WorldWideScience

Sample records for instructional support suggestions

  1. Instructional Suggestions Supporting Science Learning in Digital Environments Based on a Review of Eye-Tracking Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Chiou, Guo-Li; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to provide instructional suggestions for supporting science learning in digital environments based on a review of eye tracking studies in e-learning related areas. Thirty-three eye-tracking studies from 2005 to 2014 were selected from the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) database for review. Through a…

  2. The effect of posthypnotic suggestion, hypnotic suggestibility, and goal intentions on adherence to medical instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Claudia; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving; Meo, Maria; Santandrea, Maura

    2008-04-01

    The effects of implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion were investigated in 2 studies. In Experiment 1, participants with high levels of hypnotic suggestibility were instructed to take placebo pills as part of an investigation of how to best enhance compliance with medical instruction. In Experiment 2, participants with high, medium, and low levels of hypnotic suggestibility were asked to run in place, take their pulse rate before, and send an e-mail report to the experimenter each day. Experiment 1 revealed enhanced adherence as a function of both implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion. Experiment 2 failed to find any significant main effects but found a significant interaction between suggestibility and the effects of posthypnotic suggestion. Posthypnotic suggestion enhanced adherence among high suggestible participants but lowered it among low suggestibles.

  3. Suggested instructions for the completion of delivery commitment schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation discusses the Delivery Commitment Schedule form contained in Appendix C of the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (the Standard Contract). In particular, the presentation describes some preliminary suggested instructions for completing the form in a manner that may aid the US Department of Energy (DOE) in the development of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS)

  4. An Instructional Method Suggestion: Conveying Stories through Origami (Storigami)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how to convey stories through origami and suggest its use in education with the help of pre-service elementary teachers' opinions. The participants of the study were 103 elementary teacher candidates from a state university in the 2014-2015 academic year. In this qualitative study, the data were collected…

  5. School Leadership Actions to Support Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Jennifer Pallon

    2011-01-01

    Schools are required to meet a range of students' learning needs and effective school leadership is needed for the implementation of pedagogical practices responsive to the challenges of increasing student diversity and academic accountability. Literature on differentiated instruction and its constituent elements suggests differentiation results…

  6. Low Level Evidence Suggests That Librarian-Led Instruction in Evidence Based Practice is Effective Regardless of Instructional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. Alcock

    2017-06-01

    students and residents representing the highest percentage and nursing and other allied health professional programs also included. While there was variation in sample size and group allocation, the authors estimate an average of 50 participants per instructional session. Included studies represented research undertaken since the 1990s. All studies addressed at least one of the standard EBP steps including obtaining the best evidence through a literature search (27 studies, developing a clinical question (22 studies, and critical appraisal (12 studies. There were 11 studies which addressed applying evidence to clinical scenarios, and 1 study which addressed the efficacy and efficiency of the EBP process. The majority of studies indicated that literature searching was the primary focus of EBP instruction with MEDLINE being the most utilized database and Cochrane second. Other resources include databases and clinical decision support tools. Teaching methods, including lecture, small group, computer lab, and online instruction, varied amongst the studies. There were 7 studies which employed 1 instructional method while 20 employed a combination of teaching methods. Only one study compared instructional methods and found that students obtained better scores when they received online instruction as compared with face-to-face instruction. The difference, however, was not statistically significant. Skills assessments were conducted in most of the studies utilizing various measurements both validated and not validated. Given the variation in measurement tools a cross-study analysis was not possible. The most common assessment methods included self-reporting and pre- and post-surveys of participants’ attitudes and confidence in EBP skills. Randomization was utilized in 10 studies, and an additional 3 studies had a “clearly defined intervention group.” There were 10 blinded studies and 15 studies utilized cohorts with pre- and post- intervention assessments. There were 25

  7. Computer-Supported Instruction in Enhancing the Performance of Dyscalculics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Praveen; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2010-01-01

    The use of instructional media is an essential component of teaching-learning process which contributes to the efficiency as well as effectiveness of the teaching-learning process. Computer-supported instruction has a very important role to play as an advanced technological instruction as it employs different instructional techniques like…

  8. Suggesting a NOS Map for Nature of Science for Science Education Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Young

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this research are 1) to explore the inter-relationships within the individual elements or tenets of Nature of Science (NOS), based on the dimensions of scientific knowledge in science learning, and 2) to consider Kuhn's concept of how scientific revolution takes place. This study suggests that instruction according to our NOS Flowchart…

  9. Instructional Strategies to Support Creativity and Innovation in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seechaliao, Thapanee

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study focused on the instructional strategies that support creation of creative and innovative education. The sample for this study consisted of 11 experts in the field of instructional strategies that support innovation of education. Among them, five were specialists in design and development of teaching and learning, three…

  10. An Organizational Model for Instructional Support at a Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Jacqueline; Celene-Martel, Coryl; Braziunas, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Instructional and Information Support Services (IISS) division at North Seattle Community College, which brings together the college's library, media services, and distance learning units as well as the Teaching and Learning center to support instruction campus-wide. Discusses the campus technological infrastructure, online courses,…

  11. Instructional support and implementation structure during elementary teachers' science education simulation use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonczi, Amanda L.; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2016-07-01

    This investigation sought to identify patterns in elementary science teachers' computer simulation use, particularly implementation structures and instructional supports commonly employed by teachers. Data included video-recorded science lessons of 96 elementary teachers who used computer simulations in one or more science lessons. Results indicated teachers used a one-to-one student-to-computer ratio most often either during class-wide individual computer use or during a rotating station structure. Worksheets, general support, and peer collaboration were the most common forms of instructional support. The least common instructional support forms included lesson pacing, initial play, and a closure discussion. Students' simulation use was supported in the fewest ways during a rotating station structure. Results suggest that simulation professional development with elementary teachers needs to explicitly focus on implementation structures and instructional support to enhance participants' pedagogical knowledge and improve instructional simulation use. In addition, research is needed to provide theoretical explanations for the observed patterns that should subsequently be addressed in supporting teachers' instructional simulation use during professional development or in teacher preparation programs.

  12. Mathematics Pedagogical Standards: A Suggested Model of Instruction in Enhancing the Mathematics Teacher’s Quality of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, N. S.; Jemali, M.; Zakaria, Z. Hj; Yusof, Q.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims at identifying the standards for teaching and learning of mathematics based on National Council of Teacher of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000), The Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers (AAMT, 2006) and Training and Development Agency for School (TDA, 2007). These known standards were used as a guide in identifying the constructs of the mathematics teacher’s instruction in the classroom. The survey method used in which a questionnaire instrument encompassed on the four identified constructs on the standards for teaching and learning of mathematics, namely professional practices, professional attributes, professional knowledge, and professional instructional processes. The instrument was tested during a pilot study and a Cronbach’s Alpha reliability index of greater than 0.85 was obtained. The actual research was carried out in Peninsular Malaysia involving 224 secondary schools with 1.120 mathematics teachers and 108 primary schools with 540 mathematics teachers. From the selected schools, only 820 secondary mathematics teachers (73.2%) and 361 primary teachers (66.9%) gave a response to the mailed questionnaires. The findings of the study revealed that the secondary and primary mathematics teachers strongly agreed on three constructs; professional practices, professional attributes and professional instructional processes.

  13. Peer tutoring – assisted instruction, parent supportiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of peer tutoring-assisted instruction, parent supportiveness and students locus of control on achievement in Senior Secondary Mathematics. It adopted a non-randomized pretest posttest control group design in a quasi experimental setting. It involves 300 senior secondary II students from six ...

  14. The Effects of Input-Enhanced Instruction on Iranian EFL Learners' Production of Appropriate and Accurate Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavamnia, M.; Eslami-Rasekh, A.; Vahid Dastjerdi, H.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relative effectiveness of four types of input-enhanced instruction on the development of Iranian EFL learners' production of pragmatically appropriate and grammatically accurate suggestions. Over a 16-week course, input delivered through video clips was enhanced differently in four intact classes: (1) metapragmatic…

  15. Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set the stage for higher quality instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia

    2013-10-01

    Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. The Impact of an Instructional Intervention Designed to Support Development of Stochastic Understanding of Probability Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Darcy Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic understanding of probability distribution undergirds development of conceptual connections between probability and statistics and supports development of a principled understanding of statistical inference. This study investigated the impact of an instructional course intervention designed to support development of stochastic…

  17. Supporting Classroom Instruction: The Textbook Navigator/Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Leland S.; Burroughs, Nathan; Schmidt, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at the Center for the Study of Curriculum at Michigan State University have developed a tool to help teachers implement the Common Core State Standards in mathematics by letting standards, not textbooks, guide their instruction. Using the web-based Textbook Navigator/Journal, teachers can pick a standard and ask which portions of the…

  18. Using the iPad as a Tool to Support Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy; Beschorner, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine how iPads could be integrated into literacy instruction in a fourth-grade classroom in ways consistent with new conceptions of literacy and in ways that transform traditional literacy instruction by supporting readers in creating multimodal responses to reading. Results indicate that several features…

  19. Computer Simulations to Support Science Instruction and Learning: A critical review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Lara Kathleen; Bell, Randy L.

    2012-06-01

    Researchers have explored the effectiveness of computer simulations for supporting science teaching and learning during the past four decades. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, critical review of the literature on the impact of computer simulations on science teaching and learning, with the goal of summarizing what is currently known and providing guidance for future research. We report on the outcomes of 61 empirical studies dealing with the efficacy of, and implications for, computer simulations in science instruction. The overall findings suggest that simulations can be as effective, and in many ways more effective, than traditional (i.e. lecture-based, textbook-based and/or physical hands-on) instructional practices in promoting science content knowledge, developing process skills, and facilitating conceptual change. As with any other educational tool, the effectiveness of computer simulations is dependent upon the ways in which they are used. Thus, we outline specific research-based guidelines for best practice. Computer simulations are most effective when they (a) are used as supplements; (b) incorporate high-quality support structures; (c) encourage student reflection; and (d) promote cognitive dissonance. Used appropriately, computer simulations involve students in inquiry-based, authentic science explorations. Additionally, as educational technologies continue to evolve, advantages such as flexibility, safety, and efficiency deserve attention.

  20. District Central Office Leadership as Teaching: How Central Office Administrators Support Principals' Development as Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Meredith I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Research on educational leadership underscores the importance of principals operating as instructional leaders and intensive job-embedded supports for such work; this research also identifies central office staff as key support providers. However, it teaches little about what central office staff do when they provide such support and how…

  1. Assessment of Preschool Early Literacy Skills: Linking Children's Educational Needs with Empirically Supported Instructional Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Nicholas P; Lerner, Matthew D

    2011-05-01

    The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment.

  2. Evaluating Teachers' Support Requests When Just-in-Time Instructional Support is Provided to Introduce a Primary Level Web-Based Reading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eileen; Anderson, Alissa; Piquette-Tomei, Noella; Savage, Robert; Mueller, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Support requests were documented for 10 teachers (4 kindergarten, 4 grade one, and 2 grade one/two teachers) who received just-in-time instructional support over a 2 1/2 month period while implementing a novel reading software program as part of their literacy instruction. In-class observations were made of each instructional session. Analysis of…

  3. Using Coding Apps to Support Literacy Instruction and Develop Coding Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy; Nadolny, Larysa; Estapa, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors present the concept of Coding Literacy and describe the ways in which coding apps can support the development of Coding Literacy and disciplinary and digital literacy skills. Through detailed examples, we describe how coding apps can be integrated into literacy instruction to support learning of the Common Core English…

  4. Instructional Theory for Using a Class Wiki to Support Collaborative Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instructional theory for using a class wiki to support collaborative learning in higher education. Although wikis have been identified in theory as one of the most powerful emerging technologies to support collaborative learning, challenges have been revealed in a number of studies regarding student…

  5. Exploring the Potential for Language Supportive Learning in English Medium Instruction: A Rwandan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Lizzi O.; Clegg, John; Tikly, Leon

    2016-01-01

    This article puts forward the argument for language supportive learning for learners in English medium instruction (EMI) classrooms based on the findings from a mixed methods study in Rwanda. The article first reviews the relevant literature and research which looks at the concept of language support, focusing on textbooks and pedagogy in…

  6. Peer Tutoring – Assisted Instruction, Parent Supportiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofimereku

    effect of treatment (peer tutoring) on mathematics achievement, it also revealed a ..... academic achievement of college students have demonstrated that the ... basic for suggesting the use of the treatment in classrooms irrespective of students' ...

  7. Inference Instruction to Support Reading Comprehension for Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Colby; Barnes, Marcia A.

    2017-01-01

    Making inferences during reading is a critical standards-based skill and is important for reading comprehension. This article supports the improvement of reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities (LD) in upper elementary grades by reviewing what is currently known about inference instruction for students with LD and providing…

  8. Instructional Reasoning about Interpretations of Student Thinking That Supports Responsive Teaching in Secondary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Elizabeth B.; Sherin, Miriam Gamoran

    2016-01-01

    Basing instruction on the substance of student thinking, or responsive teaching, is a critical strategy for supporting student learning. Previous research has documented responsive teaching by identifying observable teaching practices in a broad range of disciplines and classrooms. However, this research has not provided access to the teacher…

  9. Instructional Support for Novice Law Students: Reducing Search Processes and Explaining Concepts in Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievelstein, Fleurie; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Dijck, Gijs; Boshuizen, Els

    2010-01-01

    Nievelstein, F., Van Gog, T., Van Dijck, C., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011). Instructional support for novice law students: Reducing search processes and explaining concepts in cases. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25(3), 408-413. doi:10.1002/acp.1707

  10. Instructional Support System--Occupational Education II. ISSOE Automotive Mechanics Content Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Theodore

    A study was conducted to validate the Instructional Support System-Occupational Education (ISSOE) automotive mechanics curriculum. The following four steps were undertaken: (1) review of the ISSOE materials in terms of their "validity" as task statements; (2) a comparison of the ISSOE tasks to the tasks included in the V-TECS Automotive…

  11. An Analysis of Data Activities and Instructional Supports in Middle School Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bradley J.; Masnick, Amy M.; Baker, Katie; Junglen, Angela

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of science and math education is reasoning with data. Science textbooks are instructional tools that provide opportunities for learning science content (e.g. facts about force and motion) and process skills (e.g. data recording) that support and augment reasoning with data. In addition, the construction and design of textbooks…

  12. Promoting Constructive Activities that Support Vicarious Learning during Computer-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholson, Barry; Craig, Scotty D.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores several ways computer-based instruction can be designed to support constructive activities and promote deep-level comprehension during vicarious learning. Vicarious learning, discussed in the first section, refers to knowledge acquisition under conditions in which the learner is not the addressee and does not physically…

  13. Coaching to Support Disciplinary Literacy Instruction: Navigating Complexity and Challenges for Sustained Teacher Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Paula M.; Elish-Piper, Laurie; Manderino, Michael; L'Allier, Susan K.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated how a high school literacy coach provided coaching to support teachers' understanding and implementation of disciplinary literacy instruction. With a focus on collaborations between the literacy coach and teachers in the disciplines of social studies, math, and English, this article presents three case studies that…

  14. Effectiveness of Multimedia Elements in Computer Supported Instruction: Analysis of Personalization Effects, Students' Performances and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, Mark; Luo, XiaoHui

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the efficiency of multimedia instruction at the college level by comparing the effectiveness of multimedia elements used in the computer supported learning with the cost of their preparation. Among the various technologies that advance learning, instructors and students generally identify interactive multimedia elements as…

  15. Supports for Vocabulary Instruction in Early Language and Literacy Methods Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tanya S.; Peltier, Marliese R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which the content and recommendations in recently published early language and literacy methods textbooks may support early childhood teachers in learning to provide vocabulary instruction for young children. We completed a content analysis of 9 textbooks with coding at the sentence level.…

  16. Examining Instructional Practices, Intellectual Challenge, and Supports for African American Student Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Chandra L.

    2012-01-01

    The debate surrounding how best to support African American student writers continues today as the gap between achievement scores persists. This qualitative analysis documents the classroom structures and instructional practices of two English Language Arts teachers working in a predominately African American public middle school, whose students…

  17. Advocating for More Student-Centered Physical Education: The Case for Need-Supportive Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Nicholas; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Sinelnikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the concept of need-supportive instruction as a practical means through which PE teachers can satisfy their students' psychological needs, leading to more self-determined student motivation in class and, ultimately, tangible benefits outside of school.

  18. Instructional Support and Implementation Structure during Elementary Teachers' Science Education Simulation Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonczi, Amanda L.; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation sought to identify patterns in elementary science teachers' computer simulation use, particularly implementation structures and instructional supports commonly employed by teachers. Data included video-recorded science lessons of 96 elementary teachers who used computer simulations in one or more science lessons. Results…

  19. [A qualitative analysis of spelling mistakes and a systematic supportive learning instruction of spelling disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvacho Del Toro, Irene M

    2016-09-01

    This paper explains how a qualitative analysis of spelling mistakes (Oldenburger Fehleranalyse, Thomé & Thomé, 2014) may be used to select learning materials according to individual needs. The pre-post design with control group serves to evaluate the effects of an intervention that is systematic and learning supportive for pupils with a diagnosed spelling disorder (ages 12 to 14; 6th-8th grade). Therapists of the experimental group were instructed to apply a series of linguistic and psycholinguistic criteria when creating the material for instruction and when carrying out the therapy. Therapists of the control group carried out the intervention without attending to these criteria, although they did have knowledge about the pupil’s profile in spelling mistakes. The intervention included 20 sessions. The ANOVA shows improvement for both groups (HSP, May 2012): (F(1, 14) = 15,05, p = .002, η2 = .518). For the experimental group it is stronger, and the difference in achievement gain is significant (F(1, 14) = 4,70, p = .048; η2 = .25). These results support a combination of qualitative analysis and a high qualification for therapists that relates specifically to orthography and its instruction. For some pupils the changes in the qualitative profiles reveal persistent support requirements in phonology or grammar instruction.

  20. Impacts of autonomy-supportive versus controlling instructional language on motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooyman, Andrew; Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

    2014-08-01

    The authors examined the influence of autonomy-supportive (ASL), controlling (CL), and neutral instructional language (NL) on motor skill learning (cricket bowling action). Prior to and several times during the practice phase, participants watched the same video demonstration of the bowling action but with different voice-over instructions. The instructions were designed to provide the same technical information but to vary in terms of the degree of choice performers would perceive when executing the task. In addition to measurements of throwing accuracy (i.e., deviation from the target), perceived choice, self-efficacy, and positive and negative affect were assessed at the end of the practice phase and after a retention test without demonstrations and instructions on Day 2. ASL resulted in perceptions of greater choice, higher self-efficacy, and more positive affect during practice than CL, and enhanced learning as demonstrated by retention test performance. Thus, granting learners autonomy appeared to endow them with confidence in their ability, diminished needs for control of negative emotional responses, and created more positive affect, which may help consolidate motor memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. MobiGroup: Enabling Lifecycle Support to Social Activity Organization and Suggestion with Mobile Crowd Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Bin; Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, Liming; Zhou, Xingshe; Ma, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. This paper presents a group-aware mobile crowd sensing system called MobiGroup, which supports group activity organization in real-world settings. Acknowledging the complexity and diversity of group activities, this paper introduces a formal concept model to characterize group activities and classifies them into four organizational stages. We t...

  2. Suggestibility, Social Support, and Memory for a Novel Experience in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, J.A.; Wallin, A.R.; Papini, S.; Lench, H.; Scullin, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined 5- and 6-year-olds' suggestibility and interviewer demeanor as joint predictors of their memory for a novel experience. Session 1 consisted of children taking part in a novel laboratory event. Session 2 took place after approximately a 1-week delay and consisted of children completing both a memory test concerning what happened…

  3. A Suggestion for Restoring Public Support for Public Schools: Learn to Invite Patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, Flora N.; Russell, Gene; Wedel, Mack

    1998-01-01

    Proposes that the increasing disavowal of public schools results from experience with day-by-day disinviting behaviors. The suggested remedy is for educators to evaluate their on-the-job responses to their patrons. Wherever subminimal interpersonal conditions are identified, participants should learn to invite people to education. Presents a case…

  4. Examining the Role of Web 2.0 Tools in Supporting Problem Solving during Case-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Adrie A.; Newby, Timothy J.; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2017-01-01

    As learners solve complex problems, such as the ones present in case narratives, they need instructional support. Potentially, Web 2.0 applications can be useful to learners during case-based instruction (CBI), as their affordances offer creative and collaborative opportunities. However, there is limited research available on how the affordances…

  5. Nursing churn and turnover in Australian hospitals: nurses perceptions and suggestions for supportive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angela J; Stasa, Helen; Roche, Michael A; Homer, Caroline S E; Duffield, Christine

    2014-04-08

    This study aimed to reveal nurses' experiences and perceptions of turnover in Australian hospitals and identify strategies to improve retention, performance and job satisfaction. Nursing turnover is a serious issue that can compromise patient safety, increase health care costs and impact on staff morale. A qualitative design was used to analyze responses from 362 nurses collected from a national survey of nurses from medical and surgical nursing units across 3 Australian States/Territories. A qualitative design was used to analyze responses from 362 nurses collected from a national survey of nurses from medical and surgical nursing units across 3 Australian States/Territories. Key factors affecting nursing turnover were limited career opportunities; poor support; a lack of recognition; and negative staff attitudes. The nursing working environment is characterised by inappropriate skill-mix and inadequate patient-staff ratios; a lack of overseas qualified nurses with appropriate skills; low involvement in decision-making processes; and increased patient demands. These issues impacted upon heavy workloads and stress levels with nurses feeling undervalued and disempowered. Nurses described supportive strategies: improving performance appraisals, responsive preceptorship and flexible employment options. Nursing turnover is influenced by the experiences of nurses. Positive steps can be made towards improving workplace conditions and ensuring nurse retention. Improving performance management and work design are strategies that nurse managers could harness to reduce turnover.

  6. Cognitive Tutoring based on Intelligent Decision Support in the PENTHA Instructional Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    dall'Acqua, Luisa

    2010-06-01

    The research finality of this paper is how to support Authors to develop rule driven—subject oriented, adaptable course content, meta-rules—representing the disciplinary epistemology, model of teaching, Learning Path structure, and assessment parameters—for intelligent Tutoring actions in a personalized, adaptive e-Learning environment. The focus is to instruct the student to be a decision manager for himself, able to recognize the elements of a problem, select the necessary information with the perspective of factual choices. In particular, our research intends to provide some fundamental guidelines for the definition of didactical rules and logical relations, that Authors should provide to a cognitive Tutoring system through the use of an Instructional Design method (PENTHA Model) which proposes an educational environment, able to: increase productivity and operability, create conditions for a cooperative dialogue, developing participatory research activities of knowledge, observations and discoveries, customizing the learning design in a complex and holistic vision of the learning / teaching processes.

  7. LESPRO - an expert system for the decision support in determination and suggestion of protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohunova, J.; Duranova, T.; Hatar, E.

    2000-01-01

    A prototype expert system for advising emergency procedures for nuclear regulatory authority has been developed. The expert system ESPRO is known as goal oriented rule-based knowledge system. The system is based on emergency procedures developed in VUJE Trnava, Inc. for use by the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of the Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA). The operation interpretation module uses the knowledge base of emergency procedures for the evaluation of source term and determination and suggestion of protective measures which is represented in the form of a Petri net model. Its verification and validation was done on the basis of the results of two exercises: joint exercise of ERC staff with Slovak Army Headquarters and full scale Mochovce NPP emergency exercise with use of the Mochovce NPP simulator. (author)

  8. Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Clark, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.

  9. Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Clark, M. A. Z.

    Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.

  10. Improving students' critical thinking : Empirical support for explicit instructions combined with practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijltjes, Anita; Van Gog, Tamara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/294304975; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    This experiment investigated the impact of different types of critical thinking instruction and dispositions on bias in economics students' (N=141) reasoning performance. The following conditions were compared: (A) implicit instruction; (B) implicit instruction with practice; (C) implicit

  11. The Curriculum Customization Service: A Tool for Customizing Earth Science Instruction and Supporting Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhado, L. C.; Devaul, H.; Sumner, T.

    2010-12-01

    Accelerating demographic trends in the United States attest to the critical need to broaden access to customized learning: reports refer to the next decade as the era of “extreme diversity” in K-12 classrooms, particularly in large urban school districts. This diverse student body possesses a wide range of knowledge, skills, and abilities in addition to cultural differences. A single classroom may contain students with different levels of quantitative skills, different levels of English language proficiency, and advanced students preparing for college-level science. A uniform curriculum, no matter how well designed and implemented, cannot possibly serve the needs of such diverse learners equally well. Research has shown positive learning outcomes when pedagogical strategies that customize instruction to address specific learner needs are implemented, with under-achieving students often benefiting most. Supporting teachers in the effective adoption and use of technology to meet these instructional challenges is the underlying goal of the work to be presented here. The Curriculum Customization Service (CCS) is an integrated web-based platform for middle and high school Earth science teachers designed to facilitate teachers’ instructional planning and delivery; enhancing existing curricula with digital library resources and shared teacher-contributed materials in the context of articulated learning goals. The CCS integrates interactive resources from the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) with an inquiry-based curriculum component developed by the American Geological Institute (EarthComm and Investigating Earth Systems). The digital library resources emphasize visualizations and animations of Earth processes that often challenge students’ understanding, offering multiple representations of phenomena to address different learning styles, reading abilities, and preconceived ideas. Teachers can access these materials, as well as those created or

  12. The Role of Relational and Instructional Classroom Supports in the Language Development of At-Risk Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosse, Carolyn S.; McGinty, Anita S.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Hoffman, LaVae M.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which preschool classroom supports--relational support (RS) and instructional support (IS)--are associated with children's language development and whether these associations vary as a function of children's language ability. The language skills of 360 children within 95 classrooms were assessed using an…

  13. Instructional design in the development of an online course on Basic Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobase, Lucia; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Almeida, Denise Maria de; Tomazini, Edenir Aparecida Sartorelli; Ramos, Meire Bruna; Polastri, Thatiane Facholi

    2018-03-26

    To develop and evaluate an online course on Basic Life Support. Technological production research of online course guided by the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation) instructional design model based on Andragogy and the Meaningful Learning Theory. The online course was constructed in the platform Moodle, previously assessed by a group of experts, and then presented to the students of the Nursing School of the University of São Paulo, who assessed it at the end of the course. The course was evaluated by the experts and obtained a mean score of 0.92 (SD 0.15), considered as good quality (between 0.90-0.94), and by the students, with a mean score of 0.95 (SD 0.03), considered as high quality (0.95-1.00). The instructional design used was found to be appropriate to the development of the online course. As an active educational strategy, it contributed to the learning on Basic Life Support during cardiac arrest-related procedures in adults. In view of the need for technological innovations in education and systematization of care in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the online course allows the establishment of continuous improvement processes in the quality of resuscitation in the care provided by students and professionals.

  14. Instructional design in the development of an online course on Basic Life Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tobase

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To develop and evaluate an online course on Basic Life Support. Method Technological production research of online course guided by the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation instructional design model based on Andragogy and the Meaningful Learning Theory. The online course was constructed in the platform Moodle, previously assessed by a group of experts, and then presented to the students of the Nursing School of the University of São Paulo, who assessed it at the end of the course. Results The course was evaluated by the experts and obtained a mean score of 0.92 (SD 0.15, considered as good quality (between 0.90-0.94, and by the students, with a mean score of 0.95 (SD 0.03, considered as high quality (0.95-1.00. Conclusion The instructional design used was found to be appropriate to the development of the online course. As an active educational strategy, it contributed to the learning on Basic Life Support during cardiac arrest-related procedures in adults. In view of the need for technological innovations in education and systematization of care in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the online course allows the establishment of continuous improvement processes in the quality of resuscitation in the care provided by students and professionals.

  15. Comparison of traditional advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) course instruction vs. a scenario-based, performance oriented team instruction (SPOTI) method for Korean paramedic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher C; Im, Mark; Kim, Tae Min; Stapleton, Edward R; Kim, Kyuseok; Suh, Gil Joon; Singer, Adam J; Henry, Mark C

    2010-01-01

    Current Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) course instruction involves a 2-day course with traditional lectures and limited team interaction. We wish to explore the advantages of a scenario-based performance-oriented team instruction (SPOTI) method to implement core ACLS skills for non-English-speaking international paramedic students. The objective of this study was to determine if scenario-based, performance-oriented team instruction (SPOTI) improves educational outcomes for the ACLS instruction of Korean paramedic students. Thirty Korean paramedic students were randomly selected into two groups. One group of 15 students was taught the traditional ACLS course. The other 15 students were instructed using a SPOTI method. Each group was tested using ACLS megacode examinations endorsed by the American Heart Association. All 30 students passed the ACLS megacode examination. In the traditional ACLS study group an average of 85% of the core skills were met. In the SPOTI study group an average of 93% of the core skills were met. In particular, the SPOTI study group excelled at physical examination skills such as airway opening, assessment of breathing, signs of circulation, and compression rates. In addition, the SPOTI group performed with higher marks on rhythm recognition compared to the traditional group. The traditional group performed with higher marks at providing proper drug dosages compared to the SPOTI students. However, the students enrolled in the SPOTI method resulted in higher megacode core compliance scores compared to students trained in traditional ACLS course instruction. These differences did not achieve statistical significance due to the small sample size. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of basic life support instruction in physical education students--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielec, Grzegorz; Klajman, Paweł; Pęczak-Graczyk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    According to the literature, 40% of injuries affecting school-age children are sports related. The role of physical education students, as future teachers, seems to be of high importance in terms of protecting children's safety during sports classes. The aim is to evaluate the level of basic life support (BLS) knowledge and skills in physical education students instructed with the use of different methods. Second-year physical education students (n=104, M age=20±0.6 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: experimental 1 (E1), experimental 2 (E2), and control (C). Group E1 students participated in a 2-hour BLS course based on computer-assisted presentations. Group E2 trainees practiced BLS algorithm in pairs during a 2-hour course. No manikins were used in both intervention groups. Students of Group C were asked to learn BLS algorithm on their own. All groups fulfilled a 10-question multiple-choice test on BLS at the beginning and the end of the experiment. After completing the course participants performed BLS on a manikin. The results of knowledge test were not significant before an experiment but differed essentially among the groups afterward (analysis of variance contrast analysis, peducation students. Moreover, permanent consultation on instructional methods with emergency medicine experts is recommended for university teachers.

  17. How Instructional Coaches Support Data-Driven Decision Making: Policy Implementation and Effects in Florida Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Julie A.; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Martorell, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the convergence of two popular school improvement policies: instructional coaching and data-driven decision making (DDDM). Drawing on a mixed methods study of a statewide reading coach program in Florida middle schools, the article examines how coaches support DDDM and how this support relates to student and teacher outcomes.…

  18. Data Collection Management. A Supporting Report of the Instructional Dimensions Study, 1976-1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Morris

    This report is one of 8 volumes which describe the findings and procedures of the Instructional Dimensions Study, an in-depth assessment of the relationships between selected instructional constructs and students' achievement. These constructs include individualization, opportunity to learn, motivational factors, instructional events, and teacher…

  19. Supporting driver headway choice : The effects of discrete headway feedback when following headway instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, M.; Martens, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    With specific headway instructions drivers are not able to attain the exact headways as instructed. In this study, the effects of discrete headway feedback (and the direction of headway adjustment) on headway accuracy for drivers carrying out time headway instructions were assessed experimentally.

  20. Supporting driver headway choice: The effects of discrete headway feedback when following headway instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, Malte; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje

    2014-01-01

    With specific headway instructions drivers are not able to attain the exact headways as instructed. In this study, the effects of discrete headway feedback (and the direction of headway adjustment) on headway accuracy for drivers carrying out time headway instructions were assessed experimentally.

  1. Using S’COOL and MY NASA DATA to Support Language Arts Instruction: Overview and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S. W.; Rogerson, T. M.; Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Oots, P. C.; Lewis, P. M.

