Full Text Available Abstract Background Writing plays a central role in the communication of scientific ideas and is therefore a key aspect in researcher education, ultimately determining the success and long-term sustainability of their careers. Despite the growing popularity of e-learning, we are not aware of any existing study comparing on-line vs. traditional classroom-based methods for teaching scientific writing. Methods Forty eight participants from a medical, nursing and physiotherapy background from US and Brazil were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 24 per group: An on-line writing workshop group (on-line group, in which participants used virtual communication, google docs and standard writing templates, and a standard writing guidance training (standard group where participants received standard instruction without the aid of virtual communication and writing templates. Two outcomes, manuscript quality was assessed using the scores obtained in Six subgroup analysis scale as the primary outcome measure, and satisfaction scores with Likert scale were evaluated. To control for observer variability, inter-observer reliability was assessed using Fleiss's kappa. A post-hoc analysis comparing rates of communication between mentors and participants was performed. Nonparametric tests were used to assess intervention efficacy. Results Excellent inter-observer reliability among three reviewers was found, with an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC agreement = 0.931882 and ICC consistency = 0.932485. On-line group had better overall manuscript quality (p = 0.0017, SSQSavg score 75.3 ± 14.21, ranging from 37 to 94 compared to the standard group (47.27 ± 14.64, ranging from 20 to 72. Participant satisfaction was higher in the on-line group (4.3 ± 0.73 compared to the standard group (3.09 ± 1.11 (p = 0.001. The standard group also had fewer communication events compared to the on-line group (0.91 ± 0.81 vs. 2.05 ± 1.23; p = 0.0219. Conclusion Our protocol
Shanahan, Lynn E.; Flury-Kashmanian, Caroline
Research and pedagogical information provided to teachers on implementing explicit strategy instruction has primarily focused on teachers' speech, with limited attention to other modes of communication, such as gesture and artefacts. This interpretive case study investigates two teachers' use of different semiotic resources when introducing…
Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.
This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research-based active-learning instruction in physics. These are instructional methods that are based on, assessed by, and validated through research on the teaching and learning of physics. They involve students in their own learning more deeply and more intensely than does traditional instruction, particularly during class time. The instructional methods and supporting body of research reviewed here offer potential for significantly improved learning in comparison to traditional lecture-based methods of college and university physics instruction. We begin with an introduction to the history of active learning in physics in the United States, and then discuss some methods for and outcomes of assessing pedagogical effectiveness. We enumerate and describe common characteristics of successful active-learning instructional strategies in physics. We then discuss a range of methods for introducing active-learning instruction in physics and provide references to those methods for which there is published documentation of student learning gains.
Full Text Available The line of balance method that provides continuous and uninterrupted use of resources is one of the best methods for repetitive project resource management. This paper develops a resource leveling algorithm based on the backward controlling activity in line of balance. The backward controlling activity is a kind of special activity, and if its duration is prolonged the project duration could be reduced. It brings two advantages to the resource leveling: both the resource allocated on the backward activity and the project duration are reduced. A resource leveling algorithm is presented which permits the number of crews of the backward controlling activity to be reduced until the terminal situation is reached, where the backward controlling activity does not exist or the number of crews cannot be reduced. That adjustment enables the productivity of all activities to be consistent. An illustrative pipeline project demonstrates the improvement in resource leveling. And this study designed a MATLAB program to execute the design algorithm. The proposed model could help practitioners to achieve the goals of both resource leveling and project duration reduction without increasing any resource.
Goodwin, Deborah; Webb, Mary Ann
A review of available books, articles and on-line resources which deal with "Research-Based Instructional Strategies" will produce a plethora of materials which promote the effectiveness of these strategies on student achievement. Also, a perusal of classroom instruction and teacher evaluation instruments will reveal that many of the…
The Cellosaurus is a knowledge resource on cell lines. It aims to describe all cell lines used in biomedical research. Its scope encompasses both vertebrates and invertebrates. Currently, information for >100,000 cell lines is provided. For each cell line, it provides a wealth of information, cross-references, and literature citations. The Cellosaurus is available on the ExPASy server (https://web.expasy.org/cellosaurus/) and can be downloaded in a variety of formats. Among its many uses, the Cellosaurus is a key resource to help researchers identify potentially contaminated/misidentified cell lines, thus contributing to improving the quality of research in the life sciences. PMID:29805321
Smylie, Mark A.; Wenzel, Stacy A.
This report argues that instructional improvement, which goes hand-in-hand with efforts at education reform, can be promoted through the strategic use of human resource management (HRM) practices at the school, district, and state levels. The authors present information from the organizational and management literatures on how firms in several…
Donohue, D.L.; Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Lewis, T.A.
This report will contain details of the construction and operation of the positron beam line. Special procedures which are performed on a less frequent basis will also be described. Appendices will contain operating instructions for experiments which make use of the positron beam and are connected to the beam line. Finally, a review of safety-related considerations will be presented
Stout, David E.
This paper describes a classroom-tested instructional resource, grounded in principles of active learning and a constructivism, that embraces two primary objectives: "demystify" for accounting students technical material from statistics regarding ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression analysis--material that students may find obscure or…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.
The Environmental Quality Instructional Resources Center in Columbus, Ohio, acquires, reviews, indexes, and announces both print (books, modules, units, etc.) and non-print (films, slides, video tapes, etc.) materials related to water quality and water resources education and instruction. In addition some materials related to pesticides, hazardous…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.
The Environmental Quality Instructional Resources Center in Columbus, Ohio, acquires, reviews, indexes, and announces both print (books, modules, units, etc.) and non-print (films, slides, video tapes, etc.) materials related to water quality and water resources education and instruction. In addition some materials related to pesticides, hazardous…
Alferink, Steven M.; Farnham, Joel E.; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Wong, Amy S.
The Solution In-Line Alpha Counter (SILAC) provides near real-time alpha activity measurements of aqueous solutions in gloveboxes located in the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The SILAC detector and its interface software were first developed by Joel Farnham at LANL . This instruction manual describes the features of the SILAC interface software and contains the schematic and fabrication instructions for the detector
It is often difficult to interest students in a course in social justice using just textbooks. It is now possible to use free, on-line resources that positively affect student interest, comprehension, and participation in a course. Such a course is described. Links to suggested materials are provided.
Mitchell, Sherese A.
This researcher investigated the long- and short-term retention of information using traditional instruction versus previously tested tactual resources versus innovative tactual resources on the achievement and attitudes of second-grade students in science. The processing of new and difficult knowledge has challenged many young children who tend to be kinesthetic or tactual learners. In compliance with the National Science Education Standards, students should be actively engaged in their own learning. Therefore, to boost student achievement in science, the use of tactual materials was implemented. The sample included 67 second-grade students drawn from three heterogeneously grouped classes in a low socio-economic neighborhood. It consisted of 30 females and 37 males of which 97 percent were African American, 2 percent were Hispanic, and 1 percent Other. Students were unaware of their diagnosed learning-style preference(s) during the instruction and assessment phases of the study. Therefore, students' knowledge of their learning-style preferences could not have had any impact on their achievement or attitudes. A counterbalanced research design was employed. During the first session, Group 1 was taught with previously tested tactual resources (Electroboards, Flip Chutes, Fact Wheels, and Fact Fans), and Group 3 was taught traditionally. During the second session of instruction, Group 1 received instruction with innovative tactual resources, Group 2 received traditional instruction, Group 3 received instruction with previously tested tactual resources. During the final session of instruction, Group 1 received traditional instruction, Group 2 received instruction with previously tested tactual resources, and Group 3 received instruction with innovative tactual resources. The results indicated that the use of tactual materials, regardless of whether they were previously tested or innovative, produced higher achievement gains and more positive attitudes than traditional
Full Text Available It is often difficult to interest students in a course in social justice using just textbooks. It is now possible to use free, on-line resources that positively affect student interest, comprehension, and participation in a course. Such a course is described. Links to suggested materials are provided.
Spillane, James P.; Diamond, John B.; Walker, Lisa J.; Halverson, Rich; Jita, Loyiso
This article explores school leadership for elementary school science teaching in an urban setting. We examine how school leaders bring resources together to enhance science instruction when there appear to be relatively few resources available for it. From our study of 13 Chicago elementary (K-8) schools' efforts to lead instructional change in mathematics, language arts, and science education, we show how resources for leading instruction are unequally distributed across subject areas. We also explore how over time leaders in one school successfully identified and activated resources for leading change in science education. The result has been a steady, although not always certain, development of science as an instructional area in the school. We argue that leading change in science education involves the identification and activation of material resources, the development of teachers' and school leaders' human capital, and the development and use of social capital.
Aholi, Seraphine Sherry; Konyango, Jacob J. J. Ochieng'; Kibett, Joash K.
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of instructional resources in learning agriculture in secondary school on employment creation in Vihiga County, Kenya. The study was conducted in Emuhaya Constituency, and it adopted qualitative research design using descriptive survey method. The target population was the youth who learnt…
Mortera-Gutierrez, Fernando J.
The movement of Open Educational Resources (OER) is one of the most important trends that are helping education through the Internet worldwide. "Tecnológico de Monterrey" (http://tecvirtual.itesm.mx/) in Mexico, with other Mexican higher education institutions, is creating an Internet/web based repository of OERs and Mobile Resources for the instruction and development of educational researchers at undergraduate, Master's and Doctoral level. There is a lack of open educational resources and m...
Yusta, Nyudule; Karugu, Geoffrey; Muthee, Jessica; Tekle, Tesfu
Learners with dyscalculia in the integrated primary schools in Arusha have been performing poorly in the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Thus, the journal sought to investigate the impact of instructional resources on mathematics performance of learners with dyscalculia in integrated primary schools found in Arusha city, Tanzania. The…
Full Text Available Web-based technologies have been used in the classroom for over 15 years, including websites, email, listserves, library reserves, and text books. Among these options, social scientists range widely in their web usage – from simply posting syllabi on-line to delivering a course fully on-line in asynchronous learning networks. Use of web-based technology for instructional purposes is increasing, as is enrollment in distance education courses and on-line course offerings. Many administrators and faculty promote on-line instruction as the solution to managing increased college enrollments, particularly among non-traditional students. However, are the academic outcomes of on-line instruction similar to traditional in-person instruction? Few empirical studies have been done. This is unfortunate. The results of an experiment to evaluate the relative effectiveness of on-line verses an in-person course on sociological research are presented. Unfortunately the on-line participants did much worse than the in-person course.
Jacobs, B. E.; Bohls-Graham, E.; Martinez, A. O.; Ellins, K. K.; Riggs, E. M.; Serpa, L. F.; Stocks, E.; Fox, S.; Kent, M.
Today's instruction in Earth's systems requires thoughtful selection of curricula, and in turn, high quality learning activities that address modern Earth science. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which are intended to guide K-12 science instruction, further demand a discriminating selection process. The DIG (Diversity & Innovation in Geoscience) Texas Instructional Blueprints attempt to fulfill this practice by compiling vetted educational resources freely available online into units that are the building blocks of the blueprints. Each blueprint is composed of 9 three-week teaching units and serves as a scope and sequence for teaching a one-year Earth science course. In the earliest stages of the project, teams explored the Internet for classroom-worthy resources, including laboratory investigations, videos, visualizations, and readings, and submitted the educational resources deemed suitable for the project into the project's online review tool. Each team member evaluated the educational resources chosen by fellow team members according to a set of predetermined criteria that had been incorporated into the review tool. Resources rated as very good or excellent by all team members were submitted to the project PIs for approval. At this stage, approved resources became candidates for inclusion in the blueprint units. Team members tagged approved resources with descriptors for the type of resource and instructional strategy, and aligned these to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Earth and Space Science and the Earth Science Literacy Principles. Each team then assembled and sequenced resources according to content strand, balancing the types of learning experiences within each unit. Once units were packaged, teams then considered how they addressed the NGSS and identified the relevant disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and science and engineering practices. In addition to providing a brief overview of the project, this
Menicucci, A. J.; Bean, J. R.
Environmental, geological, and climatological sciences are important facets of physical science education. However, it is often difficult for educators to acquire the necessary resources to facilitate content explanations, and demonstration of the conceptual links between individual lessons. The Understanding Global Change (UGC) Project at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) at UC Berkeley is aligning new and existing Earth systems educational resources that are high-quality, interactive and inquiry based. Learning resources are organized by the UGC framework topics (Causes of Change, How the Earth System Works, and Measurable Changes), and focus on exploring topic relationships. Resources are currently aligned with both the UGC framework and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), facilitating broad utility among K-16 educators. The overarching goal of the UGC Project is to provide the necessary resources that guide the construction of coherent, interdisciplinary instructional units. These units can be reinforced through system models, providing visual learning scaffolds for assessments of student content knowledge. Utilizing the central framework of UGC alleviates the long-standing problem of creating coherent instructional units from multiple learning resources, each organized and categorized independently across multiple platforms that may not provide explicit connections among Earth science subjects UGC topic cross listing of learning modules establishes conceptual links. Each resource is linked across several Earth system components, facilitating exploration of relationships and feedbacks between processes. Cross listed topics are therefore useful for development of broad picture learning goals via targeted instructional units. We also anticipate cultivating summaries of the explicit conceptual links explored in each resource from both current teachers and content specialists. Insructional units currated and aligned under the UGC
Full Text Available An electric circuit on-line course has been developed at KFUPM to support student centered learning. The course has been used in the first stage to supplement the class room face-to-face instruction. This paper describes the development stages of the on-line course and highlights its fundamental features that are not available in the traditional methods of instruction. The paper also includes the results of a survey conducted among students who have utilized the on-line material to supplement their traditional study of the electric circuits’ course. The results of the survey showed a general satisfaction with the course content and the instructional effectiveness.
William F. Stier Jr
Full Text Available An introduction to the world of on-line courses (distance education/learning is presented. In addition, the world of on-line learning, as it pertains to sport management, is examined within the framework of (a pedagogy, (b finances,(c assessment, and (d choosing to transition from the traditional classroom to on-line learning. Pertinent points relative to each of the four categories are presented from the literature. In an effort to stimulate thought and discussion to the subject of on-line learning for sport management programs/courses the authors provide their reactions to the literature points by presenting their comments/reactions from a sport management perspective. Sport management professors and administrators are encouraged to critically examine the feasibility of such on-line courses (distance education/learning within their own curricula while maintaining an appropriate framework revolving around sound theoretical instructional strategies, methods as well as appropriate use of instructional tools, including but not limited to, computersand the WWW.
Ricciardelli, Paola; Lugli, Luisa; Pellicano, Antonello; Iani, Cristina; Nicoletti, Roberto
In three experiments, we tested whether the amount of attentional resources needed to process a face displaying neutral/angry/fearful facial expressions with direct or averted gaze depends on task instructions, and face presentation. To this end, we used a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation paradigm in which participants in Experiment 1 were first explicitly asked to discriminate whether the expression of a target face (T1) with direct or averted gaze was angry or neutral, and then to judge the orientation of a landscape (T2). Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants had to discriminate the gender of the face of T1 and fearful faces were also presented randomly inter-mixed within each block of trials. Experiment 3 differed from Experiment 2 only because angry and fearful faces were never presented within the same block. The findings indicated that the presence of the attentional blink (AB) for face stimuli depends on specific combinations of gaze direction and emotional facial expressions and crucially revealed that the contextual factors (e.g., explicit instruction to process the facial expression and the presence of other emotional faces) can modify and even reverse the AB, suggesting a flexible and more contextualized deployment of attentional resources in face processing. PMID:26898473
Peaco, Freddie L., Comp.
This reference circular lists instructional materials, supplies, and equipment currently available for learning braille, and cites sources about braille literacy. The resources given are intended to assist sighted individuals who are interested in learning braille or want to transcribe print materials into braille; instructors who teach braille;…
Full Text Available Despite increasing use, little is known about the effectiveness of web-based instructional material. This study assesses the effectiveness of supplementary web-based materials and activities in introductory economics courses. We have collected data on 66 students from three principles sections that describe demographic characteristics, use of web-based instructional resources, and performance on graded quizzes and examinations. We use this data to statistically assess the effectiveness of the web-based material. Student utilization of web-based material was extensive. Students frequently used on-line practice quizzes and accessed the web-based material often. A sizable fraction of the students actively posted and read threaded discussions on the course bulletin board. The statistical analysis shows that both on-line computer graded practice quizzes and posting to the class bulletin board are positively correlated with student performance on the quizzes and exams, but use of web-based content and passive reading of bulletin board posts ("lurking" is not. These results suggest that faculty should focus more on developing self-test quizzes and effective bulletin board discussion projects and less on generating on-line content.
A total computer software system description is provided for the prototype Natural Resource Information System designed to store, process, and display data of maximum usefulness to land management decision making. Program modules are described, as are the computer file design, file updating methods, digitizing process, and paper tape conversion to magnetic tape. Operating instructions for the system, data output, printed output, and graphic output are also discussed.
Ankara : The Program of Teaching English as a Foreign Language Bilkent University, 2015. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2015. Includes bibliographical references leaves 83-91. This study investigated the effectiveness of the use of a concordance software and concordance lines as a pedagogical tool to learn the target vocabulary of a text book. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of corpus-aided vocabulary instruction with traditional vocabulary teac...
Cristian Jorge GARCÍA MARCOS
Full Text Available The article is concerned with the instructional design process used to elaborate an educational media developing the Web Applications module curriculum of Microcomputer Systems and Networks Intermediate Level Training Cycle, which belongs to the professional family of Computing and Communications within the studies of Vocational Education and Training. A backward model is followed as instructional design to create the educational media, starting with the learning outcomes and ending with the contents, in a reverse way to the procedure used in other instructional designs. The educational media has been designed based on constructivism as pedagogical principle and it has been used to create projects for the student to be actively involved in the development of their knowledge. The result is an open educational resource composed of six didactic sequences, where the student is expected to achieve higher order thinking skills. In addition to openness in access, use, adaptation and redistribution of material, the article provides a detailed view of the process that has been followed in each phase of instructional design. In this way, the educational resource evolves from being not only open in its content, but also in its design, so that the latter becomes accessible, reusable, adapted and redistributed by others. The full open educational resource can be found at the following link: http://www.cristiangarcia.org/WebAppsProject/index.html
Full Text Available The spectrum of strategic co-operations among container lines varies from loose-knitted slot charters, liner conferences, shipping alliances, joint services and consortia, through to mergers and acquisitions (M&As. However, these forms of strategic co-operations have not always been able to achieve the intended synergetic growth resulting from the integration of resources. The Resource Based View (RBV suggests that integrating intangible resources, which are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable (VRIN, can make a significant contribution to the performance of post strategic co-operations. This research paper investigates the contribution of intangible resources to the post acquisition success six global acquisitions among container lines. The nine senior managers attached to global container lines were the main participants of this study. Five of them represented acquired container lines, four represented acquirer container lines. The paper explains their personnel experience on the processes adopts to integrate intangible resources in acquisitions. Keywords: Merger and Acquisitions, Intangible Resources, Container Lines, Task Integration, Human Integration
Wang, Margaret C.
The use of alternative instructional strategies and resources to meet the learning needs of individual students incorporates the diagnosis of student learning progress, the teaching of self-management skills, organizational supports, and family involvement into an effective educational program. (JN)
Walser, K P; Kruse, K W
Library user instruction has been a no-man's-land between librarian and educator. Each assumes that the other has offered the student some necessary preparation before his assignments requiring library consultation. Too often, this is not the case. Reference librarians at the Duke University Medical Center Library are currently offering a ten-week, 1 1/2-hour credit library instruction course for nursing baccalaureate candidates. "Introduction to Library Resources in the Nursing Field" is designed not so much to orient students to a specific library facility, but rather, to provide them with background material on library organization and services and to familiarize them with basic bibliographic tools relevant to the nursing profession. Lectures are supplemented through the use of homework questions, bibliographies, handouts, in-class exercises, and on-line demonstrations. Very positive feedback from both students and faculty has attested to the value of such a course in the nursing curriculum and has resulted in its being offered four times to date. The library staff is exploring methods for offering additional library instruction not only to nursing students but to other user groups in Duke's medical complex.
McCarthy, Marianne C.; Grabowski, Barbara L.; Koszalka, Tiffany
Over a three-year period, researchers and educators from the Pennsylvania State University (PSU), University Park, Pennsylvania, and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), Edwards, California, worked together to analyze, develop, implement and evaluate materials and tools that enable teachers to use NASA Web resources effectively for teaching science, mathematics, technology and geography. Two conference publications and one technical paper have already been published as part of this educational research series on Web-based instruction and learning. This technical paper, Web-Enhanced Instruction and Learning: Findings of a Short- and Long-Term Impact Study, is the culminating report in this educational research series and is based on the final report submitted to NASA. This report describes the broad spectrum of data gathered from teachers about their experiences using NASA Web resources in the classroom. It also describes participating teachers responses and feedback about the use of the NASA Web-Enhanced Learning Environment Strategies reflection tool on their teaching practices. The reflection tool was designed to help teachers merge the vast array of NASA resources with the best teaching methods, taking into consideration grade levels, subject areas and teaching preferences. The teachers described their attitudes toward technology and innovation in the classroom and their experiences and perceptions as they attempted to integrate Web resources into science, mathematics, technology and geography instruction.
Lim, C.S.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.; Madsen, I.C.
Nuclear techniques are the basis of many CSIRO on-line and bulk analysis systems that are now widely used in the mineral and energy industries. The continuous analysis and rapid response of these systems have led to improved control of mining, processing and blending operations. This paper reviews recent developments in neutron, gamma-ray and X-ray techniques for on-line and bulk analysis by CSIRO Minerals including neutron techniques for the on-conveyor belt determination of the composition of cement raw meal, the on-line analysis of composition in pyrometallurgical applications, the on-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal, and the rapid and accurate determination of gold in bulk laboratory samples. The paper also discusses a new gamma-ray technique for the on-line determination of ash in coal and the application of X-ray diffraction techniques for the on-line determination of mineralogy in the cement industry
Beaver, Melanie S.
This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students' reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector points and lines representing human-use resource data for Columbia River. In the data set, vector points represent aquaculture sites,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, mining sites, area boundaries, and scenic rivers in Western Alaska. Vector points and lines in this data...
Townsend, Robert D., Comp.
Focusing specifically on the wastewater treatment process of anaerobic digestion, this document identifies instructional and reference materials for use by professionals in the field in the development and implementation of new programs or in the updating of existing programs. It is designed to help trainers, plant operators, educators, engineers,…
Kakehi, Takeshi; Shinkuma, Ryoichi; Murase, Tutomu; Motoyoshi, Gen; Yamori, Kyoko; Takahashi, Tatsuro
The market growths of smart-phones and thin clients have been significantly increasing communication traffic in mobile networks. To handle the increased traffic, network operators should consider how to leverage distributed wireless resources such as distributed spots of wireless local access networks. In this paper, we consider the system where multiple moving users share distributed wireless access points on their traveling routes between their start and goal points and formulate as an optimization problem. Then, we come up with three algorithms as a solution for the problem. The key idea here is ‘longcut route instruction’, in which users are instructed to choose a traveling route where less congested access points are available; even if the moving distance increases, the throughput for users in the system would improve. In this paper, we define the gain function. Moreover, we analyze the basic characteristics of the system using as a simple model as possible.
... that reported from resource-limited settings, but exceeds that of high-income countries. Prolonged NICU stay and central-line insertion in the operating theatre were important risk factors for CLABSI development. Intensified neonatal staff training regarding CLABSI maintenance bundle elements and hand hygiene are key ...
Deutschmann, Linda B., Ed.; Wright, Richard A., Ed.
One of a series of resources for teaching sociology at the postsecondary level, this volume contains syllabi and instructional materials for courses in criminology and criminal justice. Material is divided into four sections. Section 1, innovative approaches to the teaching of criminology, contains four papers which discuss a corrections practicum…
The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) is proposing to modify or install additional transmission facilities between the Hoover Dam hydroelectric plant and the Western Area Power Authority substation near Boulder City, Nevada. Reclamation has completed cultural resource investigations to identify historic or prehistoric resources in the project area that might be affected during construction of the transmission line. Four possible transmission corridors approximately 50 feet wide and between 9.5 and 11.5 miles long were investigated. The proposed transmission lines either parallel or replace existing transmission lines. The corridors generally have undergone significant disturbance from past transmission line construction. A Class II sampling survey covering approximately 242 acres was conducted. Access or construction roads have not been identified and surveys of these areas will have to be completed in the future. No historic or prehistoric archeological sites were encountered within the four corridor right-of-ways. It is believed that the probability for prehistoric sites is very low. Four historic period sites were recorded that are outside, but near, the proposed corridor. These sites are not individually eligible for the National Register of Historic Places, but may be associated with the construction of Hoover Dam and contribute to a historic district or multiple property resource area focusing on the dam and its construction
Jammie Price; Leslie Hossfeld
Web-based technologies have been used in the classroom for over 15 years, including websites, email, listserves, library reserves, and text books. Among these options, social scientists range widely in their web usage – from simply posting syllabi on-line to delivering a course fully on-line in asynchronous learning networks. Use of web-based technology for instructional purposes is increasing, as is enrollment in distance education courses and on-line course offerings. Many administrators ...
...; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction. (a) Each new miner shall receive no less than 24...: Provided, That no less than 8 hours of training shall in all cases be given to new miners before they are... instruction; hours of instruction. 48.25 Section 48.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...
Davis, George; Scanlon, Dennis C.
This unit of instruction on energy conservation in field crop production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate…
Merrill, M. David; And Others
Discussion of instructional transaction theory focuses on knowledge representation in an automated instructional design expert system. A knowledge structure called PEA-Net (processes, entities, and activities) is explained; the refrigeration process is used as an example; text resources and graphic resources are described; and simulations are…
Unger, Daniel R.
Undergraduate students pursuing a Bachelor of Science in Forestry (BSF) at Stephen F. Austin State University (SFA) attend an intensive 6-week residential hands-on instruction in applied field methods. The intensive 6-week instruction includes learning how to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) with a Garmin eTrex HCx GPS unit to accurately…
The purpose of this study was to introduce an instructional technique for teaching complex tasks in physics, test its effectiveness and efficiency, and understand cognitive processes taking place in learners' minds while they are exposed to this technique. The study was based primarily on cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT determines the amount of total cognitive load imposed on a learner by a learning task as combined intrinsic (invested in comprehending task complexity) and extraneous (wasteful) cognitive load. Working memory resources associated with intrinsic cognitive load are defined as germane resources caused by element interactivity that lead to learning, in contrast to extraneous working memory resources that are devoted to dealing with extraneous cognitive load. However, the amount of learner's working memory resources actually devoted to a task depends on how well the learner is engaged in the learning environment. Since total cognitive load has to stay within limits of working memory capacity, both extraneous and intrinsic cognitive load need to be reduced. In order for effective learning to occur, the use of germane cognitive resources should be maximized. In this study, the use of germane resources was maximized for two experimental groups by providing a learning environment that combined problem-solving procedure with prompts to self-explain with and without completion problems. The study tested three hypotheses and answered two research questions. The first hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would reduce total cognitive load was not supported. The second hypothesis predicting that experimental treatments would increase performance was supported for the self-explanation group only. The third hypothesis that tested efficiency measure as adopted from Paas and van Merrienboer (1993) was not supported. As for the research question of whether the quality of self-explanations would change with time for the two experimental conditions, it was
Mogk, D. W.; Beane, R. J.; Whitney, D. L.; Nicolaysen, K. E.; Panero, W. R.; Peck, W. H.
Mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry (MPG) are pillars of the geoscience curriculum because of their relevance in interpreting Earth history and processes, application to geo-hazards, resources, and environmental issues, and contributions to emerging fields such as geology and human health. To keep faculty current in scientific advances in these fields, and in modern instructional methods, the On the Cutting Edge program convened a workshop at the University of Minnesota in August, 2011. This workshop builds on the previous 15 year's work that has been focused on identifying, aggregating, and developing high-quality collections of teaching activities and related resources, and in building a community of scholars in support of excellence in instruction in MPG courses. The goals of the workshop were to: a) develop an integrated, comprehensive and reviewed curriculum for MPG courses, and to seek ways to make connections with the larger geoscience curriculum; b) to explore emerging topics in MPG such as geobiology and climate change; c) demonstrate effective methods in teaching MPG in the context of Earth system science; d) share effective teaching activities and strategies for the classroom, laboratory and field including advances in pedagogy, assessments and research on learning; e) keep faculty current on recent advances in mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry research and to apply these findings to our teaching; f) explore and utilize current societal and global issues that intersect mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry to heighten the relevancy of course content for students; and h) meet colleagues and foster future teaching and research collaborations. A significant outcome of this workshop is a peer reviewed of collection of 300+ existing teaching activities, and a gap analysis to identify teaching activities needed to make these collections comprehensive and coherent. In addition, a series of thematic collections were developed to assist high priority
Rockhill, Theron D.
Reported is an attempt to develop and evaluate an individualized instructional program in pre-calculus college mathematics. Four computer based resource units were developed in the areas of set theory, relations and function, algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. Objectives were determined by experienced calculus teachers, and…
Full Text Available Research comparing courses taught exclusively in traditional face-to-face settings versus courses taught entirely online have shown similar levels of student satisfaction. This article reports findings from a comparative study of student achievement in research skills from classes using two different instructional formats. One group used a classroom-based instructional format and the other group used an online web-based instructional format. Findings indicate that there were no statistically significant differences between the two class formats for eight out of eleven outcome student performance activities and ten out of 13 pedagogical strategies. There were large effect size differences based on class format on four of the student performance activities and for student satisfaction with six of the pedagogical methods. When statistically significant differences were found, it was determined that student performance on learning activities and satisfaction with pedagogical methods were higher for the students in the traditional class. The findings support the conclusions of several studies concerning the effectiveness of online teaching. Limitations and implications for further studies are also suggested.
David Westhuis; Philip M. Ouellette; Corey L. Pfahler
Research comparing courses taught exclusively in traditional face-to-face settings versus courses taught entirely online have shown similar levels of student satisfaction. This article reports findings from a comparative study of student achievement in research skills from classes using two different instructional formats. One group used a classroom-based instructional format and the other group used an online web-based instructional format. Findings indicate that there were no statistically ...
Juan Antonio Juanes Méndez
Full Text Available Presentamos dos modalidades tecnológicas de enseñanza en red: la consolidada y ampliamente utilizada tecnología video-streaming, y el futuro de la comunicación a distancia, la teleinmersión. La primera permite la transmisión de audio/vídeo por la red para que puede ser vista por el usuario en su ordenador personal, desde cualquier lugar que disponga de una conexión a red. La información será recibida y decodificada por el usuario final utilizando cualquier reproductor de los que existen en el mercado. La teleinmersión, por su parte, permite crear espacios virtuales de colaboración entre profesionales, ofreciendo entornos muy cercanos a la realidad. Esta tecnología revolucionará, sin duda, nuestros sistemas de enseñanza en los próximos años, facilitando la interacción profesor-alumno. Es evidente que la formación e-learning aporta a los alumnos y a los docentes grandes ventajas como: menores tiempos de aprendizaje, flexibilidad de horarios y de ubicación geográfica, entre otras. We describe two technological modes of on-line teaching: the consolidated and widely used video-streaming mode and teleimmersion, the future of distance communications. The former mode allows the transmission of audio/video through the network so that it can be seen by the user on a PC from anywhere harbouring a network connection. The information is received and decoded by the final user using any reproducer available on the market. Teleimmersion allows the creation of virtual spaces for collaboration among professionals, offering venues that are very similar to reality. This technology will undoubtedly revolutionize our teaching systems in the near future, facilitating instructor-student interaction. It is clear that e-learning- instruction offers both students and instructors huge advantages, such as shorter learning times and schedule and geographic flexibility, among others.
Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.
THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION. APPROXIMATELY 85 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, TEACHING MACHINES, RESPONSE MODE, SELF-INSTRUCTION, AND COMPUTER-ASSISTED…
Güyer, Tolga; Aydogdu, Seyhmus
This study suggests a classification model and an e-learning system based on this model for all instructional theories, approaches, models, strategies, methods, and technics being used in the process of instructional design that constitutes a direct or indirect resource for educational technology based on the theory of intuitionistic fuzzy sets…
Solomenko, Zlatko; Spelt, Peter; Scott, Julian
Large-scale simulations of flows with moving contact lines for realistic conditions generally requires a subgrid scale model (analyses based on matched asymptotics) to account for the unresolved part of the flow, given the large range of length scales involved near contact lines. Existing models for the interface shape in the contact-line region are primarily for steady flows on homogeneous substrates, with encouraging results in 3D simulations. Introduction of complexities would require further investigation of the contact-line region, however. Here we study flows with moving contact lines on planar substrates subject to vibrations, with applications in controlling wetting/dewetting. The challenge here is to determine the change in interface shape near contact lines due to vibrations. To develop further insight, 2D direct numerical simulations (wherein the flow is resolved down to an imposed slip length) have been performed to enable comparison with asymptotic theory, which is also developed further. Perspectives will also be presented on the final objective of the work, which is to develop a subgrid scale model that can be utilized in large-scale simulations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ANR for financial support (ANR-15-CE08-0031) and the meso-centre FLMSN for use of computational resources. This work was Granted access to the HPC resources of CINES under the allocation A0012B06893 made by GENCI.
Soong, M. H. Benson; Chan, Hock Chuan; Chua, Boon Chai; Loh, Koah Fong
Describes a multiple case study that was used to evaluate hypotheses on the critical success factors for online course resources in a Singapore tertiary setting. Discusses educational media; human factors pertaining to instructors; technical competency of students and instructors; mindsets about learning; collaboration; and information technology…
Stevenson, Alma R.
This qualitative, sociolinguistic research study examines how bilingual Latino/a students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States serving an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a…
Stevenson, Alma R.
This qualitative, sociolinguistic research study examines how bilingual Latino/a students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States serving an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a fifth grade science class entirely comprised of language minority students transitioning out of bilingual education. Therefore, English was the means of instruction in science, supported by informal peer-to-peer Spanish-language communication. This study is grounded in a social constructivist paradigm. From this standpoint, learning science is a social process where social, cultural, and linguistic factors are all considered crucial to the process of acquiring scientific knowledge. The study was descriptive in nature, examining specific linguistic behaviors with the purpose of identifying and analyzing the linguistic functions of students' utterances while participating in science learning. The results suggest that students purposefully adapt their use of linguistic resources in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. What is underscored in this study is the importance of explicitly acknowledging, supporting, and incorporating bilingual students' linguistic resources both in Spanish and English into the science classroom in order to optimize students' participation and facilitate their understanding.
MacDonald, David R.; Karayan, Michael
This lesson for grade 12 is designed to raise student awareness of the potential of human cloning and of the effects it could have on the present, naturally born population. Students work in teams to research the issue and are provided with background information, detailed instructions, on-line resources, and reflection questions. The teacher's…
Developments in broadcast and multimedia technology have generated a readily available and vast supply of videotexts for use in second and foreign language learning contexts. However, without pedagogical direction learners are unlikely to be able to deal with the complexities of this authentic listening resource, and strategy instruction may be…
This instructional guide for a one-half credit technological laboratory course for grades 10-12 focuses on apparel from the perspectives of personal decision making related to apparel, the apparel industry, and career preparation. Introductory materials are a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and…
Tai, Guangfu; Williams, Peter
Hospitals can be viewed as service enterprises, of which the primary function is to provide specific sets of diagnostic and therapeutic medical services to individual patients. Each patient has certain diagnosis and therapeutic attributes in common with some other patients. Thus, patients with similar medical attributes could be 'processed' in one 'product line' of medical services, and individual treatments for patients within one 'product line' can be regarded as incurring identical consumption of health care resources. This article presents a theoretical framing for resource planning and investment allocation of various resources from a macro perspective of costs that demonstrates the need to plan capacity at the disaggregated resource level. The result of a balanced line ('optimal') is compared with an alternative scheme of 'the same ratio composing of resources' under the same monetary constraints. Thus, it is demonstrated that planning at the disaggregated level affords much better use of resources than achieved in common practice of budget control by simple percentage increase/decrease in distributing a financial vote.
Wilson, Scott B.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of utilizing a combination of lecture and computer resources to train personnel to assume roles as hydraulic system technicians and specialists in the fluid power industry. This study compared computer simulated laboratory instruction to traditional hands-on laboratory instruction,…
Hoffman, Joseph Loris
data suggests sites with high quality general design, navigation, and content helped to foster the construction of broad and accurate understandings, while context and interactivity had less impact. However, student engagement with inquiry strategies had a greater impact on the construction of understandings. Gaining accurate and in-depth understandings from on-line resources is a complex process for young learners. Teachers can support students by helping them engage in all phases of the information-seeking process, locate useful information with prescreened resources, build background understanding with off-line instruction, and process new information deeply through extending writing and conversation.
