WorldWideScience

Sample records for instruction set process

  1. Instruction Set Architectures for Quantum Processing Units

    OpenAIRE

    Britt, Keith A.; Humble, Travis S.

    2017-01-01

    Progress in quantum computing hardware raises questions about how these devices can be controlled, programmed, and integrated with existing computational workflows. We briefly describe several prominent quantum computational models, their associated quantum processing units (QPUs), and the adoption of these devices as accelerators within high-performance computing systems. Emphasizing the interface to the QPU, we analyze instruction set architectures based on reduced and complex instruction s...

  2. The Impact of Process Instructions on Judges' Use of Examinee Performance Data in Angoff Standard Setting Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Janet; Clauser, Brian E.; Margolis, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being widely used and frequently studied, the Angoff standard setting procedure has received little attention with respect to an integral part of the process: how judges incorporate examinee performance data in the decision-making process. Without performance data, subject matter experts have considerable difficulty accurately making the…

  3. Using instructional logs to identify quality in educational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Brian; Jacob, Robin; Correnti, Richard

    2009-01-01

    When attempting to identify educational settings that are most effective in improving student achievement, classroom process (that is, the way in which a teacher interacts with his or her students) is a key feature of interest. Unfortunately, high-quality assessment of the student-teacher interaction occurs all too infrequently, despite the critical role that understanding and measuring such processes can play in school improvement. This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of two common approaches to studying these processes-direct classroom observation and annual surveys of teachers-and then describes the ways in which instructional logs can be used to overcome some of the limitations of these two approaches when gathering data on curriculum content and coverage. Classroom observations are expensive, require extensive training of raters to ensure consistency in the observations, and because of their expense generally cannot be conducted frequently enough to enable the researcher to generalize observational findings to the entire school year or illuminate the patterns of instructional change that occur across the school year. Annual surveys are less expensive but often suffer from self-report bias and the bias that occurs when teachers are asked to retrospectively report on their activities over the course of a single year. Instructional logs offer a valid, reliable, and relatively cost-effective alternative for collecting detailed information about classroom practice and can overcome some of the limitations of both observations and annual surveys.

  4. Dynamic instruction set extension of microprocessors with embedded FPGAs

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Heiner

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly complex applications and recent shifts in technology scaling have created a large demand for microprocessors which can perform tasks more quickly and more energy efficient. Conventional microarchitectures exploit multiple levels of parallelism to increase instruction throughput and use application specific instruction sets or hardware accelerators to increase energy efficiency. Reconfigurable microprocessors adopt the same principle of providing application specific hardware, how...

  5. Floating point only SIMD instruction set architecture including compare, select, Boolean, and alignment operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K [Chappaqua, NY

    2011-03-01

    Mechanisms for implementing a floating point only single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture are provided. A processor is provided that comprises an issue unit, an execution unit coupled to the issue unit, and a vector register file coupled to the execution unit. The execution unit has logic that implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA). The floating point vector registers of the vector register file store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements. The processor may be part of a data processing system.

  6. Generating and executing programs for a floating point single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-04-16

    Mechanisms for generating and executing programs for a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA) are provided. A computer program product comprising a computer recordable medium having a computer readable program recorded thereon is provided. The computer readable program, when executed on a computing device, causes the computing device to receive one or more instructions and execute the one or more instructions using logic in an execution unit of the computing device. The logic implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA), based on data stored in a vector register file of the computing device. The vector register file is configured to store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements.

  7. Processing Instruction: A Review of Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasuki, Muhlisin

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI). This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2) learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help…

  8. A Critical Review of Instructional Design Process of Distance Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; ur-Rahman, Fazal

    2010-01-01

    Instructional design refers to planning, development, delivery and evaluation of instructional system. It is an applied field of study aiming at the application of descriptive research outcomes in regular instructional settings. The present study was designed to critically review the process of instructional design at Allama Iqbal Open University…

  9. Informing Instruction of Students with Autism in Public School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The number of applied behavior analysis (ABA) classrooms for students with autism is increasing in K-12 public schools. To inform instruction of students with autism in public school settings, this study examined the relation between performance on mastery learning assessments and standardized achievement tests for students with autism spectrum…

  10. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition, Set IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throgmorton, Larry, Ed.; And Others

    Eight games are included in the 24 activities in the Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set IV. There are also simulations, crafts, biological techniques, and organism investigations focusing on animal and plant life in the forest, desert, and snow. Designed for small groups of children ages 10 to 15 from schools and…

  11. Research into Practice: Listening Strategies in an Instructed Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers research and practice relating to listening in instructed classroom settings, limiting itself to what might be called unidirectional listening (Macaro, Graham & Vanderplank 2007)--in other words, where learners listen to a recording, a TV or radio clip or lecture, but where there is no communication back to the speaker(s).…

  12. Process-oriented instruction: Some considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, F.P.C.M. de

    1995-01-01

    This paper does not attempt to be an introduction on process-oriented instruction by providing all the assumptions and key principles. It rather highlights the necessary epistemological shift in education from learning as a receptive process towards learning as a constructive process. The basis for

  13. Processing Instruction: A review of issues

    OpenAIRE

    Muhlisin Rasuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI). This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2) learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help learners develop grammatical competence in a target language in ways that foster their comprehension and production skills. The paper starts with outlining...

  14. Comparing Two Modes of Instruction in English Passive Structures (Processing and Meaning-Based Output Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Dabiri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the effects of two types of instruction: Processing Instruction (PI and Meaning-based Output Instruction (MOI on the interpretation and production of English passive structures.  Ninety EFL intermediate tertiary level female students (PI group= 30, MOI group= 30 and control group = 30 participated in this study. The instruments were a proficiency test, a test to assess English passive structures and two instructional materials (PI and MOI. The data were analyzed by running one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and mixed between-within ANOVA. The study indicated the effectiveness of PI and MOI on English passive structures. PI had considerable enhancement on interpretation tasks all the time. It supported the use of PI rather than the use of traditional instructions in which mechanical components were emphasized. Also, the PI and MOI had long term effects on the interpretation and production of English passive sentences.  This study supported the use of PI and MOI rather than the use of traditional instruction (TI in EFL settings. The implication for particularly classroom teaching is that successful grammar instruction has to related to ultimate learning outcomes. Also, creating communicative tasks to offer opportunities for teaching grammar can lead to long-lasting learning effects.

  15. Completion processing for data communications instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J

    2014-05-20

    Completion processing of data communications instructions in a distributed computing environment, including receiving, in an active messaging interface (`AMI`) data communications instructions, at least one instruction specifying a callback function; injecting into an injection FIFO buffer of a data communication adapter, an injection descriptor, each slot in the injection FIFO buffer having a corresponding slot in a pending callback list; listing in the pending callback list any callback function specified by an instruction, incrementing a pending callback counter for each listed callback function; transferring payload data as per each injection descriptor, incrementing a transfer counter upon completion of each transfer; determining from counter values whether the pending callback list presently includes callback functions whose data transfers have been completed; calling by the AMI any such callback functions from the pending callback list, decrementing the pending callback counter for each callback function called.

  16. Design of the RISC-V Instruction Set Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, Andrew Shell

    2016-01-01

    The hardware-software interface, embodied in the instruction set architecture (ISA), is arguably the most important interface in a computer system. Yet, in contrast to nearly all other interfaces in a modern computer system, all commercially popular ISAs are proprietary. A free and open ISA standard has the potential to increase innovation in microprocessor design, reduce computer system cost, and, as Moore’s law wanes, ease the transition to more specialized computational devices.In this d...

  17. Processing Instruction: A review of issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin Rasuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI. This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2 learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help learners develop grammatical competence in a target language in ways that foster their comprehension and production skills. The paper starts with outlining main characteristics of PI which distinguish it from other types of L2 grammar instruction. Then, a large body of research attempting to investigate the relative efficacy of PI is scrutinized. The paper concludes with a number of important issues that future studies on PI need to address.

  18. Single instruction computer architecture and its application in image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplante, Phillip A.

    1992-03-01

    A single processing computer system using only half-adder circuits is described. In addition, it is shown that only a single hard-wired instruction is needed in the control unit to obtain a complete instruction set for this general purpose computer. Such a system has several advantages. First it is intrinsically a RISC machine--in fact the 'ultimate RISC' machine. Second, because only a single type of logic element is employed the entire computer system can be easily realized on a single, highly integrated chip. Finally, due to the homogeneous nature of the computer's logic elements, the computer has possible implementations as an optical or chemical machine. This in turn suggests possible paradigms for neural computing and artificial intelligence. After showing how we can implement a full-adder, min, max and other operations using the half-adder, we use an array of such full-adders to implement the dilation operation for two black and white images. Next we implement the erosion operation of two black and white images using a relative complement function and the properties of erosion and dilation. This approach was inspired by papers by van der Poel in which a single instruction is used to furnish a complete set of general purpose instructions and by Bohm- Jacopini where it is shown that any problem can be solved using a Turing machine with one entry and one exit.

  19. Radiological error: analysis, standard setting, targeted instruction and teamworking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology does not have objective benchmarks for acceptable levels of missed diagnoses [1]. Until now, data collection of radiological discrepancies has been very time consuming. The culture within the specialty did not encourage it. However, public concern about patient safety is increasing. There have been recent innovations in compiling radiological interpretive discrepancy rates which may facilitate radiological standard setting. However standard setting alone will not optimise radiologists' performance or patient safety. We must use these new techniques in radiological discrepancy detection to stimulate greater knowledge sharing, targeted instruction and teamworking among radiologists. Not all radiological discrepancies are errors. Radiological discrepancy programmes must not be abused as an instrument for discrediting individual radiologists. Discrepancy rates must not be distorted as a weapon in turf battles. Radiological errors may be due to many causes and are often multifactorial. A systems approach to radiological error is required. Meaningful analysis of radiological discrepancies and errors is challenging. Valid standard setting will take time. Meanwhile, we need to develop top-up training, mentoring and rehabilitation programmes. (orig.)

