WorldWideScience

Sample records for instructional practices teachers

  1. Differentiating Science Instruction: Secondary science teachers' practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.

  2. Preschool Teachers' Endorsement of Instructional Practices: An Interprofessional Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoftas, Anthony D.; Dubasik, Virginia L.; Moss DiDonato, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Preschool teacher's instructional practices are one component of high-quality early education classrooms that have the potential to directly influence young children's school readiness and success; therefore, the type and quality of instructional practices used by preschool teachers should be explored. Purpose: The purpose of this…

  3. The pedagogy of argumentation in science education: science teachers' instructional practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdem Yilmaz, Yasemin; Cakiroglu, Jale; Ertepinar, Hamide; Erduran, Sibel

    2017-07-01

    Argumentation has been a prominent concern in science education research and a common goal in science curriculum in many countries over the past decade. With reference to this goal, policy documents burden responsibilities on science teachers, such as involving students in dialogues and being guides in students' spoken or written argumentation. Consequently, teachers' pedagogical practices regarding argumentation gain importance due to their impact on how they incorporate this practice into their classrooms. In this study, therefore, we investigated the instructional strategies adopted by science teachers for their argumentation-based science teaching. Participants were one elementary science teacher, two chemistry teachers, and four graduate students, who have a background in science education. The study took place during a graduate course, which was aimed at developing science teachers' theory and pedagogy of argumentation. Data sources included the participants' video-recorded classroom practices, audio-recorded reflections, post-interviews, and participants' written materials. The findings revealed three typologies of instructional strategies towards argumentation. They are named as Basic Instructional Strategies for Argumentation, Meta-level Instructional ‌St‌‌rategies for ‌Argumentation, and Meta-strategic Instructional ‌St‌‌rategies for ‌Argumentation. In conclusion, the study provided a detailed coding framework for the exploration of science teachers' instructional practices while they are implementing argumentation-based lessons.

  4. Constructivist Instructional Practices and Teacher Beliefs Related to Secondary Science Teaching and Learning

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    Nelson, Adrienne Fleurette

    The purpose of this mixed method research study was to examine the constructivist beliefs and instructional practices of secondary science teachers. The research also explored situations that impacted whether or not student centered instruction occurred. The study revealed science teachers held constructive beliefs pertaining to student questioning of the learning process and student autonomy in interacting with other learners. Teachers held the least constructivist beliefs pertaining to student teacher collaboration on lesson design. Additionally, teacher beliefs and practice were not congruent due to instructional practices being deemed less constructivist than reported. The study found that curricular demands, teacher perceptions about students, inadequate laboratory resources, and the lack of teacher understanding about the components of constructivist instruction inhibited student centered instruction. The results of this study led to six recommendations that can be implemented by school districts in collaboration with science teachers to promote constructivist instruction.

  5. Spelling Instruction in the Primary Grades: Teachers' Beliefs, Practices, and Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Antoinette; Zhang, Jing; Mattatall, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examined Canadian teachers' beliefs, practices and concerns about spelling instruction in the primary grades. Data from surveys (n = 56) indicated that most teachers believe that spelling is important and plan for spelling instruction. For most teachers, the spelling words and activities used, and the instructional resources they chose,…

  6. Using Reflective Practice to Facilitate Conversations and Transform Instructional Practice for Middle School Science Teachers

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    Higdon, Robbie L.

    The process of teaching, especially inquiry, is complex and requires extended time for developing one's instructional practice (Loucks-Horsley, Stiles, Mundry, Love, & Hewson, 2010). The implementation of a continued cycle of self-reflection can engage teachers in analyzing their prior experiences and understandings about their instructional practice to promote the accommodation of new concepts and transform their practice. However, many teachers have difficulty engaging in the cognitive dissonance needed to identify those problems and promote their own growth without support. As one's professional practice becomes more repetitive and routine, it is difficult for the practitioner to recognize opportunities in which to contemplate one's habitual actions (Schon, 1983). In this multi-case study, two middle school science teachers who were engaged within a sustained professional development initiative participated in a series of one-on-one reflective dialogues regarding the decisions they made about the utilization of inquiry-based instruction. In addition, these teachers were asked to reflect upon the criteria used to determine how and when to implement these inquiry-based practices. These reflective dialogue sessions provided the opportunity to observe teacher conceptions and stimulate teacher cognitive dissonance about instructional practice. Qualitative analysis of data collected from these reflective dialogues along with informal and formal classroom observations of instructional practice uncovered diverse perceptions regarding the implementation of inquiry-based methods into present teaching practice. The use of reflective dialogue within the existing structure of the professional development initiative allowed for the facilitators of the professional development initiative to tailor ongoing support and their effective implementation of inquiry-based instruction. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of reflective dialogue in achieving

  7. Examining the Beliefs and Instructional Practices of Technology Teachers Regarding Copyright Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Zachari. A.

    2012-01-01

    The influence that teacher beliefs have on classroom instructional practices in areas such as science and mathematics have been studied and documented by researchers. However, only a few researchers were found to have specifically investigated the influence of technology teachers' beliefs on instructional practices, relating to the teaching…

  8. Teacher Quality Indicators as Predictors of Instructional Assessment Practices in Science Classrooms in Secondary Schools in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkola, Babalola J.; Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the self-reported instructional assessment practices of a selected sample of secondary school science teachers in Barbados. The study sought to determine if there were statistically significant differences in the instructional assessment practices of teachers based on their sex and teacher quality (teaching experience, professional qualification and teacher academic qualification). It also sought to determine the extent to which each of these four selected variables individually and jointly affected the teachers' report of their instructional assessment practices. A sample of 55 science teachers from nine secondary schools in Barbados was randomly selected to participate in this study. Data was collected by means of a survey and was analyzed using the means and standard deviations of the instructional assessment practices scores and linear, multiple and binary logistic regression. The results of the study were such that the majority of the sample reported good overall instructional assessment practices while only a few participants reported moderate assessment practices. The instructional assessment practices in the area of student knowledge were mostly moderate as indicated by the sample. There were no statistically significant differences between or among the mean scores of the teachers' reported instructional assessment practices based on sex ( t = 0.10; df = 53; p = 0.992), teaching experience ( F[4,50] = 1.766; p = 0.150), the level of professional qualification (F[3,45] = 0.2117; p = 0.111) or the level of academic qualification (F[2,52] = 0.504; p = 0.607). The independent variables (teacher sex, teaching experience, teacher professional qualification or teacher academic qualification) were not significant predictors of the instructional assessment practices scores. However, teacher sex was a significant predictor of the teachers' report of good instructional assessment practices. The study also found that the joint effect of the

  9. School Culture: Teachers' Beliefs, Behaviors, and Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongboontri, Chantarath; Keawkhong, Natheeporn

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods research project documents the school culture of Hope University's Language Institute and reveals the reciprocal relationship between the school culture and the instructional practices of the English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in this particular institute. Altogether, 62 EFL teachers agreed to complete a questionnaire.…

  10. EFL Teachers' Beliefs/Practices Correspondence in Reading Instruction: Does Language Teacher Education Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Nabi; Dehghani, Asieh

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined EFL teachers' theoretical orientations towards reading, their reading instructional practices and the correspondence between the theoretical orientations/practices. The study participants were 80 male and female Iranian EFL teachers teaching at a number of private English language institutes. Half of the teachers were…

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Instructional Consultation Teams on Teacher Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Phuong; Shanahan, Katherine Bruckman; Rosenfield, Sylvia; Gravois, Todd; Koehler, Jessica; Kaiser, Lauren; Berger, Jill; Vaganek, Megan; Gottfredson, Gary D.; Nelson, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Instructional Consultation Teams (IC Teams) are an early intervention service intended to support teachers in working with struggling students. This is a large-scale experimental trial investigating the effects of IC Teams on teacher efficacy, instructional practices, collaboration, and job satisfaction. Public elementary schools (N = 34) were…

  12. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

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    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  13. Teacher Progress Monitoring of Instructional and Behavioral Management Practices: An Evidence-Based Approach to Improving Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    In the era of teacher evaluation and effectiveness, assessment tools that identify and monitor educators' instruction and behavioral management practices are in high demand. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) Observer Form is a multidimensional teacher progress monitoring tool designed to assess teachers' usage of instructional and behavioral…

  14. Novice Teachers Reflect on Their Instructional Practices While Teaching Adults Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    Over three years, eighty-two teachers in their first or second year of teaching participated in orientation programs for new adult educators. During the programs, they reflected on their own instructional practices when teaching mathematics to adults. The teachers identified the practice they were likely to overemphasize and explained why they…

  15. Relationship between teacher preparedness and inquiry-based instructional practices to students' science achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' self-reported preparedness for teaching science content and their instructional practices to the science achievement of eighth grade science students in the United States as demonstrated by TIMSS 2007. Six hundred eighty-seven eighth grade science teachers in the United States representing 7,377 students responded to the TIMSS 2007 questionnaire about their instructional preparedness and their instructional practices. Quantitative data were reported. Through correlation analysis, the researcher found statistically significant positive relationships emerge between eighth grade science teachers' main area of study and their self-reported beliefs about their preparedness to teach that same content area. Another correlation analysis found a statistically significant negative relationship existed between teachers' self-reported use of inquiry-based instruction and preparedness to teach chemistry, physics and earth science. Another correlation analysis discovered a statistically significant positive relationship existed between physics preparedness and student science achievement. Finally, a correlation analysis found a statistically significant positive relationship existed between science teachers' self-reported implementation of inquiry-based instructional practices and student achievement. The data findings support the conclusion that teachers who have feelings of preparedness to teach science content and implement more inquiry-based instruction and less didactic instruction produce high achieving science students. As science teachers obtain the appropriate knowledge in science content and pedagogy, science teachers will feel prepared and will implement inquiry-based instruction in science classrooms.

  16. Generalizing from Observations of Mathematics Teachers' Instructional Practice Using the Instructional Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Anne Garrison; Kim, Sungyeun

    2015-01-01

    One crucial question for researchers who study teachers' classroom practice is how to maximize information about what is happening in classrooms while minimizing costs. This report extends prior studies of the reliability of the Instructional Quality Assessment (IQA), a widely used classroom observation toolkit, and offers insight into the often…

  17. The Relationship between Early Elementary Teachers' Instructional Practices and Theoretical Orientations and Students' Growth in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Kristen D.; Coker, David L., Jr.; Jackson, Allison F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between 28 teachers' theoretical orientations to writing instruction and self-reported instructional practices and student writing performance. First-, second-, and third-grade teachers completed the Teacher Writing Orientation Scale developed by Graham, Harris, MacArthur, and Fink (2002) and reported the frequency…

  18. Teacher change in beliefs and practices in science and literacy instruction with English language learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee

    2004-01-01

    This study examined patterns of change in beliefs and practices as elementary teachers learned to establish instructional congruence, a process of mediating academic disciplines with linguistic and cultural experiences of diverse student groups. The study focused on six bilingual Hispanic teachers working with fourth-grade, mostly Hispanic students. The results indicated that teacher learning and change occurred in different ways in the areas of science instruction, students' language and culture, English language and literacy instruction, and integration of these areas in establishing instructional congruence. The results also indicated that establishing instructional congruence was a gradual and demanding process requiring teacher reflection and insight, formal training, and extensive support and sharing. Implications for further research in promoting achievement for all students are discussed.

  19. Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidsten, Connie J.

    Connie J. Hvidsten September 2016 Education Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice This dissertation consists of three papers analyzing writings and interviews of experienced secondary science teachers during and after a two-year professional development (PD) program focused on model-based reasoning (MBR). MBR is an approach to science instruction that provides opportunities for students to use conceptual models to make sense of natural phenomena in ways that are similar to the use of models within the scientific community. The aim of this research is to better understand the learning and learning pathways teachers identified as valuable in supporting changes in their teaching practice. To accomplish this aim, the papers analyze the ways teachers 1) ascribe their learning to various aspects of the program, 2) describe what they learned, and 3) reflect on the impact the PD had on their teaching practice. Twenty-one secondary science teachers completed the Innovations in Science Instruction through Modeling (ISIM) program from 2007 through 2009. Commonalities in the written reflections and interview responses led to a set of generalizable findings related to the impacts and outcomes of the PD. The first of the three papers describes elements of the ISIM program that teachers associated with their own learning. One of the most frequently mentioned PD feature was being in the position of an adult learner. Embedding learning in instructional practice by collaboratively developing and revising lessons, and observing the lessons in one-another's classrooms provided a sense of professional community, accountability, and support teachers reported were necessary to overcome the challenges of implementing new pedagogical practices. Additionally, teachers described that opportunities to reflect on their learning and connect their

  20. Factors Influencing Teacher Instructional Practice in Mathematics When Participating in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William S., III

    2016-01-01

    In this research, I investigated teachers' interpretations of the goals of professional development and factors that contributed to enacted instructional practices. A multiple-case study design was used to examine the interpretations of four high school teachers participating in a year-long professional development program with a standards-based…

  1. Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship between Principals' Perceived Practices of Instructional Leadership and Teachers' Self-Efficacy Perceptions

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    Bellibas, Mehmet Sukru; Liu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which principals' instructional leadership predicts teacher self-efficacy, in order to identify whether a relationship exists between principals' perceived instructional leadership practices and teachers perceived self-efficacy in classroom management, instruction, and student…

  2. Perspectives on Teacher Quality: Bilingual Education and ESL Teacher Certification, Test-Taking Experiences, and Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemberger, Nancy; Reyes-Carrasquillo, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive exploratory study looked at the certification process, test-taking experiences, and instructional practices of a group of graduate bilingual education (BE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers to understand why some had problems passing teacher certification tests after completing their degrees. The study surveyed 63 BE…

  3. The impact of high-stakes, state-mandated student performance assessment on 10th grade English, mathematics, and science teachers' instructional practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Kenneth E.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the public release of student results on high-stakes, state-mandated performance assessments influence instructional practices, and if so in what manner. The research focused on changes in teachers' instructional practices and factors that may have influenced such changes since the public release of high-stakes, state-mandated student performance assessment scores. The data for this study were obtained from a 54-question survey instrument given to a stratified random sample of teachers teaching at least one section of 10th grade English, mathematics, or science in an academic public high school within Massachusetts. Two hundred and fifty-seven (257) teachers, or 62% of the total sample, completed the survey instrument. An analysis of the data found that teachers are making changes in their instructional practices. The data show notable increases in the use of open-response questions, creative/critical thinking questions, problem-solving activities, use of rubrics or scoring guides, writing assignments, and inquiry/investigation. Teachers also have decreased the use of multiple-choice and true-false questions, textbook-based assignments, and lecturing. Also, the data show that teachers felt that changes made in their instructional practices were most influenced by an "interest in helping my students attain MCAS assessment scores that will allow them to graduate high school" and by an "interest in helping my school improve student (MCAS) assessment scores," Finally, mathematics teachers and teachers with 13--19 years of experience report making significantly more changes than did others. It may be interpreted from the data that the use of state-mandated student performance assessments and the high-stakes attached to this type of testing program contributed to changes in teachers' instructional practices. The changes in teachers' instructional practices have included increases in the use of instructional practices deemed

  4. Science Teachers' Understanding and Practice of Inquiry-Based Instruction in Uganda

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    Ssempala, Fredrick

    High school students in Uganda perform poorly in science subjects despite the Ugandan government's efforts to train science teachers and build modern science laboratories in many public high schools. The poor performance of students in science subjects has been largely blamed on the inability by many science teachers to teach science through Inquiry-Based Instruction (IBI) to motivate the students to learn science. However, there have been no empirical studies done to establish the factors that influence science teachers' understanding and practice of IBI in Uganda. Most of the published research on IBI has been conducted in developed countries, where the prevailing contexts are very different from the contexts in developing countries such as Uganda. Additionally, few studies have explored how professional development (PD) training workshops on inquiry and nature of science (NOS) affect chemistry teachers' understanding and practice of IBI. My purpose in this multi-case exploratory qualitative study was to explore the effect of a PD workshop on inquiry and NOS on chemistry teachers' understanding and practice of IBI in Kampala city public schools in Uganda. I also explored the relationship between chemistry teachers' NOS understanding and the nature of IBI implemented in their classrooms and the internal and external factors that influence teachers' understanding and practice of IBI. I used a purposive sampling procedure to identify two schools of similar standards from which I selected eight willing chemistry teachers (four from each school) to participate in the study. Half of the teachers (those from School A) attended the PD workshop on inquiry and NOS for six days, while the control group (those from School B) did not. I collected qualitative data through semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, and document analysis. I analyzed these data by structural, conceptual and theoretical coding approach. I established that all the participating chemistry

  5. Instructional Supervision and the Pedagogical Practices of Secondary School Teachers in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malunda, Paul; Onen, David; Musaazi, John C. S.; Oonyu, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks at the effect of instructional supervision by school authorities on the pedagogical practices of teachers in public secondary schools in Uganda. To date, research into this field in the country has focused more on the technicalities of supervision rather than on how the teachers have been responding to it. The study employed a…

  6. Formative Instructional Practices: How Core Content Teachers Can Borrow Ideas from IDEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham-Day, Kristall J.; Fishley, Katelyn M.; Konrad, Moira; Peters, Mary T.; Ressa, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    With many states moving toward increased accountability for all teachers, special educators, who have long been held accountable through the implementation of individualized education programs and the use of evidence-based practices, have much to offer. Formative instructional practices are evidence-based techniques that are familiar to special…

  7. Inspiring Instructional Change in Elementary School Science: The Relationship Between Enhanced Self-efficacy and Teacher Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Ringstaff, Cathy

    2014-10-01

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which teachers' participation in a 3-year professional development program enhanced their self-efficacy and prompted changes in science instruction in the early elementary grades. The study used a mixed-methods design, and included 39 teachers who taught in kindergarten, first grade, or second grade classrooms in rural school districts. Data sources, administered pre-program and at the end of each year, included a self-efficacy assessment and teacher survey. Interviews and classroom observations provided corroborating data about teachers' beliefs and science instruction. Results showed significant increases in teachers' overall self-efficacy in teaching science, personal efficacy, and outcome expectancy efficacy during the 3 years. Gains in self-efficacy were correlated with changes in reported instructional practices, particularly student participation activities. However, changes in self-efficacy tended not to be correlated with changes in instructional time. Contextual factors beyond teachers' direct control, such as curricular and testing requirements in mathematics and language arts influenced time allotted to science instruction.

  8. Reading Strategy Instruction and Teacher Change: Implications for Teacher Training

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    Klapwijk, Nanda M.

    2012-01-01

    I report on teacher change in the context of a reading strategy instruction intervention. Reading Strategy Instruction (RSI) was implemented by three teachers, new to the concept, over a period of 15 weeks. Observations of these teachers showed that a multitude of factors affect the uptake of RSI as part of everyday teaching practice, and that…

  9. Documenting Elementary Teachers' Sustainability of Instructional Practices: A Mixed Method Case Study

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    Cotner, Bridget A.

    School reform programs focus on making educational changes; however, research on interventions past the funded implementation phase to determine what was sustained is rarely done (Beery, Senter, Cheadle, Greenwald, Pearson, et al., 2005). This study adds to the research on sustainability by determining what instructional practices, if any, of the Teaching SMARTRTM professional development program that was implemented from 2005--2008 in elementary schools with teachers in grades third through eighth were continued, discontinued, or adapted five years post-implementation (in 2013). Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: What do teachers who participated in Teaching SMARTRTM and district administrators share about the sustainability of Teaching SMARTRTM practices in 2013? What teaching strategies do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use in their science classrooms five years postimplementation (2013)? What perceptions about the roles of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) have five years later (2013)? And, What classroom management techniques do the teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use five years post implementation (2013)? A mixed method approach was used to answer these questions. Quantitative teacher survey data from 23 teachers who participated in 2008 and 2013 were analyzed in SAS v. 9.3. Descriptive statistics were reported and paired t-tests were conducted to determine mean differences by survey factors identified from an exploratory factor analysis, principal axis factoring, and parallel analysis conducted with teacher survey baseline data (2005). Individual teacher change scores (2008 and 2013) for identified factors were computed using the Reliable Change Index statistic. Qualitative data consisted of interviews with two district administrators and three teachers who responded to the survey in both

  10. Instructional Coaching through Dialogic Interaction: Helping a Teacher to Become Agentive in Her Practice

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    Haneda, Mari; Teemant, Annela; Sherman, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the instructional coaching interactions between a kindergarten teacher and an experienced coach using the analytic lens of dialogic teaching. The data were collected in the context of a US professional development project that supports urban elementary school teachers in enacting critical sociocultural teaching practices. We…

  11. Reading strategy instruction and teacher change: implications for teacher training

    OpenAIRE

    Klapwijk, Nanda M

    2012-01-01

    I report on teacher change in the context of a reading strategy instruction intervention. Reading Strategy Instruction (RSI) was implemented by three teachers, new to the concept, over a period of 15 weeks. Observations of these teachers showed that a multitude of factors affect the uptake of RSI as part of everyday teaching practice, and that teachers seem to move through distinct phases in their uptake of RSI. The article focuses on teachers' reaction to RSI and highlights a number of issue...

  12. Making things explicit using instructional materials: a case study of a Singapore teacher's practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yew Hoong; Cheng, Lu Pien; Toh, Wei Yeng Karen; Kaur, Berinderjeet; Toh, Tin Lam

    2018-04-01

    The phrase `make it explicit' is a common advice given to teachers. It is, however, not clear to us what this actually means when translated into classroom practice. Our review found that we are not alone: "explicit" is used in different ways in the education literature. This paper explores, through a case study of a teacher who stated "making things explicit" as an ostensible goal of his instructional practice, how the explicitation is realised in teaching mathematics. In particular, we examine how he used the instructional materials that he crafted to fulfil his goal of explicitation. We were able to uncover three strategies he used: explicit-from, explicit-within, and explicit-to.

  13. Target Inquiry: Changing Chemistry High School Teachers' Classroom Practices and Knowledge and Beliefs about Inquiry Instruction

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    Herrington, Deborah G.; Yezierski, Ellen J.; Luxford, Karen M.; Luxford, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Inquiry-based instruction requires a deep, conceptual understanding of the process of science combined with a sophisticated knowledge of teaching and learning. This study examines the changes in classroom instructional practices and corresponding changes to knowledge and beliefs about inquiry instruction for eight high school chemistry teachers.…

  14. The Ripple Effect: Exploring How a Joint Science Specialist/TOSA Can Change Classroom Teachers' Instructional Practices through Project-Based Learning

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    Gradias, Jean

    In 2013, California became one of the first states to adopt the rigorous Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). However, the current state of science instruction does not support the conceptual shifts of the NGSS, which call for consistent science instruction K-12, increased inquiry, subject integration, as well as science instruction that connects students to their communities and their world. Therefore, teachers are in need of instructional support for science teaching that can enable them to achieve these higher expectations. This dissertation explored whether implementing a Project-Based Learning (PBL)-centered science specialist changed classroom teachers' frequency of science instruction and use of instructional strategies that support NGSS science delivery. In addition, this study examined how providing a PBL science specialist supported teachers in their comfort with using these more rigorous instructional strategies. Five elementary teachers participated in an action research project conducted over the course of a school year. The frequency with which teachers used the following instructional strategies was analyzed: connecting science to real world phenomena, accessing community resources, integrating science into other subject areas, and using inquiry in science instruction. Quantitative and qualitative data revealed that a PBL science specialist does support classroom teachers in implementing teaching practices aligned to the conceptual shifts implicated by the NGSS; however, individual growth rates varied by instructional strategy. The results of this study provide a foundation for the legitimacy of utilizing a PBL-focused science specialist to support teachers in shifting their instructional practices in order to achieve the Next Generation Science Standards.

  15. The Instructional Practice of School Principals and Its Effect on Teachers' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouali, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a piece of research concerning the practice of Cypriot school principals' instructional role and its effect on teachers' job satisfaction, and also to investigate whether higher levels of teachers' job satisfaction can be predicted when school principals deal with and accomplish their…

  16. Do 2nd and 3rd Grade Teachers' Linguistic Knowledge and Instructional Practices Predict Spelling Gains in Weaker Spellers?

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    Puliatte, Alison; Ehri, Linnea C.

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between 2nd and 3rd grade teachers' linguistic knowledge and spelling instructional practices and their students' spelling gains from fall to spring was examined. Second grade (N = 16) and 3rd grade (N = 16) teachers were administered an instructional practices survey and a linguistic knowledge test. Total scores on the two…

  17. An Analysis of Instructional Facilitators' Relationships with Teachers and Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Bret G.; Pijanowski, John C.; Duncan, Heather; Scherz, Susan; Hvidston, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the perspectives of Wyoming instructional facilitators, concerning three coaching constructs--namely, their instructional leadership roles, teachers' instructional practices, and the support that they receive from principals and teachers. Findings suggest that instructional facilitators were positive about their instructional…

  18. Preservice Teacher Application of Differentiated Instruction

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    Dee, Amy Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Successfully implementing the practice of inclusion by differentiating instruction depends on both the skills and attitudes of general education teachers. New general education teachers who are entering the field are particularly vulnerable to the demands and stress of the profession, and teacher education programs must prepare preservice teachers…

  19. The impact of inquiry-based instructional professional development upon instructional practice: An action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Frances A.

    This mixed method case study employs action research, conducted over a three month period with 11 elementary math and science practitioners. Inquiry as an instructional practice is a vital component of math and science instruction and STEM teaching. Teachers examined their beliefs and teaching practices with regard to those instructional factors that influence inquiry instruction. Video-taped lessons were compared to a rubric and pre and post questionnaires along with two interviews which informed the study. The results showed that while most beliefs were maintained, teachers implemented inquiry at a more advanced level after examining their teaching and reflecting on ways to increase inquiry practices. Because instructional practices provide only one component of inquiry-based instruction, other components need to be examined in a future study.

  20. An Examination of Preschool Teachers' Shared Book Reading Practices in Spanish: Before and after Instructional Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Simmons, Leslie; Nava-Walichowski, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Shared book reading is a prominent practice in preschools; however, limited research has examined this practice in classrooms with English language learners (ELLs). This study investigated the shared book reading practices of seven preschool teachers of Spanish-speaking ELLs to describe their vocabulary instructional practices before and after…

  1. The Impact of a Teacher Development Program for Strategic Reading on EFL Teachers’ Instructional Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khonamri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on teacher development has been the focus of attention in recent decades. The overall aim of this study was to explore the impact of reading strategy training on high school teachers' reading instructional practices. The study was conducted in the EFL context of Iran. To meet this aim, four EFL high school teachers voluntarily took part in the study. Teachers' reading classes were observed and audio-recorded both before and after the teachers took part in a three-hour workshop on reading strategies. Drawing on data from observations, the results showed some degree of change in teachers' reading practices after their having taken part in the workshops. That is, they took a more strategic approach to the teaching of reading in their classes.

  2. LATENT CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES REPORTED BY HIGH- AND LOW-PERFORMING MATHEMATICS TEACHERS IN FOUR COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS 2011 eighth-grade international dataset, this study explored the profiles of instructional practices reported by high- and low-performing mathematics teachers across the US, Finland, Korea, and Russia. Concepts of conceptual teaching and procedural teaching were used to frame the design of the current study. Latent cluster analysis was applied in the investigation of the profiles of mathematics teachers’ instructional practices across the four education systems. It was found that all mathematics teachers in the high- and low-performing groups used procedurally as well as conceptually oriented practices in their teaching. However, one group of high-performing mathematics teachers from the U.S. sample and all the high-performing teachers from Finland, Korea, and Russia showed more frequent use of conceptually oriented practices than their corresponding low-performing teachers. Another group of U.S. high-performing mathematics teachers showed a distinctive procedurally oriented pattern, which presented a rather different picture. Such results provide useful suggestions for practitioners and policy makers in their effort to improve mathematics teaching and learning in the US and in other countries as well.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.2.4066.115-132

  3. Perceptions about the Influence of Instructional Leadership Practices of Elementary Principals on Teachers' ELA Pedagogical Changes in High-Poverty NYC Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Linda D.

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationships between instructional leadership practices of elementary school principals in high-poverty schools and changes in teachers' ELA instructional practices. This research sought to identify principals' perceptions about their use of instructional leadership practices and the teaching practices used in…

  4. Influence of Head Teachers' General and Instructional Supervisory Practices on Teachers' Work Performance in Secondary Schools in Entebbe Municipality, Wakiso District, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Nzabonimpa Buregeya

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the Influence of Secondary School Head Teachers' General and Instructional Supervisory Practices on Teachers' Work Performance. Qualitative and qualitative methods with a descriptive-correlational research approach were used in the study. Purposive sampling technique alongside random sampling technique was used to select the…

  5. Reading strategy instruction and teacher change: implications for teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda M Klapwijk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I report on teacher change in the context of a reading strategy instruction intervention. Reading Strategy Instruction (RSI was implemented by three teachers, new to the concept, over a period of 15 weeks. Observations of these teachers showed that a multitude of factors affect the uptake of RSI as part of everyday teaching practice, and that teachers seem to move through distinct phases in their uptake of RSI. The article focuses on teachers' reaction to RSI and highlights a number of issues that are important to the implementation of RSI, not the least of which is that a clear need exists for changes to in-service teacher training and support and pre-service teacher training. In an effort to address these training issues the article contains specific recommendations for pre-service teacher training in particular.

  6. Latent Cluster Analysis of Instructional Practices Reported by High- and Low-performing Mathematics Teachers in Four Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Qiang; Hsu, Hsien-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Using Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 eighth-grade international dataset, this study explored the profiles of instructional practices reported by high- and low-performing mathematics teachers across the US, Finland, Korea, and Russia. Concepts of conceptual teaching and procedural teaching were used to frame the design of the current study. Latent cluster analysis was applied in the investigation of the profiles of mathematics teachers’ instructional practic...

  7. Associations of Newly Qualified Teachers' Beliefs with Classroom Management Practices and Approaches to Instruction over One School Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aus, Kati; Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Poom-Valickis, Katrin; Eisenschmidt, Eve; Kikas, Eve

    2017-01-01

    We focus on assessing whether newly qualified teachers' professional outcome expectations and their beliefs about students' intellectual potential are associated with teachers' self-reported classroom management and instructional practices. One hundred and eighteen novice teachers participating in the induction year programme were studied during…

  8. Promoting Prospective Elementary Teachers' Learning to Use Formative Assessment for Life Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Jaime L.; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura

    2015-06-01

    To support elementary students' learning of core, standards-based life science concepts highlighted in the Next Generation Science Standards, prospective elementary teachers should develop an understanding of life science concepts and learn to apply their content knowledge in instructional practice to craft elementary science learning environments grounded in students' thinking. To do so, teachers must learn to use high-leverage instructional practices, such as formative assessment, to engage students in scientific practices and connect instruction to students' ideas. However, teachers may not understand formative assessment or possess sufficient science content knowledge to effectively engage in related instructional practices. To address these needs, we developed and conducted research within an innovative course for preservice elementary teachers built upon two pillars—life science concepts and formative assessment. An embedded mixed methods study was used to evaluate the effect of the intervention on preservice teachers' (n = 49) content knowledge and ability to engage in formative assessment practices for science. Findings showed that increased life content knowledge over the semester helped preservice teachers engage more productively in anticipating and evaluating students' ideas, but not in identifying effective instructional strategies to respond to those ideas.

  9. Understanding the Development of a Hybrid Practice of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction and Language Development: A Case Study of One Teacher's Journey Through Reflections on Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study examines the teacher's reflections on her teaching and her students' learning as she engaged her students in science learning and supported their developing language skills. It explicates the professional learning experiences that supported the development of this hybrid practice. Closely examining the pedagogical practice and reflections of a teacher who is developing an inquiry-based approach to both science learning and language development can provide insights into how teachers come to integrate their professional development experiences with their classroom expertise in order to create a hybrid inquiry-based science ELD practice. This qualitative case study contributes to the emerging scholarship on the development of teacher practice of inquiry-based science instruction as a vehicle for both science instruction and ELD for ELLs. This study demonstrates how an effective teaching practice that supports both the science and language learning of students can develop from ongoing professional learning experiences that are grounded in current perspectives about language development and that immerse teachers in an inquiry-based approach to learning and instruction. Additionally, this case study also underscores the important role that professional learning opportunities can play in supporting teachers in developing a deeper understanding of the affordances that inquiry-based science can provide for language development.

  10. Examining First Grade Teachers' Handwriting Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Derya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the first grade teachers' practices of handwriting instructions in terms of teaching, evaluation and handwriting difficulties. From qualitative research patterns, phenomenology was used. The study was applied to the 54 First grade teachers who work at central Burdur and Burdur county centre primary education…

  11. Best practices in writing instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner

  12. Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

  13. The Integration of Instructional Technology by Teacher Educators at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The argument put up in this study is that if teachers have to use instructional technology in their classroom, they have to see lecturers modelling the best practices in technology utilisation. As such, the purpose of the study was to investigate the use of instructional technology by teacher educators in the Faculty of Education ...

  14. Pre-Service Teachers: An Analysis of Reading Instruction in High Needs Districts Dual Language Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Whitacre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004. The student teaching experience is a critical component of the teacher preparation program. Through the use of the English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI, and researcher observation the hope is that these will aid in bringing to light the instructional activities used by pre-service teachers during reading instruction with ELLs. This study explores how pre-service bilingual teachers connect theory into practice by examining their instruction in the following categories: Instructional Practices, Interactive Teaching, English-Language Development, and Content Specific to Reading as listed in The English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI developed by Haager, Gersten, Baker, and Graves (2003. To capture these instructional events video tape recordings of eight South Texas pre-service teachers were taken during a reading language arts lesson in order to observe instruction in high need districts’ dual language/bilingual classrooms. Data were compiled to capture the nature and quality of instruction on key essential elements, as well as reading instructional practices specific to the teaching/learning process in the dual language classroom. The findings portray the results of the ELLCOI with bilingual/ESL pre- service teachers and how they make sense of their instructional practices as a means to instruction in one-way dual language public school classrooms.

  15. Special Education Teachers' Nature of Science Instructional Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget K.; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Bell, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    Special education teachers provide critical science instruction to students. However, little research investigates special education teacher beliefs and practices around science in general or the nature of science and inquiry in particular. This investigation is a cross-case analysis of four elementary special education teachers' initial…

  16. Instructional Technology, Temper, Technique, and Teacher Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J. Mark; Garrison, James W.

    1991-01-01

    Scientific management and hierarchical accountability tend to destroy dialogue and issue ideas as orders to be obeyed. Instructional technology packages can actually enslave teachers. The emendation or feedback loop built into all instructional systems should allow educators to alter design in the context of practice and help technologists design…

  17. Supporting students' scientific explanations: A case study investigating the synergy focusing on a teacher's practices when providing instruction and using mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delen, Ibrahim

    Engage students in constructing scientific practices is a critical component of science instruction. Therefore a number of researchers have developed software programs to help students and teachers in this hard task. The Zydeco group, designed a mobile application called Zydeco, which enables students to collect data inside and outside the classroom, and then use the data to create scientific explanations by using claim-evidence-reasoning framework. Previous technologies designed to support scientific explanations focused on how these programs improve students' scientific explanations, but these programs ignored how scientific explanation technologies can support teacher practices. Thus, to increase our knowledge how different scaffolds can work together, this study aimed to portray the synergy between a teacher's instructional practices (part 1) and using supports within a mobile devices (part 2) to support students in constructing explanations. Synergy can be thought of as generic and content-specific scaffolds working together to enable students to accomplish challenging tasks, such as creating explanations that they would not normally be able to do without the scaffolds working together. Providing instruction (part 1) focused on understanding how the teacher scaffolds students' initial understanding of the claim-evidence-reasoning (CER) framework. The second component of examining synergy (part 2: using mobile devices) investigated how this teacher used mobile devices to provide feedback when students created explanations. The synergy between providing instruction and using mobile devices was investigated by analyzing a middle school teacher's practices in two different units (plants and water quality). Next, this study focused on describing how the level of synergy influenced the quality of students' scientific explanations. Finally, I investigated the role of focused teaching intervention sessions to inform teacher in relation to students' performance. In

  18. Effects of Professional Development on Teachers' Instruction: Results from a Three-year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, Laura M.; Porter, Andrew C.; Garet, Michael S.; Yoon, Kwang Suk; Birman, Beatrice F.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of professional development on teachers' instruction using a purposeful sample of about 207 teachers across 5 states for 1996-1999. Professional development focused on specific instructional practices increased teachers' use of those practices in the classroom, and specific features, such as active learning opportunities,…

  19. Using the instructional congruence model to change a science teacher's practices and English language learners' attitudes and achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Hania Moussa

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of adapting the instructional congruence model on the English Language Learners' (ELL) attitudes and achievement in science. Changes in teacher's views and practices were documented. The mixed-method approach was adapted. Data sources were the "Attitude Towards Science" survey, VNOS-C questionnaire, Luykx and Lee (2007) observational instrument, Gee (1997) discussion categories, video recordings, and pre- and post-tests. A science teacher and a class of 24 ELL female students in a charter school participated in this research. The results of this study indicated that student achievement increased significantly and students' attitudes improved in all contexts. At the conclusion of the study, all teacher's views on NOS were reported to be informed, teacher's practices were rated higher, and different classroom interactions increased significantly. The instructional congruence model in science education has been successful in reaching different learners, improving students' attitudes and achievement in science and enhancing teacher's views and practices. This model has significant potential for meeting the challenging goals of reformed science education.

  20. Chinese and US Middle-School Science Teachers' Autonomy, Motivation, and Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2013-06-01

    This study examined Chinese and US middle-school science teachers' perceptions of autonomy support. Previous research has documented the link between teachers' perceptions of autonomy and the use of student-oriented teaching practices for US teachers. But is not clear how the perception of autonomy may differ for teachers from different cultures or more specifically how motivation factors differ across cultures. The survey measured teachers' motivation, perceptions of constraints at work, perceptions of students' motivation, and level of autonomy support for students. Exploratory factor analysis of responses for the combined teacher sample (n = 201) was carried out for each of the survey assessments. Significance testing for Chinese (n = 107) and US (n = 94) teachers revealed significant differences in teachers' motivation and perceptions of constraints at work and no significant differences for perceptions of students' motivation or their level of autonomy support for students. Chinese teachers' perceptions of constraints at work, work motivation, and perceptions of student motivation were found to significantly predict teachers' autonomy support. For the US teachers, teacher motivation was the only significant predictor of teachers' autonomy support. A sub-sample of teachers (n = 19) was interviewed and results showed that teachers in both countries reported that autonomy was important to their motivation and the quality of science instruction they provided to students. The primary constraints on teaching reported by the US teachers related to materials and laboratory space while the Chinese teachers reported constraints related to the science curriculum and standards.

  1. The extent to which Latina/o preservice teachers demonstrate culturally responsive teaching practices during science and mathematics instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cecilia M.

    2011-12-01

    Complex social, racial, economic, and political issues involved in the practice of teaching today require beginning teachers to be informed, skilled, and culturally responsive when entering the classroom. Teacher educators must educate future teachers in ways that will help them teach all children regardless of language, cultural background, or prior knowledge. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) novice teachers described and demonstrated culturally responsive teaching strategies using their students' cultural and academic profiles to inform practice in science and mathematics instruction. This qualitative exploratory case study considered the culturally responsive teaching practices of 12, non-traditional, Latina/o students as they progressed through a distance-based collaborative teacher education program. Qualitative techniques used throughout this exploratory case study investigated cultural responsiveness of these student teachers as they demonstrated their abilities to: a) integrate content and facilitate knowledge construction; b) illustrate social justice and prejudice reduction; and c) develop students academically. In conclusion, student teachers participating in this study demonstrated their ability to integrate content by: (1) including content from other cultures, (2) building positive teacher-student relationships, and (3) holding high expectations for all students. They also demonstrated their ability to facilitate knowledge construction by building on what students knew. Since there is not sufficient data to support the student teachers' abilities to assist students in learning to be critical, independent thinkers who are open to other ways of knowing, no conclusions regarding this subcategory could be drawn. Student teachers in this study illustrated prejudice reduction by: (1) using native language support to assist students in learning and understanding science and math content

  2. Mathematics Teaching as Problem Solving: A Framework for Studying Teacher Metacognition Underlying Instructional Practice in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Alice F.; Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    1998-01-01

    Uses a "teaching as problem solving" perspective to examine the components of metacognition underlying the instructional practice of seven experienced and seven beginning secondary-school mathematics teachers. Data analysis of observations, lesson plans, videotapes, and audiotapes of structured interviews suggests that the metacognition of…

  3. Understanding Mathematics Classroom Instruction Through Students and Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Schenke, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    High quality instruction is necessary for students of all ages to develop a deep understanding of mathematics. Value-added models, a common approach used to describe teachers and classroom practices, are defined by the student standardized achievement gains teachers elicit. They may, however, fail to account for the complexity of mathematics instruction as it actually occurs in the classroom. To truly understand both a teacher’s impact on his/her students and how best to improve student learn...

  4. An investigation of teachers' reported use of scientific practices in elementary instruction: Implications for student outcomes and principals' self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasammy, Godfrey

    Innovative and ambitious efforts are taking place to implement the new vision for science education--the Next Generation of Science Standards (NGSS) in the United States. To implement this new vision, teachers must reconsider how they use their science content knowledge (SCK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in new ways that require teachers to use the three dimensions, of the NGSS to deliver phenomena -based science instruction. The use of the science and engineering practices for students to make sense of the world will be at the core of this shift. This study was conducted in a mid-Atlantic state that is one of the leaders in the adoption and implementation of NGSS. All of the local education agencies (LEAs) are expected to implement these standards by revising their science curriculum and providing professional development to their teachers. Additionally, students in grades 5, 8, and 10 will be assessed using a new and more rigorous state science assessment based on the NGSS that will be used for school and district accountability by 2020. If students will be expected to demonstrate their knowledge of the new standards, science instruction aligned with the new standards needs to begin early. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to document the extent to which grade 1-5 teachers in one district within the state report using one of the eight NGSS science and engineering practices, specifically the development and use of models in their science instruction. Selection of this practice was supported by research that supports the development and use of models in elementary science instruction as an anchor for all the other NGSS seven science and engineering practices. This exploratory study utilized an online survey to document the frequency, barriers, and relationships and differences between teacher characteristics and demographics on the use of models to support students' learning outcomes. Findings suggest that grade 1-5 teachers have a low frequency

  5. Is it Possible to Design a Math-Art Instructional Practice? Cases of Pre-service Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıkhan UĞUREL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To many people, establishing relationships between mathematics and art is difficult or surprising. However, these two disciplines are quite interrelated. Today, the literature of mathematics reveals that there has been an increasing interest in interaction between these two disciplines. As also observed in our country, the studies on relationships between mathematics and art have gained more popularity in mathematics education. There is a course entitled, “Mathematics and Art” offered as one of elective courses and taught for ten years to juniors of the Department of Secondary Mathematics Education, Dokuz Eylül University. The course covers a wide range of activities derived from relationships between mathematics and music to activities derived from those between mathematics and handicraft. In this study, cases of pre-service teachers attending this course were analysed. They were asked to do an instructional design integrating mathematics into art at secondary education level. Their designs were analyzed based on the use of art in which contexts and for what purposes. Furthermore, their designs were analyzed in terms of whether they enhance learning. This qualitative study had a case study design. The participants were 43 pre-service mathematics teachers voluntarily selected from students taking the course. Descriptive analysis was done to analyze the data. As a consequence of the analysis, math-art instructional practices developed by pre-service teachers were clustered under three primary categories (good, average and inadequate. The majority of math-art instructional practices were categorized under the average category. In the study, these categories were described and cases in each category were discussed.