Srisorachatr, Suwat; Huadong, Yotsinee; Hudthagosol, Chatrapa; Danthanavanich, Suksiri
Deaf students are of a number of under privilege group for whom there are limited resources for their use, related to health including nutrition. The purpose of this research was to create computer-assisted instruction for "nutrition flags" for 5 and 6th grade students. The content of nutrition included the concept of a healthy balance diets and portion sizes of each food group. The content and pictures for computer-assisted instruction came from existing curriculum, and focused on nutritional content. The contents in this instruction were divided into three units according to students' learning capacity. The story boards were developed by staff including nutritionists, Thai sign language interpreters, and deaf students. Then, the contents and nutrition vocabulary were translated into Thai sign language. After recording the sign language on video, this material was merged with the contents and converted into a computer program. The computer assisted instruction was tested with students from Nakon Pathom School for the Deaf The first trial was conducted with three students, the second with five students, and the third with 15 students during the academic year 2009. The computer- assisted instruction was revised until it met the standard criteria of 80/80. Effectiveness testing was carried out with 36 students for five consecutive days. On the first day, the pre-test was completed, and on days 2-4, the students performed self-study and completed the exercises for units 1-3, with 50 minutes spent on each unit. The post-test was completed on the last day. The study was conducted during the 2010 academic year Data analysis was performed using the t-test. The results showed an effectiveness of 81.85/82.22, which was higher than the standard criteria of 80/80. The post-test average score was higher than the pre-test average score with a statistical significance level at p < 0.0001. Suggestions for instruction for the deaf are that the length of the instruction in each
Colakoglu, Ozgur M.; Akdemir, Omur
The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different…
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work on high-voltage lines. 77.704-1 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.704-1 Work on high-voltage lines. (a) No high-voltage line shall be regarded as... provided in § 77.103) that such high-voltage line has been deenergized and grounded. Such qualified person...
Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Haslam, Jeanne
Supplemental instruction utilizes peer-assisted study sessions to provide review sessions on course material and an opportunity to discuss and work out problems. The impact of supplemental instruction on student performance is well researched and used in a large number of universities around the world due to its proven success. However, the impact of the student leader who plays a significant role in this model is rarely discussed in the literature. We present a case study on the impact of student leader on the success of supplemental instruction model. This case study was done for an Introductory Physics course correlating student performance and the supplemental instruction sessions they attended. Further analysis revealed that the academic performance and work ethics of the student leader has a significant impact on the success of the supplemental instruction model. Important factors to consider when selecting a student leader, the challenges and possible remedies will also be discussed.
In this paper, I present a critical review of the recent book, "On Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives and Resources," written by Douglas Allchin (2013). This publication presents an in-depth examination of the nature of science construct, as well as instruction for educators about how to teach it effectively utilizing…
Applying Banks' Typology of Ethnic Identity Development and Curriculum Goals to Story Content, Classroom Discussion, and the Ecology of Classroom and Community: Phase One. Instructional Resource No. 24.
Tomlinson, Louise M.
This instructional resource describes ways in which J. A. Banks' typology of the stages of ethnic identity development and related curriculum goals can be applied to literacy instruction. Banks' definitions of the stages of development and the curriculum goals for each stage are provided. Strategies for analyzing materials and developing relevant…
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work on high-voltage lines. 75.705-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.705-1 Work on high-voltage lines. (a) Section 75.705 specifically prohibits work on energized high-voltage lines underground; (b...
Х А Гербеков
Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.
Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.
Khan, Badrul H.
Advances in information technology, coupled with changes in society, are creating new paradigms for education. The Web, as a medium of learning and instruction, has the potential to support the creation of well-designed resources. A table of features and components associated with Web-based instruction learning environments is provided.…
Robert Sean Mulcahy
Full Text Available This paper describes Bottom Line, a hybrid technology/classroom business simulation designed to help interns at an auditing/tax/consulting firm better understand the industry they are entering and the resource trade-offs that professional services firms make to stay competitive. This paper describes the sim on three different levels, the simulation level, the game level, and the instructional level, and the design choices made at each level, some of which were influenced by significant resource constraints. Bottom Line’s learning gains and ROI were not evaluated objectively—in fact, given objectives more focused on thought provocation than content teaching, it is unlikely it would score well on any level of the Kirkpatrick scale beyond the first. Despite that, and despite significant design and development weaknesses, it was seen as an unqualified success by the sponsoring organization. A discussion of what success means concludes this paper.
Full Text Available The context of this study is the nation-wide reform of local government in Finland, focusing on line managers and their scope of agency. Our data comprise two large-scale surveys of 40 municipalities in 2009 and 38 in 2011. The respondents were line managers from different levels of the hierarchy and, for comparative purposes, staff from the same units. Resources and constraints of agency were studied both in relation to the immediate work of the respondents and to the broader issues of municipality reform. Broad-scale reforms proceed in stages that require different forms of agency. Predominantly, a higher position in the hierarchy seemed to give better conditions for agency, but this was not always the case. Notable were the high values for intrinsic rewards of work given by all groups, indicating the existence of conditions that enable new cognitive and learning challenges to be met. It seems that this potential was not actualized satisfactorily in the accomplishment of development activities. The supervisor’s influence on the social climate of the units was evident in the longitudinal setting. From the perspective of distributed agency, this result is highly significant when one considers that the social environment is the immediate context of agency.
Onyesom, Moses; Okolocha, Chimezie Comfort
The study assessed the adequacy of instructional resources available for business education programmes at the colleges of education in Edo and Delta states of Nigeria in relation to the standards stipulated by the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE). The study adopted the ex-post facto research design and was guided by five…
Salo, Petri; Nylund, Jan; Stjernstrøm, Else
This paper explores the concept of instructional leadership and principals' perceptions of the practices of instructional leadership. Despite the emphasis on the effects of school leadership regarding teaching practices and learning outcomes, research on direct instructional leadership is scarce. It is focused either on identifying overall…
This paper reports on a case study in the experimental use of Open Educational Resources (OERs) in intermediate level language instruction. The resources come from three sources: the instructor, the students, and open content repositories. The objective of this action research project was to provide student-centered learning materials, enhance…
David C Marchant
Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.
van Zyl, Gert Uves; van Mens, Thijs E.; McIlleron, Helen; Zeier, Michele; Nachega, Jean B.; Decloedt, Eric; Malavazzi, Carolina; Smith, Peter; Huang, Yong; van der Merwe, Lize; Gandhi, Monica; Maartens, Gary
In resource-limited settings, many patients, with no prior protease inhibitor (PI) treatment on a second-line, high genetic barrier, ritonavir-boosted PI-containing regimen have virologic failure. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate the aetiology of virologic failure in 2 public
Gillmore, Gerald M.; Clark, D. Joseph
College teaching should be approached with the same careful delineation of problems and systematic attempts to find solutions which characterize research. Specific methods for the diagnosis of instructional problems include audio-video taping, use of teaching assistants, colleague assistance, classroom tests, student projects in and out of class,…
Nguyen, Chi Hong
In terms of the economic bottom line, effective school leaders are now supposed to pay close attention to two central tasks which involve managing resources and devising operational strategies in their action plans. Taking a postmodern viewpoint, the first part of this paper aims to discuss the significance of resource allocation in education and…
Detlefsen, Ellen Gay
This is a review of the master's-level curricula of the fifty-eight America Library Association-accredited library and information science programs and iSchools for evidence of coursework and content related to library instruction. Special emphasis is placed on the schools and programs that also offer coursework in medical or health sciences librarianship. Fifty-eight school and program websites were reviewed. Course titles and course descriptions for seventy-three separate classes were analyzed. Twenty-three syllabi were examined. All North American library education programs offer at least one course in the general area of library instruction; some programs offer multiple courses. No courses on instruction, however, are focused directly on the specialized area of health sciences librarianship. Master's degree students can take appropriate classes on library instruction, but the medical library profession needs to offer continuing education opportunities for practitioners who want to have specific instruction for the specialized world of the health sciences.
Full Text Available A mathematical theory of peer instruction describing the increase of the normalized number of correct answers due to peer discussion is presented. A simple analytic expression is derived which agrees with class data. It is shown that our theory is connected to the mathematical learning models proposed by Pritchard et al. It is also shown that obtained theoretical lines are useful for analyzing peer-instruction efficiencies.
Yelon, Stephen L.
Nonresidential colleges are well-developed instructional systems that take into account system resources and constraints, system goals, human learning and communication principles, and subject matter structure. This document presents a discussion of 2 such instructional systems, the British Open University and New York's Empire State College, and…
Meijer, Joost; Oostdam, Ron
In the present research, it was tried to unravel the influence of various types of instruction on test anxiety levels and, in turn, its influence on intelligence test performance. Three types of instruction were compared: a stressful, achievement-orientated instruction; a reassuring, task-orientated instruction; and an ambiguous instruction.…
Puse, Judeza S.; Awata, Takaaki; Atobe, Kozo
The role of education all over the world is becoming more and more significant and requires an in depth study since the life of the people is advanced, expanded and complicated. Educators are once again asked to address problems which have arisen within their own society. Thus, the search for ways to improve quality of education is global especially in line with nuclear science and technology. One area of focus is that managing and promoting learning inside the classroom, how teacher's utilized instructional materials were such an issue. Indeed, qualifications and resources are not the only factors that influence teachers' effectiveness, equally important are teachers' motivation, commitment, resourcefulness, innovativeness and creativeness in dealing with instructional materials. Lack of these things will produce poor attendance and unprofessional attitudes towards students. This paper aims to present a proposal on the use of innovative teaching device from the sample photographs as a result of the experiment taken at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) where samples were treated with gamma rays from a radioactive source 60 Co and lately exposed to photographic giving rise to understanding of photons emitted by radioactive material in a form of electromagnetic waves and later converted into visible light in a more authentic and simplified manners. As a consequent, this proposal was made to enhance teaching and encourage science teachers to exert great effort to develop instructional materials specifically in this area that requires the concretization of concepts which could not be detected by human senses. (author)
Hock, Michael F.; Bulgren, Janis A.; Brasseur-Hock, Irma F.
In this article, we discuss research supporting the Strategic Instruction Model's™ (SIM) effort to address higher order reasoning and thinking skills in two lines of programmatic research. We review the extant body of evidence supporting the two lines of the SIM library, the Content Enhancement Routines and a comprehensive reading program, and the…
María Alejandra Domínguez
Full Text Available This paper examines and reflects on the explanatory resources that are used in high school physics classes for studying the topic of energy. Explanatory resources are a means of constructing and negotiating meaning. The research is an instrumental case study focusing on four years of high school physics classes on energy. The theoretical principles of sociocultural approaches and conversation analysis are taken as benchmarks for understanding how we construct and reconstruct meanings (on energy. The identification of the resources used in the process of meaning construction is of importance for understanding certain scientific phenomena addressed in the curricula. Among the resources most commonly employed to enhance explanation were definitions and the causes of phenomena. We also found that teachers’ interventions, either through verbal explanations or instructional proposals, were crucial for certain kinds of explanations and for the presence or absence of other resources associated with explanations.
Doyle, Antoinette; Zhang, Jing; Mattatall, Chris
This study examined Canadian teachers' beliefs, practices and concerns about spelling instruction in the primary grades. Data from surveys (n = 56) indicated that most teachers believe that spelling is important and plan for spelling instruction. For most teachers, the spelling words and activities used, and the instructional resources they chose,…
Full Text Available Utilizing digital technology as a medium for educational instruction has now become one of the 21 century pedagogy trends. Numerous researches suggested that using digital technology provides positive impacts as it gives more access to resources for the learning. In Foreign language pedagogy, using digital technology fosters learners’ autonomy by self-managing the amount of learning inputs outside the classroom. However, many studies emphasize more on the communicative and the vast resources accessible for the learners. Very limited attention given to the impact of the visual aid that focuses on aesthetic values of instructional design. English Grammar is one of many subjects that often received complaints by learners and claimed as a “boring” subject. Many English teachers especially in developing countries still utilize traditional method in teaching grammar. They introduce sentence structure using grammar formulas. Although, this method is still very popular, it often considered monotonous by many learners. This paper discusses about the study of using Prezi.com presentation to deliver grammar instruction materials in an English language classroom. From the study, it was found that the majority of the students involved in the study are fond of the materials and the post-test results showed grammar mastery improvement after receiving a grammar lesson that shows instructional materials using prezi. On the other hand, the control class that uses only writing boards and worksheets showed less improvement. This research provides new technique in developing grammar instruction design using a web tool called Prezi in enhancing the display of the instruction material. The experiment was given to students of English Language Education. The result of the study shows students’ positive perception toward the use of Prezi in English grammar instructional material.
Students in Chemistry 254: Organic Chemistry for Majors were required to write a paper about an organic name reaction. Before turning in this assignment, students had the option of attending a one-hour library instruction session covering SciFinder, sources for spectra, ACS Style, and print resources about organic name reactions. Twenty-five…
Campbell, Todd; Longhurst, Max L.; Wang, Shiang-Kwei; Hsu, Hui-Yin; Coster, Dan C.
While access to computers, other technologies, and cyber-enabled resources that could be leveraged for enhancing student learning in science is increasing, generally it has been found that teachers use technology more for administrative purposes or to support traditional instruction. This use of technology, especially to support traditional instruction, sits in opposition to most recent standards documents in science education that call for student involvement in evidence-based sense-making activities. Many see technology as a potentially powerful resource that is reshaping society and has the potential to do the same in science classrooms. To consider the promise of technology in science classrooms, this research investigated the impact of a professional development project focused on enhancing teacher and student learning by using information and communication technologies (ICTs) for engaging students in reformed-based instruction. More specifically, these findings revealed positive teacher outcomes with respect to reformed-based and technology-supported instruction and increased ICT and new literacies skills. When considering students, the findings revealed positive outcomes with respect to ICT and new literacies skills and student achievement in science.
Phadtare, Amruta; Bahmani, Anu; Shah, Anand; Pietrobon, Ricardo
Abstract Background Writing plays a central role in the communication of scientific ideas and is therefore a key aspect in researcher education, ultimately determining the success and long-term sustainability of their careers. Despite the growing popularity of e-learning, we are not aware of any existing study comparing on-line vs. traditional classroom-based methods for teaching scientific writing. Methods Forty eight participants from a medical, nursing and physiotherapy background from US ...
Charles D. Kamilos
Full Text Available At some seminaries the question of who is more effective teaching library research is an open question. There are two camps of thought: (1 that the program faculty member is more effective in providing library research instruction as he or she is intimately engaged in the subject of the course(s, or (2 that the theological librarian is more effective in providing library research instruction as he or she is more familiar with the scope of resources that are available, as well as how to obtain “hard to get” resources. What began as a librarian’s interest in determining the extent to which Doctor of Ministry (DMin students begin their research using Google, resulted in the development of a survey. Given the interesting results returned from the first survey in fall of 2008, the survey was conducted again in the fall of 2011. The results of the comparative data led to the discovery of some useful data that will be used to adjust future instruction sessions for DMin students. The results of the surveys indicated that the instruction provided by the theological librarian was more effective as students were more prepared to obtain and use resources most likely to provide the best information for course projects. Additionally, following the instruction of library research skills by the librarian (2011 survey, DMin students were more likely to begin the search process for information resources using university provided catalogs and databases than what was reported in the 2008 survey. The responses to the two surveys piqued interest regarding both eBook use during the research process and the reduction of research frustration to be addressed in a follow-up survey to be given in 2014, results of which we hope to report in a future article.
Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A
An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner
International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.
This volume of Resources in Technology contains the following eight instructional modules: (1) "Processing Technology"; (2) "Water--A Magic Resource"; (3) "Hazardous Waste Disposal--The NIMBY (Not in My Backyard) Syndrome"; (4) "Processing Fibers and Fabrics"; (5) "Robotics--An Emerging…
Mueller, John H.; And Others
Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various processing instructions on the rate of false recognition. The continuous single-item procedure was used, and false recognitions of four types were examined: synonyms, antonyms, nonsemantic associates, and homonyms. The instructions encouraged subjects to think of associates, usages…
Racz, William J.; Ecobichon, Donald J.; Baril, Marc
This paper will provide an overview of the on-line resources available in toxicology in Canada. It will describe a brief history of The Society of Toxicology of Canada, with reference to other societies and also provide information on education, research and other resources related to toxicology. Toxicology in Canada emerged as a distinct and vibrant discipline following the thalidomide tragedy of the 1960s. In the pharmaceutical industry and government, toxicology was readily established as an essential component of drug development and safety, and as the need for toxicologists expanded, training programs were established, usually in collaboration with departments of pharmacology. In the last two to three decades other disciplines, environmental biology, analytical chemistry and epidemiology joined the ranks of toxicology. The on-line sources of toxicology information are rapidly expanding. This article describes those sources considered by the authors to be important from a national and international perspective. The majority of these sources are professional organizations and government agencies
Vidal C., Christian; Segura Navarrete, Alejandra; Menéndez D., Víctor; Zapata Gonzalez, Alfredo; Prieto M., Manuel
Resource design and development requires knowledge about educational goals, instructional context and information about learner's characteristics among other. An important information source about this knowledge are metadata. However, metadata by themselves do not foresee all necessary information related to resource design. Here we argue the need to use different data and knowledge models to improve understanding the complex processes related to e-learning resources and their management. This paper presents the use of semantic web technologies, as ontologies, supporting the search and selection of resources used in design. Classification is done, based on instructional criteria derived from a knowledge acquisition process, using information provided by IEEE-LOM metadata standard. The knowledge obtained is represented in an ontology using OWL and SWRL. In this work we give evidence of the implementation of a Learning Object Classifier based on ontology. We demonstrate that the use of ontologies can support the design activities in e-learning.
The Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facility transition instruction was initiated in response to the need for a common, streamlined process for facility transitions and to capture the knowledge and experience that has accumulated over the last few years. The instruction serves as an educational resource and defines the process for transitioning facilities to long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Generally, these facilities do not have identified operations missions and must be transitioned from operational status to a safe and stable configuration for long-term S and M. The instruction can be applied to a wide range of facilities--from process canyon complexes like the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility or B Plant, to stand-alone, lower hazard facilities like the 242B/BL facility. The facility transition process is implemented (under the direction of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office [RL] Assistant Manager-Environmental) by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. management, with input and interaction with the appropriate RL division and Hanford site contractors as noted in the instruction. The application of the steps identified herein and the early participation of all organizations involved are expected to provide a cost-effective, safe, and smooth transition from operational status to deactivation and S and M for a wide range of Hanford Site facilities
Full Text Available The on-line user of today has access to a vast collection of information resources. In addition, the developments in Internet and Web technologies have made it even easier for surfers to anonymously get access to on-line pornography. The purpose of this research was to investigate the extent to which access to on-line pornography at the University of Johannesburg can be managed. For the empirical part of this research 1037 questionnaires were proportionally distributed to and completed by students on all five campuses of the university. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: biographical information; university computer facility usage; university acceptable use policy; and personal experience with university computer facilities. The gender distribution for the sample was almost even, with a total of 49,4% male participants and 50,6% female, with the largest grouping of respondents (61,6% aged between 19 years and 21 years. Of the respondents, 36,7% indicated that exposure to unsolicited pornography did not bother them. When asked to what extent students should have access to pornography, 60,5% stated 'None' while 32,6% believed that 'Restricted' access should be granted for research purposes and 6,9% believed that students should be granted 'Total' access to pornography. Results from the research will be used to manage access to on-line resources at the University of Johannesburg better.
Bozeman, William C.; And Others
The Wisconsin System for Instructional Management (WIS-SIM) is a computer managed instruction (CMI) system designed to improve instructional decision making in order to maximize the educational progress of each child while making efficient use of the available human, material, and financial resources within an organizational structure such as the…
Florence A. Hamrick
Full Text Available This study incorporated institutional characteristics (e.g., Carnegie type, selectivity and resource allocations (e.g., instructional expenditures, student affairs expenditures into a statistical model to predict undergraduate graduation rates. Instructional expenditures, library expenditures, and a number of institutional classification variables were significant predictors of graduation rates. Based on these results, recommendations as well as warranted cautions are included about allocating academic financial resources to optimize graduation rates
Flickinger, Kathleen Anne
a whole, these three approaches to understanding the phenomenon of Internet science instruction reveal that the experience of learning science on the Internet can be a viable alternative for diverse learners. Students can learn science on-line at an achievement level that is equal to or better than students in a traditional course. Moreover, such courses may stimulate increased student interest in science and on-line learning. The results of this research indicate that Internet-based courses change the nature of instructional tasks. Instructors spend more time preparing for Internet-based courses than traditional courses; however, the majority of course preparation is associated with technical issues. These technical issues and changes in the nature of instructional tasks will have to be addressed by higher educational institutions.
Graham, Heather; Beall, Deborah Lane; Lussier, Mary; McLaughlin, Peggy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
To determine the status of gardens in California schools. A self-administered Internet and mailed survey was sent to all California principals (N = 9805). 4194 California school principals. School garden practices, attitudes associated with the use of gardens in schools, and perceptions of barriers to having and using school gardens in academic instruction. Descriptive statistics and chi-square; P science, environmental studies, and nutrition. Principals strongly agreed that resources such as curriculum materials linked to academic instruction and lessons on teaching nutrition in the garden would assist in the school garden being used for academic instruction. Principals deemed the garden as being not to slightly effective at enhancing the school meal program. School gardens appear to be predominantly used by most schools to enhance academic instruction. There is a need for curriculum materials and teacher training for gardening and nutrition. The link between the garden and the school meal program is an area that clearly requires attention. School lunch would be a logical setting for provision of edible produce, in addition to taste-testing of fresh produce in the garden or classroom setting.
Mauersberger, Heidi; Hoppe, Annekatrin; Brockmann, Gudrun; Hess, Ursula
Conflicts are an undesirable yet common aspect of daily interactions with wide-ranging negative consequences. The present research aimed to examine the buffering effect of experimentally instructed reappraisal on self-reported, physiological and behavioral stress indices during interpersonal conflicts, taking into account habitual emotion regulation strategies. For this, 145 participants experienced a standardized laboratory conflict with the instruction to either reappraise (n = 48), to suppress (n = 50), or with no instruction (n = 47) while cardiovascular and neuroendocrine measures were taken. Participants were allowed to eat sweet and salty snacks during the conflict situation. Prior to as well as after the conflict, participants reported on their subjective stress level. Reappraisal instructions were only effective for high habitual reappraisers who exhibited lower cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity and demonstrated fewer snack-eating behaviors under reappraisal instructions than under suppression or no instructions. The opposite pattern emerged for low habitual reappraisers. Neither experimentally instructed nor habitual reappraisal by itself reduced the negative effects of conflicts. Our findings complement the literature on the diverging effects of instructed reappraisal in tense social interactions. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments, 2017
Improving school climate takes time and commitment from a variety of people in a variety of roles. This document outlines key action steps that instructional staff--including teachers, paraprofessionals, and others in the classroom who provide instruction or assistance--can take to support school climate improvements. Key action steps are provided…
Heron, Paula R. L.
The impact of lecture instruction on student conceptual understanding in physics has been the subject of research for several decades. Most studies have reported disappointingly small improvements in student performance on conceptual questions despite direct instruction on the relevant topics. These results have spurred a number of attempts to improve learning in physics courses through new curricula and instructional techniques. This paper contributes to the research base through a retrospective analysis of 20 randomly selected qualitative questions on topics in kinematics, dynamics, electrostatics, waves, and physical optics that have been given in introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington over a period of 15 years. In some classes, questions were administered after relevant lecture instruction had been completed; in others, it had yet to begin. Simple statistical tests indicate that the average performance of the "after lecture" classes was significantly better than that of the "before lecture" classes for 11 questions, significantly worse for two questions, and indistinguishable for the remaining seven. However, the classes had not been randomly assigned to be tested before or after lecture instruction. Multiple linear regression was therefore conducted with variables (such as class size) that could plausibly lead to systematic differences in performance and thus obscure (or artificially enhance) the effect of lecture instruction. The regression models support the results of the simple tests for all but four questions. In those cases, the effect of lecture instruction was reduced to a nonsignificant level, or increased to a significant, negative level when other variables were considered. Thus the results provide robust evidence that instruction in lecture can increase student ability to give correct answers to conceptual questions but does not necessarily do so; in some cases it can even lead to a decrease.
In 1964, in "A Guide to Instructional Television," editor Robert M. Diamond defined "educational television" as a "broad term usually applied to cultural and community broadcasting which may include some programs for in-school use" (p. 278). His definition for instructional television was "television used within the formal classroom context on any…
Kuo, Chinhwa; Chiu, Jui-Hwa; Wu, Jong-Jyh; Chen, Dxo-Shin
A Multimedia Instruction on Demand (MID) serves the purpose of providing an environment for lecture design, lecture annotation, and lecture review over networks. In order to support real-time multimedia interactive playback for such an application, the underlying networks are required to provide network resource management mechanism to enforce the reservation policy. In our design, the MID server and MID gateway consist of the following mechanisms, namely, resource management agent, admission control agent, packet classifier, and packet scheduler. We make use of the framework of the ReSerVation Protocol to devise and implement a network resource management mechanism, which control end-to-end packet delays and bandwidth allocation for the designed MID system. In the present paper, our contributions are as follows: (1) a network resource management scheme is designed to support real-time multimedia over the Internet and (2) an experimental test bed is established to measure the system performance. The developed scheme is currently being implemented in the Multimedia Information Networking laboratory at Tamkang University.
Meijer, J.; Oostdam, R.
In the present research, it was tried to unravel the influence of various types of instruction on test anxiety levels and, in turn, its influence on intelligence test performance. Three types of instruction were compared: a stressful, achievement-orientated instruction; a reassuring, task-orientated
Nishino, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kagawa, Tsuneo; Utsumiya, Kouichi
We present a system to realize an on-line instruction environment among physically separated participants based on a multi-modal communication strategy. In addition to visual and acoustic information, commonly used communication modalities in network environments, our system provides a haptic channel to intuitively conveying partners' sense of touch. The human touch sensation, however, is very sensitive for delays and jitters in the networked virtual reality (NVR) systems. Therefore, a method to compensate for such negative factors needs to be provided. We show an NVR architecture to implement a basic framework that can be shared by various applications and effectively deals with the problems. We take a hybrid approach to implement both data consistency by client-server and scalability by peer-to-peer models. As an application system built on the proposed architecture, a remote instruction system targeted at teaching handwritten characters and line patterns on a Korea-Japan high-speed research network also is mentioned.
Dinov, Ivo D.; Christou, Nicolas
The Statistics Online Computational Resource (http://www.SOCR.ucla.edu) provides one of the largest collections of free Internet-based resources for probability and statistics education. SOCR develops, validates and disseminates two core types of materials--instructional resources and computational libraries. (Contains 2 figures.)
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
For each function on bit strings, its restriction to bit strings of any given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. Backward jump instructions
Mhalu, Grace; Hella, Jerry; Doulla, Basra; Mhimbira, Francis; Mtutu, Hawa; Hiza, Helen; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Rieder, Hans L; Seimon, Tamsyn; Mutayoba, Beatrice; Weiss, Mitchell G; Fenner, Lukas
We examined the effect of an instructional video about the production of diagnostic sputum on case detection of tuberculosis (TB), and evaluated the acceptance of the video. Randomized controlled trial. We prepared a culturally adapted instructional video for sputum submission. We analyzed 200 presumptive TB cases coughing for more than two weeks who attended the outpatient department of the governmental Municipal Hospital in Mwananyamala (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). They were randomly assigned to either receive instructions on sputum submission using the video before submission (intervention group, n = 100) or standard of care (control group, n = 100). Sputum samples were examined for volume, quality and presence of acid-fast bacilli by experienced laboratory technicians blinded to study groups. Median age was 39.1 years (interquartile range 37.0-50.0); 94 (47%) were females, 106 (53%) were males, and 49 (24.5%) were HIV-infected. We found that the instructional video intervention was associated with detection of a higher proportion of microscopically confirmed cases (56%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 45.7-65.9%, sputum smear positive patients in the intervention group versus 23%, 95% CI 15.2-32.5%, in the control group, p sex, modified the effectiveness of the intervention by improving it positively. When asked how well the video instructions were understood, the majority of patients in the intervention group reported to have understood the video instructions well (97%). Most of the patients thought the video would be useful in the cultural setting of Tanzania (92%). Sputum submission instructional videos increased the yield of tuberculosis cases through better quality of sputum samples. If confirmed in larger studies, instructional videos may have a substantial effect on the case yield using sputum microscopy and also molecular tests. This low-cost strategy should be considered as part of the efforts to control TB in resource-limited settings. Pan African
Clark, Kenneth; Hosticka, Alice; Kent, Judi; Browne, Ron
Addresses issues of access to World Wide Web sites, mathematics and science content-resources available on the Web, and methods for integrating mathematics, science, and language arts instruction. (Author/ASK)
Peacock, Jeremy S.
With science teachers facing comprehensive curriculum reform that will shape science education for decades to come, high school department chairs represent a critical resource for instructional leadership and teacher support. While the historical literature on the department chair indicates that chairs are in prime positions to provide…
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The number of students enrolled in online courses that use video lectures is on the rise. However, research shows that the number of students watching video lectures is low, and the number watching videos to completion is even lower. Background: This paper seeks to understand this problem by looking for correlations between instructional design and student engagement with video lectures. Methodology: Students at a cyber-university in South Korea (n=1801 were surveyed on their perception of the instructional design used in the courses they took and their engagement with online video lectures. Contribution: This paper contributes to the body of knowledge by demonstrating positive correlations between instructional design, watching, and finishing video lectures. Findings: While most other research has found low levels of online lecture viewership, this paper found significantly higher numbers watching and finishing videos. Other major findings of the paper are that five key elements of instructional design for online learning environments (designing methods, setting the curriculum, establishing time parameters, establishing netiquette, and utilizing the medium effectively all correlated positively with students watching and finishing video lectures. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: Based on findings in this paper, it is recommended that practitioners consider taking actions when designing their instruction for online courses. These include batching their video lectures together by topic, devoting greater resources to helping students utilize the medium, and communicate time parameters in a way that encourages students to view video lectures in a timely manner. Recommendation for Researchers: As the watching of video lectures in this study was mandatory for learners, an interesting area of further research would be to examine whether that decision led to higher numbers of students watching them. Future Research: It is important for
Williamson, Kenneth C.; Williamson, Vickie M.; Hinze, Scott R.
Standardized, well-established paper-and-pencil tests, which measure spatial abilities or which measure reasoning abilities, have long been found to be predictive of success in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields. Instructors can use these tests for prediction of success and to inform instruction. A comparative administration of spatial visualization and cognitive reasoning tests, between in-class (proctored paper and pencil) and on-line (unproctored Internet) ( N = 457), was used to investigate and to determine whether the differing instrument formats yielded equal measures of spatial ability and reasoning ability in large first-semester general chemistry sections. Although some gender differences were found, findings suggest that some differences across administration formats, but that on-line administration had similar properties of predicting chemistry performance as the in-class version. Therefore, on-line administration is a viable option for instructors to consider especially when dealing with large classes.
instructional strategies on students' problem solving abilities in secondary school chemistry ... individualistic instructional strategy and conventional teaching method. ..... solving abilities are best enhanced by cooperative learning environment.
Laurie Miller Nelson
Full Text Available Much recent research and funding have focused on building Internet-based repositories that contain collections of high-quality learning resources, often called learning objects. Yet little is known about how non-specialist users, in particular teachers, find, access, and use digital learning resources. To address this gap, this article describes a case study of mathematics and science teachers practices and desires surrounding the discovery, selection, and use of digital library resources for instructional purposes. Findings suggest that the teacher participants used a broad range of search strategies in order to find resources that they deemed were age-appropriate, current, and accurate. They intended to include these resources with little modifications into planned instructional activities. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of the findings for improving the design of educational digital library systems, including tools supporting resource reuse.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector points and lines representing human-use resource data for airports, marinas, and mining sites in Northwest Arctic, Alaska....
Hendley, Gaby G.
Guide-worksheets were developed on a word processor in a high school library for bibliographic instruction of English and social studies students to cover the following reference sources: Facts on File; Social Issues Resource Series (S.I.R.S.); Editorial Research Reports; Great Contemporary Issues (New York Times), which also includes Facts on…
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.
Based on findings of Project HAPPIER surveys and intended as a resource for health care providers and educators who serve the migrant community, this guide describes over 375 instructional materials in the areas of dental health, disease control, fitness, health promotion, human growth and development, hypertension, maternal and child care, mental…
Cockx, Lara; Francken, Nathalie
In line with the rising interest in harnessing natural resource revenues for economic and human development through productive government investments, this paper aims to address an important blind spot in our understanding of the “resource curse” by contributing innovative insights on how natural resource wealth impacts government priorities and expenditure practices. Using a large panel dataset of 140 countries covering the period from 1995 to 2009, we find an adverse effect of resource dependence on public education expenditures relative to GDP that is robust to controlling for a range of additional covariates. Furthermore, our findings indicate that this resource curse effect on the government prioritization of education mainly stems from point-source natural resources. These results are of particular importance for the sustainable management of natural resource wealth in developing countries, as they could achieve especially high returns by investing resource revenues in public goods such as education. While this paper underlines the importance of institutions and government accountability, our findings also raise questions on the role of the private sector as a partner in development, as the extractives industry could consider increasing funding for education through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives. - Highlights: •We use a panel dataset of 140 countries covering the period from 1995 to 2009. •We find an inverse relationship between resource dependence and education spending. •The effect of resource dependence is robust to controlling for several covariates. •Indirect effects through a decline in accountability and the service industry. •This curse mainly stems from point-source resource dependence.
Full Text Available Distributed Energy Resources might have a severe influence on Power Line Communications, as they can generate interfering signals and high frequency emissions or supraharmonics that may cause loss of metering and control data. In this paper, the influence of various energy resources on Narrowband Power Line Communications is described and analyzed through several test measurements performed in a real microgrid. Accordingly, the paper describes the effects on smart metering communications through the Medium Access Control (MAC layer analysis. Results show that the switching frequency of inverters and the presence of battery chargers are remarkable sources of disturbance in low voltage distribution networks. In this sense, the results presented can contribute to efforts towards standardization and normative of emissions at higher frequencies higher, such as CENELEC EN 50160 and IEC/TS 62749.
show that retention ability was significantly higher in the experimental group ... Differentiated instruction, Lecture , Cognitive Achievement ,Retention ability, Geometry. ... thinking. Based on this knowledge, differentiated instruction applies an ...
Prior studies on fraction magnitude understanding focused mainly on students with relatively sufficient formal instruction on fractions whose fraction magnitude understanding is relatively mature. This study fills a research gap by investigating fraction magnitude understanding in the early stages of fraction instruction. It extends previous findings to children with limited and primary formal fraction instruction. Thirty-five fourth graders with limited fraction instruction and forty fourth graders with primary fraction instruction were recruited from a Chinese primary school. Children's fraction magnitude understanding was assessed with a fraction number line estimation task. Approximate number system (ANS) acuity was assessed with a dot discrimination task. Whole number knowledge was assessed with a whole number line estimation task. General reading and mathematics achievements were collected concurrently and 1 year later. In children with limited fraction instruction, fraction representation was linear and fraction magnitude understanding was concurrently related to both ANS and whole number knowledge. In children with primary fraction instruction, fraction magnitude understanding appeared to (marginally) significantly predict general mathematics achievement 1 year later. Fraction magnitude understanding emerged early during formal instruction of fractions. ANS and whole number knowledge were related to fraction magnitude understanding when children first began to learn about fractions in school. The predictive value of fraction magnitude understanding is likely constrained by its sophistication level. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid training program; availability of... Miscellaneous § 75.1713-4 First-aid training program; availability of instruction to all miners. On or before... the mine a course of instruction in first-aid conducted by the operator or under the auspices of the...
Kahl, David H., Jr.
Throughout its history, instructional communication research has played an important role in the discipline of Communication. In tracing its lineage, Myers (2010) explains that instructional communication research has focused on communicative behaviors that instructors use with their students to better understand and facilitate affective and…
Increasingly, the science education community has recognized the need for curriculum resources that support student development of authentic scientific practices, rather than focusing exclusively on content knowledge. This paper proposes a tool for teachers and researchers to assess the degree to which certain curriculum resources and lessons achieve this goal. After describing a method for reflecting on and categorizing curriculum resources, I apply the method to highlight differences across three teaching methods: Modeling Instruction, Physics Union Mathematics, and a traditional, lecture-based approach.
Meirinawati; Prabawati, I.; Pradana, G. W.
The problem of progressing regions is not far from economic problems and is often caused by the inability of the regions in response to changes in economic conditions that occur, so the need for community development programs implemented to solve various problems. Improved community effort required with the real conditions and needs of each region. Community development based on local resources process is very important, because it is an increase in human resource capability in the optimal utilization of local resource potential. In this case a strategy is needed in community development based on local resources. The community development strategy are as follows:(1) “Eight Line Equalization Plus” which explains the urgency of rural industrialization, (2) the construction of the village will be more successful when combining strategies are tailored to regional conditions, (3) the escort are positioning themselves as the Planner, supervisor, information giver, motivator, facilitator, connecting at once evaluators.