    2009-12-01

    Science can serve as an authentic motivational and instructional vehicle for instruction in language arts. Two NASA educational outreach programs provide ample opportunity for strengthening vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing skills, through the integration of authentic activities and scenarios in the context of a real-time NASA mission. The NASA CERES Students’ Cloud Observation On-Line (S’COOL) project is a hands-on project that supports NASA research on the Earth’s climate. Students are engaged in identifying cloud-types and levels and sending that information to NASA. If the students’ observations are within +/-15 minutes of the CERES satellite-based instrument passing over their location, this is designated as a “match”. The participating teacher is sent an e-mail asking the student-observers to consider the various aspects of the match, including the interpretation of a graphical aid, using the correct terminology to express level of agreement, and writing comments to describe their “matches”, all of which contribute to strengthening skills in language arts. To further integrate the language arts, the S’COOL website provides several teacher-authored on-line lessons that integrate reading skills, vocabulary, and composition. The Mentoring and inquiry using NASA Data on Atmospheric and earth science for Teachers and Amateurs (MY NASA DATA) project is a project to enable K-12 teaches and students, as well as citizen scientists, to explore the large volumes of data that NASA collects about the Earth from space. Opportunity for addressing literacy is integrated into several teacher-authored on-line lessons. Scenarios present students with a problem requiring the reading and comprehension of the scenario, understanding of terminology, the ability to read and understand a written technical procedure, and composition of related conclusions. In addition, students are provided opportunities to analyze a data-set and/or data plot, then

  2. An Analysis of Instructional Facilitators' Relationships with Teachers and Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Bret G.; Pijanowski, John C.; Duncan, Heather; Scherz, Susan; Hvidston, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the perspectives of Wyoming instructional facilitators, concerning three coaching constructs--namely, their instructional leadership roles, teachers' instructional practices, and the support that they receive from principals and teachers. Findings suggest that instructional facilitators were positive about their instructional…

  3. Effects of supported electronic text and explicit instruction on science comprehension by students with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Victoria Floyd

    Supported electronic text (eText), or text that has been altered to increase access and provide support to learners, may promote comprehension of science content for students with disabilities. According to CAST, Book Builder(TM) uses supported eText to promote reading for meaning for all students. Although little research has been conducted in the area of supported eText for students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), technology (e.g., computer assisted instruction) has been used for over 35 years to instruct students with ASD in academic areas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supported eText and explicit instruction on the science vocabulary and comprehension of four middle school students with ASD. Researchers used a multiple probe across participants design to evaluate the Book Builder (TM) program on measures of vocabulary, literal comprehension, and application questions. Results indicated a functional relation between the Book Builder(TM) and explicit instruction (i.e., model-lead-test, examples and non-examples, and referral to the definition) and the number of correct responses on the probe. In addition, students were able to generalize concepts to untrained exemplars. Finally, teachers and students validate the program as practical and useful.

  4. Teachers’ Perceptions of Needs and Supports for Handwriting Instruction in Kindergarten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Nye

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to explore the perceived needs of kindergarten teachers as well as the supports they require in preparing children for success in the area of handwriting. Methods: A phenomenological research design was used and nine kindergarten teachers employed at four elementary schools in a school district in Illinois participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews were completed to discuss the perceptions of teachers related to challenges they face and the supports they require in promoting the occupational task of handwriting among the children in their classrooms. Results: The results from this pilot study revealed that overall the teachers felt that the lack of a curriculum and formalized training impacted their teaching practices related to handwriting instruction. Conclusion: The teachers stated that gaps in their knowledge base relating to developmental progression, the ability to assist struggling students, an awareness of strategies to use, and the IEP process contributed to their challenges in teaching handwriting to kindergarten students.

  5. Visual Approach and Design: The Appropriate Characteristics of Instructional Photos as a Tool to Support Elementary Setting in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhamad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study provided a guide for appropriate characteristics of Instructional Photo to be used by teachers, trainers, coaches, instructors, and anyone else who desires to deliver knowledge and present content with visual meaning to elementary students in the state of Kuwait as a teaching style that supports teachers, facilitates clarification, and…

  6. Tech Select Decision Aide: A Mobile Application to Facilitate Just-in-Time Decision Support for Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nada; Fake, Helen

    2017-01-01

    With the ubiquitous use of mobile technologies and the increasing demand for just-in-time training, there is a need to prepare and support instructional designers and educators to meet the pedagogical and technological development requirements of their target audience in the most effective and efficient way. This paper reviews the iterative…

  7. Development, Validation, and Evaluation of Literacy 3D: A Package Supporting Tier 1 Preschool Literacy Instruction Implementation and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Abbott, Mary; Beecher, Constance; Atwater, Jane; Petersen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, prekindergarten programs with literacy outcome goals are seeking to implement evidence-based practices to improve results. Such efforts require instructional intervention strategies to engage children as well as strategies to support teacher implementation. Reported is the iterative development of Literacy 3D, an enhanced support…

  8. The Implementation of a Cost Effectiveness Analyzer for Web-Supported Academic Instruction: An Example from Life Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anat; Nachmias, Rafi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes implementation of a quantitative cost effectiveness analyzer for Web-supported academic instruction that was developed in our University. The paper presents the cost effectiveness analysis of one academic exemplary course in Life Science department and its introducing to the course lecturer for evaluation. The benefits and…

  9. Instructional and Motivational Classroom Discourse and Their Relationship with Teacher Autonomy and Competence Support--Findings from Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemer, Katharina; Gröschner, Alexander; Kunter, Mareike; Seidel, Tina

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates whether productive classroom discourse in the form of instructional and motivational classroom discourse (Turner et al., "Journal of Educational Psychology" 94: 88-106, 2002) provides a supportive social context for students that fosters the fulfilment of the basic psychological needs of autonomy and…

  10. The Effect of a Course Management System (CMS)-Supported Strategy Instruction on EFL Reading Comprehension and Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yea-Ru; Talley, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the effect of a Moodle-supported strategy instruction on both reading comprehension and strategy use among EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students. Specific reading strategy training was first integrated into a Moodle system, which included reading exercises on problem identification, monitoring comprehension,…

  11. An international observational study suggests that artificial intelligence for clinical decision support optimizes anemia management in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Carlo; Molina, Manuel; Ponce, Pedro; Tothova, Monika; Cattinelli, Isabella; Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Mari, Flavio; Amato, Claudia; Leipold, Frank; Wehmeyer, Wolfgang; Stuard, Stefano; Stopper, Andrea; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    Managing anemia in hemodialysis patients can be challenging because of competing therapeutic targets and individual variability. Because therapy recommendations provided by a decision support system can benefit both patients and doctors, we evaluated the impact of an artificial intelligence decision support system, the Anemia Control Model (ACM), on anemia outcomes. Based on patient profiles, the ACM was built to recommend suitable erythropoietic-stimulating agent doses. Our retrospective study consisted of a 12-month control phase (standard anemia care), followed by a 12-month observation phase (ACM-guided care) encompassing 752 patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy in 3 NephroCare clinics located in separate countries. The percentage of hemoglobin values on target, the median darbepoetin dose, and individual hemoglobin fluctuation (estimated from the intrapatient hemoglobin standard deviation) were deemed primary outcomes. In the observation phase, median darbepoetin consumption significantly decreased from 0.63 to 0.46 μg/kg/month, whereas on-target hemoglobin values significantly increased from 70.6% to 76.6%, reaching 83.2% when the ACM suggestions were implemented. Moreover, ACM introduction led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin fluctuation (intrapatient standard deviation decreased from 0.95 g/dl to 0.83 g/dl). Thus, ACM support helped improve anemia outcomes of hemodialysis patients, minimizing erythropoietic-stimulating agent use with the potential to reduce the cost of treatment. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Local Instruction Theories as Means of Support for teachers in Reform Mathematics Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gravemeijer, K.P.E.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a form of instructional design that is deemed fitting for reform mathematics education. Reform mathematics education requires instruction that helps students in developing their current ways of reasoning into more sophisticated ways of mathematical reasoning. This implies

  13. Evaluation of an Online Instructional Database Accessed by QR Codes to Support Biochemistry Practical Laboratory Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tor; Melling, Louise; Shaw, Kirsty J.

    2016-01-01

    An online instructional database containing information on commonly used pieces of laboratory equipment was created. In order to make the database highly accessible and to promote its use, QR codes were utilized. The instructional materials were available anytime and accessed using QR codes located on the equipment itself and within undergraduate…

  14. The characteristics of effective secondary math and science instructional facilitators and the necessary support structures as perceived by practitioners and principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahagan, Vikki Lynn

    Instructional facilitators are known by a variety of titles depending on the school district in which they are employed. They are sometimes called instructional coaches, teacher leaders, lead teachers, and instructional specialist (Denton & Hasbrouck, 2009). Throughout this study, the title instructional facilitator was used and will refer to secondary math or science instructional facilitators who are housed at least one day per week on a campus. This study is a mixed-methods descriptive study which has identified character traits, specials skill, and talents possessed by effective secondary math and science instructional facilitators as perceived by practicing facilitators and principals and assistant principals who work along side instructional facilitators. Specific job training to help ensure the success of a facilitator was identified as viewed by both facilitators and principals. Additionally, this study compared the perceptions of practicing facilitators and principals to determine if significant differences exist with respect to perceptions of staff development opportunities, support structures, and resources available for instructional facilitators.

  15. Effects of gender, rape-supportive attitudes, and explicit instruction on perceptions of women's momentary sexual interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Teresa A; Church, Erin K; Viken, Richard J

    2017-06-01

    Contemporary models of male-initiated sexual aggression toward female acquaintances implicate misperception of women's sexual interest. This study investigated the effects of gender, rape-supportive attitudes and an instructional manipulation on college students' sexual-interest judgments. Two hundred seventy-six women and 220 men judged the cues of momentary sexual interest expressed by photographed women; half received instruction on the differential validity of nonverbal cues of sexual interest for estimation of women's momentary sexual interest. Participants also completed an assessment of rape-supportive attitudes. Overall, college students' perceptions of women's momentary sexual interest are compromised both nomothetically and idiographically. Both male and female college students relied not only on women's nonverbal affect but also on the provocativeness of women's clothing and attractiveness when judging women's sexual interest. Men and women showed similar average ratings, but women relied more than men on women's affect, whereas men relied more than women on women's attractiveness. Both male and female students who endorsed more rape-supportive attitudes, relative to their peers, relied less on women's affect and more on women's clothing style and attractiveness. Explicit instruction regarding the greater validity of women's affective than nonaffective cues enhanced focus on nonverbal affective cues and decreased focus on clothing style and attractiveness. Although higher rape-supportive attitudes predicted more deficits in processing cues of sexual interest, explicit instruction proved to be effective for both higher-risk and lower-risk participants. These findings highlight the generalizability of the well-established effects of explicit instruction on category learning to sexual perception and may point to procedures that eventually could be incorporated into augmented prevention programs for sexual aggression on college campuses.

  16. Supporting students' scientific explanations: A case study investigating the synergy focusing on a teacher's practices when providing instruction and using mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delen, Ibrahim

    Engage students in constructing scientific practices is a critical component of science instruction. Therefore a number of researchers have developed software programs to help students and teachers in this hard task. The Zydeco group, designed a mobile application called Zydeco, which enables students to collect data inside and outside the classroom, and then use the data to create scientific explanations by using claim-evidence-reasoning framework. Previous technologies designed to support scientific explanations focused on how these programs improve students' scientific explanations, but these programs ignored how scientific explanation technologies can support teacher practices. Thus, to increase our knowledge how different scaffolds can work together, this study aimed to portray the synergy between a teacher's instructional practices (part 1) and using supports within a mobile devices (part 2) to support students in constructing explanations. Synergy can be thought of as generic and content-specific scaffolds working together to enable students to accomplish challenging tasks, such as creating explanations that they would not normally be able to do without the scaffolds working together. Providing instruction (part 1) focused on understanding how the teacher scaffolds students' initial understanding of the claim-evidence-reasoning (CER) framework. The second component of examining synergy (part 2: using mobile devices) investigated how this teacher used mobile devices to provide feedback when students created explanations. The synergy between providing instruction and using mobile devices was investigated by analyzing a middle school teacher's practices in two different units (plants and water quality). Next, this study focused on describing how the level of synergy influenced the quality of students' scientific explanations. Finally, I investigated the role of focused teaching intervention sessions to inform teacher in relation to students' performance. In

  17. The Use of Instructional Simulations to Support Classroom Teaching: A Crisis Communication Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflet, Mark; Brown, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how exposure to classroom instruction affected the use of a computer simulation that was designed to provide students an opportunity to apply material presented in class. The study involved an analysis of a computer-based crisis communication case study designed for a college-level public relations…

  18. Districtwide Instructional Reform: Using Sociocultural Theory to Link Professional Learning to Organizational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Chrysan

    2008-01-01

    No Child Left Behind Act accountability pressures and calls to close achievement gaps between groups of students have challenged school districts to achieve systemwide instructional improvement. These policies create learning challenges for classroom teachers and for school and district leaders. This article engages questions about organizational…

  19. Connecting Children Internationally for Science Instruction: Using the Internet to Support Learning about Lunar Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Walter S.; Cheon, Jongpil; Jabri, Faiza; Reynolds, Stephen; Zebedi, Amira

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect on children's science understanding of Internet-based instruction in which children from around the world in grades 4 to 8 observed the Moon for several weeks and then shared their lunar data internationally to find global patterns in the Moon's behavior. Students in two American and one Australian class took the…

  20. A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Roles of Instructional Leadership, Teacher Collaboration, and Collective Efficacy Beliefs in Support of Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Roger; Goddard, Yvonne; Kim, Eun Sook; Miller, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Principals' instructional leadership may support the degree to which teachers work together to improve instruction, and together leadership and teacher collaboration may contribute to school effectiveness by strengthening collective efficacy beliefs. We found a significant direct effect of leadership on teacher collaboration. Further, leadership…

  1. Supportive or suggestive: Do human figure drawings help 5- to 7-year-old children to report touch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Deirdre A; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Lewis, Charlie; Lamb, Michael E; Orbach, Yael

    2007-02-01

    The authors examined the accuracy of information elicited from seventy-nine 5- to 7-year-old children about a staged event that included physical contact-touching. Four to six weeks later, children's recall for the event was assessed using an interview protocol analogous to those used in forensic investigations with children. Following the verbal interview, children were asked about touch when provided with human figure drawings (drawings only), following practice using the human figure drawings (drawings with instruction), or without drawings (verbal questions only). In this touch-inquiry phase of the interview, most children provided new information. Children in the drawings conditions reported more incorrect information than those in the verbal questions condition. Forensically relevant errors were infrequent and were rarely elaborated on. Although asking children to talk about innocuous touch may lead them to report unreliable information, especially when human figure drawings are used as aids, errors are reduced when open-ended prompts are used to elicit further information about reported touches. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The efficacy of student-centered instruction in supporting science learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, E M; Bevis, T H; Saka, Y; Southerland, S A; Sampson, V; Tate, R L

    2012-10-05

    Transforming science learning through student-centered instruction that engages students in a variety of scientific practices is central to national science-teaching reform efforts. Our study employed a large-scale, randomized-cluster experimental design to compare the effects of student-centered and teacher-centered approaches on elementary school students' understanding of space-science concepts. Data included measures of student characteristics and learning and teacher characteristics and fidelity to the instructional approach. Results reveal that learning outcomes were higher for students enrolled in classrooms engaging in scientific practices through a student-centered approach; two moderators were identified. A statistical search for potential causal mechanisms for the observed outcomes uncovered two potential mediators: students' understanding of models and evidence and the self-efficacy of teachers.

  3. Better together: Simultaneous presentation of speech and gesture in math instruction supports generalization and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Eliza L; Novack, Miriam A; Brooks, Neon; Hemani-Lopez, Naureen; O'Keefe, Lucy; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2017-08-01

    When teachers gesture during instruction, children retain and generalize what they are taught (Goldin-Meadow, 2014). But why does gesture have such a powerful effect on learning? Previous research shows that children learn most from a math lesson when teachers present one problem-solving strategy in speech while simultaneously presenting a different, but complementary, strategy in gesture (Singer & Goldin-Meadow, 2005). One possibility is that gesture is powerful in this context because it presents information simultaneously with speech. Alternatively, gesture may be effective simply because it involves the body, in which case the timing of information presented in speech and gesture may be less important for learning. Here we find evidence for the importance of simultaneity: 3 rd grade children retain and generalize what they learn from a math lesson better when given instruction containing simultaneous speech and gesture than when given instruction containing sequential speech and gesture. Interpreting these results in the context of theories of multimodal learning, we find that gesture capitalizes on its synchrony with speech to promote learning that lasts and can be generalized.

  4. Support for teachers in improving science instruction and building a professional culture: An investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meg

    Teachers, already working in a demanding and complex occupation, face new challenges posed by current recommendations for changes in science teaching. Reform challenges that teachers face today and principles for professional development suggested by Judith Warren Little are used as a conceptual framework for this study. The study examines one professional development opportunity, the South Coast Science Project (SCSP) which is one site of the statewide California Science Project. In 1995 twenty-eight teachers of grades K--12 participated in the SCSPs four week summer institute and six follow-up days during the next two school years. Responses to open-ended questions on questionnaires answered by each teacher and my observation as a participant were used to study teachers' experiences in the institute. In classroom observations and interviews I gathered data about teaching practice and leadership activities of the teachers after the institute. Findings show that after the institute participating teachers made changes in teaching practice and leadership activities congruent with the aims of the SCSP. Important factors in the institute's success in supporting teachers to make changes include: the institute's mission, design, principles, and aims are in agreement with Little's (1993) suggested principles for professional development; investigations in an inquiry method are used to emphasize teaching science, rather than separating science and teaching; teacher leadership was enhanced by modeling and opportunities for the participants to practice leadership; a non-elitist model gave all teachers access to this learning opportunity. The method used for this study shows a way to better understand how professional development can have an impact on classroom practice. By collecting data in both the contexts---the learning opportunity and the subsequent classroom applications---the impact of the professional development can be traced. Findings for this study show that well

  5. Tune Up: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The fifth of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive tune-ups at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each lesson…

  6. Fuel System: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The fourth of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive fuel systems at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  7. Cooling System: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The last of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the automotive cooling system at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  8. Engine Fundamentals: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The second of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in engine fundamentals at the secondary and postsecondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each lesson…

  9. Graphic support resources for workers with intellectual disability engaged in office tasks: a comparison with verbal instructions from a work mate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, María-Teresa; Montanero, Manuel; Lucero, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Research into workplace adjustments for people with disabilities is a fundamental challenge of supported employment. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effect of several graphic resources as natural support for workers with intellectual disability. Two case studies were conducted to assess the performance of five workers engaged in office tasks, with three different support conditions. Results reveal a 20% increase in quality of performance of the tasks undertaken with graphic support as compared to support in which the participants received verbal instructions (VIs) from a work mate; and between 25 and 30% as compared to a control condition which included no help of any kind. These findings are consistent with previous studies which support the possibility of generating, at low cost, iconic materials (with maps or simple graphics), which progressively facilitate workers' autonomy, without dependence or help from the job trainer. We observed that the worst performance is in the support condition with VIs, this shows the limitations of this type of natural support, which is provided on demand by work mates without specialist knowledge of work support. Implications for Rehabilitation We studied the use of various types of natural support for people with intellectual disability in their workplace. The findings suggest that, with some brief training, the simple use in the workplace of graphic help on a card can increase between 20 and 30% the quality of performance of certain work tasks carried out by workers with intellectual disability. This advantage contrasts with the high cost or lower "manageability" of other material resources of natural support based on the use of technology.

  10. Supporting Instruction By Defining Conceptual Relevance Of Materials: Alignment Of Resources To An Earth Systems Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, A. J.; Bean, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental, geological, and climatological sciences are important facets of physical science education. However, it is often difficult for educators to acquire the necessary resources to facilitate content explanations, and demonstration of the conceptual links between individual lessons. The Understanding Global Change (UGC) Project at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) at UC Berkeley is aligning new and existing Earth systems educational resources that are high-quality, interactive and inquiry based. Learning resources are organized by the UGC framework topics (Causes of Change, How the Earth System Works, and Measurable Changes), and focus on exploring topic relationships. Resources are currently aligned with both the UGC framework and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), facilitating broad utility among K-16 educators. The overarching goal of the UGC Project is to provide the necessary resources that guide the construction of coherent, interdisciplinary instructional units. These units can be reinforced through system models, providing visual learning scaffolds for assessments of student content knowledge. Utilizing the central framework of UGC alleviates the long-standing problem of creating coherent instructional units from multiple learning resources, each organized and categorized independently across multiple platforms that may not provide explicit connections among Earth science subjects UGC topic cross listing of learning modules establishes conceptual links. Each resource is linked across several Earth system components, facilitating exploration of relationships and feedbacks between processes. Cross listed topics are therefore useful for development of broad picture learning goals via targeted instructional units. We also anticipate cultivating summaries of the explicit conceptual links explored in each resource from both current teachers and content specialists. Insructional units currated and aligned under the UGC

  11. Introducing embedded indigenous psychological support teams: a suggested addition to psychological first aid in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Ahmad, Zeba S; Thoburn, John W; Furman, Rich; Lambert, Ashly J; Shelly, Lauren; Gunn, Ginger

    2012-01-01

    The current article introduces Embedded Indigenous Psychological Support Teams (IPST) as a possible addition to current disaster relief efforts. This article highlights psychological first aid in an international context by drawing on mainstream disaster relief models such as The American Red Cross, Critical Incident Stress Management, and Flexible Psychological First Aid. IPST are explained as teams utilizing techniques from both CISM and FPFA with a focus on resiliency. It is currently theorized that in utilizing IPST existing disaster relief models may be more effective in mitigating negative physical or mental health consequences post-disaster.

  12. Chat Transcript Analysis Reveals that Undergraduate Students are Open to Instruction, While Instructors and Librarians Care About Supporting Student Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Sullo

    2017-03-01

    helping these students. Opinions regarding the traditional reference interview, including specific techniques that made the interaction successful, were categorized as “question negotiation.” The “open and closed questions” theme focused on feedback on the types of questions used by librarians in the reference interview. Several components related to chat and instruction were encompassed within the “instruction” theme, including whether those participating in the study were conscious of librarians providing instructions via chat and whether it was deemed valuable; the impact of a library instruction session in which students participated; and identification of missed teachable moments during the chat. The “speed and convenience” theme represented thoughts regarding the balance of instruction and librarian support of news skills, with the student expectation of having their question answered quickly and efficiently. The “customer service” theme focused on the service quality of the reference transaction, while the “referrals” theme encompassed thoughts related to whether students were referred to subject specialists, writing specialists, instructors, or if there was a lack of a referral altogether. Conclusion – Based on the research results, the authors highlighted the importance of the interconnectedness of teaching that is done in the classroom, in library instruction sessions, and on the reference desk, as all three types of instruction should align. Furthermore, because students are open to instruction via the chat service when they are creating and revising their research question and delving into subject research, chat can be viewed as a key teaching and learning opportunity.

  13. How information systems should support the information needs of general dentists in clinical settings: suggestions from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wali Teena

    2010-02-01

    for better visual representation and patient-specific evidence-based information are mostly unmet. While patient records and support staff remain the most used information sources, electronic sources other than electronic dental records (EDR are rarely utilized during patient visits. For future development of dental information or clinical decision-support systems, developers should consider integrating high-quality, up-to-date clinical evidence into comprehensive and easily accessible EDRs as well as supporting dentists' resource use patterns as identified in the study.

  14. Adapting research instruction to support the scholarship of practice: practice-scholar partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Evidence-based practice (EBP) is crucial to the success of delivering quality occupational therapy services. The skill to engage in the scholarship of practice is central to being able to create evidence specific to one's everyday practice and leads to an emerging role within occupational therapy called the practice-scholar. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the effectiveness of an instructional approach that engaged the scholarship of practice and the functions of a practice-scholar. Occupational therapy graduate students and practitioners collaborated to develop a practice-based study proposal during a traditional experimental research class. The objective was to apply research concepts contextualized within the natural practice context while developing the role of the practice-scholar in designing outcomes studies. As part of an entry-level research course, students (n == 39) and practitioners (n == 14) were grouped into learning teams and discussed two self-assessments to reflect on their self-efficacy perceptions of practice-scholarship research at the beginning and the end of a series of guided sessions to design a research proposal. Postcourse results show that students' perceptions of self-efficacy improved regarding their abilities to participate in practice-scholarship as a result of the learning partnerships. Anecdotal similarities were found for practitioners. As an instructional method, the learning partnership facilitated the development of foundational knowledge and skills related to becoming practice-scholars through increased self-efficacy in using proposal design. This educational approach proactively used the scholarship of practice research to bridge practice and education using a meaningful, partnership-based model for entry-level graduate students and occupational therapy practitioners.

  15. Orientation: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The first six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the basic theory and practice of a beginning course at the secondary and post-secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction…

  16. Design of an Instructional Module on Basic Life Support for Homeschooled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Sakinah; Ahmad, Shamsuria; Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    Basic Life Support (BLS) can increase a victim's chances of survival when administered promptly and correctly. Cardiac and respiratory arrests occur more frequently when the victim is at home far from clinical support. Hence, prompt action by family members trained in BLS can save the victim's life. In this study, the requirements for the design…

  17. Synthetic phonics and decodable instructional reading texts: How far do these support poor readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Mohr, Ruth Maria; Price, Colin Bernard

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents data from a quasi-experimental trial with paired randomisation that emerged during the development of a reading scheme for children in England. This trial was conducted with a group of 12 children, aged 5-6, and considered to be falling behind their peers in reading ability and a matched control group. There were two intervention conditions (A: using mixed teaching methods and a high percentage of non-phonically decodable vocabulary; P: using mixed teaching methods and low percentage of non-decodable vocabulary); allocation to these was randomised. Children were assessed at pre- and post-test on standardised measures of receptive vocabulary, phoneme awareness, word reading, and comprehension. Two class teachers in the same school each selected 6 children, who they considered to be poor readers, to participate (n = 12). A control group (using synthetic phonics only and phonically decodable vocabulary) was selected from the same 2 classes based on pre-test scores for word reading (n = 16). Results from the study show positive benefits for poor readers from using both additional teaching methods (such as analytic phonics, sight word vocabulary, and oral vocabulary extension) in addition to synthetic phonics, and also non-decodable vocabulary in instructional reading text. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Digital fabrication as an instructional technology for supporting upper elementary and middle school science and mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Daniel

    The purpose of this three-paper manuscript dissertation was to study digital fabrication as an instructional technology for supporting elementary and middle school science and mathematics education. Article one analyzed the effects of digital fabrication activities that were designed to contextualize mathematics education at a summer mathematics enrichment program for upper elementary and middle school students. The primary dependent variables studied were the participants' knowledge of mathematics and science content, attitudes towards STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) and STEM-related careers. Based upon the data collected, three results were presented as having justifiable supporting empirical evidence: (1) The digital fabrication activities, combined with the other mathematics activities at the enrichment program, resulted in non-significant overall gains in students' mathematics test scores and attitudes towards STEM. (2) The digital fabrication activities, combined with the other mathematics activities at the enrichment program, resulted in noteworthy gains on the "Probability & Statistics" questions. (3) Some students who did poorly on the scored paper test on mathematics and science content were nonetheless nominated by their teachers as demonstrating meritorious distinction during the digital fabrication activities (termed "Great Thinkers" by the 5th-grade teachers). Article two focused on how an instructional technology course featuring digital fabrication activities impacted (1) preservice elementary teachers' efficacy beliefs about teaching science, and (2) their attitudes and understanding of how to include instructional technology and digital fabrication activities into teaching science. The research design compared two sections of a teaching with technology course featuring digital fabrication activities to another section of the same course that utilized a media cycle framework (Bull & Bell, 2005) that did not feature digital

  19. Comparison of basic life support (BLS video self-instructional system and traditional BLS training in first year nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nikandish

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: For several years, educators have criticized the lecture-based  approach  to teaching and learning. Experts have rightly stressed on acquisition  of a number of critical  skills rather than focusing on lectures. Purpose. To compare students'  pe1jormance after self-education  with VCD and manikin,  with thei performance after standard BLS training.Methods: In this randomized controlled study, twenty first-year nursing students were divided into two groups randomly, and were provided with basic life support (BLS instruction either in the traditional format of lecturing or with VCD and manikin without tutor. The students’ Performance was evaluated on a manikin with a checklist including all steps in BLS.Results: With traditional  instruction,  students'  mean score was 42.2±3.91, while it was 46.3±3.86 with self-education,  showing no significant  difference.Conclusion: In nursing students with no previous BLS training, access to VCD and manikin facilitates immediate achievement of educational objectives similar to those  of a standard  BLS course.  Self­ learning BLS with VCD should be enhanced with a short period of hands-on practice.Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, nursing students, cpr skills, education

  20. Technologies and Reformed-Based Science Instruction: The Examination of a Professional Development Model Focused on Supporting Science Teaching and Learning with Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Longhurst, Max L.; Wang, Shiang-Kwei; Hsu, Hui-Yin; Coster, Dan C.

    2015-01-01

    While access to computers, other technologies, and cyber-enabled resources that could be leveraged for enhancing student learning in science is increasing, generally it has been found that teachers use technology more for administrative purposes or to support traditional instruction. This use of technology, especially to support traditional…

  1. Evaluating the Impact of Instructional Support Using Data Mining and Process Mining: A Micro-Level Analysis of the Effectiveness of Metacognitive Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Christoph; Bannert, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In computer-supported learning environments, the deployment of self-regulatory skills represents an essential prerequisite for successful learning. Metacognitive prompts are a promising type of instructional support to activate students' strategic learning activities. However, despite positive effects in previous studies, there are still a large…

  2. The teacher benefits from giving autonomy support during physical education instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sung Hyeon; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Yu, Tae Ho; Jang, Hue Ryen

    2014-08-01

    Recognizing that students benefit when they receive autonomy-supportive teaching, the current study tested the parallel hypothesis that teachers themselves would benefit from giving autonomy support. Twenty-seven elementary, middle, and high school physical education teachers (20 males, 7 females) were randomly assigned either to participate in an autonomy-supportive intervention program (experimental group) or to teach their physical education course with their existing style (control group) within a three-wave longitudinal research design. Manipulation checks showed that the intervention was successful, as students perceived and raters scored teachers in the experimental group as displaying a more autonomy-supportive and less controlling motivating style. In the main analyses, ANCOVA-based repeated-measures analyses showed large and consistent benefits for teachers in the experimental group, including greater teaching motivation (psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, and intrinsic goals), teaching skill (teaching efficacy), and teaching well-being (vitality, job satisfaction, and lesser emotional and physical exhaustion). These findings show that giving autonomy support benefits teachers in much the same way that receiving it benefits their students.

  3. Supporting Ngss-Congruent Instruction in Earth & Space Science Through Educator Implementation and Feedback: Refining the Dig Texas Blueprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, B. E.; Bohls-Graham, C. E.; Ellins, K. K.; Riggs, E. M.; Serpa, L. F.; Stocks, E.; McIver, H.; Sergent, C.