  20. Traditional microscopy instruction versus process-oriented virtual microscopy instruction: a naturalistic experiment with control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Laura; Nivala, Markus; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Björk, Pasi; Säljö, Roger

    2011-03-30

    Virtual microscopy is being introduced in medical education as an approach for learning how to interpret information in microscopic specimens. It is, however, far from evident how to incorporate its use into existing teaching practice. The aim of the study was to explore the consequences of introducing virtual microscopy tasks into an undergraduate pathology course in an attempt to render the instruction more process-oriented. The research questions were: 1) How is virtual microscopy perceived by students? 2) Does work on virtual microscopy tasks contribute to improvement in performance in microscopic pathology in comparison with attending assistant-led demonstrations only? During a one-week period, an experimental group completed three sets of virtual microscopy homework assignments in addition to attending demonstrations. A control group attended the demonstrations only. Performance in microscopic pathology was measured by a pre-test and a post-test. Student perceptions of regular instruction and virtual microscopy were collected one month later by administering the Inventory of Intrinsic Motivation and open-ended questions. The students voiced an appreciation for virtual microscopy for the purposes of the course and for self-study. As for learning gains, the results indicated that learning was speeded up in a subgroup of students consisting of conscientious high achievers. The enriched instruction model may be suited as such for elective courses following the basic course. However, the instructional model needs further development to be suited for basic courses.

  1. A High-Performance Parallel FDTD Method Enhanced by Using SSE Instruction Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dau-Chyrh Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a hardware acceleration technique for the parallel finite difference time domain (FDTD method using the SSE (streaming (single instruction multiple data SIMD extensions instruction set. The implementation of SSE instruction set to parallel FDTD method has achieved the significant improvement on the simulation performance. The benchmarks of the SSE acceleration on both the multi-CPU workstation and computer cluster have demonstrated the advantages of (vector arithmetic logic unit VALU acceleration over GPU acceleration. Several engineering applications are employed to demonstrate the performance of parallel FDTD method enhanced by SSE instruction set.

  2. Sustaining Innovation: Developing an Instructional Technology Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Monica Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This case study developed an instructional technology assessment process for the Gevirtz Graduate School of Education (GGSE). The theoretical framework of Adelman and Taylor (2001) guided the development of this instructional technology assessment process and the tools to aid in its facilitation. GGSE faculty, staff, and graduate students…

  3. Instructional Transaction Theory: Knowledge Relationships among Processes, Entities, and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of instructional transaction theory focuses on knowledge representation in an automated instructional design expert system. A knowledge structure called PEA-Net (processes, entities, and activities) is explained; the refrigeration process is used as an example; text resources and graphic resources are described; and simulations are…

  4. System for processing an encrypted instruction stream in hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Richard L.; Nickless, William K.; Conrad, Ryan C.

    2016-04-12

    A system and method of processing an encrypted instruction stream in hardware is disclosed. Main memory stores the encrypted instruction stream and unencrypted data. A central processing unit (CPU) is operatively coupled to the main memory. A decryptor is operatively coupled to the main memory and located within the CPU. The decryptor decrypts the encrypted instruction stream upon receipt of an instruction fetch signal from a CPU core. Unencrypted data is passed through to the CPU core without decryption upon receipt of a data fetch signal.

  5. EFL LEARNERS’ READING LEARNING IN WEB BASED INSTRUCTION SETTING

    OpenAIRE

    Yusup Supriyono

    2018-01-01

    This research is aimed at exploring reading learning performed by English foreign language learners when Web based instruction is integrated into reading classroom. Teaching learning activity follows the steps:  orientation, discussion, material exploration, action, test, and reflection.  Two data collecting methods—journal and interview are administered to three students of the fourth semester of English Department in University of Siliwangi Tasikmalaya Indonesia after the selected individua...

  6. Processing Instruction and Russian: Further Evidence Is IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, William J.; deBenedette, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    In response to Leaver, Rifkin, and Shekhtman (2004), Wong and VanPatten (2004) challenged instructors of Russian to present evidence for the claim that mechanical drills (Traditional Instruction) were necessary for second language learning, and to demonstrate empirically the claim that Processing Instruction would not be an effective intervention…

  7. E-Learning: Students Input for Using Mobile Devices in Science Instructional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    A variety of e-learning theories, models, and strategy have been developed to support educational settings. There are many factors for designing good instructional settings. This study set out to determine functionality of mobile devices, students who already have, and the student needs and views in relation to e-learning settings. The study…

  8. Forum: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings: Interpersonal Communication Research in Instructional Contexts: A Dyadic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodboy, Alan K.; Kashy, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    Do we study too much interpersonal communication and not enough of other topics in the instructional communication literature? This forum provides a mixed bag of both affirmative and negative responses to this question. On one hand, answering "yes" is quite defensible because there are many recent studies examining interpersonal…

  9. Forum: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings. The Interplay between Interpersonal Communication and Instructional Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria; Arias, V. Santiago

    2017-01-01

    In this brief forum article, the authors suggest that in order to truly understand communication education, both interpersonal and instructional variables must be analyzed. Instructors, researchers, and scholars need to find balance between content and relationship aspects while being aware of context boundaries to truly assist in maximizing…

  10. Grade-related differences in strategy use in multidigit division in two instructional settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickendorff, Marian; Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2017-11-23

    We aimed to investigate upper elementary children's strategy use in the domain of multidigit division in two instructional settings: the Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium). A cross-sectional sample of 119 Dutch and 122 Flemish fourth to sixth graders solved a varied set of multidigit division problems. With latent class analysis, three distinct strategy profiles were identified: children consistently using number-based strategies, children combining the use of column-based and number-based strategies, and children combining the use of digit-based and number-based strategies. The relation between children's strategy profiles and their instructional setting (country) and grade were generally in line with instructional differences, but large individual differences remained. Furthermore, Dutch children more frequently made adaptive strategy choices and realistic solutions than their Flemish peers. These results complement and refine previous findings on children's strategy use in relation to mathematics instruction. Statement of contribution What is already known? Mathematics education reform emphasizes variety, adaptivity, and insight in arithmetic strategies. Countries have different instructional trajectories for multidigit division. Mixed results on the impact of instruction on children's strategy use in multidigit division. What does this study add? Latent class analysis identified three meaningful strategy profiles in children from grades 4-6. These strategy profiles substantially differed between children. Dutch and Flemish children's strategy use is related to their instructional trajectory. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Developmental Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  11. Study of the 5E Instructional Model to Improve the Instructional Design Process of Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiuhua; Gao, Chong; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 5E instructional model on the teaching processes of novice teachers. First, we conducted a teaching design training project based on the 5E model for 40 novice teachers, and compared pre-texts of the teachers' teaching process from before the training with post-texts obtained immediately following the…

  12. Social Studies Instruction in a Non-Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Margaret M.

    Certain areas in the social studies can be effectively taught in a non-classroom setting. This experiment determined if, in a supermarket situation, consumer preferences (as measured in sales figures and augmented by questionnaire data) could be altered by the addition of nutritional information to the labels of sixteen items which had moderate…

  13. Skill Based Instruction of Collaborative Robots in Industrial Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Casper; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard; Chrysostomou, Dimitrios

    2018-01-01

    During the past decades increasing need for more flexible and agile manufacturing equipment has spawned a growing interest in collaborative robots. Contrary to traditional industrial robots, collaborative robots are intended for operating alongside the production personnel in dynamic or semi...... several user studies, the usability of SBS and the task level programming approach has been demonstrated. SBS has been utilized in several international research projects where SBS has been deployed and tested in three real manufacturing settings. Collectively, the industrial exploitations have...

  14. Virtual science instructional strategies: A set of actual practices as perceived by secondary science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Tammy J.

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this proposed research study was to identify actual teaching practices/instructional strategies for online science courses. The identification of these teaching practices/instructional strategies could be used to compile a set of teaching practices/instructional strategies for virtual high school and online academy science instructors. This study could assist online science instructors by determining which teaching practices/instructional strategies were preferred for the online teaching environment. The literature reviewed the role of online and face-to-face instructional strategies, then discussed and elaborated on the science instructional strategies used by teachers, specifically at the secondary level. The current literature did not reflect an integration of these areas of study. Therefore, the connectedness of these two types of instructional strategies and the creation of a set of preferred instructional practices for online science instruction was deemed necessary. For the purpose of this study, the researcher designed a survey for face-to-face and online teachers to identify preferred teaching practices, instructional strategies, and types of technology used when teaching high school science students. The survey also requested demographic data information from the faculty members, including years of experience, subject(s) taught, and whether the teacher taught in a traditional classroom or online, to determine if any of those elements affect differences in faculty perceptions with regard to the questions under investigation. The findings from the current study added to the literature by demonstrating the differences and the similarities that exist between online and face-to-face instruction. Both forms of instruction tend to rely on student-centered approaches to teaching. There were many skills that were similar in that both types of instructors tend to focus on implementing the scientific method. The primary difference is the use of

  15. Improving Instruction Using Statistical Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Ronald C.; Messer, George H.

    1990-01-01

    Two applications of statistical process control to the process of education are described. Discussed are the use of prompt feedback to teachers and prompt feedback to students. A sample feedback form is provided. (CW)

  16. Age effects on the acquisition of nominal and verbal inflections in an instructed setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone E. Pfenninger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines evidence for the hypothesis (e.g., Muñoz, 2006 that an early starting age is not necessarily more beneficial to the successful learning of L2 inflectional morphology in strictly formal instructional settings. The present author investigated the quantitative and qualitative differences in the production and reception of 5 selected inflectional morphemes in English written performance and competence tasks by 100 early classroom learners and 100 late classroom learners of the same age. While an earlier age of first exposure and a longer instructional period was not associated with higher accuracy scores, the findings suggest distinct patterns in the productive and receptive knowledge abilities of inflectional morphology; the late classroom learners’ superiority seems to be rooted in their greater reliance upon memory-based item-by-item associative learning, as they are significantly stronger on tasks that might cause semantic difficulties, whereas the early classroom learners are marginally better on pattern-based processes for certain morphemes. This finding possibly supports Ullman’s (2005 proposal that, as procedural memory declines with age, older starters have difficulty in discovering regularities in the input and thus over-rely on the declarative memory system in L2 learning.

  17. Standard-Setting Methods as Measurement Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Paul; Twing, Jon; Mueller, Canda D.; O'Malley, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Some writers in the measurement literature have been skeptical of the meaningfulness of achievement standards and described the standard-setting process as blatantly arbitrary. We argue that standard setting is more appropriately conceived of as a measurement process similar to student assessment. The construct being measured is the panelists'…

  18. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROCESS OF DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ajmal CHAUDRY

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Instructional design refers to planning, development, delivery and evaluation of instructional system. It is an applied field of study aiming at the application of descriptive research outcomes in regular instructional settings. The present study was designed to critically review the process of instructional design at Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU. It was survey study. Population of the study consisted of 120 academicians of different academic department of AIOU. Survey was conducted through questionnaire for academic staff. It was revealed that need assessment is not done before conceiving the outlines of a course. Also the course did not contain sufficient activities, picture and illustrations. It was also found that did not confirm the course objectives. The study recommended that proper of the course writers for distance learning may be arranged.