Strategies have been put into place to affect improvement in science achievement, including the use of Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) in science instruction. IWBs enable rich resources, appropriate pacing, and multimodal presentation of content deemed as best practices. Professional development experiences, use of resources, instructional practices, and changes in professional behavior in science teachers were recorded. Also recorded were differences in the engagement and motivation of students in IWB classrooms versus IWB-free classrooms and observed differences in students' problem solving, critical thinking, and collaboration. Using a mixed-method research design quantitative data were collected to identify achievement levels of the target population on the assumption that all students, regardless of ability, will achieve greater mastery of science content in IWB classrooms. Qualitative data were collected through observations, interviews, videotapes, and a survey to identify how IWBs lead to increased achievement in third grade classrooms and to develop a record of teachers' professional practices, and students' measures of engagement and motivation. Comparative techniques determined whether science instruction is more effective in IWB classroom than in IWB-free classrooms. The qualitative findings concluded that, compared to science teachers who work in IWB-free settings, elementary science teachers who used IWBs incorporated more resources to accommodate learning objectives and the varied abilities and learning styles of their students. They assessed student understanding more frequently and perceived their classrooms as more collaborative and interactive. Furthermore, they displayed willingness to pursue professional development and employed different engagement strategies. Finally, teachers who used IWBs supported more instances of critical thinking and problem-solving. Quantitative findings concluded that students of all ability levels were more motivated
Hamilton, Nancy Jo
Reading is a process that requires the enactment of many cognitive processes. Each of these processes uses a certain amount of working memory resources, which are severely constrained by biology. More efficiency in the function of working memory may mediate the biological limits of same. Reading relevancy instructions may be one such method to…
Full Text Available 本研究旨在探討小學教師如何於網際網路搜尋及選擇適合的教學資源，並將其應用於教學活動，同時也分析小學教師對於數位典藏網站支援教學活動的看法。本研究 採訪談法，以曾參與「數位典藏國家型科技計畫」舉辦之「數位典藏融入中小學教學活動設計比賽」獲得優勝之小學教師訪談對象，計15位。研究結果顯示，利用 搜尋引擎作關鍵字檢索是小學教師最常運用的搜尋方式；Google、Yahoo！奇摩與小蕃薯是最常被使用的搜尋引擎。此外，小學教師也會運用如亞卓市、 學習加油站與思摩特等教學資源網站、各縣市教學資源網與教育局網站等政府網站、教科書書商的網站等。小學教師在過濾及選擇網路教學資源時，著重於資源的正 確性、新穎性與吸引力，其中正確性是最重要的因素，某些科目因時效性問題而較著重資源的新穎性，教師也認為教學資源要能夠吸引學生的學習動機與注意力。小 學教師在教學活動中多利用Word檔、PowerPoint，與直接上網播放三種方式呈現網路資源。智慧財產權問題與學校軟硬體設備的不足是大多數教師在 使用網路教學資源時遭遇到的困難。數位典藏國家型科技計畫之各主題網站所建置之資源雖也適合作為教學資源，但在使用上仍有其限制。The purpose of this study is to explore how elementary school teachers search for and select instructional resources on the Internet and how they integrate those resources into classroom teaching. The usefulness of websites created by National Digital Archives Pro grain (NDAP is also evaluated by the fifteen elementary school teachers interviewed. Keyword search is the most frequently used method of searching for instructional resources on the Internet, with Google, Yahoo and Little Yam as the most popular search engines. The teachers also
Robin, Bernard R; McNeil, Sara G; Cook, David A; Agarwal, Kathryn L; Singhal, Geeta R
As part of an international faculty development conference in February 2010, a working group of medical educators and physicians discussed the changing role of instructional technologies and made recommendations for supporting faculty in using these technologies in medical education. The resulting discussion highlighted ways technology is transforming the entire process of medical education and identified several converging trends that have implications for how medical educators might prepare for the next decade. These trends include the explosion of new information; all information, including both health knowledge and medical records, becoming digital; a new generation of learners; the emergence of new instructional technologies; and the accelerating rate of change, especially related to technology. The working group developed five recommendations that academic health leaders and policy makers may use as a starting point for dealing with the instructional technology challenges facing medical education over the next decade. These recommendations are (1) using technology to provide/support experiences for learners that are not otherwise possible-not as a replacement for, but as a supplement to, face-to-face experiences, (2) focusing on fundamental principles of teaching and learning rather than learning specific technologies in isolation, (3) allocating a variety of resources to support the appropriate use of instructional technologies, (4) supporting faculty members as they adopt new technologies, and (5) providing funding and leadership to enhance electronic infrastructure to facilitate sharing of resources and instructional ideas. © by the Association of American Medical Colleges.
Full Text Available Education is reforming with the birth of the internet. Learning is not solely based on classroom basis but also through on-line. The revolution of Internet has transformed teaching via face-to-face into virtual teaching. The expansion of teaching deliveries suggests that we need interactive mechanism to accommodate course material for on-line students. However, creating on-line materials requires the conception of on-line instructional design. A suitable online material design will allow learners to engage with learning. Learners will have opportunities to develop their own understanding. In addition, suitable learning material will strengthen learner’s knowledge construction from their short-term memory to long-term memory. The purpose of this paper is to discover the learning material design approach based on gender by evaluating lecturer’s adoption of online material design using Keller’s ARCS model. The sample consisting of 30 lecturers from distance education learning reveals that gender differs in their adoption of learning material design specifically on getting attention of the student. The result also shows that relevance and satisfaction contribute to gender differences in learning material adoption. Limitations of the study and practical implications of these findings discussed.
Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.
This resource guide produced for the Follow Through Program, primarily lists instructional aids and supplies; it also suggests practical implications for provisioning the classroom environment, gives specific suggestions for Project Follow Through directors, and lists addresses of suppliers. The materials are divided into nine categories, which…
Nelson, Adrienne Fleurette
The purpose of this mixed method research study was to examine the constructivist beliefs and instructional practices of secondary science teachers. The research also explored situations that impacted whether or not student centered instruction occurred. The study revealed science teachers held constructive beliefs pertaining to student questioning of the learning process and student autonomy in interacting with other learners. Teachers held the least constructivist beliefs pertaining to student teacher collaboration on lesson design. Additionally, teacher beliefs and practice were not congruent due to instructional practices being deemed less constructivist than reported. The study found that curricular demands, teacher perceptions about students, inadequate laboratory resources, and the lack of teacher understanding about the components of constructivist instruction inhibited student centered instruction. The results of this study led to six recommendations that can be implemented by school districts in collaboration with science teachers to promote constructivist instruction.
Gason, Alexandra A; Aitken, MaryAnne; Delatycki, Martin B; Sheffield, Edith; Metcalfe, Sylvia A
Tay Sachs disease is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder, for which carrier screening programs exist worldwide. Education for those offered a screening test is essential in facilitating informed decision-making. In Melbourne, Australia, we have designed, developed, and evaluated a computer-based instructional resource for use in the Tay Sachs disease carrier screening program for secondary school students attending Jewish schools. The resource entitled "Genetics in the Community: Tay Sachs disease" was designed on a platform of educational learning theory. The development of the resource included formative evaluation using qualitative data analysis supported by descriptive quantitative data. The final resource was evaluated within the screening program and compared with the standard oral presentation using a questionnaire. Knowledge outcomes were measured both before and after either of the educational formats. Data from the formative evaluation were used to refine the content and functionality of the final resource. The questionnaire evaluation of 302 students over two years showed the multimedia resource to be equally effective as an oral educational presentation in facilitating participants' knowledge construction. The resource offers a large number of potential benefits, which are not limited to the Tay Sachs disease carrier screening program setting, such as delivery of a consistent educational message, short delivery time, and minimum financial and resource commitment. This article outlines the value of considering educational theory and describes the process of multimedia development providing a framework that may be of value when designing genetics multimedia resources in general.
Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua
A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.
Parker, Robin M N; Boulos, Leah M; Visintini, Sarah; Ritchie, Krista; Hayden, Jill
Online training for systematic review methodology is an attractive option due to flexibility and limited availability of in-person instruction. Librarians often direct new reviewers to these online resources, so they should be knowledgeable about the variety of available resources. The objective for this project was to conduct an environmental scan of online systematic review training resources and evaluate those identified resources. The authors systematically searched for electronic learning resources pertaining to systematic review methods. After screening for inclusion, we collected data about characteristics of training resources and assigned scores in the domains of (1) content, (2) design, (3) interactivity, and (4) usability by applying a previously published evaluation rubric for online instruction modules. We described the characteristics and scores for each training resource and compared performance across the domains. Twenty training resources were evaluated. Average overall score of online instructional resources was 61%. Online courses (n=7) averaged 73%, web modules (n=5) 64%, and videos (n=8) 48%. The top 5 highest scoring resources were in course or web module format, featured high interactivity, and required a longer (>5hrs) time commitment from users. This study revealed that resources include appropriate content but are less likely to adhere to principles of online training design and interactivity. Awareness of these resources will allow librarians to make informed recommendations for training based on patrons' needs. Future online systematic review training resources should use established best practices for e-learning to provide high-quality resources, regardless of format or user time commitment.
Differentiated instruction: perceptions, practices and challenges of primary school teachers. ... Different factors like knowledge and experience, commitment and motivation, availability of materials/resources, availability of time, class size, range of diversity in classroom, leadership and parental support and staff collaboration ...
intergrated RMSE (averaged over a sliding 5-sec window) was higher than the standard. For the memory-traoking oonditions, a combined speed-accuracy score...group and .23 for the SF group as indicated by the horizontal line on the figures). In fact, the SF group actually reached the desired primary task...23 for the SF group (indicated by the horizontal line on Figure 4). The primary task of all four 5TH-Tl pairs responded to the priority instructions
George Cristian Gruia
Full Text Available In the aviation industry, propeller motor engines have a lifecycle of several thousand hours of flight and the maintenance is an important part of their lifecycle. The present article considers a multi-resource, priority-based case scheduling problem, which is applied in a Romanian manufacturing company, that repairs and maintains helicopter and airplane engines at a certain quality level imposed by the aviation standards. Given a reduced budget constraint, the management’s goal is to maximize the utilization of their resources (financial, material, space, workers, by maintaining a prior known priority rule. An Off-Line Dual Maximum Resource Bin Packing model, based on a Mixed Integer Programming model is thus presented. The obtained results show an increase with approx. 25% of the Just in Time shipping of the engines to the customers and approx. 12,5% increase in the utilization of the working area.
GEORGE CRISTIAN GRUIA
Full Text Available In the aviation industry, propeller motor engines have a lifecycle of several thousand hours of flight and the maintenance is an important part of their lifecycle. The present article considers a multi-resource, priority-based case scheduling problem, which is applied in a Romanian manufacturing company, that repairs and maintains helicopter and airplane engines at a certain quality level imposed by the aviation standards. Given a reduced budget constraint, the management’s goal is to maximize the utilization of their resources (financial, material, space, workers, by maintaining a prior known priority rule. An Off-Line Dual Maximum Resource Bin Packing model, based on a Mixed Integer Programing model is thus presented. The obtained results show an increase with approx. 25% of the Just in Time shipping of the engines to the customers and approx. 12,5% increase in the utilization of the working area.
A WebQuest is a model or framework for designing effective Web-based instructional strategies featuring inquiry-oriented activities. It is an innovative approach to learning that is enhanced by the use of evolving instructional technology. WebQuests have invigorated the primary school (grades K through 12) educational sector around the globe, yet there is sparse evidence in the literature of WebQuests at the college and university levels. WebQuests are congruent with pedagogical approaches and cognitive activities commonly used in nursing education. They are simple to construct using a step-by-step approach, and nurse educators will find many related resources on the Internet to help them get started. Included in this article are a discussion of the critical attributes and main features of WebQuests, construction tips, recommended Web sites featuring essential resources, a discussion of WebQuest-related issues identified in the literature, and some suggestions for further research.
Sample 112KWBMF was taken from the K West Sandfilter Backwash Pit on June 1 , 1999, and received by 222-S Laboratory on June 2,1999. Analyses were performed on sample 112KWBMF in accordance with Letter of Instruction for K Basins Sandfilter Backwash Line Samples (LOI) in support of the K Basin Sandfilter Backwash Line Characterization Project
Full Text Available Since the development of Open Educational Resources (OERs, different models regarding the usage of these resources in education have appeared in the literature. Wiley’s 4-Rs model is considered to be one of the leading models. Research based on Wiley’s model shows that using materials without making changes is the most common use. Compared to the extensive literature regarding OER usage in education, the literature barely deals with OER usage by instructional designers or training managers in corporations. The purpose of this research is to examine the OER usage of these two stakeholders, distinguishing between Little and Big OER repositories, in which Little OER repositories such as YouTube and Wikipedia aren’t necessarily designed to fulfill educational purposes. Findings show that these stakeholders almost use only Little repositories and that their usage level is higher than what is documented in the literature: they mostly Revise–modify the form of the resource, and Remix–combine different resources to create new ones. These differences can be explained by the fact that materials from Little OER repositories are raw materials, requiring further editing and adjustment. Significant differences between instructional designers’ and training managers’ usage of OERs were found regarding the Reuse level of resources from internal repositories and the Google Images repository, and the frequency of this Reuse.
Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…
Sample 183KWBMF was taken from the K West Sandfilter Backwash Pit on August 28, 1998 and received by 222-S Laboratory on August 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with ''Letter of Instruction for K Basins Sandfilter Backwash Line Samples'' (LOI) in support of the K Basin Sandfilter Backwash Line Characterization Project
Buonviri, Nathan O.; Paney, Andrew S.
Based on relevant literature and recent qualitative findings, the purpose of this survey research was to identify pedagogical approaches to melodic dictation employed by Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory teachers across the United States. The researcher-designed survey questions focused on pitch and rhythm skills, instructional resources,…
Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills
The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
DLESE Teaching Box Pilot Project: Developing a Replicable Model for Collaboratively Creating Innovative Instructional Sequences Using Exemplary Resources in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE)
Before the advent of digital libraries, it was difficult for teachers to find suitable high-quality resources to use in their teaching. Digital libraries such as DLESE have eased the task by making high quality resources more easily accessible and providing search mechanisms that allow teachers to 'fine tune' the criteria over which they search. Searches tend to return lists of resources with some contextualizing information. However, teachers who are teaching 'out of discipline' or who have minimal training in science often need additional support to know how to use and sequence them. The Teaching Box Pilot Project was developed to address these concerns, bringing together educators, scientists, and instructional designers in a partnership to build an online framework to fully support innovative units of instruction about the Earth system. Each box integrates DLESE resources and activities, teaching tips, standards, concepts, teaching outcomes, reviews, and assessment information. Online templates and best practice guidelines are being developed that will enable teachers to create their own boxes or customize existing ones. Two boxes have been developed so far, one on weather for high school students, and one on the evidence for plate tectonics for middle schoolers. The project has met with significant enthusiasm and interest, and we hope to expand it by involving individual teachers, school systems, pre-service programs, and universities in the development and use of teaching boxes. A key ingredient in the project's success has been the close collaboration between the partners, each of whom has brought unique experiences, perspectives, knowledge, and skills to the project. This first effort involved teachers in the San Francisco Bay area, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, San Francisco State University, U.S. Geological Survey, and DLESE. This poster will allow participants to explore one of the teaching boxes. We will discuss how the boxes were
THE IMPACT OF TELEVISED AND NON-TELEVISED. INSTRUCTION ON ... instruction in motivating students by bringing real- life ... To the researchers' knowledge, the success .... promote their retention. Acknowledging the importance of engaging students in extended .... Instructional Technology ; its nature and use.
Mogk, D. W.; Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Fox, S.; Iverson, E. A. R.; Beane, R. J.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Wiese, K.; Wysession, M. E.
On the Cutting Edge, funded by NSF since 2002, offers a comprehensive professional development program for geoscience faculty. The program includes an annual integrated in-person and virtual workshop series, has developed an extensive collection of peer-reviewed instructional activities and related online resources, and supports continuing community development through sponsorship of webinars, listservs, opportunities for community contributions, and dissemination of resources to keep faculty current in their science and pedagogic practices. On the Cutting Edge (CE) has offered more than 100 face-to-face and virtual workshops, webinars, journal clubs, and other events to more than 3000 participants. The award-winning website has more than 5000 pages including 47 modules on career management, pedagogy, and geoscience topics. It has more than 1800 instructional activities contributed by the community, the majority of which have been peer-reviewed. The website had more than one million visitors last year. We have worked to support a community in which faculty improve their teaching by designing courses using research-based methods to foster higher-order thinking, incorporate geoscience data, and address cognitive and affective aspects of learning as well as a community in which faculty are comfortable and successful in managing their careers. The program addresses the needs of faculty in all career stages at the full spectrum of institutions and covering the breadth of the geoscience curriculum. We select timely and compelling topics that attract different groups of participants. CE workshops are interactive, model best pedagogical practices, emphasize participant learning, provide opportunities for participants to share their knowledge and experience, provide high-quality resources, give participants time to reflect and to develop action plans, and help transform their ideas about teaching. On the Cutting Edge has had an impact on teaching based on data from national
Learning objects are a new form of learning resource, and the design of these digital environments has many facets. To investigate senior instructional design students' use of reflection tools in designing learning objects, a series of studies was conducted using the Reflective Action Instructional Design and Learning Object Review Instrument…
Marshall, Karen Benn
This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, validating and utilizing VR as a human anatomy training medium. Current anatomy instruction is primarily in the form of lectures and usage of textbooks. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three-dimensional, unlike the one-dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two-dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality allows one to step through the computer screen into a 3-D artificial world. The primary objective of this project is to produce a virtual reality application of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver that can be taken back to the classroom. The hypothesis is that an immersive learning environment affords quicker anatomic recognition and orientation and a greater level of retention in human anatomy instruction. The goal is to augment not replace traditional modes of instruction.
Full Text Available Receiving informative, well-structured, and well-designed instructions supports performance and memory in assembly tasks. We describe IBES, a tool with which users can quickly and easily create multimedia, step-by-step instructions by segmenting a video of a task into segments. In a validation study we demonstrate that the step-by-step structure of the visual instructions created by the tool corresponds to the natural event boundaries, which are assessed by event segmentation and are known to play an important role in memory processes. In one part of the study, twenty participants created instructions based on videos of two different scenarios by using the proposed tool. In the other part of the study, ten and twelve participants respectively segmented videos of the same scenarios yielding event boundaries for coarse and fine events. We found that the visual steps chosen by the participants for creating the instruction manual had corresponding events in the event segmentation. The number of instructional steps was a compromise between the number of fine and coarse events. Our interpretation of results is that the tool picks up on natural human event perception processes of segmenting an ongoing activity into events and enables the convenient transfer into meaningful multimedia instructions for assembly tasks. We discuss the practical application of IBES, for example, creating manuals for differing expertise levels, and give suggestions for research on user-oriented instructional design based on this tool.
Mura, Katharina; Petersen, Nils; Huff, Markus; Ghose, Tandra
Receiving informative, well-structured, and well-designed instructions supports performance and memory in assembly tasks. We describe IBES, a tool with which users can quickly and easily create multimedia, step-by-step instructions by segmenting a video of a task into segments. In a validation study we demonstrate that the step-by-step structure of the visual instructions created by the tool corresponds to the natural event boundaries, which are assessed by event segmentation and are known to play an important role in memory processes. In one part of the study, 20 participants created instructions based on videos of two different scenarios by using the proposed tool. In the other part of the study, 10 and 12 participants respectively segmented videos of the same scenarios yielding event boundaries for coarse and fine events. We found that the visual steps chosen by the participants for creating the instruction manual had corresponding events in the event segmentation. The number of instructional steps was a compromise between the number of fine and coarse events. Our interpretation of results is that the tool picks up on natural human event perception processes of segmenting an ongoing activity into events and enables the convenient transfer into meaningful multimedia instructions for assembly tasks. We discuss the practical application of IBES, for example, creating manuals for differing expertise levels, and give suggestions for research on user-oriented instructional design based on this tool.
Benn, Karen P.
This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.
Sample 203KWBMF was taken from the K West Sandfilter Backwash Pit on November 4, 1999 and received by 2224 Laboratory on November 4, 1999. Analyses were performed on sample 203KWBMF in accordance with ''Letter of Instruction for K Basins sandfilter Backwash Line Samples'' (LOI) in support of the K Basin Sandfilter Backwash Line Characterization Project
This study aims to conduct experimental instruction on the human resource management unit of business management in practical competencies-oriented business program developed by Chen (2005). This study is based on the quasi-experiment method and the subjects are two classes of students in a four-year technical university who have completed the…
Full Text Available Librarians often provide students who attend one-shot library instruction sessions with research guides they can refer to once class is over. These guides, whether in paper or electronic form, serve to remind the students of key points and resources addressed during the session. It is unclear, though, if and how students refer to these guides once leaving the classroom. This article reports on the results of two focus groups made up of students who attended a basic library instruction session as part of a survey art course. The students shared how they used a paper and electronic research guide, delivered via LibGuides, and what they would like research guides to contain. The article also suggests directions for further research on the topic.
Gagnon, Dean P.; Keith, Kevin A.
This book is a collection of more than 80 instructional units designed to help educators develop, modify, and expand their agricultural education curriculum in middle school, junior high, and high school. These units, developed and field tested by Wisconsin agriculture educators, expand upon the curriculum model presented in the Wisconsin…
samples. If confirmed in larger studies, instructional videos may have a substantial effect on the case yield using sputum microscopy and also molecular tests. This low-cost strategy should be considered as part of the efforts to control TB in resource-limited settings.Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201504001098231.
Eshleman, Joe; Moniz, Richard; Mann, Karen; Eshleman, Kristen
With online education options more ubiquitous and sophisticated than ever, the need for academic librarians to be conversant with digital resources and design thinking has become increasingly important. The way forward is through collaboration with instructional designers, which allows librarians to gain a better understanding of digital resource…
Gersten, Russell; Schumacher, Robin F; Jordan, Nancy C
Magnitude understanding is critical for students to develop a deep understanding of fractions and more advanced mathematics curriculum. The research reports in this special issue underscore magnitude understanding for fractions and emphasize number lines as both an assessment and an instructional tool. In this commentary, we discuss how number lines broaden the concept of fractions for students who are tied to the more general part-whole representations of area models. We also discuss how number lines, compared to other representations, are a superior and more mathematically correct way to explain fraction concepts.
Rana, Gurpreet K
The Taubman Health Sciences Library (THL) collaborates with health sciences schools to provide information skills instruction for students preparing for international experiences. THL enhances students' global health learning through predeparture instruction for students who are involved in global health research, clinical internships, and international collaborations. This includes teaching international literature searching skills, providing country-specific data sources, building awareness of relevant mobile resources, and encouraging investigation of international news. Information skills empower creation of stronger global partnerships. Use of information resources has enhanced international research and training experiences, built lifelong learning foundations, and contributed to the university's global engagement. THL continues to assess predeparture instruction.
Kristen L. Davis
Full Text Available Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants (n=20 were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1 childcare providers perceptions of children’s fruit and vegetable consumption and (2 components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs. Themes associated with provider’s perceptions of child fruit and vegetable consumption included benefits of consumption, willingness to try fruits and vegetables, meeting recommendations, and influence of the home and childcare environments on child eating. Benefits, barriers, and resources needed were identified as themes related to starting or improving instructional gardening programs. Benefits to gardening with preschoolers are consistent with those found in school-age populations. While several barriers exist, resources are available to childcare providers to address these barriers. Increased knowledge and awareness of resources are necessary to improve the success of gardening programs in the childcare setting with the goal of improving child diet quality.
Davis, Kristen L; Brann, Lynn S
Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants ( n = 20) were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1) childcare providers perceptions of children's fruit and vegetable consumption and (2) components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs. Themes associated with provider's perceptions of child fruit and vegetable consumption included benefits of consumption, willingness to try fruits and vegetables, meeting recommendations, and influence of the home and childcare environments on child eating. Benefits, barriers, and resources needed were identified as themes related to starting or improving instructional gardening programs. Benefits to gardening with preschoolers are consistent with those found in school-age populations. While several barriers exist, resources are available to childcare providers to address these barriers. Increased knowledge and awareness of resources are necessary to improve the success of gardening programs in the childcare setting with the goal of improving child diet quality.
Miller, Christopher; Mazur, Joan M.
A person-centered instructional design model was developed for virtual, Web-based environments, based on the work of Carl Rogers. This model attempts to address several issues raised in the literature. A person-centered instructional model is described and contrasted with instructionalist and constructivist approaches. Theoretical and practical…
Florence A. Hamrick; John H. Schuh; Mack C. Shelley
This study incorporated institutional characteristics (e.g., Carnegie type, selectivity) and resource allocations (e.g., instructional expenditures, student affairs expenditures) into a statistical model to predict undergraduate graduation rates. Instructional expenditures, library expenditures, and a number of institutional classification variables were significant predictors of graduation rates. Based on these results, recommendations as well as warranted cautions are included about allocat...
Talabi, J. K.
Describes a study of secondary school students in Nigeria to determine whether use of musical accompaniment on videotape recordings used in instruction of economic geography had any effects on students' learning. Results offer inconclusive differences in effect between video instruction accompanied by music and video instruction without music.…
Heron, Paula R. L.
As part of the tutorial component of introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington, students take weekly pretests that consist of conceptual questions. Pretests are so named because they precede each tutorial, but they are frequently administered after lecture instruction. Many variables associated with class composition and prior instruction (if any) could, in principle, affect student performance on these questions. Nonetheless, the results are often found to be "essentially the same" in all classes. With data available from a large number of classes, it is possible to characterize the typical variation quantitatively. In this paper three questions for which we have accumulated thousands of responses, from dozens of classes representing different conditions with respect to the textbook in use, the amount of prior instruction, etc., serve as examples. For each question, we examine the variation in student performance across all classes. We also compare subsets categorized according to the amount of relevant prior instruction each class had received. A preliminary analysis suggests that the variation in performance is essentially random. No statistically significant difference is observed between results obtained before relevant instruction begins and after it has been completed. The results provide evidence that exposure to concepts in lecture and textbook is not sufficient to ensure an improvement in performance on questions that require qualitative reasoning.
Herrington, Tia W.
Increased teacher accountability efforts have resulted in the use of data to improve student achievement. This study addressed teachers' inconsistent use of data-driven instruction in middle school science. Evidence of the impact of data-based instruction on student achievement and school and district practices has been well documented by researchers. In science, less information has been available on teachers' use of data for classroom instruction. Drawing on data-driven decision making theory, the purpose of this study was to examine whether data-based instruction impacted performance on the science Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) and to explore the factors that impeded its use by a purposeful sample of 12 science teachers at a data-driven school. The research questions addressed in this study included understanding: (a) the association between student performance on the science portion of the CRCT and data-driven instruction professional development, (b) middle school science teachers' perception of the usefulness of data, and (c) the factors that hindered the use of data for science instruction. This study employed a mixed methods sequential explanatory design. Data collected included 8th grade CRCT data, survey responses, and individual teacher interviews. A chi-square test revealed no improvement in the CRCT scores following the implementation of professional development on data-driven instruction (chi 2 (1) = .183, p = .67). Results from surveys and interviews revealed that teachers used data to inform their instruction, indicating time as the major hindrance to their use. Implications for social change include the development of lesson plans that will empower science teachers to deliver data-based instruction and students to achieve identified academic goals.
Research on teacher cognition, which mainly focuses on identifying what teachers think, know and believe, is essential to understanding teachers' cognitive framework as it relates to the instructional choices they make. The aim of this study is to find out the beliefs of non-native speaker teachers of English on grammar instruction and to explain…
Al-Dawsari, Monther Abdullah; Jamjoom, Hani Talal; Podlaseck, Mark Edward; Qu, Huiming; Ruan, Yaoping; Saure, Denis Roland; Shae, Zon-yin; Sheopuri, Anshul
A method of dynamic pricing of a resource is presented. For example, the method includes determining a set of anticipated demands for one or more users to acquire the resource according to uncertainty of the one or more users in preferring one or more certain time periods of a plurality of time periods for acquiring the resource. Prices for the resource differ between at least two of the plurality of time periods. Each anticipated demand of the set is associated with a different one of the plurality of time periods. The method further includes setting prices for the resource during each of the plurality of time periods according to the determined set of anticipated demands. The determining of the set of anticipated demands and/or the setting of prices are implemented as instruction code executed on a processor device.
Al-Dawsari, Monther Abdullah
A method of dynamic pricing of a resource is presented. For example, the method includes determining a set of anticipated demands for one or more users to acquire the resource according to uncertainty of the one or more users in preferring one or more certain time periods of a plurality of time periods for acquiring the resource. Prices for the resource differ between at least two of the plurality of time periods. Each anticipated demand of the set is associated with a different one of the plurality of time periods. The method further includes setting prices for the resource during each of the plurality of time periods according to the determined set of anticipated demands. The determining of the set of anticipated demands and/or the setting of prices are implemented as instruction code executed on a processor device.
Francis, B W; Fisher, C C
As new nursing roles emerge that involve greater decision making than in the past, added responsibility for outcomes and cost control, and increased emphasis on primary care, the information-seeking skills needed by nurses change. A search of library and nursing literature indicates that there is little comprehensive library instruction covering all levels of nursing programs: undergraduate, returning registered nurses, and graduate students. The University of Florida is one of the few places that has such a multilevel, course-integrated curriculum in place for all entrants into the nursing program. Objectives have been developed for each stage of learning. The courses include instruction in the use of the online public access catalog, printed resources, and electronic databases. A library classroom equipped with the latest technology enables student interaction with electronic databases. This paper discusses the program and several methods used to evaluate it.
Vandover, William Frederick
This study examines the factors that influence the creation, purchase, and selection of free instructional technology. Specifically, this study uses the RIPPLES Model to examine the perceptions and reflections of instructional technology directors and staff members with regard to the Resources, Infrastructure, People, Policies, Learning,…
Mathematics and Science (NCISLA) HOME | PROGRAM OVERVIEW | RESEARCH AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT support and improve student understanding of mathematics and science. The instructional resources listed Resources (CD)Powerful Practices in Mathematics and Science A multimedia product for educators, professional
Full Text Available The World Wide Web (Web is becoming a popular medium for transmission of information and online learning. We need to understand how people comprehend information from the Web to design Web sites that maximize the acquisition of information. We examined two features of Web page design that are easily modified by developers, namely line length and the amount of surrounding information, or whitespace. Undergraduate university student participants read text and answered comprehension questions on the Web. Comprehension was affected by whitespace; participants had better comprehension for information surrounded by whitespace than for information surrounded by meaningless information. Participants were not affected by line length. These findings demonstrate that reading from the Web is not the same as reading print and have implications for instructional Web design.
Bradley, Lucy K.
The lecture content of the Plant Biology class for non-majors was transformed from a traditional on-campus lecture to an asynchronous website that could be used both as a stand-alone course and as an adjunct to the on campus course sections. In addition, an interactive, on-line website with home laboratory experiments was developed and implemented by the Plant Biology Department in collaboration with design specialists from the Information Technology and Instructional Support Department of the Arizona State University. The 259-page lecture website included 134 interactive animations, as well as 11 videos. The lab website included 176 pages, with 187 graphics and 36 separate animations. Convenience was identified by most students as the key benefit of taking the course on-line. Website construction was rated highly by all of the students; however, website audio was problematic for 50% of them; video, for 71%. Students, staff, and faculty all agreed that to benefit fully from the website, adequate hardware, software, and internet connection speed were vital. Challenges with the web-based lab were either technological (inadequate equipment or skills), logistical (dissatisfaction with having to pick up home lab kits from campus), or motivational (student survey responses added to the growing literature that suggests that mature, focused, self-motivated students benefit more from distance learning).
CUI, Chen-Zhou; SUN, Hua-Ping; ZHAO, Yong-Heng; LUO, Yu; QI, Da-Zhi
With the development of network and the World Wide Web (WWW), the Internet has been growing and changing dramatically. More and more on-line database systems and different kinds of services are available for astronomy research. How to help users find their way through the jungle of information services becomes an important challenge. Although astronomers have been aware of the importance of interoperability and introduced the concept of Virtual Observatory as a uniform environment for future ...
Wright, Tiffanie L.
The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended
Ellins, K. K.; Bohls-Graham, E.; Riggs, E. M.; Serpa, L. F.; Jacobs, B. E.; Martinez, A. O.; Fox, S.; Kent, M.; Stocks, E.; Pennington, D. D.
The NSF-sponsored DIG Texas Instructional Blueprint project supports the development of online instructional blueprints for a yearlong high school-level Earth science course. Each blueprint stitches together three-week units that contain curated educational resources aligned with the Texas state standards for Earth and Space Science and the Earth Science Literacy Principles. Units focus on specific geoscience content, place-based concerns, features or ideas, or other specific conceptual threads. Five regional teams composed of geoscientists, pedagogy specialists, and practicing science teachers chose unit themes and resources for twenty-two units during three workshops. In summer 2014 three Education Interns (Earth science teachers) spent six weeks refining the content of the units and aligning them with the Next Generation Science Standards. They also assembled units into example blueprints. The cross-disciplinary collaboration among blueprint team members allowed them to develop knowledge in new areas and to share their own discipline-based knowledge and perspectives. Team members and Education Interns learned where to find and how to evaluate high quality geoscience educational resources, using a web-based resource review tool developed by the Science Education Resource Center (SERC). SERC is the repository for the DIG Texas blueprint web pages. Work is underway to develop automated tools to allow educators to compile resources into customized instructional blueprints by reshuffling units within an existing blueprint, by mixing units from other blueprints, or creating new units and blueprints. These innovations will enhance the use of the units by secondary Earth science educators beyond Texas. This presentation provides an overview of the project, shows examples of blueprints and units, reports on the preliminary results of classroom implementation by Earth science teachers, and considers challenges encountered in developing and testing the blueprints. The
Hickendorff, Marian; Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven
We aimed to investigate upper elementary children's strategy use in the domain of multidigit division in two instructional settings: the Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium). A cross-sectional sample of 119 Dutch and 122 Flemish fourth to sixth graders solved a varied set of multidigit division problems. With latent class analysis, three distinct strategy profiles were identified: children consistently using number-based strategies, children combining the use of column-based and number-based strategies, and children combining the use of digit-based and number-based strategies. The relation between children's strategy profiles and their instructional setting (country) and grade were generally in line with instructional differences, but large individual differences remained. Furthermore, Dutch children more frequently made adaptive strategy choices and realistic solutions than their Flemish peers. These results complement and refine previous findings on children's strategy use in relation to mathematics instruction. Statement of contribution What is already known? Mathematics education reform emphasizes variety, adaptivity, and insight in arithmetic strategies. Countries have different instructional trajectories for multidigit division. Mixed results on the impact of instruction on children's strategy use in multidigit division. What does this study add? Latent class analysis identified three meaningful strategy profiles in children from grades 4-6. These strategy profiles substantially differed between children. Dutch and Flemish children's strategy use is related to their instructional trajectory. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Developmental Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.
Lawrence A. Tomei
Full Text Available Adult students demand a wider variety of instructional strategies that encompass real-world, interactive, cooperative, and discovery learning experiences.Designing Instruction for the Traditional, Adult, and Distance Learner: A New Engine for Technology-Based Teaching explores how technology impacts the process of devising instructional plans as well as learning itself in adult students. Containing research from leading international experts, this publication proposes realistic and accurate archetypes to assist educators in incorporating state-of-the-art technologies into online instruction.This text proposes a new paradigm for designing, developing, implementing, and assessed technology-based instruction. It addresses three target populations of today's learner: traditional, adult, and distance education. The text proposes a new model of instructional system design (ISD for developing effective technology-based education that involves a five-step process focusing on the learner, learning theories, resources, delivery modalities, and outcomes.
Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.
This handbook examines various topics of interest and concern to teachers as they work with instructional assistants forming a classroom instructional partnership and functioning as a team. These topics include: (1) instructional assistant qualifications; (2) duties--instructional, classroom clerical, auxillary; (3) factors to be considered when…
Beasley, Robert; Bryant, Nathan L.; Dodson, Phillip T.; Entwistle, Kevin C.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of textisms (i.e., abbreviated spellings, acronyms, and other shorthand notations) on learning, study time, and instructional perceptions in an online artificial intelligence instructional module. The independent variable in this investigation was experimental condition. For the control…
Several topics in FPGA delay line based TDCs are discussed in this document. First, FPGA specific issues such as considerations on the delay line choice in different FPGA families, Wave Union Launchers, 'bubble proof' encoding logic, etc. are examined. Next, common problems for both FPGA TDCs and ASIC TDCs such as schemes of coarse time counter implementation, bin-by-bin calibration and noise issues due to single ended signals are discussed. Several resource/power saving design approaches for various processing stages are described in the document.
