, the knowledge engineer is not forced to learn a new set of skills, and the domain knowledge already acquired by him is not lost. Further, both the beginning user and the more advanced user can be accommodated. For the beginning user, corrective explanations and ES explanations provide facilities for more clearly understanding the way in which the system is functioning. For the more advanced user, the instance and state explanations allow him to focus on the issues at hand. The simple model of explanation attempts to exploit and show how the why and how facilities of the expert system paradigm can be extended by attending to the pragmatics of explanation and adding texture to the ordinary pattern of reasoning in a rule based system.

  7. The many roles of "explanation" in science education: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocksén, Miranda

    2016-12-01

    In this paper the role of explanations is discussed in relation to possible consequences originating in the polysemy of the word explanation. The present study is a response to conceptual confusions that have arisen in the intersection between theory and practice, and between science education literature and communication in authentic science classroom settings. Science classroom communication is examined in terms of one teacher's word use during eleven lessons about evolution. The study contributes empirical examples of how disciplinary norms of valid explanations are manifested in science classroom communication. A dialogical analysis shows how the teacher provides three conversational structures: asking for acts of explanation, providing opportunities to talk about what explanations are in this context and providing opportunities to talk about explanations constructed by students. These three structures facilitate the process of learning how to evaluate and justify explanations. Three potential meanings of the word "explanation" are pointed to: an everyday meaning, a pedagogical-professional meaning and a scientific meaning of the word. It is suggested that the co-existence of these three potential meanings has communicative consequences in science education.

  8. Synergy and Students' Explanations: Exploring the Role of Generic and Content-Specific Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delen, Ibrahim; Krajcik, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we explored how a teacher used a new mobile application that enables students to collect data inside and outside the classroom, and then use the data to create scientific explanations by using claim-evidence-reasoning framework. Previous technologies designed to support scientific explanations focused on how these programs improve…

  9. The Coexistence of Natural and Supernatural Explanations across Cultures and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H.; Evans, E. Margaret; Rosengren, Karl S.; Harris, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    Although often conceptualized in contradictory terms, the common assumption that natural and supernatural explanations are incompatible is psychologically inaccurate. Instead, there is considerable evidence that the same individuals use both natural and supernatural explanations to interpret the very same events and that there are multiple ways in…

  10. Criteria for deciding what is the ’best’ scientific explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, J.H.M.; Mohammed, D.; Lewiński, M.

    2016-01-01

    In justifying their choice of the ‘best’ scientific explanation from a number of candidate explanations, scientists may employ specific theoretical virtues and other criteria for good scientific theories. This paper is aimed at providing an inventory of such criteria and at analyzing how they

  11. The Different Effects of Family on Objective Career Success across Gender: A Test of Alternative Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmeyer, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Gender gaps in achieved rank and salary, common indicators of objective success, often are attributed to the different family roles and responsibilities of men and women. This study tested three explanations for the different effects of family on careers: that is, choice, performance, and signaling explanations. In a sample of American doctoral…

  12. The Many Roles of "Explanation" in Science Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocksén, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the role of explanations is discussed in relation to possible consequences originating in the polysemy of the word explanation. The present study is a response to conceptual confusions that have arisen in the intersection between theory and practice, and between science education literature and communication in authentic science…

  13. The Effects of Two Reality Explanations on Children's Reactions to a Frightening Movie Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barbara J.; Weiss, Audrey J.

    1991-01-01

    Assesses the effectiveness of two reality explanations on children's reactions to frightening programs. Shows that neither influenced younger children's emotional or cognitive reactions, whereas the special tricks explanation reduced older children's emotional responses with no impact on their interpretation. Shows that the real life explanation…

  14. Transforming Biology Assessment with Machine Learning: Automated Scoring of Written Evolutionary Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu; Mayfield, Elijah

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the use of machine learning to automatically evaluate the accuracy of students' written explanations of evolutionary change. Performance of the Summarization Integrated Development Environment (SIDE) program was compared to human expert scoring using a corpus of 2,260 evolutionary explanations written by 565 undergraduate…

  15. Modes of risk explanation in telephone consultations between nurses and parents for a genetic condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zayts, Olga; Sarangi, Srikant

    2013-01-01

    as warrants for advice-giving and providing reassurance. We then examine how the genetic nurses interactionally orient themselves to the parents’ existing knowledge regarding G6PD deficiency while delivering these risk explanations. The differences in explanation trajectories are linked to the presence...

  16. What Do Students' Explanations Look Like When They Use Second-Hand Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delen, Ibrahim; Krajcik, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Explanation studies underlined the importance of using evidence in support of claims. However, few studies have focused on students' use of others' data (second-hand data) in this process. In this study, students collected data from a local water source and then took all the data back to the classroom to create scientific explanations by using…

  17. ANALYZING TEACHER’S INSTRUCTIONAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN EFL CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find out the teacher’s instructional language, kinds of nonverbal communication and effects in EFL Classroom. The objects of the research were the teacher and students of one primary school in Merauke. The approach employed was qualitative approach. The type of this research applied discourse analysis (DA. Data collection was conducted through observation by recording and interview. Data from observa tion was used to know the teacher’s instructional Language and kinds of nonverbal communication. Interview was used to know the effects of using the teacher’s instructional Language and nonverbal communication to the students. The research findings showed that (1 the teacher’s instructional language in the classroom activities covered explanations, asking questions, giving feedback, and giving corrections. In term of explanation, the teacher used English, switched and mixed the Indonesian language. The teacher used display question to know the students understanding related to the material. She used referential question to start the classroom and when she checked the progress of the students’ activity. In giving feedback, mostly same with explanation, the teacher also used English even she switched and mixed her language with Indonesian. The teacher used direct correction and indirect correction in giving correction. Repetition was also found in explanation, asking question, giving feedback and giving correction. (2 that the kind The findings revealed s of nonverbal communication used by the teacher in the classroom included gesture, body movement and posture, eye contact and facial expression. These nonverbal were applied to explain some unclear verbal communication. (3 The last, the findings showed that there were positive and negative effects of the teacher’s instructional language The positive effects included motivating the students in studying, increasing the students’ vocabulary mastery

  18. In private practice, informed consent is interpreted as providing explanations rather than offering choices: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, Clare M

    2007-01-01

    How do physiotherapists working in private practice understand and interpret the meaning and significance of informed consent in everyday clinical practice? Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Seventeen physiotherapists purposefully recruited from metropolitan private practices where treatment was on a one-on-one basis. Therapists defined informed consent as an implicit component of their routine clinical explanations, rather than a process of providing explicit patient choices. Therapists' primary concern was to provide information that led to a (therapist-determined) beneficial therapeutic outcome, rather than to enhance autonomous patient choice. Explicit patient choice and explicit informed consent were defined as important only if patients requested information or therapists recognised risks associated with the treatment. Physiotherapists defined informed consent within a context of achieving therapeutic outcomes rather than a context of respect for patient autonomy and autonomous choice. Physiotherapy practice guidelines developed to ensure compliance with ethical and legal obligations may therefore be followed only if they fit with therapists' understanding and interpretation of a desired therapeutic outcome.

  19. Sustainable development in the EU: a political and economic explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creaco, Salvo

    2005-01-01

    envisaged when the recent European environmental policy was adopted. With the inevitable consequence that the most common environmental policy solution had frequently continued to be direct regulations. The scant progress in widening the range of instruments for control and behavioural change confirms the existence of a large disagreement between the normative prescriptions of economic theory and decisions effectively taken within the political process. If a large divergence between theory and practices often prevails, the relevant issue is then to understand why ED and Member States have failed to refer to the proposed wider box of instruments. In this direction, this paper points out the usefulness of the contribution that public choice theory can provide for understanding why particular environmental instruments are actually adopted and implemented. According to the individualistic approach of public choice, the paper deals with the issue concerning the choice and implementation of environmental policy tools through the analysis of the functioning of two strictly connected markets: the political market and the para-political market, and tries to give an explanation as to why in representative democracies, in which forces may be identified as demand and supply, an incentive-oriented environmental policy has many difficulties of being implemented [it

  20. Evolutionary explanations in medicine: how do they differ and how to benefit from them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, George A

    2010-04-01

    Evolutionary explanations, many of which have appeared on the pages of this journal, are becoming more pervasive and influential in medicine, so it is becoming more important to understand how these types of explanations differ from the proximate approach that is more common in medicine, and how the evolutionary approach can contribute to medicine. Understanding of any biological phenomenon can occur at four levels: (1) ontogeny (2) causation, (3) function and (4) evolution. These approaches are not mutually exclusive, and whereas the first two are more common in medical practice, a complete explanation requires all four levels of analysis. Two major differences among these approaches are the apparent degree of immediacy associated with them, and the extent to which they apply to individuals rather than populations. Criticisms of adaptive explanations often arise from a failure to understand the complementary nature of these four types of explanations. Other unwarranted criticisms result from a failure to appreciate that adaptive explanations often apply to populations, not individuals. A third type of criticism is driven by the mistaken belief that adaptive explanations somehow justify morally reprehensible behaviours. Finally, evolutionary explanations sometimes face the criticism of "personal incredulity". Adaptive explanations must be consistent with basic evolutionary concepts and must adhere to the physical reality of the phenomenon in question. Their value, however, comes not in devising a seemingly rational explanation, but in their predictions. Testable predictions must be explicitly stated and clearly articulated. They must differ from those of arising from other hypotheses and must not only be interesting to evolutionary biologists, but also useful to medical practitioners. Integration of the proximate and the ultimate approaches is possible and potentially beneficial to both evolutionists and physicians, but it requires some basic understanding of our

  1. Assistant for instructional development (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.P. van; Veldhuis, G.J.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Theunissen, N.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Due to periodical job rotation within the military, instructional developers are not always experts in their field and are consequently unaware of the types of educational concepts that are available to teach with (Jans & Frazer-Jans, 2004). These observations have led to the

  2. Using Observation to Improve Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, William; Napoliello, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The International School of Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, which serves international students in preschool through middle school, focused a great deal of professional attention on differentiation. The administrators in Malaysian school, by making rounds of classrooms, raised teachers' awareness of differentiated instruction.