  19. Error Tendencies in Processing Student Feedback for Instructional Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, John R., Jr.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seeks to assist instructors in recognizing two basic errors that can occur in processing student evaluation data on instructional development efforts; offers a research framework for future investigations of the error tendencies and related issues; and suggests ways in which instructors can confront and manage error tendencies in practice. (MBR)

  20. Critical Success Factors in The Infusion of Instructional Technologies for Open Learning in Development Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Uys

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to identify critical success factors for the appropriate infusion of instructional technologies to advance open learning in higher education within developing settings. Describe here is a descriptive account of a two-year case study based on the author’s personal analysis of, and reflection on, factors that contributed to the infusion of instructional technologies to advance open learning at the University of Botswana. The first critical success factors identified in this article include: a clear vision, support of committed leadership, and dedicated personnel/ change agents to ensure successful project implementation. The second critical success factor identified was the need for all involved to fully appreciate and understand the systemic nature of the infusion of instructional technologies for open learning purposes, as well as garner the commitment of strategic partners working in related systems. Finally highlighted, are the requirements needed to address the complex nature of the infusion of instructional technologies into the University’s educational offerings. It is hoped that those involved in education in developing countries, and particularly those desirous of advancing open learning through the use of instructional technologies, will find this descriptive analysis useful. Indeed, those of us involved in implementing instructional technologies in developing nations are still in the initial stages of this exciting yet challenging endeavour.

  1. 3D Printing in Instructional Settings: Identifying a Curricular Hierarchy of Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abbie

    2015-01-01

    A report of a year-long study in which the author engaged in 3D printing activity in order to determine how to facilitate and support skill building, concept attainment, and increased confidence with its use among teachers. Use of 3D printing tools and their applications in instructional settings are discussed. A hierarchy of 3D printing…

  2. Assessing the Student-Instructional Setting Interface Using an Eco-Behavioral Observation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Jo M.

    1992-01-01

    An eco-behavioral observation system was developed for use with students with behavior disorders or emotional disturbances. Discussed are the ecosystem definition, the student-instructional setting interface, and the assessment procedure, including evaluation of the quality of academic responding, program evaluation, staff development, and…

  3. Time Well Spent: Making Choices and Setting Priorities in Adult Numeracy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    In her Forum piece, "What's an Adult Numeracy Teacher to Teach? Negotiating the Complexity of Adult Numeracy Instruction," Lynda Ginsburg set the stage of the current problem (poor numeracy levels in American adults) and the bevy of standards, legislation, and new exams that have recently been developed to address it. Ginsburg also…

  4. Learning from Friends: Measuring Influence in a Dyadic Computer Instructional Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Hartl, Amy C.; Laursen, Brett; Denner, Jill; Werner, Linda; Campe, Shannon; Ortiz, Eloy

    2014-01-01

    Data collected from partners in a dyadic instructional setting are, by definition, not statistically independent. As a consequence, conventional parametric statistical analyses of change and influence carry considerable risk of bias. In this article, we illustrate a strategy to overcome this obstacle: the longitudinal actor-partner interdependence…

  5. On the Feasibility and Limitations of Just-in-Time Instruction Set Extension for FPGA-Based Reconfigurable Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Grad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconfigurable instruction set processors provide the possibility of tailor the instruction set of a CPU to a particular application. While this customization process could be performed during runtime in order to adapt the CPU to the currently executed workload, this use case has been hardly investigated. In this paper, we study the feasibility of moving the customization process to runtime and evaluate the relation of the expected speedups and the associated overheads. To this end, we present a tool flow that is tailored to the requirements of this just-in-time ASIP specialization scenario. We evaluate our methods by targeting our previously introduced Woolcano reconfigurable ASIP architecture for a set of applications from the SPEC2006, SPEC2000, MiBench, and SciMark2 benchmark suites. Our results show that just-in-time ASIP specialization is promising for embedded computing applications, where average speedups of 5x can be achieved by spending 50 minutes for custom instruction identification and hardware generation. These overheads will be compensated if the applications execute for more than 2 hours. For the scientific computing benchmarks, the achievable speedup is only 1.2x, which requires significant execution times in the order of days to amortize the overheads.

  6. Design Approach and Implementation of Application Specific Instruction Set Processor for SHA-3 BLAKE Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuli; Han, Jun; Weng, Xinqian; He, Zhongzhu; Zeng, Xiaoyang

    This paper presents an Application Specific Instruction-set Processor (ASIP) for the SHA-3 BLAKE algorithm family by instruction set extensions (ISE) from an RISC (reduced instruction set computer) processor. With a design space exploration for this ASIP to increase the performance and reduce the area cost, we accomplish an efficient hardware and software implementation of BLAKE algorithm. The special instructions and their well-matched hardware function unit improve the calculation of the key section of the algorithm, namely G-functions. Also, relaxing the time constraint of the special function unit can decrease its hardware cost, while keeping the high data throughput of the processor. Evaluation results reveal the ASIP achieves 335Mbps and 176Mbps for BLAKE-256 and BLAKE-512. The extra area cost is only 8.06k equivalent gates. The proposed ASIP outperforms several software approaches on various platforms in cycle per byte. In fact, both high throughput and low hardware cost achieved by this programmable processor are comparable to that of ASIC implementations.

  7. Instructor's Perceptions towards the Use of an Online Instructional Tool in an Academic English Setting in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erguvan, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    This study sets out to explore the faculty members' perceptions of a specific web-based instruction tool (Achieve3000) in a private higher education institute in Kuwait. The online tool provides highly differentiated instruction, which is initiated with a level set at the beginning of the term. The program is used in two consecutive courses as…

  8. The influence of cognitive ability and instructional set on causal conditional inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Handley, Simon J; Neilens, Helen; Over, David

    2010-05-01

    We report a large study in which participants are invited to draw inferences from causal conditional sentences with varying degrees of believability. General intelligence was measured, and participants were split into groups of high and low ability. Under strict deductive-reasoning instructions, it was observed that higher ability participants were significantly less influenced by prior belief than were those of lower ability. This effect disappeared, however, when pragmatic reasoning instructions were employed in a separate group. These findings are in accord with dual-process theories of reasoning. We also took detailed measures of beliefs in the conditional sentences used for the reasoning tasks. Statistical modelling showed that it is not belief in the conditional statement per se that is the causal factor, but rather correlates of it. Two different models of belief-based reasoning were found to fit the data according to the kind of instructions and the type of inference under consideration.

  9. Teaching geometry in schools: An investigative rather than instructive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Sanni

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has documented the prevalence of lessons  characterised by homework check,  followed by teacher lecture and demonstration, followed in turn, by learner practice sequence of classroom instructional activities in  our classrooms. This sequence of classroom activities does not allow for the development of sound mathematics practices and mathematical proficiency. Meanwhile, curriculum reforms in South Africa as well as in other parts  of the world recommend classroom activities where teachers create opportunities for, listen to  and extend learners.  This paper presents  a sequence of activities to be used in the teaching of geometry and surface areas of solid shapes in a grade 8 classroom. The sequence portrays the teaching of these concepts as an investigative rather than instructive process.

  10. The Effectiveness of Processing Instruction and Production-Based Instruction on L2 Grammar Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Natsuko

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a meta-analysis of 42 experiments in 33 published studies involving processing instruction (PI) and production-based instruction (PB) used in the PI studies. The comparative effectiveness of PI and PB showed that although PI was more effective than PB for developing receptive knowledge, PB was just as effective as PI for…

  11. Validation of the Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS) in a self-directed instructional setting aimed at working with technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loorbach, N.R.; Peters, O.; Karreman, Joyce; Steehouder, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The ARCS Model of Motivational Design has been used myriad times to design motivational instructions that focus on attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction in order to motivate students. The Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS) is a 36-item situational measure of people's

  12. Semihard processes with BLM renormalization scale setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporale, Francesco [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Nicolás Cabrera 15 and U. Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Ivanov, Dmitry Yu. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics and Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Murdaca, Beatrice; Papa, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy)

    2015-04-10

    We apply the BLM scale setting procedure directly to amplitudes (cross sections) of several semihard processes. It is shown that, due to the presence of β{sub 0}-terms in the NLA results for the impact factors, the obtained optimal renormalization scale is not universal, but depends both on the energy and on the process in question. We illustrate this general conclusion considering the following semihard processes: (i) inclusive production of two forward high-p{sub T} jets separated by large interval in rapidity (Mueller-Navelet jets); (ii) high-energy behavior of the total cross section for highly virtual photons; (iii) forward amplitude of the production of two light vector mesons in the collision of two virtual photons.

  13. The communication process in clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, J J

    1983-01-01

    The communication of information in clinical settings is fraught with problems despite avowed common aims of practitioners and patients. Some reasons for the problematic nature of clinical communication are incongruent frames of reference about what information ought to be shared, sociolinguistic differences and social distance between practitioners and patients. Communication between doctors and nurses is also problematic, largely due to differences in ideology between the professions about what ought to be communicated to patients about their illness and who is ratified to give such information. Recent social changes, such as the Patient Bill of Rights and informed consent which assure access to information, and new conceptualizations of the nurse's role, warrant continued study of the communication process especially in regard to what constitutes appropriate and acceptable information about a patient's illness and who ought to give such information to patients. The purpose of this paper is to outline characteristics of communication in clinical settings and to provide a literature review of patient and practitioner interaction studies in order to reflect on why information exchange is problematic in clinical settings. A framework for presentation of the problems employs principles from interaction and role theory to investigate clinical communication from three viewpoints: (1) the level of shared knowledge between participants; (2) the effect of status, role and ideology on transactions; and (3) the regulation of communication imposed by features of the institution.

  14. A study on the effectiveness of lockup-free caches for a Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) processor

    OpenAIRE

    Tharpe, Leonard.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis presents a simulation and analysis of the Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture and the effects on RISC performance of a lockup-free cache interface. RISC architectures achieve high performance by having a small, but sufficient, instruction set with most instructions executing in one clock cycle. Current RISC performance range from 1.5 to 2.0 CPI. The goal of RISC is to attain a CPI of 1.0. The major hind...

  15. Controlling the Instructional Development Process. Training Development and Research Center Project Number Fifteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Swanson, Richard A.