    2015-12-01

    The development of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as a framework around which to guide K-12 science instruction has generated a call for rigorous curricula that meets the demand for developing a workforce with expertise in tackling modern Earth science challenges. The Diversity and Innovation in Geosciences (DIG) Texas Blueprints project addresses this need for quality, aligned curricula with educator-vetted, freely available resources carefully selected and compiled into three week thematic units that have been aligned with the Earth Science Literacy Principles and the NGSS. These units can then be packaged into customized blueprints for a year-long Earth & Space Science course that engages students in the relevant disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts and science and engineering practices. As part of supporting NGSS-congruent instruction, each unit has extensive scaffolding notes for the learning activities selected for that unit. Designed with both the new and veteran teacher in mind, these scaffolding notes yield information regarding advanced teacher preparation, student prerequisite skills, and potential challenges that might arise during classroom implementation. Feedback from Texas high school teachers implementing the DIG Texas Blueprints in the classroom, in addition to that of university secondary education majors in a preparation course utilizing the blueprints, instigated the most recent revisions to these scaffolding notes. The DIG Texas Blueprints Educator Intern Team charged with these revisions then determined which learning activities became candidates for either inclusion in the refined units, retention as an additional resource, or elimination from the blueprints. This presentation will focus on the development of these scaffolding notes and their role in supporting congruence with the NGSS. A review of the second year of implementation of the blueprints and the feedback that generated the final revisions will be shared

  4. Introducing a New Concept Inventory on Climate Change to Support Undergraduate Instruction, Teacher Education, Education Research, and Project Evaluation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C. A.; Monsaas, J.; Katzenberger, J.; Afolabi, C. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Concept Inventory on Climate Change (CICC) is a new research-based, multiple-choice 'test' that provides a powerful new assessment tool for undergraduate instructors, teacher educators, education researchers, and project evaluators. This presentation will describe the features and the development process of the (CICC). This includes insights about how the development team (co-authors) integrated and augmented their multi-disciplinary expertise. The CICC has been developed in the context of a popular introductory undergraduate weather and climate course at a southeastern research university (N~400-500 per semester). The CICC is not a test for a grade, but is intended to be a useful measure of how well a given teaching and learning experience has succeeded in improving understanding about climate change and related climate concepts. The science content addressed by the CICC is rooted in the national consensus document, 'Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science'. The CICC has been designed to support undergraduate instruction, and may be valuable in comparable contexts that teach about climate change. CICC results can help to inform decisions about the effectiveness of teaching strategies by 1) flagging conceptual issues (PRE-instruction); and 2) detecting conceptual change (POST-instruction). Specific CICC items and their answer choices are informed by the research literature on common misunderstandings about climate and climate change. Each CICC item is rated on a 3-tier scale of the cognitive sophistication the item is calling for, and there is a balance among all three tiers across the full instrument. The CICC development process has involved data-driven changes to successive versions. Data sources have included item statistics from the administration of progressively evolved versions of the CICC in the weather and climate course, group interviews with students, and expert review by climate scientists, educators, and project evaluators

  5. Teachers' Instructional Practices within Connected Classroom Technology Environments to Support Representational Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunpinar, Yasemin; Pape, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ways that teachers use connected classroom technology (CCT) in conjunction with the Texas Instruments Nspire calculator to potentially support achievement on Algebra problems that require translation between representations (i.e., symbolic to graphical). Four Algebra I classrooms that initially…

  6. Stable Roles, Changed Skills: Teacher Candidate Responses to Instruction about Adolescent Psychosocial Support Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippo, Kate; Blosser, Allison

    2017-01-01

    By virtue of their day-to-day contact with students, teachers are uniquely positioned to notice and respond to student psychosocial issues, both mental health problems and issues like peer harassment that can contribute to mental health problems. Yet, teachers' opportunities to learn about providing psychosocial support remain scattered. The…

  7. Creating a Culture of High Expectations, Student Motivation and Instructional Support in Schools and Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Schoolwide support for higher achievement is essential. Students need a nurturing environment where they feel secure about learning, where the goal is success for every student and where students are confident they will receive mentoring and encouragement to prepare for their futures. Many schools are reinventing themselves to motivate students to…

  8. Designing instruction to support mechanical reasoning: Three alternatives in the simple machines learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Ann Frances

    2001-07-01

    Creating a classroom environment that fosters a productive learning experience and engages students in the learning process is a complex endeavor. A classroom environment is dynamic and requires a unique synergy among students, teacher, classroom artifacts and events to achieve robust understanding and knowledge integration. This dissertation addresses this complex issue by developing, implementing, and investigating the simple machines learning environment (SIMALE) to support students' mechanical reasoning and understanding. SIMALE was designed to support reflection, collaborative learning, and to engage students in generative learning through multiple representations of concepts and successive experimentation and design activities. Two key components of SIMALE are an original web-based software tool and hands-on Lego activities. A research study consisting of three treatment groups was created to investigate the benefits of hands-on and web-based computer activities on students' analytic problem solving ability, drawing/modeling ability, and conceptual understanding. The study was conducted with two populations of students that represent a diverse group with respect to gender, ethnicity, academic achievement and social/economic status. One population of students in this dissertation study participated from the Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA) program that serves minorities and under-represented groups in science and mathematics. The second group was recruited from the Academic Talent Development Program (ATDP) that is an academically competitive outreach program offered through the University of California at Berkeley. Results from this dissertation show success of the SIMALE along several dimensions. First, students in both populations achieved significant gains in analytic problem solving ability, drawing/modeling ability, and conceptual understanding. Second, significant differences that were found on pre-test measures were eliminated

  9. QuVis interactive simulations: tools to support quantum mechanics instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnle, Antje

    2015-04-01

    Quantum mechanics holds a fascination for many students, but its mathematical complexity and counterintuitive results can present major barriers. The QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualization Project (www.st-andrews.ac.uk/physics/quvis) aims to overcome these issues through the development and evaluation of interactive simulations with accompanying activities for the learning and teaching of quantum mechanics. Over 90 simulations are now available on the QuVis website. One collection of simulations is embedded in the Institute of Physics Quantum Physics website (quantumphysics.iop.org), which consists of freely available resources for an introductory course in quantum mechanics starting from two-level systems. Simulations support model-building by reducing complexity, focusing on fundamental ideas and making the invisible visible. They promote engaged exploration, sense-making and linking of multiple representations, and include high levels of interactivity and direct feedback. Simulations are research-based and evaluation with students informs all stages of the development process. Simulations are iteratively refined using student feedback in individual observation sessions and in-class trials. Evaluation has shown that the simulations can help students learn quantum mechanics concepts at both the introductory and advanced undergraduate level and that students perceive simulations to be beneficial to their learning. Recent activity includes the launch of a new collection of HTML5 simulations that run on both desktop and tablet-based devices and the introduction of a goal and reward structure in simulations through the inclusion of challenges. This presentation will give an overview of the QuVis resources, highlight recent work and outline future plans. QuVis is supported by the UK Institute of Physics, the UK Higher Education Academy and the University of St Andrews.

  10. Merging social networking environments and formal learning environments to support and facilitate interprofessional instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sharla; Greidanus, Elaine; Carbonaro, Michael; Drummond, Jane; Patterson, Steven

    2009-04-28

    This study describes the redesign of an interprofessional team development course for health science students. A theoretical model is hypothesized as a framework for the redesign process, consisting of two themes: 1) the increasing trend among post-secondary students to participate in social networking (e.g., Facebook, Second Life) and 2) the need for healthcare educators to provide interprofessional training that results in effective communities of practice and better patient care. The redesign focused on increasing the relevance of the course through the integration of custom-designed technology to facilitate social networking during their interprofessional education. Results suggest that students in an educationally structured social networking environment can be guided to join learning communities quickly and access course materials. More research and implementation work is required to effectively develop interprofessional health sciences communities in a combined face-to-face and on-line social networking context.

  11. Effects of the teach-model-coach-review instructional approach on caregiver use of language support strategies and children's expressive language skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan Y; Kaiser, Ann P; Wolfe, Cathy E; Bryant, Julie D; Spidalieri, Alexandria M

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the authors examined the effects of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach on caregivers' use of four enhanced milieu teaching (EMT) language support strategies and on their children's use of expressive language. Four caregiver-child dyads participated in a single-subject, multiple-baseline study. Children were between 24 and 42 months of age and had language impairment. Interventionists used the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach to teach caregivers to use matched turns, expansions, time delays, and milieu teaching prompts during 24 individualized clinic sessions. Caregiver use of each EMT language support strategy and child use of communication targets were the dependent variables. The caregivers demonstrated increases in their use of each EMT language support strategy after instruction. Generalization and maintenance of strategy use to the home was limited, indicating that teaching across routines is necessary to achieve maximal outcomes. All children demonstrated gains in their use of communication targets and in their performance on norm-referenced measures of language. The results indicate that the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach resulted in increased use of EMT language support strategies by caregivers. Caregiver use of these strategies was associated with positive changes in child language skills.

  12. Jugando en el Pidi: Active Learning, Early Child Development and Interactive Radio Instruction. Supporting Caregivers, Parents, and Young Children. LearnTech Case Study Series, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Andrea; Crespo, Cecilia

    In 1993, Bolivia was selected as a site to pilot an interactive radio instruction (IRI) project that would provide practical support to adult caregivers and children around early childhood development. Through linkages with health and education networks, PIDI (Programa Integral de Desarrollo Infantil) provided young children under the age of six…

  13. Acquisition and retention of basic life support skills in an untrained population using a personal resuscitation manikin and video self-instruction (VSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Isbye, Dan Lou

    2010-01-01

    Video-based self-instruction (VSI) with a 24-min DVD and a personal resuscitation manikin solves some of the barriers associated with traditional basic life support (BLS) courses. No accurate assessment of the actual improvement in skills after attending a VSI course has been determined...

  14. Principals Management Support Practices to Promote Teachers' Instructional Improvement for Sustainable Development in Secondary Education in Anambra State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Akinfolarin Akinwale; Emetarom, Uche Grace

    2017-01-01

    This study ascertained the principals management support practices to promote teachers instructional improvement for sustainable development in secondary education in Anambra State. Two specific purposes were formulated and two research questions guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The study was conducted in the six…

  15. The Histories and Mysteries of Grammar Instruction: Supporting Elementary Teachers in the Time of the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Lauren B.; Smolkin, Laura B.

    2016-01-01

    The reemergence of grammar instruction in the Common Core State Standards has likely left teachers confused. On the one hand, they have been told repeatedly that grammar instruction does not improve student outcomes, and can, in fact, be "harmful" to students. However, on the other hand, many Anglophone countries, including the United…

  16. Technologies and Reformed-Based Science Instruction: The Examination of a Professional Development Model Focused on Supporting Science Teaching and Learning with Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Longhurst, Max L.; Wang, Shiang-Kwei; Hsu, Hui-Yin; Coster, Dan C.

    2015-10-01

    While access to computers, other technologies, and cyber-enabled resources that could be leveraged for enhancing student learning in science is increasing, generally it has been found that teachers use technology more for administrative purposes or to support traditional instruction. This use of technology, especially to support traditional instruction, sits in opposition to most recent standards documents in science education that call for student involvement in evidence-based sense-making activities. Many see technology as a potentially powerful resource that is reshaping society and has the potential to do the same in science classrooms. To consider the promise of technology in science classrooms, this research investigated the impact of a professional development project focused on enhancing teacher and student learning by using information and communication technologies (ICTs) for engaging students in reformed-based instruction. More specifically, these findings revealed positive teacher outcomes with respect to reformed-based and technology-supported instruction and increased ICT and new literacies skills. When considering students, the findings revealed positive outcomes with respect to ICT and new literacies skills and student achievement in science.

  17. Technology Use in Science Instruction (TUSI): Aligning the Integration of Technology in Science Instruction in Ways Supportive of Science Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Abd-Hamid, Nor Hashidah

    2013-08-01

    This study describes the development of an instrument to investigate the extent to which technology is integrated in science instruction in ways aligned to science reform outlined in standards documents. The instrument was developed by: (a) creating items consistent with the five dimensions identified in science education literature, (b) establishing content validity with both national and international content experts, (c) refining the item pool based on content expert feedback, (d) piloting testing of the instrument, (e) checking statistical reliability and item analysis, and (f) subsequently refining and finalization of the instrument. The TUSI was administered in a field test across eleven classrooms by three observers, with a total of 33 TUSI ratings completed. The finalized instrument was found to have acceptable inter-rater intraclass correlation reliability estimates. After the final stage of development, the TUSI instrument consisted of 26-items separated into the original five categories, which aligned with the exploratory factor analysis clustering of the items. Additionally, concurrent validity of the TUSI was established with the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol. Finally, a subsequent set of 17 different classrooms were observed during the spring of 2011, and for the 9 classrooms where technology integration was observed, an overall Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of 0.913 was found. Based on the analyses completed, the TUSI appears to be a useful instrument for measuring how technology is integrated into science classrooms and is seen as one mechanism for measuring the intersection of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge in science classrooms.

  18. Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidsten, Connie J.

    Connie J. Hvidsten September 2016 Education Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice This dissertation consists of three papers analyzing writings and interviews of experienced secondary science teachers during and after a two-year professional development (PD) program focused on model-based reasoning (MBR). MBR is an approach to science instruction that provides opportunities for students to use conceptual models to make sense of natural phenomena in ways that are similar to the use of models within the scientific community. The aim of this research is to better understand the learning and learning pathways teachers identified as valuable in supporting changes in their teaching practice. To accomplish this aim, the papers analyze the ways teachers 1) ascribe their learning to various aspects of the program, 2) describe what they learned, and 3) reflect on the impact the PD had on their teaching practice. Twenty-one secondary science teachers completed the Innovations in Science Instruction through Modeling (ISIM) program from 2007 through 2009. Commonalities in the written reflections and interview responses led to a set of generalizable findings related to the impacts and outcomes of the PD. The first of the three papers describes elements of the ISIM program that teachers associated with their own learning. One of the most frequently mentioned PD feature was being in the position of an adult learner. Embedding learning in instructional practice by collaboratively developing and revising lessons, and observing the lessons in one-another's classrooms provided a sense of professional community, accountability, and support teachers reported were necessary to overcome the challenges of implementing new pedagogical practices. Additionally, teachers described that opportunities to reflect on their learning and connect their

  19. Impact of Online Instructional Game Features on College Students' Perceived Motivational Support and Cognitive Investment: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhao David; Johnson, Tristan E.; Han, Seung-Hyun Caleb

    2013-01-01

    Colleges and universities have begun to understand the instructional potential of digital game-based learning (DGBL) due to digital games' immersive features. These features, however, might overload learners as excessive motivational and cognitive stimuli thus impeding intended learning. Current research, however, lacks empirical evidences to…

  20. Towards Automated Support for Small-Group Instruction: Using Data from an ITS to Automatically Group Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo, Maria; Williams, Laura; Segedy, James; Hasselbring, Ted

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the use of learning analytics as a method for easing the cognitive demands on teachers implementing the HALF instructional model. Learning analytics has been defined as "the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data about learners and their contexts for the purposes of understanding and…

  1. Examining the Influence of Seductive Details in Case-Based Instruction on Pre-Service Teachers' Learning and Learning Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The case-based instructional method uses fictionalized or actual narratives as instructional tools to support learning, decision-making, and improved transfer to practical settings. Educational theorists and researchers specializing in case-based instruction have suggested that cases can be made more realistic, engaging, and challenging, thus…

  2. Using Technology and Assessment to Personalize Instruction: Preventing Reading Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald

    2017-09-15

    Children who fail to learn to read proficiently are at serious risk of referral to special education, grade retention, dropping out of high school, and entering the juvenile justice system. Accumulating research suggests that instruction regimes that rely on assessment to inform instruction are effective in improving the implementation of personalized instruction and, in turn, student learning. However, teachers find it difficult to interpret assessment results in a way that optimizes learning opportunities for all of the students in their classrooms. This article focuses on the use of language, decoding, and comprehension assessments to develop personalized plans of literacy instruction for students from kindergarten through third grade, and A2i technology designed to support teachers' use of assessment to guide instruction. Results of seven randomized controlled trials demonstrate that personalized literacy instruction is more effective than traditional instruction, and that sustained implementation of personalized literacy instruction first through third grade may prevent the development of serious reading problems. We found effect sizes from .2 to .4 per school year, which translates into about a 2-month advantage. These effects accumulated from first through third grade with a large effect size (d = .7) equivalent to a full grade-equivalent advantage on standardize tests of literacy. These results demonstrate the efficacy of technology-supported personalized data-driven literacy instruction to prevent serious reading difficulties. Implications for translational prevention research in education and healthcare are discussed.

  3. Professional development to differentiate kindergarten Tier 1 instruction: Can already effective teachers improve student outcomes by differentiating Tier 1 instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Folsom, Jessica S; Wanzek, Jeannie; Greulich, Luana; Wasche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (1) to examine changes from baseline through two years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers' differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; (2) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of three cohorts of the teachers' students ( n = 416). Teachers' instruction was observed and students were assessed on standardized measures of vocabulary and word reading. Results suggested that teachers significantly increased their differentiation and students showed significantly greater word reading outcomes relative to baseline. No change was observed for vocabulary. Results have implications for supporting teacher effectiveness through technology-supported professional development.

  4. Examining the Technology Integration Planning Cycle Model of Professional Development to Support Teachers' Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy C.; Woodward, Lindsay

    2018-01-01

    Background: Presently, models of professional development aimed at supporting teachers' technology integration efforts are often short and decontextualized. With many schools across the country utilizing standards that require students to engage with digital tools, a situative model that supports building teachers' knowledge within their…

  5. Ubiquitous Performance-Support System as Mindtool: A Case Study of Instructional Decision Making and Learning Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsinyi; Chuang, Po-Ya; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Wu, Ting-Ting; Huang, Shu-Xian

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have conducted various studies on applying wireless communication and ubiquitous computing technologies to education, so that the technologies can provide learners and educators with more active and adaptive support. This study proposes a Ubiquitous Performance-support System (UPSS) that can facilitate the seamless use of powerful new…

  6. An Intervention to Improve Teachers' Interpersonally Involving Instructional Practices in High School Physical Education: Implications for Student Relatedness Support and In-Class Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Cassandra; Lonsdale, Chris; Dimmock, James; Jackson, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Research grounded in self-determination theory has demonstrated the important role of teachers in shaping students' physical education experiences. Utilizing a cluster-randomized controlled design, this study aimed to examine whether an interpersonally involving training program based on self-determination theory principles could enhance students' in-class experiences. With 18 teachers (males = 8, females = 10, M age  = 32.75, SD = 8.14) and a final sample of 382 students (males = 155, females = 227, M age  = 13.20, SD = 1.66), we implemented linear mixed modeling to investigate the effects on students' (a) perceived relatedness support and (b) enjoyment of physical education, tripartite efficacy beliefs (i.e., self-efficacy, other-efficacy, relation-inferred self-efficacy), self-determined motivation, and amotivation. Relative to those in the control condition, students in the treatment condition reported positive changes in teacher-provided relatedness support, enjoyment, other-efficacy, and peer-focused relation-inferred self-efficacy. These findings demonstrate support for strategies designed to aid physical education teachers' relatedness-supportive instructional behaviors.

  7. Functional genomic analysis supports conservation of function among cellulose synthase-like a gene family members and suggests diverse roles of mannans in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liepman, Aaron H; Nairn, C Joseph; Willats, William G T

    2007-01-01

    from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus), and Populus trichocarpa catalyze beta-1,4-mannan and glucomannan synthase reactions in vitro. Mannan polysaccharides and homologs of CslA genes appear to be present in all lineages of land plants analyzed to date. In many plants......, the CslA genes are members of extended multigene families; however, it is not known whether all CslA proteins are glucomannan synthases. CslA proteins from diverse land plant species, including representatives of the mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms, gymnosperms, and bryophytes, were produced...... they are prevalent at cell junctions and in buds. Taken together, these results demonstrate that members of the CslA gene family from diverse plant species encode glucomannan synthases and support the hypothesis that mannans function in metabolic networks devoted to other cellular processes in addition to cell wall...

  8. Motivational Measure of the Instruction Compared: Instruction Based on the ARCS Motivation Theory vs Traditional Instruction in Blended Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Ozgur M.; Akdemir, Omur

    2012-01-01

    The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different…

  9. Instructional Strategies Used in Direct AAC Interventions with Children to Support Graphic Symbol Learning: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Yvonne; McCleary, Muireann; Smith, Martine

    2018-01-01

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) refers to a wide range of aided and unaided modes that are employed with a diverse group of people to support a range of language and communication outcomes. Children whose comprehension of spoken language greatly exceeds their ability to express themselves within that modality can be described as…

  10. Shifting the Balance in First-Year Learning Support: From Staff Instruction to Peer-Learning Primacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jacques; Scott, Carole

    2008-01-01

    Effective response to the learning needs of first-year students is a contested issue. In many learning support centres the dominant approach to developing student learning skills is through generic or tailored workshops and/or individual consultations. Although there is a place for these activities, we argue that the balance should be shifted…

  11. Instructional Supports for Representational Fluency in Solving Linear Equations with Computer Algebra Systems and Paper-and-Pencil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Davis, Jon D.; Rohwer, Mary Lou

    2018-01-01

    This research addresses the issue of how to support students' representational fluency--the ability to create, move within, translate across, and derive meaning from external representations of mathematical ideas. The context of solving linear equations in a combined computer algebra system (CAS) and paper-and-pencil classroom environment is…

  12. Instructional control of reinforcement learning: a behavioral and neurocomputational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Bradley B; Jacobs, W Jake; Sanfey, Alan G; Frank, Michael J

    2009-11-24

    Humans learn how to behave directly through environmental experience and indirectly through rules and instructions. Behavior analytic research has shown that instructions can control behavior, even when such behavior leads to sub-optimal outcomes (Hayes, S. (Ed.). 1989. Rule-governed behavior: cognition, contingencies, and instructional control. Plenum Press.). Here we examine the control of behavior through instructions in a reinforcement learning task known to depend on striatal dopaminergic function. Participants selected between probabilistically reinforced stimuli, and were (incorrectly) told that a specific stimulus had the highest (or lowest) reinforcement probability. Despite experience to the contrary, instructions drove choice behavior. We present neural network simulations that capture the interactions between instruction-driven and reinforcement-driven behavior via two potential neural circuits: one in which the striatum is inaccurately trained by instruction representations coming from prefrontal cortex/hippocampus (PFC/HC), and another in which the striatum learns the environmentally based reinforcement contingencies, but is "overridden" at decision output. Both models capture the core behavioral phenomena but, because they differ fundamentally on what is learned, make distinct predictions for subsequent behavioral and neuroimaging experiments. Finally, we attempt to distinguish between the proposed computational mechanisms governing instructed behavior by fitting a series of abstract "Q-learning" and Bayesian models to subject data. The best-fitting model supports one of the neural models, suggesting the existence of a "confirmation bias" in which the PFC/HC system trains the reinforcement system by amplifying outcomes that are consistent with instructions while diminishing inconsistent outcomes.

  13. Using peer-mediated instruction to support communication involving a student with autism during mathematics activities: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Paulo; Alant, Erna

    2018-01-01

    This study employed an A-B singled subject design to explore the extent to which a peer-mediated intervention supported a first-grade student with autism's usage both in purpose and frequency of a speech-generating device (SGD) during mathematics activities. The intervention involved teaching a peer without a disability to encourage the student with autism to use the SGD during partnered mathematics activities. Our analysis involved visual and descriptive examination of trends and patterns over time, and comparison of means between and within phases. We found during the course of this study that (1) the student with autism's level of overall communication, which included the relevancy of these communicative behaviors, increased; (2) the student with autism's level of spontaneous communication acts increased; and (3) the peer became more independent with supporting the student with autism's communication. Implications for future research and practice are provided.

  14. Assessment in the Private Studio Setting: Supporting Student Learning, Providing Effective Instruction, and Building Faculty-Student Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubenthal, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    A significant amount of literature exists about how to design and implement an effective assessment process for students in a music program, specifically in the classroom setting. This article suggests a framework for incorporating individualized assessment in the private-lesson setting based on effective classroom assessment practices. Many…

  15. Evidence-Based Approaches to Improving Chemical Equilibrium Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Jodi L.; Leinhardt, Gaea; Greeno, James; Koedinger, Kenneth; Klahr, David; Karabinos, Michael; Yaron, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Two suggestions for instruction in chemical equilibrium are presented, along with the evidence that supports these suggestions. The first is to use diagrams to connect chemical reactions to the effects of reactions on concentrations. The second is the use of the majority and minority species (M&M) strategy to analyze chemical equilibrium…

  16. Basic life support and external defibrillation competences after instruction and at 6 months comparing face-to-face and blended training. Randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jordi; Gallart, Aberto; Rodríguez, Encarnación; Castillo, Jorge; Gomar, Carmen

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the immediate and 6-month efficacy of basic life support (BLS) and automatic external defibrillation (AED) training using standard or blended methods. First-year students of medicine and nursing (n = 129) were randomly assigned to a control group (face-to-face training based on the European Resuscitation Council [ERC] Guidelines) or to an experimental group that trained with a self-training video, a new website, a Moodle platform, an intelligent manikin, and 45 min of instructor presence. Both groups were homogeneous and were evaluated identically. Theoretical knowledge was evaluated using a multi-choice questionnaire (MCQ). Skill performance was evaluated by the instructor's rubric and on a high-fidelity Resusci Anne QCPR manikin. Immediately after the course, there were no statistically significant differences in knowledge between the two groups. The median score of practical evaluation assessed by the instructor was significantly better in the experimental group (8.15, SD 0.93 vs 7.7, SD 1.18; P = 0.02). No differences between groups were found when using a high-fidelity manikin to evaluate chest compressions and lung inflations. At six months, the scores in knowledge and skill performance were significantly lower compared to the evaluations at the end of the instruction, but they remained still higher compared to baseline. The experimental group had higher scores in practical skills evaluated by the instructor than the control group (7.44, SD 1.85 vs 6.10, SD 2.6; P = 0.01). The blended method provides the same or even higher levels of knowledge and skills than standard instruction both immediately after the course and six months later. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intelligent Tools and Instructional Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, William R; Sams, Michelle; Belleville, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This intelligent tools and instructional simulations project was an investigation into the utility of a knowledge-based performance support system to support learning and on-task performance for using...

  18. Instructional games in allied health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M A

    1980-08-01

    A theoretical framework and practical suggestions for incorporating games and simulation into allied health instruction are presented. Research findings that support the use of educational simulation/games as a tool for higher cognitive learning are discussed. Examples and step-by-step instructions are given to help allied health educatiors and students write their own simulation games, try them out, evaluate them, and incorporate them into classroom use to stimulate interaction. Advantages of using educational simulation/games in allied health education as well as possible disadvantages of this teaching strategy are discussed. Use of instructional games to enhance teaching effectiveness as measured by student achievement in the allied health fields is emphasized.

  19. IBES: A Tool for Creating Instructions Based on Event Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eMura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Receiving informative, well-structured, and well-designed instructions supports performance and memory in assembly tasks. We describe IBES, a tool with which users can quickly and easily create multimedia, step-by-step instructions by segmenting a video of a task into segments. In a validation study we demonstrate that the step-by-step structure of the visual instructions created by the tool corresponds to the natural event boundaries, which are assessed by event segmentation and are known to play an important role in memory processes. In one part of the study, twenty participants created instructions based on videos of two different scenarios by using the proposed tool. In the other part of the study, ten and twelve participants respectively segmented videos of the same scenarios yielding event boundaries for coarse and fine events. We found that the visual steps chosen by the participants for creating the instruction manual had corresponding events in the event segmentation. The number of instructional steps was a compromise between the number of fine and coarse events. Our interpretation of results is that the tool picks up on natural human event perception processes of segmenting an ongoing activity into events and enables the convenient transfer into meaningful multimedia instructions for assembly tasks. We discuss the practical application of IBES, for example, creating manuals for differing expertise levels, and give suggestions for research on user-oriented instructional design based on this tool.

  20. IBES: a tool for creating instructions based on event segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Katharina; Petersen, Nils; Huff, Markus; Ghose, Tandra

    2013-12-26

    Receiving informative, well-structured, and well-designed instructions supports performance and memory in assembly tasks. We describe IBES, a tool with which users can quickly and easily create multimedia, step-by-step instructions by segmenting a video of a task into segments. In a validation study we demonstrate that the step-by-step structure of the visual instructions created by the tool corresponds to the natural event boundaries, which are assessed by event segmentation and are known to play an important role in memory processes. In one part of the study, 20 participants created instructions based on videos of two different scenarios by using the proposed tool. In the other part of the study, 10 and 12 participants respectively segmented videos of the same scenarios yielding event boundaries for coarse and fine events. We found that the visual steps chosen by the participants for creating the instruction manual had corresponding events in the event segmentation. The number of instructional steps was a compromise between the number of fine and coarse events. Our interpretation of results is that the tool picks up on natural human event perception processes of segmenting an ongoing activity into events and enables the convenient transfer into meaningful multimedia instructions for assembly tasks. We discuss the practical application of IBES, for example, creating manuals for differing expertise levels, and give suggestions for research on user-oriented instructional design based on this tool.

  1. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  2. Supporting Mathematics Instruction through Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Joel C.; Trevathan, Morgan L.

    2016-01-01

    Raising expectations is nothing new. Every iteration of standards elevates the expectations for what students should know and be able to do. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) is no exception, with standards for content and practice that move beyond memorization of traditional algorithms to "make sense of problems and…

  3. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  4. Student-Centered Instruction and Academic Achievement: Linking Mechanisms of Educational Inequality to Schools’ Instructional Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Andersen, Simon Calmar

    2017-01-01

    educational inequality. We analyze whether the impact of student-centered instructional strategies on academic achievement differs for students with different socioeconomic backgrounds. Results suggest that a student-centered instructional strategy has a negative impact on academic achievement in general......, and for students with low parental education in particular. Our findings support the argument that the instructional strategy of schools is an important mechanism in generating educational inequality through the stratification of learning opportunities.......Research in the sociology of education argues that the educational system provides different learning opportunities for students with different socioeconomic backgrounds and that this circumstance makes the educational process an important institutional context for the reproduction of educational...

  5. Instructional Style Meets Classroom Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan

    1991-01-01

    Nine elementary teachers explain how they design their classrooms to match and support their instructional styles. The teachers focus on whole language programs, student portfolios, science activity set-ups, technology transformation, learning center strategies, and space utilization. (SM)

  6. Supporting traditional instructional methods with a constructivist approach to learning: Promoting conceputal change and understanding of stoichiometry using e-learning tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayan, Kenneth Munoz

    Stoichiometry is a fundamental topic in chemistry that measures a quantifiable relationship between atoms, molecules, etc. Stoichiometry is usually taught using expository teaching methods. Students are passively given information, in the hopes they will retain the transmission of information to be able to solve stoichiometry problems masterfully. Cognitive science research has shown that this kind of instructional teaching method is not very effecting in meaningful learning practice. Instead, students must take ownership of their learning. The students need to actively construct their own knowledge by receiving, interpreting, integrating and reorganizing that information into their own mental schemas. In the absence of active learning practices, tools must be created in such a way to be able to scaffold difficult problems by encoding opportunities necessary to make the construction of knowledge memorable, thereby creating a usable knowledge base. Using an online e-learning tool and its potential to create a dynamic and interactive learning environment may facilitate the learning of stoichiometry. The study entailed requests from volunteer students, IRB consent form, a baseline questionnaire, random assignment of treatment, pre- and post-test assessment, and post assessment survey. These activities were given online. A stoichiometry-based assessment was given in a proctored examination at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) campus. The volunteer students who took part in these studies were at least 18 of age and were enrolled in General Chemistry 1441, at the University of Texas at Arlington. Each participant gave their informed consent to use their data in the following study. Students were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments groups based on teaching methodology, (Dimensional Analysis, Operational Method, Ratios and Proportions) and a control group who just received instruction through lecture only. In this study, an e-learning tool was created to

  7. Editorial - Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise

    2007-01-01

    Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....

  8. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  9. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  10. The Effect of Instructional Method on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skill Performance: A Comparison Between Instructor-Led Basic Life Support and Computer-Based Basic Life Support With Voice-Activated Manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Sands, Cathy; Brahn, Pamela; Graves, Kristal

    2015-01-01

    Validating participants' ability to correctly perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills during basic life support courses can be a challenge for nursing professional development specialists. This study compares two methods of basic life support training, instructor-led and computer-based learning with voice-activated manikins, to identify if one method is more effective for performance of CPR skills. The findings suggest that a computer-based learning course with voice-activated manikins is a more effective method of training for improved CPR performance.