  3. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  4. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    that the practice of unpacking the local particulars of corrections (i) provides for the instructional character of the interaction, and (ii) is highly sensitive to the relevant physical and mobile contingencies. These findings contribute to the existing literature on the interactional organisation of correction...

  5. Three Logics of Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jessica G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines conceptions of instructional leadership in the institutional environment. We know that principals' practices affect student learning and that principals are influenced by ideas in the broader environment. This article examines and defines the multiple conceptions of what it means for principals to be instructional…

  6. Conversation Walks: Improving Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Sally J.; Lanoue, Philip D.

    2017-01-01

    Principals are tasked with being the instructional leaders in their schools--developing teacher's abilities through formal and informal classroom observations and feedback. But how can school districts ensure that principals have the skills they need to fulfill this crucial role? In Clarke County School District in Georgia, central-office leaders…

  7. Understanding the Supplemental Instruction Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrian; Moore, Lori

    2018-01-01

    This article explored the learning styles and leadership styles of Supplemental Instruction (SI) leaders at Texas A&M University, and the impact of those preferences on recurring attendance to their sessions. The Learning Style Inventory, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, and a demographic instrument were administered to SI leaders…

  8. Preparing Instructional Leaders: A Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…

  9. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  10. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  11. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  12. Succession Planning for Library Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Karen; Drewry, Josiah

    2015-01-01

    Detailed succession planning helps libraries pass information from one employee to the next. This is crucial in preparing for hiring, turnover, retirements, training of graduate teaching assistants in academic libraries, and other common situations. The authors of this article discuss succession planning for instruction programs in academic…

  13. Adaptive Instruction: Building on Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Margaret C.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alternative instructional strategies and resources to meet the learning needs of individual students incorporates the diagnosis of student learning progress, the teaching of self-management skills, organizational supports, and family involvement into an effective educational program. (JN)

  14. Gestalt Theory and Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patrick; Fitz, Chad

    1993-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of Gestalt theory. Shows how six Gestalt principles (proximity, closure, symmetry, figure-ground segregation, good continuation, and similarity) can be applied to improve a reader's comprehension of a badly designed instruction module that uses several graphics. (SR)

  15. The Basics of Blended Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Catlin R.

    2013-01-01

    Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…

  16. An Experiment in Museum Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Marguerite

    Various lesson plans for museum instruction were tested on fifth grade children of fair and high intelligence in an attempt to improve upon the "accepted method" of teaching, which was thought to be better suited to the child of low intelligence than to his abler classmates. The lesson plans tested were: (1) the accepted method…

  17. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  18. Instructing the Online Catalog User.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William

    1986-01-01

    This essay offers suggestions to make online public access catalogs (OPACs) less idiosyncratic and more usable. Discussion covers qualitative difference between online catalog and predecessors, challenge of debunking assumptions, skills for success, maintaining an instructional perspective, catalog development for the people by the people, and the…

  19. Instruction of Competent Psychomotor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Valerie Dong

    2008-01-01

    Instruction of competent psychomotor skill necessitates an eclectic approach. The principles of learning, complemented with learning styles and sensory modalities preferences, provide a background for teaching physical skills. The use of the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy as a map and corresponding behavioral objectives foster the mastery…

  20. Attrition Cost Model Instruction Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagiura, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    This instruction manual explains in detail how to use the Attrition Cost Model program, which estimates the cost of student attrition for a state's higher education system. Programmed with SAS, this model allows users to instantly calculate the cost of attrition and the cumulative attrition rate that is based on the most recent retention and…

  1. International Instructional Systems: Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…

  2. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  3. Computer Assisted Instruction in Basic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-28

    LIBRARY........................16 Program Purpose.........................16 Flowcharts ..........................17 Lessons...17IFlowchart For Main Menu...............19 Flowchart for Lessons One Through Six......................20 CHAPTER Page Tests I1-6 .* 21 Flowchart For...Software support was limited to off-the-shelf packages. All of the computers were purchased with Beginners All Purpose Instruction Code (BASIC), a word

  4. Innovation in Researching the Effects of Frame – Focused Instruction on Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOKOLOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization the research of innovative teaching methods and techniques becomes relevant. The traditional teaching approach where the training of practice material is preceded by rule-presentation (explanation + mechanical formoriented practice doesn’t meet the requirements of constantly developing rational language processing. Contemporary studies are considering the ways how to allow second language learners to be rational in the sense that their mental models of language functioning are the most optimal. This paper outlines current cognitive perspectives on second language acquisition. Language learning involves the acquisition of frame instructions or input-processing instructions (explanation + structured-input activities. Competence and performance both emerge from the dynamic system of frequently used memorized constructions. Frames are dynamic contextualized activation of stereotyped situations. This system proves to be rational since it aims at optimal reflection of prior first language usage and induces learners to think consciously about some sort of rule in order to work out the meaning. The frame–based instruction consists of activities which present learners with a stimulus and require them to respond choosing the appropriate language form for communication. The targeted feature of such communicative tasks has two aims: 1. to stimulate communicative language use and 2. to target the use of a particular predetermined linguistic feature. The empirical research shows that frame-focused tasks direct learners attention to the meaning realized by the target form. Methodological basis includes some theoretical propositions from recent Relevance theory and cognitive linguistics.

  5. Effective instruction for English learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes

  6. Bibliographic Instruction in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Gayle

    2000-01-01

    Discusses bibliographic instruction in libraries. Topics include a history of bibliographic instruction; the Internet and electronic searching; librarians' use of technology; defining information needs; locating and accessing information, including classification systems and Boolean searching; evaluating information; using and communication…

  7. Removing Administrative Impediments to Instructional Improvement Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Pigford, Aretha B.

    1987-01-01

    Principals can and should develop strategies that will enable them to provide instructional leadership despite increased demands from other tasks. Recommended actions include: delegation; peer observation; commitment to instructional leadership; and effective communication with teachers. (CB)

  8. Piano instruction for nursery school trainees

    OpenAIRE

    新海, 節; Makoto, SHINKAI; 藤女子大学人間生活学部保育学科

    2012-01-01

    It is important piano instruction in childcare training schools be viewed primarily as "music for childcare". To this end,it is also important that the view of piano instruction for nursery school trainees be switched from one mainly focused on the technical aspects of performance using many etudes to a form of instruction based on developing the musicality of the trainees and their ability to display emotion through music. Further, through this instruction, the trainees need to develop the a...

  9. Interactive computer-assisted instruction in acid-base physiology for mobile computer platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmuir, Kenneth J

    2014-03-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ∼20 screens of information, on the subjects of the CO2-bicarbonate buffer system, other body buffer systems, and acid-base disorders. Five clinical case modules were also developed. For the learning modules, the interactive, active learning activities were primarily step-by-step learner control of explanations of complex physiological concepts, usually presented graphically. For the clinical cases, the active learning activities were primarily question-and-answer exercises that related clinical findings to the relevant basic science concepts. The student response was remarkably positive, with the interactive, active learning aspect of the instruction cited as the most important feature. Also, students cited the self-paced instruction, extensive use of interactive graphics, and side-by-side presentation of text and graphics as positive features. Most students reported that it took less time to study the subject matter with this online instruction compared with subject matter presented in the lecture hall. However, the approach to learning was highly examination driven, with most students delaying the study of the subject matter until a few days before the scheduled examination. Wider implementation of active learning computer-assisted instruction will require that instructors present subject matter interactively, that students fully embrace the responsibilities of independent learning, and that institutional administrations measure instructional effort by criteria other than scheduled hours of instruction.