Robinson, Lisa; Feng, Jay
Grammar Instruction has an important role to play in helping students to speak and write more effectively. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of direct grammar instruction on the quality of student's writing skills. The participants in this study included 18 fifth grade students and two fifth grade teachers. Based on the results…
The educational community has been increasing its focus on literacy for several years. The modern definition of literacy requires students to be an informed and integrated thinker, synthesizing new information beyond the mere ability to read and write (Guzzetti & Bang, 2011). This qualitative phenomenological study focused on how teachers of science view literacy and how that view changes when they implement the concept of disciplinary literacy into science instruction. This phenomenological study examined how teachers became more metacognitive of their instructional methods after implementation of the Question-Answer Relationship strategy (QAR) and direct vocabulary instruction into their science instruction. Teachers utilized schema theory and social cognitive theory to integrate the two strategies into their science lessons throughout the study. This phenomenological study collected data during a six-week implementation period through interviews, observations, teacher journals and collection of artifacts from 12 teachers who taught students in grades one through five and three literacy specialists in a rural central Maine school. These data sources were analyzed using Moustakas' (1994) seven steps to discover themes that were identified from the data. Findings from this study, as viewed through the pragmatic lens, suggested that teachers benefit from systematic reflection of their teaching to develop literacy rich content area lessons that address all of the students' learning needs.
Harrison, Sonya Elaine Somerville
This exploratory study was prompted by mandated curricular change within the School District of Philadelphia (SDP) Empowerment Schools. Empowerment Schools are schools that receive highly targeted instructional and non-instructional resources to improve student learning. Supports and services are concentrated in four areas: instruction, student…
Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.
Intended for secondary vocational agriculture teachers, this curriculum guide contains a course outline and a resource manual for a seven-unit food processing course on meats. Within the course outline, units are divided into separate lessons. Materials provided for each lesson include preparation for instruction (student objectives, review of…
This article examines the effect of Video-based Supplemental Instruction on the performance in Mathematics of students whose matric marks did not enable them to be directly admitted to the Science Faculty at the University of Port Elizabeth. Fifteen students who received Video-based Supplemental Instruction in ...
Brodeur, J. J.; Maclachlan, J. C.; Bagg, J.; Chiappetta-Swanson, C.; Vine, M. M.; Vajoczki, S.
Geospatial literacy -- the ability to conceptualize, capture, analyze and communicate spatial phenomena -- represents an important competency for 21st Century learners in a period of 'Geospatial Revolution'. Though relevant to in-course learning, these skills are often taught externally, placing time and resource pressures on the service providers - commonly libraries - that are relied upon to provide instruction. The emergence of online and blended modes of instruction has presented a potential means of increasing the cost-effectiveness of such activities, by simultaneously reducing instructional costs, expanding the audience for these resources, and addressing student preferences for asynchronous learning and '24-7' access. During 2011 and 2012, McMaster University Library coordinated the development, implementation and assessment of blended learning modules for geospatial literacy instruction in first-year undergraduate Social Science courses. In this paper, we present the results of a comprehensive mixed-methods approach to assess the efficacy of implementing blended learning modules to replace traditional (face-to-face), library-led, first-year undergraduate geospatial literacy instruction. Focus groups, personal interviews and an online survey were used to assess modules across dimensions of: student use, satisfaction and accessibility requirements (via Universal Instructional Design [UID] principles); instructor and teaching staff perception of pedagogical efficacy and instructional effectiveness; and, administrator cost-benefit assessment of development and implementation. Results showed that both instructors and students identified significant value in using the online modules in a blended-learning setting. Reaffirming assumptions of students' '24/7' learning preferences, over 80% of students reported using the modules on a repeat basis. Students were more likely to use the modules to better understand course content than simply to increase their grade in
Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.
On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been
This resource guide contains six units of study on citizenship education for use at the secondary level. The purpose of the units is to help students examine the political and legal processes of American society and the rights, responsibilities, and roles of its citizens. The units can be used as the basis for a one-semester elective course in…
The Internet, and new information and communication technologies available through the Internet, provides medical educators with an opportunity to develop unique on-line learning environments with real potential to improve physicians' knowledge and effect change in their clinical practice. There are approximately 100 websites offering on-line CME courses in the USA alone. However, few of these CME courses appear to be based on sound educational principles or CME research and may have little chance of achieving the broader goals of CME. The majority of these courses closely resemble their traditional counterparts (e.g. paper-based books are now electronic books) and appear to be mere substitutions for old-technology CME resources. Whilst some CME providers add unique features of the Internet to enrich their websites, they do not employ strategies to optimize the learning opportunities afforded by this new technology. The adoption of adult learning principles, reflective practice and problem-based approaches can be used as a foundation for sound CME course design. In addition, knowledge of Internet technology and the learning opportunities it affords, together with strategies to maintain participation and new assessment paradigms, are all needed for developing online CME. We argue for an evidence-based and strategic approach to the development of on-line CME courses designed to enhance physician learning and facilitate change in clinical behaviour.
Manzanero, Antonio L.; Contreras, María José; Recio, María; Alemany, Alberto; Martorell, Almudena
The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of presentation format and instructions on the ability of people with intellectual disability to identify individuals they did not know and had seen only briefly. With this objective in mind, 2 groups of subjects with mild to moderate intellectual disability were shown a photograph of a person and, after a distracting task, were asked to identify that person in 2 line-ups (target-absent and target-present) with 6 photographs each, where 2 types o...
Commission on Coll. Physics, College Park, MD.
This review has a section devoted to each of the following conference topics: Monographs, Film, Experiment Sequences, Computer-assisted Instruction, Designing a Unit of Instruction, and Toward New Solutions. Each section contains background discussion on the rationale, philosophy, and importance for improvements in the area being considered. The…
Smith, A Russell; Cavanaugh, Catherine; Jones, Joyce; Venn, John; Wilson, William
Learning outcomes may improve in graduate healthcare students when attention is given to individual learning styles. Interactive multimedia is one tool shown to increase success in meeting the needs of diverse learners. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning style and type of instruction on physical therapy students' cognitive and psychomotor performance. Participants were obtained by a sample of convenience with students recruited from two physical therapy programs. Twenty-seven students volunteered to participate from Program 1. Twenty-three students volunteered to participate from Program 2. Gregorc learning styles were identified through completion of the Gregorc Style Delineator. Students were randomly assigned to one of two instructional strategies: 1) instructional CD or 2) live demonstration. Differences in cognitive or psychomotor performance following instructional multimedia based on learning style were not demonstrated in this study. Written examination scores improved with both instructional strategies demonstrating no differences between the strategies. Practical examination ankle scores were significantly higher in participants receiving CD instruction than in participants receiving live presentation. Learning style did not significantly affect this improvement. Program 2 performed significantly better on written knee and practical knee and ankle examinations. Learning style had no significant effect on student performance following instruction in clinical skills via interactive multimedia. Future research may include additional measurement instruments assessing other models of learning styles and possible interaction of learning style and instructional strategy on students over longer periods of time, such as a semester or an entire curriculum.
Vladescu, Jason C; Carroll, Regina; Paden, Amber; Kodak, Tiffany M
The present study replicates and extends previous research on the use of video modeling (VM) with voiceover instruction to train staff to implement discrete-trial instruction (DTI). After staff trainees reached the mastery criterion when teaching an adult confederate with VM, they taught a child with a developmental disability using DTI. The results showed that the staff trainees' accurate implementation of DTI remained high, and both child participants acquired new skills. These findings provide additional support that VM may be an effective method to train staff members to conduct DTI.
Eder, Andreas B; Dignath, David
According to ideomotor theory, people use bidirectional associations between movements and their effects for action selection and initiation. Our experiments examined how verbal instructions of action effects influence response selection without prior experience of action effects in a separate acquisition phase. Instructions for different groups of participants specified whether they should ignore, attend, learn, or intentionally produce acoustic effects produced by button presses. Results showed that explicit instructions of action-effect relations trigger effect-congruent action tendencies in the first trials following the instruction; in contrast, no evidence for effect-based action control was observed in these trials when instructions were to ignore or to attend to the action effects. These findings show that action-effect knowledge acquired through verbal instruction and direct experience is similarly effective for effect-based action control as long as the relation between the movement and the effect is clearly spelled out in the instruction.
Millspaw, Jacob; Wang, Gang; Masters, Mark F.
College students are facing a constantly evolving educational system. Some still see mostly the traditional face to face lecture type classes where as others may never set foot on campus thanks to distance learning programs. In between they may enroll in a mix of face-to-face, two-way broadcasted interactive courses, streaming lecture courses, hybrid face-to-face/ on-line courses and the ominous MOOC! A large number of these non-traditional courses are general education courses and play an important role in developing non-science majors' understanding of science in general, and of physics in particular. We have been keeping pace with theses modern modes of instruction by offering several on-line courses such as Physics for Computer Graphics and Animation and Light and Color. These courses cover basic concepts in light, color and optics.
Carver, Cynthia L.
This case is told from the perspective of Rebecca, a highly skilled mentor teacher, who struggles to work effectively with Ramon, the school principal. This case focuses on the supports and resources that instructional teacher leaders can provide to their school administrators. As the case suggests, the presence of well-trained mentors presents…
Burdett, Anna E.
Lists media-related journals, books, ERIC documents, journal articles, and nonprint resources published in 2001-2002. The annotated entries are classified under the following headings: artificial intelligence; computer assisted instruction; distance education; educational research; educational technology; information science and technology;…
Akkus, Huseyin; Kadayifci, Hakki; Atasoy, Basri; Geban, Omer
The purpose of this study was to identify misconceptions concerning chemical equilibrium concepts and to investigate the effectiveness of instruction based on the constructivist approach over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 71 10th grade…
Mahagan, Vikki Lynn
Instructional facilitators are known by a variety of titles depending on the school district in which they are employed. They are sometimes called instructional coaches, teacher leaders, lead teachers, and instructional specialist (Denton & Hasbrouck, 2009). Throughout this study, the title instructional facilitator was used and will refer to secondary math or science instructional facilitators who are housed at least one day per week on a campus. This study is a mixed-methods descriptive study which has identified character traits, specials skill, and talents possessed by effective secondary math and science instructional facilitators as perceived by practicing facilitators and principals and assistant principals who work along side instructional facilitators. Specific job training to help ensure the success of a facilitator was identified as viewed by both facilitators and principals. Additionally, this study compared the perceptions of practicing facilitators and principals to determine if significant differences exist with respect to perceptions of staff development opportunities, support structures, and resources available for instructional facilitators.
Perri-Moore, Seneca; Kuang, Jinqiu; Bray, Bruce E; Ngo, Long; Doig, Alexa; Zeng-Treitler, Qing
Objectives First, to evaluate the effect of standard vs pictograph-enhanced discharge instructions on patients’ immediate and delayed recall of and satisfaction with their discharge instructions. Second, to evaluate the effect of automated pictograph enhancement on patient satisfaction with their discharge instructions. Materials and Methods Glyph, an automated healthcare informatics system, was used to automatically enhance patient discharge instructions with pictographs. Glyph was developed at the University of Utah by our research team. Patients in a cardiovascular medical unit were randomized to receive pictograph-enhanced or standard discharge instructions. Measures of immediate and delayed recall and satisfaction with discharge instructions were compared between two randomized groups: pictograph (n = 71) and standard (n = 73). Results Study participants who received pictograph-enhanced discharge instructions recalled 35% more of their instructions at discharge than those who received standard discharge instructions. The ratio of instructions at discharge was: standard = 0.04 ± 0.03 and pictograph-enhanced = 0.06 ± 0.03. The ratio of instructions at 1 week post discharge was: standard = 0.04 ± 0.02 and pictograph-enhanced 0.04 ± 0.02. Additionally, study participants who received pictograph-enhanced discharge instructions were more satisfied with the understandability of their instructions at 1 week post-discharge than those who received standard discharge instructions. Discussion Pictograph-enhanced discharge instructions have the potential to increase patient understanding of and satisfaction with discharge instructions. Conclusion It is feasible to automatically illustrate discharge instructions and provide them to patients in a timely manner without interfering with clinical work. Illustrations in discharge instructions were found to improve patients’ short-term recall of discharge instructions and delayed satisfaction (1-week post hospitalization
Thinh, Nguyen Xuan; Sander, Leon; Kopec, Jakob; Muehlnickel, Kai
In this paper we describe shortly Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia as study areas and the legal framework, both in the context of natural resource impacts of high-voltage overhead lines. We then conduct the buffer analysis of a GIS dataset in order to investigate natural resource impacts of existing high-voltage overhead lines in the two mentioned study areas. The paper is based upon the first results of the interdisciplinary research and development project ''Power Network Planning'' funded as part of the 6th Energy research program ''Research for an environmentally friendly, reliable and affordable energy supply'' by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). (orig.)
Kingry, Mary Ann
The effects of instructional fading using completion problems on student performance were investigated in this study. Instructional fading is the gradual withdrawal of the amount of assistance provided to the student and was accomplished in this study using completion problems. They were used to gradually transition the student from completely…
All humans create mental models to plan and guide their interactions with the physical world. Science has greatly refined and extended this ability by creating and validating formal scientific models of physical things and processes. Research in physics education has found that mental models created from everyday experience are largely incompatible with scientific models. This suggests that the fundamental problem in learning and understanding science is coordinating mental models with scientific models. Modeling Theory has drawn on resources of cognitive science to work out extensive implications of this suggestion and guide development of an approach to science pedagogy and curriculum design called Modeling Instruction. Modeling Instruction has been widely applied to high school physics and, more recently, to chemistry and biology, with noteworthy results.
Hu, Jingjing; Gao, Xuesong
This study explored the processes of utilization of resources in secondary students' self-regulated strategic writing for academic studies in an English as medium of instruction context in Hong Kong. Drawing on multiple data sources collected through the observation of lessons, stimulated recall and semi-structured interviews, the study examined…
Barcellona, Massimo Giuseppe; Buckley, Linda; Palmer, Lisa J M; Ormond, Roisin M; Owen, Gwawr; Watson, Daniel J; Woledge, Roger; Newham, Di
It is not known whether the effects on altered running style which are attributed to minimalist footwear can be achieved by verbal instructions in standard running shoes (SRS). To explore the effect of Vibram FiveFingers (VFF) versus SRS plus running instruction on lower extremity spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb joint kinematics. 35 healthy subjects (mean=30 years, 18 females) were assessed on two occasions with 3D motion analysis. At each session subjects ran on a treadmill (3.58 m/s) for 2 min in either VFF or SRS (randomised order); with and without running instruction. Differences between spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb joint kinematics between conditions were assessed using a 2x2 repeated-measures ANOVA. Wearing VFF significantly increased cadence (pfootwear. However, the kinematic adaptations observed following instruction suggests that changes in joint angles previously attributed to minimalist footwear alone may be similarly achieved with instruction.
Helsdingen, A.S.; Bosch, K. van den; Gog, T. van; Merriënboer, J.J.G. van
Objective : Two field studies assessed the effects of critical thinking instruction on training and transfer of a complex decision-making skill. Background : Critical thinking instruction is based on studies of how experienced decision makers approach complex problems. Method : Participants
Gal, Andreas; Franz, Michael; Probst, Christian
We present a just-in-time compiler for a Java VM that is small enough to fit on resource-constrained devices, yet surprisingly effective. Our system dynamically identifies traces of frequently executed bytecode instructions (which may span several basic blocks across several methods) and compiles...
Jerković Ljiljana S.
Full Text Available Inclusive differentiated instruction is a new model of didactic instruction, theoretically described and established in this paper for the first time, after being experimentally verified through teaching of the mother tongue (instruction in reading and literature. Inclusive individually planned instruction is based on a phenomenological and constructivist didactic instructional paradigm. This type of teaching is essentially developmental and person-oriented. The key stages of inclusive differentiated instruction of literature are: 1 recognition of individual students' potential and educational needs regarding reading and work on literary texts; 2 planning and preparation of inclusive individually planned instruction in reading and literature; 3 actual class teaching of lessons thus prepared; and 4 evaluation of the student achievement following inclusive differentiated instruction in reading and literature. A highly important element of the planning and preparation of inclusive differentiated instruction is the creation of student profiles and inclusive individualized syllabi. Individualized syllabi specify the following: 1. a brief student profile; 2. the student position on the continuum of the learning outcomes of instruction in the Serbian language; 3. reverse-engineered macro-plan stages of instruction in the Serbian language (3.1. identifying expected outcomes and fundamental qualities of learners' work, 3.2. defining acceptable proofs of their realisation, 3.3. planning learning and teaching experiences, and 3.4. providing material and technical requisites for teaching; 4 the contents and procedure of individualized lessons targeting the student; 5 a plan of syllabus implementation monitoring and evaluation. The continuum of the learning outcomes of inclusive differentiated instruction in literature exists at three main levels, A, B and C. The three levels are: A reading techniques and learning about the main literary theory concepts; B
de Jager, B.; Reezigt, G.J.; Creemers, B.P.M.
This study concerns the effects of teacher training in instructional behaviour based on new insights in the field of learning and instruction. In an experiment, eight teachers were trained to apply a cognitive apprenticeship model and five teachers were trained to apply a direct instruction model in
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for aquaculture sites, beaches, commercial fishing, historic sites, marinas, recreational fishing areas, and water...
Roberts, Patrice Helen
This research was designed to determine the relationships among students' achievement scores on grade-level science content, on science content that was three years above-grade level, on attitudes toward instructional approaches, and learning-styles perceptual preferences when instructional approaches were multisensory versus traditional. The dependent variables for this investigation were scores on achievement posttests and scores on the attitude survey. The independent variables were the instructional strategy and students' perceptual preferences. The sample consisted of 74 educationally oriented seventh-grade students. The Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1990) was administered to determine perceptual preferences. The control group was taught seventh-grade and tenth-grade science units using a traditional approach and the experimental group was instructed on the same units using multisensory instructional resources. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. The traditional unit included oral reading from the textbook, completing outlines, labeling diagrams, and correcting the outlines and diagrams as a class. The multisensory unit included five instructional stations established in different sections of the classroom to allow students to learn by: (a) manipulating Flip Chutes, (b) using Electroboards, (c) assembling Task Cards, (d) playing a kinesthetic Floor Game, and (e) reading an individual Programmed Learning Sequence. Audio tapes and scripts were provided at each location. Students circulated in groups of four from station to station. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of a multisensory, rather than a traditional approach, for teaching science content that is above-grade level. T-tests revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores (p < 0.0007). No significance was detected on grade-level achievement nor on the perceptual
Ortiz-Ruiz, Alejandra; Postigo, María; Gil-Casanova, Sara; Cuadrado, Daniel; Bautista, José M; Rubio, José Miguel; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel; Linares, María
Routine field diagnosis of malaria is a considerable challenge in rural and low resources endemic areas mainly due to lack of personnel, training and sample processing capacity. In addition, differential diagnosis of Plasmodium species has a high level of misdiagnosis. Real time remote microscopical diagnosis through on-line crowdsourcing platforms could be converted into an agile network to support diagnosis-based treatment and malaria control in low resources areas. This study explores whether accurate Plasmodium species identification-a critical step during the diagnosis protocol in order to choose the appropriate medication-is possible through the information provided by non-trained on-line volunteers. 88 volunteers have performed a series of questionnaires over 110 images to differentiate species (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium knowlesi) and parasite staging from thin blood smear images digitalized with a smartphone camera adapted to the ocular of a conventional light microscope. Visual cues evaluated in the surveys include texture and colour, parasite shape and red blood size. On-line volunteers are able to discriminate Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. knowlesi) and stages in thin-blood smears according to visual cues observed on digitalized images of parasitized red blood cells. Friendly textual descriptions of the visual cues and specialized malaria terminology is key for volunteers learning and efficiency. On-line volunteers with short-training are able to differentiate malaria parasite species and parasite stages from digitalized thin smears based on simple visual cues (shape, size, texture and colour). While the accuracy of a single on-line expert is far from perfect, a single parasite classification obtained by combining the opinions of multiple on-line volunteers over the same smear, could improve accuracy and reliability of Plasmodium species
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students With Disabilities Meeting AGENCY: Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional... Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students With Disabilities...
Content-based Instruction (CBI) is an approach in English learning that integrates certain topic and English learning objectives. This approach focuses on using English competencies as a “bridge” to comprehend certain topic or theme in English. Nowadays, this approach can be used in instructional multimedia to support English learning by using computer. Instructional multimedia with computer system refers to the sequential or simultaneous use of variety of media formats in a given presentatio...
Munzert, Jörn; Maurer, Heiko; Reiser, Mathias
The authors examined how varying the content of verbal-motor instructions and requesting an internal versus external focus influenced the kinematics and outcome of a golf putting task. On Day 1, 30 novices performed 120 trials with the instruction to focus attention either on performing a pendulum-like movement (internal) or on the desired ball path (external). After 20 retention trials on Day 2, they performed 20 transfer trials with the opposite instruction. Group differences for retention and a group by block interaction showed that external instruction enhanced movement outcome. Kinematic data indicated that specific instruction content influenced outcomes by eliciting changes in movement execution. Switching from the external to the internal focus instruction resulted in a more pendulum-like movement.
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary... Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students with Disabilities... or by mail to Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education...
Rutstein, S E; Golin, C E; Wheeler, S B; Kamwendo, D; Hosseinipour, M C; Weinberger, M; Miller, W C; Biddle, A K; Soko, A; Mkandawire, M; Mwenda, R; Sarr, A; Gupta, S; Mataya, R
Scale-up of viral load (VL) monitoring for HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a priority in many resource-limited settings, and ART providers are critical to effective program implementation. We explored provider-perceived barriers and facilitators of VL monitoring. We interviewed all providers (n = 17) engaged in a public health evaluation of dried blood spots for VL monitoring at five ART clinics in Malawi. All ART clinics were housed within district hospitals. We grouped themes at patient, provider, facility, system, and policy levels. Providers emphasized their desire for improved ART monitoring strategies, and frustration in response to restrictive policies for determining which patients were eligible to receive VL monitoring. Although many providers pled for expansion of monitoring to include all persons on ART, regardless of time on ART, the most salient provider-perceived barrier to VL monitoring implementation was the pressure of work associated with monitoring activities. The work burden was exacerbated by inefficient data management systems, highlighting a critical interaction between provider-, facility-, and system-level factors. Lack of integration between laboratory and clinical systems complicated the process for alerting providers when results were available, and these communication gaps were intensified by poor facility connectivity. Centralized second-line ART distribution was also noted as a barrier: providers reported that the time and expenses required for patients to collect second-line ART frequently obstructed referral. However, provider empowerment emerged as an unexpected facilitator of VL monitoring. For many providers, this was the first time they used an objective marker of ART response to guide clinical management. Providers' knowledge of a patient's virological status increased confidence in adherence counseling and clinical decision-making. Results from our study provide unique insight into provider
Teachers of English are often in search of authentic audio and video materials that promote learners' listening comprehension and vocabulary development. TED Talks, a set of freely available web presentations, could be a useful resource to promote vocabulary instruction. The present replication study examines the lexical coverage of TED Talks by…
Bryant, Kerry G.
The study examined music-integrated (MI) instruction, framed by automatic information processing theory and elements of prosody. A quasi-experimental, pre- and posttest design was utilized to ascertain the effect of MI instruction on reading fluency among first grade students. Subjects were students in two public elementary schools in Georgia. To…
In this paper, I present a critical review of the recent book, On Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives and Resources, written by Douglas Allchin (2013). This publication presents an in-depth examination of the nature of science construct, as well as instruction for educators about how to teach it effectively utilizing historical case studies as vehicles for knowledge. Although several themes in the book merit further attention, a central issue present across all chapters is the largely masculine, monocultural nature of science presented, which is common to a multitude of scientific publications. In this review, I illustrate how culture and gender in science is not addressed throughout the book. I also discuss where we can build on the work of the author to integrate more aspects of gender and culture in teaching the nature of science.
Full Text Available Doris DayDay Dermatology and Aesthetics New York, USAAbstract: Use of injectable volume replacement products has increased dramatically in the US in recent years. An optimal outcome with volume replacement depends on a thorough knowledge of the products on the part of the dermatologic/aesthetic physician specialist, identification of patients with a likelihood of benefiting from volume replacement procedures, selection of an appropriate product for the individual patient, and effective patient counseling to ensure adherence to posttreatment care instructions. Adherence to physician instructions in the field of dermatology appears limited, and there is very little published information on adherence to physician instructions following facial volume replacement procedures. The purpose of this review is to provide strategies for understanding and overcoming the barriers to adherence with the widely used dermal fillers. Strategies include using patient-centered techniques, such as a motivational interview encouraging the patient to follow postprocedure care instructions, eg, massage. In this case, demonstrating massage techniques while the patient is still in the office, with patient participation and detailed feedback, also contributes to good adherence with posttreatment care instructions. Telephone counseling, reminder postcards, and text messages may help improve clinic attendance for follow-up. Motivated patients who demonstrate good adherence to physician instructions generally respond well to volume replacement treatments, and usually experience fewer adverse events than patients who do not follow instructions. Although promoting adherence to pretreatment and posttreatment protocols remains a challenge, patient counseling throughout the treatment process can lead to successful results.Keywords: improving adherence, injectable volume replacement, product selection, rejuvenation procedure, soft tissue augmentation
Cronin, Michael W.; Kennan, William R.
Noting that interactive video instruction (IVI) should not and cannot replace classroom instruction, this paper offers an introduction to interactive video instruction as an innovative technology that can be used to expand pedagogical opportunities in public speaking instruction. The paper: (1) defines the distinctive features of IVI; (2) assesses…
In this thesis, we classify the reverse-mathematical strength of sequential problems. If we are given a problem P of the form ∀X(alpha(X) → ∃Zbeta(X,Z)) then the corresponding sequential problem, SeqP, asserts the existence of infinitely many solutions to P: ∀X(∀nalpha(Xn) → ∃Z∀nbeta(X n,Zn)). P is typically provable in RCA0 if all objects involved are finite. SeqP, however, is only guaranteed to be provable in ACA0. In this thesis we exactly characterize which sequential problems are equivalent to RCA0, WKL0, or ACA0.. We say that a problem P is solvable by an on-line algorithm if P can be solved according to a two-player game, played by Alice and Bob, in which Bob has a winning strategy. Bob wins the game if Alice's sequence of plays 〈a0, ..., ak〉 and Bob's sequence of responses 〈 b0, ..., bk〉 constitute a solution to P. Formally, an on-line algorithm A is a function that inputs an admissible sequence of plays 〈a 0, b0, ..., aj〉 and outputs a new play bj for Bob. (This differs from the typical definition of "algorithm", though quite often a concrete set of instructions can be easily deduced from A.). We show that SeqP is provable in RCA0 precisely when P is solvable by an on-line algorithm. Schmerl proved this result specifically for the graph coloring problem; we generalize Schmerl's result to any problem that is on-line solvable. To prove our separation, we introduce a principle called Predictk(r) that is equivalent to -WKL0 for standard k, r.. We show that WKL0 is sufficient to prove SeqP precisely when P has a solvable closed kernel. This means that a solution exists, and each initial segment of this solution is a solution to the corresponding initial segment of the problem. (Certain bounding conditions are necessary as well.) If no such solution exists, then SeqP is equivalent to ACA0 over RCA 0 + ISigma02; RCA0 alone suffices if only sequences of standard length are considered. We use different techniques from Schmerl to prove
Mylopoulos, Maria; Woods, Nicole
The construct of 'preparation for future learning' (PFL) is understood as the ability to learn new information from available resources, relate new learning to past experiences and demonstrate innovation and flexibility in problem solving. Preparation for future learning has been proposed as a key competence of adaptive expertise. There is a need for educators to ensure that opportunities are provided for students to develop PFL ability and that assessments accurately measure the development of this form of competence. The objective of this research was to compare the relative impacts of basic science instruction and clinically focused instruction on performance on a PFL assessment (PFLA). This study employed a 'double transfer' design. Fifty-one pre-clerkship students were randomly assigned to either basic science instruction or clinically focused instruction to learn four categories of disease. After completing an initial assessment on the learned material, all participants received clinically focused instruction for four novel diseases and completed a PFLA. The data from the initial assessment and the PFLA were submitted to independent-sample t-tests. Mean ± standard deviation [SD] scores on the diagnostic cases in the initial assessment were similar for participants in the basic science (0.65 ± 0.11) and clinical learning (0.62 ± 0.11) conditions. The difference was not significant (t = 0.90, p = 0.37, d = 0.27). Analysis of the diagnostic cases on the PFLA revealed significantly higher mean ± SD scores for participants in the basic science learning condition (0.72 ± 0.14) compared with those in the clinical learning condition (0.63 ± 0.15) (t = 2.02, p = 0.05, d = 0.62). Our results show that the inclusion of basic science instruction enhanced the learning of novel related content. We discuss this finding within the broader context of research on basic science instruction, development of adaptive expertise and assessment
Melhado, L. C.; Devaul, H.; Sumner, T.
contributed by colleagues to create personalized, annotated collections of resources best suited to address the needs of the students in their classroom. Teachers can see the resources that their colleagues are using to customize their instruction, and share their ideas about the suitability of resources for different learners or learning styles through the use of tags and annotations thus creating a community of practice in support of differentiated instruction. A field trial involving 124 middle and high school Earth science teachers in a large urban school district was conducted in the 2009-2010 academic year, accompanied by a mixed-method research and evaluation study to investigate the impact of the use of this system on teacher beliefs and practice, and student learning. This presentation will include a demonstration of the system as well as discuss the results of the research thus far.
"Earth Science for Educators" is an innovative, standards-based, graduate level teacher education curriculum that presents science content and pedagogic technique in parallel. The curriculum calls upon the resources and expertise of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) to prepare novice New York City teachers for teaching Earth Science. One of the goals of teacher education is to assure and facilitate science education reform through preparation of K-12 teachers who understand and are able to implement standard-based instruction. Standards reflect not only the content knowledge students are expected to attain but also the science skills and dispositions towards science they are expected to develop. Melding a list of standards with a curriculum outline to create inquiry-based classroom instruction that reaches a very diverse population of learners is extremely challenging. "Earth Science for Educators" helps novice teachers make the link between standards and practice by constantly connecting standards with instruction they receive and activities they carry out. Development of critical thinking and enthusiasm for inquiry is encouraged through engaging experience and contact with scientists and their work. Teachers are taught Earth systems science content through modeling of a wide variety of instruction and assessment methods based upon authentic scientific inquiry and aimed at different learning styles. Use of fieldwork and informal settings, such as the Museum, familiarizes novice teachers with ways of drawing on community resources for content and instructional settings. Metacognitive reflection that articulates standards, practice, and the teachers' own learning experience help draw out teachers' insights into their students' learning. The innovation of bring science content together with teaching methods is key to preparing teachers for standards-based, inquiry instruction. This curriculum was successfully piloted with a group of 28 novice teachers as
In spite of the regulations and the safety provisions taken, accidents are not entirely avoidable in the transport of hazardous materials. For managing an accident and preventing further hazards after release of dangerous substances, the vehicle drivers must carry with them the accident management instruction sheets, which give instructions on immediate counter measures to be taken by the driver, and on information to be given to the police and the fire brigades. The article in hand discusses the purpose, the contents, and practice-based improvement of this collection of instruction sheets. Particular reference is given to the newly revised version of June 15, 1988 (Verkehrsblatt 1/88) of the 'Directives for setting up accident management instruction sheets - written instructions - for road transport of hazardous materials', as issued by the Federal Ministry of Transport. (orig./HP) [de
Soruç, Adem; Qin, Jingjing; Kim, YouJin
This article reports on a study that investigated whether processing instruction(PI) or production-based instruction (PBI) is more effective for the teaching of regular past simple verb forms in English. In addition, this study examined whether explicit grammatical information (EI) mediates the effectiveness of PI or PBI. A total of 194 Turkish…
Weinstein, Marc G.; Shuck, Brad
Human resource development (HRD) is recognized as an interdisciplinary field covering the breadth of behavioral and social sciences. However, since its inception, instructional systems design (ISD), a methodology widely used in the HRD field, has been based on a narrow range of behavioral science. Grounded in general system's theory, the ISD…
Gillette, Tammy J.
technology tools that were used by online instructors. Online instructors tend to rely on more technological tools such as virtual labs. A list of preferred instructional practices was generated from the qualitative responses to the open-ended questions. Research concerned with this line of inquiry should continue in order to enhance both theory and practice in regard to online instruction.
Özarslan, Murat; Çetin, Gülcan
This study aimed to investigate ninth grade students' views about enzymes using fortune lines technique and to obtain the students' views about fortune lines technique. Participants were 38 ninth grade students in a Technique Vocational Girls High School in the city of Kocaeli, Turkey. After instruction of subject of enzymes, the participants were…
Omar, Y.; Paunkovic, N.; Sheridan, L.; Bose, S.; Mateus, P.
Full text: We introduce the concept of a quantum walk with two particles and study it for the case of a discrete time walk on a line. A quantum walk with more than one particle may contain entanglement, thus offering a resource unavailable in the classical scenario and which can present interesting advantages. In this work, we show how the entanglement and the relative phase between the states describing the coin degree of freedom of each particle will influence the evolution of the quantum walk. In particular, the probability to find at least one particle in a certain position after N steps of the walk, as well as the average distance between the two particles, can be larger or smaller than the case of two unentangled particles, depending on the initial conditions we choose. This resource can then be tuned according to our needs, in particular to enhance a given application (algorithmic or other) based on a quantum walk. Experimental implementations are briefly discussed. (author)
Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.
Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...
van den Akker, Karolien; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Jansen, Anita
Studies on human appetitive conditioning using food rewards can benefit from including psychophysiological outcome measures. The present study tested whether the skin conductance response can function as a measure of differential responding in an appetitive conditioning paradigm including an acquisition and extinction phase, and examined which time window during a trial is most sensitive to conditioning effects. As a secondary aim, the effects of ambiguous vs. non-ambiguous contingency instructions on conditioned responses (skin conductance responses, US expectancies, chocolate desires, and CS evaluations) were assessed. Results indicated differential skin conductance responses in an anticipatory time window and during unexpected omission of the US in early extinction. Interestingly however, anticipatory responses were only found for participants who received ambiguous contingency instructions - possibly indicating a call for additional processing resources in response to the ambiguous CS+. Further, ambiguous instructions slowed the extinction of US expectancies but did not influence chocolate desires and CS evaluations. It is concluded that skin conductance can function as a sensitive measure of differential responding in appetitive conditioning, though its sensitivity might depend on the specific task context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sullivan, Peter; Jorgensen, Robyn; Boaler, Jo; Lerman, Steve
This article draws on the outcomes of a 4-year project where complex instruction was used as the basis for a reform in mathematics teaching in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia. The article describes the overall project in terms of the goals and aspirations for learning mathematics among remote Indigenous Australians. Knowing that the approach had been successful in a diverse setting in California, the project team sought to implement and evaluate the possibilities of such reform in a context in which the need for a culturally responsive pedagogy was critical. Elements of complex instruction offered considerable possibilities in aligning with the cultures of the remote communities, but with recognition of the possibility that some elements may not be workable in these contexts. Complex instruction also valued deep knowledge of mathematics rather than a tokenistic, impoverished mathematics. The strategies within complex instruction allowed for mathematical and cultural scaffolding to promote deep learning in mathematics. Such an approach was in line with current reforms in Indigenous education in Australia where there are high expectations of learners in order to break away from the deficit thinking that has permeated much education in remote Australia. The overall intent is to demonstrate what pedagogies are possible within the constraints of the remote context.
California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset contains a nationwide build of the 2008 TIGER/Line datasets from the US Census Bureau downloaded in April 2009. The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract...
Dunleavy, Kim; Chevan, Julia; Sander, Antoinette P; Gasherebuka, Jean Damascene; Mann, Monika
Continuing professional development is an important component of capacity building in low resource countries. The purpose of this case study is to describe the use of a contextual instructional framework to guide the processes and instructional design choices for a series of continuing professional development courses for physiotherapists in Rwanda. Four phases of the project are described: (1) program proposal, needs assessment and planning, (2) organization of the program and instructional design, (3) instructional delivery and (4) evaluation. Contextual facilitating factors and needs informed choices in each phase. The model resulted in delivery of continuing professional development to the majority of physiotherapists in Rwanda (n = 168, 0.48 rural/0.52 urban) with participants reporting improvement in skills and perceived benefit for their patients. Environmental and healthcare system factors resulted in offering the courses in rural and urban areas. Content was developed and delivered in partnership with Rwandan coinstructors. Based on the domestic needs identified in early courses, the program included advocacy and leadership activities, in addition to practical and clinical instruction. The contextual factors (environment, healthcare service organization, need for rehabilitation and status and history of the physiotherapy profession) were essential for project and instructional choices. Facilitating factors included the established professional degree and association, continuing professional development requirements, a core group of active professionals and an existing foundation from other projects. The processes and contextual considerations may be useful in countries with established professional-level education but without established postentry-level training. Implications for Rehabilitation Organizations planning continuing professional development programs may benefit from considering the context surrounding training when planning, designing and
Handley, Simon J.; Newstead, Stephen E.; Trippas, Dries
According to dual-process accounts of thinking, belief-based responses on reasoning tasks are generated as default but can be intervened upon in favor of logical responding, given sufficient time, effort, or cognitive resource. In this article, we present the results of 5 experiments in which participants were instructed to evaluate the…
(61,6% aged between 19 years and 21 years. Of the respondents, 36,7% indicated that exposure to unsolicited pornography did not bother them. When asked to what extent students should have access to pornography, 60,5% stated 'None' while 32,6% believed that 'Restricted' access should be granted for research purposes and 6,9% believed that students should be granted 'Total' access to pornography. Results from the research will be used to manage access to on-line resources at the University of Johannesburg better.