  11. Effectiveness of the use of question-driven levels of inquiry based instruction (QD-LOIBI) assisted visual multimedia supported teaching material on enhancing scientific explanation ability senior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandi, A.; Muslim; Samsudin, A.; Hermita, N.; Supriyatman

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of the use of Question-Driven Levels of Inquiry Based Instruction (QD-LOIBI) assisted visual multimedia supported teaching materials on enhancing senior high school students scientific explanation ability has been studied. QD-LOIBI was designed by following five-levels of inquiry proposed by Wenning. Visual multimedia used in teaching materials included image (photo), virtual simulation and video phenomena. QD-LOIBI assisted teaching materials supported by visual multimedia were tried out on senior high school students at one high school in one district in West Java. A quasi-experiment method with design one experiment group (n = 31) and one control group (n = 32) were used. Experimental group were given QD-LOIBI assisted teaching material supported by visual multimedia, whereas the control group were given QD-LOIBI assisted teaching materials not supported visual multimedia. Data on the ability of scientific explanation in both groups were collected by scientific explanation ability test in essay form concerning kinetic gas theory concept. The results showed that the number of students in the experimental class that has increased the category and quality of scientific explanation is greater than in the control class. These results indicate that the use of multimedia supported instructional materials developed for implementation of QD-LOIBI can improve students’ ability to provide explanations supported by scientific evidence gained from practicum activities and applicable concepts, laws, principles or theories.

  12. Toward Better Goal Clarity in Instruction: How Focus on Content, Social Exchange and Active Learning Supports Teachers in Improving Dialogic Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles, Martina; Seidel, Tina; Gröschner, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Goal clarity is an essential element of classroom dialogue and a component of effective instruction. Until now, teachers have been struggling to implement goal clarity in the classroom dialogue. In the present study, we investigated the classroom practice of teachers in a video-based intervention called the Dialogic Video Cycle (DVC) and compared…

  13. Use of a task-oriented self-instruction method to support children in primary school with poor handwriting quality and speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, M.J.; Linthorst-Bakker, E.; Westenberg, Y.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effect of a task-specific self-instruction intervention to improve handwriting ability of children with poor handwriting quality in schools for regular education (Study 1) and children with poor handwriting quality in schools for special education (Study

  14. The Nexus between Stakeholder Engagement and Instructional Quality: The Case of the UWI Open Campus's Awareness and Professional Development towards a Quality Support Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilzene-Cheese, Florence

    2015-01-01

    With changes in the global economic landscape, universities are employing adjunct staff to instruct their online courses in new and expanding programs. Concomitantly, the growth of information and communication technology worldwide has facilitated the creation of classrooms without walls and universities without borders. The challenge for…

  15. "Some Things in My House Have a Pulse and a Downbeat": The Role of Folk and Traditional Arts Instruction in Supporting Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer Wolf, Dennie; Holochwost, Steven J.; Bar-Zemer, Tal; Dargan, Amanda; Selhorst, Anika

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between participation in Nations in Neighborhoods (NiN), a program of folk and traditional arts instruction, and achievement in English language arts in a sample of low-income elementary school students, many of whom were recent immigrants and English language learners. The program drew on the core…

  16. Multimodal versus Unimodal Instruction in a Complex Learning Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellevij, Mark; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton; Pieters, Jules

    2002-01-01

    Compared multimodal instruction with text and pictures with unimodal text-only instruction as 44 college students used a visual or textual manual to learn a complex software application. Results initially support dual coding theory and indicate that multimodal instruction led to better performance than unimodal instruction. (SLD)

  17. Instructional Partners, Principals, Teachers, and Instructional Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    This handbook examines various topics of interest and concern to teachers as they work with instructional assistants forming a classroom instructional partnership and functioning as a team. These topics include: (1) instructional assistant qualifications; (2) duties--instructional, classroom clerical, auxillary; (3) factors to be considered when…

  18. Multimedia Instruction Initiative: Building Faculty Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Penelope J.

    Hofstra University began a university-wide initiative to enhance classroom instruction with multimedia technology and foster collaborative approaches to learning. The Multimedia Instruction Initiative emphasized teamwork among faculty, students, and computer center support staff to develop a technology-enriched learning environment supported by…

  19. Instructional Program for Student Registration, Voting and Participation in Election Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Social Studies.

    Recommended procedures and essential facts for a planned student registration campaign in New York City Schools, as well as suggested teaching strategies and instructional aids supporting a broad-based senior year preparation for the 18-year-old franchise comprise this document. The suggested teaching strategies involve large and small group…

  20. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  1. Using Agile Project Management to Enhance the Performance of Instructional Design Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, David S.; Cifuentes, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Instructional design models describe in detail methodologies for designing effective instruction. Several widely adopted models include suggestions for managing instructional design projects. However, these suggestions focus on how to manage the instructional design steps rather than the instructional design and development team process. The…

  2. Profiles of self-concept, goal orientation, and self-regulation in students with physical, intellectual, and multiple disabilities: Implications for instructional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsamis, Panagiotis; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored physical self-concept, goal orientation in sport, and self-regulation in regard to a motor task, in 75 secondary students with physical, intellectual, and multiple disabilities, who were educated in the same special education units. It was found that students with intellectual disabilities generally presented a positive profile in all three psychosocial constructs, whereas students with physical disabilities presented low scores in most measures. Students with multiple disabilities did not differ essentially from students with intellectual disability in regard to physical self-concept and goal orientation; however, they compared unfavorably to them regarding self-regulation. The delineation of a distinct and defendable profile of self-concept, goal orientation, and self-regulation for each disability group allows the formulation of proposals for the implementation of appropriate instructional programs for students belonging to the above mentioned categories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Softball: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    One of seven instructional units on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this guide presents suggestions for coaching softball for mentally retarded persons. An overview section provides information on teaching suggestions, followed by a list of program goals, objectives, and benefits. Sports skill assessments measure athletes'…

  4. Do science coaches promote inquiry-based instruction in the elementary science classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Rosemary Knight

    The South Carolina Mathematics and Science Coaching Initiative established a school-based science coaching model that was effective in improving instruction by increasing the level of inquiry-based instruction in elementary science classrooms. Classroom learning environment data from both teacher groups indicated considerable differences in the quality of inquiry instruction for those classrooms of teachers supported by a science coach. All essential features of inquiry were demonstrated more frequently and at a higher level of open-ended inquiry in classrooms with the support of a science coach than were demonstrated in classrooms without a science coach. However, from teacher observations and interviews, it was determined that elementary schoolteacher practice of having students evaluate conclusions and connect them to current scientific knowledge was often neglected. Teachers with support of a science coach reported changes in inquiry-based instruction that were statistically significant. This mixed ethnographic study also suggested that the Mathematics and Science Coaching Initiative Theory of Action for Instructional Improvement was an effective model when examining the work of science coaches. All components of effective school infrastructure were positively impacted by a variety of science coaching strategies intended to promote inquiry. Professional development for competent teachers, implementation of researched-based curriculum, and instructional materials support were areas highly impacted by the work of science coaches.

  5. Learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation theory with face-to-face versus audiovisual instruction for secondary school students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo Espinosa, Cristina; Nieto Caballero, Sergio; Juguera Rodríguez, Laura; Castejón-Mochón, José Francisco; Segura Melgarejo, Francisca; Sánchez Martínez, Carmen María; López López, Carmen Amalia; Pardo Ríos, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    To compare secondary students' learning of basic life support (BLS) theory and the use of an automatic external defibrillator (AED) through face-to-face classroom instruction versus educational video instruction. A total of 2225 secondary students from 15 schools were randomly assigned to one of the following 5 instructional groups: 1) face-to-face instruction with no audiovisual support, 2) face-to-face instruction with audiovisual support, 3) audiovisual instruction without face-to-face instruction, 4) audiovisual instruction with face-to-face instruction, and 5) a control group that received no instruction. The students took a test of BLS and AED theory before instruction, immediately after instruction, and 2 months later. The median (interquartile range) scores overall were 2.33 (2.17) at baseline, 5.33 (4.66) immediately after instruction (Paudiovisual instruction for learning BLS and AED theory were found in secondary school students either immediately after instruction or 2 months later.

  6. Using Instructional Design, Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate, to Develop e-Learning Modules to Disseminate Supported Employment for Community Behavioral Health Treatment Programs in New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapana R. Patel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundImplementation science lacks a systematic approach to the development of learning strategies for online training in evidence-based practices (EBPs that takes the context of real-world practice into account. The field of instructional design offers ecologically valid and systematic processes to develop learning strategies for workforce development and performance support.ObjectiveThis report describes the application of an instructional design framework—Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE model—in the development and evaluation of e-learning modules as one strategy among a multifaceted approach to the implementation of individual placement and support (IPS, a model of supported employment for community behavioral health treatment programs, in New York State.MethodsWe applied quantitative and qualitative methods to develop and evaluate three IPS e-learning modules. Throughout the ADDIE process, we conducted formative and summative evaluations and identified determinants of implementation using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR. Formative evaluations consisted of qualitative feedback received from recipients and providers during early pilot work. The summative evaluation consisted of levels 1 and 2 (reaction to the training, self-reported knowledge, and practice change quantitative and qualitative data and was guided by the Kirkpatrick model for training evaluation.ResultsFormative evaluation with key stakeholders identified a range of learning needs that informed the development of a pilot training program in IPS. Feedback on this pilot training program informed the design document of three e-learning modules on IPS: Introduction to IPS, IPS Job development, and Using the IPS Employment Resource Book. Each module was developed iteratively and provided an assessment of learning needs that informed successive modules. All modules were disseminated and evaluated through a learning

  7. Using Instructional Design, Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate, to Develop e-Learning Modules to Disseminate Supported Employment for Community Behavioral Health Treatment Programs in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sapana R; Margolies, Paul J; Covell, Nancy H; Lipscomb, Cristine; Dixon, Lisa B

    2018-01-01

    Implementation science lacks a systematic approach to the development of learning strategies for online training in evidence-based practices (EBPs) that takes the context of real-world practice into account. The field of instructional design offers ecologically valid and systematic processes to develop learning strategies for workforce development and performance support. This report describes the application of an instructional design framework-Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE) model-in the development and evaluation of e-learning modules as one strategy among a multifaceted approach to the implementation of individual placement and support (IPS), a model of supported employment for community behavioral health treatment programs, in New York State. We applied quantitative and qualitative methods to develop and evaluate three IPS e-learning modules. Throughout the ADDIE process, we conducted formative and summative evaluations and identified determinants of implementation using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Formative evaluations consisted of qualitative feedback received from recipients and providers during early pilot work. The summative evaluation consisted of levels 1 and 2 (reaction to the training, self-reported knowledge, and practice change) quantitative and qualitative data and was guided by the Kirkpatrick model for training evaluation. Formative evaluation with key stakeholders identified a range of learning needs that informed the development of a pilot training program in IPS. Feedback on this pilot training program informed the design document of three e-learning modules on IPS: Introduction to IPS, IPS Job development, and Using the IPS Employment Resource Book . Each module was developed iteratively and provided an assessment of learning needs that informed successive modules. All modules were disseminated and evaluated through a learning management system. Summative evaluation revealed that

  8. Instructional Leadership in Elementary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ann; MacDonald, Leo

    2008-01-01

    Instructional leadership is internationally recognized as being a key role for school administrators to advance in their relationships with teachers. But what happens when a principal lacks content knowledge or specific pedagogical knowledge about certain curriculum areas? How do administrators support instructional practices of teachers who teach…

  9. Instructional Partnerships: A Pathway to Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreillon, Judi, Ed.; Ballard, Susan, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    In this Best of "Knowledge Quest" monograph, the editors have collected seminal articles to support pre-service and in-service school librarians in developing and strengthening the instructional partner role. "Instructional Partnerships: A Pathway to Leadership" provides readers with background knowledge, research-based…

  10. Web-Based Instruction (WBI): An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Badrul H.

    1998-01-01

    Advances in information technology, coupled with changes in society, are creating new paradigms for education. The Web, as a medium of learning and instruction, has the potential to support the creation of well-designed resources. A table of features and components associated with Web-based instruction learning environments is provided.…

  11. Strategy Instruction in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Susan R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments in strategy instruction for mathematics have been conducted using three models (direct instruction, self-instruction, and guided learning) applied to the tasks of computation and word problem solving. Results have implications for effective strategy instruction for learning disabled students. It is recommended that strategy instruction…

  12. Adaptive Instruction: Building on Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Margaret C.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alternative instructional strategies and resources to meet the learning needs of individual students incorporates the diagnosis of student learning progress, the teaching of self-management skills, organizational supports, and family involvement into an effective educational program. (JN)

  13. Computer Assisted Instruction in Basic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-28

    LIBRARY........................16 Program Purpose.........................16 Flowcharts ..........................17 Lessons...17IFlowchart For Main Menu...............19 Flowchart for Lessons One Through Six......................20 CHAPTER Page Tests I1-6 .* 21 Flowchart For...Software support was limited to off-the-shelf packages. All of the computers were purchased with Beginners All Purpose Instruction Code (BASIC), a word

  14. Organizing Vocabulary (Open to Suggestion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dorothy J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a technique for vocabulary instruction in which students complete a chart by providing two synonyms, an antonym, and the pronunciation of a given word. Reports that, even though the chart is easy to complete, students using it began to think both critically and creatively. (RS)

  15. Desktop Publishing: A New Frontier for Instructional Technologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Norman T.; Warner, James W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses new possibilities that computers and laser printers offer instructional technologists. Includes a brief history of printed communications, a description of new technological advances referred to as "desktop publishing," and suggests the application of this technology to instructional tasks. (TW)

  16. Mentors Coaching Principals in Instructional Leadership: The Case of Rebecca and Ramon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    This case is told from the perspective of Rebecca, a highly skilled mentor teacher, who struggles to work effectively with Ramon, the school principal. This case focuses on the supports and resources that instructional teacher leaders can provide to their school administrators. As the case suggests, the presence of well-trained mentors presents…

  17. Rural Elementary Teachers and Place-Based Connections to Text during Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rachael; Barrentine, Shelby J.

    2015-01-01

    Schooling can play a role in bolstering a sense of community, but research suggests that curriculum may serve to isolate teachers and students from their rural surroundings. In this qualitative case study, we asked if the literacy curriculum and instruction supported readers to make connections to their rural setting. We analyzed curriculum…

  18. Defining the "D" in ISD. Part 1: Task-General Instructional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ruth Colvin

    1986-01-01

    The first of two articles designed to provide guidelines for the instructional development phase of instructional systems development focuses on general instructional methods supporting all instructional tasks. Teaching methods that support selective attention, processing in working memory, and connecting in long-term memory are described and…

  19. Examining How Faculty Reflect on Instructional Data: A Call for Critical Awareness and Institutional Support. WCER Working Paper No. 2016-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Bailey B.; Hora, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on insights from culturally responsive K-12 education frameworks and dual process theory, this qualitative study explores the situated nature of reflective practice among postsecondary faculty and calls for increased critical awareness and institutional support. Through interviews with 21 California research university faculty, this study…

  20. Introducing Environmental Toxicology in Instructional Labs: The Use of a Modified Amphibian Developmental Toxicity Assay to Support Inquiry-Based Student Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauterer, Roger; Rayburn, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Introducing students to the process of scientific inquiry is a major goal of high school and college labs. Environmental toxins are of great concern and public interest. Modifications of a vertebrate developmental toxicity assay using the frog Xenopus laevis can support student-initiated toxicology experiments that are relevant to humans. Teams of…

  1. The Use of Organising Purposes in Science Instruction as a Scaffolding Mechanism to Support Progressions: A Study of Talk in Two Primary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Annie-Maj; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines how different purposes can support teachers in their work with progressions as a part of a teaching sequences in science in primary school. Design/Method: The study was carried out in two classes working with inquiry and the events that took place in the classroom were filmed. In the study, we have chosen to use the…

  2. Preparing Instructional Objectives: Agony or Ecstasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Wesley K.

    This paper 1) discusses the problems encountered in preparing objectives for instructional programs; 2) describes an informal research project in which seven instructional designers working on the same project attempted to determine agreement on an objective; and 3) suggests how to prepare objectives so that difficulties can be minimized. One…

  3. A Descriptive Analysis of Instructional Coaches' Data Use in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass Rangel, Virginia; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Monroy, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    A key assumption of accountability policies is that educators will use data to improve their instruction. In practice, however, data use is quite hard, and more districts are looking to instructional coaches to support their teachers. The purpose of this descriptive analysis is to examine how instructional coaches in elementary and middle school…

  4. Making Instructional Decisions Based on Data: What, How, and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Rosemary, Catherine A.; Edwards, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    A carefully coordinated literacy assessment and instruction framework implemented school-wide can support school teams in making sense of various types of data for instructional planning. Instruction that is data based and goal driven sets the stage for continuous reading and writing improvement. (Contains 2 figures.)

  5. Toward Instructional Design Principles: Inducing Faraday's Law with Contrasting Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Eric; Wieman, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    Although physics education research (PER) has improved instructional practices, there are not agreed upon principles for designing effective instructional materials. Here, we illustrate how close comparison of instructional materials could support the development of such principles. Specifically, in discussion sections of a large, introductory…

  6. Content-Based Instruction Approach In Instructional Multimedia For English Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Farani, Rizki

    2016-01-01

    Content-based Instruction (CBI) is an approach in English learning that integrates certain topic and English learning objectives. This approach focuses on using English competencies as a “bridge” to comprehend certain topic or theme in English. Nowadays, this approach can be used in instructional multimedia to support English learning by using computer. Instructional multimedia with computer system refers to the sequential or simultaneous use of variety of media formats in a given presentatio...

  7. Instructing the Online Catalog User.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William

    1986-01-01

    This essay offers suggestions to make online public access catalogs (OPACs) less idiosyncratic and more usable. Discussion covers qualitative difference between online catalog and predecessors, challenge of debunking assumptions, skills for success, maintaining an instructional perspective, catalog development for the people by the people, and the…

  8. Hypnosis, suggestions, and altered states of consciousness: experimental evaluation of the new cognitive-behavioral theory and the traditional trance-state theory of "hypnosis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T X; Wilson, S C

    1977-10-07

    Sixty-six subjects were tested on a new scale for evaluating "hypnotic-like" experiences (The Creative Imagination Scale), which includes ten standardized test-suggestions (e.g. suggestions for arm heaviness, finger anesthesia, time distortion, and age regression). The subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (Think-With Instructions, trance induction, and Control), with 22 subjects to each group. The new Cognitive-Behavioral Theory predicted that subjects exposed to preliminary instructions designed to demonstrate how to think and imagine along with the suggested themes (Think-With Instructions) would be more responsive to test-suggestions for anesthesia, time distortion, age regression, and so on, than subjects exposed to a trance-induction procedure. On the other hand, the traditional Trance State Theory predicted that a trance induction would be more effective than Think-With Instructions in enhancing responses to such suggestions. Subjects exposed to the Think-With Instructions obtained significantly higher scores on the test-suggestions than those exposed either to the traditional trance-induction procedure or to the control treatment. Scores of subjects who received the trance-induction procedure were not significantly different from those of the subjects who received the control treatment. The results thus supported the new Cognitive-Behavioral Theory and contradicted the traditional Trance State Theory of hypnosis. Two recent experiments, by De Stefano and by Katz, confirmed the above experimental results and offered further support for the Cognitive-Behavioral Theory. In both recent experiments, subjects randomly assigned to a "Think-With Instructions" treatment were more responsive to test-suggestions than those randomly assigned to a traditional trance-induction treatment.

  9. Identification of causes of human errors in support of the development of intelligent computer-assisted instruction systems for plant operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhama, Yutaka; Furuta, Kazuo; Kondo, Shunsuke

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to identify causes of human error in the operation of plant systems to support the development of CAI system for operator training. The target task of this methodology is goal-driven and knowledge-based planning behaviour, the cognitive process of which is assumed to be modeled as means-end analysis. The methodology uses four criteria to classify errors in an operation into eight groups, and then asks the trainee several questions to prune the causes. To confirm the usefulness of this methodology, a prototype CAI system is developed for the operation of filling up sodium into the primary coolant system of a liquid-metal-cooled fast reactor. The experimental result indicates that the system has the capability of identifying causes of the trainee's error, and consequently of figuring out the characteristics of his/her defect. As a result of this study, several issues are identified for future research

  10. Computer Assisted Instructional Design for Computer-Based Instruction. Final Report. Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M.; Pirolli, Peter

    Recent advances in artificial intelligence and the cognitive sciences have made it possible to develop successful intelligent computer-aided instructional systems for technical and scientific training. In addition, computer-aided design (CAD) environments that support the rapid development of such computer-based instruction have also been recently…

  11. The paradoxical effect of long instructions on negative affect and performance: When, for whom and why do they backfire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goemaere, Sophie; Beyers, Wim; De Muynck, Gert-Jan; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2018-06-01

    For reasons of bureaucracy and safety, astronauts on the International Space Station are provided with excruciatingly detailed instructions and a lack of decision-making power, even for simple routine tasks. Besides being time-consuming, many astronauts report feelings of demotivation, irritation, and even defiance when confronted with this working method. Anecdotic evidence suggests that this method leads to situations where astronauts read instructions diagonally or avoid checking in with mission support, thereby ironically increasing the risk of error making. There is a need to consider under which circumstances, for whom, and why the provision of long instructions could be detrimental for well-being and performance. An experimental study with LEGO assembly tasks examined whether length of instructions (i.e. short versus long) and task complexity (simple vs. complex) impact negative affect, motivational experiences and performance of participants (N = 113, Mage = 18.75 ± 2.46 years). Long instructions for simple tasks provoked greater feelings of irritation, diminished the perceived value of instructions, and negatively influenced productivity and accuracy. The negative effect of long instructions on irritation was explained via decreased perceived value. Additionally, the effect of length of instructions on irritation differed for participants high versus those low in need for achievement.

  12. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION. APPROXIMATELY 85 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, TEACHING MACHINES, RESPONSE MODE, SELF-INSTRUCTION, AND COMPUTER-ASSISTED…

  13. The Instructional Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Many administrators are so overwhelmed by the basic responsibilities of their daily work that there seems to be little or no time left for providing quality leadership in instruction. Instead, schools employ department chairs, instructional specialists, and coordinators to provide instructional leadership. How can administrators find time in the…

  14. Designing Technology-Enabled Instruction to Utilize Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Randall; Nyland, Robert; Bodily, Robert; Chapman, John; Jones, Brian; Young, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A key notion conveyed by those who advocate for the use of data to enhance instruction is an awareness that learning analytics has the potential to improve instruction and learning but is not currently reaching that potential. Gibbons (2014) suggested that a lack of learning facilitated by current technology-enabled instructional systems may be…

  15. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  16. Infant Care Suggestions for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around the rib cage because this can cause rib fractures. • The head and trunk should be supported with ... or soft foam wedges can support side lying. Rib fractures, a deformed chest, etc., will preclude placing the ...

  17. Instructable autonomous agents. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Scott Bradley

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to current intelligent systems, which must be laboriously programmed for each task they are meant to perform, instructable agents can be taught new tasks and associated knowledge. This thesis presents a general theory of learning from tutorial instruction and its use to produce an instructable agent. Tutorial instruction is a particularly powerful form of instruction, because it allows the instructor to communicate whatever kind of knowledge a student needs at whatever point it is needed. To exploit this broad flexibility, however, a tutorable agent must support a full range of interaction with its instructor to learn a full range of knowledge. Thus, unlike most machine learning tasks, which target deep learning of a single kind of knowledge from a single kind of input, tutorability requires a breadth of learning from a broad range of instructional interactions. The theory of learning from tutorial instruction presented here has two parts. First, a computational model of an intelligent agent, the problem space computational model, indicates the types of knowledge that determine an agent's performance, and thus, that should be acquirable via instruction. Second, a learning technique, called situated explanation specifies how the agent learns general knowledge from instruction. The theory is embodied by an implemented agent, Instructo-Soar, built within the Soar architecture. Instructo-Soar is able to learn hierarchies of completely new tasks, to extend task knowledge to apply in new situations, and in fact to acquire every type of knowledge it uses during task performance - control knowledge, knowledge of operators' effects, state inferences, etc. - from interactive natural language instructions. This variety of learning occurs by applying the situated explanation technique to a variety of instructional interactions involving a variety of types of instructions (commands, statements, conditionals, etc.). By taking seriously the requirements of flexible

  18. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Talking books in reading instruction and student behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Stig Toke

    2014-01-01

    at their frustration level. Basing the intervention on connectionist theory of reading and Share’s self-teaching hypothesis, students were instructed to try to read the words before activating the TTS-function. Only five students out of 17 used the software in ways that could promote selfteaching, but underused...... the support. Five other students very quickly refrained from trying to decode, instead clicking the full page TTS. Another five students did not at any point try to decode words independently. These results suggest that by using TTS and talking books in reading instruction without measures to fine tune......In grade 1, Danish students used a talking book with TTS (text-to-speech) and participated in a learning design with emphasis on decoding and reading for meaning in written text. The students all read the same unfamiliar text, which for many of the students would traditionally be considered being...

  20. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  1. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  2. Increasing instruction time in school does increase learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Humlum, Maria; Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    Increasing instruction time in school is a central element in the attempts of many governments to improve student learning, but prior research—mainly based on observational data—disputes the effect of this approach and points out the potential negative effects on student behavior. Based on a large......-scale, cluster-randomized trial, we find that increasing instruction time increases student learning and that a general increase in instruction time is at least as efficient as an expert-developed, detailed teaching program that increases instruction with the same amount of time. These findings support the value...... of increased instruction time....

  3. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  4. Measuring nursing support during childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, J; Fothergill-Bourbonnais, F; Chamberlain, M

    2001-01-01

    To examine the amount of support being provided by nurses to women during childbirth and factors that influence the provision of support. Exploratory, descriptive. Work sampling method was used to determine the percentage of time nurses spend in supportive care activities. Twelve nurses were observed over six nonconsecutive day shifts on a birthing unit of a Canadian teaching hospital in Quebec. A total of 404 observations were made. Nurses were also interviewed to determine their perceptions of what constitutes supportive nursing care and the factors that facilitate or inhibit the provision of this care. Nurses spent only 12.4% of their total time providing supportive care to laboring women. Interviews with nurses suggested that perceptions of the components of supportive care were comparable to this study's operational definition of support, namely: physical, emotional, and instructional/informational support and advocacy. Barriers to providing support identified by nurses included lack of time and insufficient staff. However, further content analysis of the interview data revealed that healthcare providers had a pervasive sense of control over laboring women and their partners. Although nursing support has been identified as an important aspect of nursing care in childbirth, this study demonstrated an incongruity between what nurses perceived as being supportive care and the amount of support that was actually provided. Barriers to the provision of supportive care in the practice setting as well as suggestions for its enhancement are discussed.

  5. Computer programs supporting instruction in acoustics

    OpenAIRE

    Melody, Kevin Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Traditionally, the study of mechanical vibration and sound wave propagation has been presented through textbooks, classroom discussion and laboratory experiments. However, in today's academic environment, students have access to high performance computing facilities which can greatly augment the learning process. This thesis provides computer algorithms for examining selected topics drawn from the text, Fundamentals of Acoustics, Third...

  6. Long multiplication by instruction sequences with backward jump instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    For each function on bit strings, its restriction to bit strings of any given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. Backward jump instructions

  7. The Instructional Text like a Textual Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiane Fogali Marinello

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the instructional text as a textual genre and is part of the research called Reading and text production from the textual genre perspective, done at Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Campus Universitário da Região dos Vinhedos. Firstly, some theoretical assumptions about textual genre are presented, then, the instructional text is characterized. After that an instructional text is analyzed and, finally, some activities related to reading and writing of the mentioned genre directed to High School and University students are suggested.

  8. Effective instruction for English learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes

  9. Teaching science to English Language Learners: Instructional approaches of high school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Betty-Vinca N.

    approaches including, the structure of the school, working on instructional teams, collaborating and working with other teachers especially English teachers and including science teachers, and participating in various professional development activities. The findings indicated that the instructional approaches used by teachers were largely supported by literacy education and science education done at elementary level. Findings also revealed that teachers in this study encouraged their ELLs to participate in classroom conversations and involved them in answering open-ended questions. However, not all teachers in this study had the same repertoire of instructional strategies for their ELL students and some teachers demonstrated a better understanding of these approaches than others. All teachers perceived that the structure of the school as well as collaborating and working with other teachers, especially English teachers, as their main source of support in designing instructional approaches. This study suggests that teacher educators and professional development providers need to develop courses and programs to help high school teachers learn about how to design instructional activities that simultaneously promote both academic science and English literacy. Also, administrators need to create conditions at their schools that would allow teachers to interact, collaborate, and learn from each other.

  10. Data Processing: Fifteen Suggestions for Computer Training in Your Business Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Lowell L.

    1980-01-01

    Presents 15 suggestions for training business education students in the use of computers. Suggestions involve computer language, method of presentation, laboratory time, programing assignments, instructions and handouts, problem solving, deadlines, reviews, programming concepts, programming logic, documentation, and defensive programming. (CT)

  11. Collaboration systems for classroom instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Chang, Martin C.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how classroom instruction can benefit from state-of-the-art technologies in networks, worldwide web access through Internet, multimedia, databases, and computing. Functional requirements for establishing such a high-tech classroom are identified, followed by descriptions of our current experimental implementations. The focus of the paper is on the capabilities of distributed collaboration, which supports both synchronous multimedia information sharing as well as a shared work environment for distributed teamwork and group decision making. Our ultimate goal is to achieve the concept of 'living world in a classroom' such that live and dynamic up-to-date information and material from all over the world can be integrated into classroom instruction on a real-time basis. We describe how we incorporate application developments in a geography study tool, worldwide web information retrievals, databases, and programming environments into the collaborative system.

  12. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  13. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  14. Programmed Instruction Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, B. F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of teaching machines, invented to restore the important features of personalized instruction as public school class size increased. Examines teaching and learning problems over the past 50 years, including motivation, attention, appreciation, discovery, and creativity in relation to programmed instruction.…

  15. Fashions in Instructional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapper, Christopher K.

    This paper on instructional development notes the trend toward teaching improvement efforts, classifies instructional development centers in terms of their differing philosophies of operation, and identifies some general problems that have been encountered in institutional efforts to improve teaching and learning. Centers in North America, Europe,…

  16. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  17. Using assessment to individualize early mathematics instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Kurz, Terri; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Tighe, Elizabeth L; Wood, Taffeta S; Morrison, Frederick J

    2018-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that assessment-informed personalized instruction, tailored to students' individual skills and abilities, is more effective than more one-size-fits-all approaches. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of Individualizing Student Instruction in Mathematics (ISI-Math) compared to Reading (ISI-Reading) where classrooms were randomly assigned to ISI-Math or ISI-Reading. The literature on child characteristics X instruction or skill X treatment interaction effects point to the complexities of tailoring instruction for individual students who present with constellations of skills. Second graders received mathematics instruction in small flexible learning groups based on their assessed learning needs. Results of the study (n=32 teachers, 370 students) revealed significant treatment effects on standardized mathematics assessments. With effect sizes (d) of 0.41-0.60, we show that we can significantly improve 2nd graders' mathematics achievement, including for children living in poverty, by using assessment data to individualize the mathematics instruction they receive. The instructional regime, ISI-Math, was implemented by regular classroom teachers and it led to about a 4-month achievement advantage on standardized mathematics tests when compared to students in control classrooms. These results were realized within one school year. Moreover, treatment effects were the same regardless of school-level poverty and students' gender, initial mathematics or vocabulary scores. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differentiating Science Instruction: Secondary science teachers' practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.