  10. Technology Use in Higher Education Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzarka, Sammy

    2012-01-01

    The significance of integrating technology use in higher education instruction is undeniable. The benefits include those related to access to instruction by underserved populations, adequately preparing students for future careers, capitalizing on best instructional practices, developing higher order thinking activities, and engaging students…

  11. On the Practice Architectures of Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Petri; Nylund, Jan; Stjernstrøm, Else

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of instructional leadership and principals' perceptions of the practices of instructional leadership. Despite the emphasis on the effects of school leadership regarding teaching practices and learning outcomes, research on direct instructional leadership is scarce. It is focused either on identifying overall…

  12. Students and Instructors Opinions about Piano Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the opinions of the students and piano instructors in the Turkish Education Faculties' Fine Arts Instruction Departments' music instruction programs about piano instruction. The study data were collected using a questionnaire administered to the piano instructors and the students who took lessons from them. The study results…

  13. A Performance-Based Instructional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Tom E.

    1974-01-01

    The rationale for a performanced- based instructional theory has arisen from significant advances during the past several years in instructional psychology. Four major areas of concern are: analysis of subject-matter content in terms of performance competencies, diagnosis of pre-instructional behavior, formulation of an instructional…

  14. Effective Instruction: A Mathematics Coach's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebesniak, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Effective instruction is multifaceted, dependent largely on the context and, consequently, on numerous variables. Although "effective instruction" is difficult to define, in the author's experience--and as the work of mathematics education specialists and researchers indicates--three key features of quality instruction stand out: (1) Teaching…

  15. Changing Student Teachers' Views of Comprehension Instruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the same time research shows that little, if any, explicit and continuous strategy instruction takes place in classrooms. Reasons seem ... This article reports on the effect of a reading comprehension instruction course on university student teachers' lesson planning, strategy use and views about comprehension instruction.

  16. Instructional Cost Analysis: History and Present Inadequacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, David A.

    The cost analysis of instruction is conducted according to principles of teaching and learning that have often become historically dated. Using today's costing systems prevents determination of whether cost effectiveness actually exists. The patterns of instruction in higher education and the systems employed for instructional cost analysis are…

  17. Rapid Prototyping: An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Steven D.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of instructional design and describes rapid prototyping as a feasible model for instructional system design (ISD). The use of prototyping in software engineering is described, similarities between software design and instructional design are discussed, and an example is given which uses rapid prototyping in designing a…

  18. Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

  19. How can we make user instructions motivational?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steehouder, M.F.; Loorbach, N.R.

    2004-01-01

    Good technical instructions are often viewed as 'cool, concise and professional', but there are good arguments to pay attention to their persuasive and motivational aspects as well. Until now, only analyses of existing instructions have been published, while guidelines for making instructions

  20. Direct Reading Instruction and the NYS ELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Carey, Margaret H.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of classroom based reading instruction ("direct instruction") on the standardized test scores of 6th grade students as measured by the New York State English Language Arts assessment (NYS ELA). It was hypothesized that the implementation of direct instruction in reading in grade 6 would improve NYS ELA…

  1. Direct Vocabulary Instruction in Preschool: A Comparison of Extended Instruction, Embedded Instruction, and Incidental Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…

  2. Demonstrating Empathy: A Phenomenological Study of Instructional Designers Making Instructional Strategy Decisions for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Linda S.

    2017-01-01

    Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…

  3. 30 CFR 48.25 - Training of new miners; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction. (a) Each new miner shall receive no less than 24...: Provided, That no less than 8 hours of training shall in all cases be given to new miners before they are... instruction; hours of instruction. 48.25 Section 48.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...

  4. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  5. Japanese list of requests for nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarasi, Sin-iti

    1981-04-01

    Requests for nuclear data at 1980 are presented. They are 63 for fission reactor, 61 for fusion reactor, and 41 for safeguards. These will be registered in WRENDA 81/82 sup(+). This report contains these 165 requests, and also 111 fission reactor, 44 for fusion reactor requests which were withdrawn from WRENDA. These withdrawn requests are 39 for and 28 for safeguards. (author)

  6. Instructional Leadership and Schools Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Daisy Kee Mui; Ponnusamy, Premavathy

    With the influx of information technology through the Internet and the use of ICT in our daily lives, our future generation has traversed from a mere change of era to a dynamic era of change. Thus, the role of school leaders is becoming more challenging than ever. They need to make greater strides to ensure that they are able to make adjustments and readjustments in instructional practices to cater for the changing elements in their organization. In brief, the school leaders have to be creative, innovative with entrepreneurial drive in order to steer their subordinates (teachers) towards school excellence. Leadership of principal is therefore considered as a main criterion to create successful schools in country's educational advancement. Besides, the school effectiveness plays a crucial role in country's academic advancement. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness.

  7. Collaboration systems for classroom instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Chang, Martin C.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how classroom instruction can benefit from state-of-the-art technologies in networks, worldwide web access through Internet, multimedia, databases, and computing. Functional requirements for establishing such a high-tech classroom are identified, followed by descriptions of our current experimental implementations. The focus of the paper is on the capabilities of distributed collaboration, which supports both synchronous multimedia information sharing as well as a shared work environment for distributed teamwork and group decision making. Our ultimate goal is to achieve the concept of 'living world in a classroom' such that live and dynamic up-to-date information and material from all over the world can be integrated into classroom instruction on a real-time basis. We describe how we incorporate application developments in a geography study tool, worldwide web information retrievals, databases, and programming environments into the collaborative system.

  8. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  9. LHCb Computing Resources: 2019 requests and reassessment of 2018 requests

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzi, Concezio

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the computing resources needed by LHCb in 2019 and a reassessment of the 2018 requests, as resulting from the current experience of Run2 data taking and minor changes in the LHCb computing model parameters.

  10. Instructional skills evaluation in nuclear industry training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazour, T.J.; Ball, F.M.

    1985-11-01

    This report provides information to nuclear power plant training managers and their staffs concerning the job performance requirements of instructional personnel to implement prformance-based training programs (also referred to as the Systems Approach Training). The information presented in this report is a compilation of information and lessons learned in the nuclear power industry and in other industries using performance-based training programs. The job performance requirements in this report are presented as instructional skills objectives. The process used to develop the instructional skills objectives is described. Each objective includes an Instructional Skills Statement describing the behavior that is expected and an Instructional Skills Standard describing the skills/knowledge that the individual should possess in order to have achieved mastery. The instructional skills objectives are organized according to the essential elements of the Systems Approach to Training and are cross-referenced to three categories of instructional personnel: developers of instruction, instructors, and instructional managers/supervisors. Use of the instructional skills objectives is demonstrated for reviewing instructional staff training and qualification programs, developing criterion-tests, and reviewing the performance and work products of individual staff members. 22 refs

  11. How are scientific thinking skills best developed? Direct instruction vs. inquiry practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David Worth, Jr.

    valid explanation, in combination) as well as most component measures of this skill. Performance of the two practice groups was superior to that of the DI-only group. Direct instruction conferred no additional benefit to the group receiving both direct instruction and practice compared to the practice-only group. Examined over an extended time interval, the merits of brief direct instruction are thus brought into question.

  12. Sixth Graders' Co-Construction of Explanations of a Disturbance in an Ecosystem: Exploring Relationships between Grouping, Reflective Scaffolding, and Evidence-Based Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyza, Eleni A.; Constantinou, Costas P.; Spanoudis, George

    2011-01-01

    We report on a study investigating the relationship between cognitive ability grouping, reflective inquiry scaffolding, and students' collaborative explanations of an ecosystem disturbance which took place when a number of flamingo birds died in a salt lake because of nearby intensive human activities. Twenty-six pairs of students from two intact…

  13. A network-level explanation for the differences in HIV prevalence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A network-level explanation for the differences in HIV prevalence in South Africa's ... or ethnic groups may help explain the differential spread of HIV in South Africa. ... Keywords: concurrency, epidemiology, ethnicity, HIV/AIDS, race, social ...

  14. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., aromatic hydrocarbons or paraffins. Others will form hazardous combinations with many groups: For example...

  15. A Critique of the Meta-theoretical Explanations and Analyses of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conditions for the Stimulation and Attraction of Foreign Direct Investments. ... these explanations and analyses are able to sufficiently account for, and capture the critical forces, processes and factors that tend to shape the movement of capital globally.

  16. The Improvement of Simple Explanation and Inferencetion Skills with Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Dewanti, Fransiska Olivia; Diawati, Chansyanah; Fadiawati, Noor

    2013-01-01

    The learning process is strongly influenced by the ability and accuracy of teachers in selecting and applying the learning model. The model can be applied to improve of  simple explanation and inferencetion skill is a model of problem solving. The purpose of this study was to describe the model of problem solving that are effective in improving simple explanation and inferencetion skills on the material electrolyte and non-electrolyte solution. This research use a quasi-experimental methods ...

  17. A flat space-time relativistic explanation for the perihelion advance of Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Behera, Harihar; Naik, P. C.

    2003-01-01

    Starting with the flat space-time relativistic versions of Maxwell-Heaviside's toy model vector theory of gravity and introducing the gravitational analogues for the electromagnetic Lienard-Wiechert potentials together with the notion of a gravitational Thomas Precession; the observed anomalous perihelion advance of Mercury's orbit is here explained as a relativistic effect in flat (Minkowski) space-time, unlike Einstein's curved space-time relativistic explanation. In this new explanation fo...

  18. 78 FR 20102 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Reformulated Gasoline Commingling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Request; Comment Request; Reformulated Gasoline Commingling Provisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... information collection request (ICR), ``Reformulated Gasoline Commingling Provisions'' (EPA ICR No.2228.04.... Abstract: EPA would like to continue collecting notifications from gasoline retailers and wholesale...