  6. The Influences of Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Practical Rationality on Instructional Decision Making Regarding the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski-McMahon, Lauren M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of various facets of middle school mathematics teachers' practical rationality on their instructional decision making as they plan to enact the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice, CCSS-MP1 (perseverance in problem solving) and CCSS-MP3 (communicating and critiquing). The…

  7. Windows into Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher-Reed, Christina; Rotella, Sam A.

    2017-01-01

    Administrators are often removed from the daily instructional realities in classrooms, while teachers aren't given enough opportunities to lead in their schools, write Christina Steinbacher-Reed and Sam A. Rotella Jr. The result is a wall that prevents the two parties from collaborating in a way that improves school culture, teaching practices,…

  8. Exploring ESL/EFL Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Reading Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Any instructional practice must be derived from a teacher's knowledge base for teaching, which can be acquired by training, study, or practice. While much attention has been paid to teachers' practical content knowledge in real educational settings, comprehensive syntheses of expert knowledge on a particular teaching task for a specific group of…

  9. An Investigation of Turkish Middle School Science Teachers' Pedagogical Orientations Towards Direct and Inquiry Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahingoz, Selcuk

    One of the most important goals of science education is preparing effective science teachers which includes the development of a science pedagogical orientation. Helping in-service science teachers improve their orientations toward science teaching begins with identifying their current orientations. While there are many aspects of an effective science teaching orientation, this study specifically focuses on effective pedagogy. The interest of this study is to clarify pedagogical orientations of middle school science teachers in Turkey toward the teaching of science conceptual knowledge. It focuses on what instructional preferences Turkish middle school science teachers have in theory and practice. The purpose of this study is twofold: 1) to elucidate teacher pedagogical profiles toward direct and inquiry instructional approaches. For this purpose, quantitative profile data, using a Turkish version of the Pedagogy of Science Teaching Test (POSTT-TR) assessment instrument, was collected from 533 Turkish middle school science teachers; 2) to identify teaching orientations of middle school science teachers and to identify their reasons for preferring specific instructional practices. For this purpose, descriptive qualitative, interview data was collected from 23 teachers attending a middle school science teacher workshop in addition to quantitative data using the POSTT-TR. These teachers sat for interviews structured by items from the POSTT-TR. Thus, the research design is mixed-method. The design provides a background profile on teacher orientations along with insights on reasons for pedagogical choices. The findings indicate that instructional preference distributions for the large group and smaller group are similar; however, the smaller workshop group is more in favor of inquiry instructional approaches. The findings also indicate that Turkish middle school science teachers appear to have variety of teaching orientations and they have varied reasons. Moreover, the

  10. Investigating Practices in Teacher Education That Promote and Inhibit Technology Integration Transfer in Early Career Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Aimee M.; Brill, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify instructional technology integration strategies and practices in preservice teacher education that contribute to the transfer of technology integration knowledge and skills to the instructional practices of early career teachers. This study used a two-phase, sequential explanatory strategy. Data were…

  11. Latent Cluster Analysis of Instructional Practices Reported by High- and Low-Performing Mathematics Teachers in Four Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiang; Hsu, Hsien-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Using Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 eighth-grade international dataset, this study explored the profiles of instructional practices reported by high- and low-performing mathematics teachers across the US, Finland, Korea, and Russia. Concepts of conceptual teaching and procedural teaching were used to frame the…

  12. Instructional Partners, Principals, Teachers, and Instructional Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    This handbook examines various topics of interest and concern to teachers as they work with instructional assistants forming a classroom instructional partnership and functioning as a team. These topics include: (1) instructional assistant qualifications; (2) duties--instructional, classroom clerical, auxillary; (3) factors to be considered when…

  13. Which Instructional Practices Most Help First Grade Students with and without Mathematics Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We used population-based, longitudinal data to investigate the relation between mathematics instructional practices used by 1st grade teachers in the U.S. and the mathematics achievement of their students. Factor analysis identified four types of instructional activities (i.e., teacher-directed, student-centered, manipulatives/calculators, movement/music) and eight types of specific skills taught (e.g., adding two-digit numbers). First-grade students were then classified into five groups on the basis of their fall and/or spring of kindergarten mathematics achievement—three groups with mathematics difficulties (MD) and two without MD. Regression analysis indicated that a higher percentage of MD students in 1st grade classrooms was associated with greater use by teachers of manipulatives/calculators and movement/music to teach mathematics. Yet follow-up analysis for each of the MD and non-MD groups indicated that only teacher-directed instruction was significantly associated with the achievement of students with MD (covariate-adjusted ESs = .05–.07). The largest predicted effect for a specific instructional practice was for routine practice and drill. In contrast, for both groups of non-MD students, teacher-directed and student-centered instruction had approximately equal, statistically significant positive predicted effects (covariate-adjusted ESs = .03–.04). First-grade teachers in the U.S. may need to increase their use of teacher-directed instruction if they are to raise the mathematics achievement of students with MD. PMID:26180268

  14. Examining elementary teachers' knowledge and instruction of scientific explanations for fostering children's explanations in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebke, Heidi Lynn

    This study employed an embedded mixed methods multi-case study design (Creswell, 2014) with six early childhood (grades K-2) teachers to examine a) what changes occurred to their subject matter knowledge (SMK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching scientific explanations while participating in a professional development program, b) how they planned for and implemented scientific explanation instruction within a teacher developed unit on properties of matter, and c) what affordances their instruction of scientific explanations had on fostering their students' abilities to generate explanations in science. Several quantitative and qualitative measures were collected and analyzed in accordance to this studies conceptual framework, which consisted of ten instructional practices teachers should consider assimilating or accommodating into their knowledge base (i.e., SMK & PCK) for teaching scientific explanations. Results of this study indicate there was little to no positive change in the teachers' substantive and syntactic SMK. However, all six teachers did make significant changes to all five components of their PCK for teaching explanations in science. While planning for scientific explanation instruction, all six teachers' contributed some ideas for how to incorporate seven of the ten instructional practices for scientific explanations within the properties of matter unit they co-developed. When enacting the unit, the six teachers' employed seven to nine of the instructional practices to varying levels of effectiveness, as measured by researcher developed rubrics. Given the six teachers' scientific explanation instruction, many students did show improvement in their ability to formulate a scientific explanation, particularly their ability to provide multiple pieces of evidence. Implications for professional developers, teacher educators, researchers, policy makers, and elementary teachers regarding how to prepare teachers for and support students

  15. Students' Evocative Impact on Teacher Instruction and Teacher-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Kiuru, Noona

    2015-01-01

    Classroom research has typically focused on the role of teaching practices and the quality of instruction in children's academic performance, motivation and adjustment--in other words, classroom interactions initiated by the teacher. The present article presents a model of classroom interactions initiated by the child, that is, the notion that a…

  16. Preparing Content Area Teachers for Disciplinary Literacy Instruction: The Role of Literacy Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    The recent call for secondary reading instruction to move away from a focus on generic literacy strategies to discipline-specific language and literacy practices presents new challenges for secondary teacher preparation. This column identifies some of the roles literacy teacher educators can play in helping address these challenges.

  17. Teaching Who You Are: Connecting Teachers' Civic Education Ideology to Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ryan T.

    2018-01-01

    This quantitative study uses survey data to test connections between 735 teachers' civic education ideology (CivID) and their self-reported instructional practices. Analysis demonstrates teachers' beliefs in relation to conservative, liberal, and critical civic education ideology as well as preference for instructional strategies, such as…

  18. Teacher coaching supported by formative assessment for improving classroom practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A; Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M

    2018-06-01

    The present study is a wait-list controlled, randomized study investigating a teacher coaching approach that emphasizes formative assessment and visual performance feedback to enhance elementary school teachers' classroom practices. The coaching model targeted instructional and behavioral management practices as measured by the Classroom Strategies Assessment System (CSAS) Observer and Teacher Forms. The sample included 89 general education teachers, stratified by grade level, and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) immediate coaching, or (b) waitlist control. Results indicated that, relative to the waitlist control, teachers in immediate coaching demonstrated significantly greater improvements in observations of behavior management strategy use but not for observations of instructional strategy use. Observer- and teacher-completed ratings of behavioral management strategy use at postassessment were significantly improved by both raters; ratings of instructional strategy use were significantly improved for teacher but not observer ratings. A brief coaching intervention improved teachers' use of observed behavior management strategies and self-reported use of behavior management and instructional strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Is Reading Instruction Evidence-Based? Analyzing Teaching Practices Using T-Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Natalia; Sánchez, Carmen R; Jiménez, Juan E; Anguera, M Teresa

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to analyze whether primary teachers use evidence-based reading instruction for primary-grade readers. The study sample consisted of six teachers whose teaching was recorded. The observation instrument used was developed ad hoc for this study. The recording instrument used was Match Vision Studio. The data analysis was performed using SAS, GT version 2.0 E, and THEME. The results indicated that the teaching practices used most frequently and for the longest duration were: feedback (i.e., correcting the student when reading); fluency (i.e., individual and group reading, both out loud and silently, with and without intonation); literal or inference comprehension exercises (i.e., summarizing, asking questions); and use of educational resources (i.e., stories, songs, poems). Later, we conducted analyses of T-Patterns that showed the sequence of instruction in detail. We can conclude that practices used by the majority of teachers were based on the recommendations of the National Reading Panel (NRP). Only one teacher followed best practices. The same was the case for instructional time spent on the five essential components of reading, with the exception of teacher E., who dedicated 70.31% of class time implementing best practices. Teaching practices (i.e., learners' activities) designed and implemented to exercise and master alphabetic knowledge and phonological awareness skills were used less frequently in the classroom.

  20. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Metacognitive Knowledge about Their Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Özdemir, Ömer Faruk; Ünal, Cezmi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate pre-service physics teachers' metacognitive knowledge about their teaching practices. The participants included six pre-service physics teachers. A taxonomy of metacognition for teaching was developed to analyze the level of pre-service physics teachers' metacognitive knowledge about their teaching practices.…

  1. Differentiated instruction: perceptions, practices and challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differentiated instruction: perceptions, practices and challenges of primary school teachers. ... Different factors like knowledge and experience, commitment and motivation, availability of materials/resources, availability of time, class size, range of diversity in classroom, leadership and parental support and staff collaboration ...

  2. Toward Better Goal Clarity in Instruction: How Focus on Content, Social Exchange and Active Learning Supports Teachers in Improving Dialogic Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles, Martina; Seidel, Tina; Gröschner, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Goal clarity is an essential element of classroom dialogue and a component of effective instruction. Until now, teachers have been struggling to implement goal clarity in the classroom dialogue. In the present study, we investigated the classroom practice of teachers in a video-based intervention called the Dialogic Video Cycle (DVC) and compared…

  3. Is Reading Instruction Evidence-Based? Analyzing Teaching Practices Using T-Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Suárez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to analyze whether primary teachers use evidence-based reading instruction for primary-grade readers. The study sample consisted of six teachers whose teaching was recorded. The observation instrument used was developed ad hoc for this study. The recording instrument used was Match Vision Studio. The data analysis was performed using SAS, GT version 2.0 E, and THEME. The results indicated that the teaching practices used most frequently and for the longest duration were: feedback (i.e., correcting the student when reading; fluency (i.e., individual and group reading, both out loud and silently, with and without intonation; literal or inference comprehension exercises (i.e., summarizing, asking questions; and use of educational resources (i.e., stories, songs, poems. Later, we conducted analyses of T-Patterns that showed the sequence of instruction in detail. We can conclude that <50% of the teaching practices used by the majority of teachers were based on the recommendations of the National Reading Panel (NRP. Only one teacher followed best practices. The same was the case for instructional time spent on the five essential components of reading, with the exception of teacher E., who dedicated 70.31% of class time implementing best practices. Teaching practices (i.e., learners' activities designed and implemented to exercise and master alphabetic knowledge and phonological awareness skills were used less frequently in the classroom.

  4. Earth Science for Educators: Preparing 7-12 Teachers for Standards-based, Inquiry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, H.

    2002-05-01

    "Earth Science for Educators" is an innovative, standards-based, graduate level teacher education curriculum that presents science content and pedagogic technique in parallel. The curriculum calls upon the resources and expertise of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) to prepare novice New York City teachers for teaching Earth Science. One of the goals of teacher education is to assure and facilitate science education reform through preparation of K-12 teachers who understand and are able to implement standard-based instruction. Standards reflect not only the content knowledge students are expected to attain but also the science skills and dispositions towards science they are expected to develop. Melding a list of standards with a curriculum outline to create inquiry-based classroom instruction that reaches a very diverse population of learners is extremely challenging. "Earth Science for Educators" helps novice teachers make the link between standards and practice by constantly connecting standards with instruction they receive and activities they carry out. Development of critical thinking and enthusiasm for inquiry is encouraged through engaging experience and contact with scientists and their work. Teachers are taught Earth systems science content through modeling of a wide variety of instruction and assessment methods based upon authentic scientific inquiry and aimed at different learning styles. Use of fieldwork and informal settings, such as the Museum, familiarizes novice teachers with ways of drawing on community resources for content and instructional settings. Metacognitive reflection that articulates standards, practice, and the teachers' own learning experience help draw out teachers' insights into their students' learning. The innovation of bring science content together with teaching methods is key to preparing teachers for standards-based, inquiry instruction. This curriculum was successfully piloted with a group of 28 novice teachers as

  5. Approaches to inclusive English classrooms a teacher's handbook for content-based instruction

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    Mastruserio Reynolds, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This accessible book takes a critical approach towards content-based instruction methods, bridging the gap between theory and practice in order to allow teachers to make an informed decision about best practices for an inclusive classroom. It is a resource for both educators and ESL teachers working within an English learner inclusion environment.

  6. Elementary teachers' knowledge and practices in teaching science to English language learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santau, Alexandra O.

    Efforts to improve education---more concretely science education---by creating fundamental shifts in standards for students and teachers have been launched by educators and policy makers in recent years. The new standards for science instruction address improvements in student learning, program development, assessment, and professional development for teachers, with the goal to prepare US students for the academic demands of the 21st century. The study examined teachers' knowledge and practices in science instruction with English language learning (ELL) students. It also examined relationships among key domains of science instruction with ELL students, as well as profiles of teaching practices. The four domains included: (1) teachers' knowledge of science content, (2) teaching practices to promote scientific understanding, (3) teaching practices to promote scientific inquiry, and (4) teaching practices to support English language development during science instruction. The study was part of a larger 5-year research and development intervention aimed at promoting science and literacy achievement of ELL students in urban elementary schools. The study involved 32 third grade, 21 fourth grade, and 17 fifth grade teachers participating in the first-year implementation of the intervention. Based on teachers' questionnaire responses, classroom observation ratings, and post-observation interviews, results indicated that (1) teachers' knowledge and practices were within the bounds of the intervention, but short of reform-oriented practices and (2) relationships among the four domains existed, especially at grade 5. These findings can provide insights for professional development and future research, along with accountability policies.

  7. Effects of curriculum-based measurement on teachers' instructional planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, L S; Fuchs, D; Stecker, P M

    1989-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) on teachers' instructional planning. Subjects were 30 teachers, assigned randomly to a computer-assisted CBM group, a noncomputer CBM group, and a contrast group. In the CBM groups, teachers specified 15-week reading goals, established CBM systems to measure student progress toward goals at least twice weekly, and systematically evaluated those data bases to determine when instructional modifications were necessary. Contrast teachers monitored student progress toward Individualized Education Program (IEP) goals as they wished and were encouraged to develop instructional programs as necessary. At the end of a 12- to 15-week implementation period, teachers completed a questionnaire with reference to one randomly selected pupil. Analyses of variance indicated no difference between the CBM groups. However, compared to the contrast group, CBM teachers (a) used more specific, acceptable goals; (b) were less optimistic about goal attainment; (c) cited more objective and frequent data sources for determining the adequacy of student progress and for deciding whether program modifications were necessary; and (d) modified student programs more frequently. Questionnaire responses were correlated with verifiable data sources, and results generally supported the usefulness of the self-report information. Implications for special education research and practice are discussed.

  8. Reconsidering the Study of Mathematics Instructional Practices: The Importance of Curricular Context in Understanding Local and Global Teacher Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Id-Deen, Lateefah

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the case of one teacher, Jackie, whose instructional practices illuminate the importance of textbooks and student/parent expectations in shaping pedagogy. Jackie teaches in the Plainview district, which offers parents and students a choice between a reform-oriented, integrated curriculum ("Core Plus") and a more…

  9. Activating the Need to Know in Reading Instruction: One Teacher Educator's Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Priscilla S.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines one teacher educator's teaching of reading methods at a university that was recognized for exemplary reading instruction. Data collected over the course of one semester indicated that she modeled the teaching of reading and served as a catalyst in activating preservice teachers' need to know about how to teach reading by…

  10. No Certification, No Training...No Problem: The Influence of Formative Beliefs and Learning Experiences in the Instructional Practice of New Independent School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derick Graham

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to answer the question: "To what extent do prior beliefs about and experiences of teaching and learning influence the instructional practices of new independent school teachers," who are generally not required to have any formal pedagogical training or hold teacher certification prior to beginning full-time employment.…

  11. Self-Presentation Bias in Surveys of Teachers' Educational Technology Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcha, Theodore J.; Sullivan, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated self-presentation bias in the self-reports of teachers about their practices in six topic areas in educational technology (Instructional Design, Assessment, Learner-Centered Instruction, Curriculum Alignment, Attitudes about Computers, and Use of Computers with Students). Subjects were 50 middle-school teachers. Data were…

  12. Teacher knowledge, instructional expertise, and the development of reading proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Lyon, G; Weiser, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Teacher knowledge and instructional expertise have been found in correlational and pre- and posttest studies to be related to student reading achievement. This article summarizes data presented in this special issue and additional research to address four questions: (a) What do expert reading teachers know? (b) Why do teachers need to acquire this knowledge? (c) Do teachers believe they have this knowledge? and (d) Are teachers being adequately prepared to teach reading? Well-designed studies relevant to this topic have been sparse with a noticeable lack of attention given to identifying specific causal links between teacher knowledge, teaching expertise, and student reading achievement. Until the appropriate research designs and methodologies are applied to address the question of causal effects, conclusions about the specific content that teachers must know and the instructional practices that are most beneficial in presenting this content are preliminary at best. Future studies of the effect of essential reading content knowledge must be extended beyond word-level skills to vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing.

  13. Deaf Autism: Common Instructional Practices Described by Deaf Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to identify common instructional practices described by teachers of the deaf with students who are deaf with autism that increase both student engagement and instructional outcomes. As the diversity of students increase within deaf/hard of hearing programs, research is emerging in the area of deaf autism.…

  14. The Problem with Reform from the Bottom up: Instructional practises and teacher beliefs of graduate teaching assistants following a reform-minded university teacher certificate programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Tracie M.; Blanchard, Margaret R.

    2010-05-01

    Reform-minded practices are widely encouraged during pre-service science teacher education in concert with national reform documents. This contrasts to the nature of instruction within university science laboratories in which pre-service teachers enrol, which are largely confirmatory in nature. Undergraduate science laboratories are taught predominantly by graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) with minimal teacher preparation. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate the instructional practices and teacher beliefs of eight GTAs at a university with very high research activity who completed a reform-minded Teacher Certificate Programme, asking: What are their beliefs about teaching? How are their practices described? Do their beliefs and practices differ from one another? Do their teaching beliefs correspond with their practices? Findings indicate that GTAs held moderately reform-minded "transitional" beliefs of teaching following the programme, yet displayed fairly traditional instruction. Cross-case findings highlight similar patterns across subscales of the RTOP that draw attention to underlying constraints of the laboratory curriculum structure. We suggest that GTA professional development is best undertaken concurrent with laboratory course revision.

  15. Teachers' Use of Learning Progression-Based Formative Assessment in Water Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covitt, Beth A.; Gunckel, Kristin L.; Caplan, Bess; Syswerda, Sara

    2018-01-01

    While learning progressions (LPs) hold promise as instructional tools, researchers are still in the early stages of understanding how teachers use LPs in formative assessment practices. We report on a study that assessed teachers' proficiency in using a LP for student ideas about hydrologic systems. Research questions were: (a) what were teachers'…

  16. Teacher leadership in mathematics and science: Subject content knowledge and the improvement of instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, Christopher M.

    This study explores the role of teacher leader subject content knowledge in the promotion of professional development and instructional reform. Consistent with a distributed leadership perspective, many have asserted that the promotion of school effectiveness can be enhanced through the application of teacher leadership (Frost & Durrant, 2003; Harris, 2002a; Sherrill, 1999; Silva, Gimbert, & Nolan, 2000; York-Barr & Duke, 2004). There has been much discussion in the research about the significance of teachers' subject content knowledge in teaching and learning which has generally asserted a positive relationship with instructional practice and student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Newton & Newton, 2001; Parker & Heywood, 2000). The role of content knowledge in teacher leader work has been less researched. This study focused on deepening understanding of perceptions regarding teacher leaders' roles in improving instructional practice. Based on a framework of common teacher leader tasks, qualitative methods were used to investigate the relationship between teacher leader subject content knowledge and perceptions of effectiveness in promoting professional development and instructional reform. The study indicates that content experts behave differently than their non-expert counterparts. Content experts recognize deficiencies in colleagues' content knowledge as a primary problem in the implementation of math or science reform. Content experts view their work as advocacy for improved curriculum and instruction for all children, and work within a small set of task categories to promote discussions about teaching, learning, and content. Content experts develop trust and rapport with colleagues by demonstrating expertise, and are respected for their deep knowledge and efforts to help teachers learn the content. They also differ from non-content experts in the professional growth experiences in which they engage. The consideration of content expertise as an influence

  17. Examining Shifts in Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Attitudes toward Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Anna H.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of integrating self-reflection, focused instruction, and field practice in a semester-long language arts course in order to shift early childhood preservice teachers' (PSTs) beliefs and attitudes about writing instruction, as well as their development and planned use of tools for…

  18. Understanding science teaching effectiveness: examining how science-specific and generic instructional practices relate to student achievement in secondary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeska, Jamie N.; Shattuck, Tamara; Holtzman, Steven; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Duchesneau, Nancy; Qi, Yi; Stickler, Leslie

    2017-12-01

    In order to create conditions for students' meaningful and rigorous intellectual engagement in science classrooms, it is critically important to help science teachers learn which strategies and approaches can be used best to develop students' scientific literacy. Better understanding how science teachers' instructional practices relate to student achievement can provide teachers with beneficial information about how to best engage their students in meaningful science learning. To address this need, this study examined the instructional practices that 99 secondary biology teachers used in their classrooms and employed regression to determine which instructional practices are predictive of students' science achievement. Results revealed that the secondary science teachers who had well-managed classroom environments and who provided opportunities for their students to engage in student-directed investigation-related experiences were more likely to have increased student outcomes, as determined by teachers' value-added measures. These findings suggest that attending to both generic and subject-specific aspects of science teachers' instructional practice is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms that result in more effective science instruction in secondary classrooms. Implications about the use of these observational measures within teacher evaluation systems are discussed.

  19. Assessment of general education teachers' Tier 1 classroom practices: contemporary science, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Jimerson, Shane R

    2013-12-01

    Progress monitoring is a type of formative assessment. Most work on progress monitoring in elementary school settings has been focused on students. However, teachers also can benefit from frequent evaluations. Research addressing teacher progress monitoring is critically important given the recent national focus on teacher evaluation and effectiveness. This special topic section of School Psychology Quarterly is the first to showcase the current research on measuring Tier 1 instructional and behavioral management practices used by prekindergarten and elementary school teachers in general education settings. The three studies included in the special section describe the development and validation efforts of several teacher observational and self-report measures of instruction and/or behavioral management. These studies provide evidence for the utility of such assessments for documenting the use of classroom practices, and these assessment results may be leveraged in innovative coaching models to promote best practice. These articles also offer insight and ideas for the next generation of teacher practice assessment for the field. Finally, the special topic is capped by a commentary synthesizing the current work and offers "big ideas" for future measurement development, policy, and professional development initiatives. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Principals Management Support Practices to Promote Teachers' Instructional Improvement for Sustainable Development in Secondary Education in Anambra State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Akinfolarin Akinwale; Emetarom, Uche Grace

    2017-01-01

    This study ascertained the principals management support practices to promote teachers instructional improvement for sustainable development in secondary education in Anambra State. Two specific purposes were formulated and two research questions guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The study was conducted in the six…

  1. The Future of Instructional Teacher Leader Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Melinda M.; Stoelinga, Sara Ray

    2010-01-01

    In response to increased performance expectations, schools and districts are turning to nonsupervisory, school-based, instructional teacher leader roles to help improve teachers' instruction and enhance student learning. Increased opportunities to learn about teacher leadership may facilitate the implementation and institutionalization of…

  2. How Teachers' Beliefs About Climate Change Influence Their Instruction and Resulting Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, M.; Feldman, A.; Smith, G.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand the relationship between teachers' beliefs and understandings of climate change and their instructional practices to determine if and how they impact student outcomes. Limited research has been done in the area of teacher beliefs on climate change, their instruction, and resulting student outcomes. This study contributes to the greater understanding of teachers' beliefs and impact on climate change curriculum implementation. The study utilized a mixed methods approach to data collection and analysis. Data were collected in the form of classroom observations, surveys, and interviews from teachers and students participating in the study over a four-month period. Qualitative and quantitative findings were analyzed through thematic coding and descriptive analysis and compared in an effort to triangulate findings. The results of the study suggest teachers and students believe climate change is occurring and humans are largely to blame. Personal beliefs are important when teaching controversial topics, such as climate change, but participants maintained neutrality within their instruction of the topic, as not to appear biased or influence students' decisions about climate change, and avoid political controversy in the classroom. Overall, the study found teachers' level of understandings and beliefs about climate change had little impact on their instruction and resulting student outcomes. Based on the findings, simply adding climate change to the existing science curriculum is not sufficient for teachers or students. Teachers need to be better prepared about effective pedagogical practices of the content in order to effectively teach a climate-centered curriculum. The barriers that exist for the inclusion of teachers' personal beliefs need to be removed in order for teachers to assert their own personal beliefs about climate change within their classroom instruction. Administrators and stakeholders need to support science

  3. Promising Instructional Practices for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory case study was to understand how teachers, working with English Language Learners (ELLs), expanded their knowledge and instructional practices as they implemented a one-to-one iPad® program. Background: English Language Learners experience linguistic, cultural, and cognitive shifts that can be…

  4. Assessing the Impact of Lesson Study on the Teaching Practice of Middle School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Michael C.

    Despite wave after wave of educational reform in the United States our students continue to lag behind their peers in other industrialized countries on virtually all measures of academic achievement. Effective professional development (PD) is seen as a key to improving instructional practice and therefore student learning, but traditional forms of PD have been wholly unsuccessful in changing teaching practice. Over the last two decades an emerging body of research has identified some key features of effective PD that seem to create meaningful change and improvement in instructional practice. Some of this research highlights the promise of adapting Japanese lesson study (LS) to the American context as a means of incrementally improving instruction. Much of the existing research around LS is descriptive in nature and offers little insight into if and how participation in LS impacts subsequent instructional practice. This study utilized case study methodology to examine the instructional practice of one group of four middle school science teachers before, during, and after participation in LS. The study attempted to identify specific learning outcomes of a LS process, to identify influences on teacher learning during LS, and to identify subsequent changes in the instructional practice of participants resulting from participation in LS. Key findings from the study include significant teacher learning derived from the LS process, the identification of influences that enhanced or inhibited teacher learning, and clear evidence that participants successfully integrated learning from the LS into subsequent instructional practice. Learning outcomes included deepening of subject matter knowledge, increased understanding of student thinking and abilities, clarity of expectations for student performance, recognition of the ineffectiveness of past instructional practice, specific instructional strategies, shared student learning goals, and an increased commitment to future

  5. Instructional practices and science performance of 10 top-performing regions in PISA 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kwok-chi; Lam, Terence Yuk-ping

    2017-10-01

    This study analysed 10 top-performing regions in PISA 2015 on their science performances and instructional practices. The regions include Singapore, Japan, Estonia, Taipei, Finland, Macao, Canada, Hong Kong, China and Korea. The science performances of the 10 regions and their teaching practices are described and compared. The construct of enquiry-based instruction as developed in PISA 2015 is revised into two new constructs using factor analysis. Then, the relationships of the teaching practices with science performance are analysed using hierarchical linear modelling. Adaptive instruction, teacher-directed instruction and interactive application are found positively associated with performance in all regions, while investigation and perceived feedback are all negative. The regions except Japan and Korea tend to have a high frequency of teacher-directed instruction facilitated by more or less authoritative class discussion in class. A fair amount of practical work is done, but not many of them are investigations. The cultural influences on teaching practices are discussed on how an amalgam of didactic and constructivist pedagogy is created by the Western progressive educational philosophy meeting the Confucian culture. The reasons for investigation's negative association with performance are also explored.

  6. Relationships Among Teacher Preparedness and Instructional Approaches to Secondary Student Achievement in STEM: A Secondary Analysis of TIMSS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Ricks, Karen A.

    Educational reform efforts in Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) place emphasis on teachers as conduits for student achievement. The purpose of this study was to use TIMSS 2011 data to examine relationships between Science-Technology-Society (STS) instructional practices (student-centered instruction established to promote learning through real-world applications) teacher preparedness, and student achievement and identify variations of achievement between and among eighth-grade science and math classes. The research was framed by both Harper's Anti-Deficit Achievement Theory and Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory (BEST). 501 U.S. schools contributed to the TIMSS 2011 data from both the teacher questionnaires and student booklets. Chi-Square, Spearman Correlation, and 2-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) were used to analyze data about teachers' preparedness to teach science and math, frequency of using STS instructional practices, and student achievement. The chi-square null hypothesis for math teachers was rejected, providing the assumption that there was an association between the frequency of using STS instruction in math and teacher preparedness. However, the chi-square null hypothesis for science teachers failed to be rejected, providing the assumption that there was no significant association between the frequency of using STS instruction in science and science teacher preparedness. The Spearman Correlation revealed statistically positively significant differences between STS instruction and science achievement, as well as between teacher preparedness and science achievement. The HLM results suggested that 33% of the variance of mathematics achievement was at the individual level and 66% was at the group level. The results for science teachers suggested that 54% of the variance of science achievement was at the individual level and 46% of the variance was at the group level. The data findings support the conclusion that secondary STEM

  7. The impact of federal policy on teachers' use of science manipulatives: A survey of teacher philosophy and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgoe, Catherine A.

    Recently, educators in public K-12 schools have added testing of science knowledge to the measures of Adequate Yearly Progress required by the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. Research of the impact of NCLB policy on general teaching practices had credited the policy with improving instruction; however, negative impacts noted included the concern that teachers "teach to the test," narrowing the curriculum. Testing as an assessment strategy was not advocated by the professional educators and scientists responsible for the National Science Education Standards (NSES). Results from previous studies pointed to a potential conflict between the NCLB reforms and the National Science Education Standards science standards, in which teachers might reduce or eliminate hands-on activities and other constructivist practices in order to focus class time on other topics and tasks. Most research on NCLB policy, however, had not evaluated instructional practices regarding science education. This study examined the relationship among teacher beliefs, specifically the strength of their constructivist versus traditional beliefs, teachers' responses to NCLB policy, and teachers' use of constructivist practices in the form of manipulatives. This study showed that national policy did have an impact on teachers; however, that impact was not specific to the hands-on practices in science education. Teachers who responded to this survey had found many benefits in student learning using manipulatives and those positive impacts on their students justified the increased use of manipulatives in the classroom. The strength of teachers' constructivist beliefs showed a weak positive correlation to choices related to curriculum priorities, learning goals and advantages in using manipulatives. However, a relationship to beliefs was not found in the changes teachers made to various instructional practices, or in how they viewed certain manipulative materials, or in how they viewed

  8. Teaching for Scientific Literacy? An Examination of Instructional Practices in Secondary Schools in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the instructional practices of science teachers in Barbados are congruent with best practices for teaching for scientific literacy. Additionally, through observation of practice, it sought to determine the teachers' demonstrated role in the classroom, their demonstration of learning through discourse,…

  9. Instructional decision making of high school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Jeffrey S.

    The instructional decision-making processes of high school science teachers have not been well established in the literature. Several models for decision-making do exist in other teaching disciplines, business, computer game programming, nursing, and some fields of science. A model that incorporates differences in science teaching that is consistent with constructivist theory as opposed to conventional science teaching is useful in the current climate of standards-based instruction that includes an inquiry-based approach to teaching science. This study focuses on three aspects of the decision-making process. First, it defines what factors, both internal and external, influence high school science teacher decision-making. Second, those factors are analyzed further to determine what instructional decision-making processes are articulated or demonstrated by the participants. Third, by analyzing the types of decisions that are made in the classroom, the classroom learning environments established as a result of those instructional decisions are studied for similarities and differences between conventional and constructivist models. While the decision-making process for each of these teachers was not clearly articulated by the teachers themselves, the patterns that establish the process were clearly exhibited by the teachers. It was also clear that the classroom learning environments that were established were, at least in part, established as a result of the instructional decisions that were made in planning and implementation of instruction. Patterns of instructional decision-making were different for each teacher as a result of primary instructional goals that were different for each teacher. There were similarities between teachers who exhibited more constructivist epistemological tendencies as well as similarities between teachers who exhibited a more conventional epistemology. While the decisions that will result from these two camps may be different, the six step

  10. Preparing Every Teacher to Reach English Learners: A Practical Guide for Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutta, Joyce W., Ed.; Mokhtari, Kouider, Ed.; Strebel, Carine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Preparing Every Teacher to Reach English Learners" presents a practical, flexible model for infusing English learner (EL) instruction into teacher education courses. The editors outline the key steps involved in this approach--winning faculty support, assessing needs, and developing capacity--and share strategies for avoiding pitfalls. The…

  11. Virtual science instructional strategies: A set of actual practices as perceived by secondary science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Tammy J.

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this proposed research study was to identify actual teaching practices/instructional strategies for online science courses. The identification of these teaching practices/instructional strategies could be used to compile a set of teaching practices/instructional strategies for virtual high school and online academy science instructors. This study could assist online science instructors by determining which teaching practices/instructional strategies were preferred for the online teaching environment. The literature reviewed the role of online and face-to-face instructional strategies, then discussed and elaborated on the science instructional strategies used by teachers, specifically at the secondary level. The current literature did not reflect an integration of these areas of study. Therefore, the connectedness of these two types of instructional strategies and the creation of a set of preferred instructional practices for online science instruction was deemed necessary. For the purpose of this study, the researcher designed a survey for face-to-face and online teachers to identify preferred teaching practices, instructional strategies, and types of technology used when teaching high school science students. The survey also requested demographic data information from the faculty members, including years of experience, subject(s) taught, and whether the teacher taught in a traditional classroom or online, to determine if any of those elements affect differences in faculty perceptions with regard to the questions under investigation. The findings from the current study added to the literature by demonstrating the differences and the similarities that exist between online and face-to-face instruction. Both forms of instruction tend to rely on student-centered approaches to teaching. There were many skills that were similar in that both types of instructors tend to focus on implementing the scientific method. The primary difference is the use of

  12. Investigating Rural Teachers' Professional Development, Instructional Knowledge, and Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Todd A.; Nugent, Gwen C.; Chumney, Frances L.; Ihlo, Tanya; Shapiro, Edward S.; Guard, Kirra; Koziol, Natalie; Bovaird, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Teachers Speak was a national survey study designed to investigate the characteristics of rural elementary school teachers' existing professional development; differences in professional development practices between rural and non-rural settings; and the potential influence of professional development characteristics on rural teachers' knowledge,…

  13. Using a motivation-based instructional model for teacher development and students' learning of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Min-Jung

    2009-10-01

    Science teachers often have difficulty helping students participate in scientific practices and understand scientific ideas. In addition, they do not frequently help students value their science learning. As one way to address these problems, I designed and examined the effects of professional development using a motivation-based instructional model with teachers and students. This motivation-based inquiry and application instructional model (MIAIM) consists of four steps of activities and identifies instructional and motivational functions that teachers can use to engage their students in scientific inquiry and application and to help them value their science learning. In order to conduct this study, I worked with three teachers (4 th, 8th, and 8th) in both suburban and urban environments. This study consisted of three parts-an initial observation of teachers' classrooms, professional development with MIAIM, and an observation of teachers' classrooms after the professional development. Data analysis of class observations, interviews, and class artifacts shows that there was a moderate change in teachers' teaching approach after the intervention. The three teachers designed and enacted some inquiry and application lessons that fit the intent of MIAIM. They also used some instructional and motivational practices more frequently after the intervention than they did before the intervention. In particular, they more frequently established central questions for investigations, helped students find patterns in data by themselves, provided opportunities for application, related science to students' everyday lives, and created students' interests in scientific investigation by using interesting stories. However, there was no substantial change in teachers' use of some practices such as providing explanations, supporting students' autonomy, and using knowledge about students in designing and enacting science lessons. In addition, data analysis of students' surveys, class

  14. Teaching reading comprehension to learners with autism spectrum disorder: Discrepancies between teacher and research-recommended practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Amy L; Finnegan, Elizabeth G

    2017-11-01

    Students with autism spectrum disorder have been found to experience difficulty with reading comprehension despite intact decoding and word recognition. This identified need for targeted reading comprehension remediation results in a need for teachers to utilize research-based practices and to individualize instruction for students with autism spectrum disorder; however, teachers report a lack of access to such practices. This study utilized survey methodology to gather perceptions and experiences of teachers and to compare teacher preparedness to use effective instructional practices emerging from the extant research to teacher-reported effective practices in the classroom. Study findings, based on 112 participants, reveal a discrepancy between teacher-reported effective practices, and the practices identified as effective through research, indicating a research to practice gap. Implications for practice include professional development recommendations, and the need for increased communication between researchers and teachers.

  15. The Pedagogical Orientations of South African Physical Sciences Teachers Towards Inquiry or Direct Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Schuster, David

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, inquiry-based science instruction has become widely advocated in science education standards in many countries and, hence, in teacher preparation programmes. Nevertheless, in practice, one finds a wide variety of science instructional approaches. In South Africa, as in many countries, there is also a great disparity in school demographic situations, which can also affect teaching practices. This study investigated the pedagogical orientations of in-service physical sciences teachers at a diversity of schools in South Africa. Assessment items in a Pedagogy of Science Teaching Test (POSTT) were used to identify teachers' science teaching orientations, and reasons for pedagogical choices were probed in interviews. The findings reveal remarkable differences between the orientations of teachers at disadvantaged township schools and teachers at more privileged suburban schools. We found that teachers at township schools have a strong `active direct' teaching orientation overall, involving direct exposition of the science followed by confirmatory practical work, while teachers at suburban schools exhibit a guided inquiry orientation, with concepts being developed via a guided exploration phase. The study identified contextual factors such as class size, availability of resources, teacher competence and confidence, time constraints, student ability, school culture and parents' expectations as influencing the methods adopted by teachers. In view of the recent imperative for inquiry-based learning in the new South African curriculum, this study affirms the context specificity of curriculum implementation (Bybee 1993) and suggests situational factors beyond the curriculum mandate that need to be addressed to achieve successful inquiry-based classroom instruction in science.

  16. Engaging Pre-Service Teachers to Teach Science Contextually with Scientific Approach Instructional Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susantini, E.; Kurniasari, I.; Fauziah, A. N. M.; Prastowo, T.; Kholiq, A.; Rosdiana, L.

    2018-01-01

    Contextual teaching and learning/CTL presents new concepts in real-life experiences and situations where students can find out the meaningful relationship between abstract ideas and practical applications. Implementing contextual teaching by using scientific approach will foster teachers to find the constructive ways of delivering and organizing science content. This research developed an instructional video that represented a modeling of using a scientific approach in CTL. The aim of this research are to engage pre-service teachers in learning how to teach CTL and to show how pre-service teachers’ responses about learning how to teach CTL using an instructional video. The subjects of this research were ten pre-service teachers in Department of Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia. All subjects observed the instructional video which demonstrated contextual teaching and learning combined with the scientific approach as they completed a worksheet to analyze the video content. The results showed that pre-service teachers could learn to teach contextually as well as applying the scientific approach in science classroom through a modeling in the instructional video. They also responded that the instructional video could help them to learn to teach each component contextual teaching as well as scientific approach.

  17. Description of Success: A Four-Teacher Instructional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dianne

    This study described a four-teacher instructional model in operation at an elementary school, noting the perceptions of fourth grade students, parents, and teachers regarding the model. The model encompassed teaming, block scheduling, departmentalization of subjects, integrated/interdisciplinary instruction, and in-depth instruction in each…

  18. Handwriting Instruction: An Analysis of Perspectives from Three Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Laurie; Brown, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Handwriting is an essential skill for learners, but advancements with technology have greatly altered perceptions towards handwriting and handwriting instruction. This study sought to determine the current state of handwriting through an exploratory analysis of the teaching experiences of three practicing elementary teachers with varying…

  19. The Collegial Focus: Teaching Fields, Collegial Relationships, and Instructional Practice in American High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Charles E.; Yasumoto, Jeffrey Y.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a theory of collegial social control of teacher's instructional beliefs and practices that centers on the idea of "collegial focus." Examines whether social control affects teachers' practices, if collegial focus strengthens social control, the role of subject-matter specialization, and the effects of bureaucratic control on collegial…

  20. The Growth of Instructional Coaching Partner Conversations in a PreK-3rd Grade Teacher Professional Development Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Earl E.; Bell, David L.; Spelman, Maureen; Briody, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Instructional coaching that supports teachers' with revising teaching practices is not understood. This study sought to understand the impact of the instructional coaching experience by recording coaching conversations/interactions with teachers. The purpose was to determine if the type of coaching conversations changed overtime during three…

  1. Teachers' Implicit Attitudes, Explicit Beliefs, and the Mediating Role of Respect and Cultural Responsibility on Mastery and Performance-Focused Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Revathy; Karabenick, Stuart A.; Burgoon, Jacob N.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior and the dual process attitude-to-behavior MODE model framed an examination of how White teachers' (N = 241) implicit and explicit attitudes toward White versus non-White students were related to their classroom instructional practices in 2 school districts with a high percentage of Arab American and Chaldean American…

  2. The influence inquiry-based science has on elementary teachers' perception of instruction and self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Felecia J.