  19. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  20. Comparing Two Modes of Instruction in English Passive Structures (Processing and Meaning-Based Output Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Dabiri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the effects of two types of instruction: Processing Instruction (PI and Meaning-based Output Instruction (MOI on the interpretation and production of English passive structures.  Ninety EFL intermediate tertiary level female students (PI group= 30, MOI group= 30 and control group = 30 participated in this study. The instruments were a proficiency test, a test to assess English passive structures and two instructional materials (PI and MOI. The data were analyzed by running one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and mixed between-within ANOVA. The study indicated the effectiveness of PI and MOI on English passive structures. PI had considerable enhancement on interpretation tasks all the time. It supported the use of PI rather than the use of traditional instructions in which mechanical components were emphasized. Also, the PI and MOI had long term effects on the interpretation and production of English passive sentences.  This study supported the use of PI and MOI rather than the use of traditional instruction (TI in EFL settings. The implication for particularly classroom teaching is that successful grammar instruction has to related to ultimate learning outcomes. Also, creating communicative tasks to offer opportunities for teaching grammar can lead to long-lasting learning effects.

  1. Using Principles of Programmed Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Harry

    1971-01-01

    Although programmed instruction in accounting is available, it is limited in scope and in acceptance. Teachers, however, may apply principles of programming to the individualizing of instruction. (Author)

  2. Evidence Suggesting Absence of Mitochondrial DNA Methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechta, Mie; Ingerslev, Lars R; Fabre, Odile

    2017-01-01

    , 16S, ND5 and CYTB, suggesting that mtDNA supercoiled structure blocks the access to bisulfite conversion. Here, we identified an artifact of mtDNA bisulfite sequencing that can lead to an overestimation of mtDNA methylation levels. Our study supports that cytosine methylation is virtually absent...

  3. The role of tag suggestions in folksonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, D.G.F.M.; Halpin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Most tagging systems support the user in the tag selection process by providing tag suggestions, or recommendations, based on a popularity measurement of tags other users provided when tagging the same resource. The majority of theories and mathematical models of tagging found in the literature

  4. Instructional Aids, Materials, and Supplies--Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This resource guide produced for the Follow Through Program, primarily lists instructional aids and supplies; it also suggests practical implications for provisioning the classroom environment, gives specific suggestions for Project Follow Through directors, and lists addresses of suppliers. The materials are divided into nine categories, which…

  5. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  6. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  7. Effect of student engagement on multimedia-assisted instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ping Yueh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study applied multimedia in a general engineering and technology course in Taiwan and evaluated the effectiveness of multimedia-assisted instruction and learning. The course presented trends in technological development and the achievements of Taiwanese industries and research institutes from a historical perspective, and overviewed the technology industries and industrial transformation development in Taiwan. The course units adopted multimedia to support class teaching and student learning, and a survey was conducted to collect students’ attitudes and perception toward multimedia-assisted instruction and learning in the course. Research data were collected from 45 male and 9 female students with varied academic and cultural backgrounds. Results showed that multimedia videos help raise students’ awareness of learning issues, improve their understanding of content, and increase the depth of their learning. Almost all students liked the approach of using multimedia to assist teaching and learning, preferring this approach over traditional lecture-based instruction. They also would recommend this course to their peers. This study also found that the degree of students’ engagement caused variance in the students’ perception of multimedia helpfulness in assisting their learning. Finally, this study further proposes suggestions in both design and research on applications of multimedia-enhanced learning in engineering and technology education.

  8. Using Interactive Video Instruction To Enhance Public Speaking Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Michael W.; Kennan, William R.

    Noting that interactive video instruction (IVI) should not and cannot replace classroom instruction, this paper offers an introduction to interactive video instruction as an innovative technology that can be used to expand pedagogical opportunities in public speaking instruction. The paper: (1) defines the distinctive features of IVI; (2) assesses…

  9. Evaluating the Use of Instructional Coaching as a Tool to Improve Teacher Instructional Strategies at a Title 1 Middle School: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmond, Karen W.

    2017-01-01

    This action research study focused on the use of an instructional coaching model to support teachers in the use of Marzano's nine research-based instructional strategies at a low performing Title 1 middle school. The intervention was carried out over five and a half -month period and was aimed at improving teachers' classroom instruction. The…

  10. Computer Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Methodology for developing a computer assisted instruction (CAI) lesson (scripting, programing, and testing) is reviewed. A project done by Informatics Education Ltd. (IEL) for the Department of National Defense (DND) is used as an example. (JT)

  11. Bibliographic Instruction : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.

  12. Planning oral narrative tasks: optimizing strategic planning condition through strategy instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Specht

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a master thesis, which aimed at investigating the impact of strategic planning instruction on the speech performance of 6 L2 Brazilian learners. The participants, Letras-Inglês students, performed three now-and-there picture-cued narrative tasks under three different conditions: (1 no planning, (2 planning before instruction, and (3 planning after instruction. In addition, the participants filled in post-task questionnaires after the performance of each task, aiming at understanding their opinion on the conditions and tasks. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted in order to examine participants’ oral production and perception, respectively. In general, there was no statistical evidence supporting the impact of instruction on participants’ oral planned performance; however, some statistical results approached significance, which may suggest some positive effects. Qualitative analyses provided positive evidence of the impact of strategic planning instruction on participant perception and their use of strategies during planning time. Moreover, the results of this study can contribute to the fields of Second Language Acquisition and Language Pegadogy.

  13. Factors moderating blocking in human place learning: the role of task instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Oliver; Hupbach, Almut; Nadel, Lynn

    2009-02-01

    Cognitive map theory assumes that novel environmental information is automatically incorporated into existing cognitive maps as a function of exploration. Reports of blocking in place learning cast doubt on this claim. In these studies, subjects were first trained to find a place, using a set of landmarks (Set A). Then novel landmarks (Set B) were added for additional trials. Subsequent removal of the Set A landmarks showed that the novel landmarks alone were insufficient for successful navigation. We investigated whether instructing human subjects to explore the environment can moderate blocking. First, we demonstrated that blocking is absent in a computer implementation of the Morris water maze (MWM) in which subjects are instructed to explore. We then studied why others found blocking in a different MWM implementation, in which the task instructions did not suggest exploration. In experiments that faithfully replicated this MWM variant, we found that subjects did not acquire cognitive maps and that blocking was attenuated when instructions were provided that encouraged exploration. Together, these findings indicate that blocking in human place learning may reflect a performance deficit, not a learning deficit, and that instructions can moderate blocking. Our results thus support the automatic update assumption of cognitive map theory.

  14. Academic Discipline and Personal Finance Instruction in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Cäzilia; Fisher, Patti J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite public support for personal finance instruction in high school, its effectiveness has not been firmly established. The current study investigates instructional approaches as a reason for these inconsistent outcomes by comparing survey responses of business education, family and consumer sciences, and social studies/economics teachers. The…

  15. Tapping Geography's Potential for Synergy with Creative Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Gomez, Kristen; Williams, Nikki; Atkinson-Palombo, Carol; Ahlqvist, Ola; Kim, Eje; Morgan, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    We define synergy, explain its importance within the context of rapidly changing academia, and provide examples of how geographic educators have used creative instructional approaches to create synergies. Both the content of geography and some of the instructional approaches used by geographic educators support the discipline's ability to deliver…

  16. An Instructional Theory for the Post-Industrial Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes instructional theory that supports post-industrial education and training systems--ones that are customized and learner-centered, in which student progress is based on learning rather than time. The author discusses the importance of problem-based instruction (PBI), identifies some problems with PBI, overviews an…

  17. Instructional Styles, Attitudes and Experiences of Seniors in Computer Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eileen; Lanuza, Catherine; Baciu, Iuliana; MacKenzie, Meagan; Nosko, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-four seniors were introduced to computers through a series of five weekly workshops. Participants were given instruction followed by hands-on experience for topics related to social communication, information seeking, games, and word processing and were observed to determine their preferences for instructional support. Observations of…

  18. Beyond the Initiatives: Developing instructional leadership in school principals as a system-wide effort to improve the quality of classroom instruction.

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Sondra Denise

    2016-01-01

    This design research effort implemented a series of intervention activities designed to support a small group of elementary school principals improve their instructional leadership practices. The purpose of this research was to improve the skills of principals to lead instructional improvements identified through classroom observations, work with their school-level Instructional Leadership Team (ILT) to create teacher professional development that addresses the instructional improvement, and ...

  19. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  20. Differentiated instruction: perceptions, practices and challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differentiated instruction: perceptions, practices and challenges of primary school teachers. ... Different factors like knowledge and experience, commitment and motivation, availability of materials/resources, availability of time, class size, range of diversity in classroom, leadership and parental support and staff collaboration ...

  1. Developing Principal Instructional Leadership through Collaborative Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Mariah Bahar

    2010-01-01

    This study examines what occurs when principals of urban schools meet together to learn and improve their instructional leadership in collaborative principal networks designed to support, sustain, and provide ongoing principal capacity building. Principal leadership is considered second only to teaching in its ability to improve schools, yet few…

  2. Servant Leadership and Instructional Literacy Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thelma Jodale

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to enhance student achievement in reading, many high schools have integrated instructional literacy coaches into the teaching staff to provide support for the English teachers. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to explore the relationship between the self-reported servant leadership practices used by…

  3. Instructional leaders for all? High school science department heads and instructional leadership across all science disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Stephen

    Many high school science departments are responding to changes in state standards with respect to both curricular content and instructional practices. In the typical American high school organization, the academic department head is ideally positioned to influence change in the instructional practices of teachers within the department. Even though science department heads are well situated to provide leadership during this period of transition, the literature has not addressed the question of how well science department heads believe they can provide instructional leadership for all of the teachers in their department, whether they are teaching within and outside of the head's own sub-discipline. Nor is it known how science department heads view the role of pedagogical content knowledge in teaching different science disciplines. Using an online survey comprised of 26 objective questions and one open response question, a 54-respondent sample of science department heads provided no strong consensus regarding their beliefs about the role of pedagogical content knowledge in science instruction. However, science department heads expressed a significant difference in their views about their capacity to provide instructional leadership for teachers sharing their science content area compared to teachers instructing other science content areas. Given wide-spread science education reform efforts introduced in response to the Next Generation Science Standards, these findings may serve to provide some direction for determining how to best support the work of science department heads as they strive to provide instructional leadership for the teachers in their departments.

  4. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...... and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  5. Elementary science teachers' integration of engineering design into science instruction: results from a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.; Whitworth, Brooke A.; Gonczi, Amanda L.; Navy, Shannon L.; Wheeler, Lindsay B.

    2017-07-01

    This randomised controlled trial used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the frequency and how elementary teachers integrated engineering design (ED) principles into their science instruction following professional development (PD). The ED components of the PD were aligned with Cunningham and Carlsen's [(2014). Teaching engineering practices. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 25, 197-210] guidelines for ED PD and promoted inclusion of ED within science teaching. The treatment group included 219 teachers from 83 schools. Participants in the control group included 145 teachers from 60 schools in a mid-Atlantic state. Data sources, including lesson overviews and videotaped classroom observations, were analysed quantitatively to determine the frequency of ED integration and qualitatively to describe how teachers incorporated ED into instruction after attending the PD. Results indicated more participants who attended the PD (55%) incorporated ED into instruction compared with the control participants (24%), χ2(1, n = 401) = 33.225, p .05) through ED lessons. In ED lessons, students typically conducted research and created and tested initial designs. The results suggest the PD supported teachers in implementing ED into their science instruction and support the efficacy of using Cunningham and Carlsen's (2014) guidelines to inform ED PD design.

  6. Inclusive differentiated instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ljiljana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive differentiated instruction is a new model of didactic instruction, theoretically described and established in this paper for the first time, after being experimentally verified through teaching of the mother tongue (instruction in reading and literature. Inclusive individually planned instruction is based on a phenomenological and constructivist didactic instructional paradigm. This type of teaching is essentially developmental and person-oriented. The key stages of inclusive differentiated instruction of literature are: 1 recognition of individual students' potential and educational needs regarding reading and work on literary texts; 2 planning and preparation of inclusive individually planned instruction in reading and literature; 3 actual class teaching of lessons thus prepared; and 4 evaluation of the student achievement following inclusive differentiated instruction in reading and literature. A highly important element of the planning and preparation of inclusive differentiated instruction is the creation of student profiles and inclusive individualized syllabi. Individualized syllabi specify the following: 1. a brief student profile; 2. the student position on the continuum of the learning outcomes of instruction in the Serbian language; 3. reverse-engineered macro-plan stages of instruction in the Serbian language (3.1. identifying expected outcomes and fundamental qualities of learners' work, 3.2. defining acceptable proofs of their realisation, 3.3. planning learning and teaching experiences, and 3.4. providing material and technical requisites for teaching; 4 the contents and procedure of individualized lessons targeting the student; 5 a plan of syllabus implementation monitoring and evaluation. The continuum of the learning outcomes of inclusive differentiated instruction in literature exists at three main levels, A, B and C. The three levels are: A reading techniques and learning about the main literary theory concepts; B

  7. Single-instruction multiple-data execution

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Having hit power limitations to even more aggressive out-of-order execution in processor cores, many architects in the past decade have turned to single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) execution to increase single-threaded performance. SIMD execution, or having a single instruction drive execution of an identical operation on multiple data items, was already well established as a technique to efficiently exploit data parallelism. Furthermore, support for it was already included in many commodity processors. However, in the past decade, SIMD execution has seen a dramatic increase in the set of

  8. Instructional psychology and the design of training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stammers, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the role of instructional psychology in simulator design and use is discussed. It is suggested that research and development work has tended to focus upon the face validity of simulators rather than their instructional utility. Dimensions of simulation are reviewed as are the variety of uses to which a simulator may be put. The nature of instructional psychology is briefly described under the following headings: task analysis, the acquisition of knowledge and skill and theories of instruction. Attention is also given to the potential role of computer-based training and the topic of retention of training is introduced. (author)

  9. Book Club Plus: A Conceptual Framework To Organize Literacy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Taffy E.; Florio-Ruane, Susan; George, MariAnne

    2001-01-01

    Notes that finding time for skills instruction without replacing literature discussion and writers' workshop requires a strong organizational framework for literacy instruction. Suggests that teachers need principled, conceptual frameworks to guide their thoughts and actions. Describes a framework, Book Club Plus, designed by a practitioner…

  10. Excellence in College Teaching and Learning: Classroom and Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, George; Nash, Susan Smith

    2007-01-01

    This book will improve the quality of instruction that college students need. It makes numerous suggestions that must be tended to when teachers instruct students. For example, the authors speculate about ways teachers can present what may at times seem to be a mountain of information without burying students under it; why teachers must…

  11. Instructional quality of lower grades natural science classes: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... classes: the case of primary schools linked to Kemise College of Teacher Education. ... the quality of natural science education classroom instruction in lower grade ... on pedagogical and subject matter issue, closer support and supervision.

  12. SU-F-E-18: Training Monthly QA of Medical Accelerators: Illustrated Instructions for Self-Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, L; Wang, H; Aten, D; Chi, P; Gao, S; Aristophanous, M; Balter, P [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Brown, D; Yock, A [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Maddox, B [Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); MacGregor, H [University of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and test clear illustrated instructions for training of monthly mechanical QA of medical linear accelerators. Methods: Illustrated instructions were created for monthly mechanical QA with tolerance tabulated, and underwent several steps of review and refinement. Testers with zero QA experience were then recruited from our radiotherapy department (1 student, 2 computational scientists and 8 dosimetrists). The following parameters were progressively de-calibrated on a Varian C-series linac: Group A = gantry angle, ceiling laser position, X1 jaw position, couch longitudinal position, physical graticule position (5 testers); Group B = Group A + wall laser position, couch lateral and vertical position, collimator angle (3 testers); Group C = Group B + couch angle, wall laser angle, and optical distance indicator (3 testers). Testers were taught how to use the linac, and then used the instructions to try to identify these errors. A physicist observed each session, giving support on machine operation, as necessary. The instructions were further tested with groups of therapists, graduate students and physics residents at multiple institutions. We have also changed the language of the instructions to simulate using the instructions with non-English speakers. Results: Testers were able to follow the instructions. They determined gantry, collimator and couch angle errors within 0.4, 0.3, and 0.9degrees of the actual changed values, respectively. Laser positions were determined within 1mm, and jaw positions within 2mm. Couch position errors were determined within 2 and 3mm for lateral/longitudinal and vertical errors, respectively. Accessory positioning errors were determined within 1mm. ODI errors were determined within 2mm when comparing with distance sticks, and 6mm when using blocks, indicating that distance sticks should be the preferred approach for inexperienced staff. Conclusion: Inexperienced users were able to follow these instructions, and catch

  13. SU-F-E-18: Training Monthly QA of Medical Accelerators: Illustrated Instructions for Self-Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, L; Wang, H; Aten, D; Chi, P; Gao, S; Aristophanous, M; Balter, P; Brown, D; Yock, A; Maddox, B; MacGregor, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and test clear illustrated instructions for training of monthly mechanical QA of medical linear accelerators. Methods: Illustrated instructions were created for monthly mechanical QA with tolerance tabulated, and underwent several steps of review and refinement. Testers with zero QA experience were then recruited from our radiotherapy department (1 student, 2 computational scientists and 8 dosimetrists). The following parameters were progressively de-calibrated on a Varian C-series linac: Group A = gantry angle, ceiling laser position, X1 jaw position, couch longitudinal position, physical graticule position (5 testers); Group B = Group A + wall laser position, couch lateral and vertical position, collimator angle (3 testers); Group C = Group B + couch angle, wall laser angle, and optical distance indicator (3 testers). Testers were taught how to use the linac, and then used the instructions to try to identify these errors. A physicist observed each session, giving support on machine operation, as necessary. The instructions were further tested with groups of therapists, graduate students and physics residents at multiple institutions. We have also changed the language of the instructions to simulate using the instructions with non-English speakers. Results: Testers were able to follow the instructions. They determined gantry, collimator and couch angle errors within 0.4, 0.3, and 0.9degrees of the actual changed values, respectively. Laser positions were determined within 1mm, and jaw positions within 2mm. Couch position errors were determined within 2 and 3mm for lateral/longitudinal and vertical errors, respectively. Accessory positioning errors were determined within 1mm. ODI errors were determined within 2mm when comparing with distance sticks, and 6mm when using blocks, indicating that distance sticks should be the preferred approach for inexperienced staff. Conclusion: Inexperienced users were able to follow these instructions, and catch

  14. Setting Instructional Expectations: Patterns of Principal Leadership for Middle School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterfeld, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Principal instructional leadership has been found to support improved instruction. However, the methods through which principal leadership influences classroom instruction are less clear. This study investigates how principals' leadership may predict the expectations that mathematics teachers perceive for classroom practice. Results from a…

  15. Principals' Perceptions of Instructional Leadership for Middle School Students of Color with Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon-Luster, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    Instructional leadership is the most important responsibility for principals and the most vulnerable students in need of productive instructional leadership are students of color with specific learning disabilities. Instructional leaders are challenged with creating supportive learning environments and school cultures that promotes the education…

  16. Developing Instructional Leadership through Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Claire Johnson; McKnight, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative learning teams have emerged as an effective tool for teachers to steadily and continuously improve their instruction. Evidence also suggests that a learning teams model can affect school leadership as well. We explored the impact of learning teams on leadership roles of principals and teachers in secondary schools and found that…

  17. Instructional Uses of the Lexile Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, A. Jackson

    The Lexile Framework provides teachers with tools to help them link the results of reading assessment with subsequent instruction, focuses on appropriate-level curriculum for readers at all educational levels, and is designed to be flexible enough to use alongside any type of reading program. Suggested areas for application of this system include:…

  18. Oceanic Circulation. A Programmed Unit of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Maritime Academy, Castine.

    This booklet contains a programmed lesson on oceanic circulation. It is designed to allow students to progress through the subject at their own speed. Since it is written in linear format, it is suggested that students proceed through the program from "frame" to succeeding "frame." Instructions for students on how to use the booklet are included.…

  19. Perceived Autonomy-Support Instruction and Student Outcomes in Physical Education and Leisure-Time: A Meta-Analytic Review of Correlates. [Percepción de la formación de apoyo a la autonomía y resultados en estudiantes en educación física y tiempo libre: Una revisión meta-analítica de correlaciones].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lochbaum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a global concern. Physical educators have direct access to children. Researchers have investigated the benefits of student perceived physical education (PE autonomy-supportive instruction in PE and leisure-time (LT. Hence, a fixed-effect meta-analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of the direct effects of perceived PE autonomy-supportive instruction on a number of student outcomes. In total, 39 correlation based studies totaling 23,554 participants were analyzed with mean weighted correlation (rw as the analyzed effect size. Nearly all effect sizes were statistically significant (p < .01. Effect sizes in PE ranged in meaningfulness from large to small across the PE categories of basic needs, emotions, motivational processes and behaviors, physical activity self-esteem, physical activity motivation, and general self-esteem/concept. For LT, effect sizes were mostly medium to small across the basics needs, motivation processes, and physical activity categories. Thus, though student perceived PE teacher autonomy-support instruction was meaningfully related to basics needs, higher level motivational processes (i.e. intrinsic motivation, and positive emotions in PE and LT, the relationships were small in meaningfulness with regards to physical activity. Future research must elucidate how perceived PE teacher autonomy-support instruction may directly improve children’s physical activity to combat the global inactivity epidemic.

  20. Relationships Among Teacher Preparedness and Instructional Approaches to Secondary Student Achievement in STEM: A Secondary Analysis of TIMSS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Ricks, Karen A.

    Educational reform efforts in Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) place emphasis on teachers as conduits for student achievement. The purpose of this study was to use TIMSS 2011 data to examine relationships between Science-Technology-Society (STS) instructional practices (student-centered instruction established to promote learning through real-world applications) teacher preparedness, and student achievement and identify variations of achievement between and among eighth-grade science and math classes. The research was framed by both Harper's Anti-Deficit Achievement Theory and Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory (BEST). 501 U.S. schools contributed to the TIMSS 2011 data from both the teacher questionnaires and student booklets. Chi-Square, Spearman Correlation, and 2-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) were used to analyze data about teachers' preparedness to teach science and math, frequency of using STS instructional practices, and student achievement. The chi-square null hypothesis for math teachers was rejected, providing the assumption that there was an association between the frequency of using STS instruction in math and teacher preparedness. However, the chi-square null hypothesis for science teachers failed to be rejected, providing the assumption that there was no significant association between the frequency of using STS instruction in science and science teacher preparedness. The Spearman Correlation revealed statistically positively significant differences between STS instruction and science achievement, as well as between teacher preparedness and science achievement. The HLM results suggested that 33% of the variance of mathematics achievement was at the individual level and 66% was at the group level. The results for science teachers suggested that 54% of the variance of science achievement was at the individual level and 46% of the variance was at the group level. The data findings support the conclusion that secondary STEM

  1. TEACHING STRATEGIES SUGGESTED DURING THE DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION PROGRAMS FOR DIFFERENT MOTOR DEFICIENCIES CATEGORIES AT PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint Tatiana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the present-day development of the society, we consider that some modifications are necessary in the approach for the training programmes which focus on objectives aiming at educating the psychomotion abilities, taking into consideration the individual features connected to age and sex specific to preschoolchildren.

  2. Apparel. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Patti

    This instructional guide for a one-half credit technological laboratory course for grades 10-12 focuses on apparel from the perspectives of personal decision making related to apparel, the apparel industry, and career preparation. Introductory materials are a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and…

  3. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  4. Windows into Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher-Reed, Christina; Rotella, Sam A.

    2017-01-01

    Administrators are often removed from the daily instructional realities in classrooms, while teachers aren't given enough opportunities to lead in their schools, write Christina Steinbacher-Reed and Sam A. Rotella Jr. The result is a wall that prevents the two parties from collaborating in a way that improves school culture, teaching practices,…

  5. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CATALOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Vocational Agriculture Instructional Materials Service, Columbus.

    THE TITLE, IDENTIFICATION NUMBER, DATE OF PUBLICATION, PAGINATION, A BRIEF DESCRIPTION, AND PRICE ARE GIVEN FOR EACH OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND AUDIOVISUAL AIDS INCLUDED IN THIS CATALOG. TOPICS COVERED ARE FIELD CORPS, HORTICULTURE, ANIMAL SCIENCE, SOILS, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, AND FARMING PROGRAMS. AN ORDER FORM IS INCLUDED. (JM)

  6. Computers in writing instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Helen J.; van der Geest, Thea; Smit-Kreuzen, Marlies

    1992-01-01

    For computers to be useful in writing instruction, innovations should be valuable for students and feasible for teachers to implement. Research findings yield contradictory results in measuring the effects of different uses of computers in writing, in part because of the methodological complexity of

  7. Job Instruction Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Richard H.

    Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees on the job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee's supervisor but can be a co-worker. The JIT technique consists of a series of steps that a supervisor or other instructor follows…

  8. Nuclear Energy. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  9. Wind Power. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  10. Instructional Psychology 1976 - 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    business it is to carry out applied work in the design of instructional content and delivery. These organizations include specialized divisions of...34learning disabilities" label: An experimental analysis. Comtemporary Educational Psychology, 1977, 2, 292-297. Allington, R. L. Sensitivity to

  11. Reviews in instructional video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were

  12. Computer-assisted instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss

  13. Scaffolding in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On-The-Job Training, developed as direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training. This method is still widely in use today because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. This paper is intended to be a study of the methods used in education in Knowledge Society, with more specific aspects in training the trainers; as a result of this approach, it promotes scaffolding in assisted instruction as a reflection of the digital age for the learning process. Training the trainers in old environment with default techniques and designing the learning process in assisted instruction, as an application of the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD to the area of computer literacy for the younger users, generate diversity in educational communities and requires standards for technology infrastructure, standards for the content, developed as a concepts map, and applications for personalized in-struction, based on ZPD theory.

  14. Characteristics of Instructional Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Mobina; Taspolat, Ata; Kaya, Omer Sami; Sapanca, Hamza Fatih

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, video plays a significant role in education in terms of its integration into traditional classes, the principal delivery system of information in classes particularly in online courses as well as serving as a foundation of many blended classes. Hence, education is adopting a modern approach of instruction with the target of moving away…

  15. Facility transition instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facility transition instruction was initiated in response to the need for a common, streamlined process for facility transitions and to capture the knowledge and experience that has accumulated over the last few years. The instruction serves as an educational resource and defines the process for transitioning facilities to long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Generally, these facilities do not have identified operations missions and must be transitioned from operational status to a safe and stable configuration for long-term S and M. The instruction can be applied to a wide range of facilities--from process canyon complexes like the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility or B Plant, to stand-alone, lower hazard facilities like the 242B/BL facility. The facility transition process is implemented (under the direction of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office [RL] Assistant Manager-Environmental) by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. management, with input and interaction with the appropriate RL division and Hanford site contractors as noted in the instruction. The application of the steps identified herein and the early participation of all organizations involved are expected to provide a cost-effective, safe, and smooth transition from operational status to deactivation and S and M for a wide range of Hanford Site facilities

  16. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  17. Listening strategies instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueroles López, Marta

    2017-01-01

    , who presented similar level of Spanish, needs, educational and cultural background, but did not receive such a training. The listening strategies instruction consisted in integrating the development of listening strategies into a regular course of Spanish as a foreign language. Data referring...

  18. Inquiry-Oriented Instruction: A Conceptualization of the Instructional Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, George; Johnson, Estrella; Keene, Karen; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Research has highlighted that inquiry-based learning (IBL) instruction leads to many positive student outcomes in undergraduate mathematics. Although this research points to the value of IBL instruction, the practices of IBL instructors are not well-understood. Here, we offer a characterization of a particular form of IBL instruction:…

  19. Flowing with the changing needs of hydrogeology instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, T.; Allen, D. M.; Ferguson, G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogeology is now taught in a broad spectrum of departments and institutions to students with diverse backgrounds. Successful instruction in hydrogeology thus requires a variety of pedagogical approaches depending on desired learning outcomes and the diverse background of students. We review the pedagogical literature in hydrogeology to highlight recent advances and analyze a 2005 survey of 68 hydrogeology instructors. The literature and survey results suggest there are ~15 topics that are considered crucial by most hydrogeologists and >100 other topics that are considered crucial by some hydrogeologists. The crucial topics focus on properties of aquifers and fundamentals of groundwater flow, and should likely be part of all undergraduate hydrogeology courses. Other topics can supplement and support these crucial topics, depending on desired learning outcomes. Classroom settings continue to provide a venue for emphasizing fundamental knowledge. However, recent pedagogical advances are biased towards field and laboratory instruction with a goal of bolstering experiential learning. Field methods build on the fundamentals taught in the classroom and emphasize the collection of data, data uncertainty, and the development of vocational skills. Laboratory and computer-based exercises similarly build on theory, and offer an opportunity for data analysis and integration. The literature suggests curricula at all levels should ideally balance field, laboratory, and classroom pedagogy into an iterative and integrative whole. An integrated approach leads to greater student motivation and advancement of theoretical and vocational knowledge.

  20. Differences Between Library Instruction Conference Attendees and their Institutional Affiliations in the United States and Canada are Discernible. A review of: Willingham, Patricia, Linda Carder, and Christopher Millson‐Martula. “Does a Border Make a Difference? Library Instruction in the United States and Canada.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 32.1 (Jan. 2006: 23-34.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2006-09-01

    fifteen demographic and attitudinal questions was sent via e‐mail to all 508 attendees of major library instruction conferences (LOEX and WILU for 2001, and LOEX of the West for 2000 in the United States and Canada. Responses from the 132 returned surveys were tabulated and used to evaluate their linked hypotheses. Main results – Of the nine initial hypotheses, five were supported, and the remaining four were either partially supported or rejected. Supported hypotheses included: #1, that most participants in the top library instructional conferences came from institutions with >5,000 student populations; #2, that the majority of fully developed instructional programs were in universities; #5, that librarians with greater seniority were more likely to attend instructional conferences; #7, that conference attendance has only a medium impact on program development at participants’ home institutions; and #9, that most conference attendees come from the United States. Partially supported hypotheses were: #4, that factors most highly rated by participants were program development and technology, and #8, that conference theme and reputation are ranked higher in terms of influence in attendees’ decision to participate in the conferences. Rejected hypotheses included: #3, that “beginning programs are typically found at four‐year institutions,” #4, that “program development and technology rank as the two most important instruction‐related issues” (note that hypothesis #4 is both rejected and partially supported, and #6, that “LOEX is considered the most valuable conference.” Conclusion – The authors confirmed their overall hypothesis that significant differences exist between the United States and Canada regarding library instructional programs. Although the two countries developed at very different rates prior to the 1960s, technology and cross‐border sharing has meant that they are now developing along parallel paths. The authors suggest several

  1. Comic Books' Latest Plot Twist: Enhancing Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, support has grown for using comic books and graphic novels to enhance and support literacy instruction. In some ways, it's surprising that the medium has only recently enjoyed such support. Stereotyped views of comics as unsophisticated, disposable entertainment or material written to the lowest common denominator fail to consider the…

  2. Instructional Leadership Practices in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…

  3. Putting instruction sequences into effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made to define the concept of execution of an instruction sequence. It is found to be a special case of directly putting into effect of an instruction sequence. Directly putting into effect of an instruction sequences comprises interpretation as well as execution. Directly putting into

  4. The Measurement of Instructional Accomplishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Lawrence E.; Vargas, Ernest A.

    Instructional System Technology in recent years has been characterized by an increase in individualized instruction and the modularization of the curriculum. In traditional systems the learners are forced to take blocks of instruction the size of entire courses and these are much too large. The courses can now be broken down into conceptual…

  5. Intelligent Frameworks for Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy describing various uses of artificial intelligence techniques in automated instructional development systems. Instructional systems development is discussed in relation to the design of computer-based instructional courseware; two systems being developed at the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory are reviewed; and further research…

  6. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) is an instruction processing paradigm that has been in the spot- light due to its adoption by the next generation of Intel. Processors starting with the IA-64. The EPIC processing paradigm is an evolution of the Very Long Instruction. Word (VLIW) paradigm. This article gives an ...