    Process control is a way of training managers in business and industry to plan, monitor, and communicate the instructional development process of training projects. Two simple and useful tools that managers use in controlling the process of instructional development are the Process Control Planning Sheet and the Process Control Record. The Process…

  16. Tank waste remediation system process engineering instruction manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Process Engineering Instruction Manual is to provide guidance and direction to TWRS Process Engineering staff regarding conduct of business. The objective is to establish a disciplined and consistent approach to business such that the work processes within TWRS Process Engineering are safe, high quality, disciplined, efficient, and consistent with Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Policies and Procedures. The sections within this manual are of two types: for compliance and for guidance. For compliance sections are intended to be followed per-the-letter until such time as they are formally changed per Section 2.0 of this manual. For guidance sections are intended to be used by the staff for guidance in the conduct of work where technical judgment and discernment are required. The guidance sections shall also be changed per Section 2.0 of this manual. The required header for each manual section is illustrated in Section 2.0, Manual Change Control procedure. It is intended that this manual be used as a training and indoctrination resource for employees of the TWRS Process Engineering organization. The manual shall be required reading for all TWRS Process Engineering staff, matrixed, and subcontracted employees

  17. Identifying Instructional Strategies Used to Design Mobile Learning in a Corporate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Butler, Uletta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative embedded multiple case study was to describe what instructional strategies corporate instructional designers were using to design mobile learning and to understand from their experiences which instructional strategies they believed enhance learning. Participants were five instructional designers who were actively…

  18. A Classification Model and an Open E-Learning System Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets for Instructional Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güyer, Tolga; Aydogdu, Seyhmus

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests a classification model and an e-learning system based on this model for all instructional theories, approaches, models, strategies, methods, and technics being used in the process of instructional design that constitutes a direct or indirect resource for educational technology based on the theory of intuitionistic fuzzy sets…

  19. Developing the professional competence of future doctors in the instructional setting of higher medical educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokhovets, Halyna Yu; Lysanets, Yuliia V

    The main objectives of higher medical education is the continuous professional improvement of physicians to meet the needs dictated by the modern world both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. In this respect, the system of higher medical education has undergone certain changes - from determining the range of professional competences to the adoption of new standards of education in medicine. The article aims to analyze the parameters of doctor's professionalism in the context of competence-based approach and to develop practical recommendations for the improvement of instruction techniques. The authors reviewed the psycho-pedagogical materials and summarized the acquired experience of teachers at higher medical institutions as to the development of instruction techniques in the modern educational process. The study is based on the results of testing via the technique developed by T.I. Ilyina. Analytical and biblio-semantic methods were used in the paper. It has been found that the training process at medical educational institution should be focused on the learning outcomes. The authors defined the quality parameters of doctors' training and suggested the model for developing the professional competence of medical students. This model explains the cause-and-effect relationships between the forms of instruction, teaching techniques and specific components of professional competence in future doctors. The paper provides practical recommendations on developing the core competencies which a qualified doctor should master. The analysis of existing interactive media in Ukraine and abroad has been performed. It has been found that teaching the core disciplines with the use of latest technologies and interactive means keeps abreast of the times, while teaching social studies and humanities to medical students still involves certain difficulties.

  20. Automatically fused instructions : algorithms for the customization of the instruction, set of a recon?gurable architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galuzzi, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, we address the design of algorithms for the automatic identi?cation and selection of complex application-speci?c instructions used to speed up the execution of applications on recon?gurable architectures. The computationally intensive portions of an application are analyzed and

  1. First year pre-service science teachers’ experiences of authentic instructional tasks in a PDS setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Birgitte; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    . The small groups gave the student teachers the opportunity to get on a level with the school students. They also refer to the iterative dimension and the importance of formative assessment. Based on the evaluative criteria it may be concluded that the two examples are successful models for authentic......Professional development schools (PDS) have been a source of inspiration for a new approach at the teacher education in Aarhus (DK). The importance of student teachers’ inquiries in authentic settings is in line with various research-based approaches to educating (science) teachers. The purpose...... for an authentic instructional task, are presented. Ten students were asked to describe their experiences of working with these tasks during repeated interviews. They refer to concrete examples of school students’ activities and/or learning when reflecting on their own learning and to dialogue with school students...

  2. Preparing Educators for Online Writing Instruction: Principles and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Beth L.; Ehmann, Christa

    2004-01-01

    This book offers a theoretical justification for online writing instruction (OWI) and a fully developed approach to training educators for such instruction--whether in networked classrooms, distance learning, e-mail- or Internet-based conferences, or online tutoring. The book includes concrete examples of asynchronous (non-real-time) and…

  3. Setting Instructional Expectations: Patterns of Principal Leadership for Middle School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterfeld, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Principal instructional leadership has been found to support improved instruction. However, the methods through which principal leadership influences classroom instruction are less clear. This study investigates how principals' leadership may predict the expectations that mathematics teachers perceive for classroom practice. Results from a…

  4. Would Having a Lead Instructional Designer Position Encourage Change in a K-12 Educational Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John

    2011-01-01

    Adding the position Lead Instructional Designer (LID) will help an educational company or school district to work with principals and instructional designers to implement better instructional design strategies. This type of change creates more jobs and takes added pressure away from schools. The vision is to create better customer service to the…

  5. Instructional Design to Measure the Efficacy of Interactive E-Books in A High School Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victoria PABRUA BATOON

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a qualitative research analysis on the implementation of interactive e-books in high school courses using a case study approach. The subjects of the study included seven professors and 16 freshmen who were surveyed and interviewed with a questionnaire designed according to the Kemp Model of Instructional Design. The study revealed that participants use interactive e-books as a technological educational resource. The professors pointed out that the design of the interactive e-books helped students develop essential learning skills: technological ability, reading and writing skills, as well as cognition and metacognition abilities. Furthermore, the students noted that the use of interactive e-books has a positive effect on their grades due to its high audio and visual contents. However, the students indicated that they were allured to chat, to play or to navigate in their mobile device while they were using it. Finally, this study can contribute to the relative knowledge about the use of mobile technology in education, as well as, it aids the professor to make a reflection about the Instructional Design of the educational technological resources used in the classroom to promote better result in the process of learning.

  6. Transparent Runtime Migration of Loop-Based Traces of Processor Instructions to Reconfigurable Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bispo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to map instructions running in a microprocessor to a reconfigurable processing unit (RPU, acting as a coprocessor, enables the runtime acceleration of applications and ensures code and possibly performance portability. In this work, we focus on the mapping of loop-based instruction traces (called Megablocks to RPUs. The proposed approach considers offline partitioning and mapping stages without ignoring their future runtime applicability. We present a toolchain that automatically extracts specific trace-based loops, called Megablocks, from MicroBlaze instruction traces and generates an RPU for executing those loops. Our hardware infrastructure is able to move loop execution from the microprocessor to the RPU transparently, at runtime, and without changing the executable binaries. The toolchain and the system are fully operational. Three FPGA implementations of the system, differing in the hardware interfaces used, were tested and evaluated with a set of 15 application kernels. Speedups ranging from 1.26 to 3.69 were achieved for the best alternative using a MicroBlaze processor with local memory.

  7. Volatility Determination in an Ambit Process Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Graversen, Svend-Erik

    The probability limit behaviour of normalised quadratic variation is studied for a simple tempo-spatial ambit process, with particular regard to the question of volatility memorylessness.......The probability limit behaviour of normalised quadratic variation is studied for a simple tempo-spatial ambit process, with particular regard to the question of volatility memorylessness....

  8. The process of setting micronutrient recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timotijevic, Lada; Barnett, Julie; Brown, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    in the field of micronutrient recommendations and a case study that focused on mandatory folic acid (FA) fortification. Setting: Questionnaire-based data were collected across thirty-five European countries. The FA fortification case study was conducted in the UK, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Spain, Czech...... Republic and Hungary. Results: Varied bodies are responsible for setting micronutrient recommendations, each with different statutory and legal models of operation. Transparency is highest where there are standing scientific advisory committees (SAC). Where the standing SAC is created, the range...... of expertise and the terms of reference for the SAC are determined by the government. Where there is no dedicated SAC, the impetus for the development of micronutrient recommendations and the associated policies comes from interested specialists in the area. This is typically linked with an ad hoc selection...

  9. How and with What Accuracy Do Children Report Self-Regulated Learning in Contemporary EFL Instructional Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, P. Costa; Simão, A. M. Veiga; da Silva, A. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how children reflect about learning, report their regulation of learning activity, and develop their performance in contemporary English as a Foreign Language instructional settings. A quasi-experimental design was used with one experimental group working in a self-regulated learning computer-supported instructional…

  10. Missouri Educator Perceptions on the Use of Smartphones/Cell Phones in a Secondary School Setting: Their Relationship to Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study evaluated the differences in the perceptions of educators in the state of Missouri on cell phone use in the classroom setting and its relationship to instruction. Specifically, this study analyzed the difference in perceptions and relationships that exist among educators (teachers and counselors) and administrators in…

  11. Mental Rotation of Tactical Instruction Displays Affects Information Processing Demand and Execution Accuracy in Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Till; Steggemann-Weinrich, Yvonne; Baumeister, Jochen; Krause, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In sports games, coaches often use tactic boards to present tactical instructions during time-outs (e.g., 20 s to 60 s in basketball). Instructions should be presented in a way that enables fast and errorless information processing for the players. The aim of this study was to test the effect of different orientations of visual tactical…

  12. LEARNING AND THOUGHT PROCESSES IN REALISTIC MATHEMATICS INSTRUCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, J.; Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the various different approaches to mathematics and the influence that these approaches have had on the teaching of this subject. In addition to the three generally known schools of mathematics instruction - the mechanistic, the structuralistic and the empirical - the article

  13. Does physics instruction foster university students' cognitive processes?: A descriptive study of teacher activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G. M.; de Jong, Ton

    This study aims at giving a systematic description of the cognitive activities involved in teaching physics. Such a description of instruction in physics requires a basis in two models, that is, the cognitive activities involved in learning physics and the knowledge base that is the foundation of expertise in that subject. These models have been provided by earlier research. The model of instruction distinguishes three main categories of instruction process: presenting new information, integrating (i.e., bringing structure into) new knowledge, and connecting elements of new knowledge to prior knowledge. Each of the main categories has been divided into a number of specific instruction processes. Hereby any limited and specific cognitive teacher activity can be described along the two dimensions of process and type of knowledge. The model was validated by application to lectures and problem-solving classes of first year university courses. These were recorded and analyzed as to instruction process and type of knowledge. Results indicate that teachers are indeed involved in the various types of instruction processes defined. The importance of this study lies in the creation of a terminology that makes it possible to discuss instruction in an explicit and specific way.