Roberts, Maura L.; Shapiro, Edward S.
Used 4 experimental conditions to examine the effectiveness of different instructional ratios of known to unknown vocabulary words on the reading progress of 46 students. Results suggest that students acquired new information as instructional ratios expanded. An inverse relationship was established between instructional material presented and…
Becerra, María-Teresa; Montanero, Manuel; Lucero, Manuel
Research into workplace adjustments for people with disabilities is a fundamental challenge of supported employment. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effect of several graphic resources as natural support for workers with intellectual disability. Two case studies were conducted to assess the performance of five workers engaged in office tasks, with three different support conditions. Results reveal a 20% increase in quality of performance of the tasks undertaken with graphic support as compared to support in which the participants received verbal instructions (VIs) from a work mate; and between 25 and 30% as compared to a control condition which included no help of any kind. These findings are consistent with previous studies which support the possibility of generating, at low cost, iconic materials (with maps or simple graphics), which progressively facilitate workers' autonomy, without dependence or help from the job trainer. We observed that the worst performance is in the support condition with VIs, this shows the limitations of this type of natural support, which is provided on demand by work mates without specialist knowledge of work support. Implications for Rehabilitation We studied the use of various types of natural support for people with intellectual disability in their workplace. The findings suggest that, with some brief training, the simple use in the workplace of graphic help on a card can increase between 20 and 30% the quality of performance of certain work tasks carried out by workers with intellectual disability. This advantage contrasts with the high cost or lower "manageability" of other material resources of natural support based on the use of technology.
Bottge, Brian A.; Cohen, Allan S.; Choi, Hye-Jeong
In this article, we describe results of a reanalysis of two randomized studies that tested the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on the fractions computation performance of students in special education resource rooms and inclusive mathematics classrooms. Latent class analysis and latent transition analysis classified students…
Lawrence, J.D.; Leung, K.; Yen, W.
The National Geothermal Information Resource project at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is developing a Geothermal Resource Areas Database, called GRAD, designed to answer questions about the progress of geothermal energy development. This database will contain extensive information on geothermal energy resources for selected areas, covering development from initial exploratory surveys to plant construction and operation. The database is available for on-lie interactive query by anyone with an account number on the computer, a computer terminal with an acoustic coupler, and a telephone. This report will help in making use of the database. Some information is provided on obtaining access to the computer system being used, instructions on obtaining standard reports, and some aids to using the query language.
Quintana, Pablo; Guerrero, Josep M.; Dragicevic, Tomislav
should be utilized as efficiently as possible. This paper proposes a coordinated control strategy based on power-line signaling (PLS), instead of common communications, for a single-phase minigrid in which each unit can operate in different operation modes taking into account the resource limitation...... types of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy storage systems (ESS). Specifically, the recharging process of secondary battery, the most prominent ESS, should be done in a specific manner to preserve its life-time, microgrid line voltage must be kept within the bounds and the energy offered by RES...
Guenzel, Pamela J.; And Others
The fourth article in a four-part series on instructional design discusses evaluation of a psychomotor skills unit taught in preclinical dental education. Issues examined include piloting of instructional materials, analysis and revision of materials based on student performance, syllabus design and content, influence of faculty characteristics,…
Carol del Carmen Terán González
Full Text Available The present investigation takes as a fundamental goal, the elaboration of an instructional digital design that contributes to the strengthening of the regional identity of the students. The study is based on the theoretical postulates of: UNESCO (2004, CBN (1997, Ausubel (1983, Vygotsky, Rodríguez (2001, Careaga (2001, Galvis (1992, Pastorini, (2000, Salazar (2008, Rosario (2005, Bernice McCarthy (1987, among others. The same one, adopted the type of descriptive investigation, with a field design placed in the modality of viable project. The population is constituted by 12 teachers, and 40 students of the sixth degree. For the diagnostic phase a questionnaire will be applied with 14 items for teachers and students, the validation will be of content across the experts' judgment. In conclusion, there exists weakness for the constitutive elements of the historical memory as part of the regional identity.
Olds, S. E.; Weingroff, M.
The DLESE Teaching Box project is both a professional development opportunity and an educational resource development project providing a pedagogic context that support teachers' use of data in the classroom. As a professional development opportunity, it is designed to augment teachers' science content knowledge, enhance their use of inquiry teaching strategies, and increase their confidence and facility with using digital libraries and online learning resources. Teams of educators, scientists, and instructional designers work together during a three part Teaching Box Development Workshop series to create Teaching Boxes on Earth system science topics. The resulting Teaching Boxes use Earth system science conceptual frameworks as their core and contain inquiry-based lessons which model scientific inquiry and process by focusing on the gathering and analysis of evidence. These lines of evidence employ an Earth systems approach to show how processes across multiple spheres, for example, how the biosphere, atmosphere, and geosphere interact in a complex Earth process. Each Teaching Box has interconnected lessons that provide 3-6 weeks of instruction, incorporate National and California science standards, and offer guidance on teaching pathways through the materials. They contain up-to-date digital materials including archived and real-time data sets, simulations, images, lesson plans, and other resources available through DLESE, NSDL, and the participating scientific institutions. Background information provided within the Box supports teacher learning and guides them to facilitate student access to the tools and techniques of authentic, modern science. In developing Teaching Boxes, DLESE adds value to existing educational resources by helping teachers more effectively interpret their use in a variety of standards-based classroom settings. In the past twelve months we have had over 100 requests for Teaching Box products from teachers and curriculum developers from
Center on Instruction, 2009
This annotated bibliography updated from a 2007 edition, is intended as a resource for technical assistance providers as they work with states on adolescent literacy. This revision includes current research and documents of practical use in guiding improvements in grades 4-12 reading instruction in the content areas and in interventions for…
POLARATS (Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay And Transmission System) is being developed by YAHSGS LLC (YAHSGS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide remote, unattended monitoring of environmental parameters under harsh environmental conditions. In particular, instrumental design and engineering is oriented towards protection of human health in the Arctic, and with the additional goal of advancing Arctic education and research. POLARATS will obtain and transmit environmental data from hardened monitoring devices deployed in locations important to understanding atmospheric and aquatic pollutant migration as it is biomagnified in Arctic food chains. An Internet- and personal computer (PC)-based educational module will provide real time sensor data, on-line educational content, and will be integrated with workbooks and textbooks for use in middle and high school science programs. The educational elements of POLARATS include an Internet-based educational module that will instruct students in the use of the data and how those data fit into changing Arctic environments and food chains. POLARATS will: (1) Enable students, members of the community, and scientific researchers to monitor local environmental conditions in real time over the Internet; and (2) Provide additional educational benefits through integration with middle- and high-school science curricula. Information will be relayed from POLARATS devices to classrooms and libraries along with custom-designed POLARATS teaching materials that will be integrated into existing curricula to enhance the educational benefits realized from the information obtained.
Full Text Available The project is an interchange in the territory of Tuscia, in the small town of Capranica Scalo (VT, Italy. It is where two railway lines intersect, the Roma-Viterbo FR3 line and Civitavecchia-Orte line. The latter has been inserted within the TEN -T recognised as an important link for the European freight transport. It is currently subject to a restoration project. Based on the results from the analysis it has been designed a central space, the interchange, for an area larger than the single city centre. It will not only improve the integration between different modes of transport and enhance the traveling and waiting times, but it is proposed as a condenser of entertainment activities, representing also a showroom for the promotion of the territory and enhancement of its resources.
The field of communication disorders encompasses the health science disciplines of both speech-language pathology and audiology. Pertinent literature for communication disorders can be found in a number of databases. Librarians providing information literacy instruction may not have the time to cover more than a few resources. This study develops…
Sullivan, Rebecca M.
Despite the author's initial skepticism, a classroom set of iPads has reinforced a student-directed approach to writing instruction, while also supporting an inclusive classroom. Using the iPads, students guide their writing process with access to the learning management system, electronic information resources, and an online text editor. Students…
A national try-out of the newly developed print and non-print instructional materials on AIDS Education is being conducted by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) this school year 1993-to 1994. To determine the effectiveness of these materials, various public and private schools in Region IV (Southern Tagalog), VII (Central Visayas) XI (Southern Mindanao) and National Capital Region (Metro, Manila) were chosen as try-out institutions. The AIDS education materials will be tried out in different subjects in some grade and year levels such as civics and culture (grade one); science and health (grades three and six); home economics and livelihood education (grade five); physical education, health and music (second year) and Pilipino Language (third year). The materials for the elementary level consist of posters, cut-out pictures, voice tapes, jingles, talking books and slides, while the secondary school level utilizes modules. For the tertiary level, a Resource Book on AIDS Prevention Education is used by the Teacher Training Institutions and the Non-Formal Education employs the Facilitator's Guide for Levels I-III. These materials will be tried out in both urban and rural schools, with control school and experimental school at each level. full text
Robeck, E.; Camphire, G.; Brendan, S.; Celia, T.
There exists a wide array of high quality resources to support K-12 teaching and motivate student interest in the geosciences. Yet, connecting teachers to those resources can be a challenge. Teachers working to implement the NGSS can benefit from accessing the wide range of existing geoscience resources, and from becoming part of supportive networks of geoscience educators, researchers, and advocates. Engaging teachers in such networks can be facilitated by providing them with information about organizations, resources, and opportunities. The American Geoscience Institute (AGI) has developed two key resources that have great value in supporting NGSS implement in these ways. Those are Earth Science Week, and the Education Resources Network in AGI's Center for Geoscience and Society. For almost twenty years, Earth Science Week, has been AGI's premier annual outreach program designed to celebrate the geosciences. Through its extensive web-based resources, as well as the physical kits of posters, DVDs, calendars and other printed materials, Earth Science Week offers an array of resources and opportunities to connect with the education-focused work of important geoscience organizations such as NASA, the National Park Service, HHMI, esri, and many others. Recently, AGI has initiated a process of tagging these and other resources to NGSS so as to facilitate their use as teachers develop their instruction. Organizing Earth Science Week around themes that are compatible with topics within NGSS contributes to the overall coherence of the diverse array of materials, while also suggesting potential foci for investigations and instructional units. More recently, AGI has launched its Center for Geoscience and Society, which is designed to engage the widest range of audiences in building geoscience awareness. As part of the Center's work, it has launched the Education Resources Network (ERN), which is an extensive searchable database of all manner of resources for geoscience
Vu, Phuong; Shanahan, Katherine Bruckman; Rosenfield, Sylvia; Gravois, Todd; Koehler, Jessica; Kaiser, Lauren; Berger, Jill; Vaganek, Megan; Gottfredson, Gary D.; Nelson, Deborah
Instructional Consultation Teams (IC Teams) are an early intervention service intended to support teachers in working with struggling students. This is a large-scale experimental trial investigating the effects of IC Teams on teacher efficacy, instructional practices, collaboration, and job satisfaction. Public elementary schools (N = 34) were…
Puttick, Gillian; Drayton, Brian; Cohen, Eliza
We analyzed the practitioner literature on lab-based instruction in biology in "The American Biology Teacher" between 2007 and 2012. We investigated what laboratory learning looks like in biology classrooms, what topics are addressed, what instructional methods and activities are described, and what is being learned about student…
Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Nicholas P; Lerner, Matthew D
The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment.
Gschwind, Michael K
Mechanisms for generating and executing programs for a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA) are provided. A computer program product comprising a computer recordable medium having a computer readable program recorded thereon is provided. The computer readable program, when executed on a computing device, causes the computing device to receive one or more instructions and execute the one or more instructions using logic in an execution unit of the computing device. The logic implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA), based on data stored in a vector register file of the computing device. The vector register file is configured to store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for Coastal Resource Service Area (CRSA) boundaries, mineral sites, airports, boat ramps, marinas, and Coast Guard...
Sardy, Susan; Sardy, Hyman
This paper considers selected aspects of the systems analysis of administrative decisionmaking regarding resource allocations in an educational system. A model of the instructional materials purchase system is presented. The major components of this model are: environment, input, decision process, conversion structure, conversion process, output,…
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We
Full Text Available In America, sixty percent of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15-20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-realty environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory feedback was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing feedback to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the feedback in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments.
Wang, Yu-Te; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wei, Chun-Shu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Chin-Teng; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping
In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15-20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments.
Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.
Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N.
Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage…
Mokhtari, Kouider; Rosemary, Catherine A.; Edwards, Patricia A.
A carefully coordinated literacy assessment and instruction framework implemented school-wide can support school teams in making sense of various types of data for instructional planning. Instruction that is data based and goal driven sets the stage for continuous reading and writing improvement. (Contains 2 figures.)
Chang, Wan-Chen; Ku, Yu-Min
The authors investigated the effects of a 5-week note-taking skills instructional program on note-taking and reading comprehension performance of elementary students. The participants included 349 fourth-grade students from 2 elementary schools in Taiwan. The Note-Taking Instruction group received approximately 40 min of note-taking skills…
Talk directly to your system for a faster workflow with automation capability Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible is your essential Linux guide. With detailed instruction and abundant examples, this book teaches you how to bypass the graphical interface and communicate directly with your computer, saving time and expanding capability. This third edition incorporates thirty pages of new functional examples that are fully updated to align with the latest Linux features. Beginning with command line fundamentals, the book moves into shell scripting and shows you the practical application
Wopereis, Iwan; Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia
This paper presents results of an explorative study on perceived merits of contemporary holistic approaches to designing information literacy instruction in a university setting. Seven teachers in educational sciences evaluated their premaster’s course on conducting a literature review designed
Wopereis, Iwan; Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia
This paper presents results of an explorative study on perceived merits of contemporary holistic approaches to designing information literacy instruction in a university setting. Seven teachers in educational sciences evaluated their premaster’s course on conducting a literature review designed
Rynne, T J
Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications.
Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Tai, Robert H.; Skeeles-Worley, Angela D.
In longitudinal studies, measurement invariance is required to conduct substantive comparisons over time or across groups. In this study, we examined measurement invariance on a recently developed instrument capturing student preferences for seven instructional strategies related to science learning and career interest. We have labeled these seven instructional strategies as Collaborating, Competing, Caretaking, Creating/Making, Discovering, Performing, and Teaching. A better understanding of student preferences for particular instructional strategies can help educators, researchers, and policy makers deliberately tailor programmatic instructional structure to increase student persistence in the STEM pipeline. However, simply confirming the relationship between student preferences for science instructional strategies and their future career choices at a single time point is not sufficient to clarify our understanding of the relationship between instructional strategies and student persistence in the STEM pipeline, especially since preferences for instructional strategies are understood to vary over time. As such, we sought to develop a measure that invariantly captures student preference over a period of time: the Framework for Observing and Categorizing Instructional Strategies (FOCIS). We administered the FOCIS instrument over four semesters over two middle school grades to 1009 6th graders and 1021 7th graders and confirmed the longitudinal invariance of the FOCIS measure. This confirmation of longitudinal invariance will allow researchers to examine the relationship between student preference for certain instructional strategies and student persistence in the STEM pipeline.
Full Text Available The most compelling evidence that instruction in L2pragmatics is necessary comes from learners whoselanguage proficiency is advanced but their communicative actsfrequently contain pragmatic errors. The current studyevaluated the impact of explicit instruction on EFL learner'sawareness and production of three speech acts of request,apology, and complaint. It also probed whether learners’language proficiency plays any role in incorporatingpragmatic instruction into the L2 classroom. The instructionlasted for about 12 weeks. Achievement in L2 pragmaticswas assessed based on a pretest-posttest plan usingMultiple-Choice Discourse Comprehension Test (MDCTand Written Discourse Completion Test (WDCT. Thesignificant gains made by the experimental groups receivinginstruction support the claim recently made by instructionalpragmatics that explicit instruction does facilitate thedevelopment of pragmatically appropriate use of language.Yet, learners’ level of language proficiency had no significantrole in the incorporation of the instruction. Furthertheoretical issues are also discussed.
Miller, J K; Gergen, K J
In what ways are computer networking practices comparable to face-to-face therapy? With the exponential increase in computer-mediated communication and the increasing numbers of people joining topically based computer networks, the potential for grass-roots therapeutic (or antitherapeutic) interchange is greatly augmented. Here we report the results of research into exchanges on an electronic bulletin board devoted to the topic of suicide. Over an 11-month period participants offered each other valuable resources in terms of validation of experience, sympathy, acceptance, and encouragement. They also asked provocative questions and furnished broad-ranging advice. Hostile entries were rare. However, there were few communiques that parallel the change-inducing practices more frequent within many therapeutic settings. In effect, on-line dialogues seemed more sustaining than transforming. Further limits and potentials of on-line communication are explored.
Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka
The present study investigated the effects of experimental instruction on the retrieval of involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs). In previous studies of IAMs, participants were either instructed to record only memories (henceforth, the restricted group) or any thoughts (henceforth, the unrestricted group). However, it is unknown whether these two different types of instructions influence the retrieval of IAMs. The most recent study by Vannucci and her colleagues directly addressed this question and demonstrated that the frequency and phenomenological characteristics of IAMs strongly depended on the type of instruction received. The goal of the present study was to replicate these results while addressing some limitations of the Vannucci et al. study and to test three possible mechanisms proposed to explain the effect of instructions on the retrieval of IAMs. Our results accord well with the data presented by Vannucci et al. When participants were instructed to record only IAMs (the restricted group), they reported more memories and rated them as being retrieved in a more goal-oriented fashion. Their memories also were less clear, vivid, detailed and were less frequently accompanied by physiological reactions, compared to memories reported by the participants in the unrestricted group. In addition, the events to which the memories referred were rated as more unusual and personal by the restricted group. These results are consistent with the assumption that retrieval of IAMs depends on the type of instructions used in a study. In addition, our results suggest that one of the main mechanisms underlying the higher frequency of IAMs in the restricted group may be participants' ability to monitor the stream of consciousness and to extract autobiographical content from this flow. Further implications of the effect of instructions for IAMs research are discussed.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of experimental instruction on the retrieval of involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs. In previous studies of IAMs, participants were either instructed to record only memories (henceforth, the restricted group or any thoughts (henceforth, the unrestricted group. However, it is unknown whether these two different types of instructions influence the retrieval of IAMs. The most recent study by Vannucci and her colleagues directly addressed this question and demonstrated that the frequency and phenomenological characteristics of IAMs strongly depended on the type of instruction received. The goal of the present study was to replicate these results while addressing some limitations of the Vannucci et al. study and to test three possible mechanisms proposed to explain the effect of instructions on the retrieval of IAMs. Our results accord well with the data presented by Vannucci et al. When participants were instructed to record only IAMs (the restricted group, they reported more memories and rated them as being retrieved in a more goal-oriented fashion. Their memories also were less clear, vivid, detailed and were less frequently accompanied by physiological reactions, compared to memories reported by the participants in the unrestricted group. In addition, the events to which the memories referred were rated as more unusual and personal by the restricted group. These results are consistent with the assumption that retrieval of IAMs depends on the type of instructions used in a study. In addition, our results suggest that one of the main mechanisms underlying the higher frequency of IAMs in the restricted group may be participants' ability to monitor the stream of consciousness and to extract autobiographical content from this flow. Further implications of the effect of instructions for IAMs research are discussed.
Campbell, Todd; Longhurst, Max L.; Wang, Shiang-Kwei; Hsu, Hui-Yin; Coster, Dan C.
While access to computers, other technologies, and cyber-enabled resources that could be leveraged for enhancing student learning in science is increasing, generally it has been found that teachers use technology more for administrative purposes or to support traditional instruction. This use of technology, especially to support traditional…
Brian M. Lange
Full Text Available Over the last twenty-seven years, the evaluation of practice management in dental schools has been documented by three studies. In twenty-seven years the teaching of practice management has been influenced by changes in the definition of practice manage-ment, resources available to dental schools, technology, changes in accreditation standards and, more recently, the influence of corporations marketing to dental students. In an effort to determine what resources dental schools are utilizing to teach practice management, fifty-seven schools were contacted, and fifty faculty members with teaching responsibilities were identified. An on-line email survey was administered and results reported at the 2011 meeting of the American Dental Education Association Section on Practice Management. At the section meeting breakout groups discussed two questions. First, identify innovative tools, methods and ideas in the area of practice management. Second, what changes may be necessary to meet recently updated accredi-tation standards 2-17 through 2-19. The recommendations of the breakout groups are presented in detail.
Brian M Lange
Full Text Available Over the last twenty-seven years, the evaluation of practice man-agement in dental schools has been documented by three studies. In twenty-seven years the teaching of practice management has been influenced by changes in the definition of practice manage-ment, resources available to dental schools, technology, changes in accreditation standards and, more recently, the influence of corpora-tions marketing to dental students. In an effort to determine what resources dental schools are utilizing to teach practice management, fifty-seven schools were contacted, and fifty faculty members with teaching responsibilities were identi-fied. An on-line email survey was administered and results reported at the 2011 meeting of the American Dental Education Association Section on Practice Management. At the section meeting breakout groups discussed two questions. First, identify innovative tools, methods and ideas in the area of practice management. Second, what changes may be necessary to meet recently updated accredi-tation standards 2-17 through 2-19. The recommendations of the breakout groups are presented in detail.
Full Text Available Shared responsibilities such as mentoring, instruction, learner monitoring and classroom management enable the peers to observe, review, reflect on and learn from the overall practical professional expertise of one another through collegial instruction experience. The present exploratory case study has The present exploratory case study has attempted to study collegial teaching as an innovative instruction model (as an alternative to solo-based instruction models in a General Business English course in SAPco (An automotive part supplier in Iran. To this end, the researcher has mainly tried to concentrate on two expert business English teachers' perceptions concerning their experience of collegial teaching for business English courses, observing their reflections before and after the course, to focus on the possible impacts of this type of instruction on their pedagogical knowledge as language teacher. As a result, as it is indicated in overall reflections of the participant colleagues, collegial instruction is believed to lead toward a more efficient transferability and development of teachers' pedagogical knowledge than what can take place as a result of individually run traditional practices. Moreover, this type of instruction can be a rather cost-effective and timesaving alternative to traditional OJT (on the job training courses for teacher development authorities and curriculum developers who are concerned about and willing to promote professional development of their teachers.
Full Text Available This research compared the effects of two types of instruction: Processing Instruction (PI and Meaning-based Output Instruction (MOI on the interpretation and production of English passive structures. Ninety EFL intermediate tertiary level female students (PI group= 30, MOI group= 30 and control group = 30 participated in this study. The instruments were a proficiency test, a test to assess English passive structures and two instructional materials (PI and MOI. The data were analyzed by running one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and mixed between-within ANOVA. The study indicated the effectiveness of PI and MOI on English passive structures. PI had considerable enhancement on interpretation tasks all the time. It supported the use of PI rather than the use of traditional instructions in which mechanical components were emphasized. Also, the PI and MOI had long term effects on the interpretation and production of English passive sentences. This study supported the use of PI and MOI rather than the use of traditional instruction (TI in EFL settings. The implication for particularly classroom teaching is that successful grammar instruction has to related to ultimate learning outcomes. Also, creating communicative tasks to offer opportunities for teaching grammar can lead to long-lasting learning effects.
Iverson, Heidi L.
As a result of dissatisfaction with the traditional lecture-based model of education a large number of reform-oriented instructional innovations have been developed, enacted, and studied in undergraduate physics courses. While previous work has shown that the impact of instructional innovations on student learning has been overwhelmingly positive, it has also been highly variable. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate this variability. For this analysis, 79 published studies on undergraduate physics instructional innovations were analyzed with respect to the types of innovations used and the methodological characteristics of the studies themselves. The findings of this analysis have indicated that nearly half of the variability in effect size can be accounted for by study design characteristics rather than by the characteristics of the innovations used. However, a subsequent analysis illustrated that one specific innovation, Workshop/Studio Physics, appears to be particularly effective within the observed sample of studies.
Dinov, Ivo D; Sanchez, Juana; Christou, Nicolas
Technology-based instruction represents a new recent pedagogical paradigm that is rooted in the realization that new generations are much more comfortable with, and excited about, new technologies. The rapid technological advancement over the past decade has fueled an enormous demand for the integration of modern networking, informational and computational tools with classical pedagogical instruments. Consequently, teaching with technology typically involves utilizing a variety of IT and multimedia resources for online learning, course management, electronic course materials, and novel tools of communication, engagement, experimental, critical thinking and assessment.The NSF-funded Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR) provides a number of interactive tools for enhancing instruction in various undergraduate and graduate courses in probability and statistics. These resources include online instructional materials, statistical calculators, interactive graphical user interfaces, computational and simulation applets, tools for data analysis and visualization. The tools provided as part of SOCR include conceptual simulations and statistical computing interfaces, which are designed to bridge between the introductory and the more advanced computational and applied probability and statistics courses. In this manuscript, we describe our designs for utilizing SOCR technology in instruction in a recent study. In addition, present the results of the effectiveness of using SOCR tools at two different course intensity levels on three outcome measures: exam scores, student satisfaction and choice of technology to complete assignments. Learning styles assessment was completed at baseline. We have used three very different designs for three different undergraduate classes. Each course included a treatment group, using the SOCR resources, and a control group, using classical instruction techniques. Our findings include marginal effects of the SOCR treatment per individual
Kuster, George; Johnson, Estrella; Keene, Karen; Andrews-Larson, Christine
Research has highlighted that inquiry-based learning (IBL) instruction leads to many positive student outcomes in undergraduate mathematics. Although this research points to the value of IBL instruction, the practices of IBL instructors are not well-understood. Here, we offer a characterization of a particular form of IBL instruction:…
Papalexandris, Nancy; Panayotopoulou, Leda
Purpose: This article seeks to discuss the role that line managers take up concerning human resource management issues among Greek firms and to propose ways for enhancing the synergistic relationship between human resource (HR) and line managers. Design/methodology/approach: It presents the trends of line management involvement in Greek firms,…
Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the role of line management and learning culture in the development of professional practice for the human resource (HR) practitioner. Design/methodology/approach: Three-year longitudinal, matched-pair study involving five participants and their line managers. Findings: Two of the five participants experienced…
Paradis, Lynne Darlene
This interpretive research study explored the experiences of teachers with the use of the Zoology Zone multimedia resource in teaching grade three science. Four generalist teachers used the multimedia resource in the teaching of the Animal Life Cycle topic from the Alberta grade three science program. The experiences of the teachers were examined through individual interviews, classroom visits and group interviews. Three dimensions of the study, as they related to elementary science teaching using the Zoology Zone multimedia resource were examined: (a) technology as a teaching resource, (b) science education and constructivist theory, and (c) teacher learning. In the area of planning for instruction, the teachers found that using the multimedia resource demanded more time and effort than using non-computer resources because of the dependence teachers had on others for ensuring access to computer labs and setting up the multimedia resource to run on school computers. The teachers felt there was value in giving students the opportunity to independently explore the multimedia resource because it captured their attention, included appropriate content, and was designed so that students could navigate through the teaming activities easily and make choices about how to proceed with their own learning. Despite the opportunities for student directed learning, the teachers found that it was also necessary to include some teacher directed learning to ensure that students were learning the mandated curriculum. As the study progressed, it became evident that the teachers valued the social dimensions of learning by making it a priority to include lessons that encouraged student to student interaction, student to teacher interaction, small group and whole class discussion, and peer teaching. When students were engaged with the multimedia resource, the teacher facilitated learning by circulating to each student and discussing student findings. Teachers focussed primarily on the
Parris, Sheri R; Morrow, Lesley Mandel
All key issues of research and practice in comprehension instruction are addressed in this highly regarded professional resource and course text. Leading scholars examine the processes that enable students to make meaning from what they read--and how this knowledge can be applied to improve teaching at all grade levels. Best practices for meeting the needs of diverse elementary and secondary students are identified. Essential topics include strategies for comprehending different types of texts, the impact of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), cutting-edge assessment approaches, and the gr
Babin, Erin Pevey
The biggest challenge facing American public schools today is increasing student achievement, and this depends on the educational system's ability to improve the quality of instruction. Principals play a key role in improving the quality of instruction on their campus through the instructional leadership practices they engage in on a daily basis.…
Walrod, Bryant J; Schroeder, Allison; Conroy, Mark J; Boucher, Laura C; Bockbrader, Marcia; Way, David P; McCamey, Kendra L; Hartz, Clinton A; Jonesco, Michael A; Bahner, David P
Ultrasound imaging is commonly used to teach basic anatomy to medical students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether learning musculoskeletal anatomy with ultrasound improved performance on medical students' musculoskeletal physical examination skills. Twenty-seven first-year medical students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 instructional groups: either shoulder or knee. Both groups received a lecture followed by hands-on ultrasound scanning on live human models of the assigned joint. After instruction, students were assessed on their ability to accurately palpate 4 anatomic landmarks: the acromioclavicular joint, the proximal long-head biceps tendon, and the medial and lateral joint lines of the knee. Performance scores were based on both accuracy and time. A total physical examination performance score was derived for each joint. Scores for instructional groups were compared by a 2-way analysis of variance with 1 repeated measure. Significant findings were further analyzed with post hoc tests. All students performed significantly better on the knee examination, irrespective of instructional group (F = 14.9; df = 1.25; P = .001). Moreover, the shoulder instruction group performed significantly better than the knee group on the overall assessment (t = -3.0; df = 25; P soft tissue landmark. Both groups performed similarly on palpation of all other anatomic structures. The use of ultrasound appears to provide an educational advantage when learning musculoskeletal physical examination of soft tissue landmarks. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory
Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...
Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William
This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…
... after work is complete, and in those rare occasions when the authority in Air Force Instruction (AFI) 32-1064, Electrical Safe Practices, authorizes work on energized electrical equipment or lines.
Broom, Frances A.
This mixed method case study employs action research, conducted over a three month period with 11 elementary math and science practitioners. Inquiry as an instructional practice is a vital component of math and science instruction and STEM teaching. Teachers examined their beliefs and teaching practices with regard to those instructional factors that influence inquiry instruction. Video-taped lessons were compared to a rubric and pre and post questionnaires along with two interviews which informed the study. The results showed that while most beliefs were maintained, teachers implemented inquiry at a more advanced level after examining their teaching and reflecting on ways to increase inquiry practices. Because instructional practices provide only one component of inquiry-based instruction, other components need to be examined in a future study.
Moore, S. W.; Rogerson, T. M.; Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Oots, P. C.; Lewis, P. M.
Science can serve as an authentic motivational and instructional vehicle for instruction in language arts. Two NASA educational outreach programs provide ample opportunity for strengthening vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing skills, through the integration of authentic activities and scenarios in the context of a real-time NASA mission. The NASA CERES Students’ Cloud Observation On-Line (S’COOL) project is a hands-on project that supports NASA research on the Earth’s climate. Students are engaged in identifying cloud-types and levels and sending that information to NASA. If the students’ observations are within +/-15 minutes of the CERES satellite-based instrument passing over their location, this is designated as a “match”. The participating teacher is sent an e-mail asking the student-observers to consider the various aspects of the match, including the interpretation of a graphical aid, using the correct terminology to express level of agreement, and writing comments to describe their “matches”, all of which contribute to strengthening skills in language arts. To further integrate the language arts, the S’COOL website provides several teacher-authored on-line lessons that integrate reading skills, vocabulary, and composition. The Mentoring and inquiry using NASA Data on Atmospheric and earth science for Teachers and Amateurs (MY NASA DATA) project is a project to enable K-12 teaches and students, as well as citizen scientists, to explore the large volumes of data that NASA collects about the Earth from space. Opportunity for addressing literacy is integrated into several teacher-authored on-line lessons. Scenarios present students with a problem requiring the reading and comprehension of the scenario, understanding of terminology, the ability to read and understand a written technical procedure, and composition of related conclusions. In addition, students are provided opportunities to analyze a data-set and/or data plot, then
This research provides an understanding of how the 5E instructional method combined with educational technology tools can be used in teaching undergraduate college level anatomy and physiology laboratory classes. The 5E instructional model is the exemplary instructional model in teaching biology for high school students. The phases in the 5E learning cycle are Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. In every step of the learning cycle, the researcher used appropriate technology tools to enhance the teaching and learning processes. The researcher used the Dynamic Instructional Design model to identify the appropriate technology tools for instruction. The topics selected for modification were 'The Heart' and 'The Vascular System.' The researcher chose these two topics based on results of the preliminary survey that the researcher conducted during summer 2008. The existing topics identified on the syllabus were followed but the teaching method was changed. In order to accomplish this, the researcher created a class Website and included tools including pronunciation, spelling, an Interactive Tool, and Web links. In addition, the researcher also created teacher resources for the Pronunciation Corner and Spelling Bee, so that any teacher can customize and use these tools for their classes. The results indicated that the students took advantage of the technology provided.
Kelly, Steven N.
Investigates the effects of conducting instruction on beginning band students' individual rhythmic performance, group rhythmic performance, group performance of legato and staccato, and group performance of phrasing and dynamics. The students represented diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Concludes the conducting instruction is a useful tool…
Rose, Dale Rennard
The three article dissertation was a presentation of students' with learning disabilities perspectives on reading comprehension instruction. Article 1 set out to provide an historical perspective of reading and reading comprehension instruction. Topics covered in this research review included: reading comprehension, reading and learning…
Yavuz, Mustafa; Bas, Gokhan
In this research, elementary school principals' instructional leadership behavior was evaluated based on the perceptions of elementary school teachers. The research is believed to contribute to the development of instructional leadership behavior of elementary school principals for the development of school organization. A "semi-structured…
Maiga, Almoustapha Issiaka; Fofana, Djeneba Bocar; Cisse, Mamadou; Diallo, Fodié; Maiga, Moussa Youssoufa; Traore, Hamar Alassane; Maiga, Issouf Alassane; Sylla, Aliou; Fofana, Dionke; Taiwo, Babafemi; Murphy, Robert; Katlama, Christine; Tounkara, Anatole; Calvez, Vincent; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève
Objectives We describe the outcomes of second-line drug resistance profiles and predict the efficacy of drugs for third-line therapy in patients monitored without the benefit of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) or resistance testing. Methods We recruited 106 HIV-1-infected patients after second-line treatment failure in Mali. VL was determined by the Abbott RealTime system and the resistance by the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system. The resistance testing was interpreted using the latest version of the Stanford algorithm. Results Among the 106 patients, 93 had isolates successfully sequenced. The median age, VL and CD4 cells were respectively 35 years, 72 000 copies/mL and 146 cells/mm3. Patients were exposed to a median of 4 years of treatment and to six antiretrovirals. We found 20% of wild-type viruses. Resistance to etravirine was noted in 38%, to lopinavir in 25% and to darunavir in 12%. The duration of prior nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor exposure was associated with resistance to abacavir (P < 0.0001) and tenofovir (P = 0.0001), and duration of prior protease inhibitor treatment with resistance to lopinavir (P < 0.0001) and darunavir (P = 0.06). Conclusion Long duration of therapy prior to failure was associated with high levels of resistance and is directly related to limited access to VL monitoring and delayed switches to second-line treatment, precluding efficacy of drugs for third-line therapy. This study underlines the need for governments and public health organizations to recommend the use of VL monitoring and also the availability of darunavir and raltegravir for third-line therapies in the context of limited-resource settings. PMID:22888273
Cheng, Yu-Tsun; Liu, Deborah R; Wang, Vincent J
Splinting is a multistep procedure that is seldom performed by primary care physicians. Just-in-time training (JITT) is an emerging teaching modality and can be an invaluable asset for infrequently performed procedures or in locations where teaching resources and trained professionals are limited. Our objective was to determine the utility of JITT for teaching medical students the short-arm (SA) volar splinting technique. This was a prospective randomized controlled pilot study. An instructional video on SA volar splinting was produced. Students viewed the video or had access to standard medical textbooks (control group) immediately before applying an SA volar splint. The students were assessed for the quality of the splint via a standard 6-point skills checklist. The times required for presplinting preparation and for completion of the splint were also measured. Just-in-time training group students scored higher on the splint checklist (mean [SD], 5.45 [1.06]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.99-5.92 vs mean [SD], 1.58 [1.12]; 95% CI, 1.04-2.12; P < 0.0001), had higher pass rates (73%; 95% CI, 53%-93% vs 0%; P < 0.0001), and required less time (minutes) for presplinting preparation (mean [SD], 7.86 [2.45]; 95% CI, 6.78-8.94 vs mean [SD], 9.89 [0.46]; 95% CI, 9.67-10.12; P < 0.0001) compared with the control group. No difference was seen in the time required to complete a splint, successful or not. In comparison with reading standard textbooks, watching a brief JITT instructional video before splinting yielded faster learning times combined with more successful procedural skills. The use of a JITT instructional video may have potential applications, including globally, as an alternative resource for teaching and disseminating procedural skills, such as SA volar splinting.