    The nature and purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy of teachers who use an inquiry-based science program to provide authentic experiences within the elementary school setting. It is essential to explore necessary improvements to bring about effective science education. Using a mixed methods study, the researcher conducted interviews with elementary teachers from five elementary schools within the same school district. The interviews focused on the teachers' experiences with inquiry-based science and their perceptions of quality science instruction. The Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale was used to collect quantitative data regarding the teachers' perception of instructional practice and student engagement. The study revealed that limited science content knowledge, inadequate professional development, and a low sense of self-efficacy have a substantial effect on teacher outcomes, instructional planning, and ability to motivate students to participate in inquiry-based learning. It will take a collective effort from administrators, teachers, parents, and students to discover ways to improve elementary science education.

  3. Correlates of Teacher Practices Influencing Student Outcomes in Reading Instruction for Advanced Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Scott L.; Nielsen, Aubree; Bartlett, Brianne

    2010-01-01

    In a professional development project, six teaching practices were posited as necessary for improving affective and cognitive outcomes for identified advanced readers. These practices were identification, organization for instruction, content, instructional strategies, continuous improvement assessment, and ambassadorship. Sixty-one teachers…

  4. How teachers would spend their time teaching language arts: the mismatch between self-reported and best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anne E; Zibulsky, Jamie; Stanovich, Keith E; Stanovich, Paula J

    2009-01-01

    As teacher quality becomes a central issue in discussions of children's literacy, both researchers and policy makers alike express increasing concern with how teachers structure and allocate their lesson time for literacy-related activities as well as with what they know about reading development, processes, and pedagogy. The authors examined the beliefs, literacy knowledge, and proposed instructional practices of 121 first-grade teachers. Through teacher self-reports concerning the amount of instructional time they would prefer to devote to a variety of language arts activities, the authors investigated the structure of teachers' implicit beliefs about reading instruction and explored relationships between those beliefs, expertise with general or special education students, years of experience, disciplinary knowledge, and self-reported distribution of an array of instructional practices. They found that teachers' implicit beliefs were not significantly associated with their status as a regular or special education teacher, the number of years they had been teaching, or their disciplinary knowledge. However, it was observed that subgroups of teachers who highly valued particular approaches to reading instruction allocated their time to instructional activities associated with other approaches in vastly different ways. It is notable that the practices of teachers who privileged reading literature over other activities were not in keeping with current research and policy recommendations. Implications and considerations for further research are discussed.

  5. Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of Drama Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Neslihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of pre-service mathematics teachers related to drama-based instruction. For this purpose, effects of a drama-based mathematics course on senior class pre-service mathematics teachers' knowledge about drama-based instruction and teacher candidates' competencies for developing and…

  6. Disentangling School Leadership and Its Ties to Instructional Practices--An Empirical Comparison of Various Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Marcus; Tulowitzki, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the direct and indirect ties between various leadership styles, namely, instructional, transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership, and the instructional practices of teachers by applying a structural equation model. For this purpose, we analyzed survey data of n = 3,746 teachers from 126 schools collected…

  7. Teachers' Integration of Scientific and Engineering Practices in Primary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Eileen G.; Chiu, Jennie; Peters-Burton, Erin; Bell, Randy

    2017-06-01

    The Next-Generation Science Standards (NGSS) challenge primary teachers and students to work and think like scientists and engineers as they strive to understand complex concepts. Teachers and teacher educators can leverage what is already known about inquiry teaching as they plan instruction to help students meet the new standards. This cross-case analysis of a multiple case study examined teacher practices in the context of a semester-long professional development course for elementary teachers. We reviewed lessons and teacher reflections, examining how kindergarten and first grade teachers incorporated NGSS scientific and engineering practices during inquiry-based instruction. We found that most of the teachers worked with their students on asking questions; planning and carrying out investigations; analyzing and interpreting data, using mathematics and computational thinking; and obtaining, evaluating and communicating information. Teachers faced challenges in supporting students in developing their own questions that could be investigated and using data collection strategies that aligned with students' development of number sense concepts. Also, some teachers overemphasized the scientific method and lacked clarity in how they elicited and responded to student predictions. Discussion focuses on teacher supports that will be needed as states transition to NGSS.

  8. Teachers' Beliefs, Instructional Behaviors, and Students' Engagement in Learning from Texts with Instructional Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Sascha; Richter, Tobias; McElvany, Nele; Hachfeld, Axinja; Baumert, Jurgen; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Horz, Holger; Ullrich, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between teachers' pedagogical beliefs and students' self-reported engagement in learning from texts with instructional pictures. Participants were the biology, geography, and German teachers of 46 classes (Grades 5-8) and their students. Teachers' instructional behaviors and students' engagement in learning…

  9. Practices influenced by policy? An exploration of newly hired science teachers at sites in South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navy, S. L.; Luft, J. A.; Toerien, R.; Hewson, P. W.

    2018-05-01

    In many parts of the world, newly hired science teachers' practices are developing in a complex policy environment. However, little is known about how newly hired science teachers' practices are enacted throughout a cycle of instruction and how these practices can be influenced by macro-, meso-, and micro-policies. Knowing how policies impact practice can result in better policies or better support for certain policies in order to enhance the instruction of newly hired teachers. This comparative study investigated how 12 newly hired science teachers at sites in South Africa (SA) and the United States (US) progressed through an instructional cycle of planning, teaching, and reflection. The qualitative data were analysed through beginning teacher competency frameworks, the cycle of instruction, and institutional theory. Data analysis revealed prevailing areas of practice and connections to levels of policy within the instructional cycle phases. There were some differences between the SA and US teachers and among first-, second-, and third-year teachers. More importantly, this study indicates that newly hired teachers are susceptible to micro-policies and are progressively developing their practice. It also shows the importance of meso-level connectors. It suggests that teacher educators and policy makers must consider how to prepare and support newly hired science teachers to achieve the shared global visions of science teaching.

  10. Teacher Learning and Instructional Change: How Formal and On-the-Job Learning Opportunities Predict Change in Elementary School Teachers' Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Leigh Mesler; Spillane, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent education reform has emphasized the importance of teacher learning in improving classroom instruction and raising student achievement. This article focuses on teachers' learning opportunities, including formal professional development and on-the-job learning that occurs through interactions with colleagues. Using data from 30 elementary…

  11. Wisconsin System for Instructional Management: Teachers' Manual for the Unified System. Practical Paper No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.; And Others

    Individualized instruction including continuous progress education and team teaching requires a complexity of organizational structure dissimilar to that of traditional schools. In such systems, teachers must maintain extensive and complex student record systems. This teachers' manual provides an example of a computerized record system developed…

  12. Why and How Teachers Transform Their Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Barbara J.

    In his 2011 book The highly qualified teacher: What is teacher quality and how do we measure it? Strong argues that as a profession, education has struggled to measure teacher quality and therefore cannot provide a proven system to consistently develop high-quality teachers. In order to move toward an operational definition of teacher quality, Kennedy, in her 2008 journal article entitled "Contributions of qualitative research to research on teacher qualifications" suggests that the causal mechanisms of the development of teachers who are identified as high-quality teachers must be researched, documented, and then used in teacher preparation and development. Instructional ability is a key component of teacher effectiveness. This case study examines instructional transformations made by four teachers to explore why and how teachers make transformations in their teaching. The overarching conclusion of the study is the importance of student-centeredness as a component of teacher effectiveness.

  13. Theoretical Beliefs and Instructional Practices Used for Teaching Spelling in Elementary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Brigid; Kirk, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine teachers' reported spelling assessment and instruction practices. Analysis of the match between teachers' theoretical beliefs about spelling and their reported pedagogy was conducted to elucidate factors that may support or impede the use of evidence-based teaching strategies in the classroom. An electronic…

  14. Teaching the content in context: Preparing "highly qualified" and "high quality" teachers for instruction in underserved secondary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sara E.

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching

  15. Best Practices for Implementing Inquiry-Based Science Instruction for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Erica

    This applied dissertation was designed to provide better access to current information to link literacy and science. Students frequently used literacy skills to gather information and communicate understanding of scientific concepts to others. Science became applicable through the tools associated with literacy. There was a need for instruction that integrated language development with science content. This research focused on revealing the instructional trends of English language learners science teachers in the United Arab Emirates. The researcher introduced the questionnaire surveys in the form of a professional development session. The participants were asked to complete the questionnaire concurrently with the descriptive presentation of each component of the sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP) model. Completing the SIOP Checklist Survey provided data on the type of constructivist strategies (best practices) teachers were utilizing and to what degree of fidelity the strategies were being implemented. Teachers were encouraged to continue to use these services for curriculum enrichment and as an additional source for future lesson plans. An analysis of the data revealed authentic learning as the most common best practice used with the most fidelity by teachers. The demographic subgroup, teaching location, was the only subgroup to show statistical evidence of an association between teaching location and the use of problem-based learning techniques in the classroom. Among factors that influenced the degree of teacher fidelity, teachers' expectation for student achievement had a moderate degree of association between the use of scaffolding techniques and co-operative learning.

  16. Exploring the Principles and Practices of One Teacher of L2 Speaking: The Importance of Reflecting on Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. C. Farrell

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Teacher principles encompass a teacher’s stated assumptions, beliefs, and conceptions about acquiring and teaching a second language (L2. Due to the complex and diversified nature of how principles take form, an individual teacher’s principles will influence their judgements, perceptions and instructional decisions, thus affecting the outcome of classroom practices. Exploring teacher principles and their impact on classroom practices and vice versa is an invaluable and necessary component to research in L2 teaching and learning since it plays an influential role in instructional outcomes.This paper explores the nature of the principles/practice relationship through an investigative case study with an ESL teacher of L2 speaking. Additionally, the results of research on principles and practices related to L2 teaching when conducted by academics rarely gets back to teachers in the front lines. Thus the researchers shared their findings with the teacher who as a result of reflecting on the analysis came up with a set of principles she says guides her teaching of L2 speaking.

  17. Reading strategy instruction and teacher change: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I report on teacher change in the context of a reading strategy instruction intervention. Reading Strategy Instruction (RSI) was implemented by three teachers, new to the concept, over a period of 15 weeks. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Teachers' Perceptions and Practices of Active Learning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers' Perceptions and Practices of Active Learning in Haramaya ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... traditional/lecture method, lack of students' interest, shortage of time, lack of instructional material and large class size.

  19. Comparing Views of Primary School Mathematics Teachers and Prospective Mathematics Teachers about Instructional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Baki

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology is rapidly improving in both hardware and software side. As one of the contemporary needs people should acquire certain knowledge, skills, attitudes and habits to understand this technology, to adapt to it and to make use of its benefits. In addition, as in all domains of life, change and improvement is also unavoidable for educational field. As known, change and improvement in education depends on lots of factors. One of the most important factors is teacher. In order to disseminate educational reforms, teachers themselves should accept the innovation first (Hardy, 1998, Baki, 2002; Oral, 2004. There has been variety of studies investigating teacher and prospective teachers‟ competences, attitudes and opinions (Paprzychi, Vikovic & Pierson, 1994; Hardy, 1998; Kocasaraç, 2003; Lin, Hsiech and Pierson, 2004; Eliküçük, 2006; YeĢilyurt, 2006; Fendi, 2007; Teo, 2008; Arslan, Kutluca & Özpınar, 2009. As the common result of these studies indicate that teachers‟ interest towards using instructional technology have increased. Accordingly, most of the teachers began to think that using instructional technologies becomes inevitable for teachers. By reviewing the related literature, no studies have been come across comparing the opinions of teachers and teacher candidates about instructional technologies. In this study, it was aimed to investigate and compare the views of mathematics teachers with prospective mathematics teachers about ICT. It was considered that collecting opinions of teachers and teachers candidates about the instructional technologies, comparing and contrasting them will contribute to the field. To follow this research inquiry, a descriptive approach type; case study research design was applied. The reason for choosing such design is that the case study method permits studying one aspect of the problem in detail and in a short time (Yin, 2003; Çepni, 2007. The study was conducted with the total sample of 12. 3 of

  20. Non-Native English Teachers' Beliefs on Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önalan, Okan

    2018-01-01

    Research on teacher cognition, which mainly focuses on identifying what teachers think, know and believe, is essential to understanding teachers' cognitive framework as it relates to the instructional choices they make. The aim of this study is to find out the beliefs of non-native speaker teachers of English on grammar instruction and to explain…

  1. Intermediate Teachers' Perceptions of Reading Instruction Strategies and Professional Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    In 1 urban Tennessee school, students in Grades 3 through 5 had not met adequate yearly progress in reading for the past 5 years. The purpose of this case study was to explore teachers' perceptions of current district-recommended teaching practice in reading. The research questions related to current instructional strategies, teaching practices,…

  2. The influences of implementing state-mandated science assessment on teacher practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmann, Jason Matthew

    Four high school Biology teachers, two novice and two experienced, participated in a year and a half case study. By utilizing a naturalistic paradigm, the four individuals were studied in their natural environment, their classrooms. Data sources included: three semi-structured interviews, classroom observation field notes, and classroom artifacts. Through cross-case analysis and a constant comparative methodology, coding nodes where combined and refined resulting in the final themes for discussion. The following research question was investigated: what is the impact of high-stakes testing on high school Biology teacher's instructional planning, instructional practices and classroom assessments? Seven final themes were realized: Assessment, CSAP, Planning, Pressure, Standards, Teaching and Time. Each theme was developed and discussed utilizing each participant's voice. Trustworthiness of this study was established via five avenues: triangulation of data sources, credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. A model of the influences of high-stakes testing on teacher practice was developed to describe the seven themes (Figure 5). This model serves as an illustration of the complex nature of teacher practice and the influences upon it. The four participants in this study were influenced by high-stakes assessment. It influenced their instructional decisions, assessment practices, use of time, planning decisions and decreased the amount of inquiry that occurred in the classroom. Implications of this research and future research directions are described.

  3. The Relationship between Teachers' Beliefs of Grammar Instruction and Classroom Practices in the Saudi Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghanmi, Bayan; Shukri, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Teacher cognition (Borg, 2015) of grammar instruction is a relatively new phenomenon that has yet to be explored in the Saudi context. While many studies have focused on the teaching of grammar in general (Ellis, 2006; Corzo, 2013; Braine, 2014), further research needs to be done - particularly when it comes to understanding teachers' beliefs of…

  4. Brain-Based Learning and Classroom Practice: A Study Investigating Instructional Methodologies of Urban School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lajuana Trezette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of brain-based instructional strategies by teachers serving at Title I elementary, middle, and high schools within the Memphis City School District. This study was designed to determine: (a) the extent to which Title I teachers applied brain-based strategies, (b) the differences in…

  5. A descriptive study of the reported effects of state-mandated testing on the instructional practices and beliefs of middle school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Rivera, Miriam Josefa

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of state-level testing on the instructional practices and beliefs of middle school science teachers. The study addressed four questions: (a) What are the beliefs of middle school science teachers regarding the pressure to improve their students' test scores? (b) What are the beliefs of middle school science teachers about how standardized tests influence their class time? (c) What are the attitudes of middle school science teachers toward state testing? and (d) What commonalities emerge from teachers' responses about the state tests? The sample was composed of 86 middle school science teachers from states that have state mandated testing programs in the area of science. Descriptive statistics and an inductive analysis were performed to answer the research questions. Teachers reported that they and their students were under a great amount of pressure to increase test scores from central office administrators and from the school principal. Teachers reported spending considerable time on certain test preparation activities throughout the school year. Teachers reported that the three strongest influences in instructional planning were reviewing the content and skills covered on the state tests prior to the test administration, having to prepare students for state tests, and adjusting the curriculum sequence based on the content tested by the state tests. Multiple-choice items were reported to be the most often used assessment strategy. Teachers reported that state-mandated tests were not very helpful because the test results presented an inaccurate picture of student learning. The categories formed from the teachers' written comments reflected the findings of the survey questions. Comments concentrated on the negative effects of the tests in the areas of pressure, overemphasis on the test, accountability, reduction of instructional time due to test preparation, and negative uses of state-mandated tests

  6. Principals' instructional management skills and middle school science teacher job satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs-Harper, Nzinga A.

    The purpose of this research study was to determine if a relationship exists between teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership behaviors and middle school teacher job satisfaction. Additionally, this study sought to assess whether principal's instructional leadership skills were predictors of middle school teachers' satisfaction with work itself. This study drew from 13 middle schools in an urban Mississippi school district. Participants included teachers who taught science. Each teacher was given the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS; Hallinger, 2011) and the Teacher Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (TJSQ; Lester, 1987) to answer the research questions. The study was guided by two research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between the independent variables Defining the School's Mission, Managing the Instructional Program, and Developing the School Learning Climate Program and the dependent variable Work Itself?; (b) Are Defining the School's Mission, Managing the Instructional Program, and Developing the School Learning Climate Program predictors of Work Itself? The Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis were utilized to examine the relationship between the three dimensions of principals' instructional leadership and teacher satisfaction with work itself. The data revealed that there was a strong, positive correlation between all three dimensions of principals' instructional leadership and teacher satisfaction with work itself. However, the multiple regression analysis determined that teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional management skills is a slight predictor of Defining the School's Mission only.

  7. Exploring the Amount and Type of Writing Instruction during Language Arts Instruction in Kindergarten Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners’ writing performance. PMID:24578591

  8. Exploring the Amount and Type of Writing Instruction during Language Arts Instruction in Kindergarten Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners' writing performance.

  9. Communities of practice: Participation patterns and professional impact for high school mathematics and science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printy, Susan M.

    Improving the quality of teachers in schools is a keystone to educational improvement. New and veteran teachers alike need to enhance their content knowledge and pedagogical skills, but they must also examine, and often change, their underlying attitudes, beliefs, and values about the nature of knowledge and the abilities of students. Best accomplished collectively rather than individually, the interactions between teachers as they undertake the process of collaborative inquiry create "communities of practice." This dissertation investigates the importance of science and mathematics teachers' participation in communities of practice to their professional capabilities. The study tests the hypothesis that the social learning inherent in community of practice participation encourages teachers to learn from others with expertise, enhances teachers' sense of competence, and increases the likelihood that teachers' will use student-centered, problem-based instructional techniques aligned with national disciplinary standards. The researcher conceptualizes communities of practice along two dimensions that affect social learning: legitimate participation in activities and span of engagement with school members. Differences in teachers' subject area and the curricular track of their teaching assignment contribute to variation in teachers' participation in communities of practice along those dimensions. Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, first and second follow-up, the study has two stages of multi-level analysis. The first stage examines factors that contribute to teachers' participation in communities of practice, including teachers' social and professional characteristics and school demographic and organizational characteristics. The second stage investigates the professional impact of such participation on the three outcome variables: teacher learning, teacher competence, and use of standards-based pedagogy. Hierarchical linear models provide

  10. Shaping instructional communication competence of preservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandyonomanu, D.; Mutiah; Setianingrum, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to understand the process of shaping communication competence. Participants were pre-service teachers in the primary school education teacher who conducted teaching program internship program. Observations and interviews found that culture, experience, and education were the components that developed the communication competence within the instructional context. The former two components dominantly shape communication instructional competencies, whereas the latter contributes insignificantly. Education emphasizes on teacher’s pedagogy and professional competences. In the future, educational institutions for pre-service teachers could use this research results to Determine the process of developing communication competence.

  11. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  12. Elementary science teachers' integration of engineering design into science instruction: results from a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.; Whitworth, Brooke A.; Gonczi, Amanda L.; Navy, Shannon L.; Wheeler, Lindsay B.

    2017-07-01

    This randomised controlled trial used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the frequency and how elementary teachers integrated engineering design (ED) principles into their science instruction following professional development (PD). The ED components of the PD were aligned with Cunningham and Carlsen's [(2014). Teaching engineering practices. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 25, 197-210] guidelines for ED PD and promoted inclusion of ED within science teaching. The treatment group included 219 teachers from 83 schools. Participants in the control group included 145 teachers from 60 schools in a mid-Atlantic state. Data sources, including lesson overviews and videotaped classroom observations, were analysed quantitatively to determine the frequency of ED integration and qualitatively to describe how teachers incorporated ED into instruction after attending the PD. Results indicated more participants who attended the PD (55%) incorporated ED into instruction compared with the control participants (24%), χ2(1, n = 401) = 33.225, p .05) through ED lessons. In ED lessons, students typically conducted research and created and tested initial designs. The results suggest the PD supported teachers in implementing ED into their science instruction and support the efficacy of using Cunningham and Carlsen's (2014) guidelines to inform ED PD design.

  13. The Pedagogical Orientations of South African Physical Sciences Teachers towards Inquiry or Direct Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Schuster, David

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, inquiry-based science instruction has become widely advocated in science education standards in many countries and, hence, in teacher preparation programmes. Nevertheless, in practice, one finds a wide variety of science instructional approaches. In South Africa, as in many countries, there is also a great disparity in school…

  14. The Black Cultural Ethos and science teachers' practices: A case study exploring how four high school science teachers meet their African American students' needs in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Samantha L.

    The underachievement of African American students in science has been a persistent problem in science education. The achievement patterns of African American students indicate that researchers must take a closer look at the types of practices that are being used to meet these students' needs in science classrooms. Determining why science teachers decide to employ certain practices in their classrooms begins with a careful examination of teachers' beliefs as well as their instructional approaches. The purpose of this study was to explore four urban high school science teachers' beliefs about their African American students' learning needs and to investigate how these teachers go about addressing students' needs in science classrooms. This research study also explored the extent to which teachers' practices aligned with the nine dimensions of an established cultural instructional theory, namely the Black Cultural Ethos. Qualitative research methods were employed to gather data from the four teachers. Artifact data were collected from the teachers and they were interviewed and observed. Believing that their students had academic-related needs as well as needs tied to their learning preferences, the four science teachers employed a variety of instructional strategies to meet their students where they were in learning. Overall, the instructional strategies that the teachers employed to meet their students' needs aligned with five of the nine tenets of the Black Cultural Ethos theory.

  15. Predicting Teacher Job Satisfaction Based on Principals' Instructional Supervision Behaviours: A Study of Turkish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgan, Abdurrahman; Parylo, Oksana; Sungu, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative research examined instructional supervision behaviours of school principals as a predictor of teacher job satisfaction through the analysis of Turkish teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional supervision behaviours. There was a statistically significant difference found between the teachers' job satisfaction level and…

  16. Five Essential Practices for Communication: The Work of Instructional Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowiak, Temple A.

    2016-01-01

    The work of instructional coaches, both general and discipline-specific, has become increasingly important as more schools rely on their leadership for improvements in teaching and learning. Much of their work hinges upon their effective communication with teachers and school administrators. This article outlines five practices for instructional…

  17. Does Teaching Experience Matter? The Beliefs and Practices of Beginning and Experienced Physics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Cho, Young Hoan

    2018-02-01

    This study utilized multiple data sources to examine the beliefs about learning and teaching physics and the instructional practices of five beginning teachers and seven experienced teachers from Singapore. Our study was implemented in the unique context of teachers teaching the topic of electricity to students grouped according to academic abilities. The topic of electricity is one of the most difficult physics topics for students to understand and for teachers to teach. It was found that the experienced teachers, compared to the beginning teachers, tended to have beliefs about teaching and learning physics that are closer to constructivist views. The majority of the teachers, particularly the beginning teachers, espoused beliefs about learning physics that were incongruent with their beliefs about teaching physics. Although transmission-oriented and teacher-directed practices dominated the classroom lessons of both groups of teachers, more elements of constructivist instruction were found in the classroom lessons of the experienced teachers. It was also found that the classroom practices of the teachers, especially those in their inductive years of teaching, were more aligned with their beliefs about learning physics than their beliefs about teaching physics.

  18. Changing Student Teachers' Views of Comprehension Instruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the same time research shows that little, if any, explicit and continuous strategy instruction takes place in classrooms. Reasons seem ... This article reports on the effect of a reading comprehension instruction course on university student teachers' lesson planning, strategy use and views about comprehension instruction.

  19. Teaching science to English Language Learners: Instructional approaches of high school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Betty-Vinca N.

    Students who are English Language Learners (ELLs) form the fastest growing segment of the American school population. Prompted by the call for scientific literacy for all citizens, science educators too have investigated the intersection of language and science instruction of ELLs. However these studies have typically been conducted with elementary students. Few studies have explored how high school science teachers, particularly those who have not received any special training, approach science instruction of ELLs and what supports them in this endeavor. This was a qualitative case study conducted with five science teachers in one small urban high school that predominantly served ELLs. The purpose of this study was to examine instructional approaches used by teachers to make science accessible to ELLs and the factors that supported or inhibited them in developing their instructional approaches. This goal encompassed the following questions: (a) how teachers viewed science instruction of ELLs, (b) how teachers designed a responsive program to teach science to ELLs, (c) what approaches teachers used for curriculum development and instruction, (d) how teachers developed classroom learning communities to meet the needs of ELLs. Seven instructional strategies and five perceived sources of support emerged as findings of this research. In summary, teachers believed that they needed to make science more accessible for their ELL students while promoting their literacy skills. Teachers provided individualized attention to students to provide relevant support. Teachers engaged their students in various types of active learning lessons in social contexts, where students worked on both hands-on and meaning-making activities and interacted with their peers and teachers. Teachers also created classroom communities and learning spaces where students felt comfortable to seek and give help. Finally, teachers identified several sources of support that influenced their instructional

  20. Physical Education Teacher Training in Fundamental Movement Skills Makes a Difference to Instruction and Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Natalie Jayne; Barnett, Lisa M.; Brown, Helen; Telford, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate instruction and assessment of fundamental movement skills (FMSs) by Physical Education (PE) teachers of Year 7 girls. Of 168 secondary school PE teachers, many had received little FMSs professional development, and although most assessed student FMSs proficiency, the quality of assessment was variable.…

  1. A case study of secondary teachers facilitating a historical problem-based learning instructional unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecore, John L.

    Current curriculum trends promote inquiry-based student-centered strategies as a way to foster critical thinking and learning. Problem-based learning (PBL), a type of inquiry focusing on an issue or "problem," is an instructional approach taught on the basis that science reform efforts increase scientific literacy. PBL is a constructivist approach to learning real life problems where understanding is a function of content, context, experiences, and learner goals; historical PBL situates the lesson in a historical context and provides opportunities for teaching NOS concepts. While much research exists on the benefits of historical PBL to student learning in general, more research is warranted on how teachers implement PBL in the secondary science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom-learning environment of four science teachers implementing a historical PBL instructional unit to identify the teachers' understandings, successes and obstacles. By identifying teachers' possible achievements and barriers with implementing a constructivist philosophy when executing historical PBL, educators and curriculum designers may improve alignment of the learning environment to constructivist principles. A qualitative interpretive case study guided this research study. The four participants of this study were purposefully and conveniently selected from biology teachers with at least three years of teaching experience, degrees in education, State Licensure, and completion of a PBL workshop. Data collection consisted of pre and post questionnaires, structured interviews, a card sort activity in which participants categorized instructional outcomes, and participant observations. Results indicated that the four teachers assimilated reform-based constructivist practices to fit within their preexisting routines and highlighted the importance of incorporating teachers' current systems into reform-based teacher instruction. While participating teachers

  2. Reform-based science teaching: A mixed-methods approach to explaining variation in secondary science teacher practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetty, Lauren E.

    The purpose of this two-phase, sequential explanatory mixed-methods study was to understand and explain the variation seen in secondary science teachers' enactment of reform-based instructional practices. Utilizing teacher socialization theory, this mixed-methods analysis was conducted to determine the relative influence of secondary science teachers' characteristics, backgrounds and experiences across their teacher development to explain the range of teaching practices exhibited by graduates from three reform-oriented teacher preparation programs. Data for this study were obtained from the Investigating the Meaningfulness of Preservice Programs Across the Continuum of Teaching (IMPPACT) Project, a multi-university, longitudinal study funded by NSF. In the first quantitative phase of the study, data for the sample (N=120) were collected from three surveys from the IMPPACT Project database. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the separate as well as the combined influence of factors such as teachers' personal and professional background characteristics, beliefs about reform-based science teaching, feelings of preparedness to teach science, school context, school culture and climate of professional learning, and influences of the policy environment on the teachers' use of reform-based instructional practices. Findings indicate three blocks of variables, professional background, beliefs/efficacy, and local school context added significant contribution to explaining nearly 38% of the variation in secondary science teachers' use of reform-based instructional practices. The five variables that significantly contributed to explaining variation in teachers' use of reform-based instructional practices in the full model were, university of teacher preparation, sense of preparation for teaching science, the quality of professional development, science content focused professional, and the perceived level of professional autonomy. Using the results

  3. SUPPORTING TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT PRACTICES IN EARTH SYSTEMS SCIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. J.; Penuel, W. R.; Haydel Debarger, A.; Blank, J. G.

    2009-12-01

    An important purpose of formative assessment is to elicit student thinking to use in instruction to help all students learn and inform next steps in teaching. However, formative assessment practices are difficult to implement and thus present a formidable challenge for many science teachers. A critical need in geoscience education is a framework for providing teachers with real-time assessment tools as well as professional development to learn how to use formative assessment to improve instruction. Here, we describe a comprehensive support system, developed for our NSF-funded Contingent Pedagogies project, for addressing the challenge of helping teachers to use formative assessment to enhance student learning in middle school Earth Systems science. Our support system is designed to improve student understanding about the geosphere by integrating classroom network technology, interactive formative assessments, and contingent curricular activities to guide teachers from formative assessment to instructional decision-making and improved student learning. To accomplish this, we are using a new classroom network technology, Group Scribbles, in the context of an innovative middle-grades Earth Science curriculum called Investigating Earth Systems (IES). Group Scribbles, developed at SRI International, is a collaborative software tool that allows individual students to compose “scribbles” (i.e., drawings and notes), on “post-it” notes in a private workspace (a notebook computer) in response to a public task. They can post these notes anonymously to a shared, public workspace (a teacher-controlled large screen monitor) that becomes the centerpiece of group and class discussion. To help teachers implement formative assessment practices, we have introduced a key resource, called a teaching routine, to help teachers take advantage of Group Scribbles for more interactive assessments. Routine refers to a sequence of repeatable interactions that, over time, become

  4. Teachers' Basic Knowledge of Reading Instruction: Insights from a Teacher Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Sheri; Regan, Kelley; Dimitrov, Dimiter; Guckert, Mary; Ray, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Effective reading instruction is essential for all students, and especially students with disabilities; however, studies have indicated that both pre-service and in-service teachers lack an adequate knowledge of reading. To ensure adequate teacher knowledge, teacher preparation reform advocates suggest purposeful alignment of teacher preparation…

  5. Teacher Evaluations: A Correlation of Observed Teaching Practice and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Pamela D.

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative study employed a correlational research design to examine the extent to which overall teacher evaluation scores and instructional practice domain scores relate to student achievement scores in mathematics and English language arts among 3rd grade students. This research tested the theory of instruction by Jerome Bruner as it…

  6. Relating French Immersion Teacher Practices to Better Student Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Broussard, Michelle; Olson Beal, Heather K.; Boudreaux, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This study examined seven Louisiana kindergarten immersion teachers' practices to evaluate students' oral target language production and compare the oral production elicited when different instructional practices were used over a single semester. Three rounds of three 20-minute observations in three different contexts--circle time, direct…

  7. How Portuguese and American Teachers Plan for Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear-Swerling, Louise; Lopes, Joao; Oliveira, Celia; Zibulsky, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study explored American and Portuguese elementary teachers' preferences in planning for literacy instruction using the Language Arts Activity Grid (LAAG; Cunningham, Zibulsky, Stanovich, & Stanovich, 2009), on which teachers described their preferred instructional activities for a hypothetical 2-h language arts block. Portuguese teachers…

  8. The Impact of a Teacher Development Program for Strategic Reading on EFL Teachers' Instructional Practice (El impacto de un programa de desarrollo profesional en lectura estratégica en la práctica instruccional de docentes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonamri, Fatemeh; Salimi, Mahin

    2010-01-01

    Research on teacher development has been the focus of attention in recent decades. The overall aim of this study was to explore the impact of reading strategy training on high school teachers' reading instructional practices. The study was conducted in the EFL context of Iran. To meet this aim, four EFL high school teachers voluntarily took part…

  9. Consistency between Constructivist Profiles and Instructional Practices of Prospective Physics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ozlem; Unal Coban, Gul; Kaya Sengoren, Serap

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explain the extent to which prospective physics teachers' views and practices are consistent with the constructivist framework. A case study design was employed as the research approach. The study was conducted with 11 prospective physics teachers attending a state university in Turkey. Data was collected through semi-structured…

  10. Teacher candidates' mastery of phoneme-grapheme correspondence: massed versus distributed practice in teacher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeski, Kristin L; Earle, Gentry A; Eslinger, R Paige; Whitenton, Jessy N

    2017-04-01

    Matching phonemes (speech sounds) to graphemes (letters and letter combinations) is an important aspect of decoding (translating print to speech) and encoding (translating speech to print). Yet, many teacher candidates do not receive explicit training in phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Difficulty with accurate phoneme production and/or lack of understanding of sound-symbol correspondence can make it challenging for teachers to (a) identify student errors on common assessments and (b) serve as a model for students when teaching beginning reading or providing remedial reading instruction. For students with dyslexia, lack of teacher proficiency in this area is particularly problematic. This study examined differences between two learning conditions (massed and distributed practice) on teacher candidates' development of phoneme-grapheme correspondence knowledge and skills. An experimental, pretest-posttest-delayed test design was employed with teacher candidates (n = 52) to compare a massed practice condition (one, 60-min session) to a distributed practice condition (four, 15-min sessions distributed over 4 weeks) for learning phonemes associated with letters and letter combinations. Participants in the distributed practice condition significantly outperformed participants in the massed practice condition on their ability to correctly produce phonemes associated with different letters and letter combinations. Implications for teacher preparation are discussed.

  11. Teacher Candidate Technology Integration: For Student Learning or Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cynthia; Zhang, Shaoan; Strudler, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Transfer of instructional technology knowledge for student-centered learning by teacher candidates is investigated in this study. Using the transfer of learning theoretical framework, a mixed methods research design was employed to investigate whether secondary teacher candidates were able to transfer the instructional technology knowledge for…

  12. The effects of teacher training on new instructional behaviour in reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, B.; Reezigt, G.J.; Creemers, B.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study concerns the effects of teacher training in instructional behaviour based on new insights in the field of learning and instruction. In an experiment, eight teachers were trained to apply a cognitive apprenticeship model and five teachers were trained to apply a direct instruction model in

  13. Promoting Prospective Elementary Teachers' Learning to Use Formative Assessment for Life Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Jaime L.; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura

    2015-01-01

    To support elementary students' learning of core, standards-based life science concepts highlighted in the "Next Generation Science Standards," prospective elementary teachers should develop an understanding of life science concepts and learn to apply their content knowledge in instructional practice to craft elementary science learning…

  14. Preparing Mainstream Classroom Teachers of English Learner Students: Grounding Practice-Based Designs for Teacher Learning in Theories of Adaptive Expertise Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Esch, Kerry Soo; Kavanagh, Sarah Schneider

    2018-01-01

    Preparing classroom teachers to teach English Learner (EL) students continues to challenge teacher educators. This article argues for EL teaching work to be situated within theories of professional learning that focus on developing teachers who can flexibly and innovatively integrate EL instructional practice into content area teaching. We propose…

  15. Instructional support and implementation structure during elementary teachers' science education simulation use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonczi, Amanda L.; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2016-07-01

    This investigation sought to identify patterns in elementary science teachers' computer simulation use, particularly implementation structures and instructional supports commonly employed by teachers. Data included video-recorded science lessons of 96 elementary teachers who used computer simulations in one or more science lessons. Results indicated teachers used a one-to-one student-to-computer ratio most often either during class-wide individual computer use or during a rotating station structure. Worksheets, general support, and peer collaboration were the most common forms of instructional support. The least common instructional support forms included lesson pacing, initial play, and a closure discussion. Students' simulation use was supported in the fewest ways during a rotating station structure. Results suggest that simulation professional development with elementary teachers needs to explicitly focus on implementation structures and instructional support to enhance participants' pedagogical knowledge and improve instructional simulation use. In addition, research is needed to provide theoretical explanations for the observed patterns that should subsequently be addressed in supporting teachers' instructional simulation use during professional development or in teacher preparation programs.

  16. The Problem with Reform from the Bottom up: Instructional Practises and Teacher Beliefs of Graduate Teaching Assistants Following a Reform-Minded University Teacher Certificate Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Tracie M.; Blanchard, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    Reform-minded practices are widely encouraged during pre-service science teacher education in concert with national reform documents. This contrasts to the nature of instruction within university science laboratories in which pre-service teachers enrol, which are largely confirmatory in nature. Undergraduate science laboratories are taught…

  17. Digital Technology and Teacher Preparation: The Instructional Role of Social Media Among Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trytten, Bria Klotz

    As social media use becomes more prevalent among teachers, it becomes vital to understand how teachers are using social media and what effects it has, if any, on teaching practices in the classroom. This study sought to explore the relationship between pre-service teachers' use of social media and their perceptions of inquiry-based science education, an important teaching best practice. This study is unique in that it explores pre-service teachers' use of three social media platforms--Twitter, Facebook, and Pinterest--and how pre-service teachers plan to apply them to classroom education. Previous studies focused on only one social media platform, usually Twitter or Facebook. This study surveyed 113 pre-service teachers in their 3rd or 4th year of school at one of two teacher colleges. The survey employed multiple choice, open-ended, and Likert-type questions to assess pre-service teachers' use of social media as well as their attitudes surrounding inquiry-based instruction. In order to better explain and analyze survey results, fourteen survey participants were interviewed with follow-up questions to elaborate on both social media use and inquiry attitudes. Findings indicated that the pre-service teachers used social media, and overwhelmingly Pinterest, to find lesson plans and classroom organizational ideas. Cited reasons for this practice included convenience, variety of lesson planning, and easily searchable databases. The study found statistical significance in that teachers who aspire to teach lower grade levels will turn to social media to find lesson plans more frequently than those who aspire to teach higher grade levels. The study found social media use had no statistically significant effect on the level of inquiry-based teaching that the participants aimed to achieve in their future classrooms.

  18. The Relationship among Elementary Teachers’ Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Instructional Practices, and Student Mathematics Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Hadley, Kristin M.; Dorward, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Many elementary teachers have been found to have high levels of mathematics anxiety but the impact on student achievement was unknown. Elementary teachers (N = 692) completed the modified Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised (Hopko, 2003) along with a questionnaire probing anxiety about teaching mathematics and current mathematics instructional practices. Student mathematics achievement data were collected for the classrooms taught by the teachers. A positive relationship was found betwee...

  19. Observing the interactive qualities of L2 instructional practices in ESL and FSL classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zuniga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Discourse features that promote the generation of interactionally modified input and output, such as negotiation for meaning, have been shown to significantly enhance second language acquisition. Research has also identified several characteristics of instructional practices that render them more or less propitious to the generation of these discourse features. While various classroom observation studies have successfully measured the communicative orientation of classroom environments, most of the indicators of interactivity analyzed in those studies were obtained through micro-level discourse analyses and not through macro-level analyses of task-related factors shown to directly influence the interactivity of instructional practices. Such a macro-level scale has potential practical implications for teachers and administrators seeking an efficient tool for assessing and improving the interactivity afforded by a given curriculum. The objective of the present study was therefore to develop macro-level scale to determine the extent to which teachers of French and English as a second language use interaction-friendly instructional practices. Using an observation scheme designed to code data on factors shown to influence interactivity, 63 hours of FSL and ESL classes from secondary schools in the Montreal area were observed and analyzed. Results indicate clear differences between the two groups. While both ESL and FSL classes were less teacher-centered than those observed in previous studies, they were still rated as not-very-interactive. Target language differences showed that the FSL classes were more teacher-centered and characterized by fewer interaction-friendly tasks and activities than the ESL classes. Task characteristics, reasons for ESL and FSL differences and recommendations for improvement are discussed.

  20. The Evolution of Teachers' Instructional Beliefs and Practices in High-Access-to-Technology Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, David C.; And Others

    Beginning in 1985, Apple Computer, Inc., and several school districts began a collaboration to examine the impact of computer saturation on instruction and learning in K-12 classrooms. The initial guiding question was simply put: What happens when teachers and students have constant access to technology? To provide "constant access,"…

  1. Using Tablet Computers with Elementary School Students with Special Needs: The Practices and Perceptions of Special Education Teachers and Teacher Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2013-01-01

    Twelve special education teachers and teacher assistants who have instructional experience using iPads with children with special needs completed a survey that queried their practices and perceptions. In general, teachers and assistants were extremely positive about the value of iPads for children with special needs, particularly for children with…

  2. Optimizing students' motivation in inquiry-based learning environments: The role of instructional practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Toni M.

    The influence of inquiry science instruction on the motivation of 1360 minority inner-city seventh graders was examined. The project-based curriculum incorporates motivating features like real world questions, collaboration, technology, and lesson variety. Students design investigations, collect and analyze data, and create artifacts; challenging tasks require extensive use of learning and metacognitive strategies. Study 1 used Structural Equation Modeling to investigate student perceptions of the prevalence of project-based features, including real world connections, collaboration, academic press, and work norms, and their relation to interest, efficacy, cognitive engagement, and achievement. Perceptions of features related to different motivational outcomes, indicating the importance of using differentiated rather than single measures to study motivation in context. Cognitive engagement was enhanced by interest and efficacy but did not influence achievement, perhaps because students were not proficient strategy users and were new to inquiry. Study 2 examined the relationship between instructional practices and motivation. The 23 teachers in study 1 were observed six times during one unit. Observations focused on curriculum congruence, content accuracy, contextualization, sense making, and management and climate. A majority of teacher enactment was congruent with the curriculum, indicating that students experienced motivating features of project-based science. Hierarchical Linear Modeling showed that contextualization accounted for between-teacher variance in student interest, efficacy, and cognitive engagement; Teachers encouraged motivation through extended real world examples that related material to students' experiences. Cluster analysis was used to determine how patterns of practice affected motivation. Unexpectedly these patterns did not differentially relate to cognitive engagement. Findings showed that interest and efficacy were enhanced when teachers

  3. Teachers' implementation of reform-oriented instructional strategies in science: Lessons from two professional development programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nicole D.

    This dissertation reports findings from two studies that investigated the relationship between professional development and teachers' instructional practices in Science,Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The first program, the Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) focused on K-8 teachers and their use of inquiry-based science instruction in conjunction with curricular modules provided by the ISI program. The second program, Research Goes to School (RGS), focused on high school STEM teachers and their use of problem-based learning (PBL) as they implemented curricular units that they developed themselves at the RGS summer workshop. In-service teachers were recruited from both programs. They were observed teaching their respective curricular materials and interviewed about their experiences in order to investigate the following research questions: 1. How do teachers implement the reform-oriented instructional strategies promoted by their professional development experiences with the ISI or RGS? 2. What are the challenges and supports that influence teachers' use of the reform-oriented instructional strategies promoted by their professional development experiences with the ISI or RGS? To investigate these questions the fidelity of implementation was it was conceptualized by Century, Rudnick, and Freeman (2010) was used as a theoretical framework. The study of the ISI program was conducted during the program's pilot year (2010-11). Five teachers of grades 3 through 6 were recruited from three different schools. Participants were observed as they taught lessons related to the modules and they were interviewed about their experiences. Based on analysis of the data from the observations, using a modified version of the Science Teacher Inquiry Rubric (STIR) (Bodzin & Beerer, 2003), the participants were found to exhibit partial fidelity of implementation to the model of inquiry-based instruction promoted by the ISI. Based on data from the interviews, the

  4. Examining Instructional Practices, Intellectual Challenge, and Supports for African American Student Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Chandra L.