  14. Instructional Design Thought Processes of Expert Nurse Educators

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Monty Dale

    2006-01-01

    This study explores how expert nurse educators design instruction. Six female expert nurse educators volunteered to participate. Each participant had over ten years experience teaching, and all were recognized for their teaching excellence. They also had master's or doctoral degrees. Participants worked in small private schools, community colleges, or large public universities. The methodology was based in developmental research. Qualitative data sources included interviews, think-aloud proto...

  15. Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Nievelstein, Fleurie; Giesbers, Bas; Fred, Paas

    2009-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Kester, L., Nievelstein, F., Giesbers, B., & Paas, F. (2009). Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 325-331.

  16. Cardiac examination and the effect of dual-processing instruction in a cardiopulmonary simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Matt; McKinney, James; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B; Yu, Eric; Wood, David A; Nair, Parvathy; Eva, Kevin W; Hatala, Rose

    2013-08-01

    Use of dual-processing has been widely touted as a strategy to reduce diagnostic error in clinical medicine. However, this strategy has not been tested among medical trainees with complex diagnostic problems. We sought to determine whether dual-processing instruction could reduce diagnostic error across a spectrum of experience with trainees undertaking cardiac physical exam. Three experiments were conducted using a similar design to teach cardiac physical exam using a cardiopulmonary simulator. One experiment was conducted in each of three groups: experienced, intermediate and novice trainees. In all three experiments, participants were randomized to receive undirected or dual-processing verbal instruction during teaching, practice and testing phases. When tested, dual-processing instruction did not change the probability assigned to the correct diagnosis in any of the three experiments. Among intermediates, there was an apparent interaction between the diagnosis tested and the effect of dual-processing instruction. Among relative novices, dual processing instruction may have dampened the harmful effect of a bias away from the correct diagnosis. Further work is needed to define the role of dual-processing instruction to reduce cognitive error. This study suggests that it cannot be blindly applied to complex diagnostic problems such as cardiac physical exam.

  17. Using instructional design process to improve design and development of Internet interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgart, Michelle M; Ritterband, Lee M; Thorndike, Frances P; Kinzie, Mable B

    2012-06-28

    Given the wide reach and extensive capabilities of the Internet, it is increasingly being used to deliver comprehensive behavioral and mental health intervention and prevention programs. Their goals are to change user behavior, reduce unwanted complications or symptoms, and improve health status and health-related quality of life. Internet interventions have been found efficacious in addressing a wide range of behavioral and mental health problems, including insomnia, nicotine dependence, obesity, diabetes, depression, and anxiety. Despite the existence of many Internet-based interventions, there is little research to inform their design and development. A model for behavior change in Internet interventions has been published to help guide future Internet intervention development and to help predict and explain behavior changes and symptom improvement outcomes through the use of Internet interventions. An argument is made for grounding the development of Internet interventions within a scientific framework. To that end, the model highlights a multitude of design-related components, areas, and elements, including user characteristics, environment, intervention content, level of intervention support, and targeted outcomes. However, more discussion is needed regarding how the design of the program should be developed to address these issues. While there is little research on the design and development of Internet interventions, there is a rich, related literature in the field of instructional design (ID) that can be used to inform Internet intervention development. ID models are prescriptive models that describe a set of activities involved in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of instructional programs. Using ID process models has been shown to increase the effectiveness of learning programs in a broad range of contexts. ID models specify a systematic method for assessing the needs of learners (intervention users) to determine the gaps between current

  18. Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set the stage for higher quality instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia

    2013-10-01

    Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. The RISC-V Instruction Set Manual. Volume 1: User-Level ISA, Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    RV128I Base Integer Instruction Set 81 18 Calling Convention 83 18.1 C Datatypes and Alignment...FCVT.D.S, are encoded in the OP-FP major opcode space and both the source and destination are floating-point registers. The rs2 field encodes the datatype ...of the source, and the fmt field encodes the datatype of the destination. FCVT.S.D rounds according to the RM field; FCVT.D.S will never round. 31 27

  20. Authenticity in the process of learning about Instructional Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Wilson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Authentic learning is touted as a powerful learning approach, particularly in the context of problem-based learning (Savery, 2006. Teaching and learning in the area of instructional design appears to offer a strong fit between the tenets of authentic learning and the practice of instructional design. This paper details the efforts to broaden and deepen the understanding of instructional design through a service learning approach to teaching, emphasizing authentic learning and assessment. Students are teamed and assigned to an actual contract with an external client under the supervision of the instructor who acts as project manager for the group. Contracts are negotiated to deliberately offer instructional design services to clients who would not otherwise be able to afford them, such as community-based non-profit groups. The reasons are two fold: first, we want to avoid competing for contracts that would interfere with the business of commercial instructional design groups and contractors; second, we want to impress on our students the idea that instructional design has social importance beyond the profit/loss and cost/effectiveness orientation of many instructional design businesses. In this way, we promote the idea that instructional designers are agents of social change, and their influence crosses interpersonal, professional, institutional and societal dimensions of change (Schwier, Campbell and Kenny, 2007.  Résumé : L’apprentissage authentique est présenté comme une approche efficace en apprentissage, en particulier dans le contexte de l’apprentissage par problèmes (Savery, 2006. Enseigner et apprendre la conception pédagogique semble offrir une correspondance étroite entre les principes de l’apprentissage authentique et la pratique de la conception pédagogique. Cet article présente de manière détaillée les efforts visant à élargir et à approfondir la compréhension qu’ont les étudiants de la conception p

  1. Instructional Design to Measure the Efficacy of Interactive E-Books in a High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabrua Batoon, Maria Victoria; Glasserman Morales, Leonardo David; Yanez Figueroa, Jose Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research analysis on the implementation of interactive ebooks in high school courses using a case study approach. The subjects of the study included seven professors and 16 freshmen who were surveyed and interviewed with a questionnaire designed according to the Kemp Model of Instructional Design. The study…

  2. Further Classification and Methodological Considerations of Evaluations for Online Discussion in Instructional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatariu, Alexandru; Winsor, Denise L.; Simpson, Cynthia; Hosman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid advancements of technology, online communication in both K-12 and post-secondary instruction has been widely implemented. Instructors as well as researchers have used various frameworks to evaluate different aspects of online discussions' quality. The online discussions take place synchronously or asynchronously in chat rooms,…

  3. Comparing the Effectiveness of Processing Instruction and Production-Based Instruction on L2 Grammar Learning: The Role of Explicit Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soruç, Adem; Qin, Jingjing; Kim, YouJin

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigated whether processing instruction(PI) or production-based instruction (PBI) is more effective for the teaching of regular past simple verb forms in English. In addition, this study examined whether explicit grammatical information (EI) mediates the effectiveness of PI or PBI. A total of 194 Turkish…

  4. Interactive Effects of Working Memory Self-Regulatory Ability and Relevance Instructions on Text Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    Reading is a process that requires the enactment of many cognitive processes. Each of these processes uses a certain amount of working memory resources, which are severely constrained by biology. More efficiency in the function of working memory may mediate the biological limits of same. Reading relevancy instructions may be one such method to…

  5. Predictive Active Set Selection Methods for Gaussian Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    We propose an active set selection framework for Gaussian process classification for cases when the dataset is large enough to render its inference prohibitive. Our scheme consists of a two step alternating procedure of active set update rules and hyperparameter optimization based upon marginal...... high impact to the classifier decision process while removing those that are less relevant. We introduce two active set rules based on different criteria, the first one prefers a model with interpretable active set parameters whereas the second puts computational complexity first, thus a model...... with active set parameters that directly control its complexity. We also provide both theoretical and empirical support for our active set selection strategy being a good approximation of a full Gaussian process classifier. Our extensive experiments show that our approach can compete with state...

  6. Effect of passive concentration as instructional set for training enhancement of EEG alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, S S

    1980-12-01

    The technique of passive concentration, employed by autogenic training and Transcendental Meditation for achieving relaxation, was tested here as a technique for enhancing EEG alpha. Of 30 subjects displaying between 15% and 74% alpha in their resting EEGs recruited, 10 had to be eliminated. The remaining 20 constituted two groups. One was instructed only to attempt to maintain a tone indicating alpha but given no information about technique (control group). The other was given additional instructions in passive concentration (experimental group). Both were given four 5-min. trials a day for 4 consecutive days. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured to monitor autonomic arousal. The group receiving instructions in passive concentration had significantly less alpha than the control group, which did not increase amount of alpha above baseline. The reduction of alpha in the experimental group was interpreted as resulting from beginning long training periods (20 min. per day), a practice advocated by Transcendental Meditation but discouraged by autogenic training. It was concluded that the relevance of passive concentration for alpha enhancement is doubtful.

  7. Perception, Attitude and Instructional Preferences on Physics in High School Students: An Exploration in an International Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Mini; Gafoor, Abdul

    Questionnaire survey explored perception, attitude and instructional preferences with respect to gender and nationality in high school students of India and USA, a sample of 1101 Indian and 458 US students. Descriptive Statistics techniques were adopted for analysis. Male and female students in USA were at the high and low ends of the spectrum, respectively, in perception and attitude. Preference on instructional strategies was found to be independent of nationality, exposed strategies, opting science, class size and facilities. Responses from both countries indicate preference for an integrated instructional strategy that has strong teacher involvement in a student-centered framework. A thoughtful and properly designed instructional strategy could provide sufficient elements in modifying students' epistemological beliefs. Understanding the nature and process of physics along with a better learning outcome is usually not possible by administering student-centered or teacher-centered strategies alone in their purest form. This study provides adequate support in obtaining two equally significant but contrasting goals in Physics Education Research, to gain conceptual development with increased interest and attainment in learners, through integration.