  19. 78 FR 69664 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Approval of State Coastal Nonpoint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Collection Request; Comment Request; Approval of State Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Programs AGENCY... to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Approval of State Coastal Nonpoint Pollution... Watershed Protection Division, Office of Wetlands Oceans and Watersheds, Mail Code 4503-T, Environmental...

  20. The 'side effects' of medicalization: a meta-analytic review of how biogenetic explanations affect stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaale, Erlend P; Haslam, Nick; Gottdiener, William H

    2013-08-01

    Reducing stigma is crucial for facilitating recovery from psychological problems. Viewing these problems biomedically may reduce the tendency to blame affected persons, but critics have cautioned that it could also increase other facets of stigma. We report on the first meta-analytic review of the effects of biogenetic explanations on stigma. A comprehensive search yielded 28 eligible experimental studies. Four separate meta-analyses (Ns=1207-3469) assessed the effects of biogenetic explanations on blame, perceived dangerousness, social distance, and prognostic pessimism. We found that biogenetic explanations reduce blame (Hedges g=-0.324) but induce pessimism (Hedges g=0.263). We also found that biogenetic explanations increase endorsement of the stereotype that people with psychological problems are dangerous (Hedges g=0.198), although this result could reflect publication bias. Finally, we found that biogenetic explanations do not typically affect social distance. Promoting biogenetic explanations to alleviate blame may induce pessimism and set the stage for self-fulfilling prophecies that could hamper recovery from psychological problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Memory accessibility shapes explanation: Testing key claims of the inherence heuristic account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussak, Larisa J; Cimpian, Andrei

    2018-01-01

    People understand the world by constructing explanations for what they observe. It is thus important to identify the cognitive processes underlying these judgments. According to a recent proposal, everyday explanations are often constructed heuristically: Because people need to generate explanations on a moment-by-moment basis, they cannot perform an exhaustive search through the space of possible reasons, but may instead use the information that is most easily accessible in memory (Cimpian & Salomon 2014a, b). In the present research, we tested two key claims of this proposal that have so far not been investigated. First, we tested whether-as previously hypothesized-the information about an entity that is most accessible in memory tends to consist of inherent or intrinsic facts about that entity, rather than extrinsic (contextual, historical, etc.) facts about it (Studies 1 and 2). Second, we tested the implications of this difference in the memory accessibility of inherent versus extrinsic facts for the process of generating explanations: Does the fact that inherent facts are more accessible than relevant extrinsic facts give rise to an inherence bias in the content of the explanations generated (Studies 3 and 4)? The findings supported the proposal that everyday explanations are generated in part via a heuristic process that relies on easily accessible-and often inherent-information from memory.

  2. Beyond Punnett squares: Student word association and explanations of phenotypic variation through an integrative quantitative genetics unit investigating anthocyanin inheritance and expression in Brassica rapa Fast plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzli, Janet M; Smith, Amber R; Williams, Paul H; McGee, Seth A; Dósa, Katalin; Pfammatter, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Genetics instruction in introductory biology is often confined to Mendelian genetics and avoids the complexities of variation in quantitative traits. Given the driving question "What determines variation in phenotype (Pv)? (Pv=Genotypic variation Gv + environmental variation Ev)," we developed a 4-wk unit for an inquiry-based laboratory course focused on the inheritance and expression of a quantitative trait in varying environments. We utilized Brassica rapa Fast Plants as a model organism to study variation in the phenotype anthocyanin pigment intensity. As an initial curriculum assessment, we used free word association to examine students' cognitive structures before and after the unit and explanations in students' final research posters with particular focus on variation (Pv = Gv + Ev). Comparison of pre- and postunit word frequency revealed a shift in words and a pattern of co-occurring concepts indicative of change in cognitive structure, with particular focus on "variation" as a proposed threshold concept and primary goal for students' explanations. Given review of 53 posters, we found ∼50% of students capable of intermediate to high-level explanations combining both Gv and Ev influence on expression of anthocyanin intensity (Pv). While far from "plug and play," this conceptually rich, inquiry-based unit holds promise for effective integration of quantitative and Mendelian genetics. © 2014 J. M. Batzli et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. The transfer of learning process: From an elementary science methods course to classroom instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nina Leann

    The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore the transfer of learning process in student teachers. This was carried out by focusing on information learned from an elementary science methods and how it was transferred into classroom instruction during student teaching. Participants were a purposeful sampling of twelve elementary education student teachers attending a public university in north Mississippi. Factors that impacted the transfer of learning during lesson planning and implementation were sought. The process of planning and implementing a ten-day science instructional unit during student teaching was examined through lesson plan documentation, in-depth individual interviews, and two focus group interviews. Narratives were created to describe the participants' experiences as well as how they plan for instruction and consider science pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Categories and themes were then used to build explanations applying to the research questions. The themes identified were Understanding of Science PCK, Minimalism, Consistency in the Teacher Education Program, and Emphasis on Science Content. The data suggested that the participants lack in their understanding of science PCK, took a minimalistic approach to incorporating science into their ten-day instructional units, experienced inconsistencies in the teacher education program, and encountered a lack of emphasis on science content in their field experience placements. The themes assisted in recognizing areas in the elementary science methods courses, student teaching field placements, and university supervision in need of modification.

  4. Validation of ergonomic instructions in robot-assisted surgery simulator training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hullenaar, C D P; Mertens, A C; Ruurda, J P; Broeders, I A M J

    2018-05-01

    Training in robot-assisted surgery focusses mainly on technical skills and instrument use. Training in optimal ergonomics during robotic surgery is often lacking, while improved ergonomics can be one of the key advantages of robot-assisted surgery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether a brief explanation on ergonomics of the console can improve body posture and performance. A comparative study was performed with 26 surgical interns and residents using the da Vinci skills simulator (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). The intervention group received a compact instruction on ergonomic settings and coaching on clutch usage, while the control group received standard instructions for usage of the system. Participants performed two sets of five exercises. Analysis was performed on ergonomic score (RULA) and performance scores provided by the simulator. Mental and physical load scores (NASA-TLX and LED score) were also registered. The intervention group performed better in the clutch-oriented exercises, displaying less unnecessary movement and smaller deviation from the neutral position of the hands. The intervention group also scored significantly better on the RULA ergonomic score in both the exercises. No differences in overall performance scores and subjective scores were detected. The benefits of a brief instruction on ergonomics for novices are clear in this study. A single session of coaching and instruction leads to better ergonomic scores. The control group showed often inadequate ergonomic scores. No significant differences were found regarding physical discomfort, mental task load and overall performance scores.

  5. Compilation of requests for nuclear data. Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Each request is assigned a unique identifying number. The first two digits of this number give the year the request was initiated. All requests for a given Isotope and Quantity are grouped (or blocked) together. The requests in a block are followed by any status comments. Each request has a unique Isotope, Quantity and Requester. The requester is identified by laboratory, last name, and sponsoring US government agency, e.g., BET, Steen, DNR. All requests must give the energy (or range of energy) for the incident particle when appropriate. The accuracy needed in percent is also given. The error quoted is assumed to be 1-sigma at each measured point in the energy range requested unless a comment specifies otherwise. Sometimes a range of accuracy indicated by two values is given or some statement is given in the free text comments. An incident energy resolution in percent is sometimes given

  6. 14 CFR 250.9 - Written explanation of denied boarding compensation and boarding priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The carrier shall also furnish the statement to any person upon request at all airport ticket selling.... If the airline arranges alternate transportation for the passenger's convenience that departs before...

  7. L'inglese per gli italiani; un corso programmato autodidattico realizzato dalla Britannica. Laboratorio Linguistico Individuale Anglotutor [English for Italians; A Self-Instructional Programmed Course developed by Encyclopaedia Britannica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    This eight-volume audiolingual course in programmed English for Italian students appears with instructions and grammatical explanations in Italian and numerous illustrations. Special attention is given to contrastive pronunciation problems. The materials, intended for use on the beginning level, are accompanied by tapes. (AMM)

  8. Effective Instruction of Public Speaking

    OpenAIRE

    竹野, 茂; Shigeru, TAKENO

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the instruction of public speaking in a large-size class. The author has been in charge of the speech classes,SPEECH III and SPEECH IV mainly for the second year students at Miyazaki Municipal University for several years. At the preparation stage of SPEECH III, and IV, he intended that the class size was about 30 students as one group in the lecture style. But, in reality, more than 50 students took the course. Then he had to rethink the way of teaching. To solve the prob...