    2012-01-01

    The debate surrounding how best to support African American student writers continues today as the gap between achievement scores persists. This qualitative analysis documents the classroom structures and instructional practices of two English Language Arts teachers working in a predominately African American public middle school, whose students…

  5. Teachers' Instructional Adaptations: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Seth A.; Vaughn, Margaret; Scales, Roya Qualls; Gallagher, Melissa A.; Parsons, Allison Ward; Davis, Stephanie G.; Pierczynski, Melissa; Allen, Melony

    2018-01-01

    Researchers recognize adaptive teaching as a component of effective instruction. Educators adjust their teaching according to the social, linguistic, cultural, and instructional needs of their students. While there is consensus that effective teachers are adaptive, there is no consensus on the language to describe this phenomenon. Diverse…

  6. EMC² = comprehension: A reading strategy instruction framework for all teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda M Klapwijk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehension is a critical part of the reading process, and yet learners continue to struggle with it and teachers continue to neglect it in their teaching. Many reasons exist for the lack of focus on reading comprehension instruction, but for the most part, teachers simply do not seem to view comprehension as part of the reading process, are not able to teach the concept, and are seemingly not taught to do so during their teacher training years. In addition to this, comprehension continues to be viewed as part of 'language teaching', and is therefore viewed as the so-called 'language teacher's' domain. In support of effective comprehension instruction in the unique, multilingual South African education environment, this article proposes a framework for reading strategy instruction, aimed specifically at teachers. The framework was developed from a research study, and refined through subsequent application in a university course as well as a further study. The framework acknowledges that reading is a multifaceted and complex process, and accordingly, provides sufficient structure for teachers. It further addresses the issue of comprehension instruction through the use of selected reading strategies, designed to be applied by all teachers in all subjects in a flexible and easy manner.

  7. Teacher spatial skills are linked to differences in geometry instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otumfuor, Beryl Ann; Carr, Martha

    2017-12-01

    Spatial skills have been linked to better performance in mathematics. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher spatial skills and their instruction, including teacher content and pedagogical knowledge, use of pictorial representations, and use of gestures during geometry instruction. Fifty-six middle school teachers participated in the study. The teachers were administered spatial measures of mental rotations and spatial visualization. Next, a single geometry class was videotaped. Correlational analyses revealed that spatial skills significantly correlate with teacher's use of representational gestures and content and pedagogical knowledge during instruction of geometry. Spatial skills did not independently correlate with the use of pointing gestures or the use of pictorial representations. However, an interaction term between spatial skills and content and pedagogical knowledge did correlate significantly with the use of pictorial representations. Teacher experience as measured by the number of years of teaching and highest degree did not appear to affect the relationships among the variables with the exception of the relationship between spatial skills and teacher content and pedagogical knowledge. Teachers with better spatial skills are also likely to use representational gestures and to show better content and pedagogical knowledge during instruction. Spatial skills predict pictorial representation use only as a function of content and pedagogical knowledge. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Code-Switching in Vietnamese University EFL Teachers' Classroom Instruction: A Pedagogical Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lynn E.; Nguyen, Thi Hang

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the under-explored phenomenon in Vietnamese tertiary settings of code-switching practised by EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers in classroom instruction, as well as their awareness of this practice. Among the foreign languages taught and learned in Vietnamese universities, English is the most popular. The research…

  9. Navigating the Complex Practices of Specialized Literacy Professionals in Formalized Teacher Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkewecz, Thea A.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation reports on how one school community engaged in a professional development grant initiative that incorporated teacher leadership. Teacher leaders may have numerous roles and responsibilities that support the professional learning and instructional practices of school communities. This study examined the experiences of three…

  10. Does Teaching Experience Matter? The Beliefs and Practices of Beginning and Experienced Physics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleon, Imelda S.; Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Cho, Young Hoan

    2018-01-01

    This study utilized multiple data sources to examine the beliefs about learning and teaching physics and the instructional practices of five beginning teachers and seven experienced teachers from Singapore. Our study was implemented in the unique context of teachers teaching the topic of electricity to students grouped according to academic…

  11. Measuring Teachers' Knowledge of Vocabulary Development and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Annie; Kenyon, Dorry; Haynes, Erin; August, Diane; Yanosky, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to measure teachers' knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction, the Teacher Knowledge of Vocabulary Survey (TKVS). This type of knowledge has become increasingly important as all classroom teachers are expected to help students meet language and literacy standards that include…

  12. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas About Scientific Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Amy

    2014-10-01

    With the goal of producing scientifically literate citizens who are able to make informed decisions and reason critically when science intersects with their everyday lives, the National Research Council (NRC) has produced two recent documents that call for a new approach to K-12 science education that is based on scientific practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. These documents will potentially influence future state standards and K-12 curricula. Teachers will need support in order to teach science using a practices based approach, particularly if they do not have strong science backgrounds, which is often the case with elementary teachers. This study investigates one cohort (n = 19) of preservice elementary teachers' ideas about scientific practices, as developed in a one-semester elementary science teaching methods course. The course focused on eight particular scientific practices, as defined by the National Research Council's A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (2012). Participants' written reflections, lesson plans and annotated teaching videos were analyzed in fine detail to better understand their ideas about what it means to engage in each of the practices. The findings suggest that preservice elementary teachers hold promising ideas about scientific practices (such as an emphasis on argumentation and communication between scientists, critical thinking, and answering and asking questions as the goal of science) as well as problematic ideas (including confusion over the purpose of modeling and the process of analysis, and conflating argumentation and explanation building). These results highlight the strengths and limitations of using the Framework (NRC 2012) as an instructional text and the difficulties of differentiating between preservice teachers' content knowledge about doing the practices and their pedagogical knowledge about teaching the practices.

  13. Professional development to differentiate kindergarten Tier 1 instruction: Can already effective teachers improve student outcomes by differentiating Tier 1 instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Folsom, Jessica S; Wanzek, Jeannie; Greulich, Luana; Wasche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (1) to examine changes from baseline through two years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers' differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; (2) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of three cohorts of the teachers' students ( n = 416). Teachers' instruction was observed and students were assessed on standardized measures of vocabulary and word reading. Results suggested that teachers significantly increased their differentiation and students showed significantly greater word reading outcomes relative to baseline. No change was observed for vocabulary. Results have implications for supporting teacher effectiveness through technology-supported professional development.

  14. Instructional Materials Commonly Employed by Foreign Language Teachers at Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Çakır

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the teachers’ choices of instructional materials in teaching English at elementary schools. The reasons behind preferring or not preferring some certain instructional materials specified within the research were analysed. To this end, during the course of School Experience, 68 prospective English teachers observed 38 teachers of English working at 14 elementary schools on a weekly basis, and they completed a questionnaire. A semi-structured interview was also conducted with five randomly selected teachers to identify their reasons for choosing certain instructional materials. The descriptive results revealed that most of the teachers were reluctant to use many of the highly beneficial materials due to reasons including overcrowded classes, limited technological knowledge, lack of time for preparation, curricular time constraints, heavy work load, burnout etc. The study suggests that apart from course-books teachers should be encouraged to use other instructional materials to motivate learners and offer an interactive foreign language teaching atmosphere.

  15. Instructional materials commonly employed by foreign language teachers at elementary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Çakır

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the teachers’ choices of instructional materials in teaching English at elementary schools. The reasons behind preferring or not preferring some certain instructional materials specified within the research were analysed. To this end, during the course of School Experience, 68 prospective English teachers observed 38 teachers of English working at 14 elementary schools on a weekly basis, and they completed a questionnaire. A semi-structured interview was also conducted with five randomly selected teachers to identify their reasons for choosing certain instructional materials. The descriptive results revealed that most of the teachers were reluctant to use many of the highly beneficial materials due to reasons including overcrowded classes, limited technological knowledge, lack of time for preparation, curricular time constraints, heavy work load, burnout etc. The study suggests that apart from course-books teachers should be encouraged to use other instructional materials to motivate learners and offer an interactive foreign language teaching atmosphere.

  16. A Nordic comparison of national objectives for reading instruction and teachers' responses about actual reading practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Louise; Mejding, Jan

    2014-01-01

    and functional goals in Finland. It appears that the Finnish descriptions are more aligned with current empirical research on reading comprehension. Swedish and Norwegian teachers have the most varied used of both literary and informational text types during a week, whereas Finnish teachers give informational...... texts a higher priority than literary texts – and the opposite is apparent for Danish teachers. The Finnish and Norwegian teachers prioritise activities that enhance students’ oral reading fluency, which is important for reading comprehension development, to a greater extent than teachers in Denmark......This article presents a comparison of the Nordic countries’ official objectives for reading and analyses of 1005 Nordic teachers’ responses regarding their reading instruction. The specificity and transparency vary greatly in the objectives, from broad outlines in Norway to more specific...

  17. ASIE Model: An Innovative Instructional Design Model for Teachers in Enhancing and Sustaining the Quality of the 21st Century Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Md Zain

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An effective and systematic design of instruction will determine the quality of learning and teaching practices. Hence, instructional design models are required, to move from just adopting a standard approach to developing models that have an impact on learners' profiles, creating a much better learning experience, skills, and knowledge both in the classroom and online. The 21st Century Learning Framework requires learners to develop their thinking skills, communication skills, collaborating skills and enhancing their creativity, (4Cs towards establishing "globally competitive learners." An Integral ASIE Instructional Design Model is an innovative 21st Century teachers' designing tool that provides a solution to the above challenges. The Model assist teachers in Planning, Utilizing and Sharing (PLUS instructions with others across nations. It promotes the Professional Learning Community practices where educationist, stakeholders, parents, and corporates work collaboratively ensuring its quality and sustainability in addressing the future employability issues of the learners. Results from 5 Likert Scales Questionnaires given to teachers in workshops and pilot project conducted, shows positive views on the model.

  18. Building Measures of Instructional Differentiation from Teacher Checklists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan; Swanlund, Andrew; Miller, Shazia; Konstantopoulos, Spyros; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is commonly believed to be critical to improving the quality and efficiency of teachers' instructional repertoires (Fischer & Rose, 2001; Tomlinson, 2004). Tomlinson (2000) describes differentiation in four domains: content, process, product, and learning environment. Content differentiation involves varying…

  19. Caring Enough to Teach Science. Helping Pre-service Teachers View Science Instruction as an Ethical Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinell, Smith; Rabin, Colette

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this project was to motivate pre-service elementary teachers to commit to spending significant instructional time on science in their future classrooms despite their self-assessed lack of confidence about teaching science and other impediments (e.g., high-stakes testing practices that value other subjects over science). Pre-service teachers in science methods courses explored connections between science and ethics, specifically around issues of ecological sustainability, and grappled with their ethical responsibilities as teachers to provide science instruction. Survey responses, student "quick-writes," interview transcripts, and field notes were analyzed. Findings suggest that helping pre-service teachers see these connections may shape their beliefs and dispositions in ways that may motivate them to embark on the long road toward improving their science pedagogical content knowledge and ultimately to teach science to their students more often and better than they otherwise might. The approach may also offer a way for teachers to attend to the moral work of teaching.

  20. Relations among student attention behaviors, teacher practices, and beginning word reading skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Leilani; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The role of student attention for predicting kindergarten word reading was investigated among 432 students. Using Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior Rating Scale behavior rating scores, the authors conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded three distinct factors that reflected selective attention. In this study, the authors focused on the role of one of these factors, which they labeled attention-memory, for predicting reading performance. Teacher ratings of attention-memory predicted word reading above and beyond the contribution of phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. In addition, the relations between four teacher practices and attention ratings for predicting reading performance were examined. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the authors found significant interactions between student attention and teacher practices observed during literacy instruction. In general, as ratings of attention improved, better kindergarten word reading performance was associated with high levels of classroom behavior management. However, better word reading performance was not associated with high levels of teacher task orienting. A significant three-way interaction was also found among attention, individualized instruction, and teacher task redirections. The role of regulating kindergarten student attention to support beginning word reading skill development is discussed.

  1. Kindergarten Teachers' Understanding of the Elements of Implementing Inquiry-Based Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Kathryn

    The purpose of this basic qualitative research study was to identify the extent to which kindergarten teachers understand and implement inquiry-based instruction in their science classrooms. This study was conducted in response to the indication that traditional didactic teaching methods were not enough to adequately prepare American students to compete in the global economy. Inquiry is a teaching method that could prepare students for the critical thinking skills needed to enter society in the 21st century. It is vital that teachers be sufficiently trained in teaching using the necessary components of inquiry-based instruction. This study could be used to inform leaders in educational administration of the gaps in teachers' understanding as it pertains to inquiry, thus allowing for the delivery of professional development that will address teachers' needs. Existing literature on inquiry-based instruction provides minimal information on kindergarten teachers' understanding and usage of inquiry to teach science content, and this information would be necessary to inform administrators in their response to supporting teachers in the implementation of inquiry. The primary research question for this study was "To what extent do kindergarten teachers understand the elements of implementing inquiry-based lessons in science instruction?" The 10 participants in this study were all kindergarten teachers in a midsized school district in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Data were collected using face-to-face semistructured interviews, observations of the teachers implementing what they perceived to be inquiry-based instruction, and the analysis of lesson plans to indicate the components used to plan for inquiry-instruction. The findings of this study indicated that while teachers believed inquiry to be a beneficial method for teaching science, they did not understand the components of inquiry and tended to implement lesson plans created at the district level. By

  2. Finding Alignment: The Perceptions and Integration of the Next Generation Science Standards Practices by Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janette; Nadelson, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Preparing elementary-level teachers to teach in alignment with the eight Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) practices could prove to be a daunting endeavor. However, the process may be catalyzed by leveraging elements of teacher science instruction that inherently attend to the practice standards. In this study, we investigated the science…

  3. Meeting the Demands of Science Reforms: A Comprehensive Professional Development for Practicing Middle School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Rose M.; Mesa, Jennifer; Hayes, Lynda

    2018-03-01

    Preparing teachers to teach science consistent with current reforms in science education is a daunting enterprise given a lack of high-quality science professional development (PD) adaptable across various contexts (Wilson 2013). This study examines the impact of a comprehensive professional development program on middle school teachers' disciplinary content knowledge and instructional practices. In this mixed methods investigation, data sources included classroom observations, content knowledge assessments, surveys, and a range of interviews. The teachers in the program showed significant improvements in their disciplinary content knowledge and demonstrated through their enactment of a reform-based curriculum, a range of ability levels to translate their knowledge into instructional practices consistent with the principles espoused in the PD. We conclude that programs that attend to elements of effective PD identified in the literature can positively impact middle school science teachers' enactment of reform-based science teaching. Our findings extend these elements to include the strategic engagement of school and district leadership and the provision of a safe learning space for teachers to collectively engage in reciprocal learning and critical practice. This study has worldwide implications for designing PD for science teachers and for extending our understanding of the impact of each element.

  4. Instructional Strategies and Practices Used to Enhance Student Success in the High School Algebra I Inclusive Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, Lillian Margretta

    2003-01-01

    Instructional Strategies and Practices Used to Enhance Student Success in the High School Algebra I Inclusive Classroom Lillian M. Lowery Dr. Jean B. Crockett, Chair (ABSTRACT) The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the instructional conditions and practices described as successful for teachers in the Algebra I inclusive classroom. In the southeastern suburban school district used for this study, students who began their freshman year of high school in fiscal y...

  5. Enhancing the Impact of Evidence-Based Publications on K-12 ESL Teacher Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Marilyn L.; Lee, Kent; Rossiter, Marian J.

    2017-01-01

    The reading of current research-informed publications is an essential component of teacher professional development that has the potential to lead to or reinforce the implementation of effective instructional practices. To our knowledge, no studies have examined kindergarten to grade 12 (K-12) ESL teacher engagement in professional reading related…

  6. Formative Assessment: Exploring Tunisian Cooperative Teachers Practices in Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melki Hasan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article is based on questions related to the formative assessment of preparatory trainee ship in the professional life of Physical Education teachers. In general, in the first training program, the traineeship represents an integral part of training. In this sense, the traineeship offers a vital opportunity for future teacher to gain practical experience in the real environment, given that formative evaluation is a process of collecting evidence from trainees by cooperative teachers to make decisions about their knowledge and skills, to guide their own instructional activities and to control their behavior. Accordingly, this study proposed to explore practices of Tunisians cooperative teachers in relation to the formative assessment. Material: To verify our proposed object, we conducted a research using a questionnaire distributed among 96 cooperative teachers in different educational institutions located in the region of the greater Tunis. During the school year 2015-2016, the questionnaire was the subject of a statistical analysis using frequencies and percentages. Results: The analysis of such data revealed a range of practices about formative estimation among cooperative teachers. In particular, each teacher acknowledged the value of guiding and encouraging student’s self-assessment. So that they could lead their students to assume a share of evaluative activity. Conclusion: Both theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed, and some recommendations are made for future practice.

  7. Pre-Service English as a Foreign Language Teachers' Belief Development about Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapan, Seyit Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate pre-service English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' beliefs about grammar instruction in a foreign language (FL) context through their initial teaching practices. Analyses of semi-structured interviews and classroom observations apart from pre-and post-test results of participants' responses to a belief…

  8. An Assessment of Need for Instructional Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers Using Interactive Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Amanda

    Numerous studies on the impact of interactive lessons on student learning have been conducted, but there has been a lack of professional development (PD) programs at a middle school focusing on ways to incorporate interactive lessons into the science classroom setting. The purpose of this case study was to examine the instructional practices of science teachers to determine whether the need for an interactive lessons approach to teaching students exists. This qualitative case study focused on teachers' perceptions and pedagogy to determine whether the need to use interactive lessons to meet the needs of all students is present. The research question focused on identifying current practices and determining whether a need for interactive lessons is present. Qualitative data were gathered from science teachers at the school through interviews, lesson plans, and observations, all of which were subsequently coded using an interpretative analysis. The results indicated the need for a professional development (PD) program centered on interactive science lessons. Upon completion of the qualitative study, a detailed PD program has been proposed to increase the instructional practices of science teachers to incorporate interactive lessons within the science classroom. Implications for positive social change include improved teaching strategies and lessons that are more student-centered resulting in better understanding and comprehension, as well as performance on state-mandated tests.

  9. Professional Development to Differentiate Kindergarten Tier 1 Instruction: Can Already Effective Teachers Improve Student Outcomes by Differentiating Tier 1 Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Folsom, Jessica S.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Greulich, Luana; Waesche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol M.

    2016-01-01

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (a) to examine changes from baseline through 2 years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers' differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; and (b) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of 3 cohorts of the teachers'…

  10. Supporting Beginning Teacher Planning and Enactment of Investigation-based Science Discussions: The Design and Use of Tools within Practice-based Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kademian, Sylvie M.

    Current reform efforts prioritize science instruction that provides opportunities for students to engage in productive talk about scientific phenomena. Given the challenges teachers face enacting instruction that integrates science practices and science content, beginning teachers need support to develop the knowledge and teaching practices required to teach reform-oriented science lessons. Practice-based teacher education shows potential for supporting beginning teachers while they are learning to teach in this way. However, little is known about how beginning elementary teachers draw upon the types of support and tools associated with practice-based teacher education to learn to successfully enact this type of instruction. This dissertation addresses this gap by investigating how a practice-based science methods course using a suite of teacher educator-provided tools can support beginning teachers' planning and enactment of investigation-based science lessons. Using qualitative case study methodologies, this study drew on video-records, lesson plans, class assignments, and surveys from one cohort of 22 pre-service teachers (called interns in this study) enrolled in a year-long elementary education master of the arts and teaching certification program. Six focal interns were also interviewed at multiple time-points during the methods course. Similarities existed across the types of tools and teaching practices interns used most frequently to plan and enact investigation-based discussions. For the focal interns, use of four synergistic teaching practices throughout the lesson enactments (including consideration of students' initial ideas; use of open-ended questions to elicit, extend, and challenge ideas; connecting across students' ideas and the disciplinary core ideas; and use of a representation to organize and highlight students' ideas) appeared to lead to increased opportunities for students to share their ideas and engage in data analysis, argumentation and

  11. A well-started beginning elementary teacher's beliefs and practices in relation to reform recommendations about inquiry-based science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2017-06-01

    Given reform recommendations emphasizing scientific inquiry and empirical evidence pointing to the difficulties beginning teachers face in enacting inquiry-based science, this study explores a well-started beginning elementary teacher's (Sofia) beliefs about inquiry-based science and related instructional practices. In order to explore Sofia's beliefs and instructional practices, several kinds of data were collected in a period of 9 months: a self-portrait and an accompanying narrative, a personal philosophy assignment, three interviews, three journal entries, ten lesson plans, and ten videotaped classroom observations. The analysis of these data showed that Sofia's beliefs and instructional practices were reform-minded. She articulated contemporary beliefs about scientific inquiry and how children learn science and was able to translate these beliefs into practice. Central to Sofia's beliefs about science teaching were scientific inquiry and engaging students in investigations with authentic data, with a prevalent emphasis on the role of evidence in the construction of scientific claims. These findings are important to research aiming at supporting teachers, especially beginning ones, to embrace reform recommendations.

  12. The Impact of Teacher Study Groups in Vocabulary on Teaching Practice, Teacher Knowledge, and Student Vocabulary Knowledge: A Large-Scale Replication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Madhavi; Dimino, Joseph; Gersten, Russell; Taylor, Mary Jo; Haymond, Kelly; Smolkowski, Keith; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this replication study was to examine the impact of the Teacher Study Group (TSG) professional development in vocabulary on first-grade teachers' knowledge of vocabulary instruction and observed teaching practice, and on students' vocabulary knowledge. Sixty-two schools from 16 districts in four states were randomly assigned to…

  13. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

  14. Teacher Education that Works: Preparing Secondary-Level Math and Science Teachers for Success with English Language Learners Through Content-Based Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo Elisabeth DelliCarpini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Little research exists on effective ways to prepare secondary mathematics and science teachers to work with English language learners (ELLs in mainstream mathematics and science (subsequently referred to as STEM classrooms. Given the achievement gap that exists between ELLs and their native-speaking counterparts in STEM subjects, as well as the growing numbers of ELLs in US schools, this becomes a critical issue, as academic success for these students depends on the effectiveness of instruction they receive not only in English as a second language classes (ESL, but in mainstream classrooms as well. This article reports on the effects of a program restructuring that implemented coursework specifically designed to prepare pre-service and in-service mathematics, science, and ESL teachers to work with ELLs in their content and ESL classrooms through collaboration between mainstream STEM and ESL teachers, as well as effective content and language integration. We present findings on teachers’ attitudes and current practices related to the inclusion of ELLs in the secondary-level content classroom and their current level of knowledge and skills in collaborative practice. We further describe the rationale behind the development of the course, provide a description of the course and its requirements as they changed throughout its implementation during two semesters, and present findings from the participants enrolled. Additionally, we discuss the lessons learned; researchers’ innovative approaches to implementation of content-based instruction (CBI and teacher collaboration, which we term two-way CBI (DelliCarpini & Alonso, 2013; and implications for teacher education programs.

  15. Perspectives on instructor modeling in mathematics teacher education

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Cassondra

    2009-01-01

    Teachers' instructional practices are greatly shaped by their own learning experiences as students in K-12 and college classrooms, which for most teachers was traditional, teacher-centered instruction. One of the challenges facing mathematics education reform is that, traditional teaching is in contrast to reform student- centered instruction. If teachers learn from their experiences as mathematics students, mathematics teacher educators are encouraged to model practices they would like teach...

  16. Instructional Leadership in Elementary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ann; MacDonald, Leo

    2008-01-01

    Instructional leadership is internationally recognized as being a key role for school administrators to advance in their relationships with teachers. But what happens when a principal lacks content knowledge or specific pedagogical knowledge about certain curriculum areas? How do administrators support instructional practices of teachers who teach…

  17. The Use of Analogies in Language Teaching: Representing the Content of Teachers' Practical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Hans; Verloop, Nico

    2002-01-01

    This study sought to determine how experienced language teachers use analogies to help students comprehend a text on the course of their regular teaching routines. It is assumed that analogies constitute one important component of the content of teachers' practical knowledge in the context of reading-comprehension instruction. The framework of the…

  18. Comparing the Effects of Instructional and Transformational Leadership on Student Achievement: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatzer, Ryan H.; Caldarella, Paul; Hallam, Pamela R.; Brown, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare transformational and instructional leadership theories, examine the unique impact that school leaders have on student achievement, and determine which specific leadership practices are associated with increased student achievement. The sample for this study consisted of 590 teachers in 37 elementary schools…

  19. Self-Assessment Methods in Writing Instruction: A Conceptual Framework, Successful Practices and Essential Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Student writing achievement is essential to lifelong learner success, but supporting writing can be challenging for teachers. Several large-scale analyses of publications on writing have called for further study of instructional methods, as the current literature does not sufficiently address the need to support best teaching practices.…

  20. TEACHER EDUCATION IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES FOR HOLISTIC QUALITY AND RELEVANT TEACHER EDUCATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    Harriet Wambui Njui

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on selected pedagogical practices with a view to making recommendations on how teacher training colleges in Kenya could employ collaborative pedagogies in instruction in order to nurture teacher trainees with knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that prepare them to effectively facilitate learning in schools after pre-service training. Collaborative pedagogies have the advantage of developing learners with 21st century skills such as creativity, critical think...

  1. A narrative study of novice elementary teachers' perceptions of science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Roberta

    It is hoped that, once implemented, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will engage students more deeply in science learning and build science knowledge sequentially beginning in Kindergarten (NRC, 2013). Early instruction is encouraged but must be delivered by qualified elementary teachers who have both the science content knowledge and the necessary instructional skills to teach science effectively to young children (Ejiwale, 2012, Spencer, Vogel, 2009, Walker, 2011). The purpose of this research study is to gain insight into novice elementary teachers' perceptions of science instruction. This research suggests that infusion of constructivist teaching in the elementary classroom is beneficial to the teacher's instruction of science concepts to elementary students. Constructivism is theory that learning is centered on the learner constructing new ideas or concepts built upon their current/past knowledge (Bruner, 1966). Based on this theory, it is recommended that the instructor should try to encourage students to discover principles independently; essentially the instructor presents the problem and lets students go (Good & Brophy, 2004). Discovery learning, hands-on, experimental, collaborative, and project-based learning are all approaches that use constructivist principles. The NGSS are based on constructivist principles. This narrative study provides insight into novice elementary teachers' perceptions of science instruction considered through the lens of Constructivist Theory (Bruner, 1960).

  2. Instructional leaders for all? High school science department heads and instructional leadership across all science disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Stephen

    Many high school science departments are responding to changes in state standards with respect to both curricular content and instructional practices. In the typical American high school organization, the academic department head is ideally positioned to influence change in the instructional practices of teachers within the department. Even though science department heads are well situated to provide leadership during this period of transition, the literature has not addressed the question of how well science department heads believe they can provide instructional leadership for all of the teachers in their department, whether they are teaching within and outside of the head's own sub-discipline. Nor is it known how science department heads view the role of pedagogical content knowledge in teaching different science disciplines. Using an online survey comprised of 26 objective questions and one open response question, a 54-respondent sample of science department heads provided no strong consensus regarding their beliefs about the role of pedagogical content knowledge in science instruction. However, science department heads expressed a significant difference in their views about their capacity to provide instructional leadership for teachers sharing their science content area compared to teachers instructing other science content areas. Given wide-spread science education reform efforts introduced in response to the Next Generation Science Standards, these findings may serve to provide some direction for determining how to best support the work of science department heads as they strive to provide instructional leadership for the teachers in their departments.

  3. Examination of instructional strategies: Secondary science teachers of mainstreamed English language learners in two high schools in southern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangambi, Matthieu Wakalewae

    2005-12-01

    Increasingly, English Language Learners (ELLs) are mainstreamed in science classes. As a result, science teachers must assume responsibility for these students' education. Currently, state tests show a wide performance gap between ELLs and non-ELLs in science and other content area courses. For instance, the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) shows a two years average performance of 6% for ELLs and 33% for non-ELLs in English Language Arts (ELA), Mathematics, and Science and Technology, a 27% performance gap (Lachat, 2000). The use of research based effective teaching strategies for ELLs is indispensable in order to meet ELLs' learning needs (Jarret, 1999). The purpose of this study was to determine if differences exist between ELLs and non-ELLs regarding instructional strategies that secondary science teachers employ. Four areas were examined: instructional strategies mainstreamed ELLs and non-ELLs report as being most frequently employed by their science teachers, instructional strategies ELLs and non-ELLs consider most effective in their learning, the existing differences between ELLs and non-ELLs in the rating of effectiveness of instructional strategies their teachers currently practice, and factors impacting ELLs and non-ELLs' performance on high-stakes tests. This study was conducted in two urban high schools in Southern New England. The sample (N = 71) was based on the non-probability sampling technique known as convenience sampling from students registered in science classes. The questionnaire was designed based on research-based effective teaching strategies (Burnette, 1999; Ortiz, 1997), using a Likert-type scale. Several findings were of importance. First, ELLs and non-ELLs reported similar frequency of use of effective instructional strategies by teachers. However, ELLs and non-ELLs identified different preferences for strategies. Whereas non-ELLs preferred connecting learning to real life situations, ELLs rated that strategy as least

  4. Instructional Leadership Practices in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…

  5. Teaching as Interaction: Challenges in Transitioning Teachers' Instruction to Small Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha; Chapman-DeSousa, Brook

    2017-01-01

    Although small group instruction is often endorsed in teaching young children, teachers are rarely given explicit instruction on how to move instruction into small groups where effective adult-child interactions can take place. This study examines how 14 early childhood educators transitioned their instruction from whole to small group teaching…

  6. Optimizing the orchestration of resemiotization with teacher "talk moves": A model of guided-inquiry instruction in middle school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstone, Rachel Diana

    The current conceptualization of science set forth by the National Research Council (2008) is one of science as a social activity, rather than a view of science as a fixed body of knowledge. This requires teachers to consider how communication, processing, and meaning-making contribute to science learning. It also requires teachers to think deeply about what constitutes knowledge and understanding in science, and what types of instruction are most conducive to preparing students to participate meaningfully in the society of tomorrow. Because argumentation is the prominent form of productive talk leading to the building of new scientific knowledge, one indicator of successful inquiry lies in students' abilities to communicate their scientific understandings in scientific argumentation structures. The overarching goal of this study is to identify factors that promote effective inquiry-based instruction in middle school science classrooms, as evidenced in students' abilities to engage in quality argumentation with their peers. Three specific research questions were investigated: (1) What factors do teachers identify in their practice as significant to the teaching and learning of science? (2) What factors do students identify as significant to their learning of science? and (3) What factors affect students' opportunities and abilities to achieve sophisticated levels of argumentation in the classroom? Two teachers and forty students participated in this study. Four principle sources of data were collected over a three-month period of time. These included individual teacher interviews, student focus group interviews, fieldnotes, and approximately 85 hours of classroom videotape. From this sample, four pathways for guided-inquiry instruction are identified. Opportunities for student talk were influenced by a combination of factors located in the domains of "teacher practice," "classroom systems," and "physical structures." Combinations of elements from these three

  7. Understanding Science Teaching Effectiveness: Examining How Science-Specific and Generic Instructional Practices Relate to Student Achievement in Secondary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeska, Jamie N.; Shattuck, Tamara; Holtzman, Steven; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Duchesneau, Nancy; Qi, Yi; Stickler, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    In order to create conditions for students' meaningful and rigorous intellectual engagement in science classrooms, it is critically important to help science teachers learn which strategies and approaches can be used best to develop students' scientific literacy. Better understanding how science teachers' instructional practices relate to student…

  8. Teacher structure as a predictor of students' perceived competence and autonomous motivation: The moderating role of differentiated instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frédéric; Roy, Amélie; Valois, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    An important pedagogical practice is the provision of structure (Farkas & Grolnick, 2010, Motiv. Emot., 34, 266). According to self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior, Plenum, New York, NY), structure allows students to develop perceived competence in different school subjects, which in turn facilitates the development of autonomous motivation towards these subjects and limits the development of controlled motivation. In this study, we test a mediated moderation model that posits that teacher structure has a stronger positive effect on students' autonomous motivation (and a negative effect on controlled motivation) in French class when differentiated instruction is used, and that this moderation effect is mediated by perceived competence. To test this model, we used a sample of 27 elementary school teachers and 422 students from Quebec, a province of Canada. Data for teachers and students were collected with self-report measures. The method used was a correlational one with a single measurement time. Results revealed that (1) the effect of teacher structure on students' autonomous motivation was positive only when differentiated instruction strategies were frequently used, and this moderated effect was partially mediated by perceived competence, and (2) teacher structure was negatively associated with students' controlled motivation only when differentiated instruction was provided infrequently, and this moderated effect was not explained by perceived competence. These findings are discussed in the light of the literature on SDT and on differentiated instruction. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. The implementation and evaluation of teacher training in gaming instruction for secondary science: An action research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Veronica

    This study implemented and evaluated gaming instruction as a professional development for science teachers at a Georgia high school. It was guided by four research questions that (a) assessed the impact of training in gaming instruction and evaluation of that training on science teachers' ability to use games; (b) examined evidence showing that science teachers used games; (c) assessed the impact of the implementation and subsequent evaluation of games-based training on how science teachers instruct their students; and (d) explored the use of change management principles to help teachers transition from traditional to gaming instruction. The study included a purposive sampling of 10 volunteer science teachers who received the professional development of training in gaming instruction and were observed as they used games to instruct their students. Quantitative data were collected from interviews, observations, and reviews of student assignments and teacher plans, and were statistically analyzed to answer the research questions. These same methods were used to obtain qualitative data, which were also analyzed to answer the research questions as well as to understand the meaning, beliefs and experience behind the numbers. Ultimately, data analysis revealed that the science teachers not only used gaming instruction but also that the training helped them to use gaming instruction and that they considered gaming instruction a viable instruction methodology. Finally, data analysis revealed that change management was successfully used in the study.

  10. Case Studies of Secondary School Teachers Designing Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction and Their Students' Socioscientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Engin

    Addressing socioscientific issues (SSI) has been one of the main focuses in science education since the Science, Technology, and Society (STS) movement in the 1970s (Levinson, 2006); however, teaching controversial socioscientific issues has always been challenging for teachers (Dillon, 1994; Osborne, Duschl, & Fairbrother, 2002). Although teachers exhibit positive attitudes for using controversial socioscientific issues in their science classrooms, only a small percentage of them actually incorporate SSI content into their science curricula on a regular basis (Sadler, Amirshokoohi, Kazempour, & Allspaw, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009). The literature in science education has highlighted the signi?cant relationships among teacher beliefs, teaching practices, and student learning (Bryan & Atwater, 2002; King, Shumow, & Lietz, 2001; Lederman, 1992). Despite the fact that the case studies present a relatively detailed picture of teachers' values and motivations for teaching SSI (e.g. Lee, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009; Reis & Galvao, 2004), these studies still miss the practices of these teachers and potential outcomes for their students. Therefore, there is a great need for in-depth case studies that would focus on teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based learning environments, their deeper beliefs and motivations for teaching SSI, and their students' response to these practices (Lee, 2006). This dissertation is structured as three separate, but related, studies about secondary school teachers' experiences of designing and teaching SSI-based classes and their students' understanding of science and SSI reasoning. The case studies in this dissertation seek answers for (1) teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based instruction, as well as its relation to their deeper personal beliefs and motivations to teach SSI, and (2) how their students respond to their approaches of teaching SSI in terms of their science understanding and SSI reasoning. The first paper

  11. Improving Second Grade Student's Reading Fluency and Comprehension Using Teacher-Guided iPad® App Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcay, Jessica D.; Preston, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the differences in second grade students' reading fluency and comprehension scores when using varying levels of teacher-guided iPad® app instruction to determine effective reading practices. Design/methodology/approach: This study reports the results of the quasi-experimental pre-post study by providing…

  12. Study of the 5E Instructional Model to Improve the Instructional Design Process of Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiuhua; Gao, Chong; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 5E instructional model on the teaching processes of novice teachers. First, we conducted a teaching design training project based on the 5E model for 40 novice teachers, and compared pre-texts of the teachers' teaching process from before the training with post-texts obtained immediately following the…

  13. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,…

  14. A phenomenological study on the impacts of embedding disciplinary literacy during science instruction on elementary teachers' metacognition of instructional techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kelley

    The educational community has been increasing its focus on literacy for several years. The modern definition of literacy requires students to be an informed and integrated thinker, synthesizing new information beyond the mere ability to read and write (Guzzetti & Bang, 2011). This qualitative phenomenological study focused on how teachers of science view literacy and how that view changes when they implement the concept of disciplinary literacy into science instruction. This phenomenological study examined how teachers became more metacognitive of their instructional methods after implementation of the Question-Answer Relationship strategy (QAR) and direct vocabulary instruction into their science instruction. Teachers utilized schema theory and social cognitive theory to integrate the two strategies into their science lessons throughout the study. This phenomenological study collected data during a six-week implementation period through interviews, observations, teacher journals and collection of artifacts from 12 teachers who taught students in grades one through five and three literacy specialists in a rural central Maine school. These data sources were analyzed using Moustakas' (1994) seven steps to discover themes that were identified from the data. Findings from this study, as viewed through the pragmatic lens, suggested that teachers benefit from systematic reflection of their teaching to develop literacy rich content area lessons that address all of the students' learning needs.

  15. On the Practice Architectures of Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Petri; Nylund, Jan; Stjernstrøm, Else

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of instructional leadership and principals' perceptions of the practices of instructional leadership. Despite the emphasis on the effects of school leadership regarding teaching practices and learning outcomes, research on direct instructional leadership is scarce. It is focused either on identifying overall…

  16. Enhancing Literacy Practices in Science Classrooms through a Professional Development Program for Canadian Minority-Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Léonard P.; Gueye, Ndeye R.

    2016-01-01

    'Literacy in the Science Classroom Project" was a three-year professional development (PD) program supporting minority-language secondary teachers' use of effective language-based instructional strategies for teaching science. Our primary objective was to determine how teacher beliefs and practices changed over time and how these were enacted…

  17. Exploring Changes to a Teacher's Teaching Practices and Student Learning through a Volleyball Content Knowledge Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Insook

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how improving a teacher's content knowledge changes his teaching practices and its subsequent effects on student learning during a middle school volleyball instructional unit. The study was designed to challenge teacher educators' thinking about the importance of in-depth content knowledge for effective teaching by…

  18. In-Service Teachers' Perspectives on Adolescent ELL Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Amanda K.; Heny, Natasha A.; Andrei, Elena

    2016-01-01

    As writing has assumed increasing importance in discussions of pedagogy for diverse classrooms, attention to the contexts in which secondary teachers develop and implement writing instruction for adolescent English language learners (ELLs) is of great importance. Drawing on ecological language learning theories and situated teacher learning theory…

  19. Measuring teacher self-report on classroom practices: Construct validity and reliability of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Teacher Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Peters, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. Information is provided about the construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item-bias of the scales. Given previous investigations with the CSS Observer Form, it was hypothesized that internal consistency would be adequate and that confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of CSS-T data from 293 classrooms would offer empirical support for the CSS-T's Total, Composite and subscales, and yield a similar factor structure to that of the CSS Observer Form. Goodness-of-fit indices of χ2/df, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index suggested satisfactory fit of proposed CFA models whereas the Comparative Fit Index did not. Internal consistency estimates of .93 and .94 were obtained for the Instructional Strategies and Behavioral Strategies Total scales respectively. Adequate test-retest reliability was found for instructional and behavioral total scales (r = .79, r = .84, percent agreement 93% and 93%). The CSS-T evidences freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, and years of teaching experience). Implications of results are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Caring Enough to Teach Science: Helping Pre-Service Teachers View Science Instruction as an Ethical Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinell, Smith; Rabin, Colette

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this project was to motivate pre-service elementary teachers to commit to spending significant instructional time on science in their future classrooms despite their self-assessed lack of confidence about teaching science and other impediments (e.g., high-stakes testing practices that value other subjects over science). Pre-service…

  1. Integrating Reading and Writing Instruction in Middle and High School: The Role of Professional Development in Shaping Teacher Perceptions and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubet, Kristina J.; Southall, Gena

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which middle and high school English teachers integrate reading and writing instruction as complementary processes. Using qualitative research methods, researchers investigated the following: (a) Do middle and high school English teachers conceive of and enact the teaching of reading and writing as integrated…

  2. Teacher Logs: A Tool for Gaining a Comprehensive Understanding of Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, Elizabeth J.; Charles, Karen J.; Rice, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Examining repeated classroom encounters over time provides a comprehensive picture of activities. Studies of instructional practices in classrooms have traditionally relied on two methods: classroom observations, which are expensive, and surveys, which are limited in scope and accuracy. Teacher logs provide a "real-time" method for…

  3. Documenting Instructional Practices in Large Introductory STEM Lecture Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Viet Quoc

    shared through communication channels, the adoption decision-making process by potential adopters, and the contextual barriers and drivers of adoption. Additionally, the strategy should be designed with multiple stages, with each stage given time for changes to have an effect. Taking a one-size fits all approach to STEM education reform will not work and may only perpetuate the cycle of non-adoption and continued use of teacher-centered instructional practices.

  4. Learning How to Improve Vocabulary Instruction through Teacher Study Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimino, Joseph; Taylor, Mary Jo

    2009-01-01

    Professional development with proven positive effects on vocabulary instruction and student achievement: that's what reading teachers are looking for, and that's what the Teacher Study Group (TSG) model delivers. With the nine complete TSG sessions in this book, K-8 teachers will form dynamic in-school learning groups with their fellow educators…

  5. teachers' perception of the utilization of instructional materials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    social studies in junior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality of Cross River State, Nigeria. The ... teachers perceive instructional materials as necessary for effective teaching and learning. ..... Technologies, Methods & Media Port-.

  6. Teacher perspectives on specialisation in the elementary classroom: implications for science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Susan; Colburn, Amanda; Long, David E.

    2017-09-01

    In the current educational climate of testing and accountability, many elementary teachers find they lack adequate time and confidence to enact reform-based science teaching due to pressure to perform in reading and mathematics. With this tension in mind, we explore the phenomenon of elementary teacher specialisation in comparison to the traditional, generalist model of teaching, wherein a teacher is responsible for teaching all subjects to one group of students each year. This mixed-methods study examines teacher perspectives on the practice of specialisation and generalisation through teacher interview data. Our teachers spoke candidly about their attitudes towards specialisation, the perceived impacts of specialization on teachers and students, and the role of accountability, administration, and testing in their decisions to specialise. Additionally, our teachers discussed time dedicated to science in specialist and generalist classrooms. Our findings suggest that specialist roles are sought by those who see specialisation as a means of reducing workload, while allowing for content mastery and improved instruction. Alternatively, generalist roles are sought by those who primarily view the role of elementary teaching as the care and development of children, and who prefer to focus on the classroom as a holistic, fluid space. Implications for science teaching are discussed.