  8. Ready for goal setting? Process evaluation of a patient-specific goal-setting method in physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Anita; Köke, Albère; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna

    2017-08-31

    Patient participation and goal setting appear to be difficult in daily physiotherapy practice, and practical methods are lacking. An existing patient-specific instrument, Patient-Specific Complaints (PSC), was therefore optimized into a new Patient Specific Goal-setting method (PSG). The aims of this study were to examine the feasibility of the PSG in daily physiotherapy practice, and to explore the potential impact of the new method. We conducted a process evaluation within a non-controlled intervention study. Community-based physiotherapists were instructed on how to work with the PSG in three group training sessions. The PSG is a six-step method embedded across the physiotherapy process, in which patients are stimulated to participate in the goal-setting process by: identifying problematic activities, prioritizing them, scoring their abilities, setting goals, planning and evaluating. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected among patients and physiotherapists by recording consultations and assessing patient files, questionnaires and written reflection reports. Data were collected from 51 physiotherapists and 218 patients, and 38 recordings and 219 patient files were analysed. The PSG steps were performed as intended, but the 'setting goals' and 'planning treatment' steps were not performed in detail. The patients and physiotherapists were positive about the method, and the physiotherapists perceived increased patient participation. They became aware of the importance of engaging patients in a dialogue, instead of focusing on gathering information. The lack of integration in the electronic patient system was a major barrier for optimal use in practice. Although the self-reported actual use of the PSG, i.e. informing and involving patients, and client-centred competences had improved, this was not completely confirmed by the objectively observed behaviour. The PSG is a feasible method and tends to have impact on increasing patient participation in the goal-setting

  9. Passage from Pen and Paper to Keyboard and Screen: An Investigation of the Evolution of Writing Instruction in One-to-One Laptop Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, Janice Rowe

    2013-01-01

    With the steady increase of ubiquitous computing initiatives across the country in the last decade, there is a pressing need for specific research looking at content area instruction in 1:1 settings. This qualitative multiple case study examines writing instruction at two middle schools as it is delivered by experienced teachers in five English…

  10. Investigating the Decision-Making Process of Standard Setting Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing interest of the language testing community in standard setting, primarily due to the use of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR-Council of Europe, 2001), the participants' decision-making process in the CEFR standard setting context remains unexplored. This study attempts to fill in this gap by analyzing these…

  11. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction of Simple Circuits on Experimental Process Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyma ULUKÖK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental and control groups were composed of 30 sophomores majoring in Classroom Teaching for this study investigating the effects of computer-assisted instruction of simple circuits on the development of experimental process skills. The instruction includes experiments and studies about simple circuits and its elements (serial, parallel, and mixed conncetions of resistors covered in Science and Technology Laboratory II course curriculum. In this study where quantitative and qualitative methods were used together, the control list developed by the researchers was used to collect data. Results showed that experimental process skills of sophomores in experimental group were more developed than that of those in control group. Thus, it can be said that computer-assisted instruction has a positive impact on the development of experimental process skills of students.

  12. The effectiveness of three sets of school-based instructional materials and community training on the acquisition and generalization of community laundry skills by students with severe handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, S A; Bates, P E

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of three sets of school-based instructional materials and community training on acquisition and generalization of a community laundry skill by nine students with severe handicaps. School-based instruction involved artificial materials (pictures), simulated materials (cardboard replica of a community washing machine), and natural materials (modified home model washing machine). Generalization assessments were conducted at two different community laundromats, on two machines represented fully by the school-based instructional materials and two machines not represented fully by these materials. After three phases of school-based instruction, the students were provided ten community training trials in one laundromat setting and a final assessment was conducted in both the trained and untrained community settings. A multiple probe design across students was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the three types of school instruction and community training. After systematic training, most of the students increased their laundry performance with all three sets of school-based materials; however, generalization of these acquired skills was limited in the two community settings. Direct training in one of the community settings resulted in more efficient acquisition of the laundry skills and enhanced generalization to the untrained laundromat setting for most of the students. Results of this study are discussed in regard to the issue of school versus community-based instruction and recommendations are made for future research in this area.

  13. Natural Selection as an Emergent Process: Instructional Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Student reasoning about cases of natural selection is often plagued by errors that stem from miscategorising selection as a direct, causal process, misunderstanding the role of randomness, and from the intuitive ideas of intentionality, teleology and essentialism. The common thread throughout many of these reasoning errors is a failure to apply…

  14. An Action Research on Deep Word Processing Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limei

    2010-01-01

    For too long a time, how to memorize more words and keep them longer in mind has been a primary and everlasting problem for vocabulary teaching and learning. This study focused on deep processing as a word memorizing strategy in contextualizing, de- and re- contextualizing learning stages. It also examined possible effects of such pedagogy on…

  15. The Effect of an Instructional Intervention on Enhancement Pre-Service Science Teachers' Science Processes Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Hüsnüye

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an instructional intervention on enhancement the pre-service science teachers' (PSTs) science process skills (SPSs) and to identify problems in using SPSs through Laboratory Applications in Science Education-I course (LASE-I). One group pretest-posttest pre-experimental design was employed. An…

  16. Instructional Support for Novice Law Students: Reducing Search Processes and Explaining Concepts in Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievelstein, Fleurie; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Dijck, Gijs; Boshuizen, Els

    2010-01-01

    Nievelstein, F., Van Gog, T., Van Dijck, C., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011). Instructional support for novice law students: Reducing search processes and explaining concepts in cases. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25(3), 408-413. doi:10.1002/acp.1707

  17. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  18. Using Processing Instruction for the Acquisition of English Present Perfect of Filipinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfe, Jonathan P.; Lintao, Rachelle B.

    2012-01-01

    This is an experimental study on the relative effects of Van Patten's Processing Instruction (PI) (1996, 2002), a "psycholinguistically-motivated" intervention in teaching second-language (L2) grammar, on young-adult Filipino learners of English. A growing body of research on this methodological alternative, which establishes…

  19. The conceptual analysis of the instructional process: Research findings on students’ teacher reflections in art education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Hajdušková

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the linking pedagogical theory to teaching practicewith the aim to improve quality of education through its analytic reflection by teachersor student teachers. The text deals with the original method of didactic reflection– concept analysis. Concept analysis is characterized as a methodical instrument forreflection and evaluation of the instruction. It is based on investigation of didacticcontent transformation in educational processes and it is oriented to creative approachand experiential learning in the instruction. The explanation uses the results of research(2009–2010 on the state of didactic skills and pedagogical content knowledge of arteducation teachers during their didactic training.

  20. Instructional Style, Cognitive Processing, and Achievement Behavior Patterns of Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the performance characteristics and differences between English and Oriya medium school children on various cognitive processing, reading, academic achievement, and teacher perception measures. The sample consists of 243 schoolchildren, 120 from Grade IV and 123 from Grade VII from three different schools of Cuttack city in Orissa, India. The children were individually administered the Figure-Copying, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Matching Familiar Figure Task, Serial Recall, Digit-Span, Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale for Children, Block Design, Cloze Reading Comprehension, and Oral Reading tasks. Classroom Achievement scores on different subjects and the teachers’ ratings about their students were also taken. Results revealed that children reading in English medium schools outperformed their Oriya medium counterparts in some cognitive measures such as Figure Copying, MFFT, RPM, and Digit-Span tasks irrespective of levels. However, the children studying in Oriya medium schools scored higher in Reading Comprehension task and commit less error compared with their English medium counterparts. However, in case of academic achievement measures at primary level, the Oriya medium children performed better in social science, whereas the English medium students excelled in first language and mathematics. The teachers of Oriya medium schools also rated their children better in general conduct, motivation, and effort in schoolwork, whereas, at the secondary level, there was no difference between these two groups in academic achievement or teacher perception measures.

  1. N-body simulation for self-gravitating collisional systems with a new SIMD instruction set extension to the x86 architecture, Advanced Vector eXtensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Ataru; Yoshikawa, Kohji; Okamoto, Takashi; Nitadori, Keigo

    2012-02-01

    We present a high-performance N-body code for self-gravitating collisional systems accelerated with the aid of a new SIMD instruction set extension of the x86 architecture: Advanced Vector eXtensions (AVX), an enhanced version of the Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE). With one processor core of Intel Core i7-2600 processor (8 MB cache and 3.40 GHz) based on Sandy Bridge micro-architecture, we implemented a fourth-order Hermite scheme with individual timestep scheme ( Makino and Aarseth, 1992), and achieved the performance of ˜20 giga floating point number operations per second (GFLOPS) for double-precision accuracy, which is two times and five times higher than that of the previously developed code implemented with the SSE instructions ( Nitadori et al., 2006b), and that of a code implemented without any explicit use of SIMD instructions with the same processor core, respectively. We have parallelized the code by using so-called NINJA scheme ( Nitadori et al., 2006a), and achieved ˜90 GFLOPS for a system containing more than N = 8192 particles with 8 MPI processes on four cores. We expect to achieve about 10 tera FLOPS (TFLOPS) for a self-gravitating collisional system with N ˜ 10 5 on massively parallel systems with at most 800 cores with Sandy Bridge micro-architecture. This performance will be comparable to that of Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) cluster systems, such as the one with about 200 Tesla C1070 GPUs ( Spurzem et al., 2010). This paper offers an alternative to collisional N-body simulations with GRAPEs and GPUs.

  2. Level sets and extrema of random processes and fields

    CERN Document Server

    Azais, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    A timely and comprehensive treatment of random field theory with applications across diverse areas of study Level Sets and Extrema of Random Processes and Fields discusses how to understand the properties of the level sets of paths as well as how to compute the probability distribution of its extremal values, which are two general classes of problems that arise in the study of random processes and fields and in related applications. This book provides a unified and accessible approach to these two topics and their relationship to classical theory and Gaussian processes and fields, and the most modern research findings are also discussed. The authors begin with an introduction to the basic concepts of stochastic processes, including a modern review of Gaussian fields and their classical inequalities. Subsequent chapters are devoted to Rice formulas, regularity properties, and recent results on the tails of the distribution of the maximum. Finally, applications of random fields to various areas of mathematics a...

  3. The effects of divided attention on encoding processes under incidental and intentional learning instructions: underlying mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Guez, Jonathan; Hara, Yoko; Brubaker, Matthew S; Lowenschuss-Erlich, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Divided attention (DA) at encoding has been shown to significantly disrupt later memory for the studied information. However, what type of processing gets disrupted during DA remains unresolved. In this study, we assessed the degree to which strategic effortful processes are affected under DA by comparing the effects of DA at encoding under intentional and pure incidental learning instructions. In three experiments, participants studied list of words or word pairs under either full or divided attention. Results of three experiments, which used different methodologies, converged to show that the effects of DA at encoding reduce memory performance to the same degree under incidental and intentional learning. Secondary task performance indicated that encoding under intentional learning instructions was more effortful than under incidental learning instructions. In addition, the results indicated enhanced attention to the initial appearance of the words under both types of learning instructions. Results are interpreted to imply that other processes, rather than only strategic effortful ones, might be affected by DA at encoding.

  4. The Use of Instructional and Motivational Self-Talk in Setting up a Physical Education Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourbanos, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to provide guidelines to physical educators for setting up a self-talk program during their lesson. The article briefly presents definitions of self-talk and research findings in sport and physical education to highlight the important benefits of positive self-talk in enhancing task performance. It also provides…

  5. A review of processes important in the floodplain setting

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, M.E.; Lapworth, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report reviews the physical and geochemical processes reported in the literature and likely to be operating in the floodplain setting. The review supports a study of the Port Meadow, located within the floodplain of the River Thames to the northwest of the city of Oxford, an area affected by urban pollution. It focuses on floodplains but includes both material for the hyporheic zone and also generally for riparian zones. It describes the processes, generically covers case ...