  9. The coexistence of natural and supernatural explanations within and across domains and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Justin T A; Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Legare, Cristine H

    2017-03-01

    People across highly diverse cultural contexts use both natural and supernatural explanations to explain questions of fundamental concern such as death, illness, and human origins. The present study examines the development of explanatory coexistence within and across domains of existential concern in individuals in Tanna, Vanuatu. We examined three age groups: 7- to 12-year-old children, 13- to 18-year-old adolescents, and 19- to 70-year-old adults (N = 72). Within the domain of death, biological and spontaneous explanations were most common across all ages. For illness, children showed the highest rates of explanatory coexistence, while adolescents and adults favoured biological explanations. Within the human origins domain, theistic explanations were most common across the age groups. Overall, these data show that coexistence reasoning in these domains is pervasive across cultures, yet at the same time it is deeply contextually specific, reflecting the nuanced differences in local ecologies and cultural beliefs. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Individuals across highly diverse cultural contexts use both natural and supernatural explanations to understand the events that occur in their lives. Context and cultural input play a large role in determining when and how individuals incorporate natural and supernatural explanations. The development of explanatory coexistence has primarily studied explanations for isolated domains. What does this study add? We examined explanatory coexistence in a culture with recent conversion to Christianity and formal education. The current research examines how individuals reason within and across the domains of human origins, illness, and death. Developmental differences associated with explanatory coexistence are examined. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Evolutionary explanations in medical and health profession courses: are you answering your students' "why" questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyango Avelin A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and pre-professional health students ask questions about human health that can be answered in two ways, by giving proximate and evolutionary explanations. Proximate explanations, most common in textbooks and classes, describe the immediate scientifically known biological mechanisms of anatomical characteristics or physiological processes. These explanations are necessary but insufficient. They can be complemented with evolutionary explanations that describe the evolutionary processes and principles that have resulted in human biology we study today. The main goal of the science of Darwinian Medicine is to investigate human disease, disorders, and medical complications from an evolutionary perspective. Discussion This paper contrasts the differences between these two types of explanations by describing principles of natural selection that underlie medical questions. Thus, why is human birth complicated? Why does sickle cell anemia exist? Why do we show symptoms like fever, diarrhea, and coughing when we have infection? Why do we suffer from ubiquitous age-related diseases like arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer's and others? Why are chronic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity so prevalent in modern society? Why hasn't natural selection eliminated the genes that cause common genetic diseases like hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, Tay sachs, PKU and others? Summary In giving students evolutionary explanations professors should underscore principles of natural selection, since these can be generalized for the analysis of many medical questions. From a research perspective, natural selection seems central to leading hypotheses of obesity and type II diabetes and might very well explain the occurrence of certain common genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis, hemochromatosis, Tay sachs, Fragile X syndrome, G6PD and others because of their compensating advantages. Furthermore, armed with evolutionary explanations, health care

  11. Negotiating explanations: doctor-patient communication with patients with medically unexplained symptoms-a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boeft, Madelon; Huisman, Daniëlle; Morton, LaKrista; Lucassen, Peter; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Westerman, Marjan J; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Burton, Christopher D

    2017-02-01

    Patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) seek explanations for their symptoms, but often find general practitioners (GPs) unable to deliver these. Different methods of explaining MUPS have been proposed. Little is known about how communication evolves around these explanations. To examine the dialogue between GPs and patients related to explanations in a community-based clinic for MUPS. We categorized dialogue types and dialogue outcomes. Patients were ≥18 years with inclusion criteria for moderate MUPS: ≥2 referrals to specialists, ≥1 functional syndrome/symptoms, ≥10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 and GP's judgement that symptoms were unexplained. We analysed transcripts of 112 audio-recorded consultations (39 patients and 5 GPs) from two studies on the Symptoms Clinic Intervention, a consultation intervention for MUPS in primary care. We used constant comparative analysis to code and classify dialogue types and outcomes. We extracted 115 explanation sequences. We identified four dialogue types, differing in the extent to which the GP or patient controlled the dialogue. We categorized eight outcomes of the sequences, ranging from acceptance to rejection by the patient. The most common outcome was holding (conversation suspended in an unresolved state), followed by acceptance. Few explanations were rejected by the patient. Co-created explanations by patient and GP were most likely to be accepted. We developed a classification of dialogue types and outcomes in relation to explanations offered by GPs for MUPS patients. While it requires further validation, it provides a framework, which can be used for teaching, evaluation of practice and research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Supporting 3rd-grade students model-based explanations about groundwater: a quasi-experimental study of a curricular intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangori, Laura; Vo, Tina; Forbes, Cory T.; Schwarz, Christina V.

    2017-07-01

    Scientific modelling is a key practice in which K-12 students should engage to begin developing robust conceptual understanding of natural systems, including water. However, little past research has explored primary students' learning about groundwater, engagement in scientific modelling, and/or the ways in which teachers conceptualise and cultivate model-based science learning environments. We are engaged in a multi-year project designed to support 3rd-grade students' formulation of model-based explanations (MBE) for hydrologic phenomenon, including groundwater, through curricular and instructional support. In this quasi-experimental comparative study of five 3rd-grade classrooms, we present findings from analysis of students' MBE generated as part of experiencing a baseline curricular intervention (Year 1) and a modelling-enhanced curricular intervention (Year 2). Findings show that students experiencing the latter version of the unit made significant gains in both conceptual understanding and reasoning about groundwater, but that these gains varied by classroom. Overall, student gains from Year 1 to Year 2 were attributed to changes in two of the five classrooms in which students were provided additional instructional supports and scaffolds to enhance their MBE for groundwater. Within these two classrooms, the teachers enacted the Year 2 curriculum in unique ways that reflected their deeper understanding about the practices of modelling. Their enactments played a critical role in supporting students' MBE about groundwater. Study findings contribute to research on scientific modelling in elementary science learning environments and have important implications for teachers and curriculum developers.

  13. ROME (Request Object Management Environment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M.; Good, J. C.; Berriman, G. B.

    2005-12-01

    Most current astronomical archive services are based on an HTML/ CGI architecture where users submit HTML forms via a browser and CGI programs operating under a web server process the requests. Most services return an HTML result page with URL links to the result files or, for longer jobs, return a message indicating that email will be sent when the job is done. This paradigm has a few serious shortcomings. First, it is all too common for something to go wrong and for the user to never hear about the job again. Second, for long and complicated jobs there is often important intermediate information that would allow the user to adjust the processing. Finally, unless some sort of custom queueing mechanism is used, background jobs are started immediately upon receiving the CGI request. When there are many such requests the server machine can easily be overloaded and either slow to a crawl or crash. Request Object Management Environment (ROME) is a collection of middleware components being developed under the National Virtual Observatory Project to provide mechanism for managing long jobs such as computationally intensive statistical analysis requests or the generation of large scale mosaic images. Written as EJB objects within the open-source JBoss applications server, ROME receives processing requests via a servelet interface, stores them in a DBMS using JDBC, distributes the processing (via queuing mechanisms) across multiple machines and environments (including Grid resources), manages realtime messages from the processing modules, and ensures proper user notification. The request processing modules are identical in structure to standard CGI-programs -- though they can optionally implement status messaging -- and can be written in any language. ROME will persist these jobs across failures of processing modules, network outages, and even downtime of ROME and the DBMS, restarting them as necessary.

  14. Automated Computer Access Request System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

  15. Graduates perception towards instructional methods of emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graduates perception towards instructional methods of emergency medicine: affecting their self-confidence in emergency departments. Mohamed Daffalla Awadalla, Ahmed Abd Elrahman Abdalla, Sami Mahjoub Taha ...

  16. The Multimodal Possibilities of Online Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2006-01-01

    The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it.  Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi-modal analy......The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it.  Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi...

  17. Review of Instructional Approaches in Ethics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhearn, Tyler J; Steele, Logan M; Watts, Logan L; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane

    2017-06-01

    Increased investment in ethics education has prompted a variety of instructional objectives and frameworks. Yet, no systematic procedure to classify these varying instructional approaches has been attempted. In the present study, a quantitative clustering procedure was conducted to derive a typology of instruction in ethics education. In total, 330 ethics training programs were included in the cluster analysis. The training programs were appraised with respect to four instructional categories including instructional content, processes, delivery methods, and activities. Eight instructional approaches were identified through this clustering procedure, and these instructional approaches showed different levels of effectiveness. Instructional effectiveness was assessed based on one of nine commonly used ethics criteria. With respect to specific training types, Professional Decision Processes Training (d = 0.50) and Field-Specific Compliance Training (d = 0.46) appear to be viable approaches to ethics training based on Cohen's d effect size estimates. By contrast, two commonly used approaches, General Discussion Training (d = 0.31) and Norm Adherence Training (d = 0.37), were found to be considerably less effective. The implications for instruction in ethics training are discussed.

  18. Tutorial Instruction in Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Miles

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the tutorial practices of in-service teachers to address the underachievement in the science education of K-12 students. Method: In-service teachers in Virginia and North Carolina were given a survey questionnaire to examine how they tutored students who were in need of additional instruction. Results: When these teachers were asked, “How do you describe a typical one-on-one science tutorial session?” the majority of their responses were categorized as teacher-directed. Many of the teachers would provide a science tutorial session for a student after school for 16-30 minutes, one to three times a week. Respondents also indicated they would rely on technology, peer tutoring, scientific inquiry, or themselves for one-on-one science instruction. Over half of the in-service teachers that responded to the questionnaire stated that they would never rely on outside assistance, such as a family member or an after school program to provide tutorial services in science. Additionally, very few reported that they incorporated the ethnicity, culture, or the native language of ELL students into their science tutoring sessions.