  7. Mathematics Pedagogical Standards: A Suggested Model of Instruction in Enhancing the Mathematics Teacher’s Quality of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, N. S.; Jemali, M.; Zakaria, Z. Hj; Yusof, Q.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims at identifying the standards for teaching and learning of mathematics based on National Council of Teacher of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000), The Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers (AAMT, 2006) and Training and Development Agency for School (TDA, 2007). These known standards were used as a guide in identifying the constructs of the mathematics teacher’s instruction in the classroom. The survey method used in which a questionnaire instrument encompassed on the four identified constructs on the standards for teaching and learning of mathematics, namely professional practices, professional attributes, professional knowledge, and professional instructional processes. The instrument was tested during a pilot study and a Cronbach’s Alpha reliability index of greater than 0.85 was obtained. The actual research was carried out in Peninsular Malaysia involving 224 secondary schools with 1.120 mathematics teachers and 108 primary schools with 540 mathematics teachers. From the selected schools, only 820 secondary mathematics teachers (73.2%) and 361 primary teachers (66.9%) gave a response to the mailed questionnaires. The findings of the study revealed that the secondary and primary mathematics teachers strongly agreed on three constructs; professional practices, professional attributes and professional instructional processes.

  8. Examining Secondary Special Education Teachers' Literacy Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leko, Melinda M.; Handy, Tamara; Roberts, Carly A.

    2017-01-01

    This study presents findings from a survey of secondary special education teachers who teach reading. Respondents were 577 special education teachers from a large Midwestern state who completed an online or mail survey. Results based on quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate predominant foci of secondary special education teachers' reading…

  9. Personal Characteristics of Teachers, Situational Variables and Deliberations in Planning Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Lya

    This study reveals possible relationships among teachers' personality traits, situational variables, and deliberation characteristics in planning instruction. Dogmatism and locus of control perceptions were the personality traits studied, and the situations compared student teachers with elementary and secondary school teachers. Both groups were…

  10. Teacher Learning through Self-Regulation: An Exploratory Study of Alternatively Prepared Teachers' Ability to Plan Differentiated Instruction in an Urban Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, Katie; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated Instruction (DI) is an approach that recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of diverse learners and requires the teacher to base instructional accommodations on student strengths and weaknesses. Specifically, teachers use DI strategies to adjust the content, process, or product of instruction depending on student needs. Given the…

  11. The Curriculum Customization Service: A Tool for Customizing Earth Science Instruction and Supporting Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhado, L. C.; Devaul, H.; Sumner, T.

    2010-12-01

    contributed by colleagues to create personalized, annotated collections of resources best suited to address the needs of the students in their classroom. Teachers can see the resources that their colleagues are using to customize their instruction, and share their ideas about the suitability of resources for different learners or learning styles through the use of tags and annotations thus creating a community of practice in support of differentiated instruction. A field trial involving 124 middle and high school Earth science teachers in a large urban school district was conducted in the 2009-2010 academic year, accompanied by a mixed-method research and evaluation study to investigate the impact of the use of this system on teacher beliefs and practice, and student learning. This presentation will include a demonstration of the system as well as discuss the results of the research thus far.

  12. Middle School Mathematics Teachers Panel Perspectives of Instructional Practicess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    In a local middle school, students were not meeting standards on the state mathematics tests. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore mathematics teachers' perspectives on effective mathematics instruction vis-a-vis the principles of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Within this framework, the 6 principles in the…

  13. Prospective Teachers' Views about Video-Enhanced General Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Gülcan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the views of the prospective physics and chemistry teachers about the video-enhanced General Biology instruction. The participants included 19 second-year prospective teachers (10 in Physics and 9 in Chemistry Education) at Necatibey Faculty of Education, Balikesir University, Turkey in the 2011-2012 academic…

  14. Knowing Inquiry as Practice and Theory: Developing a Pedagogical Framework with Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Chew-Leng; Lee, Yew-Jin; Tan, Aik-Ling; Lim, Shirley S. L.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we characterize the inquiry practices of four elementary school teachers by means of a pedagogical framework. Our study revealed core components of inquiry found in theoretically-driven models as well as practices that were regarded as integral to the success of day-to-day science teaching in Singapore. This approach towards describing actual science inquiry practices—a surprisingly neglected area—uncovered nuances in teacher instructions that can impact inquiry-based lessons as well as contribute to a practice-oriented perspective of science teaching. In particular, we found that these teachers attached importance to (a) preparing students for investigations, both cognitively and procedurally; (b) iterating pedagogical components where helping students understand and construct concepts did not follow a planned linear path but involved continuous monitoring of learning; and (c) synthesizing concepts in a consolidation phase. Our findings underscore the dialectical relationship between practice-oriented knowledge and theoretical conceptions of teaching/learning thereby helping educators better appreciate how teachers adapt inquiry science for different contexts.

  15. Examining pre-service teacher views on the implementation of screen-based writing instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, as new technological developments continue to emerge, education, like many other fields, is going through major changes. Technological developments are causing changes to many common concepts. In particular, studies that benefit from technology in the field of education are becoming increasingly widespread, opening the door for the emergence of new teaching methods by abandoning traditional ones. New technologies, and computers in particular, can benefit the teaching of writing, the most complex of the four basic language skills (reading, writing, speaking, and listening. This study aims to explore pre-service teachers' views on screen-based writing practices via a course they attended. A qualitative case study method (holistic single-case design was employed to explore pre-service teachers’ views. The study participants were selected using a purposeful sampling method among 4th year students majoring in Turkish Language Teaching at a major state university. The study group consisted of sixty-two pre-service teachers who were enrolled in the “Written Expression” I and II courses in the 2013-2014 education year. The study was conducted both in Fall and Spring semesters. All writing activities were conducted in a digital environment. The study results revealed that a majority (77% of the pre-service teachers favored continuation of the screen-based writing instruction. The study supported that digital literacy is important and the advantages of screen-based writing instruction outweighed its disadvantages. Screen-based writing activities should be integrated into the courses and instruction materials of pre-service Turkish teachers’ education programs.

  16. Deep Impact: How a Job-Embedded Formative Assessment Professional Development Model Affected Teacher Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Stewart

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study supports the work of Black and Wiliam (1998, who demonstrated that when teachers effectively utilize formative assessment strategies, student learning increases significantly. However, the researchers also found a “poverty of practice” among teachers, in that few fully understood how to implement classroom formative assessment. This qualitative case study examined a series of voluntary workshops offered at one middle school designed to address this poverty of practice. Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews. These research questions framed the study: (1 What role did a professional learning community structure play in shaping workshop participants’ perceived effectiveness of a voluntary formative assessment initiative? (2 How did this initiative affect workshop participants’ perceptions of their knowledge of formative assessment and differentiation strategies? (3 How did it affect workshop participants’ perceptions of their abilities to teach others about formative assessment and differentiated instruction? (4 How did it affect school-wide use of classroom-level strategies? Results indicated that teacher workshop participants experienced a growth in their capacity to use and teach others various formative assessment strategies, and even non-participating teachers reported greater use of formative assessment in their own instruction. Workshop participants and non-participating teachers perceived little growth in the area of differentiation of instruction, which contradicted some administrator perceptions.

  17. Pronunciation Instruction and Students’ Practice to Develop Their Confidence in EFL Oral Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Tlazalo Tejeda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to inform on research intended to find out how pronunciation instruction of English as a foreign language was handled in the language classroom with elementary students and also understand if pronunciation instruction had an impact on students’ confidence when using it. In order to do this, a qualitative case study was carried out with learners of elementary English as a foreign language at the Language School of Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico. Class observation, a written text, and semi-structured interviews comprised the data collection instruments. The findings showed that not only teacher pronunciation instruction is necessary when learning English as a foreign language but that a lot of student practice is key to developing and enhancing learners’ pronunciation as well.

  18. Teachers' Perspective on Using Technology as an Instructional Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Leavery Y. Jefferson; Richardson, Martha; Jones, Don

    2014-01-01

    Federal mandates require technology use in the classroom, but not all English language arts (ELA) teachers have implemented technology as an integral part of teaching. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate why ELA teachers in 2 local high schools rarely or never use technology as an instructional tool. The study was…

  19. Preservice and Inservice Teachers' Challenges in the Planning of Practical Work in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivalainen, Ville; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Sormunen, Kari; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2010-06-01

    Practical work in school science plays many essential roles that have been discussed in the literature. However, less attention has been paid to how teachers learn the different roles of practical work and to the kind of challenges they face in their learning during laboratory courses designed for teachers. In the present study we applied the principles of grounded theory to frame a set of factors that seem to set major challenges concerning both successful work in the school physics laboratory and also in the preparation of lessons that exploit practical work. The subject groups of the study were preservice and inservice physics teachers who participated in a school laboratory course. Our results derived from a detailed analysis of tutoring discussions between the instructor and the participants in the course, which revealed that the challenges in practical or laboratory work consisted of the limitations of the laboratory facilities, an insufficient knowledge of physics, problems in understanding instructional approaches, and the general organization of practical work. Based on these findings, we present our recommendations on the preparation of preservice and inservice teachers for the more effective use of practical work in school science and in school physics.

  20. Improving Teacher Practice: Experimental Evidence on Individualized Teacher Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Matthew A.; Blazar, David L.

    2013-01-01

    For over a century, school systems in the U.S. have attempted to improve instructional quality by investing in the education and training of their teachers. Today, over 90% of teachers report participating in some form of professional development (PD). Practitioners have responded to critiques of PD by re-envisioning it in the form of…

  1. Evaluating the Use of Instructional Coaching as a Tool to Improve Teacher Instructional Strategies at a Title 1 Middle School: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmond, Karen W.

    2017-01-01

    This action research study focused on the use of an instructional coaching model to support teachers in the use of Marzano's nine research-based instructional strategies at a low performing Title 1 middle school. The intervention was carried out over five and a half -month period and was aimed at improving teachers' classroom instruction. The…

  2. Is Teacher Knowledge Associated with Performance? On the Relationship between Teachers' General Pedagogical Knowledge and Instructional Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Johannes; Pflanzl, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have identified general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) as a relevant category of teacher knowledge. However, hardly any study has examined the relationship between GPK of teachers and the instructional quality delivered to their students. This article therefore investigates the relationship between teachers' GPK assessed via a…

  3. Teacher Support, Instructional Practices, Student Motivation, and Mathematics Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongrong; Singh, Kusum

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships among teacher classroom practices, student motivation, and mathematics achievement in high school. The data for this study was drawn from the base-year data of High School Longitudinal Study of 2009. Structural equation modeling method was used to estimate the relationships among variables. The results…

  4. Web-Based Instruction on Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Fraction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yao

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether web-based instruction (WBI) represents an improved method for helping preservice teachers learn procedural and conceptual knowledge of fractions.. The purpose was to compare the effectiveness of web-based instruction (WBI) with the traditional lecture in mathematics content and methods for the elementary school…

  5. An Assessment of Teacher Trainees' Attitudes toward Selected Instructional Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Franklin R.

    This quantitative, descriptive research study measured the attitudes of preservice teachers toward the selection and use of instructional media in the classroom. Two groups were involved in the study: approximately 168 students enrolled in formal training in the selection and utilization of instructional media, and approximately 170 preservice…

  6. Chat It Up: Backchanneling to Promote Reflective Practice among In-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassner, Laura D.; Cassada, Kate M.

    2017-01-01

    In a graduate education course geared toward developing reflective teaching practice in in-service teachers, backchannels, in the form of chat rooms, were employed in small groups to facilitate peer feedback during viewings of video recorded instruction. This study examined the nature and quality of peer feedback exchanged in the digital medium…

  7. Embedding Sustainability Instruction across Content Areas: best Classroom Practices from Informal Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, R. M.; Walker, R. M.; Wissehr, C.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental education (EE) facilitates students' scientific and environmental literacy, and addresses content areas including sustainability, ecology, and civic responsibility. However, U.S. science content compartmentalization and EE's interdisciplinary nature historically made it a fragmented curriculum within U.S. schools. To gain a better understanding of effective EE instruction that can be transferred to traditional K-12 classrooms, we researched the interactions between a recognized environmental residential camp and students and teachers from six participating schools using grounded theory methodology. Our research identified the residential learning center's objectives, methods of instruction, and objectives' alignment to the delivered curricula. Data generated included lesson plans, survey responses, and interviews. Students (n = 215) identified wilderness and geology activities as the activities they wanted to experience more; they also identified developing curiosity and a sense of discovery as the most meaningful. Whereas most student-identified meaningful experiences aligned with the center's curricular objectives within the optional units, categories emerged that were not explicitly targeted in the unit activities but were embedded throughout the curriculum in sustainable practices, data collection, and reflections. We propose that embedded activities and implicit instruction can be included across content areas within K-12 classrooms. Teacher modeling and implicit instruction will require minimal classroom time, and facilitate students' scientific and environmental literacy in topics such as sustainability and citizen responsibility.

  8. Combining Project-based Instruction, Earth Science Content, and GIS Technology in Teacher Professional Development: Is this Holistic Approach Sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino-Hare, L.; Bloom, N.; Claesgens, J.; Fredrickson, K.; Henderson-Dahms, C.; Sample, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    From 2009-2011, with support from the National Science Foundation (ITEST, DRL-0929846) and Science Foundation Arizona (MSAG-0412-09), educators, geologists and geographers at Northern Arizona University (NAU) partnered to offer professional development for interdisciplinary teams of secondary and middle school teachers with a focus on project-based instruction (PBI) using geospatial technologies (GST). While participating in professional development teachers received support and were held accountable to NAU staff. They implemented activities and pedagogical strategies presented, increased knowledge, skills, and confidence teaching with project-based instruction integrating GST, and their students demonstrated learning gains. Changes in student understanding are only observed when teachers continue to implement change, so the question remained: did these changes in practice sustain after official project support ended? In order to determine what, if anything, teachers sustained from the professional development and the factors that promoted or hindered sustained use of teaching with GST and PBI, data were collected one to two years following the professional development. Research questions included a) what pedagogical practices did teachers sustain following the professional learning experiences? and b) what contexts were present in schools that supported or limited the use of geospatial technologies as a teaching and learning tool? Findings from this study indicate that teachers fall into three categories of sustaining implementation - reformed implementers, mechanical implementers and non-implementers. School context was less of a factor in level of implementation than teachers' beliefs and philosophy of teaching and teachers' understanding of technology integration (teaching with technology vs. teaching technology). Case studies of teacher experiences will be presented along with implications for future professional development.

  9. A Case Study Investigating Secondary Science Teachers' Perceptions of Science Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Phyllis Ann

    This project study addressed the lack of inclusion of discipline literacy pedagogy in secondary classrooms in a rural school district in eastern North Carolina. Discipline literacy practices are recommended in the Common Core Standards for History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. The district had implemented content area reading strategies across content areas, yet no significant progress in secondary students' reading abilities had been demonstrated in statewide or national assessments. The conceptual framework that drove this study was disciplinary literacy, founded by the literacy research of Shanahan, Shanahan, and Zygouris-Coe. Within a qualitative case study method, this investigation of 8 secondary science teachers' experiences teaching literacy during content instruction focused on practices of embedding science-specific reading strategies into lessons and factors that influence teachers' decisions to participate in professional development to advance their learning of discipline-specific literacy methods. Data were collected and triangulated using a focus group and 8 individual interviews. Data from both methods were analyzed into codes and categories that developed into emergent themes. Findings from the focus group and individual interviews revealed that the science teachers possessed limited knowledge of science-specific reading strategies; used random, general literacy practices; and had completed inadequate professional development on science-related topics. Positive change may occur if district leaders support teachers in expanding their knowledge and application of discipline literacy strategies through participation in discipline literacy-focused professional development. The study may provide educators and researchers a deeper understanding of disciplinary literacy and increase research on the topic.

  10. The relationship between school environment, preservice science teachers' science teaching self-efficacy, and their use of instructional strategies at teachers' colleges in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshalaan, Nasser A.

    Studies indicate that many teachers have negative beliefs about science, which translates into low teacher efficacy, resulting in avoidance of science teaching or in ineffective science teaching behaviors. Highly efficacious teachers have been found to be more likely to use inquiry and student-centered teaching strategies, while teachers with a low sense of science-teaching efficacy are more likely to use teacher-directed strategies, such as didactic lectures and reading from the textbook (Czemiak, 1990). The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice science teachers' science-teaching self-efficacy changes and their correlation to teaching environment factors during the student teaching semester. Moreover, it explains how teaching environment factors and preservice teachers' science-teaching self-efficacy beliefs may relate to their use of teaching strategies in the science classroom during their student teacher training at teachers' colleges in Saudi Arabia. The population of this study is consisted of 184 middle and elementary preservice science teachers who were doing their student teaching at nine teachers' colleges (i.e., teachers' colleges of Riyadh, Dammam, Alrras, Almadinah, Alihsa, Jeddah, Makah, Altaief, and Abha) in Saudi Arabia during the spring semester of 2005. Three instruments were used to collect data for this study: (1) to measure science teaching self-efficacy, the researcher adapted the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument form B designed specifically for preservice teachers (STEBI-B); (2) to measure the school environment, the researcher adapted the Organizational Health Inventory (OHI), developed by Hoy, Tarter & Kottkamp (1991); and (3) to measure the type and frequency of instructional strategies that preservice science teachers use in the classroom, the researcher adapted the teaching practice subscale from The Local Systemic Change through Teacher Enhancement Science K-8 Teacher Questionnaire (Horizon Research, Inc., 2000

  11. Heritage Language Learners in Mixed Spanish Classes: Subtractive Practices and Perceptions of High School Spanish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Linwood J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the language ideologies and instructional practices of an entire Spanish language faculty at a high school in a new gateway state for immigration. The study examined additive and subtractive practices of teachers as they strived to teach Spanish to heritage language learners (HLLs) enrolled in mixed…

  12. The Relationship between Teachers' Implementation of Classroom Management Practices and Student Behavior in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Scott, Terrance; Hirn, Regina; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.

    2018-01-01

    Teachers' classroom management practices have a direct impact on their students' probability of success. Evidence-based classroom management practices include (a) active instruction and supervision of students (i.e., teaching), (b) opportunities for students to respond, and (c) feedback to students. In this study, we examined the degree to which…

  13. Exploring Cross-National Changes in Instructional Practices: Evidence from Four Cycles of TIMSS. Policy Brief No. 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožman, Mojca; Klieme, Eckhard

    2017-01-01

    The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's (IEA's) Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) can reveal a great deal about national teaching cultures and policies. Changes in instructional practices over more than a decade may be studied from a cross-cultural perspective. Using teacher and…

  14. Teacher perspectives on whole-task information literacy instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results of an explorative study on perceived merits of contemporary holistic approaches to designing information literacy instruction in a university setting. Seven teachers in educational sciences evaluated their premaster’s course on conducting a literature review designed

  15. Teacher perspectives on whole-task information literacy instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents results of an explorative study on perceived merits of contemporary holistic approaches to designing information literacy instruction in a university setting. Seven teachers in educational sciences evaluated their premaster’s course on conducting a literature review designed

  16. Individual and Contextual Factors Related to Secondary Special Education Teachers' Reading Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leko, Melinda M.; Chiu, Ming Ming; Roberts, Carly A.

    2018-01-01

    This article reports findings from an initial investigation of the impact multiple individual and contextual factors have on secondary special educators' reading instructional practices. Data from 577 special educators from 221 school districts in a large Midwestern state were collected via an online and paper survey and analyzed using…

  17. Teacher's Guide to Accompany "Artes Latinae," the Encyclopaedia Britannica Latin Instructional System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

    This guide, a supplement to the "Artes Latinae Level One Teacher's Manual," prepared for use in the School District of Philadelphia, focuses primarily on how to adapt this course, intended for individualized instruction, to group instruction. Discussion of the multisensory instructional system includes remarks concerning the use of films, study…

  18. Authoritative and Authoritarian-Inconsistent Teachers' Preferences for Teaching Methods and Instructional Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibu, Krista; Kikas, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Preferences for teaching methods are influenced by several factors, including instructional goals, teacher's management style, experience and education. To discover in which ways primary school teachers with different management styles vary in their preferences for students' cognitive and social development, 128 teachers of Estonia were…

  19. Instructional Support and Implementation Structure during Elementary Teachers' Science Education Simulation Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonczi, Amanda L.; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation sought to identify patterns in elementary science teachers' computer simulation use, particularly implementation structures and instructional supports commonly employed by teachers. Data included video-recorded science lessons of 96 elementary teachers who used computer simulations in one or more science lessons. Results…

  20. Making learning whole: an instructional approach for mediating the practices of authentic science inquiries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, Anu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Pöllänen, Sinikka

    2013-03-01

    This design experiment aimed to answer the question of how to mediate the practices of authentic science inquiries in primary education. An instructional approach based on activity theory was designed and carried out with multi-age students in a small village school. An open-ended learning task was offered to the older students. Their task was to design and implement instruction about the Ice Age to their younger fellows. The objective was collaborative learning among students, the teacher, and outside domain experts. Mobile phones and GPS technologies were applied as the main technological mediators in the learning process. Technology provided an opportunity to expand the learning environment outside the classroom, including the natural environment. Empirically, the goal was to answer the following questions: What kind of learning project emerged? How did the students' knowledge develop? What kinds of science learning processes, activities, and practices were represented? Multiple and parallel data were collected to achieve this aim. The data analysis revealed that the learning project both challenged the students to develop explanations for the phenomena and generated high quality conceptual and physical models in question. During the learning project, the roles of the community members were shaped, mixed, and integrated. The teacher also repeatedly evaluated and adjusted her behavior. The confidence of the learners in their abilities raised the quality of their learning outcomes. The findings showed that this instructional approach can not only mediate the kind of authentic practices that scientists apply but also make learning more holistic than it has been. Thus, it can be concluded that nature of the task, the tool-integrated collaborative inquiries in the natural environment, and the multiage setting can make learning whole.

  1. Guiding students towards sensemaking: teacher questions focused on integrating scientific practices with science content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict-Chambers, Amanda; Kademian, Sylvie M.; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan

    2017-10-01

    Science education reforms articulate a vision of ambitious science teaching where teachers engage students in sensemaking discussions and emphasise the integration of scientific practices with science content. Learning to teach in this way is complex, and there are few examples of sensemaking discussions in schools where textbook lessons and teacher-directed discussions are the norm. The purpose of this study was to characterise the questioning practices of an experienced teacher who taught a curricular unit enhanced with educative features that emphasised students' engagement in scientific practices integrated with science content. Analyses indicated the teacher asked four types of questions: explication questions, explanation questions, science concept questions, and scientific practice questions, and she used three questioning patterns including: (1) focusing students on scientific practices, which involved a sequence of questions to turn students back to the scientific practice; (2) supporting students in naming observed phenomena, which involved a sequence of questions to help students use scientific language; and (3) guiding students in sensemaking, which involved a sequence of questions to help students learn about scientific practices, describe evidence, and develop explanations. Although many of the discussions in this study were not yet student-centred, they provide an image of a teacher asking specific questions that move students towards reform-oriented instruction. Implications for classroom practice are discussed and recommendations for future research are provided.

  2. Training teachers for English Medium Instruction: lessons from research on second language listening comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles Martín del Pozo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning and EMI (English Medium Instruction practices have outpaced theory and teacher training. There is a need to provide answers to some of the key issues such as the language requirements. This paper aims to show that knowledge from English for Specific Purposes and English for Academic Purposes, fields which have provided effective teaching practices and materials, could now be used in CLIL/EMI. The paper focuses on two of these. First, the issues related to second language academic listening comprehension and, secondly, the findings from research on it and their implications for student / lecturer training and materials design. These implications and suggestions are summarized. The paper concludes providing some language learning resources originally targeted to students but which could become tools for (self training of those teachers who need to update their language skills for CLIL.

  3. Teachers pattern of instruction and location on pupils critical thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to ascertain the influence of teachers' pattern of instruction and location on pupils' critical thinking in science achievement in Imo State. To achieve this objective, two hypotheses were formulated. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. A total of ninety (90) teachers and one thousand ...

  4. Teacher Training: Music Methods for an Internationalized Approach to Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanAlstine, Sharri

    2016-01-01

    How can music teachers and students connect with music and cultures in an honest and meaningful manner? Can music instruction increase intercultural skills and international-mindedness? If these initiatives are important, pre-service teachers need to know how to address these issues in their classroom content and pedagogy. In an effort to assist…

  5. New science teachers' descriptions of inquiry enactment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreon, Oliver, Jr.

    This phenomenological study demonstrates the influence that affective factors have on beginning teachers' ability to enact instructional practices. Through narratives shared in interviews and web log postings, two beginning science teachers' emotional engagement with their instructional practices, especially that of implementing inquiry-based instruction, and the resulting impact these emotions had on professional decision-making were evidenced. Anxiety emerged as the most significant impacting emotion on instructional decision-making with the participants. Through their stories, the two participants describe how their emotions and views of self influence whether they continue using inquiry pedagogy or alter their lesson to adopt more didactic means of instruction. These emotions arise from their feelings of being comfortable teaching the content (self-efficacy), from the unpredictability of inquiry lessons (control beliefs), from how they perceive their students as viewing them (teacher identity) and from various school constraints (agency). This research also demonstrates how intertwined these aspects are, informing each other in a complex, dialectical fashion. The participants' self-efficacy and professional identity emerge from their interactions with the community (their students and colleagues) and the perceived agency afforded by their schools' curricula and administration. By providing descriptions of teachers' experiences enacting inquiry pedagogy, this study expands our understanding of factors that influence teachers' instructional practices and provides a basis for reforming science teacher preparation.

  6. Whose Perception of Principal Instructional Leadership? Principal-Teacher Perceptual (Dis)agreement and Its Influence on Teacher Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo-Ho; Ham, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    This study examines teacher collaboration across three Asia-Pacific countries (Australia, Malaysia, and South Korea), focusing on the possibility that principal-teacher perceptual disagreement regarding principal instructional leadership performance may impede progress toward a school organizational condition conducive to collaborative teacher…

  7. Meeting the Needs of High School Science Teachers in English Language Learner Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seonhee; McDonnough, Jacqueline T.

    2009-08-01

    This survey study explored high school science teachers’ challenges and needs specific to their growing English language learning (ELL) student population. Thirty-three science teachers from 6 English as a Second language (ESL)-center high schools in central Virginia participated in the survey. Issues surveyed were (a) strategies used by science teachers to accommodate ELL students’ special needs, (b) challenges they experienced, and (c) support and training necessary for effective ELL instruction. Results suggest that language barriers as well as ELL students’ lack of science foundational knowledge challenged teachers most. Teachers perceived that appropriate instructional materials and pedagogical training was most needed. The findings have implications for science teacher preservice and inservice education in regard to working with language minority students.

  8. The Concept of Slope: Comparing Teachers' Concept Images and Instructional Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Courtney; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    In the field of mathematics education, understanding teachers' content knowledge (Grossman, 1995; Hill, Sleep, Lewis, & Ball, 2007; Munby, Russell, & Martin, 2001) and studying the relationship between content knowledge and instructional decisions (Fennema & Franke, 1992; Raymond, 1997) are both crucial. Teachers need a robust…

  9. [Development and Effects of an Instructional Coaching Program Regarding Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder for Elementary School Teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin Jeong; Park, Wan Ju

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of a newly developed instructional coaching program regarding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) for teachers. Seventy teachers participated in this study involving a nonequivalent control group and a pretest-posttest design. The instructional coaching program consisted of eight 60-minute sessions. The program was developed through a theoretical development program involving six steps. To evaluate the effects of the program, data were collected through self-report questionnaires including the Knowledge Scale of Attention Deficit Disorder, Attitude Scale of Primary School Teachers Experiencing Students with ADHD, Practice Scale of Educational Intervention Activity, and the Korean ADHD Rating Scale. Data were analyzed with an independent t test, a chi-square test, and an ANCOVA using SPSS WIN version 20. The intervention program consisted of 3 sectors, 8 subjects, and 24 content items. The experimental group showed a significant improvement in attitudes toward ADHD (F=22.83, pteacher's knowledge regarding ADHD (F=7.16, p=.010) and the implementation of instructional interventions (F=4.29, p=.043) improved. Further, teachers reported a reduction in children's ADHD-related behavior (F=4.34, p=.041). Results showed that the coaching program made a positive contribution to teaching skills and understanding of school-age children with ADHD. The instructional coaching program was well structured and significantly improved not only teachers'attitudes, knowledge, and teaching skills but also the behavior of children with ADHD in class. Therefore, the program is recommended as a means of facilitating teaching and managing children with ADHD in class. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  10. Clinical Practice in Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayet Tok

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it seems that there has been a concept change in the aspect of teaching practice course which is regarded as one of the most significant course in teacher education program. This new concept requires the increase period of teaching practice in teacher education program and parallel to this, it also requires the change in the function of practice schools and highlighted “clinical practice in teacher education” concept. In this study, “clinical practice in teacher education” concept and its implementation processes were explained. Furthermore, clinical practice and traditional school practices were presented and the parallels between teaching and clinical practices were explained as well

  11. Using a Moodle-Based Professional Development Program to Train Science Teachers to Teach for Creativity and its Effectiveness on their Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Abdali, Nasser S.

    2015-08-01

    This study describes a distance learning professional development program that we designed for the purpose of training science teachers to teach for creativity. The Moodle platform was used to host the training. To ensure that trainees would benefit from this distance learning program, we designed the instructional activities according to the Community of Inquiry framework, which consists of three main elements: cognitive presence, teaching presence and social presence. Nineteen science teachers in Oman engaged in the training, which lasted for 36 working days. To measure the effectiveness of the training program on science teachers' instructional practices related to teaching for creativity, we used a pre-post one-group quasi-experimental design. An observation form was used to assess and document participants' practices. Paired t test results showed that there was a statistically significant improvement in science teachers' practices related to teaching for creativity. During the implementation of the training program, we observed that cognitive presence and teaching presence were the two most successful elements of the program. The training program involved participants in different instructional activities which were designed to help them understand the role of creativity in science; a wide range of instructional techniques designed to nurture students' creativity was discussed. The program also provided participants with opportunities to relate their practices to teaching for creativity and to design and implement lesson plans geared toward teaching for creativity. However, the social presence element was not satisfying. Participants' virtual interactions with each other and their engagement in online discussion forums were limited. This paper provides some recommendations to overcome such pitfalls.

  12. Student-Centred Learning Environments: An Investigation into Student Teachers' Instructional Preferences and Approaches to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien; Parmentier, Emmeline; Vanderbruggen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The use of student-centred learning environments in education has increased. This study investigated student teachers' instructional preferences for these learning environments and how these preferences are related to their approaches to learning. Participants were professional Bachelor students in teacher education. Instructional preferences and…

  13. Using Technology to Facilitate Differentiated High School Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.

    2017-10-01

    This qualitative investigation explored the beliefs and practices of one secondary science teacher, Diane, who differentiated instruction and studied how technology facilitated her differentiation. Diane was selected based on the results of a previous study, in which data indicated that Diane understood how to design and implement proactively planned, flexible, engaging instructional activities in response to students' learning needs better than the other study participants. Data for the present study included 3 h of semi-structured interview responses, 37.5 h of observations of science instruction, and other artifacts such as instructional materials. This variety of data allowed for triangulation of the evidence. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results indicated that technology played an integral role in Diane's planning and implementation of differentiated science lessons. The technology-enhanced differentiated lessons employed by Diane typically attended to students' different learning profiles or interest through modification of process or product. This study provides practical strategies for science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction, and recommendations for science teacher educators and school and district administrators. Future research should explore student outcomes, supports for effective formative assessment, and technology-enhanced readiness differentiation among secondary science teachers.

  14. A case study examining classroom instructional practices at a U.S. dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Dolan, Teresa A

    2005-06-01

    A case study is used to illustrate how an evaluation strategy was used to assess classroom instructional practices following a multiyear institutional curriculum revision process. From January through April of 2003, twelve faculty in medicine and three faculty in dentistry who taught in the first- and second-year basic science courses within the dental curriculum participated in a qualitative study. The purpose was to use a formative evaluation process to assess the impact of the curriculum revision at the level of classroom instruction. The observations revealed that seventeen of the twenty classes observed were teacher-centered, passive, and lacked observable effort to help students understand the relationship of the lecture content to the oral health problems. Findings illustrate the importance of using formative evaluation as a mechanism to assess change efforts and how evidence-based study can be used to support initiatives directed toward assessing active student learning and problem solving. Raising faculty awareness about the importance of acquiring evidence-based educational skills, aligning instruction with course goals and objectives, formatively assessing teaching, and providing learning experiences that will actually be used in practice are essential to ensuring that active learning and critical thinking are demonstrated in the curriculum.

  15. The impact of whole-plant instruction of preservice teachers' understanding of plant science principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypolite, Christine Collins

    The purpose of this research was to determine how an inquiry-based, whole-plant instructional strategy would affect preservice elementary teachers' understanding of plant science principles. This study probed: what preservice teachers know about plant biology concepts before and after instruction, their views of the interrelatedness of plant parts and the environment, how growing a plant affects preservice teachers' understanding, and which types of activity-rich plant themes studies, if any, affect preservice elementary teachers' understandings. The participants in the study were enrolled in two elementary science methods class sections at a state university. Each group was administered a preinstructional test at the beginning of the study. The treatment group participated in inquiry-based activities related to the Principles of Plant Biology (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2001), while the comparison group studied those same concepts through traditional instructional methods. A focus group was formed from the treatment group to participate in co-concept mapping sessions. The participants' understandings were assessed through artifacts from activities, a comparison of pre- and postinstructional tests, and the concept maps generated by the focus group. Results of the research indicated that the whole-plant, inquiry-based instructional strategy can be applied to teach preservice elementary teachers plant biology while modeling the human constructivist approach. The results further indicated that this approach enhanced their understanding of plant science content knowledge, as well as pedagogical knowledge. The results also showed that a whole-plant approach to teaching plant science concepts is an instructional strategy that is feasible for the elementary school. The theoretical framework for this study was Human Constructivist learning theory (Mintzes & Wandersee, 1998). The content knowledge and instructional strategy was informed by the Principles of Plant

  16. Preservice Teachers and Their Preconceptions of the NGSS Science and Engineering Practice of Developing and Using Models in Elementary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Lizette A.

    The science and engineering practice of developing and using models is a new science practice identified to achieve the vision of three-dimensional teaching and learning and as such should be an important new component of teacher preparation programs (NRC, 2012). Developing and using models is a high-leverage practice in teacher preparation because of the use of discourse in its implementation that is also used in other practices utilized within the NGSS (NGSS Lead States, 2013) science classroom. Additionally, the overlap between the other seven identified NGSS (NGSS Lead States, 2013) practices and the development and use of models along with the use of models represented in two of the overall three dimensions of the new vision for science education (NRC, 2012) contribute to its high leverage nature. The intent of this study was to examine elementary science preservice teachers' understandings and preconceptions about the practice of developing and using models. This study provides important information for teacher preparation to use this high-leverage practice. The study examined preservice teachers' preconceptions about the practice of developing and using models including discourse patterns the preservice teachers identified as being critical to the success of this practice in the classroom. Data were gathered through a written survey in which preservice teachers described their initial understanding about different components of modeling instruction. A video was used to elicit their initial understandings about certain components of modeling instruction. A sample of the preservice teachers were interviewed to elaborate on their responses to the survey. The results of the study indicated that when preservice teachers initially described how this practice might look in the classroom, only two of the six categories described in A Science Framework for K-12 Science Education (NRC, 2012) for this practice were described by most participants. Of those two

  17. A study of teacher-researcher collaboration on reading instruction for Chapter one students

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhaes, Maria Cecilia Camargo

    1990-01-01

    This study examines a collaborative endeavor in which a Chapter One teacher and a reseacher worked together to plan, conduct and reflect on a reading instruction designed to promote strategic reading. For eleven weeks, data were collected during conversations and reflective/planning sessions conducted by the teacher and the researcher and during instruction for a group of fourth-and fifth-gratle students. Ethnographic methods such as participant observation, interview...

  18. Elementary Teachers' Experiences and Perceptions of Departmentalized Instruction: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Alecia; Schmertzing, Lorraine; Schmertzing, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This case study investigated elementary teachers' experiences and perceptions during a trial year of departmentalized instruction in a rural south Georgia elementary school. To inform their decision about whole-school departmentalization for the future, school administrators appointed twelve first through third grade teachers to pilot the…

  19. TEACHER-PRODUCED INSTRUCTIONAL FILMS IN CHEMISTRY, 8MM AND SUPER 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'CONNOR, ROD; SLABAUGH, WENDELL

    TECHNIQUES FOR PRODUCING 8MM INSTRUCTIONAL FILMS IN CHEMISTRY ARE PRESENTED. IN PART I A PHILOSOPHY OF TEACHER-PRODUCED FILMS IS DEVELOPED, EMPHASIZING THE VALUE OF THE LOCAL SETTING, AND CUSTOM-MADE CONTENTS. APPLICATIONS SUGGESTED ARE (1) TECHNIQUE INSTRUCTION, (2) FILMED EXPERIMENTS, (3) INSTRUMENT FAMILIARIZATION, (4) LECTURE AIDS, AND (5)…

  20. Grounding formative assessment in high-school chemistry classrooms: Connections between professional development and teacher practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna Alburquerque, Dante Igor

    This study describes and analyzes the experiences of two high-school chemistry teachers who participated in a team-based professional development program to learn about and enact formative assessment in their classrooms. The overall purpose of this study is to explain how participation in this professional development influenced both teachers' classroom enactment of formative assessment practices. This study focuses on 1) teachers' participation in the professional development program, 2) teachers' enactment of formative assessment, and 3) factors that enabled or hindered enactment of formative assessment. Drawing on cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and using evidence from teacher lessons, teacher interviews, professional development meetings as data sources, this single embedded case study analyzes how these two teachers who participated in the same learning team and have similar characteristics (i.e., teaching in the same school, teaching the same courses and population of students, and using the same materials) differentially used the professional development learning about formative assessment as mediating tools to improve their classroom instruction. The learning team experience contributed to both teachers' development of a better understanding of formative assessment---especially in recognizing that their current grading and assessment practices were not appropriate to promote student learning---and the co-creation of artifacts to gather evidence of students' ideas. Although both teachers demonstrated understanding about how formative assessment may serve to promote student learning and had a set of tools available to utilize for formative assessment use, they did not enact these tools in the same way. One teacher appropriated formative assessment as mediating tool to verify if the students were following her explanations, and to check if the students were able to provide the correct response. The other teacher used the mediating tool to promote

  1. Combinations of Personal Responsibility: Differences on Pre-service and Practicing Teachers' Efficacy, Engagement, Classroom Goal Structures and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Lia M; Radil, Amanda I; Goegan, Lauren D

    2017-01-01

    Pre-service and practicing teachers feel responsible for a range of educational activities. Four domains of personal responsibility emerging in the literature are: student achievement, student motivation, relationships with students, and responsibility for ones own teaching. To date, most research has used variable-centered approaches to examining responsibilities even though the domains appear related. In two separate samples we used cluster analysis to explore how pre-service ( n = 130) and practicing ( n = 105) teachers combined personal responsibilities and their impact on three professional cognitions and their wellbeing. Both groups had low and high responsibility clusters but the third cluster differed: Pre-service teachers combined responsibilities for relationships and their own teaching in a cluster we refer to as teacher-based responsibility; whereas, practicing teachers combined achievement and motivation in a cluster we refer to as student-outcome focused responsibility. These combinations affected outcomes for pre-service but not practicing teachers. Pre-service teachers in the low responsibility cluster reported less engagement, less mastery approaches to instruction, and more performance goal structures than the other two clusters.

  2. Arts-Integrated Literacy Instruction: Promising Practices for Preservice Teaching Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Laurie A.; Coneway, Betty; Hindman, Janet Tipton; Garcia, Beth; Bingham, Teri

    2016-01-01

    Classroom teachers are facing increasing responsibility to integrate the arts during literacy instruction. In order to address the arts effectively, teachers require understandings, confidence, and competence with visual arts, music, dance, and theater. Therefore, educator preparation programs must develop the knowledge and skills of preservice…

  3. Masonry. Teacher's Guide. Building Maintenance Units of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bill

    This teaching guide on masonry building maintenance, one in a series of six publications designed for building maintenance instructors in Texas, is designed to give students an understanding of masonry construction. Introductory material provides teachers with information on use of the units of instruction and personalization and localization of…

  4. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were

  5. Impact of Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge and Practices on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2008-10-01

    Professional development programs promoting inquiry-based teaching are challenged with providing teachers content knowledge and using pedagogical approaches that model standards based instruction. Inquiry practices are also important for undergraduate students. This paper focuses on the evaluation of an extensive professional development program for chemistry teachers that included chemistry content tests for students and the teachers and the impact of undergraduate research experiences on college students' attitudes towards chemistry. Baseline results for the students showed that there were no gender differences on the achievement test but white students scored significantly higher than non-white students. However, parent/adult involvement with chemistry homework and projects, was a significant negative predictor of 11th grade students' test chemistry achievement score. This paper will focus on students' achievement and attitude results for teachers who are mid-way through the program providing evidence that on-going, sustained professional development in content and pedagogy is critical for improving students' science achievement.

  6. Teachers, Arts Practice and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Anton; Thomson, Pat; Hall, Chris; Jones, Ken

    2014-01-01

    What are possible overlaps between arts practice and school pedagogy? How is teacher subjectivity and pedagogy affected when teachers engage with arts practice, in particular, theatre practices? We draw on research conducted into the Learning Performance Network (LPN), a project that involved school teachers working with the Royal Shakespeare…

  7. Children Evoke Similar Affective and Instructional Responses from Their Teachers and Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Dietrich, Julia; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Hirvonen, Riikka; Muotka, Joona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the extent to which the responses of teachers and mothers toward a particular child are similar in respect to their instructional support and affect, and whether child characteristics predict these responses. The data of 373 Finnish child-teacher-mother triads (178 girls, 195 boys) were analysed. Teachers and…

  8. Using inquiry-based instruction with Web-based data archives to facilitate conceptual change about tides among preservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Sedat

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe and understand preservice teachers' conceptions of tides and to explore an instructional strategy that might promote the learning of scientific concepts. The participants were preservice teachers in three initial licensure programs. A total of 80 graduate students, in secondary, middle, and early childhood education programs completed a multiple choice assessment of their knowledge of tides-related concepts. Thirty of the 80 participants were interviewed before the instruction. Nineteen of the 30 students who were interviewed also participated in the instruction and were interviewed after the instruction. These 19 students also completed both the pre-test and 18 of them completed the post-test on tides and related content. Data regarding the participants' conceptual understandings of tides were collected before and after the instruction using both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. A multiple choice pre-test was developed by the researcher. The same test was used before and after the instructional intervention. Structured interviews were conducted with participants before and after instruction. In addition to interviews, participants were asked to write a short journal after instruction. The constant comparative method was used to analyze the qualitative data. Preservice teachers' conceptual understandings of tides were categorized under six different types of conceptual understandings. Before the instruction, all preservice teachers held alternative or alternative fragments as their types of conceptual understandings of tides, and these preservice teachers who held alternative conceptions about tides were likely to indicate that there is one tidal bulge on Earth. They tried to explain this one tidal bulge using various alternative conceptions. After completing an inquiry-based and technology-enhanced instruction of tides, preservice teachers were more likely to hold a scientific conceptual

  9. Web-Enhanced Instruction and Learning: Findings of a Short- and Long-Term Impact Study and Teacher Use of NASA Web Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Marianne C.; Grabowski, Barbara L.; Koszalka, Tiffany

    2003-01-01

    Over a three-year period, researchers and educators from the Pennsylvania State University (PSU), University Park, Pennsylvania, and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), Edwards, California, worked together to analyze, develop, implement and evaluate materials and tools that enable teachers to use NASA Web resources effectively for teaching science, mathematics, technology and geography. Two conference publications and one technical paper have already been published as part of this educational research series on Web-based instruction and learning. This technical paper, Web-Enhanced Instruction and Learning: Findings of a Short- and Long-Term Impact Study, is the culminating report in this educational research series and is based on the final report submitted to NASA. This report describes the broad spectrum of data gathered from teachers about their experiences using NASA Web resources in the classroom. It also describes participating teachers responses and feedback about the use of the NASA Web-Enhanced Learning Environment Strategies reflection tool on their teaching practices. The reflection tool was designed to help teachers merge the vast array of NASA resources with the best teaching methods, taking into consideration grade levels, subject areas and teaching preferences. The teachers described their attitudes toward technology and innovation in the classroom and their experiences and perceptions as they attempted to integrate Web resources into science, mathematics, technology and geography instruction.