This annotated bibliographic collection of resources on Africa including non-fiction, fiction, texts, poetry, draft papers, addresses, periodicals, film, records, and travel agencies is designed to aid secondary students and their teachers interested in research on Africa. An instructional approach is taken, drawing upon examples to demonstrate…
Brylske, Alexander Frederick
While a number of instructional models focus on the use of analogies, research into their effectiveness in enhancing comprehension and retention of scientific concepts, particularly involving adult learners, has been limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using the common teaching strategy for comparing the function of a coral reef to that of a city by using an analogy-based instructional model termed FAR. The training program entitled "Marine Resource Management for Dive Professionals" (MRMDP) was developed for this study. It was targeted to professionals in the recreational scuba industry to improve their understanding of coal reef ecology, as well as orient them to pertinent marine resource management issues, and promote environmentally-responsible attitudes and diving practices among their clients. A quasi-experimental pre-post-delayed posttest control group design was used to explore five research questions and corresponding hypotheses. A 55-item researcher-developed test of coral reef ecology was administered pre and post instruction. The delayed posttest was self-administered by the subjects three weeks after course completion. Data on seven experiential variables hypothesized as research factors were collected. Ten MRMPD courses were taught in seven nations, involving 194 subjects (85 subjects in four control courses, 109 in six treatment course). The results were analyzed using multiple regression/correlation (MRC) techniques to determine: (1) any significant relationship between pretest performance and experiential variables, (2) treatment versus control group posttest performance, and (3) treatment versus control group delayed posttest performance. Within the treatment group, learning gains and retention were determined by t-test analysis. Results indicated: (1) all research factors except one were significant predictors of pretest scores in the presence of the covariate; (2) no significant difference was found between
This article reports a meta-analysis of 42 experiments in 33 published studies involving processing instruction (PI) and production-based instruction (PB) used in the PI studies. The comparative effectiveness of PI and PB showed that although PI was more effective than PB for developing receptive knowledge, PB was just as effective as PI for…
Walshaw, Margaret; Duncan, Wayne
Hermeneutics is both a philosophical tradition and a methodological resource. In this qualitative study, hermeneutics provided, simultaneously, a framework and a methodology for understanding empathy in synchronous multimedia conferencing. As a framework for the design of the study, hermeneutics supported the overriding objective to understand the…
Student achievement in the Twenty First Century demands a new rigor in student science knowledge, since advances in science and technology require students to think and act like scientists. As a result, students must acquire proficient levels of knowledge and skills to support a knowledge base that is expanding exponentially with new scientific advances. This study examined the effects of hands-on-science instruction on the science achievement of middle school students. More specifically, this study was concerned with the influence of hands-on science instruction versus traditional science instruction on the science test scores of middle school students. The subjects in this study were one hundred and twenty sixth-grade students in six classes. Instruction involved lecture/discussion and hands-on activities carried out for a three week period. Specifically, the study ascertained the influence of the variables gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on the science test scores of middle school students. Additionally, this study assessed the effect of the variables gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on the attitudes of sixth grade students toward science. The two instruments used to collect data for this study were the Prentice Hall unit ecosystem test and the Scientific Work Experience Programs for Teachers Study (SWEPT) student's attitude survey. Moreover, the data for the study was treated using the One-Way Analysis of Covariance and the One-Way Analysis of Variance. The following findings were made based on the results: (1) A statistically significant difference existed in the science performance of middle school students exposed to hands-on science instruction. These students had significantly higher scores than the science performance of middle school students exposed to traditional instruction. (2) A statistically significant difference did not exist between the science scores of male and female middle school students. (3) A statistically
Lynch, M; Haney, C
This study links two previously unrelated lines of research: the lack of comprehension of capital penalty-phase jury instructions and discriminatory death sentencing. Jury-eligible subjects were randomly assigned to view one of four versions of a simulated capital penalty trial in which the race of defendant (Black or White) and the race of victim (Black or White) were varied orthogonally. Dependent measures included a sentencing verdict (life without the possibility of parole or the death penalty), ratings of penalty phase evidence, and a test of instructional comprehension. Results indicated that instructional comprehension was poor overall and that, although Black defendants were treated only slightly more punitively than White defendants in general, discriminatory effects were concentrated among participants whose comprehension was poorest. In addition, the use of penalty phase evidence differed as a function of race of defendant and whether the participant sentenced the defendant to life or death. The study suggest that racially biased and capricious death sentencing may be in part caused or exacerbated by the inability to comprehend penalty phase instructions.
María Ángeles Martín del Pozo
Full Text Available CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning and EMI (English Medium Instruction practices have outpaced theory and teacher training. There is a need to provide answers to some of the key issues such as the language requirements. This paper aims to show that knowledge from English for Specific Purposes and English for Academic Purposes, fields which have provided effective teaching practices and materials, could now be used in CLIL/EMI. The paper focuses on two of these. First, the issues related to second language academic listening comprehension and, secondly, the findings from research on it and their implications for student / lecturer training and materials design. These implications and suggestions are summarized. The paper concludes providing some language learning resources originally targeted to students but which could become tools for (self training of those teachers who need to update their language skills for CLIL.
BavaHarji, Madhubala; Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni
This experimental design study examined the effects of viewing captioned instructional videos on EFL learners' content comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and language proficiency. It also examined the participants' perception of viewing the captioned instructional videos. The 92 EFL students in two classes, who were undertaking the "Tape…
Balint, Trevor A.; Teodorescu, Raluca; Colvin, Kimberly; Choi, Youn-Jeng; Pritchard, David
In this paper we examine how different types of participants in a physics Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) tend to use the existing course resources. We use data from the 2013 offering of the Massive Open Online Course 8.MReVx designed by the RELATE (REsearch in Learning Assessing and Tutoring Effectively) Group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and offered on the edX platform. We propose six measures of student performance in a course, and, based on these measures, we divide the student population into clusters and analyze the resource usage of the students from each cluster. This course contains a wide variety of physics problems targeting various levels of thinking. Our analysis focuses on 1080 participants (out of 16,787 enrolled in the course) who attempted more than 50% of available problems, as this is an indicator of students who participated actively in the entire course.
AGU has recently established a new customer "support line"—email@example.com—as the point of contact on AGU's staff for members and other individual constituents who have not been able to resolve issues or get questions answered promptly or to their satisfaction through customary channels.Over the past year, there have been many changes at AGU. Unfortunately—and perhaps as a result of these changes—communication with members and individual constituents has suffered. Some individuals report, for example, that e-mail messages are not answered to their satisfaction, or in a timely manner. Instructions on AGU's Web site are unclear in some areas. Problems related specifically to the transition to electronic publishing are cropping up.
Nebesniak, Amy L.
Effective instruction is multifaceted, dependent largely on the context and, consequently, on numerous variables. Although "effective instruction" is difficult to define, in the author's experience--and as the work of mathematics education specialists and researchers indicates--three key features of quality instruction stand out: (1) Teaching…
Hooyman, Andrew; Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca
The authors examined the influence of autonomy-supportive (ASL), controlling (CL), and neutral instructional language (NL) on motor skill learning (cricket bowling action). Prior to and several times during the practice phase, participants watched the same video demonstration of the bowling action but with different voice-over instructions. The instructions were designed to provide the same technical information but to vary in terms of the degree of choice performers would perceive when executing the task. In addition to measurements of throwing accuracy (i.e., deviation from the target), perceived choice, self-efficacy, and positive and negative affect were assessed at the end of the practice phase and after a retention test without demonstrations and instructions on Day 2. ASL resulted in perceptions of greater choice, higher self-efficacy, and more positive affect during practice than CL, and enhanced learning as demonstrated by retention test performance. Thus, granting learners autonomy appeared to endow them with confidence in their ability, diminished needs for control of negative emotional responses, and created more positive affect, which may help consolidate motor memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alessandri, Jérôme; Cançado, Carlos R X
The effects of instructions on the sensitivity of negatively reinforced (escape) behavior to extinction were studied. Initially, responding produced timeouts from pressing a force cell on a variable-ratio (VR) schedule, which was then discontinued (extinction). Based on extinction data, participants were distributed into two groups. Participants in the Persistence Group (for which response rates were low in extinction) were instructed that the experimenter expected them to continue responding in extinction after a second exposure to the VR schedule. Participants in the Extinction group (for which response rates were high in extinction) were instructed that the experimenter expected them to stop responding in extinction. Relative to the condition in which instructions were absent, extinction-response rates increased and decreased, respectively, for participants in the Persistence and Extinction groups. These results replicate and extend to negatively reinforced responding previous findings that showed behavioral control by instructions formulated as explicit experimenter demands or expectations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Salataci, Reyhan; Akyel, Ayse
Investigates the reading strategies of Turkish English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students in Turkish and English and the possible effects of reading instruction on reading in Turkish and English. Addresses whether strategy instruction in EFL reading effects EFL reading strategies and reading comprehension in English , and whether strategy…
van Drie, J.; Braaksma, M.; van Boxtel, C.
This study aims at gaining more insight in effective writing instruction to promote historical reasoning. In an experimental study, two types of instructions were compared; a general writing instruction and a discipline-based writing instruction. In addition, the effects of these instructions for
Romano, Paolo; Manniello, Assunta; Aresu, Ottavia; Armento, Massimiliano; Cesaro, Michela; Parodi, Barbara
The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB) is a well-known reference information source on human and animal cell lines including information on more than 6000 cell lines. Main biological features are coded according to controlled vocabularies derived from international lists and taxonomies. HyperCLDB (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/hypercldb/) is a hypertext version of CLDB that improves data accessibility by also allowing information retrieval through web spiders. Access to HyperCLDB is provided through indexes of biological characteristics and navigation in the hypertext is granted by many internal links. HyperCLDB also includes links to external resources. Recently, an interest was raised for a reference nomenclature for cell lines and CLDB was seen as an authoritative system. Furthermore, to overcome the cell line misidentification problem, molecular authentication methods, such as fingerprinting, single-locus short tandem repeat (STR) profile and single nucleotide polymorphisms validation, were proposed. Since this data is distributed, a reference portal on authentication of human cell lines is needed. We present here the architecture and contents of CLDB, its recent enhancements and perspectives. We also present a new related database, the Cell Line Integrated Molecular Authentication (CLIMA) database (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/clima/), that allows to link authentication data to actual cell lines.
West, Leonard J.
Presents a true-false test on typewriting instruction to illustrate the effects of educational lag, publishing practices, and deficiencies in preservice and inservice teacher education upon teaching methods. (SK)
Oct 27, 2012 ... Counseling, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Phone: +234(0) ... Mathematics using Direct Instructional strategy, while Group B students were taught using ... strategy; significant difference existed between direct and indirect instruction ..... is to ensure individual student's mastery of the subject matter.
Duits, Puck; Richter, Jan; Baas, Johanna M P; Engelhard, Iris M; Limberg-Thiesen, Anke; Heitland, Ivo; Hamm, Alfons O; Cath, Danielle C
Explicit instructions regarding stimulus-threat associations increase acquisition and extinction of fear in healthy participants. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of contingency instructions on fear acquisition and extinction in patients with anxiety disorders. Patients with various anxiety disorders (N = 104) and healthy comparison participants (N = 93) participated in a differential fear conditioning task (within-subjects design). Approximately halfway through the acquisition phase, participants were instructed about the stimulus-threat association, and approximately halfway through the extinction phase, participants were informed that the unconditioned stimulus (US) would no longer be administered. Outcome measures were: fear-potentiated startle, skin conductance, fearfulness ratings, and US expectancy ratings. Patients demonstrated overall increased physiological and subjective fear responses during acquisition and extinction phases, relative to the comparison group. There were no major differences in fear acquisition and extinction between patients with different anxiety disorders. During acquisition, instructions led to increased discrimination of fear responses between a danger cue (conditioned stimulus [CS]+) and safety cue (CS-) in both patients and comparison participants. Moreover, instructions strengthened extinction of fear responses in the patient and comparison group. Patients and healthy comparison participants are better able to discriminate between danger and safety cues when they have been explicitly informed about cues that announce a threat situation. Considering the analogies between fear extinction procedures and exposure therapy, this suggests that specific instructions on stimulus-threat associations during exposure therapy might improve short-term treatment efficacy. The question remains for future studies whether instructions have a positive effect on extinction learning in the longer term. (PsycINFO Database Record (c
Full Text Available This study applied multimedia in a general engineering and technology course in Taiwan and evaluated the effectiveness of multimedia-assisted instruction and learning. The course presented trends in technological development and the achievements of Taiwanese industries and research institutes from a historical perspective, and overviewed the technology industries and industrial transformation development in Taiwan. The course units adopted multimedia to support class teaching and student learning, and a survey was conducted to collect students’ attitudes and perception toward multimedia-assisted instruction and learning in the course. Research data were collected from 45 male and 9 female students with varied academic and cultural backgrounds. Results showed that multimedia videos help raise students’ awareness of learning issues, improve their understanding of content, and increase the depth of their learning. Almost all students liked the approach of using multimedia to assist teaching and learning, preferring this approach over traditional lecture-based instruction. They also would recommend this course to their peers. This study also found that the degree of students’ engagement caused variance in the students’ perception of multimedia helpfulness in assisting their learning. Finally, this study further proposes suggestions in both design and research on applications of multimedia-enhanced learning in engineering and technology education.
Nickerson, Norton H.; Dobberteen, Ross A.; Jarman, Nancy M.
Utility rights-of-way corridors through wetland areas generate long-term impacts from construction activities to these valuable ecosystems. Changes to and recovery of the vegetation communities of a cattail marsh, wooded swamp, and shrub/bog wetland were documented through measurements made each growing season for two years prior, five years following, and again on the tenth year after construction of a 345-kV transmission line. While both the cattail marsh and wooded swamp recovered within a few years, measures of plant community composition in the shrub/bog wetland were still lower, compared to controls, after ten years. Long-term investigations such as the one reported here help decrease uncertainty and provide valuable information for future decision making regarding construction of power utility lines through valuable and dwindling wetland resources.
Geraghty, R J; Capes-Davis, A; Davis, J M; Downward, J; Freshney, R I; Knezevic, I; Lovell-Badge, R; Masters, J R W; Meredith, J; Stacey, G N; Thraves, P; Vias, M
Cell-line misidentification and contamination with microorganisms, such as mycoplasma, together with instability, both genetic and phenotypic, are among the problems that continue to affect cell culture. Many of these problems are avoidable with the necessary foresight, and these Guidelines have been prepared to provide those new to the field and others engaged in teaching and instruction with the information necessary to increase their awareness of the problems and to enable them to deal with them effectively. The Guidelines cover areas such as development, acquisition, authentication, cryopreservation, transfer of cell lines between laboratories, microbial contamination, characterisation, instability and misidentification. Advice is also given on complying with current legal and ethical requirements when deriving cell lines from human and animal tissues, the selection and maintenance of equipment and how to deal with problems that may arise.
新海, 節; Makoto, SHINKAI; 藤女子大学人間生活学部保育学科
It is important piano instruction in childcare training schools be viewed primarily as "music for childcare". To this end,it is also important that the view of piano instruction for nursery school trainees be switched from one mainly focused on the technical aspects of performance using many etudes to a form of instruction based on developing the musicality of the trainees and their ability to display emotion through music. Further, through this instruction, the trainees need to develop the a...
Powell, P. E.
Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.
Johnson, Shelley Henson; Shelton, Brett; Wiley, David
Recognizing the pedagogical value of gaming, academics along with game designers and educational content developers have begun producing resources to improve educational game design and make instructional games more accessible to teachers wanting to incorporate them into their classes. However, the rapid growth of such resources has made it…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, archaeological and historic sites, beaches, boat ramps, state borders, bridges, and marinas for Alabama....
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students with Disabilities AGENCY: Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students with Disabilities, Office of Special Education and...
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students With Disabilities AGENCY: Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students with Disabilities, Office of Special Education and...
Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood
The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.
Roberts, Leslie; Hagood, Michael
The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.
Diehl, Leandro Arthur; de Souza, Rodrigo Martins; Gordan, Pedro Alejandro; Esteves, Roberto Zonato; Coelho, Izabel Cristina Meister
We performed a pilot study to assess usability and playability of "InsuOnLine," a serious game for education of primary care physicians on insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus. A multidisciplinary team has designed and developed "InsuOnLine," using Andragogy and Problem-Based Learning principles, with game elements to improve players' motivation. The prototype was tested by four medical doctors and two medical students, using the System Usability Scale (SUS) and a questionnaire to assess playability. These results were used to guide corrections, after which the beta version was retested by 14 medical students and 6 residents. Out of a maximum score of 100 on the SUS, the "InsuOnLine" prototype was rated 88, and some areas for improvement were identified (game instructions, controls). After corrections, the beta version was rated 92.5 on the SUS. Users have found the beta version to be fun, engaging, challenging, relevant, and realistic. Users said that the game has increased their knowledge on diabetes and insulin, that it has made them feel more confident for prescribing insulin, and that it would have impact on how they treated patients with diabetes. Most users said they have learned more from the game than they would have from a lecture. Lessons learned were the need of early piloting, preferably by users with very little or very much gaming experience, on their own computers and free patterns of use. "InsuOnLine" was rated by users as easy to play, fun, and useful for learning. Further studies will assess its educational effectiveness. "InsuOnLine" is a promising tool for large-scale continuing medical education on insulin, helping to fight clinical inertia in diabetes.
Full Text Available The default mode network (DMN refers to regional brain activity that is greater during rest periods than during attention-demanding tasks and many studies have reported DMN alterations in patient populations. It has also been shown that the DMN is suppressed by scanner background noise (SBN, which is the noise produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. However, it is unclear whether different approaches to rest in the noisy MR environment can alter the DMN and constitute a confound in studies investigating the DMN in particular patient populations (e.g., individuals with schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease. We examined twenty-seven healthy adult volunteers who completed an fMRI experiment with 3 different instructions for rest: (1 relax and be still, (2 attend to SBN, or (3 ignore SBN. Region of interest (ROI analyses were performed to determine the influence of rest period instructions on core regions of the DMN and DMN regions previously reported to be altered in patients with or at risk for Alzheimer’s disease or schizophrenia. The dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC exhibited greater activity when specific resting instructions were given (i.e. attend to or ignore SBN compared to when non-specific resting instructions were given. Condition-related differences in connectivity were also observed between regions of the dmPFC and inferior parietal/posterior superior temporal cortex. We conclude that rest period instructions and SBN levels should be carefully considered for fMRI studies on the DMN, especially studies on clinical populations and groups that may have different approaches to rest, such as first-time research participants and children.
Bressel, Eadric; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Thompson, Brennan; Fontana, Fabio E
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of verbal instruction, surface stability, and load intensity on trunk muscle activity levels during the free weight squat exercise. Twelve trained males performed a free weight squat under four conditions: (1) standing on stable ground lifting 50% of their 1-repetition maximum (RM), (2) standing on a BOSU balance trainer lifting 50% of their 1-RM, (3) standing on stable ground lifting 75% of their 1-RM, and (4) receiving verbal instructions to activate the trunk muscles followed by lifting 50% of their 1-RM. Surface EMG activity from muscles rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TA/IO), and erector spinae (ES) were recorded for each condition and normalized for comparisons. Muscles RA, EO, and TA/IO displayed greater peak activity (39-167%) during squats with instructions compared to the other squat conditions (P=0.04-0.007). Peak EMG activity of muscle ES was greater for the 75% 1-RM condition than squats with instructions or lifting 50% of 1-RM (P=0.04-0.02). The results indicate that if the goal is to enhance EMG activity of the abdominal muscles during a multi-joint squat exercise then verbal instructions may be more effective than increasing load intensity or lifting on an unstable surface. However, in light of other research, conscious co-activation of the trunk muscles during the squat exercise may lead to spinal instability and hazardous compression forces in the lumbar spine.
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students With Disabilities AGENCY: U. S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in...
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students With Disabilities AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in...
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students With Disabilities AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in...
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students with Disabilities AGENCY: U. S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in...
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students With Disabilities AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in...
Titi J. Fola-Adebayo
Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of Pre-question and genre-based instructional strategies on science undergraduates’ achievement in, and attitude to, reading. Using purposive sampling,two specialised universities in Nigeria were selected and stratified sampling was employed in assigning students to research groups based on gender and performance in a verbal ability test. Two hundred and eighty-five students participated in the study. Pre-post randomised block experimental design was used with three experimental groups and one control group. The experimental procedure involving Pre-question, genre-based instruction and a combination of Pre-question and genre-based instructional strategies were used for the experimental groups for four weeks whilst the control group received normal teacher input. Data were collected through a Reading Comprehension Achievement Test and Students’ Attitude Questionnaire. Qualitative data, obtained from videotapes of classroom interactions, were subjected to conversation and interaction analyses and quantitative data were analysed with Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA. The results indicate that although there was no significant main effect of instructional strategy on students’ achievement in reading comprehension, there was significant main effect of instructional strategy on students’ attitude to reading (F(3,231 = 30.9;p <.05. Findings from the qualitative enquiry revealed that female students were more voluble and assertive in their responses probably because of the need to resist male domination whilst male students used discourse strategies to affirm their authority. The study indicated that the combination of pre-question and genre-based approach was the most effective in enhancing the students’ attitude to reading. Reading is one of the most useful of the Language Arts skills which learners need for academic reasons and for lifelong learning. The globalised world demands that the second language
Pepin, B.; Choppin, J.; Ruthven, K.; Sinclair, N.
In this conceptual review paper we draw on recent literature with respect to digital curriculum resources (DCR); we briefly outline and explain selected theoretical frames; and we discuss issues related to the design, and the use (by teachers and students) of digital curricula and e-textbooks in mathematics education. The results of our review show the following. Firstly, whilst there are some contrasting tendencies between research on instructional technology and research on DCR, these studi...
The influence of instructional materials on mathematics achievement of senior secondary students in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, ... the ten public secondary schools in Akamkpa Local Government Area by stratified random technique, and two (2) Mathematics teachers per school for the study.
José Emilio Sánchez-García
Full Text Available The first massive open online courses cMOOC lacked an instructional design and have now shifted to models that have an instructional design called xMOOC. This document makes a proposal instructional design for MOOC using the simplified adaptive method SAM inspired by the theory development and strategy of Mastery Learning as part of the research method based on the design of the qualitative paradigm. The results explain and justify the procedure used for the preparation of instructional design. The conclusion that has been reached is that both SAM and strategy Mastery Learning has allowed the instructional design for MOOC easily with emphasis in practice but supported with theoretical, personalized basis by tracking post and considering the learning strategy for the domain.
Ajumobi, Adewale B; Malakouti, Mazyar; Bullen, Alexander; Ahaneku, Hycienth; Lunsford, Tisha N
Instructional videos on bowel preparation have been shown to improve bowel preparation scores during colonoscopy. YouTube™ is one of the most frequently visited website on the internet and contains videos on bowel preparation. In an era where patients are increasingly turning to social media for guidance on their health, the content of these videos merits further investigation. We assessed the content of bowel preparation videos available on YouTube™ to determine the proportion of YouTube™ videos on bowel preparation that are high-content videos and the characteristics of these videos. YouTube™ videos were assessed for the following content: (1) definition of bowel preparation, (2) importance of bowel preparation, (3) instructions on home medications, (4) name of bowel cleansing agent (BCA), (5) instructions on when to start taking BCA, (6) instructions on volume and frequency of BCA intake, (7) diet instructions, (8) instructions on fluid intake, (9) adverse events associated with BCA, and (10) rectal effluent. Each content parameter was given 1 point for a total of 10 points. Videos with ≥5 points were considered by our group to be high-content videos. Videos with ≤4 points were considered low-content videos. Forty-nine (59 %) videos were low-content videos while 34 (41 %) were high-content videos. There was no association between number of views, number of comments, thumbs up, thumbs down or engagement score, and videos deemed high-content. Multiple regression analysis revealed bowel preparation videos on YouTube™ with length >4 minutes and non-patient authorship to be associated with high-content videos.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This line theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as lines. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...
Athanasia D. Panopoulos
Full Text Available Summary: Large-scale collections of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs could serve as powerful model systems for examining how genetic variation affects biology and disease. Here we describe the iPSCORE resource: a collection of systematically derived and characterized iPSC lines from 222 ethnically diverse individuals that allows for both familial and association-based genetic studies. iPSCORE lines are pluripotent with high genomic integrity (no or low numbers of somatic copy-number variants as determined using high-throughput RNA-sequencing and genotyping arrays, respectively. Using iPSCs from a family of individuals, we show that iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes demonstrate gene expression patterns that cluster by genetic background, and can be used to examine variants associated with physiological and disease phenotypes. The iPSCORE collection contains representative individuals for risk and non-risk alleles for 95% of SNPs associated with human phenotypes through genome-wide association studies. Our study demonstrates the utility of iPSCORE for examining how genetic variants influence molecular and physiological traits in iPSCs and derived cell lines. : Working as part of the NHLBI NextGen consortium, Panopoulos and colleagues report the derivation and characterization of 222 publicly available iPSCs from ethnically diverse individuals with corresponding genomic data including SNP arrays, RNA-seq, and whole-genome sequencing. This collection provides a powerful resource to investigate the function of genetic variants. Keywords: iPSCORE, iPSC, GWAS, molecular traits, physiological traits, cardiac disease, NHLBI Next Gen, LQT2, KCNH2, iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes
The use of interactive, computer-based training (CBT) courses can be a time- and resource-saving alternative to formal instruction in a classroom milieu. With CBT, students can proceed at their own pace, fit the study course into their schedule, and avoid the extra time and effort involved in travel and other special arrangements. The demonstration given here is an abbreviated, annotated version of a recently developed course in basic material control and accounting designed for the MC and A novice. The system used is ''Quest'' which includes multi-media capabilities, individual scoring, and built-in result-reporting capabilities for the course administrator. Efficient instruction and training are more important than ever because of the growing numbers of relatively inexperienced persons becoming active in safeguards
Bailey, Benjamin; Arciuli, Joanne; Stancliffe, Roger J.
This study explored the effects of an evidence-based literacy program, ABRACADABRA, on the spelling abilities of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty children with ASD aged 5-11 years were assigned to matched instruction and waitlist control groups. Children in the instruction group received 26 hrs of individualized, home-based…
The significance of integrating technology use in higher education instruction is undeniable. The benefits include those related to access to instruction by underserved populations, adequately preparing students for future careers, capitalizing on best instructional practices, developing higher order thinking activities, and engaging students…
Vancouver Community Coll., British Columbia.
After examining the impact of changing technology on postsecondary instruction and on the tools needed for instruction, this report analyzes the status and offers recommendations concerning the future of instructional computing at Vancouver Community College (VCC) in British Columbia. Section I focuses on the use of computers in community college…
With the growth of both free and subscription-based resources, articles on astronomy have never been easier to find. Locating the best and most current materials for any given search, however, now requires multiple tools and strategies dependent on the query. An analysis of the tools currently available shows that while astronomy is well-served by Google Scholar, Scopus and Inspec, its literature is best accessed through specialized resources such as ADS (Astrophysics Data System). While no surprise to astronomers, this has major implications for those of us who teach information literacy skills to astronomy students and work in academic settings where astronomy is just one of many subjects for which our non-specialist colleagues at the reference desk provide assistance. This paper will examine some of the implications of this analysis for library instruction, reference assistance and training, and library webpage development.
Van Dessel, Pieter; Mertens, Gaëtan; Smith, Colin Tucker; De Houwer, Jan
The mere exposure effect refers to the well-established finding that people evaluate a stimulus more positively after repeated exposure to that stimulus. We investigated whether a change in stimulus evaluation can occur also when participants are not repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, but are merely instructed that one stimulus will occur frequently and another stimulus will occur infrequently. We report seven experiments showing that (1) mere exposure instructions influence implicit stimulus evaluations as measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT), personalized Implicit Association Test (pIAT), or Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), but not with an Evaluative Priming Task (EPT), (2) mere exposure instructions influence explicit evaluations, and (3) the instruction effect depends on participants' memory of which stimulus will be presented more frequently. We discuss how these findings inform us about the boundary conditions of mere exposure instruction effects, as well as the mental processes that underlie mere exposure and mere exposure instruction effects.
The effect of differentiated instructional strategies on students' retention in geometry in senior secondary schools was examined. The study employed experimental research design of pretest, posttest control group. The area of this study is Abuja Municipal Area Council, the Federal Capital Territory. The target population ...
Sanny, M; Luning, P A; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S
The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the effect of frying instructions on food handlers' control decisions in restaurants and to investigate the impact of control decisions on the variation and concentration of acrylamide in French fries. The concentrations of acrylamide and reducing sugars were analyzed, the frying temperature and time were measured, and thawing practices were observed. The results obtained before and after instructions were provided to the food handlers were compared for restaurants as a group and for each restaurant. Frying instructions supported food handlers' decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175°C; all handlers started frying at the correct temperature. However, the effect of the instructions on the food handlers' decisions for frying time differed; most handlers increased the frying time beyond 240 s to achieve crispier French fries with a final color dictated by their preference. Providing instructions did not result in a significant difference in the mean concentration of acrylamide in French fries for the restaurants as a group. However, data analyzed for each restaurant revealed that when food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower (169 μg/kg) than that before instructions were provided (1,517 μg/kg). When food handlers did not complying with the frying instructions, mean acrylamide concentrations were even higher than those before instructions were provided. Two different strategies were developed to overcome the noncompliant behavior of food handlers: establishing requirements for the features of commercial fryers and strict monitoring of compliance with instructions.
Seyyed Taher Alavi
Full Text Available Zoltán Dörnyei (2005 proposed a new form of motivation which is aiming at equipping the learners with a lifelong approach to motivation which is self-induced by the learner and it is not needed for any extrinsic mediation, having understood how to keep yourself motivated. This study was an attempt to find out the effect of self-motivation strategies instruction on the learners belief on learner autonomy in L2 learning. To find out the possible effect of our independent variable we selected one intermediate level class in grade 2 (25 male in high school out of the whole population of high school students in west Azerbaijan, Iran via availability sampling. Having ensured for the homogeneity of the class members’ English proficiency through Nelson test, we gave them a questionnaire on the learner’s belief on autonomy in learning L2 to answer. Then within two months, in a separate class the students were given instructions on how to employ self-motivation strategies while learning English. After two months of instruction, they were given the same questionnaire again to get to know the possible effect of our independent variable. Having analyzed the obtained data in SPSS software, the results showed that our hypothesis was rejected and our null hypothesis was verified.
Knapper, Christopher K.
This paper on instructional development notes the trend toward teaching improvement efforts, classifies instructional development centers in terms of their differing philosophies of operation, and identifies some general problems that have been encountered in institutional efforts to improve teaching and learning. Centers in North America, Europe,…
Improving the Status of Human and Material Resources in Public Primary School in Oyo States ... the Millennium Development Goals project in the State. ... libraries, well-equipped first aid centres, adequate electronically projected instructional ...
Greenspan, Elizabeth; Krentz, Susanna E; O'Neill, Molly K
Service-line planning requires a healthcare organization to develop a business plan for each of its service lines. Successful service-line planning requires top leadership support, a willingness to allocate resources, the development of support mechanisms, the active support and involvement of physicians, and management commitment and accountability during implementation.
McIver, Derrick; Fitzsimmons, Stacey; Flanagan, David
Decisions about instructional methods are becoming more complex, with options ranging from problem sets to experiential service-learning projects. However, instructors not trained in instructional design may make these important decisions based on convenience, comfort, or trends. Instead, this article draws on the knowledge management literature…
Broekema, Theo H.; Talsma, Aaldert K.; Wevers, Kevin P.; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E. N.
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that the use of intraoperative instructional videos has a positive effect on learning laparoscopic procedures. This study investigated the effect of the timing of the instructional videos on learning curves in laparoscopic skills training. DESIGN: After
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students With Disabilities AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education....gov or by mail to Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education...
instructional objectives on students' achievement in selected difficult concepts in senior ... nature of science learning in general, and physics learning in particular, as ..... curriculum as perceived by in-service mathematics teachers. Journal of ...
Linford, Anthony G.; Jeanrenaud, Claudine Y.
The manual of programed instruction for motor skills and recreational activities for trainable mentally handicapped children includes guidelines on basic recreation movements, rhythm in music, handicrafts, and miscellaneous activities. The guidelines employ principles of behavior change and direct instruction. Detailed programed instruction lists…
Kuda Malwathumullage, Chamathca Priyanwada
Recent advancements in instructional technology and interactive learning space designs have transformed how undergraduate classrooms are envisioned and conducted today. Large number of research studies have documented the impact of instructional technology and interactive learning spaces on elevated student learning gains, positive attitudes, and increased student engagement in undergraduate classrooms across nation. These research findings combined with the movement towards student-centered instructional strategies have motivated college professors to explore the unfamiliar territories of instructional technology and interactive learning spaces. Only a limited number of research studies that explored college professors' perspective on instructional technology and interactive learning space use in undergraduate classrooms exist in the education research literature. Since college professors are an essential factor in undergraduate students' academic success, investigating how college professors perceive and utilize instructional technology and interactive learning environments can provide insights into designing effective professional development programs for college professors across undergraduate institutions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate college professors' pedagogical reasoning behind incorporating different types of instructional technologies and teaching strategies to foster student learning in technology-infused interactive learning environments. Furthermore, this study explored the extent to which college professors' instructional decisions and practices are affected by teaching in an interactive learning space along with their overall perception of instructional technology and interactive learning spaces. Four college professors from a large public Midwestern university who taught undergraduate science courses in a classroom based on the 'SCALE-UP model' participated in this study. Major data sources included classroom
... at the mine. 77.1708 Section 77.1708 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1708 Safety program; instruction of persons...
Khan, Azam; Breslav, Simon; Hornbæk, Kasper
An instructional approach is presented to improve human performance in solving Bayesian inference problems. Starting from the original text of the classic Mammography Problem, the textual expression is modified and visualizations are added according to Mayer’s principles of instruction. These pri......An instructional approach is presented to improve human performance in solving Bayesian inference problems. Starting from the original text of the classic Mammography Problem, the textual expression is modified and visualizations are added according to Mayer’s principles of instruction....... These principles concern coherence, personalization, signaling, segmenting, multimedia, spatial contiguity, and pretraining. Principles of self-explanation and interactivity are also applied. Four experiments on the Mammography Problem showed that these principles help participants answer the questions...... that an instructional approach to improving human performance in Bayesian inference is a promising direction....
Maria Victoria PABRUA BATOON
Full Text Available This article describes a qualitative research analysis on the implementation of interactive e-books in high school courses using a case study approach. The subjects of the study included seven professors and 16 freshmen who were surveyed and interviewed with a questionnaire designed according to the Kemp Model of Instructional Design. The study revealed that participants use interactive e-books as a technological educational resource. The professors pointed out that the design of the interactive e-books helped students develop essential learning skills: technological ability, reading and writing skills, as well as cognition and metacognition abilities. Furthermore, the students noted that the use of interactive e-books has a positive effect on their grades due to its high audio and visual contents. However, the students indicated that they were allured to chat, to play or to navigate in their mobile device while they were using it. Finally, this study can contribute to the relative knowledge about the use of mobile technology in education, as well as, it aids the professor to make a reflection about the Instructional Design of the educational technological resources used in the classroom to promote better result in the process of learning.
Felix-Brasdefer, J. Cesar; Cohen, Andrew D.
This article focuses on the teaching of pragmatics in the Spanish as a Foreign Language classroom and examines the role of grammar as a communicative resource. It also aims to highlight the importance of teaching pragmatics from beginning levels of language instruction, with the spotlight on speech acts at the discourse level. After the concept of…
Many administrators are so overwhelmed by the basic responsibilities of their daily work that there seems to be little or no time left for providing quality leadership in instruction. Instead, schools employ department chairs, instructional specialists, and coordinators to provide instructional leadership. How can administrators find time in the…
Goldman, Susan R.
Experiments in strategy instruction for mathematics have been conducted using three models (direct instruction, self-instruction, and guided learning) applied to the tasks of computation and word problem solving. Results have implications for effective strategy instruction for learning disabled students. It is recommended that strategy instruction…
Tyner, Bryan C; Fienup, Daniel M
Graphing is socially significant for behavior analysts; however, graphing can be difficult to learn. Video modeling (VM) may be a useful instructional method but lacks evidence for effective teaching of computer skills. A between-groups design compared the effects of VM, text-based instruction, and no instruction on graphing performance. Participants who used VM constructed graphs significantly faster and with fewer errors than those who used text-based instruction or no instruction. Implications for instruction are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Campbell, John Joseph
This study investigated the effects of prereading exercises on the comprehension of written instructional material. The subjects were 210 community college freshmen who were required to enroll in a developmental reading course. All of the subjects had scored below the eighth percentile on the national norms of the Davis Reading Test. The subjects…
Ackerley, Katherine; Helm, Francesca
This volume gives voice to the views and experiences of researchers, lecturers, administrative staff, teacher trainers and students with regard to the implementation of English-medium instruction in a public university based in the north-east of Italy.