  6. Unconscious learning processes: mental integration of verbal and pictorial instructional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Bakar, Zainudin Abu

    2013-12-01

    This review aims to provide an insight into human learning processes by examining the role of cognitive and emotional unconscious processing in mentally integrating visual and verbal instructional materials. Reviewed literature shows that conscious mental integration does not happen all the time, nor does it necessarily result in optimal learning. Students of all ages and levels of experience cannot always have conscious awareness, control, and the intention to learn or promptly and continually organize perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes of learning. This review suggests considering the role of unconscious learning processes to enhance the understanding of how students form or activate mental associations between verbal and pictorial information. The understanding would assist in presenting students with spatially-integrated verbal and pictorial instructional materials as a way of facilitating mental integration and improving teaching and learning performance.

  7. Envelopes of Sets of Measures, Tightness, and Markov Control Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Hernandez-Lerma, O.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce upper and lower envelopes for sets of measures on an arbitrary topological space, which are then used to give a tightness criterion. These concepts are applied to show the existence of optimal policies for a class of Markov control processes

  8. Proposal of Instruction Process for Improvement of Language Activities in Technology Education Course

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 智広; 山本, 利一

    2012-01-01

    This study is a proposal of instruction process for improvement of language activities in the technology education course in the junior high school in Japan. In this study, two efforts were carried out for the technology concerning material and processing. The first effort was the extraction of the learning situations that develop abilities of thinking, judgment and expression through language activities peculiar to the technology education course. The second effort was the verification o...

  9. The transfer of learning process: From an elementary science methods course to classroom instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nina Leann

    The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore the transfer of learning process in student teachers. This was carried out by focusing on information learned from an elementary science methods and how it was transferred into classroom instruction during student teaching. Participants were a purposeful sampling of twelve elementary education student teachers attending a public university in north Mississippi. Factors that impacted the transfer of learning during lesson planning and implementation were sought. The process of planning and implementing a ten-day science instructional unit during student teaching was examined through lesson plan documentation, in-depth individual interviews, and two focus group interviews. Narratives were created to describe the participants' experiences as well as how they plan for instruction and consider science pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Categories and themes were then used to build explanations applying to the research questions. The themes identified were Understanding of Science PCK, Minimalism, Consistency in the Teacher Education Program, and Emphasis on Science Content. The data suggested that the participants lack in their understanding of science PCK, took a minimalistic approach to incorporating science into their ten-day instructional units, experienced inconsistencies in the teacher education program, and encountered a lack of emphasis on science content in their field experience placements. The themes assisted in recognizing areas in the elementary science methods courses, student teaching field placements, and university supervision in need of modification.

  10. Assessment in the Private Studio Setting: Supporting Student Learning, Providing Effective Instruction, and Building Faculty-Student Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubenthal, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    A significant amount of literature exists about how to design and implement an effective assessment process for students in a music program, specifically in the classroom setting. This article suggests a framework for incorporating individualized assessment in the private-lesson setting based on effective classroom assessment practices. Many…

  11. 76 FR 70490 - Certain Computing Devices With Associated Instruction Sets and Software; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ..., 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of VIA Technologies, Inc. of Taiwan; IP-First, LLC of Fremont, California... (``the `598 patent''). The amended complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States exists... `180 patent, and whether an industry in the United States exists or is in the process of being...

  12. Can the transformation of instruction process into a virtual place induce a shift in behavioral patterns of teachers and students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljajko Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to reveal possible influence that the participants' age and Information and Communications Technologies (ICT usage in the instruction process can have on behavior that defines whether students and teachers belong to one of the Digital Native/Immigrant or Visitor/Resident groups. We collected data through two surveys that covered a total of 1273 students and 382 teachers from southern regions of Serbia. The surveys consisted of questions about availability of computers and internet, ICT use in the instruction process, and communication habits in the ICT-empowered instruction process. The first survey covered both, students and teachers that were involved in the instruction process mostly deprived of the ICT usage. The second survey covered participants of an instruction process that was successfully improved by an ICT usage. Data analysis shows a shift in communication patterns of teachers and a sharp improvement in computer use for educational purposes for both groups included in the surveys. The change is induced by a proper ICT usage in the instruction process. Conclusions that followed the data analysis lead us to better approaches in organizing ICT usage in the instruction process that enable participants fully employ their resources in order to improve teaching techniques and learning.

  13. Learning Complex Grammar in the Virtual Classroom: A Comparison of Processing Instruction, Structured Input, Computerized Visual Input Enhancement, and Traditional Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of processing instruction (PI) and structured input (SI) on the acquisition of the subjunctive in adjectival clauses by 92 second-semester distance learners of Spanish. Computerized visual input enhancement (VIE) was combined with PI and SI in an attempt to increase the salience of the targeted grammatical form…

  14. Systematic Tracking of Malaysian Primary School Students’ ESL Reading Comprehension Performance to Facilitate Instructional Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Siew Eng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to systematically track and benchmark upper primary school students‟ ESL reading comprehension ability and subsequently generate data at the micro and macro levels according to individual achievement, school location, gender and ethnicity at the school, district, state and national levels. The main intention of this initiative was to provide information to assist ESL teachers about their students‟ reading ability and to determine students' reading comprehension performance standards. The auto generated data is expected to facilitate classroom instructional process without necessitating teachers to prepare test materials or manage data of their students‟ reading comprehension track records. The respondents were 1,514 Year 5 students from urban and rural schools from a district in northern Malaysia. The idea was conceptualised through a series of tests and development of the Reading Evaluation and Decoding System (READS for Primary Schools. The findings indicated that majority of the respondents were „below standard‟ and „at academic warning‟. We believe the generated data can assist the Ministry of Education to develop better quality instructional processes that are evidence based with a more focused reading instruction and reading material to tailor to the needs of students.

  15. Forum: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings. A Cautious Approach to Reliance on Interpersonal Communication Frameworks: The Importance of Context in Instructional Communication Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zac D.; LaBelle, Sara; Waldeck, Jennifer H.

    2017-01-01

    Instructional communication (IC) scholars have made significant contributions to the study of educational outcomes by creating a deep understanding of the teacher-student relationship (Mottet & Beebe, 2006). IC research published in "Communication Education" and other outlets therefore appropriately emphasizes interpersonal…

  16. Virtual endoscopy post-processing of helical CT data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessl, A.; Giacomuzzi, S.M.; Springer, P.; Stoeger, A.; Pototschnig, C.; Voelklein, C.; Schreder, S.G.; Jaschke, W.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to test a newly developed, post-processing software for virtual CT endoscopic methods. Virtual endoscopic images were generated from helical CT data sets in the region of the shoulder joint (n=2), the tracheobronchial system (n=3), the nasal sinuses (n=2), the colon (n=2), and the common carotid artery (n=1). Software developed specifically for virtual endoscopy ('Navigator') was used which, after a previous threshold value selection, makes the reconstruction of internal body surfaces possible by an automatic segmentation process. We have evaluated the usage of the software, the reconstruction time for individual images and sequences of images as well as the quality of the reconstruction. All pathological findings of the virtual endoscopy were confirmed by surgery. Results: The post-processing program is easy to use and provides virtual endoscopic images within 50 seconds. Depending of the extent of the data set, virtual tracheobronchoscopy as a cine loop sequence required about 15 minutes. Thorugh use of the threshold value-dependent surface reconstruction the demands on the computer configuration are limited; however, this also created quality problems in image calculation as a consequence of the accompanying loss of data. Conclusions: The Navigator software enables the calculation of virtual endoscopic models with only moderate demands on the hardware. (orig.) [de

  17. The Relationships between Leadership Practice and Teacher Motivation, Capacity, and Work Setting as Related to Change in Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Linda Marie

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated the necessity for changes in literacy assessment and instruction. Well respected authorities have agreed that direct, explicit, and systematic instruction in the five basic components of reading (i.e., phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension) is essential to ensure that all students have an…

  18. Forum: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings: Raising New Questions and Restoring Our Focus on Authentic Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Derek R.

    2017-01-01

    In this article the author addresses whether educators have accumulated sufficient knowledge about interpersonal communication in the instructional context--at least as it pertains to the relational perspective--"and" whether other meaningful topics in the instructional communication literature have been ignored. The author's purpose…

  19. Teaching Persons with Severe Disabilities to Use Self-Instruction in Community Settings: An Analysis of Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carolyn; Agran, Martin

    1993-01-01

    This literature review examines the effects of self-instructional programs on increasing independence of persons with moderate/severe mental retardation in integrated environments. The article discusses methodological issues, research needs, and recommendations for program implementation. The feasibility of using self-instruction to promote…

  20. Efficient processing of containment queries on nested sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, A.; Fletcher, G.H.L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the problem of computing containment queries on sets which can have both atomic and set-valued objects as elements, i.e., nested sets. Containment is a fundamental query pattern with many basic applications. Our study of nested set containment is motivated by the ubiquity of nested data in

  1. Unfolding the assessment process in a whole class mathematics setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radišić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment activities in the class are an important aspect of classroom practice, while there is much debate with respect to the formative vs. summative assessment routines and the outcomes that each of them provides for students' learning. As classroom assessment does not occur in seclusion of other aspects of classroom life, the process is seen as rather complex. In this study we wished to explore how assessment serves the function of supporting students' learning and whether this evidence is used to adapt teacher's practices in meeting different learning needs in the mathematics classroom. The authors observed assessment practices of an experienced math teacher in a grammar school in Belgrade. Teacher's assessment practices were observed during a three week period. The analysis has shown the teacher to hold a somewhat complex perception of assessment, yet the perception is largely detached from teaching, which is in line with the previously reported results. However, the elements of formative assessment do emerge, thus contributing to the assessment being in service of learning. In spite of this, a narrow set of practices are visible when observing how the teacher keeps track of students' progress. A mismatch is visible between students' and teacher's perceptions of the assessment as a whole and some of the practices exercised in the process. The teacher struggled to verbalize some aspects of own assessment practices, especially those related to more formative aspects.

  2. Improving Science Process Skills for Primary School Students Through 5E Instructional Model-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choirunnisa, N. L.; Prabowo, P.; Suryanti, S.