  10. The Impacts of Workplace Advantage, Learning Intentions, and Technology Skills on the Use of Information Technology-Assisted Instruction by Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru-Si

    2015-01-01

    The practical value and usefulness of IT-assisted instruction for Taiwanese preschool children are popular topics in academic and practical settings. The purpose of this study was to survey early childhood pre-service teachers' attitudes regarding the workplace advantage of IT-related pedagogy and their learning intentions regarding IT-based…

  11. RESEARCHING AND EVALUATING DIGITAL STORYTELLING AS A DISTANCE EDUCATION TOOL IN PHYSICS INSTRUCTION: AN APPLICATION WITH PRE-SERVICE PHYSICS TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat KOTLUK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in information and communication technology in 21st century have led to changes in education trends and today new concepts such as computer, multimedia, audio, video, animation and internet have become an indispensable part of life. The storytelling is the one of approach which is allowed to using technology in educational field. The aim of this study is to define the use of digital storytelling in physics instruction as a distance education tool. In this respect, the literature related to digital storytelling was analyzed and for applying it in practice, 13 pre-service teachers from department of physic education were trained on digital storytelling for 6 weeks in spring term of 2013- 2014 academic year. Following the process of instruction, pre-service teachers created and shared digital stories in YouTube and evaluated all of them. Furthermore, opinions of the pre-service teachers were asked on digital story telling As a result of the analysing the DST videos and opinions of pre-service teacher, it is expected that using digital storytelling as distance education tool will be efficacious.

  12. Teachers' Experiences Providing One-on-One Instruction to Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebfreund, Meghan D.; Amendum, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of 12 kindergarten, first-, and second-grade classroom teachers who provided one-on-one intervention instruction for struggling readers within the general classroom context. Teachers were interviewed at the end of the project. Interview statements clustered into four themes: Managing One-on-One Intervention,…

  13. Perceptions of Elementary Teachers on the Instructional Leadership Role of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa; Bas, Gokhan

    2010-01-01

    In this research, elementary school principals' instructional leadership behavior was evaluated based on the perceptions of elementary school teachers. The research is believed to contribute to the development of instructional leadership behavior of elementary school principals for the development of school organization. A "semi-structured…

  14. A Bolman and Deal Framework of Science Teachers' Beliefs on Teacher Preparation and Reform Practices for Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmyer, Charnita P.

    This dissertation uses Bolman and Deal's Four Framework approach to reframing an organization to examine science teachers' beliefs on teacher preparation and reform practices for diverse learners. Despite the national emphasis on "science for all students" in the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 2011), some traditionally underserved groups tend to underperform on standardized measures of science learning (Kober, 2001; Darling-Hammond, 2010; Bracey, 2009; Kozol, 2009, 2007; PCAST, 2012); and teachers struggle to meet the needs of these students (Hira, 2010). The literature is replete with calls for a better understanding of teacher quality as an entry point into increased student achievement in science. In the current study, the 2012 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education (NSSME) was used to gain an understanding of science teacher quality in the United States, and SPSS 22.0 software was used to evaluate descriptive and inferential statistics, including bivariate correlation analysis, simple linear regression, and a multiple regression of the survey responses. The findings indicated that professional development was the most salient predictor of teachers' preparedness to teach diverse learners. Findings further showed that teachers who held favorable perceptions of preparedness to teach diverse learners were more likely to use reform-oriented practices. This study contributes to an emerging area of research on science teacher quality and its influence on instructional reform for diverse learners. The study concludes with a discussion of supports and obstacles that may enable or inhibit the development of these relationships.

  15. Changes in Teachers' Beliefs and Classroom Practices Concerning Inquiry-Based Instruction Following a Year-Long RET-PLC Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Rommel J.; Damico, Julie B.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines how engaging science teachers in a summer Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) followed by an academic-year Professional Learning Community (PLC) focused on translating teacher research experiences to inquiry-based classroom lessons might facilitate changes in their beliefs and classroom practices regarding…

  16. evaluation of teachers' use of instructional materials for teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the teachers' use of the instructional materials for teaching ... These and other benefits justify the teaching of .... The use of ICT is very effective for foreign language teaching and learning. 40. PRISCA ...

  17. Profile of elementary school science teacher instruction in disaster risk reduction: case study of volcano disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujianto; Prabowo; Wasis

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the profile of science' teacher instruction in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), as a feature of instructional quality, on students’ learning experiences. A qualitative study was done to observe teacher activities in teaching of disaster preparedness. Science teacher and 14 students at grade 4 of SDN (elementary school) Kiyaran 2 are involved as the subject of this study. Teacher’ instruction was coded with regard to preparation, action, and evaluation using observation sheets and documentation. Data analysis results showed a positive significant effect of the readiness during preparation on learning process of disaster risk reduction and an indirect effect of teacher’ action on students’ learning experiences. There is a lack of teaching materials about volcano disaster in the elementary school. Teacher found difficulties on evaluation of student achievement in disaster preparedness. These findings highlight the importance of DRR in uphold science teachers’ education. Items of teachers’ skill in preparing of DRR may be used to offer model of concrete instruction situation during university workshop for maintain teacher education.

  18. Impacts of Contextual and Explicit Instruction on Preservice Elementary Teachers' Understandings of the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Randy L.; Matkins, Juanita Jo; Gansneder, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods investigation compared the relative impacts of instructional approach and context of nature of science instruction on preservice elementary teachers' understandings. The sample consisted of 75 preservice teachers enrolled in four sections of an elementary science methods course. Independent variables included instructional…

  19. The Teacher as Instructional Designer: A Search Through the Curriculum Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacko, Carol M.; Garman, Noreen M.

    The vast amount of literature on curriculum and instructional design does not establish a clear frame of reference to help teachers utilize and operationalize concepts and information. Four specific problem areas are of special concern in the literature: (1) the terminology and definitions are confusing; (2) the place of the classroom teacher is…

  20. Teachers' Adherence to Highly Effective Instructional Practices as Related to Graduation Rates in Average-Need School Districts in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannucci, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate school administrators' perceptions of teachers' adherence to the highly effective critical attributes of the four domains of Charlotte Danielson's "Framework for Teaching" (Planning and Preparation, The Classroom Environment, Instruction, and Professional Responsibilities) in kindergarten…

  1. Relationship Between Teacher Inquiry Science Instruction Self-Efficacy and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanners, Grace D.

    Standardized test data indicate that student achievement in science is a problem both nationally and locally. At the study site, only a small percentage of fifth-grade students score at the advanced level on the Maryland state science assessment (MSA). In addition, the performance of African American, economically disadvantaged, and special education students is well below that of the general student population. Some studies have shown that teacher self-efficacy affects student achievement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between fifth-grade teacher inquiry science instruction self-efficacy scores and the scores of their students on the MSA. Bandura's work on the effect of self-efficacy on human behavior provided the theoretical basis for this study. The research questions examined the relationship between teacher inquiry science instructional self-efficacy scores and students' science MSA scores as well as the relationship by student subgroups. A correlational research design was used. The Teaching Science as Inquiry survey instrument was used to quantify teacher self-efficacy, and archival MSA data were the source for student scores. The study included data from 22 teachers and 1,625 of their students. A 2-tailed Pearson coefficient analysis revealed significant, positive relationships with regard to overall student achievement ( r20 = .724, p < .01) and the achievement of each of the subgroups (African American: r20 = .549, p < .01; economically disadvantaged: r20 = .655, p < .01; and special education: r18 = .532, p < .05). The results of this study present an opportunity for positive social change because the local school system can provide professional development that may increase teacher inquiry science instruction self-efficacy as a possible means to improve overall science achievement and to reduce achievement gaps.

  2. Student Voice on the Instructional Qualities of the Effective English Language Teacher: A Collective Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Vong Siu Phern

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A majority of Malaysian students only have average English language proficiency, although instructional qualities of the effective English language teacher have by far been expounded by English language experts. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the extent to which the responses of student voice representing above average, average and below average English language proficiency from the primary, secondary and tertiary levels - have agreed with expert opinion’s description of instructional qualities of the effective English language teacher. In this respect, student voice was analysed using triangulation not only on the instructional qualities discussed, but also on the literature review. Interesting findings revealed that student voice still had something extra to contribute in determining the instructional qualities of the effective English language teacher, with a touch of irony and constructive criticism on how such qualities of English language teachers/lecturers could still improve, so as to appear more effective in learners’ eyes.

  3. Teacher Effectiveness in Adapting Instruction to the Needs of Pupils With Learning Difficulties in Regular Primary Schools in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak Kuyini Alhassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghana education system has failed to effectively address the needs of pupils with learning difficulties (LDs in regular classrooms. Underachievement, school dropout, streetism, and antisocial behaviors are the consequences. Teachers’ lack of adequate competence in adaptive instruction is one of the fundamental reasons responsible for this anomaly. This study aims to examine teachers’ competence in adapting instructions to teach pupils with LDs in the regular classroom in Ghana. The data were gathered from 387 sampled teachers in a cross-sectional survey using questionnaires and structured observation methods. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistic, chi-square test, correlation, t test, and ANOVA. The results show that (a teachers have limited to moderate competence in adaptive instruction, (b adaptive teaching is strongly associated with teachers’ competence in teaching pupils with LDs in the regular classroom, and (c apart from gender and class size, teachers’ background variables such as school location and teaching experience differ significantly. The study has serious implications for Ghana’s inclusive education policy and teaching practice.

  4. Coaching: Impacting Teacher Behavior to Improve the Quality of Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Melanie R.

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the extent to which coaching, as a specific type of professional development, impacted teacher behavior and instructional quality. Specifically, this study sought to determine the extent to which teachers understood and used Marzano's nine high-yield strategies as a result of their participation in six weeks of on-site…

  5. An administrative concern: Science teachers' instructional efficacy beliefs regarding racially, culturally, economically, and linguistically diverse student populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck Bonner, Natalie Christine

    A teacher's sense of {instructional} efficacy has been considered a critical variable in student academic performance. Researchers Tschannen-Moran and Hoy Woolfolk (2001, p.783) defined teachers' {instructional} efficacy as a teacher's judgment of his or her capabilities to bring about desired outcomes of student engagement and learning, even among those students who may be difficult or unmotivated. There has been a substantial amount of research which reveals a strong correlation among teacher efficacy, teaching performance, and student achievement (Goddard & Goddard, et.al., 2000; Hackett; Hackett, 1995; Pajares, 1997 as cited in Villereal, 2005). This research study explored the content area of science and teacher's personal perception of their competency level in teaching science to all learners regardless of socio-economic, ethnicity/race or gender for grade levels Pre-K to 12. Lewthwaite states that a science teacher's personal teacher attributes or intrinsic factors such as science teaching self-efficacy, professional science knowledge, science teaching, instructional methodologies, interest in science, and motivation to teach science are critical dimensions and noted barriers in the delivery of science programs on elementary level campuses (Lewthwaite, Stableford & Fisher, 2001). This study focused on teacher instructional efficacy issues which may affect diverse learners' classroom and state-mandated assessment academic performance outcomes. A SPSS analysis of data was obtained from the following teacher survey instruments: The Bandura Teacher Efficacy Scale, the SEBEST, and the SETAKIST. Research findings revealed that a majority of science teachers surveyed believe they can effectively teach learners of diverse backgrounds, but responded with a sense of lower efficaciousness in teaching English Language Learners. There was also a statistically significant difference found between a state science organization and a national science organization

  6. Snapshots of Authentic Scientific Inquiry and Teacher Preparation: Undergraduate STEM Courses, Preservice and Inservice Teachers' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Debbie Ann

    In this dissertation, the researcher describes authentic scientific inquiry (ASI) within three stages of teacher preparation and development: a1) undergraduate STEM courses, b2) preservice secondary science education methods courses, and c3) inservice teacher professional development (PD). Incorporating (ASI)-- pedagogy closely modeling the research practices of scientists--is at the forefront of national science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) initiatives and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). In the first of three research articles, 42 students participated in an introductory astronomy course which employed inquiry-based pedagogy. The researcher administered the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) pre/post instruction. In the second article, 56 preservice secondary science teachers completed ideal lesson plan scenarios before and after 80 hours of methods instruction. The researcher scored the scenarios using a rubrirubric developedc according to the NGSS Science and Engineering Practices, and analyzed the components from the scenarios. The third article surveyed 63 inservice STEM teachers with prior research and industry experience. The researcher highlights teacher ASI perspectives. Overall, teachers incorporated opportunities for K-20 students to use scientific instrumentation and technology to collect and analyze data, work collaboratively, and develop evidence-based conclusions. Few teachers provided opportunities for students to ask scientific questions or disseminate results, suggesting the need that teachers (at all levels) need scaffolded instruction in these areas. The researcher argues that while ASI and STEM PDs are effective for teachers, developing similar interest, on-going communities of practice may provide support for teacher to implement the ASI practices in their classrooms.

  7. The Translation of Teachers' Understanding of Gifted Students Into Instructional Strategies for Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonhye; Steve Oliver, J.

    2009-08-01

    This study examined how instructional challenges presented by gifted students shaped teachers’ instructional strategies. This study is a qualitative research grounded in a social constructivist framework. The participants were three high school science teachers who were teaching identified gifted students in both heterogeneously- and homogeneously-grouped classrooms. Major data sources are classroom observations and interviews. Data analysis indicated that these science teachers developed content-specific teaching strategies based on their understanding of gifted students, including: (a) instructional differentiation, e.g., thematic units, (b) variety in instructional mode and/or students’ products, (c) student grouping strategies and peer tutoring, (d) individualized support, (e) strategies to manage challenging questions, (f) strategies to deal with the perfectionism, and (g) psychologically safe classroom environments.

  8. High School Health-Education Teachers' Perceptions and Practices Related to Teaching HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Scott W.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Stone, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the United States with individuals between the ages of 13 and 19 years being especially vulnerable for infection. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, perceptions, and instructional practices of high school health teachers toward teaching HIV prevention.…

  9. Teaching of science and language by elementary teachers who emphasize the integrated language approach: A descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouch, Kathleen Kennedy

    This research involved investigating the nature of science and language instruction in 13 elementary classrooms where teachers have restructured their language programs to reflect an integrated or holistic view of language instruction. The teachers were identified by school administrators and other professionals as teachers who have implemented instructional reforms described in the Pennsylvania Framework for Reading, Writing and Speaking Across the Curriculum (PCRPII), (Lytle & Botel, 1900). The instruction utilized by these teachers was described as atypical when compared to that of teachers utilizing the more traditional didactic skills oriented approach to language literacy. The research involved observing, recording and categorizing teaching behaviors during both science and language instruction. Videotaped observations were followed by analyses and descriptions of these behaviors. Interviews were also conducted to ascertain the basis for selection of the various instructional approaches. The instruction was compared on four dimensions: participation patterns, time the behaviors were practiced, type of tasks and levels of questioning. The instruction was then described in light of constructivist teaching practices: student collaboration, student autonomy, integration and higher order thinking. Constructivist practices differed among teachers for science and language instruction. During science instruction teachers spent more time involved in teacher-whole group participation patterns with more direct questioning as compared to language instruction in which children participated alone or in groups and had opportunity to initiate conversations and questions. Student inquiry was evidenced during language instruction more so than during science. The 13 teachers asked a variety of levels and types of questions both in science and language instruction. More hands-on science experiences were observed when science was taught separately compared to when integrated with

  10. Characteristics, Problems and Needs of Multigrade Class Teachers in Burdur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan SAĞ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at describing the characteristics, problems, and needs of primary teachers who carry out themultigrade class practices in Burdur. The study was conducted through the survey model and data wereobtained from teachers of multigrade classes through Schools with Multigrade Classes Questionnaire. A totalof 38 teachers participated to the research. Frequency and percentage statistics were used in the dataanalysis. In the study, a significant number of teachers of multigrade classes consisted of mid-age groupmales who reside in provinces and towns. More than half were graduates of class teacher education programsthough they had not taken any classes or courses related to multigrade classes and they perform theirteaching duties alongside school administration duties. It was found that the problems that teachers encounterconcentrate on school administration, instructional programs, instruction and assessment, and socioeconomicenvironment. Teachers of multigrade classes state that an in-service training program formultigrade class practices to be offered should include content addressing school administration,instructional programs, instructional conditions and assessment.

  11. Blind Man's Bluff: Instructional Leadership, Teacher Selection and Rational Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Norma T.; McNeely, Sonja R.

    Little research has been done to discover the process of selection of teachers by principals. This paper reports the results of a small study in which 29 principals in 11 districts in Tennessee were interviewed to determine the process used to hire a teacher, with the results analyzed for instructional leadership and rational decision making. If…

  12. Upper Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Spelling Instruction: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of research has been conducted regarding spelling instruction at the early childhood and lower elementary levels, but not at the upper elementary level. This qualitative study explored the perceptions and experiences of upper elementary teachers to gain a better understanding of how they instruct spelling and their related…

  13. Instructional Supervisory Practices of Headteachers and Teacher Motivation in Public Basic Schools in Anomabo Education Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esia-Donkoh, Kweku; Baffoe, Stella

    2018-01-01

    The study examined the supervisory practices of headteachers and how these supervisory practices relate with teacher motivation in public basic schools in the Anomabo Education Circuit of the Mfantseman Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana. Quantitative approach of the cross-sectional survey design was adopted. Using purposive and…

  14. Mexican parents' and teachers' literacy perspectives and practices: construction of cultural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Leslie; Arauz, Rebeca Mejía; Bazán, Antonio Ray

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among the literacy practices engaged in by first-grade children and parents at home and the ways in which these practices are communicated, shaped, and fostered by teachers and administrators in two different sociocultural environments in urban Mexico. The differences observed between the home literacy experiences of children in a working class and a middle class community included transgenerational communication of assumptions regarding literacy and schooling, as well as attitudes associated with the parents' own school experiences. Class-based expectations on the part of teachers not only shaped interactions with parents, but were also reflected in the way the national curriculum was delivered, with a greater emphasis on rote skills and traditional reading instruction in the working class community. The authors argue that the school plays a role in the co-production of cultural capital in the home through its shaping of some of the literacy practices that children and families undertake.

  15. On the Way of Educational Reform: Thai High School Physics Teachers' Conceptions of the Student-Centered Approach and Their Perceptions of Their Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumklang, Kawin

    During the past two decades, the student-centered approach has been widely promoted and accepted by the educational community as one of the most effective instructional approaches. It has been continually developed and revised to match our current understanding of how humans learn (American Psychological Association, 1997). It is based upon the belief that students should take responsibility for their own learning. Thus, curriculum, instruction, and assessment should be carefully designed to stimulate, facilitate, and accelerate students' learning as much as possible. In order to do so, the teacher needs to take the following factors into consideration: students' cognitive structures, metacognitive and regulative skills, motivation and affective states, developmental and individual differences, and social supports. However, the term student-centered has been defined and described by researchers and scholars in many different ways. Little is known about how practicing teachers conceptualize this term and how they perceive their classroom practices in relation to these conceptions. The purpose of this study was to utilize a qualitative multiple-case study approach to investigate teachers' conceptions of the student-centered approach and their perceptions of their classroom practices. Four Thai high school physics teachers, who were considered products of the current student-centered educational reform movement in Thailand, participated in this study. Data were collected for one learning unit (three to eight weeks) through classroom observations, semi-structured interviews, and document analysis. The data analysis revealed that teachers' conceptions of student-centered curriculum, instruction, and assessment had three common characteristics: (a) students' active participation; (b) special emphasis on students' background knowledge, understanding, motivation, affective states, and learning capability; and (c) benefits to students. The results also indicated that there

  16. A case study of an experienced teacher's beliefs and practice during implementation of an inquiry-based approach in her elementary science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anita Marie Benna

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between one teacher's beliefs and her practices. This study examined this relationship during the implementation of reform by the teacher in the area of science as recommended by the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996). This study was a single case study of one experienced elementary teacher who was implementing the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach in her science classroom. The study's focus was on the relationship between the teacher's beliefs and her practice during this innovation, as well as the factors that influenced that relationship. Data were collected from multiple sources such as routinely scheduled interviews, classroom observations, researcher's fieldnotes, teacher's written reflections, professional development liaison reflections, student responses, video-tape analysis, think-aloud protocol, audio-tapes of student discourse, metaphor analysis, and Reformed Teacher Observation Protocol (RTOP) scores. Data analysis was conducted using two different approaches: constant comparative method and RTOP scores. Results indicate that a central belief of this teacher was her beliefs about how students learn. This belief was entangled with other more peripheral beliefs such as beliefs about the focus of instruction and beliefs about student voice. As the teacher shifted her central belief from a traditional view of learning to one that is more closely aligned with a constructivist' view, these peripheral beliefs also shifted. This study also shows that the teacher's beliefs and her practice were consistent and entwined throughout the study. As her beliefs shifted, so did her practice and it supports Thompson's (1992) notion of a dialectic relationship between teacher beliefs and practice. Additionally, this study provides implications for teacher education and professional development. As teachers implement reform efforts related to inquiry in their science classrooms, professional

  17. A Pre-Service Teacher Training Model with Instructional Technology Graduate Students as Peer Coaches to Elementary Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.; Schwartz, Catherine Stein

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a peer coaching collaboration between graduate students in a Master's program in Instructional Technology and undergraduate pre-service teachers enrolled in an elementary mathematics methods course. Integrated as a major project in a graduate level K-12 technology integration course, the Instructional Technology students…

  18. The Tools of Teacher Education: Preservice Teachers' Use of Technology To Create Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness/efficiency of preservice teachers' use of technology to create instructional materials developed in an undergraduate reading/language arts course. Results showed no significant difference between measures of overall quality of the technology assistance as compared to handmade prompts. Eighty-five percent of the teachers…

  19. Beyond the Initiatives: Developing instructional leadership in school principals as a system-wide effort to improve the quality of classroom instruction.

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Sondra Denise

    2016-01-01

    This design research effort implemented a series of intervention activities designed to support a small group of elementary school principals improve their instructional leadership practices. The purpose of this research was to improve the skills of principals to lead instructional improvements identified through classroom observations, work with their school-level Instructional Leadership Team (ILT) to create teacher professional development that addresses the instructional improvement, and ...

  20. Elementary Teachers' Experiences of Departmentalized Instruction and Its Impact on Student Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, Robert Charles

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative dissertation was to explore the lived experiences of departmentalized elementary teachers, Grades 1-3, and how they addressed their students' affective needs. The main research question of the study was how do elementary school teachers perceive departmentalized instruction and describe their experiences of this…

  1. Examination of Relationships between Instructional Leadership of School Principals and Self-Efficacy of Teachers and Collective Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Temel; Sezgin, Ferudun; Kavgaci, Hasan; Cagatay Kilinc, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between school principals' instructional leadership behaviors and self-efficacy of teachers and collective teacher efficacy. In this regard, a model based on hypotheses was designed to determine the relationships among variables. The study sample consisted of 328 classroom and branch…

  2. A Phenomenological View of Teacher Efficacy as Experienced by Secondary Teachers Engaged in the Process of Instructional Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Shaftina Fiesta

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological was to describe teacher efficacy in the lived experiences of secondary teachers actively engaged in the instructional coaching process. The theoretical framework guiding this study was Albert Bandura's (1992) social cognitive theory as it expounds upon the role efficacy plays in human agency as it…

  3. STEAM Enacted: A Case Study of a Middle School Teacher Implementing STEAM Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herro, Danielle; Quigley, Cassie

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation practices of a 6th grade middle school teacher enacting STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art and math) teaching in his classroom after participating in a 45-hour STEAM professional development. Case study is used to detail the process, successes, and challenges. Project-based learning, technology…

  4. Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set the stage for higher quality instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia

    2013-10-01

    Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Engaging in Argument from Evidence and the Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 3-5: A case study in complementing professional learning experiences with instructional materials aligned to instructional goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Weiss, E. L.

    2016-12-01

    K-5 science teachers, who often lack a science background, have been tasked with a huge challenge in implementing NGSS—to completely change their instructional approach from one that views science as a body of knowledge to be imparted to one that is epistemic in nature. We have found that providing high-quality professional learning (PL) experiences is often not enough and that teachers must have instructional materials that align with their instructional goals. We describe a case study in which the Lawrence Hall of Science (the Hall) used the Hall-developed Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 3-5 (OSS 3-5) to support a rigorous PL program for grade 3-5 teachers focused on the NGSS science and engineering practice, engaging in argument from evidence. Developed prior to the release of NGSS, the Ocean Literacy Framework and the NGSS precursor, A Framework for K-12 Science Education, informed the content and instructional approaches of OSS 3-5. OSS 3-5 provides a substantial focus on making evidence-based explanations (and other science practices), while building students' ocean sciences content knowledge. From 2013-2015, the Hall engaged cohorts of teachers in a rigorous PL experience focused on engaging in argument from evidence. During the summer, teachers attended a week-long institute, in which exemplar activities from OSS 3-5 were used to model instructional practices to support arguing from evidence and related practices, e.g., developing and using models and constructing explanations. Immediately afterward, teachers enacted what they'd learned during a two-week summer school practicum. Here, they team-taught the OSS 3-5 curriculum, participated in video reflection groups, and received coaching and just-in-time input from instructors. In the subsequent academic year, many teachers began by teaching OSS 3-5 so that they could practice engaging students in argumentation in curriculum they'd already used for that purpose. Throughout the year, teachers

  6. Computer Education and Instructional Technology Teacher Trainees' Opinions about Cloud Computing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamete, Aysen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to show the present conditions about the usage of cloud computing in the department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology (CEIT) amongst teacher trainees in School of Necatibey Education, Balikesir University, Turkey. In this study, a questionnaire with open-ended questions was used. 17 CEIT teacher trainees…

  7. Involving Practicing Scientists in K-12 Science Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, K. B.

    2011-12-01

    The Science Teacher Education Program (STEP) offered a unique framework for creating professional development courses focused on Arctic research from 2006-2009. Under the STEP framework, science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) training was delivered by teams of practicing Arctic researchers in partnership with master teachers with 20+ years experience teaching STEM content in K-12 classrooms. Courses based on the framework were offered to educators across Alaska. STEP offered in-person summer-intensive institutes and follow-on audio-conferenced field-test courses during the academic year, supplemented by online scientist mentorship for teachers. During STEP courses, teams of scientists offered in-depth STEM content instruction at the graduate level for teachers of all grade levels. STEP graduate-level training culminated in the translation of information and data learned from Arctic scientists into standard-aligned lessons designed for immediate use in K-12 classrooms. This presentation will focus on research that explored the question: To what degree was scientist involvement beneficial to teacher training and to what degree was STEP scientist involvement beneficial to scientist instructors? Data sources reveal consistently high levels of ongoing (4 year) scientist and teacher participation; high STEM content learning outcomes for teachers; high STEM content learning outcomes for students; high ratings of STEP courses by scientists and teachers; and a discussion of the reasons scientists indicate they benefited from STEP involvement. Analyses of open-ended comments by teachers and scientists support and clarify these findings. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze teacher and scientist qualitative feedback. Comments were coded and patterns analyzed in three databases. The vast majority of teacher open-ended comments indicate that STEP involvement improved K-12 STEM classroom instruction, and the vast majority of scientist open-ended comments

  8. Resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Melanie S.

    This study examined the resources and instructional strategies effective middle school science teachers use to improve content area reading skills. Reading instruction in the middle school years should follow the natural cognitive progression that occurs in the adolescent brain from learning to read to reading to learn. Scientific reading is a different type of reading than most middle school students are accustomed to. It is important to understand that students will continue to be expected to read non-fiction critically for success in the 21st century. Effective teachers know this, and they perceive themselves as teachers of reading regardless of the content area in which their expertise lies. This qualitative research study was conducted at a rural middle school with three science teachers who employ before, during, and after literacy strategies when reading the textbook content with their students. The methodologies used in this study were interviews, observations, and document collection. The results of this study revealed the students' reading difficulties perceived by the teacher participants, the literacy strategies used by the teacher participants, the instructional resources the teacher participants used to improve comprehension, and the need for professional development in content area literacy.

  9. The Role of Teacher Leadership in How Principals Influence Classroom Instruction and Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, James; Allensworth, Elaine; Huang, Haigen

    2016-01-01

    School principals can play an important role in promoting teacher leadership by delegating authority and empowering teachers in ways that allow them influence in key organizational decisions and processes. However, it is unclear whether instruction and student learning are enhanced by promoting teacher influence in all aspects of school…

  10. Teachers' perception of the utilization of instructional materials in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at assessing teachers' perception of utilization of instructional materials in teaching social studies in junior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality of Cross River State, Nigeria. The study was guided by a research question based on the purpose of the study. The study adopted the survey research ...

  11. Does physics instruction foster university students' cognitive processes?: A descriptive study of teacher activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G. M.; de Jong, Ton

    This study aims at giving a systematic description of the cognitive activities involved in teaching physics. Such a description of instruction in physics requires a basis in two models, that is, the cognitive activities involved in learning physics and the knowledge base that is the foundation of expertise in that subject. These models have been provided by earlier research. The model of instruction distinguishes three main categories of instruction process: presenting new information, integrating (i.e., bringing structure into) new knowledge, and connecting elements of new knowledge to prior knowledge. Each of the main categories has been divided into a number of specific instruction processes. Hereby any limited and specific cognitive teacher activity can be described along the two dimensions of process and type of knowledge. The model was validated by application to lectures and problem-solving classes of first year university courses. These were recorded and analyzed as to instruction process and type of knowledge. Results indicate that teachers are indeed involved in the various types of instruction processes defined. The importance of this study lies in the creation of a terminology that makes it possible to discuss instruction in an explicit and specific way.

  12. The influence of analogical reasoning instruction on the pedagogical reasoning ability of preservice elementary teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark Charles

    Novice teachers with little prior knowledge of science concepts often resort to teaching science as a litany of jargon and definitions. The primary objective of this study was to establish the efficacy of analogy-based pedagogy on influencing the teaching performance of preservice elementary teachers, a group that has been identified for their particular difficulties in teaching science content. While numerous studies have focused on the efficacy of analogy-based instruction on the conceptual knowledge of learners, this was the first study to focus on the influence of analogy-based pedagogy instruction on the teaching performance of novice teachers. The study utilized a treatment/contrast group design where treatment and contrast groups were obtained from intact sections of a university course on methods of teaching science for preservice elementary education students. Preservice teachers in the treatment group were provided instruction in pedagogy that guided them in the generation of analogies to aid in the explanation phase of their learning cycle lessons. The process of generating and evaluating analogies for use in teaching was instrumental in focusing the preservice teachers' lesson planning efforts on critical attributes in target concepts, and away from misplaced concentrations on jargon and definitions. Teaching performance was primarily analyzed using coded indicants of Shulman's (1986) six stages of pedagogical reasoning ability. The primary data source was preservice teachers' work submitted for a major course assignment where the preservice teachers interviewed an elementary school student to gauge prior knowledge of Newtonian force concepts. The culmination of the semester-long assignment was the design of an individualized lesson that was presented by the preservice teachers to individual elementary school students. The results of this study strongly suggest that instruction in methods to include analogy-based pedagogy within a learning cycle lesson

  13. Setting Instructional Expectations: Patterns of Principal Leadership for Middle School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterfeld, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Principal instructional leadership has been found to support improved instruction. However, the methods through which principal leadership influences classroom instruction are less clear. This study investigates how principals' leadership may predict the expectations that mathematics teachers perceive for classroom practice. Results from a…

  14. Orientation: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The first six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the basic theory and practice of a beginning course at the secondary and post-secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction…

  15. The Pedagogy of Flipped Instruction in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Kelso, Mary

    2015-01-01

    "Flipping the classroom", or reverse instruction has been hailed the new pedagogical approach for preparing students for the 21st century. The idea behind this method is relatively simple. Instead of structuring class work to deliver direct instruction from the teacher in class and giving homework to students to practice outside of…

  16. Theory and practice in teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard

    Abstract for NERA 2013, Iceland Theory and Practice – Knowledge Forms, Culture Analysis and Embodiment Lars Emmerik Damgaard Knudsen ‘Teacher Education Network’ Compared to other Nordic teacher education programs the Danish teacher education is as designated to the teacher profession but not nece......Abstract for NERA 2013, Iceland Theory and Practice – Knowledge Forms, Culture Analysis and Embodiment Lars Emmerik Damgaard Knudsen ‘Teacher Education Network’ Compared to other Nordic teacher education programs the Danish teacher education is as designated to the teacher profession...... and videotaped in the last placement period and in the students’ phase of writing the bachelor thesis. The analysis demonstrates that the intended and practiced knowledge forms are cultural structured and bodily anchored in the self-images of the placement and teaching sites which points to a significant...... there are still significant contradictions between placement and teaching sites in the understandings of the means and ends of the teacher education program and in the relations between theory and practice. 3. The process of becoming academic and professional formation is in an interpellation process headed...

  17. Teachers' Experiences with Literacy Instruction for Dual-Media Students Who Use Print and Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Tina S.; Rosenblum, Penny; Robbins, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study analyzed survey responses from 84 teachers of students with visual impairments who had provided literacy instruction to dual-media students who used both print and braille. Methods: These teachers in the United States and Canada completed an online survey during spring 2015. Results: The teachers reported that they…

  18. The Impact of Collegial Instruction on Peers’ Pedagogical Knowledge (PK: An EFL Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Latif

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Shared responsibilities such as mentoring, instruction, learner monitoring and classroom management enable the peers to observe, review, reflect on and learn from the overall practical professional expertise of one another through collegial instruction experience. The present exploratory case study has The present exploratory case study has attempted to study collegial teaching as an innovative instruction model (as an alternative to solo-based instruction models in a General Business English course in SAPco (An automotive part supplier in Iran. To this end, the researcher has mainly tried to concentrate  on two expert business English teachers' perceptions concerning their experience of collegial teaching for business English courses, observing their reflections before and after the course, to focus on the possible impacts of this type of instruction on their pedagogical knowledge as language teacher. As a result, as it is indicated in overall reflections of the participant colleagues, collegial instruction is believed to lead toward a more efficient transferability and development of teachers' pedagogical knowledge than what can take place as a result of individually run traditional practices. Moreover, this type of instruction can be a rather cost-effective and timesaving alternative to traditional OJT (on the job training courses for teacher development authorities and curriculum developers who are concerned about and willing to promote professional development of their teachers.

  19. Kuwaiti Science Teachers' Beliefs and Intentions Regarding the Use of Inquiry-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhendal, Dalal; Marshman, Margaret; Grootenboer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    To improve the quality of education, the Kuwaiti Ministry of Education has encouraged schools to implement inquiry-based instruction. This study identifies psychosocial factors that predict teachers' intention to use inquiry-based instruction in their science classrooms. An adapted model of Ajzen's (1985) theory of planned behaviour--the Science…

  20. Dynamic Effects of Teacher Turnover on the Quality of Instruction. Working Paper 170

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.; Schiman, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that teacher turnover adversely affects the quality of instruction in urban schools serving predominantly disadvantaged children, and a growing body of research investigates various components of turnover effects. The evidence at first seems contradictory, as the quality of instruction appears to decline following turnover…

  1. EMC² = comprehension: A reading strategy instruction framework for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    framework for reading strategy instruction, aimed specifically at teachers. ... interaction among the reader, the strategies the reader employs, the material ... test performance of low-ability groups (Purpura, ... so & Brown, 1992), teachers draw upon a small ... ing, scaffolding and guided practice, with a recom- ...... Measuring.

  2. An Examination of the Instructional Sensitivity of the TIMSS Math Items: A Hierarchical Differential Item Functioning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Qin, Qi; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, students' test scores have been used to evaluate teachers' performance. The assumption underlying this practice is that students' test performance reflects teachers' instruction. However, this assumption is generally not empirically tested. In this study, we examine the effect of teachers' instruction on test performance at the…

  3. Two Heads Are Better than One: Influencing Preservice Classroom Teachers' Understanding and Practice of Classroom-Library Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreillon, Judi

    2008-01-01

    Two Heads Are Better than One: The Factors Influencing the Understanding and Practice of Classroom-Library Collaboration proposed to identify the factors involved in educating future K-8 classroom teachers about collaboration for instruction with school library media specialists (SLMSs). This longitudinal study monitored the growth of teacher…

  4. Dilemmas of reform: An exploration of science teachers' collective sensemaking of formative assessment practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Sara Catherine

    Current reform efforts in science education call for significant shifts in how science is taught and learned. Teachers are important gatekeepers for reform, as they must enact these changes with students in their own classrooms. As such, professional development approaches need to be developed and studied to understand how teachers interpret and make instructional plans to implement these reforms. However, traditional approaches to studying implementation of reforms often draw on metrics such as time allotted to new activities, rather than exploring the ways in which teachers make sense of these reforms. In this dissertation I draw upon a body of work called sensemaking that has focused on locating learning in teachers' conversations in departmental work groups. I developed a conceptual and analytic framework to analyze how teachers make sense of reform given their local contexts and then used this framework to perform a case study of one group of teachers that participated in larger professional development project that examined the impact of a learning progression on science teachers' formative assessment practices. I draw upon videotapes of three years of monthly professional development meetings as my primary source of data, and used an ethnographic approach to identify dilemmas surfaced by teachers, sources of ambiguity and uncertainty, and patterns of and resources for teacher sensemaking. The case study reveals relationships between the type of dilemma surfaced by the teachers and different patterns of sensemaking for modification of teaching practices. When teachers expressed concerns about district or administrative requirements, they aligned their work in the professional development to those external forces. In contrast, teachers were able to develop and try out new practices when they perceived coherence between the professional development and school or district initiatives. These results underscore the importance of coherence between various

  5. Develop, Discuss, and Decide: How New Science Teachers Use Technologies to Advance Their Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Joshua Alexander

    instruction. The supporting interventions took the form of three separate groups of pre-service teachers, each tasked with a specific role in the creation of the AL environment. Findings from the first two studies indicate that specific, explicit supports for teacher discourse in TIN activities is needed in order to foster the reflective practice that course designers and instructor-facilitators desire. The third study reveals that pre-service teacher participation in the creation of an AL environment supported their understanding of the nature of TPACK and allowed them to define their content-based technology pedagogy for future science instruction.

  6. Literacy Coaching: Middle School Academic Achievement and Teacher Perceptions Regarding Content Area Literacy Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Anjell H.; Neill, Patricia; Faust, Phyllis B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in perceptions of content area teachers receiving literacy coaching and teachers receiving no literacy coaching regarding implementation of literacy instruction. It also examined student achievement on standardized tests relative to literacy coaching. A survey measured teachers' perceptions regarding their…

  7. STEM Teachers' Planned and Enacted Attempts at Implementing Engineering Design-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Rupp, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates grades 5 and 6 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teachers' planned and actualized engineering design-based instruction, the instruments used to characterize their efforts, and the implications this work has for teachers' implementations of an integrated approach to STEM education.…

  8. Analysis of an Instructional Coach's Role as Elementary School Language Teachers' Professional Developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Coaches can provide teachers with quality professional development experiences by mentoring, providing workshops, modeling, or encouraging professional growth (York-Barr & Duke, 2004). This study focuses on the instructional coach's role in the professional development of teachers of English language learners (ELLs). The study has the following…

  9. The Implementation and Evaluation of Teacher Training in Gaming Instruction for Secondary Science: An Action Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    This study implemented and evaluated gaming instruction as a professional development for science teachers at a Georgia high school. It was guided by four research questions that (a) assessed the impact of training in gaming instruction and evaluation of that training on science teachers' ability to use games; (b) examined evidence showing that…

  10. Contextual Determinants of Mathematics Achievement: A Closer Look at the Influence of Principals' Instructional Leadership, Teachers' Preferred Instructional Approaches, and Academic Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tremayne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether certain contextual factors pertaining to principals and teachers influenced U.S. eighth grade students' math achievement. More specifically, the study comparatively examined the direct and mediating predictive influence of teacher instructional approaches (i.e., teacher-directed; constructivism),…

  11. A Descriptive Analysis of Instructional Coaches' Data Use in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass Rangel, Virginia; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Monroy, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    A key assumption of accountability policies is that educators will use data to improve their instruction. In practice, however, data use is quite hard, and more districts are looking to instructional coaches to support their teachers. The purpose of this descriptive analysis is to examine how instructional coaches in elementary and middle school…

  12. The Effects of Apprenticeship of Observation on Teachers Attitudes towards Active Learning Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzhabekova Aliya; Zhaparova Raina

    2016-01-01

    Active learning instruction is promoted by the most recent version of the National Program for the Development of Education in Kazakhstan as it is believed to provide more meaningful learning and deeper understanding compared to traditional instruction. In order to achieve greater utilization of the instructional approach at schools, teachers must be aware of active learning techniques and know how to use them. This paper studies whether ‘apprenticeship of observation’ during a graduate cours...

  13. Assessing Dimensions of Inquiry Practice by Middle School Science Teachers Engaged in a Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Joni M.; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2015-03-01

    Inquiry-based teaching promotes students' engagement in problem-solving and investigation as they learn science concepts. Current practice in science teacher education promotes the use of inquiry in the teaching of science. However, the literature suggests that many science teachers hold incomplete or incorrect conceptions of inquiry. Teachers, therefore, may believe they are providing more inquiry experiences than they are, reducing the positive impact of inquiry on science interest and skills. Given the prominence of inquiry in professional development experiences, educational evaluators need strong tools to detect intended use in the classroom. The current study focuses on the validity of assessments developed for evaluating teachers' use of inquiry strategies and classroom orientations. We explored the relationships between self-reported inquiry strategy use, preferences for inquiry, knowledge of inquiry practices, and related pedagogical content knowledge. Finally, we contrasted students' and teachers' reports of the levels of inquiry-based teaching in the classroom. Self-reports of inquiry use, especially one specific to the 5E instructional model, were useful, but should be interpreted with caution. Teachers tended to self-report higher levels of inquiry strategy use than their students perceived. Further, there were no significant correlations between either knowledge of inquiry practices or PCK and self-reported inquiry strategy use.