  7. Motivational elements in user instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loorbach, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Concerning the design of user instructions, two view can be distinguished. The traditional view considers instructions as purely instrumental documents. The more and more emerging affective view still assumes that above all, instructions should enable readers to perform tasks. But in order to

  8. School Principals' Evaluations of Their Instructional Leadership Behaviours: Realities vs. Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Mahmut; Arslan, Mustafa Cüneyt

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine primary and middle school principals' evaluations of their own instructional leadership behaviours, and thereby pay closer attention to the ideal instructional leadership behaviours suggested in the related literature and the realities of principals' instructional leadership behaviours. Although…

  9. Multicultural Music Instruction in the Elementary School: What Can Be Achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kay L.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates fourth-grade students' achievement following a model unit on American Indian music that utilized four different instructional approaches. Suggests implications for instruction with American Indian music regarding instructional approach, authenticity of instrument materials, learning from a native guest artist, and music teacher…

  10. Effects of Instructional Ratios on Students' Reading Performance in a Regular Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Maura L.; Shapiro, Edward S.

    1996-01-01

    Used 4 experimental conditions to examine the effectiveness of different instructional ratios of known to unknown vocabulary words on the reading progress of 46 students. Results suggest that students acquired new information as instructional ratios expanded. An inverse relationship was established between instructional material presented and…

  11. Kinaesthetic activities in physics instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Christiansen, Frederik V

    2016-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...

  12. Instructive for disposal of fluorescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar Vargas, Gerlin

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of waste fluorescent lamps, ensuring the storage, collection, transportation, and final disposal. The lamp is changed by an official of the Seccion de Matenimiento Construccion of the Oficina de Servicios Generales or is produced with the support of an official of the unit. The fluorescent should be deposited in stock of materials of the building maintenance section or unit specified with the help of a staff and in appropriate conditions. The fluorescent lamp is transported according to the guidelines in the manual. A responsible company is contracted by la Vicerrectoria de Administracion of the Universidad de Costa Rica dedicated to the transport and proper handling of fluorescent lamps [es

  13. Elementary School Math Instruction: Can Reading Specialists Assist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Audrey S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the contradictions found in recommendations for direction instruction or informal math language development, and some suggestions for practical resolution of disagreements, to enable school reading specialists to provide both background and practical help to classroom instructors teaching math. (HTH)

  14. Instructions for 104-SX liquid level measurement field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides detailed instructions for field testing a suggested solution of inserting a liner inside the 104-SX failed Liquid Observation Well to gain access for making temporary Liquid Level Measurement until a permanent solution has been provided

  15. Cognitive aging and training: the role of instructional coherence and advance organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Natalie E; Kraiger, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: This study investigates whether there is a need for age-specific computer-based instructional design. The authors examined the effect of two design principles, instructional coherence and advance organizers, on learning outcomes of older and younger adults. Instructional coherence refers to the idea that people learn more deeply when information not directly relevant to learning goals is removed from training. Advance organizers are organizing frameworks for intended training content. Participants consisted of younger and older adults (mean ages were 21.7 and 75.1, respectively). Younger adults were university students and older adults were recruited from various sources, including retirement homes, senior activity centers, and online communities. We used a 2 (young, old) × 2 (low coherence, high coherence) × 2 (no advance organizer, advance organizer) between-subjects design and analyzed data using a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Analyses revealed that (1) older adults performed worse on learning outcome measures compared with younger adults; (2) instructional coherence significantly improved the learning performance of both older and younger adults (Hypothesis 1 supported); and (3) advanced organizers improved the performance of older adults but did not affect the performance of younger adults in transfer tasks (Hypothesis 4 supported). The latter finding (that advance organizers had differential effects on older and younger adults) suggests that perhaps there is a need for age-specific instructional formats. Future researchers should further explore whether and how age affects the learning process by examining the effect of different design principles on learning outcomes of older and younger adults.

  16. Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama

    Full Text Available Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a "brain wave" machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion's contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion.

  17. Instructional immediacy in elearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkem, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Instructor immediacy has been positively associated with many desirable academic outcomes including increased student learning. This study extends existing understanding of instructional immediacy behaviours in elearning by describing postgraduate nursing students' reflections on their own experience. An exploratory, descriptive survey design was used to collect qualitative data. Participants were asked what behaviours or activities help to create rapport or a positive interpersonal connection (immediacy) between students and their online teacher(s). Thematic analysis of the data revealed three main themes: acknowledging and affirming student's personal and professional responsibilities; providing clear and timely information; and utilising rich media. These findings give lecturers insight into instructional strategies they may adopt to increase immediacy in elearning and hence improve student learning outcomes.

  18. A Critique of Instructional

    OpenAIRE

    McKernan, James

    2010-01-01

    The ‘objectives model’ of curriculum planning, predicated upon behavioural performances, has become the dominant form of curriculum planning in Europe and elsewhere in the world. This paper argues that the objectives model is satisfactory for training or instruction, but falls down when applied to a true sense of ‘education’. The paper outlines 13 limitations on the use of educational objectives. It is argued that those interested in using objectives are guided by evaluation as assessment rat...

  19. Effective Multicultural Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin T. Thompson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The reason why the Trayvon Martin murder trial and similar court cases create a philosophical rift in our nation is due in part to flaws in the delivery of multicultural education. Traditional multicultural instruction does not prepare citizens for the subtleties and complexities of race relations. This study investigates critical strategies and practices that address multicultural missing gaps. I also seek to fill a void in the literature created by a lack of student input regarding teaching strategies that encourage lifelong learning. Students (N = 337 enrolled at a Midwestern university were asked to rate the efficacy of selected instructional strategies. Utilizing a 9-point Likert-type scale, students gave themselves a personal growth rating of 7.15 (SD = 1.47. Variables important to predicting that growth (R2 = .56, p < .0005 were a six-factor variable known as a non-color-blind instructional approach (t = 10.509, p ≤ .0005, allowing students an opportunity to form their own opinions apart from the instructor (t = 4.797, p ≤ .0005, and a state law that mandated multicultural training (t = 3.234, p = .001. Results demonstrated that utilizing a 35% traditional and 65% critical pedagogy mixture when teaching multicultural education helped promote win/win scenarios for education candidates hoping to become difference makers.

  20. Benefits of Case-Based versus Traditional Lecture-Based Instruction in a Preclinical Removable Prosthodontics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, David B; Divaris, Kimon; De Kok, Ingeborg J

    2017-04-01

    This study compared the acceptability and relative effectiveness of case-based learning (CBL) versus traditional lecture-based (LB) instruction in a preclinical removable prosthodontics course in the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Dentistry DDS curriculum. The entire second-year class (N=82) comprised this crossover study's sample. Assessments of baseline comprehension and confidence in removable partial denture (RPD) treatment planning were conducted at the beginning of the course. Near the end of the course, half of the class received CBL and LB instruction in an RPD module in alternating sequence, with students serving as their own control group. Assessments of perceived RPD treatment planning efficacy, comprehension, and instruction method preference were administered directly after students completed the RPD module and six months later. Analyses of variance accounting for period, carryover, and sequence effects were used to determine the relative effects of each approach using a peffects, CBL was also associated with higher gains in RPD treatment planning comprehension (p=0.04) and perceived efficacy (p=0.01) compared to LB instruction. These gains diminished six months after the course-a finding based on a 49% follow-up response rate. Overall, the students overwhelmingly preferred CBL to LB instruction, and the findings suggest small albeit measurable educational benefits associated with CBL. This study's findings support the introduction and further testing of CBL in the preclinical dental curriculum, in anticipation of possible future benefits evident during clinical training.

  1. Dental and dental hygiene students' diagnostic accuracy in oral radiology: effect of diagnostic strategy and instructional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

    2014-09-01

    There has been much debate surrounding diagnostic strategies and the most appropriate training models for novices in oral radiology. It has been argued that an analytic approach, using a step-by-step analysis of the radiographic features of an abnormality, is ideal. Alternative research suggests that novices can successfully employ non-analytic reasoning. Many of these studies do not take instructional methodology into account. This study evaluated the effectiveness of non-analytic and analytic strategies in radiographic interpretation and explored the relationship between instructional methodology and diagnostic strategy. Second-year dental and dental hygiene students were taught four radiographic abnormalities using basic science instructions or a step-by-step algorithm. The students were tested on diagnostic accuracy and memory immediately after learning and one week later. A total of seventy-three students completed both immediate and delayed sessions and were included in the analysis. Students were randomly divided into two instructional conditions: one group provided a diagnostic hypothesis for the image and then identified specific features to support it, while the other group first identified features and then provided a diagnosis. Participants in the diagnosis-first condition (non-analytic reasoning) had higher diagnostic accuracy then those in the features-first condition (analytic reasoning), regardless of their learning condition. No main effect of learning condition or interaction with diagnostic strategy was observed. Educators should be mindful of the potential influence of analytic and non-analytic approaches on the effectiveness of the instructional method.

  2. The effects of video modeling with voiceover instruction on accurate implementation of discrete-trial instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladescu, Jason C; Carroll, Regina; Paden, Amber; Kodak, Tiffany M

    2012-01-01

    The present study replicates and extends previous research on the use of video modeling (VM) with voiceover instruction to train staff to implement discrete-trial instruction (DTI). After staff trainees reached the mastery criterion when teaching an adult confederate with VM, they taught a child with a developmental disability using DTI. The results showed that the staff trainees' accurate implementation of DTI remained high, and both child participants acquired new skills. These findings provide additional support that VM may be an effective method to train staff members to conduct DTI.

  3. Teachers' implementation of reform-oriented instructional strategies in science: Lessons from two professional development programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nicole D.

    participants in this study perceived time for science instruction, limits in their students' abilities and behavior, and their own development as facilitators as challenges to their efforts to implement inquiry-based science instruction. They identified their participation in the ISI pilot, the curricular modules and a science notebook strategy promoted by the ISI as supports for their instruction. Two studies of the RGS program were conducted. The first was a pilot study that was conducted in the academic year following the first RGS summer workshop (2011-12). The second was a collective case study conducted after the second RGS workshop (2012-13). In both studies participants were videotaped as they implemented the PBL units that they had developed at their respective RGS workshops and interviewed about their experiences after they implemented the units. The data from the observations were examined using a rubric developed for the study to examine their use of PBL features. Based on the analysis of the data from the observations, the RGS participants exhibited partial fidelity of implementation to the features of PBL. Analysis of the data from the interviews indicated that participants were aware of features of PBL that they were not able to fully implement. Participants also identified several supports, particularly from the RGS program such as being able to order materials to implement their units, as well as supports that were specific to their teaching contexts. The findings from both the ISI study and RGS collective case study suggest that the professional development programs had some positive if limited influence on teachers' instructional practices. Across the studies, persistent challenges were identified regarding teachers' efforts to meaningfully engage students in practices that would develop their abilities to reason scientifically. Comments from participants in both studies about the supportive role of their respective curricula also lend support to arguments

  4. Ethics instruction in the dental hygiene curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerik, Mark G; Prajer, Renee G; Conrad, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Dental hygiene ethics is an essential component of the dental hygiene curriculum. The accreditation standards for dental hygiene education state that graduates must be competent in applying ethical concepts to the provision and/or support of oral health care services. Although the standards for entry into the profession of dental hygiene emphasize the importance of ethical reasoning, there is little published research specific to ethics instruction in dental hygiene programs. The purpose of this study was to assess how ethics is taught in the dental hygiene curriculum. A 17-item survey was designed and distributed to 261 accredited dental hygiene programs in the United States for a response rate of 56% (N=147). The survey requested that participants provide information on teaching and evaluation methodologies, didactic and clinical hours of instruction, individuals responsible for providing instruction, and the degree of emphasis placed on ethics and integration of ethical reasoning within the dental hygiene curriculum. Results of the survey reflect that dental hygiene programs devote a mean of 20. hours to teaching dental hygiene ethics in the didactic component of the curriculum. With regard to the clinical component of the curriculum, 63% of respondents indicated that 10 or less hours are devoted to ethics instruction. These results show an increase in didactic hours of instruction from previous studies where the mean hours of instruction ranged from 7 to 11.7 hours. Results showed 64% of respondents offered a separate course in ethics; however, 82% of programs surveyed indicated that ethics was incorporated into one or more dental hygiene courses with 98% utilizing dental hygiene faculty to provide instruction. Most programs utilized a variety of instructional methods to teach ethics with the majority employing class discussion and lecture (99% and 97% respectively). The type of institution-technical college, community college, four-year university with a

  5. Disciplining young children: the role of verbal instructions and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, N J; Williams, G E; Friman, P C; Christophersen, E R

    1995-08-01

    Pediatricians are often asked to advise parents who are having difficulty managing the oppositional behaviors of their toddlers and preschool-age children. A large number of articles provide advice to pediatricians and parents on effective disciplinary strategies. However, despite the fact that verbal explanations, reasoning, and instructions are commonly used by parents, few articles directly address the use of these strategies to affect children's behavior. In this paper, we review studies that explicitly investigate the ability of adults' verbal explanations or instructions to alter the behavior of young children. These studies suggest that under most circumstances, verbal explanations and instructions are not effective in changing young children's problem behaviors. We then discuss how theories in developmental and behavioral psychology help explain the limitations of using verbal reasoning and instructions to change young children's problem behaviors. Finally, we provide some recommendations for parents on the use of verbal explanations and instructions in disciplining young children.

  6. Improve Student Understanding Ability Through Gamification in Instructional Media Based Explicit Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausi, N.; Prabawa, H. W.; Sutarno, H.

    2017-02-01

    In an effort to maximize a student’s academic growth, one of the tools available to educators is the explicit instruction. Explicit instruction is marked by a series of support or scaffold, where the students will be guided through the learning process with a clear statement of purpose and a reason for learning new skills, a clear explanation and demonstration of learning targets, supported and practiced with independent feedback until mastery has been achieved. The technology development trend of todays, requires an adjustment in the development of learning object that supports the achievement of explicit instruction targets. This is where the gamification position is. In the role as a pedagogical strategy, the use of gamification preformance study class is still relatively new. Gamification not only use the game elements and game design techniques in non-game contexts, but also to empower and engage learners with the ability of motivation on learning approach and maintains a relaxed atmosphere. With using Reseach and Development methods, this paper presents the integration of technology (which in this case using the concept of gamification) in explicit instruction settings and the impact on the improvement of students’ understanding.

  7. Meeting the Needs of High School Science Teachers in English Language Learner Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seonhee; McDonnough, Jacqueline T.

    2009-08-01

    This survey study explored high school science teachers’ challenges and needs specific to their growing English language learning (ELL) student population. Thirty-three science teachers from 6 English as a Second language (ESL)-center high schools in central Virginia participated in the survey. Issues surveyed were (a) strategies used by science teachers to accommodate ELL students’ special needs, (b) challenges they experienced, and (c) support and training necessary for effective ELL instruction. Results suggest that language barriers as well as ELL students’ lack of science foundational knowledge challenged teachers most. Teachers perceived that appropriate instructional materials and pedagogical training was most needed. The findings have implications for science teacher preservice and inservice education in regard to working with language minority students.

  8. Talking Books in Reading Instruction and Student Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Toke Gissel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In grade 1, Danish students used a talking book with TTS (text-to-speech and participated in a learning design with emphasis on decoding and reading for meaning in written text. The students all read the same unfamiliar text, which for many of the students would traditionally be considered being at their frustration level. Basing the intervention on connectionist theory of reading and Share’s self-teaching hypothesis, students were instructed to try to read the words before activating the TTS-function. Only five students out of 17 used the software in ways that could promote self-teaching, but underused the support. Five other students very quickly refrained from trying to decode, instead clicking the full page TTS. Another five students did not at any point try to decode words independently. These results suggest that by using TTS and talking books in reading instruction without measures to fine tune the scaffolding, it is very doubtful whether any students benefit from the TTS at all.

  9. Forum: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings. The Interplay between Interpersonal Communication and Instructional Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria; Arias, V. Santiago

    2017-01-01

    In this brief forum article, the authors suggest that in order to truly understand communication education, both interpersonal and instructional variables must be analyzed. Instructors, researchers, and scholars need to find balance between content and relationship aspects while being aware of context boundaries to truly assist in maximizing…

  10. How faculty learn about and implement research-based instructional strategies: The case of Peer Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, Melissa; Henderson, Charles; Turpen, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] The lack of knowledge about how to effectively spread and sustain the use of research-based instructional strategies is currently a significant barrier to the improvement of undergraduate physics education. In this paper we address this lack of knowledge by reporting on an interview study of 35 physics faculty, of varying institution types, who were self-reported users of, former users of, or knowledgeable nonusers of the research-based instructional strategy Peer Instruction. Interview questions included in this analysis focused on the faculty's experiences, knowledge, and use of Peer Instruction, along with general questions about current and past teaching methods used by the interviewee. The primary findings include the following: (i) Faculty self-reported user status is an unreliable measure of their actual practice. (ii) Faculty generally modify specific instructional strategies and may modify out essential components. (iii) Faculty are often unaware of the essential features of an instructional strategy they claim to know about or use. (iv) Informal social interactions provide a significant communication channel in the dissemination process, in contrast to the formal avenues of workshops, papers, websites, etc., often promoted by change agents, and (v) experience with research-based strategies as a graduate student or through curriculum development work may be highly impactful. These findings indicate that educational transformation can be better facilitated by improving communication with faculty, supporting effective modification by faculty during implementation, and acknowledging and understanding the large impact of informal social interactions as a mode of dissemination.

  11. USING GOOGLE+ FOR INSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YEE

    Full Text Available Introduced in July, 2011 in a beta test of invited users only, the new social media service Google+ (or G+ quickly spread by word of mouth, and Google leader Larry Page (2011 blogged that within sixteen days it had 10 million users. By August, it had 25 million users (Cashmore, 2011. Even with slower growth ahead (still with no marketing budget, the service looks likely to crest 100 million users perhaps as early as ten months, a feat that took Facebook three years. Other social networks, most notably Facebook and Twitter, have been used increasingly as instructional tools, since they are platforms with which students are already familiar (Maloney, 2007; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007. Selwyn (2009 found that students often eschew official channels for communication in favor of less formal community-based formats such as Facebook, implying a growing need for instructional communication tools that will be used willingly by students. The question is whether Google+ can be used like Twitter or Facebook to augment instruction, or even, perhaps, to improve upon those predecessors for academic purposes. Google+ is like Twitter in that anyone can follow a given user’s posts. There is no direct “friend” relationship required to read the posts written by others. However, it also approximates some features of Facebook. Rather than friends sorted into “lists” like in Facebook, Google+ allows users to place feeds into one or more “circles,” the better to monitor (or control the flow of information to and from different audiences. Circles are more intuitive, and more central to the experience, than the Facebook lists. They provide an explicit organizational structure, compared to the less-obvious listing functionality, which feels like an afterthought, found in Facebook.

  12. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, James D; Schweitzer, Mary H; Jensen, Shane T; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P R O

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  13. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  14. Shifting Attention Back to Students within the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Shannon M.; Conlin, Luke

    2015-01-01

    The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) is increasingly used as an instructional framework to help elementary and secondary teachers support English language learners (ELLs). This useful tool has helped teachers gain the knowledge, skills, and dispositions they need to support ELLs learn subject-area content and skills while learning…

  15. EST Vocabulary Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia D.S. Bell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the investigation on the instruction of EST (English for Science and Technology vocabulary, in terms of receptive use of the language. It evaluates the effectiveness of two teaching approaches to the acquisition of vocabulary. The first approach consisted of teaching vocabulary through the use of dictionaries, where the words were merely translated into the learners’ L1 or defined in the target language thus promoting superficial level of word processing. The second approach employed activities promoting deep level of word processing. Data were analysed quantitatively. Results indicated that the two approaches seem to have some equipotentiality, as far as EST vocabulary is concerned.

  16. The Mere Exposure Instruction Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Pieter; Mertens, Gaëtan; Smith, Colin Tucker; De Houwer, Jan

    2017-09-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to the well-established finding that people evaluate a stimulus more positively after repeated exposure to that stimulus. We investigated whether a change in stimulus evaluation can occur also when participants are not repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, but are merely instructed that one stimulus will occur frequently and another stimulus will occur infrequently. We report seven experiments showing that (1) mere exposure instructions influence implicit stimulus evaluations as measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT), personalized Implicit Association Test (pIAT), or Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), but not with an Evaluative Priming Task (EPT), (2) mere exposure instructions influence explicit evaluations, and (3) the instruction effect depends on participants' memory of which stimulus will be presented more frequently. We discuss how these findings inform us about the boundary conditions of mere exposure instruction effects, as well as the mental processes that underlie mere exposure and mere exposure instruction effects.

  17. Impact of Self-Explanation and Analogical Comparison Support on Learning Processes, Motivation, Metacognition, and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, J. Elizabeth

    Research examining analogical comparison and self-explanation has produced a robust set of findings about learning and transfer supported by each instructional technique. However, it is unclear how the types of knowledge generated through each technique differ, which has important implications for cognitive theory as well as instructional practice. I conducted a pair of experiments to directly compare the effects of instructional prompts supporting self-explanation, analogical comparison, and the study of instructional explanations across a number of fine-grained learning process, motivation, metacognition, and transfer measures. Experiment 1 explored these questions using sequence extrapolation problems, and results showed no differences between self-explanation and analogical comparison support conditions on any measure. Experiment 2 explored the same questions in a science domain. I evaluated condition effects on transfer outcomes; self-reported self-explanation, analogical comparison, and metacognitive processes; and achievement goals. I also examined relations between transfer and self-reported processes and goals. Receiving materials with analogical comparison support and reporting greater levels of analogical comparison were both associated with worse transfer performance, while reporting greater levels of self-explanation was associated with better performance. Learners' self-reports of self-explanation and analogical comparison were not related to condition assignment, suggesting that the questionnaires did not measure the same processes promoted by the intervention, or that individual differences in processing are robust even when learners are instructed to engage in self-explanation or analogical comparison.

  18. [The planned home care transfer by a local medical support hospital and the introduction to home intravenous hyper alimentation--the making of a home care patient's instruction plan document].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinobu, Akiko; Ohtsu, Yoko

    2004-12-01

    It is important to offer continuous medical service without interrupting everyone's various job functions at the Tama Numbu-Chiiki Hospitals in order to secure the quality and safety of home medical care to patients and their families. From 1998 up to the present, home intravenous hyper alimentation (home IVH) has been introduced by individually exchanging information that was based on items such as clinical case, doctor and caregiver in charge of the day, and introductory information. Five years have passed since we started an introduction of home IVH, and it appears that the medical cooperation of home IVH between the Minami-tama medical region and its neighboring area has been established. Then, we arranged an examination of the past 2 years based on the 57 patients who elected to choose home IVH instruction. Consequently, we created "home IVH introduction plan document" in standardizing a flow from home IVH introduction to post-hospital intervention. Since November of 2003, the plan document has been utilized and carried out to 5 patients by the end of February in 2004. This home IVH introduction plan document was able to clarify the role of medical person in connection with the patient. Therefore, we could not only share the information, but also could transfer medical care smoothly from the hospital to the patient's home.

  19. Evaluating suggestibility to additive and contradictory misinformation following explicit error detection in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Mark J; Umanath, Sharda

    2018-06-01

    In 2 experiments, we assessed age-related suggestibility to additive and contradictory misinformation (i.e., remembering of false details from an external source). After reading a fictional story, participants answered questions containing misleading details that were either additive (misleading details that supplemented an original event) or contradictory (errors that changed original details). On a final test, suggestibility was greater for additive than contradictory misinformation, and older adults endorsed fewer false contradictory details than younger adults. To mitigate suggestibility in Experiment 2, participants were warned about potential errors, instructed to detect errors, or instructed to detect errors after exposure to examples of additive and contradictory details. Again, suggestibility to additive misinformation was greater than contradictory, and older adults endorsed less contradictory misinformation. Only after detection instructions with misinformation examples were younger adults able to reduce contradictory misinformation effects and reduced these effects to the level of older adults. Additive misinformation however, was immune to all warning and detection instructions. Thus, older adults were less susceptible to contradictory misinformation errors, and younger adults could match this misinformation rate when warning/detection instructions were strong. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Tools of the Trade for More Effective Instructional Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Edward C.

    1988-01-01

    Instructional leaders need a sturdy support system and a sound background in clinical supervision to be effective administrators. This article identifies three vital tools of the trade: a specific set of basic skills for quality teaching; a support system for each teaching skill; and a dependable, flexible, and personalized delivery system. (MLH)

  1. Instructional strategies in science classrooms of specialized secondary schools for the gifted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Donna Lorraine

    This study examined the extent to which science teachers in Academic Year Governor's Schools were adhering to the national standards for suggested science instruction and providing an appropriate learning environment for gifted learners. The study asked 13 directors, 54 instructors of advanced science courses, and 1190 students of advanced science courses in 13 Academic Year Governor's Schools in Virginia to respond to researcher-developed surveys and to participate in classroom observations. The surveys and classroom observations collected demographic data as well as instructors' and students' perceptions of the use of various instructional strategies related to national science reform and gifted education recommendations. Chi-square analyses were used to ascertain significant differences between instructors' and students' perceptions. Findings indicated that instructors of advanced science classes in secondary schools for the gifted are implementing nationally recognized gifted education and science education instructional strategies with less frequency than desired. Both students and instructors concur that these strategies are being implemented in the classroom setting, and both concur as to the frequency with which the implementation occurs. There was no significant difference between instructors' and students' perceptions of the frequency of implementation of instructional strategies. Unfortunately, there was not a single strategy that students and teachers felt was being implemented on a weekly or daily basis across 90% of the sampled classrooms. Staff development in gifted education was found to be minimal as an ongoing practice. While this study offers some insights into the frequency of strategy usage, the study needs more classroom observations to support findings; an area of needed future research. While this study was conducted at the secondary level, research into instructional practices at the middle school and elementary school gifted science

  2. The Instructional Network: Using Facebook to Enhance Undergraduate Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter; Gregory, Karen; Eddy, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is a website with over one billion users worldwide that is synonymous with social-networking. However, in this study, Facebook is used as an "instructional network". Two sections of an undergraduate calculus course were used to study the effects of participating in a Facebook group devoted solely to instruction. One section was…

  3. Improving Reading Instruction through Research-Based Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Vickie Lynn

    2010-01-01

    The diverse population of students in grades 1- 3 at a suburban elementary school has created a challenge for teachers when differentiating instruction in reading. The purpose of this doctoral project study was to explore the lived experiences of these teachers as they have acquired research-based instructional strategies in reading that support…

  4. The Relationship between Principal Beliefs about Effective Leadership Practices and the Enactment of Those Beliefs Related to Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sonya Elaine Somerville

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study was prompted by mandated curricular change within the School District of Philadelphia (SDP) Empowerment Schools. Empowerment Schools are schools that receive highly targeted instructional and non-instructional resources to improve student learning. Supports and services are concentrated in four areas: instruction, student…

  5. Is high hypnotic suggestibility necessary for successful hypnotic pain intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S

    2008-04-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility is a trait-like, individual difference variable reflecting the general tendency to respond to hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions. Research with standardized measures of hypnotic suggestibility has demonstrated that there are substantial individual differences in this variable. Higher suggestibility has been found to be associated with greater relief from hypnotic pain interventions. Although individuals in the high suggestibility range show the strongest response to hypnotic analgesia, people of medium suggestibility, who represent approximately one third of the population, also have been found to obtain significant relief from hypnosis. Thus, high hypnotic suggestibility is not necessary for successful hypnotic pain intervention. However, the available evidence does not support the efficacy of hypnotic pain interventions for people who fall in the low hypnotic suggestibility range. However, some studies suggest that these individuals may benefit from imaginative analgesia suggestions, or suggestions for pain reduction that are delivered while the person is not in hypnosis.

  6. The Strategic Instruction Model: The Less Addressed Aspects of Effective Instruction for High School Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Michael F.; Bulgren, Janis A.; Brasseur-Hock, Irma F.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we discuss research supporting the Strategic Instruction Model's™ (SIM) effort to address higher order reasoning and thinking skills in two lines of programmatic research. We review the extant body of evidence supporting the two lines of the SIM library, the Content Enhancement Routines and a comprehensive reading program, and the…

  7. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Fadde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn’t get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters’ box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures

  8. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  9. Resource Letter ALIP-1: Active-Learning Instruction in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.

    2012-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research-based active-learning instruction in physics. These are instructional methods that are based on, assessed by, and validated through research on the teaching and learning of physics. They involve students in their own learning more deeply and more intensely than does traditional instruction, particularly during class time. The instructional methods and supporting body of research reviewed here offer potential for significantly improved learning in comparison to traditional lecture-based methods of college and university physics instruction. We begin with an introduction to the history of active learning in physics in the United States, and then discuss some methods for and outcomes of assessing pedagogical effectiveness. We enumerate and describe common characteristics of successful active-learning instructional strategies in physics. We then discuss a range of methods for introducing active-learning instruction in physics and provide references to those methods for which there is published documentation of student learning gains.

  10. LA PLATAFORMA ILIAS COMO APOYO A LA DOCENCIA PRESENCIAL EN INGENIERÍA TÉCNICA (INDUSTRIAL LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ILIAS AS A DIDACTIC INSTRUMENT FOR SUPPORTING FACE-TO-FACE INSTRUCTION ON TECHNICAL INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Tejada, María del Mar

    2010-04-01

    University of Jaén. It will also be suggested how to use “ILIAS” as a didactic instrument for supporting the classroom teaching. To illustrate this, we will offer the example of how “ILIAS” is used in the subjects of Electric Physics and Mechanic Physics from the degree of Technical Industrial Engineering at the University of Jaén. Taking such subjects as a specific example, we will discuss which advantages “ILIAS” can offer the classroom teaching, which difficulties we could face when using it, and how do students assess the use of this tool. As the conclusion, we will say that Learning Management Systems can contribute new educative resources to classroom teaching in aspects such as communication, diffusion of didactic materials, and assessment of the students’ evolution. These resources, despite their limitations, enrich the learning process and are favorably valued by the students.

  11. BASIC Instructional Program: System Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dageforde, Mary L.

    This report documents the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP), a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language, as implemented in the MAINSAIL language, a machine-independent revision of SAIL which should facilitate implementation of BIP on other computing systems. Eight instructional modules which make up…

  12. Designing Instructional Materials: Some Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lucille; Pett, Dennis

    Guidelines for the design of instructional materials are outlined in this paper. The principles of design are presented in five major categories: (1) general design (structural appeal and personal appeal); (2) instructional design (attention, memory, concept learning, and attitude change); (3) visual design (media considerations, pictures, graphs…

  13. Cognitive Approaches to Automated Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regian, J. Wesley, Ed.; Shute, Valerie J., Ed.

    This book contains a snapshot of state-of-the-art research on the design of automated instructional systems. Selected cognitive psychologists were asked to describe their approach to instruction and cognitive diagnosis, the theoretical basis of the approach, its utility and applicability, and the knowledge engineering or task analysis methods…

  14. Physics Instruction for Radiologic Technologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Edward L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the Denver collaborative training program in radiologic technology with emphasis upon identification of core topics, preparation of quality instructional materials, and use of innovative teaching techniques, such as computer-assisted instruction and video tape presentations. Included is a 10-week course outline. (CC)

  15. Active Learning through Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…

  16. Adaptive instruction and pupil achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtveen, A.A M; Booy, N; de Jong, Robert (Rob); van de Grift, W.J C M

    In this article the results are reported of a quasi-experiment on effects of adaptive instruction on reading results of children in the first year of reading instruction in Dutch primary schools. The research involved 456 pupils from 23 schools (12 experimental and 11 control group schools).