Aida Mercedes Gomez-Suarez
Full Text Available The appropriation of information and communication technologies (ICTs in the processes of teaching and learning is one of the main challenges of educational institutions and teachers in the current society of knowledge, as responsible for a use Rational and meaningful use of its digital educational resources (RED. This involves developing competencies in the implementation of ICT in the classroom to enrich the learning environments. This article presents a reflection on the instructional guide as a didactic tool in the elaboration of RED that facilitates the design of these resources to support the activities of the classroom in these processes. This reflection is the result of a research on the subject carried out in a context of university teaching
Radonjić, Ana; Brainard, David H
The instructions subjects receive can have a large effect on experimentally measured color constancy, but the nature of these effects and how their existence should inform our understanding of color perception remains unclear. We used a factorial design to measure how instructional effects on constancy vary with experimental task and stimulus set. In each of 2 experiments, we employed both a classic adjustment-based asymmetric matching task and a novel color selection task. Four groups of naive subjects were instructed to make adjustments/selections based on (a) color (neutral instructions); (b) the light reaching the eye (physical spectrum instructions); (c) the actual surface reflectance of an object (objective reflectance instructions); or (d) the apparent surface reflectance of an object (apparent reflectance instructions). Across the 2 experiments we varied the naturalness of the stimuli. We find clear interactions between instructions, task, and stimuli. With simplified stimuli (Experiment 1), instructional effects were large and the data revealed 2 instruction-dependent patterns. In 1 (neutral and physical spectrum instructions) constancy was low, intersubject variability was also low, and adjustment-based and selection-based constancy were in agreement. In the other (reflectance instructions) constancy was high, intersubject variability was large, adjustment-based constancy deviated from selection-based constancy and for some subjects selection-based constancy increased across sessions. Similar patterns held for naturalistic stimuli (Experiment 2), although instructional effects were smaller. We interpret these 2 patterns as signatures of distinct task strategies-1 is perceptual, with judgments based primarily on the perceptual representation of color; the other involves explicit instruction-driven reasoning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Jacobs, Barbara B; Lazar, Ann A; Rowe, Dorothy J
To assess the instruction of pathology content in entry-level and advanced practitioner dental hygiene educational programs and the program directors' perceptions whether their graduates are adequately prepared to meet the increasingly complex medical and oral health needs of the public. A 28-question survey of instructional content and perceptions was developed and distributed using Qualtrics® software to the 340 directors of entry-level and advanced practitioner dental hygiene programs in the US. Respondents rated their level of agreement to a series of statements regarding their perceptions of graduates' preparation to perform particular dental hygiene services associated with pathology. Descriptive statistics for all 28 categorical survey questions were calculated and presented as the frequency (percentage). Of the 340 directors surveyed, 130 (38%) responded. Most entry-level respondents (53%) agreed or strongly agreed (29%) that their graduates were adequately prepared to meet the complex medical and oral health needs of the public, while all respondents of advanced practitioner programs strongly agreed. More respondents strongly agreed to statements related to clinical instruction than to didactic courses. While 64% of respondents agreed that their graduates were prepared to practice unsupervised, if it were legally allowed, 21% were ambivalent. The extent of pathology instruction in entry-level programs varied, but most used traditional formats of instruction, educational resources and assessments of educational outcomes. Advanced practitioner programs emphasized histological and clinical examination of oral lesions and patient case studies. Strengthening pathology instruction would ensure that future generations of dental hygienists would be adequately prepared to treat medically compromised patients. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Mastruserio Reynolds, Kate
This accessible book takes a critical approach towards content-based instruction methods, bridging the gap between theory and practice in order to allow teachers to make an informed decision about best practices for an inclusive classroom. It is a resource for both educators and ESL teachers working within an English learner inclusion environment.
Ekwue, Eleazer U.
The practical nature of physics and its reliance on mathematical presentations and problem solving pose a challenge toward presentation of the course in an online environment for effective learning experience. Most first-time introductory college physics students fail to grasp the basic concepts of the course and the problem solving skills if the instructional strategy used to deliver the course is not compatible with the learners' preferred learning styles. This study investigates the effect of four instructional strategies based on four learning styles (listening, reading, iconic, and direct-experience) to improve learning for introductory college physics in an online environment. Learning styles of 146 participants were determined with Canfield Learning Style inventory. Of the 85 learners who completed the study, research results showed a statistically significant increase in learning performance following the online instruction in all four learning style groups. No statistically significant differences in learning were found among the four groups. However, greater significant academic improvement was found among learners with iconic and direct-experience modes of learning. Learners in all four groups expressed that the design of the unit presentation to match their individual learning styles contributed most to their learning experience. They were satisfied with learning a new physics concept online that, in their opinion, is either comparable or better than an instructor-led classroom experience. Findings from this study suggest that learners' performance and satisfaction in an online introductory physics course could be improved by using instructional designs that are tailored to learners' preferred ways of learning. It could contribute toward the challenge of providing viable online physics instruction in colleges and universities.
Full Text Available Human resources are the primary factor for development of competitiveness and innovation and reaching competitive advantage and they try to improve corporate capabilities through various characteristics such as value creation, scarcity and difficulty of imitation. This paper investigates the effect of human resource flexibility and its dimensions on human resource development and its dimensions. The survey was conducted using descriptive-correlation method that intended to describe how human resource flexibility was effective on human resource development. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. The statistical population included one hundred employees of the Electric Company in Ilam province, thus census method was used. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured via Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.96. The findings revealed that flexibility and its dimensions were effective on human resource development and dimensions of it. As a result, human resource flexibility should be considered for development of human resources and employees with the highest flexibility should be selected.
Mulhearn, Tyler J; Steele, Logan M; Watts, Logan L; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane
Increased investment in ethics education has prompted a variety of instructional objectives and frameworks. Yet, no systematic procedure to classify these varying instructional approaches has been attempted. In the present study, a quantitative clustering procedure was conducted to derive a typology of instruction in ethics education. In total, 330 ethics training programs were included in the cluster analysis. The training programs were appraised with respect to four instructional categories including instructional content, processes, delivery methods, and activities. Eight instructional approaches were identified through this clustering procedure, and these instructional approaches showed different levels of effectiveness. Instructional effectiveness was assessed based on one of nine commonly used ethics criteria. With respect to specific training types, Professional Decision Processes Training (d = 0.50) and Field-Specific Compliance Training (d = 0.46) appear to be viable approaches to ethics training based on Cohen's d effect size estimates. By contrast, two commonly used approaches, General Discussion Training (d = 0.31) and Norm Adherence Training (d = 0.37), were found to be considerably less effective. The implications for instruction in ethics training are discussed.
In 2008, the Digital Initiatives Coordinating Committee (DICC) requested a comprehensive assessment of the UW Digital Collections (UWDC). The goal of this assessment was to better understand faculty awareness of and expectations for digital library resources, services and tools; obtain faculty feedback on digital resource and service needs that…
Comparison of Effects of Teaching English to Thai Undergraduate Teacher-Students through Cross-Curricular Thematic Instruction Program Based on Multiple Intelligence Theory and Conventional Instruction
This study is aimed at comparing the effects of teaching English to Thai undergraduate teacher-students through cross-curricular thematic instruction program based on multiple intelligence theory and through conventional instruction. Two experimental groups, which utilized Randomized True Control Group-Pretest-posttest Time Series Design and…
Anderson, Charles W.; Sheldon, Theresa H.; Dubay, Joann
Students in a college nonscience majors' biology course took tests designed to reveal their conceptions of respiration and photosynthesis before and after course instruction. Even though most students had taken at least a full year of biology, serious misconceptions persisted. Most students gave definitions of respiration, photosynthesis, and food which were markedly different from those generally accepted by biologists. These incorrect definitions were associated with more fundamental misunderstandings about how plants and animals function. Most students could not explain how animal cells use either food or oxygen. They understood plants as vaguely analogous to animals, taking in food through their roots instead of mouths. Previous biology instruction seemed neither to improve student performance on the pretest nor to prepare them to master these conceptions during the course. Course instruction did improve student's understanding, but misconceptions persisted for many students. These results raise fundamental questions about the effectiveness of curriculum and instruction in current high school and college biology courses.
Gvozdjak, L.; Hanulova, L.; Jankovicova, A.; Scepanek, L.
The DIDAK system has been developed for the instruction and training of specialized personnel of nuclear power plants. The structure of the instruction system comprises three processes: the author process, the instruction process and the administration process. Author processes provide the didactic data structure with instruction texts. In the text data base the instruction material is stored in 6 direct access nonformatted files. The instruction system receives information from the text data base and presents it to the student. According to the student's response it creates the preconditions for the further operation of the system which it stores in the data base for administration of instruction. This base contains data on the identification of students, on the instruction process of the individual and the instruction process as a whole. Administrative processes take place in the final stage. They provide information on the general course of instruction and make final evaluations. From the data base of products of the instruction process the said administrative processes produce output information for the teacher. The subject matter of each subject is divided into a finite number of elementary units of subject matter. Each elementary unit provides basic information on the explained subject matter and is followed by a check of the student's knowledge. In dependence on the results of this check the student either advances to a higher level elementary unit or proceeds to an alternative branch of the initial unit. (E.S.)
Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the influence of the cross-linguistic variation on the construction of boundarycrossing motion events in the translation production of the Turkish speakers of L2 English and to measure the impact of explicit instruction and metalinguistic awareness on the learners’ understanding of typological differences and hence their development of L2 ways of expressing motion events. To this aim, the study followed a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design, involving a treatment and a control group. A total of 46 second-year university students participated in the study. They were all majoring in English at the English Language Teaching Department, at a state university in Turkey. The control (18 females and 5 males and the treatment group (14 females and 9 males received a two-week instructional treatment, the first group receiving an implicit instruction, and the second an explicit instruction of the boundary-crossing motion event constructions. Prior to the instructional intervention, a pre-test was administered to the participants. Mann-Whitney U test run on the mean scores obtained from the pre-tests indicated no significant differences between the control and the treatment group, U = 282.5, z = .416, p = .678. Within-group analysis based on post-test results after the termination of the instructional treatment revealed that while the implicit instruction had no effect on learners’ acquisition of motion events, z = 1.842, p = .066., the explicit instruction had a significant effect on L1 Turkish learners’ development of their knowledge of L2-like English patterns in construing motion events. Similarly, between-group analysis revealed that the treatment group (Mdn = 4.00, who received an explicit instruction significantly outperformed the control group (Mdn = 2.00, who received implicit instruction, U = 410.5, z = 3.257, p = .001. The study concluded with the implications of findings for English
This study examines the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English, a process referred to as Anglicization, on student learning in the context of introductory microbiology instruction. Data from Anglicized and Classical-vocabulary lab sections were collected. Data included exam scores as well as pre and…
Full Text Available The goal of this study is to reveal possible influence that the participants' age and Information and Communications Technologies (ICT usage in the instruction process can have on behavior that defines whether students and teachers belong to one of the Digital Native/Immigrant or Visitor/Resident groups. We collected data through two surveys that covered a total of 1273 students and 382 teachers from southern regions of Serbia. The surveys consisted of questions about availability of computers and internet, ICT use in the instruction process, and communication habits in the ICT-empowered instruction process. The first survey covered both, students and teachers that were involved in the instruction process mostly deprived of the ICT usage. The second survey covered participants of an instruction process that was successfully improved by an ICT usage. Data analysis shows a shift in communication patterns of teachers and a sharp improvement in computer use for educational purposes for both groups included in the surveys. The change is induced by a proper ICT usage in the instruction process. Conclusions that followed the data analysis lead us to better approaches in organizing ICT usage in the instruction process that enable participants fully employ their resources in order to improve teaching techniques and learning.
Suárez, Natalia; Sánchez, Carmen R; Jiménez, Juan E; Anguera, M Teresa
The main goal of this study was to analyze whether primary teachers use evidence-based reading instruction for primary-grade readers. The study sample consisted of six teachers whose teaching was recorded. The observation instrument used was developed ad hoc for this study. The recording instrument used was Match Vision Studio. The data analysis was performed using SAS, GT version 2.0 E, and THEME. The results indicated that the teaching practices used most frequently and for the longest duration were: feedback (i.e., correcting the student when reading); fluency (i.e., individual and group reading, both out loud and silently, with and without intonation); literal or inference comprehension exercises (i.e., summarizing, asking questions); and use of educational resources (i.e., stories, songs, poems). Later, we conducted analyses of T-Patterns that showed the sequence of instruction in detail. We can conclude that practices used by the majority of teachers were based on the recommendations of the National Reading Panel (NRP). Only one teacher followed best practices. The same was the case for instructional time spent on the five essential components of reading, with the exception of teacher E., who dedicated 70.31% of class time implementing best practices. Teaching practices (i.e., learners' activities) designed and implemented to exercise and master alphabetic knowledge and phonological awareness skills were used less frequently in the classroom.
Full Text Available This paper presents current research on the second language acquisition of English phonology and its implication for (and applications to pronunciation instruction in the language classroom. More specifically, the paper follows the development of English word-final consonants by Brazilian Portuguese speakers learning English as a foreign language. The findings of two parallel studies reveal that the acquisition of these constituents is motivated by both extralinguistic (proficiency, style and linguistic (word size, place of articulation factors, and that the process is mediated by an intermediate stage characterized by consonant lengthening or aspiration (Onset-Nucleus sharing. Based on these results, I propose that the segments and environments that seem to delay coda production (i.e., monosyllabic words, labial and dorsal consonants should be given priority in pronunciation instruction. Along the lines of Dickerson (1975, this paper proposes (what we believe is a more effective and socially realistic pedagogy for the teaching of English pronunciation within an approach that recognizes that "variability is the norm rather than the exception" in second language acquisition.
Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong
China launched the "learning in a regular classroom" (LRC) model for inclusive education in the 1980s. In late 1990s, a few major cities of China began to adopt the resource room model as a key feature of the LRC to improve instructional qualities. This exploratory study examined resource teachers' (RTs) attitude towards inclusive…
O'Brien, Barbara S.; Renner, Alice
Describes how adult learning theory was used to restructure registered nurse courses for online instruction. Hardware/software needs, technical support, instructional model, teaching-learning considerations, and evaluation are discussed. (SK)
Cortés, Carlos Manuel Pacheco; Cortés, Adriana Margarita Pacheco
The following study consists on comparative literature review conducted by several researchers and instructional designers; for a wide comprehension of Mobile-Learning (abbreviated "M-Learning") as an educational platform to provide "anytime-anywhere" access to interactions and resources on-line, and "Technological…
Hermawan, Hermawan; Siahaan, Parsaoran; Suhendi, Endi; Samsudin, Achmad
Multimedia-Based Integrated Instructions (MBI2) has been developed to promote the collaboration skills on reflection concepts turn into more real and meaningful learning. The initial design of MBI2 in the form of a multimedia computer that allows users to explore the concept of the overall reflectance of the light through the conceptual and practical aspects that have been developed. MBI2has been developed to promoteone of the skills that the 21st-century skills to students'junior high school that is collaboration skill in order to compete in the future life. The ability to collaborate is divided into five aspects, namely contributions, time management, problem-solving, working with others and research techniques. Research methods utiliseed in this study is an exploration and instructional development 4D model (define, design, develop and disseminate). Based on data analysis, it can be concluded that the development of integrated multimedia-based instruction (MBI2) on the concept of reflection through the 4D developing model was effectively to enhance collaboration skills of students'junior high school.
Full Text Available Background: There are limited data on the failure of second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART and the use of third-line ART in people living with HIV in resource-limited settings. Since 2011, the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF HIV/tuberculosis programme in Mumbai, India, has been providing third-line ART to patients in care. Objective: To describe the experiences and programmatic challenges during management of suspected second-line ART failure and third-line ART therapy for patients living with HIV, including the use of HIV viral load (VL testing. Design: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with suspected second-line ART treatment failure, who were followed for at least 12 months between January 2011 and March 2014. Results: A total of 47 patients with suspected second-line failure met the inclusion criteria during the study period. Twenty-nine of them (62% responded to enhanced adherence support, had a subsequent undetectable VL after a median duration of 3 months and remained on second-line ART. The other 18 patients had to be initiated on a third-line ART regimen, which consisted of darunavir–ritonavir, raltegravir, and one or more appropriate nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, based on the results of HIV genotype testing. Of the 13 patients for whom follow-up VL results were available, 11 achieved virological suppression after a median duration of 3 months on third-line ART (interquartile range: 2.5–3.0. No serious treatment-related adverse events were recorded. Conclusions: With intensive counselling and adherence support in those suspected of failing second-line ART, unnecessary switching to more expensive third-line ART can be averted in the majority of cases. However, there is an increasing need for access to third-line ART medications such as darunavir and raltegravir, for which national ART programmes should be prepared. The cost of such medications and inadequate access to VL
Cakmak, Sedanur; Isiksal, Mine; Koc, Yusuf
The authors' purpose was to investigate the effect of origami-based instruction on elementary students' spatial ability. The students' self-reported perceptions related to the origami-based instruction were also examined. Data was collected via purposive sampling techniques from students enrolled in a private elementary school. A spatial ability…
This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…
Broekema, Theo H; Talsma, Aaldert K; Wevers, Kevin P; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N
Previous studies have shown that the use of intraoperative instructional videos has a positive effect on learning laparoscopic procedures. This study investigated the effect of the timing of the instructional videos on learning curves in laparoscopic skills training. After completing a basic skills course on a virtual reality simulator, medical students and residents with less than 1 hour experience using laparoscopic instruments were randomized into 2 groups. Using an instructional video either preoperatively or intraoperatively, both groups then performed 4 repetitions of a standardized task on the TrEndo augmented reality. With the TrEndo, 9 motion analysis parameters (MAPs) were recorded for each session (4 MAPs for each hand and time). These were the primary outcome measurements for performance. The time spent watching the instructional video was also recorded. Improvement in performance was studied within and between groups. Medical Center Leeuwarden, a secondary care hospital located in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. Right-hand dominant medical student and residents with more than 1 hour experience operating any kind of laparoscopic instruments were participated. A total of 23 persons entered the study, of which 21 completed the study course. In both groups, at least 5 of 9 MAPs showed significant improvements between repetition 1 and 4. When both groups were compared after completion of repetition 4, no significant differences in improvement were detected. The intraoperative group showed significant improvement in 3 MAPs of the left-nondominant-hand, compared with one MAP for the preoperative group. No significant differences in learning curves could be detected between the subjects who used intraoperative instructional videos and those who used preoperative instructional videos. Intraoperative video instruction may result in improved dexterity of the nondominant hand. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc
At the same time research shows that little, if any, explicit and continuous strategy instruction takes place in classrooms. Reasons seem ... This article reports on the effect of a reading comprehension instruction course on university student teachers' lesson planning, strategy use and views about comprehension instruction.
In late 1988, Midland College in Texas implemented a desktop publishing service to produce instructional aids and reduce and complement the workload of the campus print shop. The desktop service was placed in the Media Services Department of the Learning Resource Center (LRC) for three reasons: the LRC was already established as a campus-wide…
research found that several contextual factors contributed to teachers' instructional practices including internal and external issues such as school environment, limited resources, large class sizes, standardized test pressure, and limited accessibility to professional development. The findings provide insight on the readiness of middle school teachers to implement the Turkish Curriculum Framework, specifically, teacher readiness to put science inquiry instructional approaches into actual classroom practice. Given that new Turkish policy calls for greater inquiry instruction, this study can help inform teacher development efforts directed at promoting science inquiry instruction.
Rao, Sumangala P.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.
Applies Benson's think-pair-share and Mazur's peer instruction techniques to enhance student involvement during the respiratory component of the medical physiology class. Investigates changes in students' level of understanding and ability to synthesize and integrate material. Includes 15 references. (Author/YDS)
French, David M.; Hayes, Timothy A.; Pope, Howard L.; Enriquez, Alejandro E.; Carson, Peter H.
In times of continuing fiscal constraints, a management and operation tool that is straightforward to implement, works as advertised, and virtually ensures compliant waste packaging should be carefully considered and employed wherever practicable. In the near future, the Department of Energy (DOE) will issue the first major update to DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This update will contain a requirement for sites that do not have a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste certification program to use two newly developed technical standards: Contact-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions and Remote-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions. The technical standards are being developed from the DOE O 435.1 Notice, Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Packaging, approved August 2011. The packaging instructions will provide detailed information and instruction for packaging almost every conceivable type of transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal at WIPP. While providing specificity, the packaging instructions leave to each site's own discretion the actual mechanics of how those Instructions will be functionally implemented at the floor level. While the Technical Standards are designed to provide precise information for compliant packaging, the density of the information in the packaging instructions necessitates a type of Rosetta Stone that translates the requirements into concise, clear, easy to use and operationally practical recipes that are waste stream and facility specific for use by both first line management and hands-on operations personnel. The Waste Generator Instructions provide the operator with step-by-step instructions that will integrate the sites' various operational requirements (e.g., health and safety limits, radiological limits or dose limits) and result in a WIPP certifiable waste and package that can be transported to and emplaced at WIPP. These little known but widely productive Waste
Houtveen, A.A M; Booy, N; de Jong, Robert (Rob); van de Grift, W.J C M
In this article the results are reported of a quasi-experiment on effects of adaptive instruction on reading results of children in the first year of reading instruction in Dutch primary schools. The research involved 456 pupils from 23 schools (12 experimental and 11 control group schools).
Collins, Karla B.; Doll, Carol A.
The mission of the school library "is to ensure students and staff are effective users of ideas and information" (AASL 2009, 8). The school library collection should, therefore, support instruction throughout the school. However, teachers do not always understand the potential value of the resources available. This research explored…
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repairs to energized surface high-voltage lines... Repairs to energized surface high-voltage lines. An energized high-voltage surface line may be repaired... on power circuits with a phase-to-phase nominal voltage no greater than 15,000 volts; (3) Such...
Ream, Tim; Parker-Kelly, Darlene
Beginning in 2012, the Charles R. Drew University (CDU) Health Sciences Library used LibGuides in a number of innovative ways. Librarians constructed e-book databases, in-depth tutorials on technology-related topics, and web pages highlighting special events. To assess similar LibGuides innovation, CDU librarians developed an eight-question survey distributed to health sciences and hospital libraries throughout Southern California and Arizona. Results showed that libraries used LibGuides primarily to deliver access to online resources and to provide supplementary materials supporting instruction. Responses also revealed that many libraries had not yet adopted LibGuides. These findings were analyzed and compared to past and current LibGuides design at CDU.
Full Text Available ... About About the Veterans Crisis Line FAQs Veteran Suicide Spread the Word Videos Homeless Resources Additional Information ... About About the Veterans Crisis Line FAQs Veteran Suicide The Veterans Crisis Line text-messaging service does ...
Carol Smallwood's The Complete Guide to Using Google in Libraries, Volume 1: Instruction, Administration, and Staff Productivity explores how Google's suite of tools, from Google Docs (now Google Drive), Google Scholar, Hangout, Forms, and others made freely available to the Internet Community, can be used by libraries to expand the role of digital operations in the management of library materials, to communicate with their patrons and collaborators, to exploit the resources on the Web, and many others.
Nash, Vickie Lynn
The diverse population of students in grades 1- 3 at a suburban elementary school has created a challenge for teachers when differentiating instruction in reading. The purpose of this doctoral project study was to explore the lived experiences of these teachers as they have acquired research-based instructional strategies in reading that support…
Cam, Aylin; Geban, Omer
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes…
Desimone, Laura M.; Porter, Andrew C.; Garet, Michael S.; Yoon, Kwang Suk; Birman, Beatrice F.
Examined the effects of professional development on teachers' instruction using a purposeful sample of about 207 teachers across 5 states for 1996-1999. Professional development focused on specific instructional practices increased teachers' use of those practices in the classroom, and specific features, such as active learning opportunities,…
Full Text Available On-The-Job Training, developed as direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training. This method is still widely in use today because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. This paper is intended to be a study of the methods used in education in Knowledge Society, with more specific aspects in training the trainers; as a result of this approach, it promotes scaffolding in assisted instruction as a reflection of the digital age for the learning process. Training the trainers in old environment with default techniques and designing the learning process in assisted instruction, as an application of the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD to the area of computer literacy for the younger users, generate diversity in educational communities and requires standards for technology infrastructure, standards for the content, developed as a concepts map, and applications for personalized in-struction, based on ZPD theory.
Dageforde, Mary L.
This report documents the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP), a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language, as implemented in the MAINSAIL language, a machine-independent revision of SAIL which should facilitate implementation of BIP on other computing systems. Eight instructional modules which make up…
Fisher, Joan K; Bromley, Russell L; Mansfield, Brian C
My Retina Tracker™ is a new on-line registry for people affected with inherited orphan retinal degenerative diseases, and their unaffected, genetic relatives. Created and supported by the Foundation Fighting Blindness, it is an international resource designed to capture the disease from the perspective of the registry participant and their retinal health care providers. The registry operates under an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol and allows sharing of de-identified data with participants, researchers and clinicians. All participants sign an informed consent that includes selecting which data they wish to share. There is no minimum age of participation. Guardians must sign on behalf of minors, and children between the ages of 12 to 17 also sign an informed assent. Participants may compare their disease to others in the registry using graphical interpretations of the aggregate registry data. Researchers and clinicians have two levels of access. The first provides an interface to interrogate all data fields registrants have agreed to share based on their answers in the IRB informed consent. The second provides a route to contact people in the registry who may be eligible for studies or trials, through the Foundation.
Cognitive load theory (CLT) (Sweller 1988, 1998, 2010) provides us a guiding framework for designing instructional materials. CLT differentiates three subtypes of cognitive load: intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. The three cognitive loads are theorized based on the number of simultaneously processed elements in working memory. Intrinsic cognitive load depends upon the number of interacting elements in the instructional material that are related to the learning objective. Extraneous cognitive load is the mental resources allocated to processing unnecessary information which does not contribute to learning as caused by non- optimal instructional procedure. It is determined by the number of interacting elements which are not related to learning goal. Both intrinsic and extraneous load vary according to prior knowledge of learners. Germane cognitive load is indirectly related to interacting elements. It represents the cognitive resources deployed for processing intrinsic load, chunking information and constructing and automating schema. Germane cognitive load is related to level of motivation of the learner. Given this triarchic model of cognitive load and their different roles in learning activities, different learning outcomes can be expected depending upon the characteristics of the educational materials, learner characteristics, and instructional setting. In three experiments, we investigated cognitive load theory following different approaches. Given the triarchic nature of cognitive load construct, it is critical to find non- intrusive ways to measure cognitive load. In study one, we replicated and extended a previous landmark study to investigate the use of eye movements related metrics to measure the three kinds of cognitive load independently. We also collected working memory capacity of students using a cognitive operation-span task. Two of the three types of cognitive load (intrinsic and extraneous) were directly manipulated, and the third
Firdausi, N.; Prabawa, H. W.; Sutarno, H.
In an effort to maximize a student’s academic growth, one of the tools available to educators is the explicit instruction. Explicit instruction is marked by a series of support or scaffold, where the students will be guided through the learning process with a clear statement of purpose and a reason for learning new skills, a clear explanation and demonstration of learning targets, supported and practiced with independent feedback until mastery has been achieved. The technology development trend of todays, requires an adjustment in the development of learning object that supports the achievement of explicit instruction targets. This is where the gamification position is. In the role as a pedagogical strategy, the use of gamification preformance study class is still relatively new. Gamification not only use the game elements and game design techniques in non-game contexts, but also to empower and engage learners with the ability of motivation on learning approach and maintains a relaxed atmosphere. With using Reseach and Development methods, this paper presents the integration of technology (which in this case using the concept of gamification) in explicit instruction settings and the impact on the improvement of students’ understanding.
Merwade, V.; Rajib, A.; Ruddell, B.; Fox, S.
Hydrology instruction typically involves teaching of the hydrologic cycle and the processes associated with it such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff generation and hydrograph analysis. With the availability of observed and remotely sensed data in public domain, there is an opportunity to incorporate place-based learning in hydrology classrooms. However, it is not always easy and possible for an instructor to complement an existing hydrology course with new material that requires both time and technical expertise, which the instructor may not have. The work presented here describes an effort where students created the data and modeling driven instruction materials as part of their class assignment for a hydrology course at Purdue University. Students in the class were divided into groups, and each group was assigned a topic such as precipitation, evapotranspiration, streamflow, flow duration curve and flood frequency analysis. Each of the student groups was then instructed to produce an instruction material showing ways to extract/process relevant data and perform some analysis for an area with specific land use characteristic. The student contributions were then organized into learning units such that someone can do a flow duration curve analysis or flood frequency analysis and see how it changes for rural area versus urban area. Science Education Resource Center (SERC) is used as a platform to publish and share these instruction materials so it can be used as-is or through modification by any instructor or student in relevant coursework anywhere in the world.
Flower, Andrea; McKenna, John; Muething, Colin S; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R
This study investigated the effects of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) on classwide off-task behavior in two ninth-grade basic algebra resource classes. Ten students with a variety of disabilities, in two classrooms, and their special education resource teacher participated in this study. A reversal design was employed, in which the special education teacher implemented GBG compared to typical practice-algebra readiness instruction. Results showed that classwide off-task behavior decreased in the GBG conditions compared to the baseline and reversal conditions. Fidelity measures indicated that the teacher implemented GBG with fidelity. Students and the teacher rated GBG favorably. Overall findings support the use of GBG for reducing classwide off-task behavior. Implications for practice and future research directions are presented.
McMullen, Jessie L.
Scope and method of study. This study describes the advantages and the disadvantages of straight-lined and nonstraight-lined organizations at the MMAC FAA Academy. The primary focus will be on the AF division within the FAA Academy. This study will assist in making sound decisions about which structure is better at the present time. Others who read this research will gain an awareness of advantages and disadvantages of each structure. The reason for focusing primarily on individuals from the FAA is because of their experience in straight-line and nonstraight-line organizations. Data were collected during the study and analyzed to determine what the majority of the candidates thought about the structure. Findings and conclusions. Many of the respondents believe the FAA Academy AF Division should be straight-lined to the AFZ organization in Headquarters. Most of the respondents still see the FAA organization as a closed-type structure with a top-down management style. Another important outcome of the findings was many of the respondents believed, regardless of the structure, employees should be empowered more and allowed to participate in the decision-making process. Based on the findings some of the advantages of straight-lined organizations were: it brings the parent organization in and gives them a first hand view of its operations, there is no middle person involved, and there is a direct line to parent organization. The disadvantages of straight-lined organizations based on the findings were: there is no middle management to speak to headquarters as an intermediator on training issues/concerns, it requires more resources and funding that may not be forthcoming, and it compels a parent organization to acquire more resources to handle its own business.
Parsons, D C; Bell, M A; Gilchrist, L D
We evaluated implementation of the British Columbia AIDS Information Line during its initial 15 weeks of operation. Data collected during daily operation of the line included call frequency, caller characteristics, response patterns, caller concerns and community referrals. Information on activities and resources required to implement the AIDS Line was also assembled. The study concluded that the advertising campaign sponsored by the provincial government and other AIDS-related media events had a strong impact on the frequency of calls made to the AIDS Line. However, the effect of both advertising and media events was of relatively short duration, suggesting that utilization of an AIDS information line is dependent on continuing promotional activities. The evaluation results demonstrate the importance of continuous collection of data online utilization, to track public awareness of and response to AIDS-related issues, and to facilitate planning of public education.
O'Doherty, Ann; Ovando, Martha N.
This qualitative study examined the instructional leadership perceptions of four first-year principals. Findings illuminate five themes drawn from the data: definitions of instructional leadership, challenges that first-year principals faced, how these principals addressed these challenges, how the novice principals plan to enact their…
Cepni, Salih; Sahin, Cigdem; Ipek, Hava
The purpose of this study was to test the influences of prepared instructional material based on the 5E instructional model combined with CCT, CC, animations, worksheets and POE on conceptual changes about floating and sinking concepts. The experimental group was taught with teaching material based on the 5E instructional model enriched with…
Flores, Raymond; Koontz, Esther; Inan, Fethi A.; Alagic, Mara
This study examined the impact of the order of two teaching approaches on students' abilities and on-task behaviors while learning how to solve percentage problems. Two treatment groups were compared. MR first received multiple representation instruction followed by traditional algorithmic instruction and TA first received these teaching…
Buchanan, Nancy L.
Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.
van der Gouwe, Daan; Brunt, Tibor M; van Laar, Margriet; van der Pol, Peggy
On-line drug markets flourish and consumers have high expectations of on-line quality and drug value. The aim of this study was to (i) describe on-line drug purchases and (ii) compare on-line with off-line purchased drugs regarding purity, adulteration and price. Comparison of laboratory analyses of 32 663 drug consumer samples (stimulants and hallucinogens) purchased between January 2013 and January 2016, 928 of which were bought on-line. The Netherlands. Primary outcome measures were (i) the percentage of samples purchased on-line and (ii) the chemical purity of powders (or dosage per tablet); adulteration; and the price per gram, blotter or tablet of drugs bought on-line compared with drugs bought off-line. The proportion of drug samples purchased on-line increased from 1.4% in 2013 to 4.1% in 2015. The frequency varied widely, from a maximum of 6% for controlled, traditional substances [ecstasy tablets, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) powder, amphetamine powder, cocaine powder, 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)] to more than a third for new psychoactive substances (NPS) [4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA), 5/6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5/6-APB) and methoxetamine (MXE)]. There were no large differences in drug purity, yet small but statistically significant differences were found for 4-FA (on-line 59% versus off-line 52% purity for 4-FA on average, P = 0.001), MDMA powders (45 versus 61% purity for MDMA, P = 0.02), 2C-B tablets (21 versus 10 mg 2C-B/tablet dosage, P = 0.49) and ecstasy tablets (131 versus 121 mg MDMA/tablet dosage, P = 0.05). The proportion of adulterated samples purchased on-line and off-line did not differ, except for 4-FA powder, being less adulterated on-line (χ 2 = 8.3; P < 0.02). Drug prices were mainly higher on-line, ranging for various drugs from 10 to 23% higher than that of drugs purchased off-line (six of 10 substances: P < 0.05). Dutch drug users increasingly
Fuchs, L S; Fuchs, D; Stecker, P M
This study assessed the effects of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) on teachers' instructional planning. Subjects were 30 teachers, assigned randomly to a computer-assisted CBM group, a noncomputer CBM group, and a contrast group. In the CBM groups, teachers specified 15-week reading goals, established CBM systems to measure student progress toward goals at least twice weekly, and systematically evaluated those data bases to determine when instructional modifications were necessary. Contrast teachers monitored student progress toward Individualized Education Program (IEP) goals as they wished and were encouraged to develop instructional programs as necessary. At the end of a 12- to 15-week implementation period, teachers completed a questionnaire with reference to one randomly selected pupil. Analyses of variance indicated no difference between the CBM groups. However, compared to the contrast group, CBM teachers (a) used more specific, acceptable goals; (b) were less optimistic about goal attainment; (c) cited more objective and frequent data sources for determining the adequacy of student progress and for deciding whether program modifications were necessary; and (d) modified student programs more frequently. Questionnaire responses were correlated with verifiable data sources, and results generally supported the usefulness of the self-report information. Implications for special education research and practice are discussed.
The research examined effects of notetaking instruction on elementary-aged students' ability to recall science information and notetaking behavior. Classes of 3rd grade students were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions, strategic notetaking, partial strategic notetaking, and control, for 4 training sessions. The effects of the notetaking instruction were measured by their performances on a test on science information taught during the training, a long-term free recall of the information, and number of information units recalled with or without cues. Students' prior science achievement was used to group students into two levels (high vs. low) and functioned as another independent variable in analysis. Results indicated significant treatment effect on cued and non-cued recall of the information units in favor of the strategy instruction groups. Students with higher prior achievement in science performed better on cued recall and long-term free recall of information. The results suggest that students as young as at the third grade can be instructed to develop the ability of notetaking that promotes their learning.
Keng, Shian-Ling; Tan, Elysia Li Yan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Smoski, Moria J
The present study investigated the relative effects of mindfulness, reappraisal and suppression in reducing sadness, and the extent to which implementation of these strategies affects cognitive resources in a laboratory context. A total of 171 Singaporean undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to receive brief training in mindfulness, reappraisal, or suppression prior to undergoing a sad mood induction. Individual adherence to Asian cultural values was assessed as a potential moderator of strategy effectiveness. Participants rated their mood and completed a Color-Word Stroop task before and after mood regulation instructions. Analyses using multi-level modelling showed that the suppression condition caused less robust declines in sadness over time compared to mindfulness. There was also a nonsignificant trend in which mindfulness was associated with greater sadness recovery compared to reappraisal. Suppression resulted in lower average sadness compared to mindfulness among those high on Asian cultural values, but not those low on Asian cultural values. Both mindfulness and reappraisal buffered against increases in Stroop interference from pre-to post-regulation compared to suppression. The findings highlight the advantage of mindfulness as a strategy effective not only in the regulation of sad mood, but also in the preservation of cognitive resources in the context of mood regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Workplace interventions have shown beneficial results of resistance training for chronic pain in the neck, shoulder, and arm. However, studies have relied on experienced exercise instructors, which may not be an available resource at most workplaces. The objective of this study is to evaluate the technical performance level of upper limb rehabilitation exercises following video-based versus personalized exercise instruction. We recruited 38 laboratory technicians and office workers with neck/shoulder pain for a two-week exercise training period receiving either (1 personal and video or (2 video only instruction in four typical neck/shoulder/arm rehabilitation exercises using elastic tubing. At a 2-week follow-up, the participants’ technical execution was assessed by two blinded physical therapists using a reliable error assessment tool. The error assessment was based on ordinal deviation of joint position from the ideal position of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in a single plane by visual observation. Of the four exercises only unilateral shoulder external rotation had a higher normalized error score in the V group of 22.19 (9.30 to 12.64 (6.94 in the P group (P=0.002. For the remaining three exercises the normalized error score did not differ. In conclusion, when instructing simple exercises to reduce musculoskeletal pain the use of video material is a cost-effective solution that can be implemented easily in corporations with challenging work schedules not allowing for a fixed time of day to go see a personal trainer.