  14. Examining instruction, achievement, and equity with NAEP mathematics data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Theule Lubienski

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, it reports on a study of the distribution of reform-oriented instructional practices among Black, White and Hispanic students, and the relationship between those practices and student achievement. The study identified many similarities in instruction across student groups, but there were some differences, such as Black and Hispanic students being assessed with multiple-choice tests significantly more often than were White students. Using hierarchical linear modeling, this study identified several significant positive—and no negative—relationships between reform-oriented practices and 4th-grade student achievement. Specifically, teacher emphasis on non-number mathematics strands, collaborative problem solving, and teacher knowledge of the NCTM Standards were positive predictors of achievement. An analysis of interaction effects indicated that the relationships between various instructional practices and achievement were roughly similar for White, Black and Hispanic students. The second purpose of this article is to make comparisons with another study that used the same NAEP data, but drew very different conclusions about the potential for particular instructional practices to alleviate inequities. A study published in EPAA by Wenglinsky (2004 concluded that school personnel can eliminate race-related gaps within their schools by changing their instructional practices. Similarities and differences between these two studies are discussed to illuminate how a researcher's framing, methods, and interpretations can heavily influence a study's conclusions. Ultimately, this article argues that the primary conclusion of Wenglinsky's study is unwarranted. Keywords: equity, hierarchical linear modeling; mathematics achievement; mathematics instruction; NAEP.

  15. The impact of science teachers' epistemological beliefs on authentic inquiry: A multiple-case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dionne Bennett

    The purpose of this study was to examine how science teachers' epistemological beliefs impacted their use of authentic inquiry in science instruction. Participants in this multiple-case study included a total of four teachers who represented the middle, secondary and post-secondary levels. Based on the results of the pilot study conducted with a secondary science teacher, adjustments were made to the interview questions and observation protocol. Data collection for the study included semi-structured interviews, direct observations of instructional techniques, and the collection of artifacts. The cross case analysis revealed that the cases epistemological beliefs were mostly Transitional and the method of instruction used most was Discussion. Two of the cases exhibited consistent beliefs and instructional practices, whereas the other two exhibited beliefs beyond their instruction. The findings of this study support the literature on the influence of contextual factors and professional development on teacher beliefs and practice. The findings support and contradict literature relevant to the consistency of teacher beliefs with instruction. This study's findings revealed that the use of reform-based instruction, or Authentic Inquiry, does not occur when science teachers do not have the beliefs and experiences necessary to implement this form of instruction.

  16. An Investigation of Literacy Practices in High School Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Jade; Mitchell, Marisa A.; Clancy, Erin E.; Silverman, Rebecca D.

    2017-01-01

    This study reports findings from an exploration of the literacy practices of 10 high school science teachers. Based on observations of teachers' instruction, we report teachers' use of text, evidence-based vocabulary and comprehension practices, and grouping practices. Based on interviews with teachers, we also report teachers' perceptions…

  17. Studying the Impact of Three Different Instructional Methods on Preservice Teachers' Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Yasemin Demiraslan; Andre, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the impact of three types of instructional methods (case-based learning, worked example and faded worked example) on preservice teachers' (n?=?72) decision-making about classroom management. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to investigate both the outcomes and the processes of preservice teachers' decision-making…

  18. The Impact of Data-Based Science Instruction on Standardized Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Tia W.

    Increased teacher accountability efforts have resulted in the use of data to improve student achievement. This study addressed teachers' inconsistent use of data-driven instruction in middle school science. Evidence of the impact of data-based instruction on student achievement and school and district practices has been well documented by researchers. In science, less information has been available on teachers' use of data for classroom instruction. Drawing on data-driven decision making theory, the purpose of this study was to examine whether data-based instruction impacted performance on the science Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) and to explore the factors that impeded its use by a purposeful sample of 12 science teachers at a data-driven school. The research questions addressed in this study included understanding: (a) the association between student performance on the science portion of the CRCT and data-driven instruction professional development, (b) middle school science teachers' perception of the usefulness of data, and (c) the factors that hindered the use of data for science instruction. This study employed a mixed methods sequential explanatory design. Data collected included 8th grade CRCT data, survey responses, and individual teacher interviews. A chi-square test revealed no improvement in the CRCT scores following the implementation of professional development on data-driven instruction (chi 2 (1) = .183, p = .67). Results from surveys and interviews revealed that teachers used data to inform their instruction, indicating time as the major hindrance to their use. Implications for social change include the development of lesson plans that will empower science teachers to deliver data-based instruction and students to achieve identified academic goals.

  19. Case-Based Instructional Practices: A Multiple-Case Study from Torts, Marketing, and Online Instructional Design Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji yoon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive account on case-based instructional practices. Semester-long participant observation records in torts, marketing, and online instructional design classes, instructor interviews, course syllabi and teaching materials were used to describe the within-class complexity of the practices in terms…

  20. Impacts of Teacher-Child Managed Whole-Group Language and Literacy Instruction on the Depth of Preschoolers' Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Jung; Justice, Laura M.; Emery, Alyssa A.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Pentimonti, Jill M.

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the potential impacts of ongoing participation (twice weekly for 30 weeks) in teacher-child managed whole-group language and literacy instruction on prekindergarten children's social interaction with classmates. Teacher-child managed whole-group instruction that provides children with opportunities to engage…

  1. The efficacy of student-centered instruction in supporting science learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, E M; Bevis, T H; Saka, Y; Southerland, S A; Sampson, V; Tate, R L

    2012-10-05

    Transforming science learning through student-centered instruction that engages students in a variety of scientific practices is central to national science-teaching reform efforts. Our study employed a large-scale, randomized-cluster experimental design to compare the effects of student-centered and teacher-centered approaches on elementary school students' understanding of space-science concepts. Data included measures of student characteristics and learning and teacher characteristics and fidelity to the instructional approach. Results reveal that learning outcomes were higher for students enrolled in classrooms engaging in scientific practices through a student-centered approach; two moderators were identified. A statistical search for potential causal mechanisms for the observed outcomes uncovered two potential mediators: students' understanding of models and evidence and the self-efficacy of teachers.

  2. Promising Practices in the Preparation of Special Educators to Provide Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Gormley Budin, Shannon E.; Bennett, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The majority of students with disabilities require support in the area of reading. Given the importance of reading instruction, it is essential that special education teacher preparation programs prepare candidates who are knowledgeable about reading development and skilled in the delivery of reading instruction. The purpose of this article is…

  3. Development and validation of an instrument to evaluate science teachers' assessment beliefs and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Evrim

    The primary purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to examine science teachers' assessment beliefs and practices in science classrooms. The present study also investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs and practices in terms of assessment issues in science, their perceptions of the factors that influenced their assessment practices and their feelings towards high-stakes testing. The participants of the study were 408 science teachers teaching at middle and high school levels in the State of Florida. Data were collected through two modes of administration of the instrument as a paper-and-pencil and a web-based form. The response rate for paper-and-pencil administration was estimated as 68% whereas the response for the web administration was found to be 27%. Results from the various dimensions of validity and reliability analyses revealed that the 24 item-four-factor belief and practice measures were psychometrically sound and conceptually anchored measures of science teachers' assessment beliefs and self-reported practices. Reliability estimates for the belief measure ranged from .83 to .91 whereas alpha values for the practice measure ranged from .56 to .90. Results from the multigroup analysis supported that the instrument has the same theoretical structure across both administration groups. Therefore, future researchers may use either a paper-and-pencil or web-based format of the instrument. This study underscored a discrepancy between what teachers believe and how they act in classroom settings. It was emphasized that certain factors were mediating the dynamics between the belief and the practice. The majority of teachers reported that instruction time, class size, professional development activities, availability of school funding, and state testing mandates impact their assessment routines. Teachers reported that both the preparation process and the results of the test created unbelievable tension both on students and

  4. Developing Practical Knowledge of the Next Generation Science Standards in Elementary Science Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Zangori, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Just as the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSSs) call for change in what students learn and how they are taught, teacher education programs must reconsider courses and curriculum in order to prepare teacher candidates to understand and implement new standards. In this study, we examine the development of prospective elementary teachers' practical knowledge of the NGSS in the context of a science methods course and innovative field experience. We present three themes related to how prospective teachers viewed and utilized the standards: (a) as a useful guide for planning and designing instruction, (b) as a benchmark for student and self-evaluation, and (c) as an achievable vision for teaching and learning. Our findings emphasize the importance of collaborative opportunities for repeated teaching of the same lessons, but question what is achievable in the context of a semester-long experience.

  5. Relationship between the Instructional Leadership Behaviors of High School Principals and Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Nuray; Erdogan, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationship between the instructional leadership behaviors of high school principals and teachers' perceptions of organizational commitment and to test the extent to which instructional leadership behaviors predict organizational commitment. The study is designed in relational method. The…

  6. Mathematical knowledge for teaching: Making the tacit more explicit in mathematics teacher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Faizal Nizam Lee; Vimalanandan, Lena

    2017-05-01

    Teaching practice during school based experiences, afford an opportunity for pre service teachers to put into practice their knowledge for teaching mathematics. Like all knowledge, Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) is held in both tacit and explicit form, making it especially difficult to study and map during instruction. This study investigates the tacit and explicit nature of MKT held by pre service teachers in a Malaysian Teacher Education Program and how it impacts the Mathematical Quality of their instruction (MQI). This study of three mathematics pre-service teachers (PSTs), utilised videos of mathematics lessons, reflective debriefs and interviews. The findings suggest that factors such as reflecting, peer-sharing, conferencing with mentors and observing support in making tacit knowledge more explicit during planning and instruction. Implications for preparation of mathematics teachers capable of high Mathematical Quality of Instruction are also discussed.

  7. Preparing "Professional" Science Teachers: Critical Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Pradeep Maxwell

    This paper focuses on pre-service teacher education and elaborates on the critical importance of three attributes to the development of professional science teachers: (1) science teachers must be reflective practitioners of their profession; (2) all instructional practice and decisions of science teachers must be backed by a research-based…

  8. Turkish Mathematics and Science Teachers' Technology Use in Their Classroom Instruction: Findings from TIMSS 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Yasemin; Balgalmis, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe Turkish mathematics and science teachers' use of computer in their classroom instruction by utilizing TIMSS 2011 data. Analyses results revealed that teachers most frequently used computers for preparation purpose and least frequently used computers for administration. There was no difference in teachers'…

  9. Interactive whiteboards in third grade science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Grier

    Strategies have been put into place to affect improvement in science achievement, including the use of Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) in science instruction. IWBs enable rich resources, appropriate pacing, and multimodal presentation of content deemed as best practices. Professional development experiences, use of resources, instructional practices, and changes in professional behavior in science teachers were recorded. Also recorded were differences in the engagement and motivation of students in IWB classrooms versus IWB-free classrooms and observed differences in students' problem solving, critical thinking, and collaboration. Using a mixed-method research design quantitative data were collected to identify achievement levels of the target population on the assumption that all students, regardless of ability, will achieve greater mastery of science content in IWB classrooms. Qualitative data were collected through observations, interviews, videotapes, and a survey to identify how IWBs lead to increased achievement in third grade classrooms and to develop a record of teachers' professional practices, and students' measures of engagement and motivation. Comparative techniques determined whether science instruction is more effective in IWB classroom than in IWB-free classrooms. The qualitative findings concluded that, compared to science teachers who work in IWB-free settings, elementary science teachers who used IWBs incorporated more resources to accommodate learning objectives and the varied abilities and learning styles of their students. They assessed student understanding more frequently and perceived their classrooms as more collaborative and interactive. Furthermore, they displayed willingness to pursue professional development and employed different engagement strategies. Finally, teachers who used IWBs supported more instances of critical thinking and problem-solving. Quantitative findings concluded that students of all ability levels were more motivated

  10. Differentiation: Lessons from Master Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Jennifer; Guinn, Abigail

    2007-01-01

    Carolan and Guinn assert that differentiated instruction helps diversity thrive. Observing how experienced teachers practice differentiation in real-life situations helps teachers who are reluctant to try such strategies take the plunge. The authors draw on two observational studies they conducted of five expert teachers in a high-performing,…

  11. Differentiating Instruction in Early Childhood Care Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri,. E-mail: ... Key words: childhood education, Differentiated instruction, teachers/ caregivers' practice ... differences in their readiness level, interests and learning profiles/styles (p. 940). Today's ...

  12. ESL and Content Area Teacher Responses to Discussions on English Language Learner Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawan, Faridah; Craig, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study compares the responses and statements of English as a second language (ESL) and content area teachers in discussions about the instruction of English language learners (ELLs). A study on how these two sets of teachers understand the field is important because commonalities and differences in their opinions may have an impact on…

  13. Quantum Learning & Instructional Leadership in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tellier, John Parks

    2006-01-01

    Even the best principals and teachers need additional inspiration and energy to motivate students and even themselves. This handbook shows principals and teachers how to upgrade performance in the classroom and schoolwide. Using evidence-based strategies, John Le Tellier provides a catalog of practiced "moves" to help create an empowering…

  14. Teacher self-efficacy in instruction and in parent involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gavora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated self-efficacy of a sample of Slovak primary schoolteachers in two areas: area of instruction and area of parent involvement. Twoinstruments were used: the 16-item Slovak version of Teacher Efficacy Scale ofGibson and Dembo, and ZdUR, a 24-item scale to measure self-efficacy of teacherin parents’ involvement, developed by authors of the present study. The correlation between scores of personal teaching efficacy dimension of TES and ZdUR was 0.58 and between general teaching efficacy of TES and ZdUR was only 0.01. Teachers inthis sample had better scores in all dimensions of ZdUR than those of TES, with theexception of engaging parents in school activities. Scores of four teachers in TES andZdUR were analysed to document the possibility of making the individual profiles ofteacher self-efficacy.

  15. Teachers' implementation of gender-inclusive instructional strategies in single-sex and mixed-sex science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lesley H.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    2002-09-01

    Debate continues over the benefits, or otherwise, of single-sex classes in science and mathematics, particularly for the performance of girls. Previous research and analyses of the circumstances surrounding the implementation of single-sex classes warn that the success of the strategy requires due consideration of the nature of the instructional environment for both boys and girls, together with appropriate support for the teachers involved. This article reports the circumstances under which teachers were able to implement gender-inclusive strategies in single-sex science classes in coeducational high schools and documents some of the difficulties faced. The study was part of the Single-Sex Education Pilot Project (SSEPP) in ten high schools in rural and urban Western Australia. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered during the project from teachers, students and classroom observations. Overall, it was apparent that single-sex grouping created environments in which teachers could implement gender-inclusive science instructional strategies more readily and effectively than in mixed-sex settings. Teachers were able to address some of the apparent shortcomings of the students' previous education (specifically, the poor written and oral communication of boys and the limited experience of girls with 'hands-on' activities and open-ended problem solving). Further, in same-sex classrooms, sexual harassment which inhibited girls' learning was eliminated. The extent to which teachers were successful in implementing gender-inclusive instructional strategies, however, depended upon their prior commitment to the SSEPP as a whole, and upon the support or obstacles encountered from a variety of sources, including parents, the community, students, and non-SSEPP teachers.

  16. Perceptions of Digital Competency among Student Teachers: Contributing to the Development of Student Teachers' Instructional Self-Efficacy in Technology-Rich Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut-Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Adequate self-efficacy is useful for motivating individuals to engage in continued improvement. This study explores the potential antecedents of instructional self-efficacy beliefs among Norwegian student teachers attending a programme for secondary school teachers. The most important finding was the strong association between the student…

  17. Pedagogical Knowledge Base Underlying EFL Teachers' Provision of Oral Corrective Feedback in Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atai, Mahmood Reza; Shafiee, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the pedagogical knowledge base underlying EFL teachers' provision of oral corrective feedback in grammar instruction. More specifically, we explored the consistent thought patterns guiding the decisions of three Iranian teachers regarding oral corrective feedback on grammatical errors. We also examined the potential…

  18. Goal Setting as Teacher Development Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article explores goal setting as a teacher development practice in higher education. It reports on a study of college teacher goal setting informed by goal setting theory. Analysis of study participants' goal setting practices and their experiences with goal pursuit offers a framework for thinking about the kinds of goals teachers might set…

  19. Relating Teacher PCK and Teacher Practice Using Classroom Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendsen, Erik; Henze, Ineke

    2017-09-01

    Science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been researched in many studies, yet little empirical evidence has been found to determine how this knowledge actually informs teachers' actions in the classroom. To complement previous quantitative studies, there is a need for more qualitative studies to investigate the relationship between teacher knowledge (as formulated by the teacher) and classroom practice, especially in the context of an educational innovation. In this study we explored a possible way to investigate this relationship in an in-depth and systematic fashion. To this end, we conducted a case study with a chemistry teacher in the context of the implementation of a context-based science curriculum in The Netherlands. The teacher's PCK was captured using the Content Representation form by Loughran, Mulhall, and Berry. We used an observation table to monitor classroom interactions in such a way that the observations could be related to specific elements of teachers' PCK. Thus, we were able to give a detailed characterization of the correspondences and differences between the teacher's personal PCK and classroom practice. Such an elaborate description turned out to be a useful basis for discussing mechanisms explaining the relationship between teachers' knowledge and teachers' actions.

  20. Reflective practice in ESL teacher development groups from practices to principles

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, T

    2013-01-01

    Reflective Practise in ESL Teacher Development Groups  discusses the concept of reflective practice in ESL teachers using data from a 3-year collaborative partnership in which three ESL teachers in Canada explored their professional development through reflective practice.

  1. Multimodal Pedagogies for Teacher Education in TESOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youngjoo; Angay-Crowder, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    As a growing number of English language learners (ELLs) engage in digital and multimodal literacy practices in their daily lives, teachers are starting to incorporate multimodal approaches into their instruction. However, anecdotal and empirical evidence shows that teachers often feel unprepared for integrating such practices into their curricula…

  2. Can the transformation of instruction process into a virtual place induce a shift in behavioral patterns of teachers and students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljajko Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to reveal possible influence that the participants' age and Information and Communications Technologies (ICT usage in the instruction process can have on behavior that defines whether students and teachers belong to one of the Digital Native/Immigrant or Visitor/Resident groups. We collected data through two surveys that covered a total of 1273 students and 382 teachers from southern regions of Serbia. The surveys consisted of questions about availability of computers and internet, ICT use in the instruction process, and communication habits in the ICT-empowered instruction process. The first survey covered both, students and teachers that were involved in the instruction process mostly deprived of the ICT usage. The second survey covered participants of an instruction process that was successfully improved by an ICT usage. Data analysis shows a shift in communication patterns of teachers and a sharp improvement in computer use for educational purposes for both groups included in the surveys. The change is induced by a proper ICT usage in the instruction process. Conclusions that followed the data analysis lead us to better approaches in organizing ICT usage in the instruction process that enable participants fully employ their resources in order to improve teaching techniques and learning.

  3. Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' and Students' Views on Computer Assisted Mathematics Instruction in Turkey: Mathematica Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Mehmet Alper; Isleyen, Tevfik

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the secondary school mathematics teachers' and students' views on computer-assisted mathematics instruction (CAMI) conducted via Mathematica. Accordingly, three mathematics teachers in Adiyaman and nine 10th-grade students participated in the research. Firstly, the researchers trained the mathematics teachers in the…

  4. Coaching to Support Disciplinary Literacy Instruction: Navigating Complexity and Challenges for Sustained Teacher Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Paula M.; Elish-Piper, Laurie; Manderino, Michael; L'Allier, Susan K.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated how a high school literacy coach provided coaching to support teachers' understanding and implementation of disciplinary literacy instruction. With a focus on collaborations between the literacy coach and teachers in the disciplines of social studies, math, and English, this article presents three case studies that…

  5. Tutorial Instruction in Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Miles

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the tutorial practices of in-service teachers to address the underachievement in the science education of K-12 students. Method: In-service teachers in Virginia and North Carolina were given a survey questionnaire to examine how they tutored students who were in need of additional instruction. Results: When these teachers were asked, “How do you describe a typical one-on-one science tutorial session?” the majority of their responses were categorized as teacher-directed. Many of the teachers would provide a science tutorial session for a student after school for 16-30 minutes, one to three times a week. Respondents also indicated they would rely on technology, peer tutoring, scientific inquiry, or themselves for one-on-one science instruction. Over half of the in-service teachers that responded to the questionnaire stated that they would never rely on outside assistance, such as a family member or an after school program to provide tutorial services in science. Additionally, very few reported that they incorporated the ethnicity, culture, or the native language of ELL students into their science tutoring sessions.

  6. Teachers\\' practical rationality of mathematics teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mathematics teaching as a practice and the way that teachers learn in such a practice. Conversations during interviews with the teachers in the sample indicate that SchoÈn\\'s notion of reflection-in-action is a key to understanding how teachers use their practical rationality as they try to understand nuanced meanings of the

  7. Preparing teachers for ambitious and culturally responsive science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Gale

    2013-03-01

    Communities, schools and classrooms across North America are becoming more ethnically, racially, and linguistically diverse, particularly in urban areas. Against this backdrop, underrepresentation of certain groups in science continues. Much attention has been devoted to multicultural education and the preparation of teachers for student diversity. In science education, much research has focused on classrooms as cultural spaces and the need for teachers to value and build upon students' everyday science knowledge and ways of sense-making. However it remains unclear how best to prepare science teachers for this kind of culturally responsive teaching. In attempting to envision how to prepare science teachers with cross-cultural competency, we can draw from a parallel line of research on preparing teachers for ambitious science instruction. In ambitious science instruction, students solve authentic problems and generate evidence and models to develop explanations of scientific phenomenon, an approach that necessitates great attention to students' thinking and sense-making, thus making it applicable to cultural relevance aims. In addition, this line of research on teacher preparation has developed specific tools and engages teachers in cycles of reflection and rehearsal as they develop instructional skills. While not addressing cross-cultural teaching specifically, this research provides insights into specific ways through which to prepare teachers for culturally responsive practices. In my presentation, I will report on efforts to join these two areas of research, that is, to combine ideas about multicultural science teacher preparation with what has been learned about how to develop ambitious science instruction. This research suggests a new model for urban science teacher preparation--one that focuses on developing specific teaching practices that elicit and build on student thinking, and doing so through cycles of individual and collective planning, rehearsal

  8. From inside the black box: Teacher perceptions of science instruction at the elementary level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Cynthia D.

    Science education reform projects aimed at elementary school children arose in the 1960's. The most prevalent of these reforms utilized the inquiry, or hands-on, science method. Billions of dollars have been invested in these reforms. Yet, reports indicate that science is not being taught at the level one might expect in elementary schools. This research was an analysis of the problems and concerns teachers at one school district faced as they tried to implement and sustain elementary inquiry science instruction. The district chosen was a large suburban district in the Western United States. The population was ninety percent Caucasian with a slightly more ethnically diverse school population. This district was chosen because it had an elementary science program for over twenty years and had received national acclaim for that program. The district had a stable and homogeneous staff there was a low administrator and teacher turnover rate and the elementary teaching population was ninety percent Caucasian and ninety percent female. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted. Data were collected from focus groups of teachers and science partners. Observations of elementary science classroom instruction and professional development sessions were made. Results of this research indicated that one important key to elementary science reform rests in the hands of teachers. Once the door to the classroom is closed, the teacher can decide to teach or not to teach science. The findings of this research illustrate that teachers hold ideas about science and science instruction that are antithetical to some tenets of inquiry science. Until these ideas are addressed it will be difficult, if not impossible, to implement a systemic elementary inquiry science program. This study demonstrates that professional development for elementary teachers in science needs to change from a focus on the mechanical usage of individual units to a focus on teacher expectations for

  9. A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Roles of Instructional Leadership, Teacher Collaboration, and Collective Efficacy Beliefs in Support of Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Roger; Goddard, Yvonne; Kim, Eun Sook; Miller, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Principals' instructional leadership may support the degree to which teachers work together to improve instruction, and together leadership and teacher collaboration may contribute to school effectiveness by strengthening collective efficacy beliefs. We found a significant direct effect of leadership on teacher collaboration. Further, leadership…

  10. Teachers' Initial and Sustained Use of an Instructional Assistive Technology Tool: Exploring the Mitigating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Flanagan, Sara; Heutsche, Anne; Okolo, Cynthia M.; Englert, Carol Sue

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research project explored factors that mitigated teachers implementing an instructional assistive technology and factors that mitigated its sustained use. Specifically, it explored these issues in relation to a social studies based instructional assistive technology (Virtual History Museum [VHM]), which was originally implemented…

  11. Examining Pre-Kindergarten-Grade 8 Teacher Practices and Perceptions Regarding Using Facebook and Twitter for Parent-Teacher Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive, survey research was to examine pre-Kindergarten- Grade 8 teacher's perceptions regarding their preparedness, propensity, and felt value of using Facebook and Twitter for parent-teacher communication. The 38 participants completed the Teacher Presurvey, followed by an online instructional intervention,…

  12. Teacher Supervision and Evaluation Challenges: Canadian Perspectives on Overall Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Jim; Hollweck, Trista; Donlevy, James Kent; Whalen, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    This inquiry focuses on the "overall instructional leadership" approaches used by exemplary principals in three high performing Canadian provinces to overcome three persistent obstacles to effective teacher supervision and evaluation: (a) the management challenge, (b) the complexity challenge, and (c) the learning challenge. Analysis of…

  13. Professional Competence of Teachers: Effects on Instructional Quality and Student Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunter, Mareike; Klusmann, Uta; Baumert, Jürgen; Richter, Dirk; Voss, Thamar; Hachfeld, Axinja

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates teachers' pedagogical content knowledge, professional beliefs, work-related motivation, and self-regulation as aspects of their professional competence. Specifically, it examines how these aspects impact instruction and, in turn, student outcomes. In a nationally representative sample of 194 German secondary school…

  14. The Abacus: Instruction by Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Sheila; Hong, Sunggye; Rosenblum, L. Penny

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article, based on a study of 196 teachers of students with visual impairments, reports on the experiences with and opinions related to their decisions about instructing their students who are blind or have low vision in the abacus. Methods: The participants completed an online survey on how they decide which students should be…

  15. Pre-Service Teachers' TPACK Competencies for Spreadsheet Integration: Insights from a Mathematics-Specific Instructional Technology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei, Douglas D.; Voogt, Joke M.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored the impact of strategies applied in a mathematics instructional technology course for developing technology integration competencies, in particular in the use of spreadsheets, in pre-service teachers. In this respect, 104 pre-service mathematics teachers from a teacher training programme in Ghana enrolled in the mathematics…

  16. Evaluating Teachers' Support Requests When Just-in-Time Instructional Support is Provided to Introduce a Primary Level Web-Based Reading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eileen; Anderson, Alissa; Piquette-Tomei, Noella; Savage, Robert; Mueller, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Support requests were documented for 10 teachers (4 kindergarten, 4 grade one, and 2 grade one/two teachers) who received just-in-time instructional support over a 2 1/2 month period while implementing a novel reading software program as part of their literacy instruction. In-class observations were made of each instructional session. Analysis of…

  17. Understanding Teacher Practice using their own Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer Schrøder

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses ways of understanding teacher practice in educational settings. An educational setting consists of cultural, social and historical elements that all influence the teacher’s practice and, how she experiences this practice. It is argued that teaching science and technology...... is a socially conditioned practice. The teachers’ practice are formed by their previous education and experience but also influenced by their private life. This way of looking at teacher knowledge and experience requires attention to teachers’ perception of these aspects. Teachers seldom talk about...

  18. Instructional Modules for Training Special Education Teachers: A Final Report on the Development and Field Testing of the CUNY-CBTEP Special Education Modules. Case 30-76. Toward Competence Instructional Materials for Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    City Univ. of New York, NY. Center for Advanced Study in Education.

    The City University of New York Competency Based Teacher Education Project (CUNY-CBTEP) in Special Education studied Modularization, focusing on the variables in the instructional setting that facilitate learning from modular materials for a wide range of students. Four of the five modules for the training of special education teachers developed…

  19. Teacher beliefs, teacher characteristics, and school contextual factors: what are the relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubie-Davies, Christine M; Flint, Annaline; McDonald, Lyn G

    2012-06-01

    There is a plethora of research around student beliefs and their contribution to student outcomes. However, there is less research in relation to teacher beliefs. Teacher factors are important to consider since beliefs mould thoughts and resultant instructional behaviours that, in turn, can contribute to student outcomes. The purpose of this research was to explore relationships between the teacher characteristics of gender and teaching experience, school contextual variables (socio-economic level of school and class level), and three teacher socio-psychological variables: class level teacher expectations, teacher efficacy, and teacher goal orientation. The participants were 68 male and female teachers with varying experience, from schools in a variety of socio-economic areas and from rural and urban locations within New Zealand. Teachers completed a questionnaire containing items related to teacher efficacy and goal orientation in reading. They also completed a teacher expectation survey. Reading achievement data were collected on students. Interrelationships were explored between teacher socio-psychological beliefs and the teacher and school factors included in the study. Mastery-oriented beliefs predicted teacher efficacy for student engagement and classroom management. The socio-economic level of the school and teacher gender predicted teacher efficacy for engagement, classroom management, instructional strategies, and a mastery goal orientation. Being male predicted a performance goal orientation. Teacher beliefs, teacher characteristics, and school contextual variables can result in differences in teacher instructional practices and differing classroom climates. Further investigation of these variables is important since differences in teachers contribute to differences in student outcomes. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  20. A True-False Test on Methods of Typewriting Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Leonard J.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a true-false test on typewriting instruction to illustrate the effects of educational lag, publishing practices, and deficiencies in preservice and inservice teacher education upon teaching methods. (SK)

  1. All Students Are Not Equal: A Case Study of Geometry Teachers' Instructional Strategies When Trained in Multiple-Intelligence-Based Practices in Secondary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Cassandre Y.

    2017-01-01

    Over 50% of secondary students failed the geometry end-of-course test in a Florida school district, indicating a need to improve academic performance. Secondary school students' learning characteristics and the effectiveness of teachers' instructional strategies are imperative to educational success. In this qualitative case study, geometry…

  2. Inclusive practices in teacher training in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasthi Jocabed Flores Barrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive practices include diversity as a resource that favors teaching-learning processes in the classroom, although they focus on the most vulnerable people by offering them higher-quality education. This descriptive study sought to identify the inclusive practices of teachers who train teachers in an Escuela Normal (teachers’ college in Mexico. Eight teachers and 247 students participated in the study; the Guidelines for the Evaluation of Inclusive Practices in the Classroom (observation formats and students, the Learning Strategies Questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews were used. The results suggest that, although the general perception is that participating teachers have high inclusive practices, they need greater support in the physical conditions of the classroom, methodology and teacher-student relationship. It was also identified the need for a refresher program for teachers to conceptually enrich the teaching staff and encourage the implementation of inclusive education within the Escuela Normal.

  3. Reflective Practices for Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Kuswandono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on reflective practice in teacher education are increasingly getting more attention at least in the last 2 decades. This article discusses concepts of reflection and how it is implemented in educating pre-service teachers on their early stage of professional learning. The purposes of doing the reflection for pre-service teachers are not only for illuminating their professional learning experiences, but also to critically reflect their vocation as teachers, including the values which may be dictated to them through rigid regulations. Reflection in teacher education is crucial as it connects well with learning in that learners use reflection to exercise their mind and to evaluate their learning experiences. Besides, this article also highlights some perceived difficulties to implement reflective practice, as well as ways how to promote reflection.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2012.150102

  4. Complex Teacher Evaluation Systems Can Produce Negative Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine teacher perceptions of the impact on instructional practice when using a complex, standards-based performance evaluation system. The study used expectancy theory to investigate teacher expectancy (did they believe they could enhance their practice to the identified program standards?), instrumentality…

  5. Do science coaches promote inquiry-based instruction in the elementary science classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Rosemary Knight

    The South Carolina Mathematics and Science Coaching Initiative established a school-based science coaching model that was effective in improving instruction by increasing the level of inquiry-based instruction in elementary science classrooms. Classroom learning environment data from both teacher groups indicated considerable differences in the quality of inquiry instruction for those classrooms of teachers supported by a science coach. All essential features of inquiry were demonstrated more frequently and at a higher level of open-ended inquiry in classrooms with the support of a science coach than were demonstrated in classrooms without a science coach. However, from teacher observations and interviews, it was determined that elementary schoolteacher practice of having students evaluate conclusions and connect them to current scientific knowledge was often neglected. Teachers with support of a science coach reported changes in inquiry-based instruction that were statistically significant. This mixed ethnographic study also suggested that the Mathematics and Science Coaching Initiative Theory of Action for Instructional Improvement was an effective model when examining the work of science coaches. All components of effective school infrastructure were positively impacted by a variety of science coaching strategies intended to promote inquiry. Professional development for competent teachers, implementation of researched-based curriculum, and instructional materials support were areas highly impacted by the work of science coaches.

  6. Fighting Baddies and Collecting Bananas: Teachers' Perceptions of Games-Based Literacy Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Hannah R.; Price, Debra P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how practicing teachers conceptualize commercial off the shelf (COTS) videogames within classroom-based English language arts instruction. Understanding how today's teachers perceive virtual worlds and videogames as an instructional tool for schema building within literacy development will help researchers better understand…

  7. Engaging in vocabulary learning in science: the promise of multimodal instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dianna; Brock, Cynthia; Morrison, Jennifer D.

    2018-02-01

    To a science 'outsider', science language often appears unnecessarily technical and dense. However, scientific language is typically used with the goal of being concise and precise, which allows those who regularly participate in scientific discourse communities to learn from each other and build upon existing scientific knowledge. One essential component of science language is the academic vocabulary that characterises it. This mixed-methods study investigates middle school students' (N = 59) growth in academic vocabulary as it relates to their teacher's instructional practices that supported academic language development. Students made significant gains in their production of general academic words, t(57) = 2.32, p = .024 and of discipline-specific science words, t(57) = 3.01, p = .004 in science writing. Results from the qualitative strand of this inquiry contextualised the students' learning of academic vocabulary as it relates to their teacher's instructional practices and intentions as well as the students' perceptions of their learning environment. These qualitative findings reveal that both the students and their teacher articulated that the teacher's intentional use of resources supported students' academic vocabulary growth. Implications for research and instruction with science language are shared.

  8. The Teacher Perception and Receptiveness of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model within a Japanese University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Since 1995, to allow teachers to organize and instruct in more effective ways, many English as a Second Language (ESL) specialists and researchers have studied the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model and its instructional framework by Echevarria, Vogt, and Short in 2004. By combining strategies and techniques that recognize the…

  9. Theory into Practice: Best Practices for a School-Wide Approach to Critical Thinking Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Cherrie L.

    Educators at one Georgia high school identified improved student proficiency in critical thinking as a major school goal. In order to infuse thinking skills instruction across the curriculum, a nine-member interdisciplinary team of teachers worked with a learning consultant for 1 year. Collaboration resulted in the development of a new model for…

  10. Why Inquiry? Primary Teachers' Objectives in Choosing Inquiry- and Context-Based Instructional Strategies to Stimulate Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walan, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla; Ewen, Birgitta Mc

    2017-10-01

    Studies have shown that there is a need for pedagogical content knowledge among science teachers. This study investigates two primary teachers and their objectives in choosing inquiry- and context-based instructional strategies as well as the relation between the choice of instructional strategies and the teachers' knowledge about of students' understanding and intended learning outcomes. Content representations created by the teachers and students' experiences of the enacted teaching served as foundations for the teachers' reflections during interviews. Data from the interviews were analyzed in terms of the intended, enacted, and experienced purposes of the teaching and, finally, as the relation between intended, enacted, and experienced purposes. Students' experiences of the teaching were captured through a questionnaire, which was analyzed inductively, using content analysis. The results show that the teachers' intended teaching objectives were that students would learn about water. During the enacted teaching, it seemed as if the inquiry process was in focus and this was also how many of the students experienced the objectives of the activities. There was a gap between the intended and experienced objectives. Hardly any relation was found between the teachers' choice of instructional strategies and their knowledge about students' understanding, with the exception that the teacher who also added drama wanted to support her students' understanding of the states of water.

  11. Melodic Dictation Instruction: A Survey of Advanced Placement Music Theory Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan O.; Paney, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on relevant literature and recent qualitative findings, the purpose of this survey research was to identify pedagogical approaches to melodic dictation employed by Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory teachers across the United States. The researcher-designed survey questions focused on pitch and rhythm skills, instructional resources,…

  12. How are scientific thinking skills best developed? Direct instruction vs. inquiry practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David Worth, Jr.

    Despite its support and adoption by most major scientific and educational organizations, some researchers have questioned whether inquiry learning is indeed the best method for acquiring the skills of inquiry. Klahr and colleagues have investigated the development of the control of variables strategy, or controlled comparison (CC), and claim that a brief session of direct instruction, characterized by explicit training of CC, as opposed to allowing children to discover CC through inquiry learning, is sufficient for acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of this core aspect of inquiry. Kuhn and colleagues, however, argue that direct instruction may be insufficient for development of the metastrategic level of understanding necessary to adequately maintain and transfer inquiry skills. In the present study, I attempt to identify the intervention most effective in supporting acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of these skills. Three groups of students received either a direct instruction session followed by standard classroom instruction (DI-only), an introductory session (without direct instruction) followed by practice sessions only (PR-only), or a direct instruction session followed by practice sessions (DI+PR). Practice sessions involved the use of a computer-based inquiry task requiring students to investigate the effects of five potential causal variables on an outcome. The two practice groups worked with this program during 12 sessions over nine weeks. They worked with structurally identical software programs during five weekly maintenance sessions. During this time, the DI-only group received standard classroom instruction. All groups were assessed on familiar and unfamiliar computer-based inquiry tasks at the conclusion of intervention (immediate assessment) and maintenance sessions (delayed assessment). Students in the two practice groups demonstrated improvement in an integrative measure of inquiry skill (valid intent, valid strategy, valid inference, and

  13. Transforming beliefs and practices: Elementary teacher candidates' development through shared authentic teaching and reflection experiences within an innovative science methods course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kara

    Elementary teachers are criticized for failing to incorporate meaningful science instruction in their classrooms or avoiding science instruction altogether. The lack of adequate science instruction in elementary schools is partially attributed to teacher candidates' anxiety, poor content and pedagogical preparation, and low science teaching self-efficacy. The central premise of this study was that many of these issues could be alleviated through course modifications designed to address these issues. The design tested and presented here provided prospective elementary educators' authentic science teaching experiences with elementary students in a low-stakes environment with the collaboration of peers and science teacher educators. The process of comprehensive reflection was developed for and tested in this study. Comprehensive reflection is individual and collective, written and set in dialogic discourse, focused on past and future behavior, and utilizes video recordings from shared teaching experiences. To test the central premise, an innovative science methods course was designed, implemented and evaluated using a one-group mixed-method design. The focus of the analysis was on changes in self-efficacy, identity and teaching practices as a function of authentic science teaching experiences and comprehensive reflection. The quantitative tools for analysis were t-tests and repeated-measures ANOVA on the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (STEBI-B) and weekly self-rating on confidence as a learner and a teacher of science, respectively. The tools used to analyze qualitative data included thematic analysis and interpretative phenomenological analysis. In addition, theoretically grounded tools were developed and used in a case study to determine the ways one prospective educator's science teaching identity was influenced by experiences in the course. The innovative course structure led the development of teacher candidates' science teaching identity

  14. Comparison of Effects of Teaching English to Thai Undergraduate Teacher-Students through Cross-Curricular Thematic Instruction Program Based on Multiple Intelligence Theory and Conventional Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at comparing the effects of teaching English to Thai undergraduate teacher-students through cross-curricular thematic instruction program based on multiple intelligence theory and through conventional instruction. Two experimental groups, which utilized Randomized True Control Group-Pretest-posttest Time Series Design and…

  15. The Lived Experiences of Leading Edge Certified Elementary School Teachers Who Use Instructional Technology to Foster Critical Thinking, Collaboration, Creativity, and Communication in Their Classrooms: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the perceptions of current and former Leading Edge Certified (LEC) elementary school teachers regarding instructional technology practices that facilitate students' development of critical thinking, collaboration, communication, and creativity (4Cs) in one-to-one computer…

  16. Pre-Service Teachers' Problems of Improvisation of Instructional Materials in Social Studies in Ekiti State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu-Raheem, B. O.; Oluwagbohunmi, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined problems of improvisation of instructional materials in Social Studies by pre-service teachers in Ekiti State University. The population for the study comprised all Social Studies pre-service teachers in the Faculty of Education. The sample consisted of 90 Social Studies pre-service teachers selected from 200, 300 and 400…

  17. What Happens When a Teacher's Science Belief Structure Is in Disequilibrium? Entangled Nature of Beliefs and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anita; Park, Soonhye; Hand, Brian

    2017-08-01

    This qualitative case study examined the process of change in an experienced elementary teacher's belief structure during implementation of an inquiry-based science program. Difficulties generally associated with ascertaining beliefs were minimized by using Leatham's (Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9, 91-102 (2006) Sensible System Framework, enabling researchers to obtain rich descriptions of the teacher's belief structure by focusing on words (professed beliefs), intentions (intended beliefs), and actions (enacted beliefs). Models were constructed of the teacher's belief structure before and after implementation of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach (Hand et al. International Journal of Science Education, 26(2), 131-149, 2004), an inquiry-based approach to teaching science. Key beliefs for this teacher were related to how students learn, goals for teaching science, focus of instruction, and roles of teacher and student. Ultimately, the teacher shifted her professed, intended, and enacted beliefs resulting in a shift from a teacher-centered to a student-centered classroom. Findings support Thagard's Coherence Theory of Justification (2002), positing that change in one belief creates a state of disequilibrium that must be alleviated by changing/realigning other beliefs in order to re-establish coherence in the overall belief structure. This research focus is distinct from the general trend in teacher beliefs research in important ways. Most significant is that this study was not focused on the traditional two lists—those beliefs that were consistent with practice and those that were inconsistent with practice—but instead focused on the entwined nature of beliefs and practice and have shown that a teacher's practice can be viewed as their enacted beliefs, an integral part of the teacher's overall belief structure.

  18. Exploring the Principles and Practices of One Teacher of L2 Speaking: the Importance of Reflecting on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Vos, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Teacher principles encompass a teacher's stated assumptions, beliefs, and conceptions about acquiring and teaching a second language (L2). Due to the complex and diversified nature of how principles take form, an individual teacher's principles will influence their judgements, perceptions and instructional decisions, thus affecting the outcome of…

  19. Utilizing Professional Vision in Supporting Preservice Teachers' Learning About Contextualized Scientific Practices. Collaborative Discourse Practices Between Teachers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli

    2018-03-01

    Drawn from the cultural-historical theories of knowing and doing science, this article uses the concept of professional vision to explore what scientists and experienced teachers see and articulate as important aspects of climate science practices. The study takes an abductive reasoning approach to analyze scientists' videotaped lectures to recognize what scientists pay attention to in their explanations of climate science practices. It then analyzes how ideas scientists attended align with experienced teachers' sense-making of scientific practices to teach climate change. The findings show that experienced teachers' and scientists' explanations showed alignment in the focus on scientific practices, but indicated variations in the temporal and spatial reasoning of climate data. Furthermore, the interdisciplinarity of climate science was emphasized in climate scientists' lectures, but was not apparent once scientists and teachers shared the same culture in meetings to provide feedback to preservice teachers. Given the importance of teaching through scientific practices in classrooms, this study provides suggestions to capture the epistemic diversity of scientific disciplines.