  17. Instructional Theory for Teaching Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Jan R.; Dinham, Sarah M.

    Metatheoretical analysis of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and Gagne's Theory of Instruction using the Dickoff and James paradigm produced two instructional systems for basic statistics. The systems were tested with a pretest-posttest control group design utilizing students enrolled in an introductory-level graduate statistics…

  18. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolli, Carlo; O' Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2017-10-17

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  19. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolli, Carlo; O'Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2018-01-23

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  20. Interactive Instruction in Bayesian Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam; Breslav, Simon; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2018-01-01

    An instructional approach is presented to improve human performance in solving Bayesian inference problems. Starting from the original text of the classic Mammography Problem, the textual expression is modified and visualizations are added according to Mayer’s principles of instruction. These pri......An instructional approach is presented to improve human performance in solving Bayesian inference problems. Starting from the original text of the classic Mammography Problem, the textual expression is modified and visualizations are added according to Mayer’s principles of instruction....... These principles concern coherence, personalization, signaling, segmenting, multimedia, spatial contiguity, and pretraining. Principles of self-explanation and interactivity are also applied. Four experiments on the Mammography Problem showed that these principles help participants answer the questions...... that an instructional approach to improving human performance in Bayesian inference is a promising direction....

  1. A multimedia adult literacy program: Combining NASA technology, instructional design theory, and authentic literacy concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jerry W.

    1993-01-01

    For a number of years, the Software Technology Branch of the Information Systems Directorate has been involved in the application of cutting edge hardware and software technologies to instructional tasks related to NASA projects. The branch has developed intelligent computer aided training shells, instructional applications of virtual reality and multimedia, and computer-based instructional packages that use fuzzy logic for both instructional and diagnostic decision making. One outcome of the work on space-related technology-supported instruction has been the creation of a significant pool of human talent in the branch with current expertise on the cutting edges of instructional technologies. When the human talent is combined with advanced technologies for graphics, sound, video, CD-ROM, and high speed computing, the result is a powerful research and development group that both contributes to the applied foundations of instructional technology and creates effective instructional packages that take advantage of a range of advanced technologies. Several branch projects are currently underway that combine NASA-developed expertise to significant instructional problems in public education. The branch, for example, has developed intelligent computer aided software to help high school students learn physics and staff are currently working on a project to produce educational software for young children with language deficits. This report deals with another project, the adult literacy tutor. Unfortunately, while there are a number of computer-based instructional packages available for adult literacy instruction, most of them are based on the same instructional models that failed these students when they were in school. The teacher-centered, discrete skill and drill-oriented, instructional strategies, even when they are supported by color computer graphics and animation, that form the foundation for most of the computer-based literacy packages currently on the market may not

  2. Taxonomy of instructions given to residents in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanyuan; Wong, Christopher; Park, Adrian; Mentis, Helena

    2016-03-01

    Although simulation-based training allows residents to become proficient in surgical skills outside the OR, residents still depend on senior surgeons' guidance in transferring skills accumulated from simulators into the operating room. This study aimed to identify and classify explicit instructions made by attending surgeons to their residents during laparoscopic surgery. Through these instructions, we examined the role gaze guidance plays in OR-based training. A total of ten laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases being performed by PGY4 residents were analyzed. The explicit directional instructions given by the mentoring attending surgeons to their residents were identified and classified into four categories based on their locations in the coordinate system. These categories were further combined into two classes, based on the target of instructions. The frequencies of instructions in the two classes were compared, and effect size was calculated. There were 1984 instructions identified in the ten cases. The instructions were categorized into instrument guidance (38.51%) and gaze guidance (61.49%). The instrument guidance focused on moving the instruments to perform surgical tasks, including directions to targets, instrument manipulation, and instrument interaction. The gaze guidance focused on achieving common ground during the operation, including target identification and target fixation. The frequency of gaze guidance is significantly higher than instrument guidance in a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p guidance has become the main focus of OR-based training. The results show a tight connection between adopting expert gaze and performing surgical tasks and suggest that gaze training should be integrated into the simulation training.

  3. Cultural dimensions of learning: Addressing the challenges of multicultural instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Parrish

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations. It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framework (CDLF, which describes a set of eight cultural parameters regarding social relationships, epistemological beliefs, and temporal perceptions, and illustrates their spectrums of variability as they might be exhibited in instructional situations. The article also explores the literature on instructional design and culture for guidelines on addressing the cross-cultural challenges faced by instructional providers. It suggests that these challenges can be overcome through increased awareness, culturally sensitive communication, modified instructional design processes, and efforts to accommodate the most critical cultural differences. Finally, it describes the use of the CDLF questionnaire as a tool to illuminate the range of preferences existing among learners and to discover the potential range of strategies and tactics that might be useful for a given set of learners.

  4. Rethinking Teaching in STEM Education in a Community College: Role of Instructional Consultation and Digital Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurland, Shelley Chih-Hsian

    Community college faculty members educate almost half of all U.S. undergraduates, who are often more diverse and more academically underprepared when compared to undergraduate students who attend four-year institutions. In addition, faculty members in community colleges are facing increased accountability for meeting student learning outcomes, expectations to adjust their teaching practices to include active learning practices, and expectations to incorporate more technologies into the classroom. Faculty developers are one of the support structures that faculty members can look to in order to meet those challenges. A survey of literature in faculty development suggests that instructional consultation can play an important role in shaping and transforming teaching practices. Hence, this action research study examined my work using instructional consulting with four full-time STEM faculty colleagues in order to examine and shape their teaching practices with and without the use of digital technologies. The two foci of the research, examining shifts in faculty participants' teaching practices, and my instructional consulting practices, were informed by Thomas and Brown's (2011) social view of learning and the concept of teaching and learning in a "co-learning" environment. Two dominant factors emerged regarding faculty participants' shift in teaching practices. These factors concerned: 1) the perception of control and 2) individual faculty participant's comfort level, expectations, and readiness. In addition to these two dominant factors, the instructional consultation process also supported a range of shifts in either mindset and/or teaching practices. My analysis showed that the use of digital technologies was not an essential factor in shifting faculty participant mindset and/or teaching practices, instead digital technologies were used to enhance the teaching process and students' learning experiences.

  5. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  6. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....

  7. Why and How Teachers Transform Their Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Barbara J.

    In his 2011 book The highly qualified teacher: What is teacher quality and how do we measure it? Strong argues that as a profession, education has struggled to measure teacher quality and therefore cannot provide a proven system to consistently develop high-quality teachers. In order to move toward an operational definition of teacher quality, Kennedy, in her 2008 journal article entitled "Contributions of qualitative research to research on teacher qualifications" suggests that the causal mechanisms of the development of teachers who are identified as high-quality teachers must be researched, documented, and then used in teacher preparation and development. Instructional ability is a key component of teacher effectiveness. This case study examines instructional transformations made by four teachers to explore why and how teachers make transformations in their teaching. The overarching conclusion of the study is the importance of student-centeredness as a component of teacher effectiveness.

  8. Middle school special education teachers' perceptions and use of assistive technology in literacy instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Emily C; Richardson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In this research the authors examined middle school special education teachers' perceptions of assistive technology during literacy instruction with students with high incidence disabilities. A survey explored the use, effectiveness, and factors impacting use or effectiveness of assistive technology for literacy teaching and learning. Results suggested teachers' perceived assistive technology to be an effective tool for literacy, but use it minimally. When assistive technology was used, teachers indicated it was an effective literacy support. Teachers also reported barriers to using assistive technology in literacy including cost, usability, and lack of training/experience. However, factors such as previous successful experiences with assistive technology and assistive technology supporting students' learning encouraged assistive technology use. The consistency of teachers' reports of needing more experience and knowledge in assistive technology to fully use it suggests implications for preservice preparation such as providing additional experiences and information on assistive technology.

  9. Instructed officers Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This law contains instructions on the prevention of radiological and contains 4 articles Article I: describe the responsibilities of the institutions that operate within the scope of radiological protection in terms of the number of radiation protection officers and personal Supervisors who available in the practices radiation field. Article II: talking about the conditions of radiation protection officers that must be available in the main officers and working field in larg institutions and thecondition of specific requirements for large enterprises of work permits in the field of radiological work that issued by the Council. Article III: the functions and duties of officers in the prevention of radiological oversee the development of radiation protection programmes in the planning stages, construction and preparing the rules of local labour and what it lead of such tasks.Article IV: radiation protection officers powers: to modify and approve the programme of prevention and radiation safety at the company, stop any unsafe steps, amend the steps of the usage, operation of materials, devices and so on

  10. Instructional leadership in elementary science: How are school leaders positioned to lead in a next generation science standards era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Kathleen Mary

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are the newest K-12 science content standards created by a coalition of educators, scientists, and researchers available for adoption by states and schools. Principals are important actors during policy implementation especially since principals are charged with assuming the role of an instructional leader for their teachers in all subject areas. Science poses a unique challenge to the elementary curricular landscape because traditionally, elementary teachers report low levels of self-efficacy in the subject. Support in this area therefore becomes important for a successful integration of a new science education agenda. This study analyzed self-reported survey data from public elementary principals (N=667) to address the following three research questions: (1) What type of science backgrounds do elementary principals have? (2) What indicators predict if elementary principals will engage in instructional leadership behaviors in science? (3) Does self-efficacy mediate the relationship between science background and a capacity for instructional leadership in science? The survey data were analyzed quantitatively. Descriptive statistics address the first research question and inferential statistics (hierarchal regression analysis and a mediation analysis) answer the second and third research questions.The sample data show that about 21% of elementary principals have a formal science degree and 26% have a degree in a STEM field. Most principals have not had recent experience teaching science, nor were they every exclusively a science teacher. The analyses suggests that demographic, experiential, and self-efficacy variables predict instructional leadership practices in science.

  11. Deeper than Blueberries: A Reciprocal Teaching Method Approach to Narrative Text in an Electronically Supported Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisha, Bart; Brady, Mary

    This paper describes a five-phase, 20-week, computer supported reading comprehension instruction process, which begins with access to powerful supports and direct teacher-mediated instruction. The process involves five phases: (1) fully supported reading and strategy instruction; (2) strategy practice in a fully supported reading environment with…

  12. Discipline-Specific Language Instruction for International Students in Introductory Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trien T. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores student perceptions of the effects of pairing discipline-specific language instruction with the traditional method of course delivery in economics. Our research involved teaching content-based English as an additional language (EAL tutorials to a small group of ten international students taking first-year introductory economics courses. These voluntary participants completed pre- and post-treatment assessments with exit interviews at the end of the project. Assessment results and interviews suggest that students perceive that discipline-specific language instruction such as our EAL tutorials assists in the development of increased content and language proficiency. They also believe that vocabulary development is one of the most critical activities to support these goals; reading skills are also important but require more time and commitment than students can afford to give. Despite the students’ interest in the project, their heavy class schedules prevented many from participating; our group was limited to ten students which precludes any assurance of statistical significance. In spite of the limitations, we believe that the project can still contribute valuable qualitative lessons to the literature of content-based language instruction in which the discipline of economics has not been well represented.

  13. Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

    1971-01-01

    The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

  14. Suggestions for an Effective Drama-Based EFL Course at a Korean University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer; Seong, Myeong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to suggest pragmatic instructions for conducting an English course that focuses on speaking and listening skills through using drama as a language teaching activity. Recent research on drama in the ESL/EFL classroom has been about the benefits of drama and methods one can use, but research on techniques, activities, and methodology…

  15. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  16. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  17. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  18. Intelligibility of clear speech: effect of instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris

    2013-10-01

    The authors investigated how clear speech instructions influence sentence intelligibility. Twelve speakers produced sentences in habitual, clear, hearing impaired, and overenunciate conditions. Stimuli were amplitude normalized and mixed with multitalker babble for orthographic transcription by 40 listeners. The main analysis investigated percentage-correct intelligibility scores as a function of the 4 conditions and speaker sex. Additional analyses included listener response variability, individual speaker trends, and an alternate intelligibility measure: proportion of content words correct. Relative to the habitual condition, the overenunciate condition was associated with the greatest intelligibility benefit, followed by the hearing impaired and clear conditions. Ten speakers followed this trend. The results indicated different patterns of clear speech benefit for male and female speakers. Greater listener variability was observed for speakers with inherently low habitual intelligibility compared to speakers with inherently high habitual intelligibility. Stable proportions of content words were observed across conditions. Clear speech instructions affected the magnitude of the intelligibility benefit. The instruction to overenunciate may be most effective in clear speech training programs. The findings may help explain the range of clear speech intelligibility benefit previously reported. Listener variability analyses suggested the importance of obtaining multiple listener judgments of intelligibility, especially for speakers with inherently low habitual intelligibility.

  19. Development and evaluation of an active instructional framework for undergraduate biology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysne, Steven John

    The practice of science education in American colleges and universities is changing and the role of faculty is changing as well. There is momentum in higher education to transform our instruction and do a better job at supporting more students' success in science and engineering programs. New teaching approaches are transforming undergraduate science instruction and new research demonstrates that these new approaches are more engaging for students, result in greater achievement, and create more positive attitudes toward science careers. Additionally, teaching scholars have described a paradigm shift toward placing the burden of content coverage on students which allows more time for in-class activities such as discussion and problem solving. Teaching faculty have been asked to redesign their courses and rebrand themselves as facilitators of student learning, rather than purveyors of information, to improve student engagement, achievement, and attitudes. This dissertation is a critical evaluation of both the assumption that active learning improves student achievement and knowledge retention and my own assumptions regarding science education research and my students' resiliency. This dissertation is a collection of research articles, published or in preparation, presenting the chronological development (Chapters 2 and 3) and evaluation (Chapters 4 and 5) of an active instructional model for undergraduate biology instruction. Chapters 1 and 6.provide a broad introduction and summary, respectively. Chapter 2 is an exploration of student engagement through interviews with a variety of students. From these interviews I identified several themes that students felt were important, and science instructors need to address, including the place where learning happens and strategies for better engaging students. Chapter 3 presents a review of the science education literature broadly and more focused review on the how students learn and how faculty teach. Consistent with what

  20. Zoology by Self-Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Keith; Hammond, Roger

    1976-01-01

    A historical account is given of how a conventional university first-year undergraduate course in zoology has been replaced by a self-instructional one. Advantages and problems are weighed, and successful student achievement and interest are described. (LBH)

  1. A Fallibilistic Model for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses models in inquiry and of instruction based on critical Fallibilistic philosophy, developed by Karl R. Popper, which holds that all knowledge grows by conjecture and refutation. Classroom applications of strategies which result from the model are presented. (JP)

  2. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Insolves LLC, Piketon, OH (United States)

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  3. Measurement Control Workshop Instructional Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, Philip; Crawford, Cary; McGinnis, Brent

    2014-01-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  4. Adaptive Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talla, Surendranath

    2000-01-01

    .... With in this context, we ask ourselves the following questions. 1. Can application performance be improved if the compiler had the freedom to pick the instruction set on a per application basis? 2...

  5. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eCameron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  6. Rating Instructional Conversations: A Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, Robert; Goldenberg, Claude; Gallimore, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    The current focus on more effective ways to foster literacy in school-age children, especially language minority students, has led to the development of alternative instructional approaches. One such approach is the instructional conversation (IC), based on early work in the Hawaiian Kamehameha Elementary Education Project (KEEP), on neo-Vygotskian theory, and on recent classroom-based research on reading comprehension. The present report outlines preliminary efforts to operationaliz...

  7. PLE-based instruction concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorcik, Tomas

    2017-11-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of a PLE (Personal Learning Environment)-based teaching model suitable for implementation in the instruction of upper primary school students. The paper describes the individual stages of the model and its use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) tools. The Personal Learning Environment is a form of instruction which allows for the meaningful use of information and communication technologies (including mobile technologies) in their entirety.

  8. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.; Cruz, S.L.

    1985-08-01

    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND83-8036. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy 5630 series Orders, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  9. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.

    1981-03-01

    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, Building 968 at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND78-8018. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy Manual, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  10. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  12. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Marc W; Penrod, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court's ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases.

  13. Effect of lecture instruction on student performance on qualitative questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Paula R. L.

    2015-06-01

    The impact of lecture instruction on student conceptual understanding in physics has been the subject of research for several decades. Most studies have reported disappointingly small improvements in student performance on conceptual questions despite direct instruction on the relevant topics. These results have spurred a number of attempts to improve learning in physics courses through new curricula and instructional techniques. This paper contributes to the research base through a retrospective analysis of 20 randomly selected qualitative questions on topics in kinematics, dynamics, electrostatics, waves, and physical optics that have been given in introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington over a period of 15 years. In some classes, questions were administered after relevant lecture instruction had been completed; in others, it had yet to begin. Simple statistical tests indicate that the average performance of the "after lecture" classes was significantly better than that of the "before lecture" classes for 11 questions, significantly worse for two questions, and indistinguishable for the remaining seven. However, the classes had not been randomly assigned to be tested before or after lecture instruction. Multiple linear regression was therefore conducted with variables (such as class size) that could plausibly lead to systematic differences in performance and thus obscure (or artificially enhance) the effect of lecture instruction. The regression models support the results of the simple tests for all but four questions. In those cases, the effect of lecture instruction was reduced to a nonsignificant level, or increased to a significant, negative level when other variables were considered. Thus the results provide robust evidence that instruction in lecture can increase student ability to give correct answers to conceptual questions but does not necessarily do so; in some cases it can even lead to a decrease.

  14. Instructional Technology and Objectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir S. Gur

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectification refers to the way in which everything (including human beings is treated as an object, raw material, or resource to be manipulated and used. In this article, objectification refers to the way that education is often reduced to the packaging and delivery of information. A critique of objectification in instructional technology is presented. In the context of Heidegger’s critique of technology, the authors claim that objectification in education is metaphysical in the sense that the intelligibility (being of education is equated with ready-to-use packages, and thus is reduced to delivery and transmission of objects. The embodiment dimension of teaching and learning can help us in resisting this reduction. The authors argue that objectification increases bureaucratic control over the teaching process and deskills teachers; and by which teachers are proletarianized. The authors conclude that instructional designers should create structures in which a care relation and dialogue between students and teachers can take place. Résumé: L’objectification réfère à la façon dont tout (incluant les être humains est traité comme un objet, une matière première ou une ressource qui peut être manipulée et utilisée. Dans cet article, l’objectification réfère à la façon dont l’éducation est souvent réduite à la mise en boîte et à la livraison de l’information. Une critique de l’objectification en technologie éducative est présentée. Dans le contexte de la critique de la technologie par Heidegger, les auteurs prétendent que l’objectification en éducation est métaphysique dans le sens que l’intelligibilité (être de l’éducation équivaut à la mise en boîte prêt-à –utiliser, et se résume donc à la livraison et à la transmission d’objets. L’incarnation de l’enseignement et de l’apprentissage peuvent nous aider à résister à cette réduction. Les auteurs arguent que l

  15. Second-Language Composition Instruction, Computers and First-Language Pedagogy: A Descriptive Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, T. Edward

    1987-01-01

    A national survey of full-time instructional faculty (N=208) at universities, 2-year colleges, and high schools regarding attitudes toward using computers in second-language composition instruction revealed a predomination of Apple and IBM-PC computers used, a major frustration in lack of foreign character support, and mixed opinions about real…

  16. A Case Study of Faculty Attitudes toward Library Instruction: The Citadel Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, J. Edmund

    1990-01-01

    Describes a survey of the teaching faculty at the Citadel that examined how the English faculty compared to other faculty in their perceptions and use of library instruction. It is concluded that the findings may be used to support an integrated, across-the-curriculum approach to library instruction. The questionnaire used is appended. (12…

  17. Bruner's Three Forms of Representation Revisited: Action, Pictures and Words for Effective Computer Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presno, Caroline

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer instruction in light of Bruner's theory of three forms of representation (action, icons, and symbols). Examines how studies regarding Paivio's dual-coding theory and studies focusing on procedural knowledge support Bruner's theory. Provides specific examples for instruction in three categories: demonstrations, pictures and…

  18. Literacy Instruction for Young Children with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauter, Donna W.; Myers, Sarah R.; Classen, Audra I.

    2017-01-01

    Children with severe speech and physical impairment who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) present unique challenges in literacy development. Traditional reading instruction has not met these students' needs. Occupational therapy and speech therapy provide supports to mediate limitations to literacy instruction. A systematic…

  19. The Strategic Use of Scaffolded Instruction in Social Studies Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Dimino, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    Several components of specialized instruction have historically influenced text-based interventions for students with learning disabilities (LD). This article addresses the unique role of scaffolded instruction, focusing on supporting students with LD to help them to develop strategies that promote reading for understanding and writing in social…

  20. Promising Practices in the Preparation of Special Educators to Provide Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Gormley Budin, Shannon E.; Bennett, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The majority of students with disabilities require support in the area of reading. Given the importance of reading instruction, it is essential that special education teacher preparation programs prepare candidates who are knowledgeable about reading development and skilled in the delivery of reading instruction. The purpose of this article is…

  1. Comparing the Effectiveness of Peer Instruction to Individual Learning during a Chromatography Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, J.; Michinov, N.; Delaval, M.; Sideridou, A.; Ferrières, V.

    2015-01-01

    Peer instruction has been recognized as an instructional method having a positive impact on learning compared to traditional lectures in science. This method has been widely supported by the socio-constructivist approach to learning giving a positive role to interaction between peers in the construction of knowledge. As far as we know, no study…

  2. School Climate Improvement Action Guide for Instructional Staff. School Climate Improvement Resource Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Improving school climate takes time and commitment from a variety of people in a variety of roles. This document outlines key action steps that instructional staff--including teachers, paraprofessionals, and others in the classroom who provide instruction or assistance--can take to support school climate improvements. Key action steps are provided…

  3. Translating Research into New Instructional Technologies for Higher Education: The Active Ingredient Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a research-based approach for developing new instructional technologies for higher education. The argument is made that the most common instructional methods used by faculty and educational technology in colleges and universities are based on adult learning theories that have not been supported in the past half-century of…

  4. Experimental Evaluation of Instructional Consultation Teams on Teacher Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Phuong; Shanahan, Katherine Bruckman; Rosenfield, Sylvia; Gravois, Todd; Koehler, Jessica; Kaiser, Lauren; Berger, Jill; Vaganek, Megan; Gottfredson, Gary D.; Nelson, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Instructional Consultation Teams (IC Teams) are an early intervention service intended to support teachers in working with struggling students. This is a large-scale experimental trial investigating the effects of IC Teams on teacher efficacy, instructional practices, collaboration, and job satisfaction. Public elementary schools (N = 34) were…

  5. Instructional Strategies for Teaching Algebra in Elementary School: Findings from a Research-Practice Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Darrell; Balti, Aadina A.

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating algebra into the elementary grades has become a focus for teachers, principals, and administrators across the country. The Dinner Tables problem described in this article is a lesson commonly used in elementary grades for its algebraic potential. Instructional strategies for supporting algebra instruction use an example from a…

  6. Hobbies and Hobby-Related Reading: Exploring Preferences, Practices, and Instructional Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Amy R.; Boraks, Nancy E.; Bauer, David

    2000-01-01

    Considers the relationship between hobbies and hobby-related reading to evaluate a common instructional assumption about using hobbies as a basis for recommending reading. Supports: (1) the potential for recommending authentic, non-traditional hobby-related reading materials in home and instructional settings; and (2) the potential for tapping the…

  7. Instruction of Research-Based Comprehension Strategies in Basal Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilonieta, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Research supports using research-based comprehension strategies; however, comprehension strategy instruction is not highly visible in basal reading programs or classroom instruction, resulting in many students who struggle with comprehension. A content analysis examined which research-based comprehension strategies were presented in five…

  8. Intelligent Instructional Systems in Military Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J.D.; Zdybel, Frank

    Intelligent instructional systems can be distinguished from more conventional approaches by the automation of instructional interaction and choice of strategy. This approach promises to reduce the costs of instructional materials preparation and to increase the adaptability and individualization of the instruction delivered. Tutorial simulation…

  9. Typology of after-hours care instructions for patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordman, Risa; Bovett, Monica; Drummond, Neil; Crighton, Eric J.; Wheler, David; Moineddin, Rahim; White, David

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a typology of after-hours care (AHC) instructions and to examine physician and practice characteristics associated with each type of instruction. DESIGN Cross-sectional telephone survey. Physicians’ offices were called during evenings and weekends to listen to their messages regarding AHC. All messages were categorized. Thematic analysis of a subset of messages was conducted to develop a typology of AHC instructions. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between physician and practice characteristics and the instructions left for patients. SETTING Family practices in the greater Toronto area. PARTICIPANTS Stratified random sample of family physicians providing office-based primary care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Form of response (eg, answering machine), content of message, and physician and practice characteristics. RESULTS Of 514 after-hours messages from family physicians’ offices, 421 were obtained from answering machines, 58 were obtained from answering services, 23 had no answer, 2 gave pager numbers, and 10 had other responses. Message content ranged from no AHC instructions to detailed advice; 54% of messages provided a single instruction, and the rest provided a combination of instructions. Content analysis identified 815 discrete instructions or types of response that were classified into 7 categories: 302 instructed patients to go to an emergency department; 122 provided direct contact with a physician; 115 told patients to go to a clinic; 94 left no directions; 76 suggested calling a housecall service; 45 suggested calling Telehealth; and 61 suggested other things. About 22% of messages only advised attending an emergency department, and 18% gave no advice at all. Physicians who were female, had Canadian certification in family medicine, held hospital privileges, or had attended a Canadian medical school were more likely to be directly available to their patients. CONCLUSION Important issues identified

  10. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions.

  11. Learning and performance under alternative instructional manifestations of experimental practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael J.

    Before we can understand how students learn "to do" science, we must make explicit our assumptions about what scientific practice is. This study compares the learning outcomes of two sixth-grade instructional units on experimentation, each based on a particular characterization of practice. In one unit, instruction focused on acquisition and application of the control of variables strategy (CVS; Chen & Klahr, 1999), which is consistent with a popular conception of science education, stemming from Piaget, as the mastery of logical forms. In the other unit, students designed experimental apparatus to answer a target question, and instruction emphasized practices of rendering and transforming the material world in ways that support scientific understanding. Students in both groups were assessed for CVS acquisition and subsequent experimental performance on a novel task, and group performances on these assessments different across instructional conditions. I will argue that student understandings of goals, norms of instructional expectation, and strategies explain these differences, in some cases by supporting performance and in other cases by hindering it. I will also argue that the results question the role typically attributed to logical method in learning to design experiments.

  12. A parallel form of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to present a parallel form of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS, Form 1); (2) to study test-retest reliabilities of interrogative suggestibility. Three groups of subjects were administered the two suggestibility scales in a counterbalanced order. Group 1 (28 normal subjects) and Group 2 (32 'forensic' patients) completed both scales within the same testing session, whereas Group 3 (30 'forensic' patients) completed the two scales between one week and eight months apart. All the correlations were highly significant, giving support for high 'temporal consistency' of interrogative suggestibility.

  13. Behavioural Decision Making and Suggestional Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Molz, Günter

    2001-01-01

    Common features between the domains of behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are discussed. These features are allocated in two aspects. First, behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are traditionally considered to provoke inadequate human behaviour. In this article arguments are put forward against this interpretation: Actions induced by non-rational decisions and / or by suggestional processes often have adaptive functions. Second, two common themat...

  14. Personality Styles and Suggestibility: A Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between personality styles measured with the Portuguese adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised – MIPS-R and interrogative suggestibility assessed by the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale – GSS1. Hypotheses predicted individual differences in suggestibility and that these differences correspond to differences in individuals’ personality styles. The study was conducted with a sample of 258 individuals (M age ...

  15. Invention Versus Direct Instruction: For Some Content, It's a Tie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Catherine C.; Klahr, David

    2017-12-01

    An important, but as yet unresolved pedagogical question is whether discovery-oriented or direct instruction methods lead to greater learning and transfer. We address this issue in a study with 101 fourth and fifth grade students that contrasts two distinct instructional methods. One is a blend of discovery and direct instruction called Invent-then-Tell (IT), and the other is a version of direct instruction called Tell-then-Practice (TP). The relative effectiveness of these methods is compared in the context of learning a critical inquiry skill—the control-of-variables strategy. Previous research has demonstrated the success of IT over TP for teaching deep domain structures, while other research has demonstrated the superiority of direct instruction for teaching simple experimental design, a domain-general inquiry skill. In the present study, students in both conditions made equally large gains on an immediate assessment of their application and conceptual understanding of experimental design, and they also performed similarly on a test of far transfer. These results were fairly consistent across school populations with various levels of prior achievement and socioeconomic status. Findings suggest that broad claims about the relative effectiveness of these two distinct methods should be conditionalized by particular instructional contexts, such as the type of knowledge being taught.

  16. Biased lineup instructions and face identification from video images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W Burt; Johnson, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Previous eyewitness memory research has shown that biased lineup instructions reduce identification accuracy, primarily by increasing false-positive identifications in target-absent lineups. Because some attempts at identification do not rely on a witness's memory of the perpetrator but instead involve matching photos to images on surveillance video, the authors investigated the effects of biased instructions on identification accuracy in a matching task. In Experiment 1, biased instructions did not affect the overall accuracy of participants who used video images as an identification aid, but nearly all correct decisions occurred with target-present photo spreads. Both biased and unbiased instructions resulted in high false-positive rates. In Experiment 2, which focused on video-photo matching accuracy with target-absent photo spreads, unbiased instructions led to more correct responses (i.e., fewer false positives). These findings suggest that investigators should not relax precautions against biased instructions when people attempt to match photos to an unfamiliar person recorded on video.

  17. Assisting Instructional Assessment of Undergraduate Collaborative Wiki and SVN Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihie; Shaw, Erin; Xu, Hao; Adarsh, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the collaborative performance of undergraduate engineering students who used shared project documents (Wikis, Google documents) and a software version control system (SVN) to support project collaboration. We present an initial implementation of TeamAnalytics, an instructional tool that facilitates the analyses of the…

  18. Blogging as an Instructional Tool in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featro, Susan Mary; DiGregorio, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Theories on emerging technologies have stated that using blogs in the classroom can engage students in discussion, support peer learning, and improve students' literacy skills. Research has pointed to many ways that blogging is beneficial to student learning when used as an instructional tool. The researchers conducted a project that investigated…

  19. Science Instructional Leadership: The Role of the Department Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    With science teachers facing comprehensive curriculum reform that will shape science education for decades to come, high school department chairs represent a critical resource for instructional leadership and teacher support. While the historical literature on the department chair indicates that chairs are in prime positions to provide…

  20. Pronunciation in EFL instruction a research-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Szpyra-Kozłowska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses issues and debates at the centre of English pronunciation teaching. It offers new theoretical ideas and practical solutions to phonodidactic problems that arise in EFL contexts, approaching pronunciation instruction from global and local perspectives and supporting its theoretical claims with extensive empirical evidence.