  19. Learning from Narrated Instruction Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayrac, Jean-Baptiste; Bojanowski, Piotr; Agrawal, Nishant; Sivic, Josef; Laptev, Ivan; Lacoste-Julien, Simon

    2017-09-05

    Automatic assistants could guide a person or a robot in performing new tasks, such as changing a car tire or repotting a plant. Creating such assistants, however, is non-trivial and requires understanding of visual and verbal content of a video. Towards this goal, we here address the problem of automatically learning the main steps of a task from a set of narrated instruction videos. We develop a new unsupervised learning approach that takes advantage of the complementary nature of the input video and the associated narration. The method sequentially clusters textual and visual representations of a task, where the two clustering problems are linked by joint constraints to obtain a single coherent sequence of steps in both modalities. To evaluate our method, we collect and annotate a new challenging dataset of real-world instruction videos from the Internet. The dataset contains videos for five different tasks with complex interactions between people and objects, captured in a variety of indoor and outdoor settings. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically discover, learn and localize the main steps of a task input videos.

  20. What was historical about natural history? Contingency and explanation in the science of living things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter

    2016-08-01

    There is a long-standing distinction in Western thought between scientific and historical modes of explanation. According to Aristotle's influential account of scientific knowledge there cannot be an explanatory science of what is contingent and accidental, such things being the purview of a descriptive history. This distinction between scientia and historia continued to inform assumptions about scientific explanation into the nineteenth century and is particularly significant when considering the emergence of biology and its displacement of the more traditional discipline of natural history. One of the consequences of this nineteenth-century transition was that while modern evolutionary theory retained significant, if often implicit, historical components, these were often overlooked as evolutionary biology sought to accommodate itself to a model of scientific explanation that involved appeals to laws of nature. These scientific aspirations of evolutionary biology sometimes sit uncomfortably with its historical dimension. This tension lies beneath recent philosophical critiques of evolutionary theory and its modes of explanation. Such critiques, however, overlook the fact that there are legitimate modes of historical explanation that do not require recourse to laws of nature. But responding to these criticisms calls for a more explicit recognition of the affinities between evolutionary biology and history. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigating the origins of political views: biases in explanation predict conservative attitudes in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussak, Larisa J; Cimpian, Andrei

    2018-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that political attitudes are influenced by an information-processing factor - namely, a bias in the content of everyday explanations. Because many societal phenomena are enormously complex, people's understanding of them often relies on heuristic shortcuts. For instance, when generating explanations for such phenomena (e.g., why does this group have low status?), people often rely on facts that they can retrieve easily from memory - facts that are skewed toward inherent or intrinsic features (e.g., this group is unintelligent). We hypothesized that this bias in the content of heuristic explanations leads to a tendency to (1) view socioeconomic stratification as acceptable and (2) prefer current societal arrangements to alternative ones, two hallmarks of conservative ideology. Moreover, since the inherence bias in explanation is present across development, we expected it to shape children's proto-political judgments as well. Three studies with adults and 4- to 8-year-old children (N = 784) provided support for these predictions: Not only did individual differences in reliance on inherent explanations uniquely predict endorsement of conservative views (particularly the stratification-supporting component; Study 1), but manipulations of this explanatory bias also had downstream consequences for political attitudes in both children and adults (Studies 2 and 3). This work contributes to our understanding of the origins of political attitudes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Theoretical explanations for maintenance of behaviour change: a systematic review of behaviour theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko

    2016-09-01

    Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals in achieving temporary behaviour change. Behaviour change maintenance, however, is rarely attained. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise current theoretical explanations for behaviour change maintenance to inform future research and practice. Potentially relevant theories were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO). In addition, an existing database of 80 theories was searched, and 25 theory experts were consulted. Theories were included if they formulated hypotheses about behaviour change maintenance. Included theories were synthesised thematically to ascertain overarching explanations for behaviour change maintenance. Initial theoretical themes were cross-validated. One hundred and seventeen behaviour theories were identified, of which 100 met the inclusion criteria. Five overarching, interconnected themes representing theoretical explanations for behaviour change maintenance emerged. Theoretical explanations of behaviour change maintenance focus on the differential nature and role of motives, self-regulation, resources (psychological and physical), habits, and environmental and social influences from initiation to maintenance. There are distinct patterns of theoretical explanations for behaviour change and for behaviour change maintenance. The findings from this review can guide the development and evaluation of interventions promoting maintenance of health behaviours and help in the development of an integrated theory of behaviour change maintenance.

  3. How perceptions of experience-based analysis influence explanations of work accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, Safiétou; Kouabenan, Dongo Rémi

    2013-12-01

    This article looks into how perceptions of experience-based analysis (EBA) influence causal explanations of accidents given by managers and workers in the chemical industry (n=409) and in the nuclear industry (n=222). The approach is based on the model of naive explanations of accidents (Kouabenan, 1999, 2006, 2009), which recommends taking into account explanations of accidents spontaneously given by individuals, including laypersons, not only to better understand why accidents occur but also to design and implement the most appropriate prevention measures. The study reported here describes the impact of perceptions about EBA (perceived effectiveness, personal commitment, and the feeling of being involved in EBA practices) on managers' and workers' explanations of accidents likely to occur at the workplace. The results indicated that both managers and workers made more internal explanations than external ones when they perceived EBA positively. Moreover, the more the participants felt involved in EBA, were committed to it, and judged it effective, the more they explained accidents in terms of factors internal to the workers. Recommendations are proposed for reducing defensive reactions, increasing personal commitment to EBA, and improving EBA effectiveness. © 2013.

  4. Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia From a Levels of Explanation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugdahl, Kenneth; Sommer, Iris E

    2018-02-15

    In the present article, we present a "Levels of Explanation" (LoE) approach to auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia. Mental phenomena can be understood at different levels of explanation, including cultural, clinical, cognitive, brain imaging, cellular, and molecular levels. Current research on AVHs is characterized by accumulation of data at all levels, but with little or no interaction of findings between levels. A second advantage with a Levels of Explanation approach is that it fosters interdisciplinarity and collaboration across traditional borders, facilitating a real breakthrough in future research. We exemplify a Levels of Explanation approach with data from 3 levels where findings at 1 level provide predictions for another level. More specifically, we show how functional neuroimaging data at the brain level correspond with behavioral data at the cognitive level, and how data at these 2 levels correspond with recent findings of changes in neurotransmitter function at the cellular level. We further discuss implications for new therapeutic interventions, and the article is ended by suggestion how future research could incorporate genetic influences on AVHs at the molecular level of explanation by providing examples for animal work.

  5. Theoretical explanations for maintenance of behaviour change: a systematic review of behaviour theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals in achieving temporary behaviour change. Behaviour change maintenance, however, is rarely attained. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise current theoretical explanations for behaviour change maintenance to inform future research and practice. Methods: Potentially relevant theories were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO). In addition, an existing database of 80 theories was searched, and 25 theory experts were consulted. Theories were included if they formulated hypotheses about behaviour change maintenance. Included theories were synthesised thematically to ascertain overarching explanations for behaviour change maintenance. Initial theoretical themes were cross-validated. Findings: One hundred and seventeen behaviour theories were identified, of which 100 met the inclusion criteria. Five overarching, interconnected themes representing theoretical explanations for behaviour change maintenance emerged. Theoretical explanations of behaviour change maintenance focus on the differential nature and role of motives, self-regulation, resources (psychological and physical), habits, and environmental and social influences from initiation to maintenance. Discussion: There are distinct patterns of theoretical explanations for behaviour change and for behaviour change maintenance. The findings from this review can guide the development and evaluation of interventions promoting maintenance of health behaviours and help in the development of an integrated theory of behaviour change maintenance. PMID:26854092

  6. 25 CFR 517.4 - Requirements for making requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INFORMATION ACT PROCEDURES § 517.4 Requirements for making requests. (a) How to make a FOIA request. Requests... additional information. If the requester is making a request for records about another individual, the..., the requester will be notified of this decision and advised that fees associated with the processing...

  7. 25 CFR 700.241 - Request for records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... which the requester is willing to pay. Requesters are notified that under § 700.251, the failure to..., both on the envelope and on the face of the request, with the legend “FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REQUEST.” The failure of a request to bear such a legend will not disqualify a request from processing under the...

  8. Elementary Students' Retention of Environmental Science Knowledge: Connected Science Instruction versus Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; DeFranco, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 3rd-grade elementary students' gain and retention of science vocabulary over time in two different classes--"connected science instruction" versus "direct instruction." Data analysis yielded that students who received connected science instruction showed less gain in science knowledge in the short term compared to students who…

  9. Instructed Pragmatics at a Glance: Where Instructional Studies Were, Are, and Should Be Going

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings together the research and developments of instructed pragmatics over the past three decades by reporting the synthesis findings of instructional intervention studies in interlanguage pragmatics. Two questions have guided this investigation: (1) is instruction effective in learning pragmatics?; and (2) what methods are most…

  10. A Bayesian explanation of the "Uncanny Valley" effect and related psychological phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roger K.

    2012-11-01

    There are a number of psychological phenomena in which dramatic emotional responses are evoked by seemingly innocuous perceptual stimuli. A well known example is the `uncanny valley' effect whereby a near human-looking artifact can trigger feelings of eeriness and repulsion. Although such phenomena are reasonably well documented, there is no quantitative explanation for the findings and no mathematical model that is capable of predicting such behavior. Here I show (using a Bayesian model of categorical perception) that differential perceptual distortion arising from stimuli containing conflicting cues can give rise to a perceptual tension at category boundaries that could account for these phenomena. The model is not only the first quantitative explanation of the uncanny valley effect, but it may also provide a mathematical explanation for a range of social situations in which conflicting cues give rise to negative, fearful or even violent reactions.