This article reports findings from a study that investigated the ways in which first-grade dual language teachers drew on various resources to instructionally support academic language development among Spanish-English emergent bilingual students. Classroom observations, semistructured interviews, and document collection were conducted over a…
Andersen, Simon Calmar; Humlum, Maria; Nandrup, Anne Brink
Increasing instruction time in school is a central element in the attempts of many governments to improve student learning, but prior research—mainly based on observational data—disputes the effect of this approach and points out the potential negative effects on student behavior. Based on a large......-scale, cluster-randomized trial, we find that increasing instruction time increases student learning and that a general increase in instruction time is at least as efficient as an expert-developed, detailed teaching program that increases instruction with the same amount of time. These findings support the value...... of increased instruction time....
Mükerrem AKBULUT TAŞ
Full Text Available Generalizations are important content materials that should be instructed in the Social Studies program. The instruction of generalizations and the causal relationships emphasized in generalizations are important for students to have meaningful learning experiences and to gain causal reasoning and critical thinking skills. Social Studies program emphasizes the acquisition of creating scientific generalization skill as a fundamental skill to be instructed directly, and the importance of generalization instruction is highlighted. Therefore, this study is important in that it draws attention to the importance of teaching generalization and creates basis for the future research in the field. In this regard, it aims at evaluating the instruction of the generalizations in the “Our Country and the World” unit in Social Studies program for 6th grades in Primary School. In line with this general purpose, the instruction of the generalizations in the unit was analyzed qualitatively. The study was conducted with three social studies teachers working in three different schools located in Seyhan, Adana. The data were collected through the observation technique with a view to obtaining in depth data about the instruction of generalization in social studies lesson. Semi-structured observation form, prepared in the light of the generalization content elements, was used as the data collection tool. These content elements consisted of four aspects: generalization statement, concepts related to generalization, cause-effect relationships between concepts, and facts about generalization. In addition to observation, document analysis was conducted with a view to supporting results and strengthening the implications. The documentary analysis was performed based on the generalizations and previously identified elements about the generalizations in the scope of the six topics in the “Our Country and the World” unit. The data collected from the observations were
Emre-Akdogan, Elçin; Argün, Ziya
The main goal of this study is to find out the effect of the instructional design method on the enhancement of problem solving abilities of students. Teaching sessions were applied to ten students who are in 11th grade, to teach them problem solving strategies which are working backwards, finding pattern, adopting a different point of view,…
Matsuda, Naoki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki; Kaneko, Mamoru; Okumura, Yutaka; Shimasaki, Tatsuya; Kojima, Akihiro; Shiraishi, Yoshioki; Horiuchi, Seikoh
The education for radiation workers is essential for the safety of radiation facility that stands on radiation protection practice by each worker. Japanese laws concerning radiation safety requires each radiation worker attending the 6 hours beginner's training course before entering the control area. However, in unsealed radioisotope facilities, radioactive contaminations in the control area may still take place because practical procedures for radiation safety vary depending on the type of experiments and the characteristics of radioisotopes. Therefore, an additional and practical training for each radiation worker is needed. In an attempt to give the workers an additional training of this kind, the pre-entry instruction was performed independently in Center for Frontier Life Sciences, Nagasaki University and in Institute of Resource Development and Analysis Kumamoto University. In this study, the efficacy of the instruction in each facility was assessed quantitatively on the basis of the incidence of contamination in the control area. The instruction covered laboratory rules, radioisotope ordering information, description of sign-up sheets, radioactive waste management, use of survey meters, and lab tour with an appropriate modification to meet with a specificity of each experiment. The instruction was given to beginners and to refreshers who have not handled radioisotopes for a long period, in a face-to-face manner for 1 hour before they start working radioisotopes. To examine the education effect on the reduction of contamination in a typical and frequently used laboratory, the contamination in molecular biology room of Nagasaki University was surveyed directly by a GM survey meter on a daily basis. In Kumamoto University, contamination on the surface of the entire floor in the control area was surveyed monthly by the smear method to know the education effect on general reduction of contamination. The results revealed that the number of contamination decreased
Tram Carolyn QN
Full Text Available Abstract Background Labels with special instructions regarding how a prescription medication should be taken or its possible side effects are often applied to pill bottles. The goal of this study was to determine whether the addition of illustrations to these labels affects patient comprehension. Methods Study participants (N = 130 were enrolled by approaching patients at three family practice clinics in Toronto, Canada. Participants were asked to interpret two sets of medication instruction labels, the first with text only and the second with the same text accompanied by illustrations. Two investigators coded participants' responses as incorrect, partially correct, or completely correct. Health literacy levels of participants were measured using a validated instrument, the REALM test. Results All participants gave a completely correct interpretation for three out of five instruction labels, regardless of whether illustrations were present or not. For the two most complex labels, only 34–55% of interpretations of the text-only version were completely correct. The addition of illustrations was associated with improved performance in 5–7% of subjects and worsened performance in 7–9% of subjects. Conclusion The commonly-used illustrations on the medication labels used in this study were of little or no use in improving patients' comprehension of the accompanying written instructions.
Hwang, Stephen W; Tram, Carolyn Q N; Knarr, Nadia
Labels with special instructions regarding how a prescription medication should be taken or its possible side effects are often applied to pill bottles. The goal of this study was to determine whether the addition of illustrations to these labels affects patient comprehension. Study participants (N = 130) were enrolled by approaching patients at three family practice clinics in Toronto, Canada. Participants were asked to interpret two sets of medication instruction labels, the first with text only and the second with the same text accompanied by illustrations. Two investigators coded participants' responses as incorrect, partially correct, or completely correct. Health literacy levels of participants were measured using a validated instrument, the REALM test. All participants gave a completely correct interpretation for three out of five instruction labels, regardless of whether illustrations were present or not. For the two most complex labels, only 34-55% of interpretations of the text-only version were completely correct. The addition of illustrations was associated with improved performance in 5-7% of subjects and worsened performance in 7-9% of subjects. The commonly-used illustrations on the medication labels used in this study were of little or no use in improving patients' comprehension of the accompanying written instructions.
Rothman, Alan H.
This study reports the results of research designed to examine the impact of computer-based science instruction on elementary school level students' science content achievement, their attitude about science learning, their level of critical thinking-inquiry skills, and their level of cognitive and English language development. The study compared these learning outcomes resulting from a computer-based approach compared to the learning outcomes from a traditional, textbook-based approach to science instruction. The computer-based approach was inherent in a curriculum titled The Voyage of the Mimi , published by The Bank Street College Project in Science and Mathematics (1984). The study sample included 209 fifth-grade students enrolled in three schools in a suburban school district. This sample was divided into three groups, each receiving one of the following instructional treatments: (a) Mixed-instruction primarily based on the use of a hardcopy textbook in conjunction with computer-based instructional materials as one component of the science course; (b) Non-Traditional, Technology-Based -instruction fully utilizing computer-based material; and (c) Traditional, Textbook-Based-instruction utilizing only the textbook as the basis for instruction. Pre-test, or pre-treatment, data related to each of the student learning outcomes was collected at the beginning of the school year and post-test data was collected at the end of the school year. Statistical analyses of pre-test data were used as a covariate to account for possible pre-existing differences with regard to the variables examined among the three student groups. This study concluded that non-traditional, computer-based instruction in science significantly improved students' attitudes toward science learning and their level of English language development. Non-significant, positive trends were found for the following student learning outcomes: overall science achievement and development of critical thinking
Jelsma, Otto; Pieters, Julius Marie
In the present study, the effects of two instructional strategies on the retention and transfer of procedures of different difficulty level were investigated. Difficulty level was manipulated by providing a different number of cues during training. The instructional strategies differed with respect
Nuclear power plants are required to calibrate important instruments once every fuel cycle. This requirement dates back more than 30 years, when commercial nuclear power plants began to operate. Based on calibration data accumulated over this period, it has been determined that the calibration of some instruments, such as pressure transmitters, do not drift enough to warrant calibration as often as once every fuel cycle. This fact, combined with human resources limitations and reduced maintenance budgets, has provided the motivation for the nuclear industry to develop new technologies for identifying drifting instruments during plant operation. Implementing these technologies allows calibration efforts to be focused on the instruments that have drifted out of tolerance, as opposed to current practice, which calls for calibration verification of almost all instruments every fuel cycle. To date, an array of technologies, referred to collectively as 'on-line calibration monitoring', has been developed to meet this objective. These technologies are based on identifying outlier sensors using techniques that compare a particular sensor's output to a calculated estimate of the actual process the sensor is measuring. If on-line monitoring data are collected during plant startup and/or shutdown periods as well as normal operation, the on-line monitoring approach can help verify the calibration of instruments over their entire operating range. Although on-line calibration monitoring is applicable to most sensors and can cover an entire instrument channel, the main application of this approach in nuclear power plants is currently for pressure transmitters (including level and flow transmitters). (author)
Sri Purnami, Agustina; Adi Widodo, Sri; Charitas Indra Prahmana, Rully
This study aimed to know the improvement of achievement and motivation of learning mathematics by using Team Accelerated Instruction. The research method used was the experiment with descriptive pre-test post-test experiment. The population in this study was all students of class VIII junior high school in Jogjakarta. The sample was taken using cluster random sampling technique. The instrument used in this research was questionnaire and test. Data analysis technique used was Wilcoxon test. It concluded that there was an increase in motivation and student achievement of class VII on linear equation system material by using the learning model of Team Accelerated Instruction. Based on the results of the learning model Team Accelerated Instruction can be used as a variation model in learning mathematics.
This study determines whether web-based instruction (WBI) represents an improved method for helping preservice teachers learn procedural and conceptual knowledge of fractions.. The purpose was to compare the effectiveness of web-based instruction (WBI) with the traditional lecture in mathematics content and methods for the elementary school…
Bury, Belinda; Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy
The current study aimed to investigate the effect of digital alteration disclaimer labels appended to fashion magazine advertisements, as well as instructional condition, on women's social comparison and body dissatisfaction. Participants were 378 female undergraduate students who viewed 11 thin ideal advertisements with either no disclaimer, a generic disclaimer, or a more detailed specific disclaimer. There were three instructional conditions: neutral, distractor, and social comparison. Disclaimer labels did not affect appearance comparison or body dissatisfaction, but instructional condition did, with the social comparison instructions producing the highest appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction. In addition, there was a three-way interaction with trait appearance comparison, such that women high on trait appearance comparison who saw specifically worded disclaimers in the distractor instructional condition experienced increased body dissatisfaction, whereas women low on this trait experienced decreased body dissatisfaction. It seems that both instructions and individual differences may influence responses to disclaimer labels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vincent, Leslie; Beduz, Mary Agnes
Evidence of acute nursing shortages in urban hospitals has been surfacing since 2000. Further, new graduate nurses account for more than 50% of total nurse turnover in some hospitals and between 35% and 60% of new graduates change workplace during the first year. Critical to organizational success, first line nurse managers must have the knowledge and skills to ensure the accurate projection of nursing resource requirements and to develop proactive recruitment and retention programs that are effective, promote positive nursing socialization, and provide early exposure to the clinical setting. The Nursing Human Resource Planning Best Practice Toolkit project supported the creation of a network of teaching and community hospitals to develop a best practice toolkit in nursing human resource planning targeted at first line nursing managers. The toolkit includes the development of a framework including the conceptual building blocks of planning tools, manager interventions, retention and recruitment and professional practice models. The development of the toolkit involved conducting a review of the literature for best practices in nursing human resource planning, using a mixed method approach to data collection including a survey and extensive interviews of managers and completing a comprehensive scan of human resource practices in the participating organizations. This paper will provide an overview of the process used to develop the toolkit, a description of the toolkit contents and a reflection on the outcomes of the project.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the learning experiences and opinions obtained from a group of undergraduate students in their interaction with several on-line multimedia resources included in a free on-line course about Computer Networks. These new educational resources employed are based on the Web2.0 approach such as blogs, videos and virtual labs which have been added in a web-site for distance self-learning.
Full Text Available The mission of the Church is evangelisation and not acquisition of capital. It is good if the Church has sufficient financial means necessary to fulfil its mission. The Catholic Church has the inherent right, independently of any secular power, to acquire, retain, administer and alienate temporal goods, in pursuit of its proper objectives (can. 1254 of the Code of Canon Law. In order to fulfil its mission in the world, the Church needs to be supported by appropriate material goods and the freedom to administer them. The Code of Canon Law of 1983 introduced a new regulation regarding ecclesiastical property, so as to make sure that the Church could better suit the concept of a “poor Church” that, being in the need of economic resources to achieve its goals, focuses on the instrumental task of such resources: so that the faithful fulfilled their duty in the form of helping in maintaining the Church and its works as part of their fundamental rights and obligations related to the temporal goods; so that spiritual goal of ecclesiastical offices was emphasised and the revenues received were justly distributed. The Polish Episcopal Conference on 25 August 2015 approved the Instruction on the Administration of Ecclesiastical Temporal Goods. In the present article four points will be discussed: The right of the Church to the acquisition, holding and alienating of temporal goods; the Instruction of the Polish Episcopal Conference on the acquisition of temporal goods; the Instruction of the Polish Episcopal Conference on the administration of temporal goods and contracts; the Remuneration for priests.
Morgan, Peter Wallace
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extended instruction in high school chemistry on the academic self-concept of students and determine what parts of the learning experience need to be addressed to make the interaction a more positive one. Fifty-seven students from three metropolitan public schools, who were enrolled in college preparatory chemistry classes, were asked to complete a written instrument, before and after extended chemistry instruction, that measures academic self-concept. Twenty-one of the students who took part in the written task volunteered to answer some in-depth interview questions concerning their academic self-concept and its relationship to chemistry instruction. Student responses, instrument scores, and student chemistry grades were analyzed for a variety of chemistry learning--academic self-concept connections and interactions. Results showed that there was a positive interaction for less than half of the students involved in the interview sessions. The results from the written instrument showed similar findings. Comparing chemistry grades and academic self-concept revealed an uncertain connection between the two, especially for students with strong academic self-concepts. Students felt that the laboratory experience was often disconnected from the remainder of chemistry instruction and recommended that the laboratory experience be integrated with classroom work. Students also expressed concerns regarding the volume of algorithmic mathematical calculations associated with college preparatory chemistry instruction. Results of this study suggest that secondary chemistry instruction must become more aware of the affective domain of learning and develop a mindful awareness of its connection to the cognitive domain if chemistry teaching and learning is going to better facilitate the intellectual growth of secondary students.
Herian, Roger; Moen, Mary
A resource for teachers who design instructional programs in broadcast media, this curriculum guide consists of eight units which deal with the nature of broadcast media, broadcast programming and public interest, broadcast advertising, broadcast regulation, societal effects of broadcasting, broadcasting and future technology, radio broadcasting,…
Shubert, Christopher Walden
Physics Education Research studies the science of teaching and learning physics. The process of student learning is complex, and the factors that affect it are numerous. Describing students' understanding of physics knowledge and reasoning is the basis for much productive research; however, such research fails to account for certain types of student learning difficulties. In this dissertation, I explore one source of student difficulty: personal epistemology, students' ideas about knowledge and knowing. Epistemology traditionally answers three questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge created? And, how do we know what we know? An individual's responses to these questions can affect learning in terms of how they approach tasks involving the construction and application of knowledge. The key issue addressed in this dissertation is the effect of methodological choices on the validity and reliability of claims concerning personal epistemology. My central concern is contextual validity, how what is said about one's epistemology is not identical to how one behaves epistemologically. In response to these issues, I present here a new methodology for research on student epistemology: video artifact-based reflective interview protocols. These protocols begin with video taping students in their natural classroom activities, and then asking the participants epistemological questions immediately after watching selected scenes from their activity, contextually anchoring them in their actual learning experience. The data from these interviews is viewed in the framework of Epistemological Resource Theory, a framework of small bits of knowledge whose coordination in a given context is used to describe personal epistemology. I claim that the privileged data from these interviews allows detailed epistemological resources to be identified, and that these resources can provide greater insight into how student epistemologies are applied in learning activities. This research
Puranik, Cynthia S.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana
The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners’ writing performance. PMID:24578591
Puranik, Cynthia S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana
The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners' writing performance.
De Smedt, Fien; Van Keer, Hilde
As writing is a complex and resource demanding task, high-quality writing instruction is indispensable from primary grades on to support beginning writers in developing effective writing skills. Writing research should therefore provide teachers and schools with evidence-based guidelines for teaching writing in daily practice. In this respect, the…
Jirasatjanukul, Kanokrat; Jeerungsuwan, Namon
The objectives of the research were to (1) design an instructional model based on Connectivism and Constructivism to create innovation in real world experience, (2) assess the model designed--the designed instructional model. The research involved 2 stages: (1) the instructional model design and (2) the instructional model rating. The sample…
Antes, Alison L; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D; Brown, Ryan P; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D
To examine the effects that existing courses on the responsible conduct of research (RCR) have on ethical decision making by assessing the ethicality of decisions made in response to ethical problems and the underlying processes involved in ethical decision making. These processes included how an individual thinks through ethical problems (i.e., meta-cognitive reasoning strategies) and the emphasis placed on social dimensions of ethical problems (i.e., social-behavioral responses). In 2005-2007, recruitment announcements were made, stating that a nationwide, online study was being conducted to examine the impact of RCR instruction on the ethical decision making of scientists. Recruitment yielded contacts with over 200 RCR faculty at 21 research universities and medical schools; 40 (20%) RCR instructors enrolled their courses in the current study. From those courses, 173 participants completed an ethical decision-making measure. A mixed pattern of effects emerged. The ethicality of decisions did not improve as a result of RCR instruction and even decreased for decisions pertaining to business aspects of research, such as contract bidding. Course participants improved on some meta-cognitive reasoning strategies, such as awareness of the situation and consideration of personal motivations, but declined for seeking help and considering others' perspectives. Participants also increased their endorsement of detrimental social-behavioral responses, such as deception, retaliation, and avoidance of personal responsibility. These findings indicated that RCR instruction may not be as effective as intended and, in fact, may even be harmful. Harmful effects might result if instruction leads students to overstress avoidance of ethical problems, be overconfident in their ability to handle ethical problems, or overemphasize their ethical nature. Future research must examine these and other possible obstacles to effective RCR instruction.
Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz
This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…
Suaysod, Rapeepan; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Salvadori, Nicolas; Cressey, Tim R; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Techakunakorn, Pornchai; Krikajornkitti, Sawitree; Srirojana, Sakulrat; Laomanit, Laddawan; Chalermpantmetagul, Suwalai; Lallemant, Marc; Le Cœur, Sophie; McIntosh, Kenneth; Traisathit, Patrinee; Jourdain, Gonzague
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children failing second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) have no access to third-line antiretroviral drugs in many resource-limited settings. It is important to identify risk factors for second-line regimen failure. HIV-infected children initiating protease inhibitor (PI)-containing second-line ART within the Program for HIV Prevention and Treatment observational cohort study in Thailand between 2002 and 2010 were included. Treatment failure was defined as confirmed HIV type 1 RNA load >400 copies/mL after at least 6 months on second-line regimen or death. Adherence was assessed by drug plasma levels and patient self-report. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify risk factors for failure. A total of 111 children started a PI-based second-line regimen, including 59 girls (53%). Median first-line ART duration was 1.9 years (interquartile range [IQR], 1.4-3.3 years), and median age at second-line initiation was 10.7 years (IQR, 6.3-13.4 years). Fifty-four children (49%) experienced virologic failure, and 2 (2%) died. The risk of treatment failure 24 months after second-line initiation was 41%. In multivariate analyses, failure was independently associated with exposure to first-line ART for >2 years (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.8; P = .03), age >13 years (aHR, 2.9; P < .001), body mass index-for-age z score < -2 standard deviations at second-line initiation (aHR, 2.8; P = .03), and undetectable drug levels within 6 months following second-line initiation (aHR, 4.5; P < .001). Children with longer exposure to first-line ART, entry to adolescence, underweight, and/or undetectable drug levels were at higher risk of failing second-line ART and thus should be closely monitored. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Listening comprehension has found its right place in the field of SLA in recent decades. For years, among all language skills, speaking and writing were of high significance in teaching and learning a new language as they were considered to be productive skills. Listening and reading, on the other hand, were neglected since they were regarded as passive skills, means to other ends, rather than ends in themselves. This study investigates possible effects of explicit instruction of connected speech features on listening comprehension of Iranian English language learners. Forty adult female Persian speaking homogeneous English learners, aged 18-30, participated in the study. They were divided into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group received explicit instructions on connected speech features, while the control group followed the routine instructions designed by their institute. Tests of connected speech features were used in pre- and post tests. The participants’ scores on the pre-posttests were compared via the paired samples t-tests and independent samples t-tests. The results indicated the outperformance of the experimental group over the control group, thus, suggesting that explicit instructions of connected speech features have facilitative roles in improving EFL learners’ listening comprehension skill. Possible implications of the findings for teaching listening comprehension are discussed.
The study based on the study and analysis of the TPM theory, based on my practice in the SMT2 production line of Victoria Electronics of Huanwei. Then it studied the promotion and implementation steps of TPM on SMT2 line. And it also introduced the improvement instance of SMT2 line. By contrasting the utilization of equipment on SMT2 line before and after the comprehensive of TPM, the necessity of implementing TPM is derived. For how to apply TPM on the production lines, and how to improve equipment comprehensive utilization, finish the order on time, provide high quality products to our customers, these are the main part of production line equipment management work. This article provides the reference for how to promote TPM on other production lines.
Full Text Available The emergence of fast changes in fashion has given rise to the need to shorten production cycle times in the garment industry. As effective usage of resources has a significant effect on the productivity and efficiency of production operations, garment manufacturers are urged to utilize their resources effectively in order to meet dynamic customer demand. This paper focuses specifically on line balancing and layout modification. The aim of assembly line balance in sewing lines is to assign tasks to the workstations, so that the machines of the workstation can perform the assigned tasks with a balanced loading. Largest Candidate Rule Algorithm (LCR has been deployed in this paper.
Jones, Dyan L; Zollman, Dean
We present a qualitative study designed to examine how students construct an understanding of the human eye and vision from their knowledge of light and optics. As would be expected, vast differences are shown to exist between pre- and post-instruction students in terms of not only resource use, but also willingness to transfer their existing knowledge. However, we have found that appropriate scaffolding can facilitate resource activation and guide students to construct an understanding of vision and vision defects. (paper)
Dancy, Melissa; Henderson, Charles; Turpen, Chandra
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] The lack of knowledge about how to effectively spread and sustain the use of research-based instructional strategies is currently a significant barrier to the improvement of undergraduate physics education. In this paper we address this lack of knowledge by reporting on an interview study of 35 physics faculty, of varying institution types, who were self-reported users of, former users of, or knowledgeable nonusers of the research-based instructional strategy Peer Instruction. Interview questions included in this analysis focused on the faculty's experiences, knowledge, and use of Peer Instruction, along with general questions about current and past teaching methods used by the interviewee. The primary findings include the following: (i) Faculty self-reported user status is an unreliable measure of their actual practice. (ii) Faculty generally modify specific instructional strategies and may modify out essential components. (iii) Faculty are often unaware of the essential features of an instructional strategy they claim to know about or use. (iv) Informal social interactions provide a significant communication channel in the dissemination process, in contrast to the formal avenues of workshops, papers, websites, etc., often promoted by change agents, and (v) experience with research-based strategies as a graduate student or through curriculum development work may be highly impactful. These findings indicate that educational transformation can be better facilitated by improving communication with faculty, supporting effective modification by faculty during implementation, and acknowledging and understanding the large impact of informal social interactions as a mode of dissemination.
Rueda, Robert; Goldenberg, Claude; Gallimore, Ronald
The current focus on more effective ways to foster literacy in school-age children, especially language minority students, has led to the development of alternative instructional approaches. One such approach is the instructional conversation (IC), based on early work in the Hawaiian Kamehameha Elementary Education Project (KEEP), on neo-Vygotskian theory, and on recent classroom-based research on reading comprehension. The present report outlines preliminary efforts to operationaliz...
Examines questions typically asked about the effectiveness of computer-based reading instruction, suggesting that these questions must be refined to provide meaningful insight into the issues involved. Describes several critical problems with existing research and presents overviews of research on the effects of computer-based instruction on…
Brabham, Carla E.
Instructional leadership is an important aspect of student achievement and the overall success of schools. Principals, as instructional leaders, need continual reflection on their competency. Job-embedded professional development (JEPD) for teachers is implemented and monitored by instructional leaders. The purpose of this case study was to…
Kibler, Amanda K.; Heny, Natasha A.; Andrei, Elena
As writing has assumed increasing importance in discussions of pedagogy for diverse classrooms, attention to the contexts in which secondary teachers develop and implement writing instruction for adolescent English language learners (ELLs) is of great importance. Drawing on ecological language learning theories and situated teacher learning theory…
This research work investigated the influence of instructional materials (teaching aids) on students' academic performance in senior secondary school Chemistry in Cross River State. A two group pre-test post test quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. One research question and one hypothesis were ...
Kidd, Terry, Ed.; Morris, Lonnie R., Jr., Ed.
Incorporating new methods and approaches in learning environments is imperative to the development of education systems. By enhancing learning processes, education becomes more attainable at all levels. "The Handbook of Research on Instructional Systems and Educational Technology" is an essential reference source for the latest scholarly…
Frankenmolen, Nikita L; Altgassen, Mareike; Kessels, Renée; de Waal, Marleen M; Hindriksen, Julie-Anne; Verhoeven, Barbara; Fasotti, Luciano; Scheres, Anouk; Kessels, Roy P C; Oosterman, Joukje M
Whether older adults can compensate for their associative memory deficit by using memory strategies efficiently might depend on their general cognitive abilities. This study examined the moderating role of an IQ estimate on the beneficial effects of strategy instructions. A total of 142 participants (aged 18-85 years) received either intentional learning or strategy ("sentence generation") instructions during encoding of word pairs. Whereas young adults with a lower IQ benefited from strategy instructions, those with a higher IQ did not, presumably because they already use strategies spontaneously. Older adults showed the opposite effect: following strategy instructions, older adults with a higher IQ showed a strong increase in memory performance (approximately achieving the level of younger adults), whereas older adults with a lower IQ did not, suggesting that they have difficulties implementing the provided strategies. These results highlight the importance of the role of IQ in compensating for the aging-related memory decline.
Web-based learning tools (WBLTs), also known as learning objects, have been evaluated with a wide range of metrics, but rarely with respect to pedagogical design. The current study evaluated the impact of instructional architecture (direct instruction vs. constructive-based) on middle (n = 333)
Çam, Aylin; Geban, Ömer
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes of an urban high school instructed with same teacher. Each teaching method was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received case-based learning and the control group received traditional instruction. At the experimental group, life cases were presented with small group format; at the control group, lecturing and discussion was carried out. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control group with respect to their epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject in favor of case-based learning method group. Thus, case base learning is helpful for development of students' epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward chemistry.
Bryan, S.; Levitskaia, T.; Casella, A.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safe- guards standards for fissionable material at spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide a more timely, cost-effective and resource-efficient means for MC&A verification at such facilities. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and re- source burden associated with current techniques. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using ultra-violet and visible, near infrared and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of the methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies. Our ability to identify material intentionally diverted from a liquid-liquid solvent extraction contactor system was successfully tested using on-line process monitoring as a means to detect the amount of material diverted. A chemical diversion, and detection of that diversion, from a solvent extraction scheme was demonstrated using a centrifugal contactor system operating with the PUREX flowsheet. A portion of the feed from a counter-current extraction system was diverted while a continuous extraction experiment was underway. The amount observed to be diverted by on-line spectroscopic process monitoring was in excellent agreement with values based from the known mass of
Full Text Available The experimental and control groups were composed of 30 sophomores majoring in Classroom Teaching for this study investigating the effects of computer-assisted instruction of simple circuits on the development of experimental process skills. The instruction includes experiments and studies about simple circuits and its elements (serial, parallel, and mixed conncetions of resistors covered in Science and Technology Laboratory II course curriculum. In this study where quantitative and qualitative methods were used together, the control list developed by the researchers was used to collect data. Results showed that experimental process skills of sophomores in experimental group were more developed than that of those in control group. Thus, it can be said that computer-assisted instruction has a positive impact on the development of experimental process skills of students.
Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to analyze whether primary teachers use evidence-based reading instruction for primary-grade readers. The study sample consisted of six teachers whose teaching was recorded. The observation instrument used was developed ad hoc for this study. The recording instrument used was Match Vision Studio. The data analysis was performed using SAS, GT version 2.0 E, and THEME. The results indicated that the teaching practices used most frequently and for the longest duration were: feedback (i.e., correcting the student when reading; fluency (i.e., individual and group reading, both out loud and silently, with and without intonation; literal or inference comprehension exercises (i.e., summarizing, asking questions; and use of educational resources (i.e., stories, songs, poems. Later, we conducted analyses of T-Patterns that showed the sequence of instruction in detail. We can conclude that <50% of the teaching practices used by the majority of teachers were based on the recommendations of the National Reading Panel (NRP. Only one teacher followed best practices. The same was the case for instructional time spent on the five essential components of reading, with the exception of teacher E., who dedicated 70.31% of class time implementing best practices. Teaching practices (i.e., learners' activities designed and implemented to exercise and master alphabetic knowledge and phonological awareness skills were used less frequently in the classroom.
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid training program; availability of... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1704 First aid training program; availability... shall make available to all miners employed in the mine a course of instruction in first aid conducted...
Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Huk, L. N.; Peters, C. L.
The dense circumstellar material that creates strong emission lines in the spectra of interacting supernovae also gives rise to complex line polarization behavior. Viewed in polarized light, the emission line profiles of these supernovae encode information about the geometrical and optical characteristics of their surrounding circumstellar material (CSM) that is inaccessible by other observational techniques. To facilitate quantitative interpretation of these spectropolarimetric signatures, we have created a large grid of model polarized line profiles using a three-dimensional radiative transfer code that simulates polarization via electron and resonant/fluorescent line scattering. The simulated polarized lines take on an array of profile shapes that vary with viewing angle and CSM properties. We present the major results from the grid and investigate the dependence of polarized line profiles on CSM characteristics including temperature, optical depth, and geometry. These results will allow more straightforward interpretation of polarized line profiles in interacting supernovae than has previously been possible. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation through the AAG program and the XSEDE collaboration, and uses the resources of the Texas Advanced Computing Center.
Andersen, Ida Gran; Andersen, Simon Calmar
educational inequality. We analyze whether the impact of student-centered instructional strategies on academic achievement differs for students with different socioeconomic backgrounds. Results suggest that a student-centered instructional strategy has a negative impact on academic achievement in general......, and for students with low parental education in particular. Our findings support the argument that the instructional strategy of schools is an important mechanism in generating educational inequality through the stratification of learning opportunities.......Research in the sociology of education argues that the educational system provides different learning opportunities for students with different socioeconomic backgrounds and that this circumstance makes the educational process an important institutional context for the reproduction of educational...
Jorge J. Ricarte-Trives
Full Text Available The first aim of this study was to determine the power of instructions on the specificity of autobiographical memory as obtained with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 and the efficacy of cue word criteria selection based on subjective parameters obtained with a standardized lexical program. Results showed a high power of specific instructions in its written version in contrast to non-directed memory recall to the same list of words three weeks later in a counterbalanced repeated measures within-subjects design. This effect was stronger when subjects previously were faced to the non-specific recovery task. Matched word lists using the "Buscapalabras" program (Davis & Perea, 2005 showed a very similar behaviour. These results point out that the same stimuli can be used repeatedly to obtain voluntary and involuntary retrieval with changes at instructional level. Additionally, standardized lexical programs can be employed to adapt cue-words of memory recall systems controlling for subjective differences related to language parameters (frequency, imageability and familiarity.
B. Muni Lavanya; C. Shoba Bindu
The objective the work is intended to highlight the key features and afford finest future directions in the research community of Resource Allocation, Resource Scheduling and Resource management from 2009 to 2016. Exemplifying how research on Resource Allocation, Resource Scheduling and Resource management has progressively increased in the past decade by inspecting articles, papers from scientific and standard publications. Survey materialized in three-fold process. Firstly, investigate on t...
Lindsay J. Alcock
students and residents representing the highest percentage and nursing and other allied health professional programs also included. While there was variation in sample size and group allocation, the authors estimate an average of 50 participants per instructional session. Included studies represented research undertaken since the 1990s. All studies addressed at least one of the standard EBP steps including obtaining the best evidence through a literature search (27 studies, developing a clinical question (22 studies, and critical appraisal (12 studies. There were 11 studies which addressed applying evidence to clinical scenarios, and 1 study which addressed the efficacy and efficiency of the EBP process. The majority of studies indicated that literature searching was the primary focus of EBP instruction with MEDLINE being the most utilized database and Cochrane second. Other resources include databases and clinical decision support tools. Teaching methods, including lecture, small group, computer lab, and online instruction, varied amongst the studies. There were 7 studies which employed 1 instructional method while 20 employed a combination of teaching methods. Only one study compared instructional methods and found that students obtained better scores when they received online instruction as compared with face-to-face instruction. The difference, however, was not statistically significant. Skills assessments were conducted in most of the studies utilizing various measurements both validated and not validated. Given the variation in measurement tools a cross-study analysis was not possible. The most common assessment methods included self-reporting and pre- and post-surveys of participants’ attitudes and confidence in EBP skills. Randomization was utilized in 10 studies, and an additional 3 studies had a “clearly defined intervention group.” There were 10 blinded studies and 15 studies utilized cohorts with pre- and post- intervention assessments. There were 25
French, David M. [LANL EES-12, Carlsbad, NM, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hayes, Timothy A. [LANL EES-12, Carlsbad, NM, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Pope, Howard L. [Aspen Resources Ltd., Inc., P.O. Box 3038, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Enriquez, Alejandro E. [LANL NCO-4, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Carson, Peter H. [LANL NPI-7, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
In times of continuing fiscal constraints, a management and operation tool that is straightforward to implement, works as advertised, and virtually ensures compliant waste packaging should be carefully considered and employed wherever practicable. In the near future, the Department of Energy (DOE) will issue the first major update to DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This update will contain a requirement for sites that do not have a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste certification program to use two newly developed technical standards: Contact-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions and Remote-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions. The technical standards are being developed from the DOE O 435.1 Notice, Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Packaging, approved August 2011. The packaging instructions will provide detailed information and instruction for packaging almost every conceivable type of transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal at WIPP. While providing specificity, the packaging instructions leave to each site's own discretion the actual mechanics of how those Instructions will be functionally implemented at the floor level. While the Technical Standards are designed to provide precise information for compliant packaging, the density of the information in the packaging instructions necessitates a type of Rosetta Stone that translates the requirements into concise, clear, easy to use and operationally practical recipes that are waste stream and facility specific for use by both first line management and hands-on operations personnel. The Waste Generator Instructions provide the operator with step-by-step instructions that will integrate the sites' various operational requirements (e.g., health and safety limits, radiological limits or dose limits) and result in a WIPP certifiable waste and package that can be transported to and emplaced at WIPP. These little known but widely
... in accident prevention in the work environment. (8) Health. The course shall include instruction on... night work. The course shall include, where applicable, a review and instruction on the highwall and... hazards, pits, and spoil banks; the illumination of work areas; and safe work procedures during hours of...
Full Text Available The present article was an investigation of mnemonic vocabulary teaching to improve reading comprehension in the EFL classrooms. A major problem with the most of the past researches was that they paid no or little attention to the effects of using mnemonic strategies to improve reading comprehension. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how key word mnemonic vocabulary teaching can improve reading comprehension of the students. To this end, 360 third grade senior high school students from 6 senior high schools of Zanjan were selected through multistage cluster random sampling method and based on Cambridge placement test (2010, 345 students proved to be upper intermediate. A quasi-experimental design was used to determine the effects of a mnemonic vocabulary intervention on reading comprehension. In this article there were one control group (A, n=115, and two experimental groups (B, n=115; C, n=115 all of which were male and there were selected randomly by the researchers. During one month in four weeks, every week in two thirty-minute session, group B received direct vocabulary instruction and group C received key word mnemonic instruction. The quantitative component of this article was comprised of the Unit Cloze test. In order to test the effects of Mnemonic Vocabulary Teaching on reading comprehension, the covariance analysis was employed and the results demonstrated that by eliminating the covariance factor of the pre-test, mnemonic vocabulary instruction improved the reading comprehension of the students. The use of keyword mnemonics as a means to differentiate instruction is an educational implication that can assist teachers seeking better student achievement outcomes.
Vann, Linda S.
Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…