  1. Initiating and Strengthening College and University Instructional Physical Activity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education supports the offering of strong college and university instructional physical activity programs (C/UIPAPs). With a rapid decline in physical activity levels, high stress levels, and unhealthy weight-loss practices among college-age students, it is apparent that C/UIPAPs embedded in the…

  2. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for the 384 Day Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    This instruction defines the sampling and analysis activities to be performed in support of the decommissioning of the 384 Day Tanks. The purpose of the sampling is to determine whether a release from the tanks has occurred and the extent of the contamination, if any

  3. Three Principles of Perception for Instructional Interface Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Linda L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses graphical user interfaces used for instructional purposes in educational environments, which promote learning goals, and in support environments, which promote performance goals. Explains three key principles of perception and gives guidelines for their use, including the figure/ground principle, the hierarchy principle, and the gestalt…

  4. Illustrated instructions for mechanical quality assurance of a medical linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Laurence; Wang, He; Aten, David; Brown, Derek; MacGregor, Hannelie; du Toit, Monique; Chi, Melinda; Gao, Song; Yock, Adam; Aristophanous, Michalis; Balter, Peter

    2018-03-03

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a set of illustrated instructions for effective training for mechanical quality assurance (QA) of medical linear accelerators (linac). Illustrated instructions were created for mechanical QA and underwent several steps of review, testing, and refinement. Eleven testers with no recent QA experience were then recruited from our radiotherapy department (one student, two computational scientists, and eight dosimetrists). This group was selected because they have experience of radiation therapy but no preconceived ideas about how to do QA. The following parameters were progressively decalibrated on a Varian C-series linac: Group A = gantry angle, ceiling laser position, X1 jaw position, couch longitudinal position, physical graticule position (five testers); Group B = Group A + wall laser position, couch lateral and vertical position, collimator angle (three testers); Group C = Group B + couch angle, wall laser angle, and optical distance indicator (three testers). Testers were taught how to use the linac and then used the instructions to try to identify these errors. An experienced physicist observed each session, giving support on machine operation as necessary. Testers were able to follow the instructions. They determined gantry, collimator, and couch angle errors within 0.4°, 0.3°, and 0.9° of the actual changed values, respectively. Laser positions were determined within 1 mm and jaw positions within 2 mm. Couch position errors were determined within 2 mm and 3 mm for lateral/longitudinal and vertical errors, respectively. Accessory-positioning errors were determined within 1 mm. Optical distance indicator errors were determined within 2 mm when comparing with distance sticks and 6 mm when using blocks, indicating that distance sticks should be the preferred approach for inexperienced staff. Inexperienced users were able to follow these instructions and catch errors within the criteria suggested

  5. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  6. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  7. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Liron A

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  8. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  9. The Ripple Effect: Exploring How a Joint Science Specialist/TOSA Can Change Classroom Teachers' Instructional Practices through Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradias, Jean

    In 2013, California became one of the first states to adopt the rigorous Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). However, the current state of science instruction does not support the conceptual shifts of the NGSS, which call for consistent science instruction K-12, increased inquiry, subject integration, as well as science instruction that connects students to their communities and their world. Therefore, teachers are in need of instructional support for science teaching that can enable them to achieve these higher expectations. This dissertation explored whether implementing a Project-Based Learning (PBL)-centered science specialist changed classroom teachers' frequency of science instruction and use of instructional strategies that support NGSS science delivery. In addition, this study examined how providing a PBL science specialist supported teachers in their comfort with using these more rigorous instructional strategies. Five elementary teachers participated in an action research project conducted over the course of a school year. The frequency with which teachers used the following instructional strategies was analyzed: connecting science to real world phenomena, accessing community resources, integrating science into other subject areas, and using inquiry in science instruction. Quantitative and qualitative data revealed that a PBL science specialist does support classroom teachers in implementing teaching practices aligned to the conceptual shifts implicated by the NGSS; however, individual growth rates varied by instructional strategy. The results of this study provide a foundation for the legitimacy of utilizing a PBL-focused science specialist to support teachers in shifting their instructional practices in order to achieve the Next Generation Science Standards.

  10. Mapping Instructional Leadership in Thailand: Has Education Reform Impacted Principal Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinger, Phillip; Lee, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades a growing body of international research suggests that instructional leadership from the principal is essential for the improvement of teaching and learning in schools. However, in many parts of the world, the practice of instructional leadership remains both poorly understood and outside the main job description of the…

  11. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  12. Towards an Understanding of Instructional Design Heuristics: An Exploratory Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cindy S.; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that experienced instructional designers often use heuristics and adapted models when engaged in the instructional design problem-solving process. This study used the Delphi technique to identify a core set of heuristics designers reported as being important to the success of the design process. The overarching purpose of the…

  13. What Does Research on Computer-Based Instruction Have to Say to the Reading Teacher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Examines questions typically asked about the effectiveness of computer-based reading instruction, suggesting that these questions must be refined to provide meaningful insight into the issues involved. Describes several critical problems with existing research and presents overviews of research on the effects of computer-based instruction on…

  14. Behold the Trojan Horse: Instructional vs. Productivity Computing in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loop, Liza

    This background paper for a symposium on the school of the future reviews the current instructional applications of computers in the classroom (the computer as a means or the subject of instruction), and suggests strategies that administrators might use to move toward viewing the computer as a productivity tool for students, i.e., its use for word…

  15. An Evaluation of Computer-Aided Instruction in an Introductory Biostatistics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Alan B.; Freed, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of computer assisted instruction for teaching biostatistics to first year students at the UCLA School of Dentistry. Results do not demonstrate the superiority of CAI but do suggest that CAI compares favorably to conventional lecture and programed instruction methods. (RAO)

  16. Instructional Computer Use in the Community College: A Discussion of the Research and Its Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Beverly L.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research on the instructional benefits of computer technology. Discusses the computer readiness of students, faculty, and institutions, and suggests that despite mixed findings, political and organizational realities indicate computer-based instruction is a feasible alternative for community colleges. Therefore, educators should continue…

  17. TEACHER-PRODUCED INSTRUCTIONAL FILMS IN CHEMISTRY, 8MM AND SUPER 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'CONNOR, ROD; SLABAUGH, WENDELL

    TECHNIQUES FOR PRODUCING 8MM INSTRUCTIONAL FILMS IN CHEMISTRY ARE PRESENTED. IN PART I A PHILOSOPHY OF TEACHER-PRODUCED FILMS IS DEVELOPED, EMPHASIZING THE VALUE OF THE LOCAL SETTING, AND CUSTOM-MADE CONTENTS. APPLICATIONS SUGGESTED ARE (1) TECHNIQUE INSTRUCTION, (2) FILMED EXPERIMENTS, (3) INSTRUMENT FAMILIARIZATION, (4) LECTURE AIDS, AND (5)…

  18. Teaching Economics in the Former Soviet Union: New Curriculum, Old Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2004-01-01

    This article suggests that the reform of economic instruction in the Former Soviet Union should focus on both learning and action. The incorporation of mathematical methods into the new economic curriculum will occur based on close cooperation among mathematicians and economists. The new economic instruction will have an interdisciplinary…

  19. Does overgeneral autobiographical memory result from poor memory for task instructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Paula K; Roberts, John E; Carlos, Erica L

    2008-10-01

    Considerable previous research has shown that retrieval of overgeneral autobiographical memories (OGM) is elevated among individuals suffering from various emotional disorders and those with a history of trauma. Although previous theories suggest that OGM serves the function of regulating acute negative affect, it is also possible that OGM results from difficulties in keeping the instruction set for the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) in working memory, or what has been coined "secondary goal neglect" (Dalgleish, 2004). The present study tested whether OGM is associated with poor memory for the task's instruction set, and whether an instruction set reminder would improve memory specificity over repeated trials. Multilevel modelling data-analytic techniques demonstrated a significant relationship between poor recall of instruction set and probability of retrieving OGMs. Providing an instruction set reminder for the AMT relative to a control task's instruction set improved memory specificity immediately afterward.

  20. How explicit and implicit test instructions in an implicit learning task affect performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Witt

    Full Text Available Typically developing children aged 5 to 8 years were exposed to artificial grammar learning. Following an implicit exposure phase, half of the participants received neutral instructions at test while the other half received instructions making a direct, explicit reference to the training phase. We first aimed to assess whether implicit learning operated in the two test conditions. We then evaluated the differential impact of age on learning performances as a function of test instructions. The results showed that performance did not vary as a function of age in the implicit instructions condition, while age effects emerged when explicit instructions were employed at test. However, performance was affected differently by age and the instructions given at test, depending on whether the implicit learning of short or long units was assessed. These results suggest that the claim that the implicit learning process is independent of age needs to be revised.

  1. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-01-01

    Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence ...

  2. The Ripple Effect: Exploring How a Joint Science Specialist/TOSA Can Change Classroom Teachers' Instructional Practices through Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradias, Jean

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, California became one of the first states to adopt the rigorous Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). However, the current state of science instruction does not support the conceptual shifts of the NGSS, which call for consistent science instruction K-12, increased inquiry, subject integration, as well as science instruction that…

  3. How Interviewers' Nonverbal Behaviors Can Affect Children's Perceptions and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerigogna, Jehanne; Ost, James; Akehurst, Lucy; Fluck, Mike

    2008-01-01

    We conducted two studies to examine how interviewers' nonverbal behaviors affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. In the first study, 42 8- to 10-year-olds watched video clips showing an interviewer displaying combinations of supportive and nonsupportive nonverbal behaviors and were asked to rate the interviewer on six attributes (e.g.,…

  4. Explicit grammar teaching in EAL classrooms: Suggestions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the subject English Additional Language (EAL) to serve as a strong support subject in explicitly teaching learners the grammar of English is suggested as an interim solution to the effects of the non-implementation of the 1997 South African Language in Education Policy. To identify specific grammatical ...

  5. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Best practices in writing instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner

  8. Proportion congruency effects: Instructions may be enough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eEntel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning takes time, namely, one needs to be exposed to contingency relations between stimulus dimensions in order to learn, whereas intentional control can be recruited through task demands. Therefore showing that control can be recruited as a function of experimental instructions alone, that is, adapting the processing according to the instructions before the exposure to the task, can be taken as evidence for existence of control recruitment in the absence of learning. This was done by manipulating the information given at the outset of the experiment. In the first experiment, we manipulated list-level congruency proportion. Half of the participants were informed that most of the stimuli would be congruent, whereas the other half were informed that most of the stimuli would be incongruent. This held true for the stimuli in the second part of each experiment. In the first part, however, the proportion of the two stimulus types was equal. A proportion congruent effect was found in both parts of the experiment, but it was larger in the second part. In our second experiment, we manipulated the proportion of the stimuli within participants by applying an item-specific design. This was done by presenting some color words most often in their congruent color, and other color words in incongruent colors. Participants were informed about the exact word-color pairings in advance. Similar to Experiment 1, this held true only for the second experimental part. In contrast to our first experiment, informing participants in advance did not result in an item-specific proportion effect, which was observed only in the second part. Thus our results support the hypothesis that instructions may be enough to trigger list-level control, yet learning does contribute to the proportion congruent effect under such conditions. The item-level proportion effect is apparently caused by learning or at least it is moderated by it.

  9. Error Tendencies in Processing Student Feedback for Instructional Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, John R., Jr.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seeks to assist instructors in recognizing two basic errors that can occur in processing student evaluation data on instructional development efforts; offers a research framework for future investigations of the error tendencies and related issues; and suggests ways in which instructors can confront and manage error tendencies in practice. (MBR)

  10. Assessment of Outcome-Focused Library Instruction in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Timothy K.; Carter, Elizabeth W.

    1997-01-01

    A sample of 49 non-psychology majors taking a course integrating library research skills with social science research showed increases in skill level, efficiency, and positive attitudes toward the library after a semester of outcome-focused instruction. The results suggest that co-development between course and library faculty can be an effective…

  11. Educating Instructional Designers: Different Methods for Different Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Gordon; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Suggests new methods of teaching instructional design based on literature reviews of other design fields including engineering, architecture, interior design, media design, and medicine. Methods discussed include public presentations, visiting experts, competitions, artifacts, case studies, design studios, and internships and apprenticeships.…

  12. Moderne Sprache im Deutschunterricht (Modern Language in German Instruction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggimann, Ernst

    1965-01-01

    Several techniques are presented which were used to enliven secondary-school German instruction in Switzerland and to increase student interest and motivation. Classes listened to haiku, discussed the elements of the form, and then wrote their own haiku on suggested topics. A quasi-musical choral speaking performance was developed on poetry of…

  13. Instructional Design as Manipulation of, or Cooperation with, Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael T.; Yanchar, Stephen C.

    2018-01-01

    We present a qualitative study of the tension between manipulative and cooperative approaches to instructional design. We found that our participants struggled to resist manipulative tendencies in their work contexts. More specifically, our findings suggest that our participants sought to design with their learners in mind to foster a more…

  14. Middle School Foreign Language Instruction: A Missed Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissau, Scott; Adams, Mary Jo; Algozzine, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies conducted over the past decade have suggested the motivational and proficiency-related benefits of commencing language instruction at an early age. Limitations in many of these studies, however, have prevented their results from being applied to the teaching of foreign languages in the United States. In response to calls for…

  15. ESL Instruction and Adults with Learning Disabilities. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Robin; Terrill, Lynda

    This digest reviews what is known about adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners and learning disabilities, suggests ways to identify and assess ESL adults who may have learning disabilities, and offers practical methods for both instruction and teacher training. Topics covered in some detail include identifying and diagnosing learning…

  16. Ice Skating: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    One of seven booklets on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this guide presents teaching suggestions for ice skating coaches working with mentally retarded persons. An overview section introduces the sport and considers ideas for effective teaching. Goals, objectives, and benefits are considered along with information on…

  17. Instruction, Repetition, Discovery: Restoring the Historical Educational Role of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trninic, Dragan

    2018-01-01

    This conceptual paper considers what it would mean to take seriously Freudenthal's suggestion that mathematics should be taught like swimming. The general claim being made is that "direct instruction" and "discovery" are not opposite but complementary, linked by repetitive yet explorative practice. This claim is elaborated…

  18. Using Technology to Facilitate Differentiated High School Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.

    2017-10-01

    This qualitative investigation explored the beliefs and practices of one secondary science teacher, Diane, who differentiated instruction and studied how technology facilitated her differentiation. Diane was selected based on the results of a previous study, in which data indicated that Diane understood how to design and implement proactively planned, flexible, engaging instructional activities in response to students' learning needs better than the other study participants. Data for the present study included 3 h of semi-structured interview responses, 37.5 h of observations of science instruction, and other artifacts such as instructional materials. This variety of data allowed for triangulation of the evidence. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results indicated that technology played an integral role in Diane's planning and implementation of differentiated science lessons. The technology-enhanced differentiated lessons employed by Diane typically attended to students' different learning profiles or interest through modification of process or product. This study provides practical strategies for science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction, and recommendations for science teacher educators and school and district administrators. Future research should explore student outcomes, supports for effective formative assessment, and technology-enhanced readiness differentiation among secondary science teachers.

  19. Comparing Views of Primary School Mathematics Teachers and Prospective Mathematics Teachers about Instructional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Baki

    2009-11-01

    during the application but could not be envisaged in the theoretical pre-service education. That the candidate teachers have not encountered these problems may have caused their overlooking of these problems. As another result, it can be concluded that both the teachers and the candidate teachers feel themselves partially competent in terms of using instructional technologies. It was determined that the teachers suggest that there should be an elaborate planning period for using instructional technologies, while the candidate teachers suggested that in-service training should be prioritized for the sake of effective usage of instructional technologies. Backed with the results, it was recommended that candidate teachers should be informed about the benefits of instructional technologies and probable problems they will face and sharing instructional technologies should be supported among teachers.

  20. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  1. Seven Salutary Suggestions for Counselor Stamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    Counselor stamina is deemed essential in the midst of a consistently challenging, complex, and changing mental health care environment. Rather than perpetuating conversations about "burnout" and "burnout prevention," this article provides a salutary or health-promoting perspective. Seven suggestions for counselor stamina are presented and…

  2. Interrogative Suggestibility in an Adolescent Forensic Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-five juvenile offenders in residential care completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and their scores were matched for IQ and memory with those of 60 adult offenders. The juveniles gave in significantly more to interrogative pressure through negative feedback but were no more yielding to leading questions than adults. (JPS)

  3. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  4. Do astrophysical measurements suggest massive neutrinos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the solar neutrino puzzle and suggest modification in the standard solar model. It has been observed that the discrepancy between experimental measurements and theoretically produced values can be removed by considering neutrinos to process non-zero mass. (author)

  5. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  6. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  7. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  8. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  9. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  10. USING PREZI PRESENTATION AS INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Yusny

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing digital technology as a medium for educational instruction has now become one of the 21 century pedagogy trends. Numerous researches suggested that using digital technology provides positive impacts as it gives more access to resources for the learning. In Foreign language pedagogy, using digital technology fosters learners’ autonomy by self-managing the amount of learning inputs outside the classroom. However, many studies emphasize more on the communicative and the vast resources accessible for the learners. Very limited attention given to the impact of the visual aid that focuses on aesthetic values of instructional design. English Grammar is one of many subjects that often received complaints by learners and claimed as a “boring” subject. Many English teachers especially in developing countries still utilize traditional method in teaching grammar. They introduce sentence structure using grammar formulas. Although, this method is still very popular, it often considered monotonous by many learners. This paper discusses about the study of using Prezi.com presentation to deliver grammar instruction materials in an English language classroom. From the study, it was found that the majority of the students involved in the study are fond of the materials and the post-test results showed grammar mastery improvement after receiving a grammar lesson that shows instructional materials using prezi. On the other hand, the control class that uses only writing boards and worksheets showed less improvement. This research provides new technique in developing grammar instruction design using a web tool called Prezi in enhancing the display of the instruction material. The experiment was given to students of English Language Education. The result of the study shows students’ positive perception toward the use of Prezi in English grammar instructional material.

  11. INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN (ISD: Theory and Practice in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil GOKSEL CANBEK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The considerable changes in distance learning related technologies and Web 2.0 tools direct new immersive platforms to serve on the concept of avatar-driven interactions. In this sense, the immersive learning platforms, like Second Life (SL, embrace innovative forms of network based settings for effective community interactions. SL, as an interactive learning milieu, conducts 3D interactions and active education within the context of Instructional Systems Design (ISD which makes learning experiences efficient for both the tutor and learners on the platform designed on social networking. The platform gives an appropriate service to its users to be part of an instructional application of virtual worlds in where learners become connected though online activities. Within the learning theories existing nowadays, instructional designers, who are working in 3D environment like SL, are using mainly cognitive theory and constructivist strategy of learning. According to cognitive learning theory, people learn in different ways that are individually contextual and new trends in Instructional Design (ID had to address these differences. There are number of already approbated instructional models, which are used widely in the process of creation learning courses for 3D environments. The most frequently used model is ADDIE (Assess–Design–Develop–Implement– Evaluate, and the model PIE (Plan-Integrate–Evaluate, that is relatively new and become increasingly popular as it allows easy integration of technology in the classroom-oriented (virtual or real teaching. Based on the above mentioned concerns, this paper will examine the instructional design models used to create immersive courses within SL. Further, the paper will collect ideas on the instructional tools and technologies used for designing SL courses as these new technologies used in this environment draws heavily on andragogy. The paper will also clarify the obstacles on virtual learning

  12. Disrupting the Forrest Gump Effect: Countering Suggestibility in the Social Studies Classroom through the Use of Actual Footage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Judith Raizy

    2017-01-01

    Film is a tool used in the social studies classroom, even if it contradicts documented history. Suggestibility, the incorporation of misinformation from historical feature film, is commonplace, and some social studies instructional methods exacerbate inaccurate memories. Existing research indicates that attempts to counter suggestibility have met…

  13. Interactive Simulations to Support Quantum Mechanics Instruction for Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnle, Antje; Benfield, Cory; Hahner, Georg; Paetkau, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualization Project provides freely available research-based interactive simulations with accompanying activities for the teaching and learning of quantum mechanics across a wide range of topics and levels. This article gives an overview of some of the simulations and describes their use in an introductory physical…

  14. Supporting Teachers in Schools to Improve Their Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borko, Hilda; Klingner, Janette

    2013-01-01

    To meet the growing demand for teacher learning opportunities, the educational community must create scalable professional development models and study their effectiveness. In this chapter, we argue that design-based implementation research (DBIR) is ideally suited to these efforts, and we use two research projects as illustrative cases: CSR…

  15. Studying Visual Displays: How to Instructionally Support Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkl, Alexander; Scheiter, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Visual displays are very frequently used in learning materials. Although visual displays have great potential to foster learning, they also pose substantial demands on learners so that the actual learning outcomes are often disappointing. In this article, we pursue three main goals. First, we identify the main difficulties that learners have when…

  16. Supporting Preschool Teachers' Vocabulary Instruction during Storybook Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.; Sweetman, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Preschool educators represent a unique population for which to design professional development; as a result, innovative professional development models are necessary. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of training preschool teachers to use a Shared Reading Innovation Configuration (IC) tool on their planning, implementation, and…

  17. ICT Education for Teachers and ICT Supported Instruction: Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    The above concepts point to the fact that education embodies .... group problem solving activities and articulated project (Fathi, Shelda. ICT Education for .... Direct class teaching: that is, where broadcast programming substitutes for teachers ...

  18. Using Explicit and Systematic Instruction to Support Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jean Louise M.; Sáez, Leilani; Doabler, Christian T.

    2016-01-01

    Students are frequently expected to complete multistep tasks within a range of academic or classroom routines and to do so independently. Students' ability to complete these tasks successfully may vary as a consequence of both their working-memory capacity and the conditions under which they are expected to learn. Crucial features in the design or…

  19. Library Instruction. SPEC Kit 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    At the request of the Pennsylvania State University Library, the Office of Management Studies surveyed Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members requesting information and documentation illustrating the organization, nature, and level of the library instruction function at their institutions. A review of the responses from 64 of the 94 ARL…

  20. Assistant for instructional development (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.P. van; Veldhuis, G.J.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Theunissen, N.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Due to periodical job rotation within the military, instructional developers are not always experts in their field and are consequently unaware of the types of educational concepts that are available to teach with (Jans & Frazer-Jans, 2004). These observations have led to the

  1. Using Observation to Improve Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, William; Napoliello, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The International School of Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, which serves international students in preschool through middle school, focused a great deal of professional attention on differentiation. The administrators in Malaysian school, by making rounds of classrooms, raised teachers' awareness of differentiated instruction.

  2. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  3. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    that the practice of unpacking the local particulars of corrections (i) provides for the instructional character of the interaction, and (ii) is highly sensitive to the relevant physical and mobile contingencies. These findings contribute to the existing literature on the interactional organisation of correction...

  4. Three Logics of Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jessica G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines conceptions of instructional leadership in the institutional environment. We know that principals' practices affect student learning and that principals are influenced by ideas in the broader environment. This article examines and defines the multiple conceptions of what it means for principals to be instructional…

  5. Conversation Walks: Improving Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Sally J.; Lanoue, Philip D.

    2017-01-01

    Principals are tasked with being the instructional leaders in their schools--developing teacher's abilities through formal and informal classroom observations and feedback. But how can school districts ensure that principals have the skills they need to fulfill this crucial role? In Clarke County School District in Georgia, central-office leaders…

  6. Understanding the Supplemental Instruction Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrian; Moore, Lori

    2018-01-01

    This article explored the learning styles and leadership styles of Supplemental Instruction (SI) leaders at Texas A&M University, and the impact of those preferences on recurring attendance to their sessions. The Learning Style Inventory, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, and a demographic instrument were administered to SI leaders…

  7. Preparing Instructional Leaders: A Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…

  8. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  9. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  10. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  11. Succession Planning for Library Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Karen; Drewry, Josiah

    2015-01-01

    Detailed succession planning helps libraries pass information from one employee to the next. This is crucial in preparing for hiring, turnover, retirements, training of graduate teaching assistants in academic libraries, and other common situations. The authors of this article discuss succession planning for instruction programs in academic…

  12. Gestalt Theory and Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patrick; Fitz, Chad

    1993-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of Gestalt theory. Shows how six Gestalt principles (proximity, closure, symmetry, figure-ground segregation, good continuation, and similarity) can be applied to improve a reader's comprehension of a badly designed instruction module that uses several graphics. (SR)

  13. The Basics of Blended Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Catlin R.

    2013-01-01

    Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…

  14. An Experiment in Museum Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Marguerite

    Various lesson plans for museum instruction were tested on fifth grade children of fair and high intelligence in an attempt to improve upon the "accepted method" of teaching, which was thought to be better suited to the child of low intelligence than to his abler classmates. The lesson plans tested were: (1) the accepted method…

  15. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  16. Instruction of Competent Psychomotor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Valerie Dong

    2008-01-01

    Instruction of competent psychomotor skill necessitates an eclectic approach. The principles of learning, complemented with learning styles and sensory modalities preferences, provide a background for teaching physical skills. The use of the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy as a map and corresponding behavioral objectives foster the mastery…

  17. Attrition Cost Model Instruction Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagiura, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    This instruction manual explains in detail how to use the Attrition Cost Model program, which estimates the cost of student attrition for a state's higher education system. Programmed with SAS, this model allows users to instantly calculate the cost of attrition and the cumulative attrition rate that is based on the most recent retention and…

  18. Women Administrators as Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…

  19. International Instructional Systems: Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…

  20. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  1. Instructional Quality Features in Videotaped Biology Lessons: Content-Independent Description of Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfner, Tobias; Förtsch, Christian; Boone, William; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2017-09-01

    A number of studies on single instructional quality features have been reported for mathematics and science instruction. For summarizing single instructional quality features, researchers have created a model of three basic dimensions (classroom management, supportive climate, and cognitive activation) of instructional quality mainly through observing mathematics instruction. Considering this model as valid for all subjects and as usable for describing instruction, we used it in this study which aimed to analyze characteristics of instructional quality in biology lessons of high-achieving and low-achieving classes, independently of content. Therefore, we used the data of three different previous video studies of biology instruction conducted in Germany. From each video study, we selected three high-achieving and three low-achieving classes (N = 18 teachers; 35 videos) for our multiple-case study, in which conspicuous characteristics of instructional quality features were qualitatively identified and qualitatively analyzed. The amount of these characteristics was counted in a quantitative way in all the videos. The characteristics we found could be categorized using the model of three basic dimensions of instructional quality despite some subject-specific differences for biology instruction. Our results revealed that many more characteristics were observable in high-achieving classes than in low-achieving classes. Thus, we believe that this model could be used to describe biology instruction independently of the content. We also make the claims about the qualities for biology instruction—working with concentration in a content-structured environment, getting challenged in higher order thinking, and getting praised for performance—that could have positive influence on students' achievement.

  2. Learning Designs using Flipped Classroom Instruction | Conception d’apprentissage à l’aide de l’instruction en classe inversée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Danielle Mazur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The flipped classroom is an instructional model that leverages technology-enhanced instruction outside of class time in order to maximize student engagement and learning during class time. As part of an action research study, the authors synthesize reflections about three learning designs and how the flipped classroom model can support teaching, learning and assessment through: (1 guided collaborative discussion, (2 tabletop white boarding and (3 the development of augmented reality auras. Principles for teaching effectiveness are used as a lens to guide the reflection on the benefits and challenges with each of the learning designs. Findings suggest that flipped classroom models that emphasize collaborative learning, group work and accessibility can enable and support inquiry-based learning. Recommendations are provided for educators interested in designing learning using a flipped classroom instructional model, as well as suggestions for future action research agendas. La classe inversée est un modèle pédagogique qui met à profit l’apprentissage hors des heures en classe et qui est rehaussé par la technologie pour maximiser l’engagement et l’apprentissage des apprenants en classe. Dans le cadre de cette étude de recherche-action, les auteurs résument les réflexions sur la façon dont le modèle de la classe inversée peut appuyer l’enseignement, l’apprentissage et l’évaluation par la mise en œuvre de trois conceptions d’apprentissage par investigation : 1 discussion collaborative guidée, 2 tableau blanc de table et 3 développement d’auras en réalité augmentée. Les principes d’enseignement de l’efficacité sont utilisés comme optique guidant la réflexion sur les avantages et les défis de chacune des conceptions d’apprentissage. Les conclusions suggèrent que les modèles de classes inversées qui mettent l’accent sur l’apprentissage collaboratif, le travail en groupe et l’accessibilité peuvent

  3. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Rashed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed. Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  4. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, M. G.; Moklof, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed). Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  5. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  6. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  7. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  8. The role of translation in undergraduate medical English instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Micic

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For most of its history of undergraduate medical English instruction at Belgrade University, translation was a major part of teaching and assessment. Educational reforms in the early 21st century resulted in a shift towards content-based instruction with the focus on reading comprehension and less translation. The paper analyses the new role of translation in the reformed Serbian curriculum. A brief history of Medical English instruction is outlined. The role of lexicon and the level of discourse within the teaching of English translation in the Serbian curriculum are explored. Some suggestions for the improvement of medical English translation in the Serbian curriculum are offered. It has been shown that translation is a valuable skill to be mastered. Translation exercises allow instructors to recognize language-related comprehension problems. Furthermore, teaching translation is important in that future medical professionals are able to recognize different medical genres and structural differences between English and Serbian.

  9. Bibliographic Instruction in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Gayle

    2000-01-01

    Discusses bibliographic instruction in libraries. Topics include a history of bibliographic instruction; the Internet and electronic searching; librarians' use of technology; defining information needs; locating and accessing information, including classification systems and Boolean searching; evaluating information; using and communication…

  10. Removing Administrative Impediments to Instructional Improvement Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Pigford, Aretha B.

    1987-01-01

    Principals can and should develop strategies that will enable them to provide instructional leadership despite increased demands from other tasks. Recommended actions include: delegation; peer observation; commitment to instructional leadership; and effective communication with teachers. (CB)

  11. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A

    2017-10-01

    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  12. Student performance on conceptual questions: Does instruction matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Paula R. L.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the tutorial component of introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington, students take weekly pretests that consist of conceptual questions. Pretests are so named because they precede each tutorial, but they are frequently administered after lecture instruction. Many variables associated with class composition and prior instruction (if any) could, in principle, affect student performance on these questions. Nonetheless, the results are often found to be "essentially the same" in all classes. With data available from a large number of classes, it is possible to characterize the typical variation quantitatively. In this paper three questions for which we have accumulated thousands of responses, from dozens of classes representing different conditions with respect to the textbook in use, the amount of prior instruction, etc., serve as examples. For each question, we examine the variation in student performance across all classes. We also compare subsets categorized according to the amount of relevant prior instruction each class had received. A preliminary analysis suggests that the variation in performance is essentially random. No statistically significant difference is observed between results obtained before relevant instruction begins and after it has been completed. The results provide evidence that exposure to concepts in lecture and textbook is not sufficient to ensure an improvement in performance on questions that require qualitative reasoning.

  13. Piano instruction for nursery school trainees

    OpenAIRE

    新海, 節; Makoto, SHINKAI; 藤女子大学人間生活学部保育学科

    2012-01-01

    It is important piano instruction in childcare training schools be viewed primarily as "music for childcare". To this end,it is also important that the view of piano instruction for nursery school trainees be switched from one mainly focused on the technical aspects of performance using many etudes to a form of instruction based on developing the musicality of the trainees and their ability to display emotion through music. Further, through this instruction, the trainees need to develop the a...

  14. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  15. ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURES QUESTIONNAIRE: SUGGEST AND WIN!

    CERN Multimedia

    Academic Training; Tel. 73127

    2001-01-01

    Time to plan for the 2001-02 lecture series. From today until April 9 you have the chance to give your contribution to improved planning for next year's Academic Training Lectures Series. At the web site: http://wwwinfo/support/survey/academic-training/ you will find questionnaires concerning the following different categories: high energy physics, applied physics, science and society and post-graduate students lectures. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at CERN bookshop.

  16. New dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year.

  17. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1997-09-01

    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  18. Technology Use in Higher Education Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzarka, Sammy

    2012-01-01

    The significance of integrating technology use in higher education instruction is undeniable. The benefits include those related to access to instruction by underserved populations, adequately preparing students for future careers, capitalizing on best instructional practices, developing higher order thinking activities, and engaging students…

  19. On the Practice Architectures of Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Petri; Nylund, Jan; Stjernstrøm, Else

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of instructional leadership and principals' perceptions of the practices of instructional leadership. Despite the emphasis on the effects of school leadership regarding teaching practices and learning outcomes, research on direct instructional leadership is scarce. It is focused either on identifying overall…

  20. Students and Instructors Opinions about Piano Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the opinions of the students and piano instructors in the Turkish Education Faculties' Fine Arts Instruction Departments' music instruction programs about piano instruction. The study data were collected using a questionnaire administered to the piano instructors and the students who took lessons from them. The study results…