  11. A “Pathology Explanation Clinic (PEC” for Patient-Centered Laboratory Medicine Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Gibson MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper addresses communication issues arising between physicians and their patients. To facilitate the communication of essential diagnostic pathology information to patients, and address their questions and concerns, we propose that “Pathology Explanation Clinics” be created. The Pathology Explanation Clinics would provide a channel for direct communications between pathologists and patients. Pathologists would receive special training as “Certified Pathologist Navigators” in preparation for this role. The goal of Pathology Explanation Clinics would be to help fill gaps in communication of information contained in laboratory reports to patients, further explain its relevance, and improve patient understanding of the meaning of such information and its impact on their health and health-care choices. Effort would be made to ensure that Certified Pathologist Navigators work within the overall coordination of care by the health-care team.

  12. An Explanation of the Missing Flux from Boyajian's Mysterious Star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foukal, Peter [192 Willow Road, Nahant, MA 01908 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    A previously unremarkable star in the constellation Cygnus has, in the past year, become known as the most mysterious object in our Galaxy. Boyajian’s star exhibits puzzling episodes of sporadic, deep dimming discovered in photometry with the Kepler Mission. Proposed explanations have focused on its obscuration by colliding exoplanets, exocomets, and even intervention of alien intelligence. These hypotheses have considered only phenomena external to the star because the radiative flux missing in the dimmings was believed to exceed the star’s storage capacity. We point out that modeling of variations in solar luminosity indicates that convective stars can store the required fluxes. It also suggests explanations for (a) a reported time-profile asymmetry of the short, deep dimmings and (b) a slower, decadal scale dimming reported from archival and Kepler photometry. Our findings suggest a broader range of explanations of Boyajian’s star that may produce new insights into stellar magneto-convection.

  13. Guide to request license for teletherapy practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this work the steps to request license for teletherapy practice are described , among these steps they it continued it plows to request the qualified personnel's yams, the operation authorization, application purpose, license type

  14. 16 CFR 4.11 - Disclosure requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... threat to the life or physical safety of an individual, or, with respect to a request made by a person... diligence in responding to the request. (D) If the deciding official (as designated by the General Counsel...

  15. 78 FR 36607 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... dealer to withdraw its registration. This information is also important to the municipal securities... person to contact regarding any of the municipal securities dealer's unfinished business. Based upon past... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment Request Upon Written Request...

  16. Effects of Instruction and Stage-Fright on Intelligence Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Joost; Oostdam, Ron

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, it was tried to unravel the influence of various types of instruction on test anxiety levels and, in turn, its influence on intelligence test performance. Three types of instruction were compared: a stressful, achievement-orientated instruction; a reassuring, task-orientated instruction; and an ambiguous instruction.…

  17. PRAGMATIC TRANSFER IN REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the pragmatic transfer in English request realizations made by EFL learners, i.e. the proficient learners. The subjects were students of an English Study Program who obtained TOEFL-like scores of at least 450. The data were collected by means of DCT-questionnaires and Role-plays. The results show that the subjects realize requests in the form of external modifications more frequently. Most of them embed their requests with supportive moves dominantly. They enfold the acts with the moves before, after or in both positions. Of the three positions, they mostly insert the moves initial position, i.e., through inductive patterns. This is due to pragmatic transfer.

  18. Japanese list of requests for nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarasi, Sin-iti

    1988-03-01

    Requests for nuclear data at 1987 are presented. They are 49 for fission reactor, 25 for fusion reactor, and 4 for safeguards. These will be registered in WRENDA 87/88. This report contains these 78 requests, and also 66 requests which should be withdrawn from the previous WRENDA list. These withdrawn requests are 23 for fission reactor, 32 for fusion reactor, 9 for safeguards, and 2 for others. (author)

  19. Compilation of requests for nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, L.W.; Larson, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    This compilation represents the current needs for nuclear data measurements and evaluations as expressed by interested fission and fusion reactor designers, medical users of nuclear data, nuclear data evaluators, CSEWG members and other interested parties. The requests and justifications are reviewed by the Data Request and Status Subcommittee of CSEWG as well as most of the general CSEWG membership. The basic format and computer programs for the Request List were produced by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NNDC produced the Request List for many years. The Request List is compiled from a computerized data file. Each request has a unique isotope, reaction type, requestor and identifying number. The first two digits of the identifying number are the year in which the request was initiated. Every effort has been made to restrict the notations to those used in common nuclear physics textbooks. Most requests are for individual isotopes as are most ENDF evaluations, however, there are some requests for elemental measurements. Each request gives a priority rating which will be discussed in Section 2, the neutron energy range for which the request is made, the accuracy requested in terms of one standard deviation, and the requested energy resolution in terms of one standard deviation. Also given is the requestor with the comments which were furnished with the request. The addresses and telephone numbers of the requestors are given in Appendix 1. ENDF evaluators who may be contacted concerning evaluations are given in Appendix 2. Experimentalists contemplating making one of the requested measurements are encouraged to contact both the requestor and evaluator who may provide valuable information. This is a working document in that it will change with time. New requests or comments may be submitted to the editors or a regular CSEWG member at any time

  20. The Diboson Excess: Experimental Situation and Classification of Explanations; A Les Houches Pre-Proceeding

    CERN Document Server

    Brehmer, Johann; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Carmona, Adrian; Chivukula, R.Sekhar; Delgado, Antonio; Goertz, Florian; Hewett, JoAnne L.; Katz, Andrey; Kopp, Joachim; Lane, Kenneth; Martin, Adam; Mohan, Kirtimaan; Morse, David M.; Nardecchia, Marco; No, Jose Miguel; Oliveira, Alexandra; Pollard, Chris; Quiros, Mariano; Rizzo, Thomas G.; Santiago, Jose; Sanz, Veronica; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Tattersall, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    We examine the `diboson' excess at $\\sim 2$ TeV seen by the LHC experiments in various channels. We provide a comparison of the excess significances as a function of the mass of the tentative resonance and give the signal cross sections needed to explain the excesses. We also present a survey of available theoretical explanations of the resonance, classified in three main approaches. Beyond that, we discuss methods to verify the anomaly, determining the major properties of the various surpluses and exploring how different models can be discriminated. Finally, we give a tabular summary of the numerous explanations, presenting their main phenomenological features.

  1. Theoretical vocabularies and styles of explanation of robot behaviours in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datteri Edoardo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How do children describe and explain the behaviour of robotic systems? In this paper, some distinctions between different types of explanations, drawing from the philosophy of science literature, are proposed and exemplified by reference to an activity in which primary school children are asked to describe and explain the behaviour of a pre-programmed Braitenberg-like vehicle. The proposed distinctions are also discussed against other studies drawn from the related scientific literature. A qualitative study has provided insights to further refine the analysis described here, through the introduction of other sub-categories of explanation of robotic behaviours.

  2. How the explanation of LENR can be made consistent with observed behaviour and natural laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storms, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon called 'cold fusion' or low energy nuclear reaction has been a challenge to accept and explain. The problem is compounded because an effective explanation must be consistent with the observed behaviour and natural laws. Hundreds of explanations have been published, but none was able to meet this expectation. Consequently, acceptance of the phenomenon by conventional science and application of the energy have been handicapped. The present article summarizes an effort to reduce this problem by identifying a few critical requirements and proposing a mechanism that is consistent with these requirements. This model can also predict many behaviours of importance to science and commercial applications. (author)

  3. Using Informal Classroom Observations to Improve Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the variability of principals' classroom observations across schools and to relate classroom observations to the schools' instructional climate. This helps identify the conditions under which classroom observations effectively improve instruction in some schools and not in other schools.…

  4. Instructional Technology in Brazil: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saettler, Paul

    1973-01-01

    A status report on the evolving conceptions of instructional technology and current applications in Brazil. A complementary purpose is to summarize those conditions which vitally influence the general characteristics of the Brazilian educational system and the nature of instructional technology in this major developing country of the world.…

  5. A Taxonomy of Asynchronous Instructional Video Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorianopoulos, Konstantinos

    2018-01-01

    Many educational organizations are employing instructional videos in their pedagogy, but there is a limited understanding of the possible video formats. In practice, the presentation format of instructional videos ranges from direct recording of classroom teaching with a stationary camera, or screencasts with voiceover, to highly elaborate video…

  6. Self-Paced Instruction: Hello, Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuba, Richard J.; Flammer, Gordon H.