  20. Utilizing Professional Vision in Supporting Preservice Teachers' Learning About Contextualized Scientific Practices - Collaborative Discourse Practices Between Teachers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli

    2018-03-01

    Drawn from the cultural-historical theories of knowing and doing science, this article uses the concept of professional vision to explore what scientists and experienced teachers see and articulate as important aspects of climate science practices. The study takes an abductive reasoning approach to analyze scientists' videotaped lectures to recognize what scientists pay attention to in their explanations of climate science practices. It then analyzes how ideas scientists attended align with experienced teachers' sense-making of scientific practices to teach climate change. The findings show that experienced teachers' and scientists' explanations showed alignment in the focus on scientific practices, but indicated variations in the temporal and spatial reasoning of climate data. Furthermore, the interdisciplinarity of climate science was emphasized in climate scientists' lectures, but was not apparent once scientists and teachers shared the same culture in meetings to provide feedback to preservice teachers. Given the importance of teaching through scientific practices in classrooms, this study provides suggestions to capture the epistemic diversity of scientific disciplines.

  1. Learning and performance under alternative instructional manifestations of experimental practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael J.

    Before we can understand how students learn "to do" science, we must make explicit our assumptions about what scientific practice is. This study compares the learning outcomes of two sixth-grade instructional units on experimentation, each based on a particular characterization of practice. In one unit, instruction focused on acquisition and application of the control of variables strategy (CVS; Chen & Klahr, 1999), which is consistent with a popular conception of science education, stemming from Piaget, as the mastery of logical forms. In the other unit, students designed experimental apparatus to answer a target question, and instruction emphasized practices of rendering and transforming the material world in ways that support scientific understanding. Students in both groups were assessed for CVS acquisition and subsequent experimental performance on a novel task, and group performances on these assessments different across instructional conditions. I will argue that student understandings of goals, norms of instructional expectation, and strategies explain these differences, in some cases by supporting performance and in other cases by hindering it. I will also argue that the results question the role typically attributed to logical method in learning to design experiments.

  2. Instructional Strategies for Teaching Algebra in Elementary School: Findings from a Research-Practice Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Darrell; Balti, Aadina A.

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating algebra into the elementary grades has become a focus for teachers, principals, and administrators across the country. The Dinner Tables problem described in this article is a lesson commonly used in elementary grades for its algebraic potential. Instructional strategies for supporting algebra instruction use an example from a…

  3. Leveling the Playing Field: Teacher Perception of Integrated STEM, Engineering, and Engineering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Bridgette Ann

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions and approaches of 14 third-through-fifth grade Arkansan elementary teachers towards integrative engineering and engineering practices during 80 hours of integrated STEM professional development training in the summer and fall of 2014. This training was known as Project Flight. The purpose of the professional development was to learn integrated STEM content related to aviation and to write grade level curriculum units using Wiggins and McTighe's Understanding by Design curriculum framework. The current study builds upon on the original research. Using a mixed method exploratory, embedded QUAL[quan] case study design and a non-experimental convenience sample derived from original 20 participants of Project Flight, this research sought to answer the following question: Does professional development influence elementary teachers' perceptions of the curriculum and instruction of integrated STEM engineering and engineering practices in a 3-to-5 grade level setting? A series of six qualitative and one quantitative sub-questions informed the research of the mixed method question. Hermeneutic content analysis was applied to archival and current qualitative data sets while descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, and repeated measures ANOVA tests were performed on the quantitative data. Broad themes in the teachers' perceptions and understanding of the nature of integrated engineering and engineering practices emerged through triangulation. After the professional development and the teaching of the integrated STEM units, all 14 teachers sustained higher perceptions of personal self-efficacy in their understanding of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The teachers gained understanding of engineering and engineering practices, excluding engineering habits of mind, throughout the professional development training and unit teaching. The research resulted in four major findings specific to elementary engineering

  4. Uncovering changes in university teachers' professional networks during an instructional development program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waes, Sara; Van den Bossche, Piet; Moolenaar, Nienke M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304352802; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study examined (1) the extent to which university teachers' networks changed while they participated in an instructional development program, (2) which mechanisms supported or constrained network change, and (3) the extent to which value was created through networks. Longitudinal social network

  5. Using a Study Circle Model to Improve Teacher Confidence and Proficiency in Delivering Pronunciation Instruction in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echelberger, Andrea; McCurdy, Suzanne Gichrist; Parrish, Betsy

    2018-01-01

    Adult English language learners are hungry for pronunciation instruction that helps them to "crack the code" of speaking intelligible English (Derwing, 2003). Research indicates benefits of pronunciation instruction with adult learners, yet many teachers believe they lack the knowledge and background to make sound instructional decisions…

  6. Improving Reading Instruction through Research-Based Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Vickie Lynn

    2010-01-01

    The diverse population of students in grades 1- 3 at a suburban elementary school has created a challenge for teachers when differentiating instruction in reading. The purpose of this doctoral project study was to explore the lived experiences of these teachers as they have acquired research-based instructional strategies in reading that support…

  7. Practice Teachers’ Role in Teacher Education – Individual Practices across Educational Curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Elisabeth Thorsen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Praksislærere har en sentral rolle i lærerutdanning. Forskning peker imidlertid på at både tilfeldigheter og uklarheter er knyttet til utøvelse av rollen. Forskningsprosjektet “Teachers` Professional Qualifications” (TPQ, undersøker intensjoner med den nye lærerutdannings­reformen i Norge i et bredt perspektiv. Denne artikkelen undersøker hvordan praksislærere oppfatter sin rolle og sine oppgaver på bakgrunn av at reformen har ambisjoner om praksis­lærere som likeverdige samarbeidspartnere i lærerutdanning. Studien har utgangspunkt i en spørreundersøkelse med 45 praksislærere i tillegg til dybdeintervju med åtte andre.Resultatene viser at det som kjennetegner rollen som praksislærer, først og fremst er lang erfaring som lærer. I tillegg viser resultatene at generelle læreroppgaver har mer oppmerk­somhet i praksisperioder enn det som er mål i lærerutdanningsprogrammet. På den måten legitimerer praksislærere sin rolle ut av en lærerutdanningskontekst. Studien bekrefter også det internasjonal forskning viser: behovet for å involvere praksislærere i felles prosesser for å utvikle sammenhenger mellom teoristudier og praksisopplæring i lærerutdanning.Fire år etter implementering av lærerutdanningsreformen i Norge er det grunn til å stille spørsmål ved i hvilken grad intensjonene i reformen har blitt realisert. Diskusjonen er i hovedsak knyttet til profesjonalisering av praksislærerrollen og praksislærere som likeverdige samarbeidspartnere i lærerutdanning.Nøkkelord: lærerutdanning, lærerutdannere, praksislærere, forholdet teori-praksisAbstractPractice teachers have a central role in teacher education. However, research indicates ran­domness and obscurity in performing this role. The research project “Teachers’ Professional Qualifications” (TPQ examines objectives regarding the new Teacher Education Reform in Norway from 2010 in a broad perspective. As the reform places high demands on practice

  8. Technology Integration in Elementary Classrooms: Teaching Practices of Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how and why student teachers integrated technology to enhance instruction in elementary classrooms. The participants were 31 student teachers who completed an assignment of eight weeks. Multiple data sets including observation notes of 347 lessons were obtained from three key groups for data triangulation. Results reveal that…

  9. Using the Instructional Core to Implement a Professional Learning Programme for Primary Science Teachers in Australia: Teacher Learning and Student Skill Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughland, Tony; Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2016-01-01

    There has been a call for effective professional learning to improve the quality of the science teaching of primary teachers in Australia. It seems from the literature that teaching science effectively is a challenging endeavour for primary teachers. Professional learning based on the instructional core framework is an emerging approach that has…

  10. Science teachers' mission impossible?: a qualitative study of obstacles in assessing students' practical abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, Per

    2016-09-01

    Science teachers regard practical work as important and many claim that it helps students to learn science. Besides theoretical knowledge, such as concepts and formulas, practical work is considered to be an integral and basic part of science education. As practical work is perceived and understood in different ways, comparing the results between classes and schools is difficult. One way of making the results comparable is to develop systematic inquiries to be assessed in national large-scale tests. However, introducing similar testing conditions in a laboratory environment is not always possible. Although the instructions and assessment guides for such tests are detailed, many obstacles need to be overcome if equality in the overall test situation is to be achieved. This empirical case study investigates two secondary school science teachers' assessments of 15-16 years old students in three separate groups in the practical part of a Swedish national test in chemistry. Data are gathered using two video cameras and three pairs of spy camera glasses. The results show that individual and independent assessments are difficult due to the social interactions that take place and the physical sources of errors that occur in this type of setting.

  11. Teacher interaction in psychosocial learning environments: cultural differences and their implications in science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Myint Swe; Fisher, Darrell L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine interpersonal behaviour in psychosocial learning environments and to determine the associations between science students' perceptions of their interactions with their teachers, the cultural background of teachers and their attitudinal outcomes. A sample of 1188 students completed the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction instrument. The responses to two subscales of Test of Science-related Attitudes were used as attitudinal measures. Significant associations between students' perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviour and the cultural background of teachers were detected. The results showed that students perceived a more favourable interpersonal relationship with Western teachers in the secondary science classrooms. The students in the classes of Western teachers indicated that they enjoyed science lessons more than those in the classes of Asian teachers. Some implications for science instruction in this context are discussed.

  12. Improving Inquiry Teaching through Reflection on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Christine R.; Miller, Cory

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we explore middle school science teachers' learning of inquiry-based instructional strategies through reflection on practice teaching sessions during a summer enrichment program with middle level students. The reflection sessions were part of a larger year-long inquiry professional development program in which teachers learned science content and inquiry pedagogy. The program included a 2-week summer institute in which teachers participated in science content sessions, practice teaching to middle level students, and small group-facilitated reflection sessions on their teaching. For this study, data collection focused on teachers' recorded dialogue during the facilitator - run reflection sessions, the teachers' daily written reflections, a final written reflection, and a written reflection on a videotaped teaching session. We investigated the teachers' reflection levels and the themes teachers focused on during their reflection sessions. Teachers were found to reflect at various reflection levels, from simple description to a more sophisticated focus on how to improve student learning. Recurrent themes point to the importance of providing situated learning environments, such as the practice teaching with immediate reflection for teachers to have time to practice new instructional strategies and gain insight from peers and science educators on how to handle student learning issues.

  13. Attaining Success for Beginning Special Education Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marjorie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Three case studies are presented that highlight problem scenarios relating to beginning special education intern teachers and explain how the teachers attained success. The cases focus on classroom management, adaptation of the core curriculum, and knowledge of instructional practices. (JDD)

  14. Preservice Teachers' Teacher Efficacy Beliefs and Constructivist-Based Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Tugba; Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between preservice teachers' (PTs) teacher efficacy beliefs and their constructivist-based teaching practices. Data were gathered through the questionnaire (Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale) and the observation protocol (Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol) administered to the…

  15. Teachers Implementing Entrepreneurship Education: Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskovaara, Elena; Pihkala, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to highlight the entrepreneurship education practices teachers use in their work. Another target is to analyze how these practices differ based on a number of background factors. Design/methodology/approach: This article presents a quantitative analysis of 521 teachers and other entrepreneurship education actors. The paper…

  16. Servant Leadership and Instructional Literacy Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thelma Jodale

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to enhance student achievement in reading, many high schools have integrated instructional literacy coaches into the teaching staff to provide support for the English teachers. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to explore the relationship between the self-reported servant leadership practices used by…

  17. A grounded theory study on the role of differentiated instruction in effective middle school science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian Kirby

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model explaining the role of differentiated instruction (DI) in effective middle school science teaching. The study examined the best teaching practices and differentiated elements from eight general education middle school science teachers, all scoring at the highest level of a teaching effectiveness measure on their evaluations, through a collection of observational, interview, survey, and teaching artifact data. The data were analyzed through the methodology of a systematic grounded theory qualitative approach using open, axial, and selective coding to develop a model describing how and to what degree effective middle school science teachers differentiated their best teaching practices. The model that emerged from the data shows instruction as a four-phase process and highlights the major elements of best practices and DI represented at each phase. The model also depicts how teachers narrowed the scope of their differentiating strategies as instruction progressed. The participants incorporated DI into their pedagogies, though in different degrees at each phase, and primarily by using variety to present concepts with multiple types of instruction followed by a series of sense-making activities related to several learning modalities. Teachers scaffolded students carefully, using informal and formal assessment data to inform future instructional decisions and especially their plans to reteach or extend on a concept. The model is intended to provide insight into the value of DI for middle school science teaching.

  18. Does Empathy Predict Instructional Assignment-Related Stress? A Study in Special and General Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platsidou, Maria; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    The role of empathy in the teaching profession has been vastly investigated in relation to its effect on students, but research on how teachers' empathy affects their own well-being at work is limited. This study investigated empathy and instructional assignment-related stress factors of primary school teachers serving in general or special…

  19. Pathways of professional learning for elementary science teachers using computer learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Latonya Michelle

    This dissertation reports on a three year study designed to investigate the trajectories of two urban elementary school teachers---a novice and an experienced teacher---learning to teach a science curriculum unit using an inquiry approach supported by the Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE). This research investigated teachers' development in knowledge and practice. Through analyses of video records of classroom instruction and professional development meetings, repeated interviews, and student assessments, I have produced case studies of teachers' journeys as they implement the technological inquiry-based instructional model. This study captures the interplay between the teachers' pedagogical content knowledge, enacted practice, and insights into students' thinking about complex science ideas. I trace the factors that encouraged and supported the teachers' development, in addition to the kinds of struggles they faced and overcame. I discuss the social supports I provided for the teachers, including scaffolding them in reflecting on their practice, assisting them with curriculum customizations, and supporting their learning such as arranging online interactions with scientists. I analyze spontaneous activities such as teachers' own reflections. The results suggest that the novice and experienced teacher's classroom practices became more inquiry oriented across time. For both teachers, use of technology accompanied an increase in science dialogue with small groups in years two and three. The novice teacher began asking inquiry questions in her second year of classroom experience, after a great deal of professional support. Both teachers improved in their pedagogical content knowledge from years one through three as a result of the varied professional development supports. The results suggest that teachers' improvement in instructional strategies and pedagogical content knowledge accompanied students' improvement in understanding of the science content.

  20. Science Teacher Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy as Predictors of Students' End-of-Instruction (EOI) Biology I Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Julie; Moseley, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary Biology I teachers whose students' mean scores on the statewide End-of-Instruction (EOI) Biology I test met or exceeded the state academic proficiency level (Proficient Group) to teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary Biology I teachers whose students' mean scores on the…

  1. PRESERVICE TEACHERS’ BELIEFS AND PRACTICES IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO YOUNG LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Othman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores ESL preservice teachers’ beliefs regarding teaching English to young learners, and examines the interplay between their beliefs and instructional practices. Seventy ESL preservice teachers at a university in Malaysia participated in the study. Data is drawn from semi-structured interviews and lesson plan analysis. The results indicated that the preservice teachers’ classroom practices did not often reflect their stated beliefs about young learners language learning. Although there was a strong consensus that English should be taught communicatively, the preservice teachers also employed structural based approach when teaching grammar. Contextual factors hindering this consistency were attributed to exam focused instruction and time constraints. Thus, this paper argues that reform in language teacher education need to address factors that hinder preservice teachers from implementing instructions which aligns with the theoretical beliefs espoused by their teacher training program.

  2. Consistency between Constructivist Profiles and Instructional Practices of Prospective Physics Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Ates

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explain the extent to which prospective physics teachers’ views and practices are consistent with the constructivist framework. A case study design was employed as the research approach. The study was conducted with 11 prospective physics teachers attending a state university in Turkey. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, observation notes and lesson plans. The interview guide consisted of questions which allowed the interviewer to probe participants’ views of constructivism based on 5E learning model. Such questions as “how do you plan your teaching?” (introducing new topics, continuing the lecture, types of questions to ask, evaluating students’ understanding etc. were included in the interview. Following the analysis of the interview data, participants’ profiles were classified into three categories: traditional, transition and constructivist under the dimensions “beginning of a lesson,” “learning process,” “learning environment” and “assessment.” Observations were carried out using an observation checklist consisting of 24 items based on 5E learning model. Another checklist developed by the researchers was used to evaluate participants’ teaching qualifications. Interview results showed that seven participants had transitional, three had constructivist and one had traditional views. However, none of the participants were observed to exhibit constructivist teaching styles. Moreover, observation and interview results were consistent only for six participants, indicating that almost half of the participants had difficulty putting their views into practice.

  3. Early Science Instruction and Academic Language Development Can Go Hand in Hand. The Promising Effects of a Low-Intensity Teacher-Focused Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Lotte F.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-11-01

    Early science instruction is important in order to lay a firm basis for learning scientific concepts and scientific thinking. In addition, young children enjoy science. However, science plays only a minor role in the kindergarten curriculum. It has been reported that teachers feel they need to prioritize language and literacy practices over science. In this paper, we investigate whether science lessons might be integrated with learning the language functional for school: academic language. The occurrence of scientific reasoning and sophisticated vocabulary in brief science lessons with 5-year-olds is evaluated. The aim of the study was twofold: first, to explore the nature of kindergarten science discourse without any researcher directions (pre-intervention observation). Second, in a randomized control trial, we evaluated the effect on science discourse of a brief teacher training session focused on academic language awareness. The science lessons focussed on air pressure and mirror reflection. Analyses showed that teachers from the intervention group increased their use of scientific reasoning and of domain-specific academic words in their science discourse, compared to the control group. For the use of general academic words and for lexical diversity, the effect was task-specific: these dependent measures only increased during the air pressure task. Implications of the study include the need to increase teachers' awareness of possibilities to combine early science instruction and academic language learning.

  4. Exploring Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Perception of the Mathematics Teacher through Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoç, Hatice; Balkanlioglu, Mehmet Ali; Yesildere-Imre, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to analyse the induction experiences of preservice mathematics teachers during their school placements through the lens of communities of practice. The main research question was concerned with how preservice mathematics teachers perceive what constitutes the practice of a professional community of mathematics teachers. A…

  5. Teachers Perspective of Using English as a Medium of Instruction in Mathematics and Science Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Norudin; Badarudin, Mohamed Ishak; Mat, Azman Che

    2011-01-01

    The policy of changing the medium of instruction in the teaching of mathematics and science from Bahasa Melayu to English is an important innovation affecting teachers of mathematics and science. It poses special challenges not only for teachers who have been trained in the Malay medium but also for those trained in English. This investigation…

  6. Teacher and Leader Perceptions Concerning the Implementation of a Web-Based Data Warehouse for Instructional Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify, describe, and examine the perceptions of teachers and leaders when implementing a Web-based data warehouse (DW) for instructional decision-making in a K-12 public school setting. It identified the challenges and benefits of DW implementation by measuring teacher and leader concerns, studied teacher and…

  7. School physics teacher class management, laboratory practice, student engagement, critical thinking, cooperative learning and use of simulations effects on student performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad

    The purpose of this study was to examine how simulations in physics class, class management, laboratory practice, student engagement, critical thinking, cooperative learning, and use of simulations predicted the percentage of students achieving a grade point average of B or higher and their academic performance as reported by teachers in secondary school physics classes. The target population consisted of secondary school physics teachers who were members of Science Technology, Engineeering and,Mathematics Teachers of New York City (STEMteachersNYC) and American Modeling Teachers Association (AMTA). They used simulations in their physics classes in the 2013 and 2014 school years. Subjects for this study were volunteers. A survey was constructed based on a literature review. Eighty-two physics teachers completed the survey about instructional practice in physics. All respondents were anonymous. Classroom management was the only predictor of the percent of students achieving a grade point average of B or higher in high school physics class. Cooperative learning, use of simulations, and student engagement were predictors of teacher's views of student academic performance in high school physics class. All other variables -- class management, laboratory practice, critical thinking, and teacher self-efficacy -- were not predictors of teacher's views of student academic performance in high school physics class. The implications of these findings were discussed and recommendations for physics teachers to improve student learning were presented.

  8. Differentiating Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities: Best Teaching Practices for General and Special Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, William N.

    This book provides classroom-proven strategies designed to empower the teacher to target instructional modifications to the content, process, and products for students with learning disabilities in the general and special education classrooms. Chapter 1 presents the concept of differentiated instruction and how that concept translates into…

  9. Metacognitive Instruction: Global and Local Shifts in Considering Listening Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bozorgian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A key shift of thinking for effective learning and teaching of listening input has been seen and organized in education locally and globally. This study has probed whether metacognitive instruction through a pedagogical cycle shifts high-intermediate students' English language learning and English as a second language (ESL teacher's teaching focus on listening input. Twenty male Iranian students with an age range of 18 to 24 received a guided methodology including metacognitive strategies (planning, monitoring, and evaluation for a period of three months. This study has used the strategies and probed the importance of metacognitive instruction through interviewing both the teacher and the students. The results have shown that metacognitive instruction helped both the ESL teacher's and the students' shift of thinking about teaching and learning listening input. This key shift of thinking has implications globally and locally for classroom practices of listening input.

  10. The nature of science and the preservice elementary teacher: Changes in understanding and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Michael Gerald

    This action research project studies preservice elementary teachers in a science methods course. The purpose of this research project was to enhance preservice teachers' understanding of specific nature of science (NOS) tenets so as to promote equity and access within the elementary science classroom. In particular, I chose five NOS tenets that were listed in the first chapter of the AAAS (1989) document titled, "The Nature of Science," and connected them to equitable educational goals and practices. The theoretical framework guiding this study came from bodies of scholarship relating to the NOS, social constructivism, and action research. This study addressed the following three questions: (1) What opportunities were provided the preservice teachers so that they could enhance their understandings of the NOS? (2) What were the changes in preservice teachers' understanding of the NOS as a result? (3) How did the prospective teachers' understandings of the NOS translate into their classroom practice? The analysis revealed that the science methods course's operational curriculum consisted of implicit and explicit teaching of the NOS, as well as intended and untended NOS tenets. The prospective teachers initially held a limited view of the NOS, but by the end of the course their view had been enhanced. In addition, the participants made direct connections between their new understandings of the NOS and equity and access in the science classroom. In their teaching, the preservice teachers as a group implicitly taught all five of the NOS tenets. In fact, a majority taught three of the five intended tenets. Explicitly, only one tenet was taught, but it was taught with a direct connection to making the science classroom more inclusive. The findings of this study indicate that preservice teachers can have their views of the NOS enhanced even though they may have experienced years of deficient science instruction. They pointed out that this enhanced view of the NOS can be

  11. Teacher self-efficacy in instruction and in parent involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Gavora; Jana Majerčíková

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated self-efficacy of a sample of Slovak primary schoolteachers in two areas: area of instruction and area of parent involvement. Twoinstruments were used: the 16-item Slovak version of Teacher Efficacy Scale ofGibson and Dembo, and ZdUR, a 24-item scale to measure self-efficacy of teacherin parents’ involvement, developed by authors of the present study. The correlation between scores of personal teaching efficacy dimension of TES and ZdUR was 0.58 and between general teach...

  12. Bridging the language gap: Exploring science teachers' dual role as teachers of content and English literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne C.

    Responsibility for educating English language learners is increasingly falling on the shoulders of content specialists at the secondary level, as students are mainstreamed into classes. Therefore, providing these students an opportunity to achieve academic success depends largely on the quality of mainstream instruction (Cornell, 1995). Most teachers receive little or no preparation in how to work with English language learners. In my study, I address the instructional issues confronting three white, monolingual English-speaking middle school science teachers who must meet the demands of an increasing English language learner population. Specifically, this study explores teacher beliefs and enactment of reform-oriented science and sheltered instructional approaches to develop English language learners scientific and English literacy skills. I also explore the relationships that exist between these two dynamics in an effort to determine the extent to which teachers take on a dual role as teachers promoting English language and science proficiency. Using a participant observation case study method and my adaptation of Schwab's commonplaces heuristic, I analyzed the relationship between teacher beliefs, milieu, subject matter, and enactment in bridging the language gap in the science classroom for English language learners. The most noteworthy finding of this study was the significant role of milieu in enacting lessons that bridge the language gap and foster the development of English language learners science and English literacy skills. The findings suggest that greater attention be given to helping teachers establish a relationship-driven classroom milieu. You can provide all kinds of courses or professional learning experiences to improve teachers' instructional practices, but they must also recognize the importance of establishing relationships with their students; the coursework they take will not supplant the need to foster a warm and safe environment for all

  13. Literacy teacher education principles and effective practices

    CERN Document Server

    Litt, Deborah G; Place, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    Few resources exist to give literacy teacher educators a comprehensive view of effective, innovative practices in their field, making this uniquely practical volume an important addition to the literature. Each chapter describes research findings and pedagogical methods, with an emphasis on what teachers really need to know to succeed. Woven into the text are more than 30 detailed activities and assignments to support teacher development, written by outstanding teacher educators. Links to professional teaching standards and the Common Core State Standards are highlighted throughout. Suppleme

  14. Digital Technology and Teacher Preparation: The Instructional Role of Social Media among Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trytten, Bria Klotz

    2017-01-01

    As social media use becomes more prevalent among teachers, it becomes vital to understand how teachers are using social media and what effects it has, if any, on teaching practices in the classroom. This study sought to explore the relationship between pre-service teachers' use of social media and their perceptions of inquiry-based science…

  15. The Teaching of Controversial Issues during Elementary-Level History Instruction: Greek-Cypriot Teachers' Perceptions and Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Kambani, Froso

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a phenomenological study of 18 Greek-Cypriot teachers' perceptions and emotions in relation to the teaching of controversial issues during elementary-level history instruction. Findings indicate that although participating teachers see the general value of this approach at the elementary school level, they become less…

  16. The Association between Preschool Teachers' Beliefs and Practices about Developmentally Appropriate Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim Amin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether preschool teachers' self-reported beliefs could predict their self-reported practices about developmentally appropriate practices (DAP). A related purpose was to examine whether classroom size and teachers' experience are significant predictors of their self-reported beliefs and practices. A total…

  17. Science teacher orientations and PCK across science topics in grade 9 earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Melville, Wayne; Goodwin, Dawne

    2017-07-01

    While the literature is replete with studies examining teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), few studies have investigated how science teacher orientations (STOs) shape classroom instruction. Therefore, this research explores the interplay between a STOs and the topic specificity of PCK across two science topics within a grade 9 earth science course. Through interviews and observations of one teacher's classroom across two sequentially taught, this research contests the notion that teachers hold a single way of conceptualising science teaching and learning. In this, we consider if multiple ontologies can provide potential explanatory power for characterising instructional enactments. In earlier work with the teacher in this study, using generic interview prompts and general discussions about science teaching and learning, we accepted the existence of a unitary STO and its promise of consistent reformed instruction in the classroom. However, upon close examination of instruction focused on different science topics, evidence was found to demonstrate the explanatory power of multiple ontologies for shaping characteristically different epistemological constructions across science topics. This research points to the need for care in generalising about teacher practice, as it reveals that a teacher's practice, and orientation, can vary, dependent on the context and science topics taught.

  18. An Intervention to Improve Teachers' Interpersonally Involving Instructional Practices in High School Physical Education: Implications for Student Relatedness Support and In-Class Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Cassandra; Lonsdale, Chris; Dimmock, James; Jackson, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Research grounded in self-determination theory has demonstrated the important role of teachers in shaping students' physical education experiences. Utilizing a cluster-randomized controlled design, this study aimed to examine whether an interpersonally involving training program based on self-determination theory principles could enhance students' in-class experiences. With 18 teachers (males = 8, females = 10, M age  = 32.75, SD = 8.14) and a final sample of 382 students (males = 155, females = 227, M age  = 13.20, SD = 1.66), we implemented linear mixed modeling to investigate the effects on students' (a) perceived relatedness support and (b) enjoyment of physical education, tripartite efficacy beliefs (i.e., self-efficacy, other-efficacy, relation-inferred self-efficacy), self-determined motivation, and amotivation. Relative to those in the control condition, students in the treatment condition reported positive changes in teacher-provided relatedness support, enjoyment, other-efficacy, and peer-focused relation-inferred self-efficacy. These findings demonstrate support for strategies designed to aid physical education teachers' relatedness-supportive instructional behaviors.

  19. Supporting Teachers in Schools to Improve Their Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borko, Hilda; Klingner, Janette

    2013-01-01

    To meet the growing demand for teacher learning opportunities, the educational community must create scalable professional development models and study their effectiveness. In this chapter, we argue that design-based implementation research (DBIR) is ideally suited to these efforts, and we use two research projects as illustrative cases: CSR…

  20. The Effects of Teacher Directed Writing Instruction Combined with SOLO Literacy Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.; Ambrose, G.; Coleman, M. B.; Moore, T. C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an intervention in which teacher-led instruction was combined with computerized writing software to improve paragraph writing for three middle school students with intellectual disability. A multiple probe across participants design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  1. Climate Change Professional Development: Design, Implementation, and Initial Outcomes on Teacher Learning, Practice, and Student Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.; Mouza, Chrystalla; Drewes, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present the design, implementation, and initial outcomes of the Climate Academy, a hybrid professional development program delivered through a combination of face-to-face and online interactions, intended to prepare formal and informal science teachers (grades 5-16) in teaching about climate change. The Climate Academy was designed around core elements of successful environmental professional development programs and aligned with practices advocated in benchmarked science standards. Data were collected from multiple sources including observations of professional development events, participants' reflections on their learning, and collection of instructional units designed during the Academy. Data were also collected from a focal case study teacher in a middle school setting. Case study data included classroom observations, teacher interviews, and student beliefs toward climate change. Results indicated that the Climate Academy fostered increased learning among participants of both climate science content and pedagogical strategies for teaching about climate change. Additionally, results indicated that participants applied their new learning in the design of climate change instructional units. Finally, results from the case study indicated positive impacts on student beliefs and greater awareness about climate change. Results have implications for the design of professional development programs on climate change, a topic included for the first time in national standards.

  2. Our Lives as Writers: Examining Preservice Teachers' Experiences and Beliefs about the Nature of Writing and Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kimberly A.; Spencer, Brenda H.

    2005-01-01

    Since instruction in writing theory and pedagogy for preservice teachers is often limited, it is essential that teacher educators provide learning experiences that are supported by research in effective teacher preparation and make maximum impact in the time available. One of the experiences that has been identified as holding promise for…

  3. Understanding a High School Physics Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlan; Buck, Gayle A.

    2016-08-01

    Scientific argumentation is an important learning objective in science education. It is also an effective instructional approach to constructivist science learning. The implementation of argumentation in school settings requires science teachers, who are pivotal agents of transforming classroom practices, to develop sophisticated knowledge of argumentation. However, there is a lack of understanding about science teachers' knowledge of argumentation, especially the dialogic meaning of argumentation. In this case study, we closely examine a high school physics teacher's argumentation-related pedagogic content knowledge (PCK) in the context of dialogic argumentation. We synthesize the teacher's performed PCK from his argumentation practices and narrated PCK from his reflection on the argumentation practices, from which we summarize his PCK of argumentation from the perspectives of orientation, instructional strategies, students, curriculum, and assessment. Finally, we describe the teacher's perception and adaption of argumentation in his class. We also identity the barriers to argumentation implementation in this particular case and suggest solutions to overcome these barriers.

  4. A Methodological Study Evaluating a Pretutorial Computer-Compiled Instructional Program in High School Physics Instruction Initiated from Student-Teacher Selected Instructional Objectives. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, B. Charles; Denton, Jon J.

    A study sought to develop and evaluate an instructional model which utilized the computer to produce individually prescribed instructional guides to account for the idiosyncratic variations among students in physics classes at the secondary school level. The students in the treatment groups were oriented toward the practices of selecting…

  5. Teaching geometry in schools: An investigative rather than instructive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Sanni

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has documented the prevalence of lessons  characterised by homework check,  followed by teacher lecture and demonstration, followed in turn, by learner practice sequence of classroom instructional activities in  our classrooms. This sequence of classroom activities does not allow for the development of sound mathematics practices and mathematical proficiency. Meanwhile, curriculum reforms in South Africa as well as in other parts  of the world recommend classroom activities where teachers create opportunities for, listen to  and extend learners.  This paper presents  a sequence of activities to be used in the teaching of geometry and surface areas of solid shapes in a grade 8 classroom. The sequence portrays the teaching of these concepts as an investigative rather than instructive process.

  6. Comprehension instruction research-based best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Parris, Sheri R; Morrow, Lesley Mandel

    2015-01-01

    All key issues of research and practice in comprehension instruction are addressed in this highly regarded professional resource and course text. Leading scholars examine the processes that enable students to make meaning from what they read--and how this knowledge can be applied to improve teaching at all grade levels. Best practices for meeting the needs of diverse elementary and secondary students are identified. Essential topics include strategies for comprehending different types of texts, the impact of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), cutting-edge assessment approaches, and the gr

  7. Licensure tests for special education teachers: how well they assess knowledge of reading instruction and mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    To determine the extent to which knowledge of evidence-based reading instruction and mathematics is assessed on licensure tests for prospective special education teachers, this study drew on information provided by Educational Testing Service (ETS), the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence, and National Evaluation Systems (now Evaluation Systems group of Pearson). It estimated the percentage of test items on phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary knowledge and on mathematics content. It also analyzed descriptions of ETS's tests of "principles of teaching and learning." Findings imply that prospective special education teachers should be required to take both a dedicated test of evidence-based reading instructional knowledge, as in California, Massachusetts, and Virginia, and a test of mathematical knowledge, as in Massachusetts. States must design their own tests of teaching principles to assess knowledge of evidence-based educational theories.

  8. Improving students' critical thinking : Empirical support for explicit instructions combined with practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijltjes, Anita; Van Gog, Tamara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/294304975; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    This experiment investigated the impact of different types of critical thinking instruction and dispositions on bias in economics students' (N=141) reasoning performance. The following conditions were compared: (A) implicit instruction; (B) implicit instruction with practice; (C) implicit

  9. Curriculum enactment patterns and associated factors from teachers' perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Won; Kim, Ok-Kyeong

    2016-12-01

    As part of a larger effort to improve teacher capacity for high-quality mathematics instruction, we investigated the factors that are associated with different enactment patterns at three levels: contextual (e.g., type and quality of textbook), individual (e.g., teacher knowledge), and teachers' opportunity-to-learn (e.g., professional development experiences). Analysis of 183 teachers' self-reports on their practices revealed three notable findings. First, the factors at the three levels were all found to be significantly related to the different patterns of enacted curriculum. However, the use of quality textbooks and the alignment of teachers' views and instructional goals with curriculum goals were found to be the two factors that are most strongly associated with the enactment pattern of high-level problems and high-level teacher questions in instruction. Furthermore, teachers with the enactment pattern of increasing lower cognitive demand of problems into higher ones tended to rate their curriculum knowledge higher than teachers with the enactment pattern of using low-level problems and teacher questions in their teaching. In particular, deviation from and dissatisfaction with their assigned low-quality textbooks were found to be critical factors that are associated with the enactment pattern of increasing lower cognitive demands of problems in instruction.

  10. Beliefs and Practices of Writing Instruction in Japanese Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Lucy K.; Kite, Yuriko

    2018-01-01

    Focusing on writing instruction within an era of international curricular reform, this study analysed classroom observations, educator interviews, and documents related to Japanese elementary writing instruction. A deductive approach using discourses of writing framework and an inductive approach to Japanese cultural practices uncovered beliefs…

  11. The conceptual analysis of the instructional process: Research findings on students’ teacher reflections in art education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Hajdušková

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the linking pedagogical theory to teaching practicewith the aim to improve quality of education through its analytic reflection by teachersor student teachers. The text deals with the original method of didactic reflection– concept analysis. Concept analysis is characterized as a methodical instrument forreflection and evaluation of the instruction. It is based on investigation of didacticcontent transformation in educational processes and it is oriented to creative approachand experiential learning in the instruction. The explanation uses the results of research(2009–2010 on the state of didactic skills and pedagogical content knowledge of arteducation teachers during their didactic training.

  12. Explore-create-share study: An evaluation of teachers as curriculum innovators in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Ayora

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a curriculum design-based (CDB) professional development model on K-12 teachers' capacity to integrate engineering education in the classroom. This teacher professional development approach differs from other training programs where teachers learn how to use a standard curriculum and adopt it in their classrooms. In a CDB professional development model teachers actively design lessons, student resources, and assessments for their classroom instruction. In other science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines, CDB professional development has been reported to (a) position teachers as architects of change, (b) provide a professional learning vehicle for educators to reflect on instructional practices and develop content knowledge, (c) inspire a sense of ownership in curriculum decision-making among teachers, and (d) use an instructional approach that is coherent with teachers' interests and professional goals. The CDB professional development program in this study used the Explore-Create-Share (ECS) framework as an instructional model to support teacher-led curriculum design and implementation. To evaluate the impact of the CDB professional development and associated ECS instructional model, three research studies were conducted. In each study, the participants completed a six-month CDB professional development program, the PTC STEM Certificate Program, that included sixty-two instructional contact hours. Participants learned about industry and education engineering concepts, tested engineering curricula, collaborated with K-12 educators and industry professionals, and developed project-based engineering curricula using the ECS framework. The first study evaluated the impact of the CDB professional development program on teachers' engineering knowledge, self-efficacy in designing engineering curriculum, and instructional practice in developing project-based engineering units. The study

  13. Rural Elementary Teachers and Place-Based Connections to Text during Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rachael; Barrentine, Shelby J.

    2015-01-01

    Schooling can play a role in bolstering a sense of community, but research suggests that curriculum may serve to isolate teachers and students from their rural surroundings. In this qualitative case study, we asked if the literacy curriculum and instruction supported readers to make connections to their rural setting. We analyzed curriculum…

  14. Kindergarten girls "illuminating" their identities-in-practice through science instruction framed in explanation building: From the shadows into the light

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDyre, Alicia M.

    Recent research on young children's learning has revealed that they are capable of sophisticated scientific reasoning and has prompted a new era of reform framed around the integration of three main strands -- core disciplinary ideas, scientific and engineering practices, and cross-cutting themes. Given the documented issues with girls in science in later grades, I chose to examine their participation in scientific norms and practices in kindergarten to gain insights into their identities-in-practice. From the perspective of identity as an enactment of self, I used the lens identities-in-practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991) to examine the impact that having classroom science instruction framed around constructing explanations with evidence would have on the girls in the class. In this study, I drew from theories of sociocultural learning, positioning, and identities-in-practice to study: a) the norms of participation, b) the authoring and positioning of girls, and c) the identities-in-practice that the girls' enacted in the kindergarten science classroom. Using a research design informed by qualitative methods and participant observation, I analyzed data using a constant comparative approach and crafted case studies of four girls in the science classroom. Three assertions were generated from this study: a) Identity-in-practice manifests differently in different literacy practices and shows how students chose to be science students across time and activities- a focus on one literacy practice alone is insufficient to understand identity; b) The ways in which the teacher positions girls, especially "quiet" girls, is essential for engaging them in productive participation in science discourse and learning; and c) A focus on classroom science instruction grounded in constructing explanations from evidence provided a consistent framework for students' writing and talking, which facilitated the establishment of expectations and norms of participation for all students

  15. Academic Instruction at a Distance: An Examination of Holistic Teacher Perceptions in a Virtual High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Serena; Walters, Nicole McZeal; Kiekel, Jean

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine holistic perceptions of teachers in a virtual high school who deliver secondary instruction using an online format. The demand for equitable learning spaces to support both teachers and students have led to the increased demand of virtual schools. The questionnaire administered to eight online…

  16. From theory to practice: integrating instructional technology into veterinary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Rush, Bonnie R; Wilkerson, Melinda; Herman, Cheryl; Miesner, Matt; Renter, David; Gehring, Ronette

    2013-01-01

    Technology has changed the landscape of teaching and learning. The integration of instructional technology into teaching for meaningful learning is an issue for all educators to consider. In this article, we introduce educational theories including constructivism, information-processing theory, and dual-coding theory, along with the seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education. We also discuss five practical instructional strategies and the relationship of these strategies to the educational theories. From theory to practice, the purpose of the article is to share our application of educational theory and practice to work toward more innovative teaching in veterinary medical education.

  17. Theory-practice Dichotomy in Mathematics Teacher Education: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theory-practice Dichotomy in Mathematics Teacher Education: An Analysis of Practicum ... Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research ... practices in primary teacher education continue to create dichotomous gaps in this relationship.

  18. Preparing Culturally Responsive Teachers: Effective Practices in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.; Cruz, Bárbara C.; Vásquez, Anete; Howes, Elaine V.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing diversity in our nation's schools, many teacher educators avoid discussions on diversity issues for myriad reasons. As a result, numerous preservice teachers lack quality learning opportunities to become well versed on issues of diversity in meaningful ways that can translate to P-12 practice. This article elaborates on…

  19. Negotiating Contexts to Construct an Identity as a Mathematics Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Thomas E.; Cady, Jo Ann

    2012-01-01

    The authors focused on 1 middle-grades mathematics teacher's identity and her efforts to implement standards-based instructional practices. As professionals, teachers participate in multiple professional communities and must negotiate and manage conflicting agendas. The authors analyze how the contexts of these communities influence the teacher's…

  20. Adapting research instruction to support the scholarship of practice: practice-scholar partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Evidence-based practice (EBP) is crucial to the success of delivering quality occupational therapy services. The skill to engage in the scholarship of practice is central to being able to create evidence specific to one's everyday practice and leads to an emerging role within occupational therapy called the practice-scholar. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the effectiveness of an instructional approach that engaged the scholarship of practice and the functions of a practice-scholar. Occupational therapy graduate students and practitioners collaborated to develop a practice-based study proposal during a traditional experimental research class. The objective was to apply research concepts contextualized within the natural practice context while developing the role of the practice-scholar in designing outcomes studies. As part of an entry-level research course, students (n == 39) and practitioners (n == 14) were grouped into learning teams and discussed two self-assessments to reflect on their self-efficacy perceptions of practice-scholarship research at the beginning and the end of a series of guided sessions to design a research proposal. Postcourse results show that students' perceptions of self-efficacy improved regarding their abilities to participate in practice-scholarship as a result of the learning partnerships. Anecdotal similarities were found for practitioners. As an instructional method, the learning partnership facilitated the development of foundational knowledge and skills related to becoming practice-scholars through increased self-efficacy in using proposal design. This educational approach proactively used the scholarship of practice research to bridge practice and education using a meaningful, partnership-based model for entry-level graduate students and occupational therapy practitioners.