    1975-01-01

    Answers criticisms of self-paced instruction (SPI) by citing advantages of SPI over lecture methods. Concludes that criticisms of SPI are useful since they indicate in which areas further research should be conducted to improve this method of instruction. (MLH)

  7. Using Blogs to Improve Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michaela W.; Colombo, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss how the instructional impact of science teachers can be extended by using blogs, a technology popular among students that allows teachers to differentiate their instruction for students with diverse needs. Software now makes it easy for teachers to establish class blogs, Web sites that contain text, audio, and video postings on…

  8. Making the Most of Instructional Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Britnie Delinger; Rosenquist, Brooks

    2018-01-01

    Although coaching holds great promise for professional development, instructional coaches are often asked to take on responsibilities that are not focused on improving instruction. The authors discuss a quantitative study of four school districts and a qualitative analysis of a single district that, together, reveal how hiring practices and school…

  9. Classroom Instruction: The Influences of Marie Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Marie Clay's body of work has influenced classroom instruction in direct and indirect ways, through large overarching themes in our pedagogical content knowledge as well as specific smart practices. This paper focuses on her the contributions to our thinking about instruction which come from two broad theoretical concepts; emergent literacy…

  10. Thread extraction for polyadic instruction sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.; Middelburg, C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the phenomenon that instruction sequences are split into fragments which somehow produce a joint behaviour. In order to bring this phenomenon better into the picture, we formalize a simple mechanism by which several instruction sequence fragments can produce a joint

  11. Understanding instructions for oral rehydration therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisemon, T O; Patel, V L

    1989-01-01

    Oral rehydration mixtures are readily available in rural Kenya, but the instructions that accompany them are not always clear. Mothers will understand such instructions more readily if they explain the principles of oral rehydration and describe in a logical way the sequence of procedures to be followed.

  12. Implicit and Explicit Instruction of Spelling Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…

  13. 25 CFR 67.15 - Special instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Area Director, the Assistant Secretary may issue special instructions not inconsistent with the... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special instructions. 67.15 Section 67.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PREPARATION OF A ROLL OF INDEPENDENT...

  14. 25 CFR 61.15 - Special instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Secretary may issue special instructions not inconsistent with the regulations in this part 61. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special instructions. 61.15 Section 61.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PREPARATION OF ROLLS OF INDIANS § 61...

  15. How Instructional Systems Will Manage Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, John C.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses trends toward the systems approach in education including the development of effective instructional systems in government and industry; the introduction of teaching machines, programed learning, and computer- assisted instruction; and the increase in both the amount and sophistication of educational research and development. (JF)

  16. Modelling Web-Based Instructional Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retalis, Symeon; Avgeriou, Paris

    2002-01-01

    The size and complexity of modern instructional systems, which are based on the World Wide Web, bring about great intricacy in their crafting, as there is not enough knowledge or experience in this field. This imposes the use of new instructional design models in order to achieve risk-mitigation,

  17. Instructional Leadership in Elementary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ann; MacDonald, Leo

    2008-01-01

    Instructional leadership is internationally recognized as being a key role for school administrators to advance in their relationships with teachers. But what happens when a principal lacks content knowledge or specific pedagogical knowledge about certain curriculum areas? How do administrators support instructional practices of teachers who teach…

  18. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  19. Preparing Instructional Objectives: Agony or Ecstasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Wesley K.

    This paper 1) discusses the problems encountered in preparing objectives for instructional programs; 2) describes an informal research project in which seven instructional designers working on the same project attempted to determine agreement on an objective; and 3) suggests how to prepare objectives so that difficulties can be minimized. One…

  20. Misunderstanding during instructional communication as related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misunderstanding during instructional communication as related to oral proficiency. ... Data were collected through video recorded observations of authentic lessons presented by 26 pre-service teachers using English second language as the medium of instruction in the classroom. Misunderstandings were identified and ...

  1. Orientation: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The first six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the basic theory and practice of a beginning course at the secondary and post-secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction…

  2. Text-Picture Relations in Cooking Instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Leito, Shadira; Redeker, Gisela; Bunt, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Like many other instructions, recipes on packages with ready-to-use ingredients for a dish combine a series of pictures with short text paragraphs. The information presentation in such multimodal instructions can be compact (either text or picture) and/or cohesive (text and picture). In an

  3. Delivering Instruction to Adult Learners. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    This one-stop guide for trainers and educators of adults in industry, business, or the professions details a results-oriented instructional strategy that is based on the following principles for instructing adults effectively: (1) act as a leader, helper, guide, change agent, coordinator, and facilitator of learning; (2) promote active…

  4. Softball: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    One of seven instructional units on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this guide presents suggestions for coaching softball for mentally retarded persons. An overview section provides information on teaching suggestions, followed by a list of program goals, objectives, and benefits. Sports skill assessments measure athletes'…

  5. Grouping and Organizing for Instruction in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Flexibility is a key term to emphasize when grouping students for instruction, since a student might be in a different group for one academic area as compared to another academic area. This paper describes grouping for different methods of reading instruction and other disciplines. The paper discusses the following: using basal readers, using…

  6. Energizing Learning: The Instructional Power of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    2009-01-01

    Although intellectual conflict may be an important instructional tool (because of its potential constructive outcomes), conflict is rarely structured in instructional situations (because of its potential destructive outcomes). Many educators may be apprehensive about instigating intellectual conflict among students because of the lack of…

  7. The Pedagogy of Flipped Instruction in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Kelso, Mary

    2015-01-01

    "Flipping the classroom", or reverse instruction has been hailed the new pedagogical approach for preparing students for the 21st century. The idea behind this method is relatively simple. Instead of structuring class work to deliver direct instruction from the teacher in class and giving homework to students to practice outside of…

  8. Handwriting Instruction in Elementary Schools: Revisited!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Estes, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Handwriting is an essential literacy and communication skill developed through a variety of instructional methods in elementary school. This study explored the consistency in handwriting instruction across grade levels in a Midwest public school district 15 years after the school initially implemented a uniform handwriting program. Additionally,…

  9. Changing Throwing Pattern: Instruction and Control Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Dan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of instruction and scaling up a control parameter (velocity of throw) on changes in throwing pattern. Sixty adult female throwers (ages 20-26 years) were randomly placed into one of four practice conditions: (a) scale up on velocity with no instruction, (b) maintain constant velocity with no…

  10. Putting the Fun Back into Fluency Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Mary Ann; Gregory, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Based on recent research in fluency instruction, the authors present a scenario in which a teacher focuses her fluency instruction on authentic fluency tasks based in performance. Beginning with establishing a student-friendly definition of fluency and culminating with student engagement in fun fluency activities, this article explores the…

  11. Effects of Instructions on False Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, John H.; And Others

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various processing instructions on the rate of false recognition. The continuous single-item procedure was used, and false recognitions of four types were examined: synonyms, antonyms, nonsemantic associates, and homonyms. The instructions encouraged subjects to think of associates, usages…

  12. Motivational Design in Information Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Amanda Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Motivational design theory complements instructional design theory and, when used together, both principles can affect learning, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge retention. In information literacy instruction, motivational design exists throughout the appropriate standards documents. However, there is limited current research on the best…

  13. Instructional Technology in the Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, Howard B., Jr.

    Broad areas of communications media used in technical training in specific occupational skills within the armed forces are examined in the first part of this report. These areas include: traditional audiovisual media, television, the techniques of programed instruction and instructional systems development, and the use of computers. In the second…

  14. The Future of Instructional Teacher Leader Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Melinda M.; Stoelinga, Sara Ray

    2010-01-01

    In response to increased performance expectations, schools and districts are turning to nonsupervisory, school-based, instructional teacher leader roles to help improve teachers' instruction and enhance student learning. Increased opportunities to learn about teacher leadership may facilitate the implementation and institutionalization of…

  15. Instructional Partnerships: A Pathway to Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreillon, Judi, Ed.; Ballard, Susan, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    In this Best of "Knowledge Quest" monograph, the editors have collected seminal articles to support pre-service and in-service school librarians in developing and strengthening the instructional partner role. "Instructional Partnerships: A Pathway to Leadership" provides readers with background knowledge, research-based…

  16. Instructional Strategy: Administration of Injury Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Context: Learning how to form accurate and efficient clinical examinations is a critical factor in becoming a competent athletic training practitioner, and instructional strategies differ for this complex task. Objective: To introduce an instructional strategy consistent with complex learning to encourage improved efficiency by minimizing…

  17. Instructional Podcasting with Undergraduate Digital Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin M.; Willis, Dottie

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of instructional podcasts with students in introductory computer application classes at a small, independent, private university. Participants were all undergraduates in the school of education. In an effort to model effective use of instructional technology for preservice teachers and to "meet digital native…

  18. Web-Based Instruction (WBI): An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Badrul H.

    1998-01-01

    Advances in information technology, coupled with changes in society, are creating new paradigms for education. The Web, as a medium of learning and instruction, has the potential to support the creation of well-designed resources. A table of features and components associated with Web-based instruction learning environments is provided.…

  19. Instructional Technology, Temper, Technique, and Teacher Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J. Mark; Garrison, James W.

    1991-01-01

    Scientific management and hierarchical accountability tend to destroy dialogue and issue ideas as orders to be obeyed. Instructional technology packages can actually enslave teachers. The emendation or feedback loop built into all instructional systems should allow educators to alter design in the context of practice and help technologists design…

  20. Multimedia Instruction Initiative: Building Faculty Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Penelope J.

    Hofstra University began a university-wide initiative to enhance classroom instruction with multimedia technology and foster collaborative approaches to learning. The Multimedia Instruction Initiative emphasized teamwork among faculty, students, and computer center support staff to develop a technology-enriched learning environment supported by…