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to describe the effectiveness of 5E instructional model-based learning to improve primary school students’ science process skills. The science process skills is important for students as it is the foundation for enhancing the mastery of concepts and thinking skills needed in the 21st century. The design of this study was experimental involving one group pre-test and post-test design. The result of this study shows that (1) the implementation of learning in both of classes, IVA and IVB, show that the percentage of learning implementation increased which indicates a better quality of learning and (2) the percentage of students’ science process skills test results on the aspects of observing, formulating hypotheses, determining variable, interpreting data and communicating increased as well.

  3. Systematic instruction of assistive technology for cognition (ATC) in an employment setting following acquired brain injury: A single case, experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Laurie E; Glang, Ann; Pinkelman, Sarah; Albin, Richard; Harwick, Robin; Ettel, Deborah; Wild, Michelle R

    2015-01-01

    Assistive technology for cognition (ATC) can be an effective means of compensating for cognitive impairments following acquired brain injury. Systematic instruction is an evidence-based approach to training a variety of skills and strategies, including the use of ATC. This study experimentally evaluated systematic instruction applied to assistive technology for cognition (ATC) in a vocational setting. The study used a single-case, multiple-probe design across behaviors design. The participant was a 50-year old female with cognitive impairments following an acquired brain injury (ABI). As a part-time employee, she was systematically instructed on how to operate and routinely use selected applications (apps) on her iPod Touch to support three work-related skills: (a) recording/recalling the details of work assignments, (b) recording/recalling work-related meetings and conversations, and (c) recording/performing multi-step technology tasks. The experimental intervention was systematic instruction applied to ATC. The dependent measures were: (a) the use of ATC at work as measured by an ATC routine task analysis; and (b) recall of work-related tasks and information. Treatment effects were replicated across the three work-related skills and were maintained up to one year following the completion of intensive training across behaviors with periodic review (booster sessions). Systematic instruction is a critical component to teaching the routine use of ATC to compensate for cognitive impairments following ABI.

  4. Impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills. For this purpose, eight laboratory activities related to chemical kinetic, chemical equilibrium, thermochemistry, acids-bases, and electrochemistry were developed. Those activities were performed in virtual laboratory environment by the pre-service teachers in the experimental group and in the real laboratory environment by c the preservice teachers in the control group during eight weeks. Scientific process skills test developed by Burns, Okey and Wise [3], and translated into Turkish by Ateş and Bahar [2] was used before and after the instructions for data collection. According to results, while there was no significant difference between pre-test mean scores (U=133.500, p>0.05, significant difference between post-test mean scores was found in favour of experimental group (U=76.000, p<0.05. In addition, while no significant difference between pre-test mean scores for each sub-dimension was found, significant difference between post-test mean scores for designing investigation and formulating hypothesis skills was found in favour of experimental group.

  5. Using innovative instructional technology to meet training needs in public health: a design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millery, Mari; Hall, Michelle; Eisman, Joanna; Murrman, Marita

    2014-03-01

    Technology and distance learning can potentially enhance the efficient and effective delivery of continuing education to the public health workforce. Public Health Training Centers collaborate with instructional technology designers to develop innovative, competency-based online learning experiences that meet pressing training needs and promote best practices. We describe one Public Health Training Center's online learning module design process, which consists of five steps: (1) identify training needs and priority competencies; (2) define learning objectives and identify educational challenges; (3) pose hypotheses and explore innovative, technology-based solutions; (4) develop and deploy the educational experience; and (5) evaluate feedback and outcomes to inform continued cycles of revision and improvement. Examples illustrate the model's application. These steps are discussed within the context of design practices in the fields of education, engineering, and public health. They incorporate key strategies from across these fields, including principles of programmatic design familiar to public health professionals, such as backward design. The instructional technology design process we describe provides a structure for the creativity, collaboration, and systematic strategies needed to develop online learning products that address critical training needs for the public health workforce.

  6. Surface Energy and Setting Process of Contacting Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Musokhranov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a challenge in terms of ensuring an accuracy of the relative position of the conjugated surfaces that is to determine a coefficient of friction. To solve it, there is a proposal to use the surface energy, as a tool that influences the contacting parts nature. Presently, energy of the surface layers at best is only stated, but not used in practice.Analysis of the conditions of interaction between two contacting surfaces, such as seizing and setting cannot be explained only from the position of the roughness parameters. It is found that these phenomena are explained by the appearing gripe (setting bridges, which result from the energy of interaction between two or more adjacent surfaces. The emerging phenomenon such as micro welding, i.e. occurring bonds, is caused by the overflow of energy, according to the theory of physics, from the surface with a high level of energy to the surface with the smaller one to balance the system as a whole.The paper shows that through the use of process, controlling the depth of the surface layer and creating a certain structure, the energy level of the material as a whole can be specified. And this will allow us to provide the necessary performance and mechanical properties. It means to create as many gripe bridges as possible to ensure continuous positioning i.e. a fixed connection of the contacting surfaces.It was determined that to increase a value of the friction coefficient, the physical and mechanical properties of the surface layer of the parts material must be taken into account, namely, in the part body accumulate the energy to be consumed for forming the surface.The paper gives recommendations for including the parts of the surface energy in the qualitative indicators of characteristics. This will make a technologist, when routing a process, to choose such operations and modes to provide the designer-specified parameters not only of the accuracy and surface finish, but also of the

  7. Developing Elementary Math and Science Process Skills Through Engineering Design Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Matthew G.

    This paper examines how elementary students can develop math and science process skills through an engineering design approach to instruction. The performance and development of individual process skills overall and by gender were also examined. The study, preceded by a pilot, took place in a grade four extracurricular engineering design program in a public, suburban school district. Students worked in pairs and small groups to design and construct airplane models from styrofoam, paper clips, and toothpicks. The development and performance of process skills were assessed through a student survey of learning gains, an engineering design packet rubric (student work), observation field notes, and focus group notes. The results indicate that students can significantly develop process skills, that female students may develop process skills through engineering design better than male students, and that engineering design is most helpful for developing the measuring, suggesting improvements, and observing process skills. The study suggests that a more regular engineering design program or curriculum could be beneficial for students' math and science abilities both in this school and for the elementary field as a whole.

  8. Functional integration processes underlying the instruction-based learning of novel goal-directed behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Hannes; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2013-03-01

    How does the human brain translate symbolic instructions into overt behavior? Previous studies suggested that this process relies on a rapid control transition from the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) to the anterior striatum (aSTR) and premotor cortex (PMC). The present fMRI study investigated whether the transfer from symbolic to pragmatic stimulus-response (S-R) rules relies on changes in the functional coupling among these and other areas and to which extent action goal representations might get integrated within this symbolic-pragmatic transfer. Goal integration processes were examined by manipulating the contingency between actions and differential outcomes (i.e. action goals). We observed a rapid strengthening of the functional coupling between the LPFC and the basal ganglia (aSTR and putamen) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as between the LPFC and the anterior dorsal PMC (pre-PMd), the anterior inferior parietal lobule (aIPL), and the posterior superior parietal lobule (pSPL). Importantly, only some of these functional integration processes were sensitive to the outcome contingency manipulation, including LPFC couplings with aSTR, OFC, aIPL, and pre-PMd. This suggests that the symbolic-pragmatic rule transfer is governed by principles of both, instrumental learning (increasingly tighter coupling between LPFC and aSTR/OFC) and ideomotor learning (increasingly tighter coupling between LPFC and aIPL/pre-PMd). By contrast, increased functional coupling between LPFC and putamen was insensitive to outcome contingency possibly indicating an early stage of habit formation under instructed learning conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. process setting models for the minimization of costs defectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    determine the mean setting so as to minimise the total loss through under-limit complaints and loss of sales and goodwill as well as over-limit losses through excess materials and rework costs. Models are developed for the two types of setting of the mean so that the minimum costs of losses are achieved. Also, a model is ...

  10. Visual Approach and Design: The Appropriate Characteristics of Instructional Photos as a Tool to Support Elementary Setting in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhamad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study provided a guide for appropriate characteristics of Instructional Photo to be used by teachers, trainers, coaches, instructors, and anyone else who desires to deliver knowledge and present content with visual meaning to elementary students in the state of Kuwait as a teaching style that supports teachers, facilitates clarification, and…

  11. Goal-oriëntation, goal-setting and goal-driven behavior in (minimalist) user instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    2007-01-01

    This paper opens with a summary of minimalist design strategies that aim to optimize user instructions. Next, it discusses three recent research efforts to further improve these strategies. The common focus in these efforts is the attention to people’s goal-related management and control of

  12. Forum: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings. The Instructor-Student Relationship as an Alternative Form of Superior-Subordinate Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    In this brief forum article, the author suggests studying the instructor-student relationship as a superior-subordinate relationship offers an alternative way to view how student learning occurs in the college classroom, and can provide instructional communication researchers with the opportunity to explore how structural and institutional…

  13. Improvement of Organizational Performance and Instructional Design: An Analogy Based on General Principles of Natural Information Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Kalyuga, Slava

    2012-01-01

    The process of improving organizational performance through designing systemic interventions has remarkable similarities to designing instruction for improving learners' performance. Both processes deal with subjects (learners and organizations correspondingly) with certain capabilities that are exposed to novel information designed for producing…

  14. Endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Cernohous, Bob R; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-11-11

    Endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a PAMI of a parallel computer is disclosed. The PAMI is composed of data communications endpoints, each including a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications through the PAMI. The parallel application establishes a data communications geometry specifying a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI by associating with the geometry a list of collective algorithms valid for use with the endpoints of the geometry; registering in each endpoint in the geometry a dispatch callback function for a collective operation; and executing without blocking, through a single one of the endpoints in the geometry, an instruction for the collective operation.

  15. Setting Standards and Primary School Teachers' Experiences of the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherman, Vanessa; Zimmerman, Lisa; Howie, Sarah J.; Bosker, Roel

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa, very few standard-setting exercises are carried out in education and, if they are, teachers are not involved in their execution. As a result, there is no clear understanding of what the standard is and how it was arrived at. This situation is compounded when teachers are held accountable when learners do not meet the prescribed…

  16. PASS-GP: Predictive active set selection for Gaussian processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2010-01-01

    available in GPs to make a common ranking for both active and inactive points, allowing points to be removed again from the active set. This is important for keeping the complexity down and at the same time focusing on points close to the decision boundary. We lend both theoretical and empirical support...

  17. Instructional Strategies Used to Improve Students' Comfort and Skill in Addressing the Occupational Therapy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht-Sabres, Lisa Jean; Egan, Brad E.; Wallingford, Minetta S.; Kovic, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an intentional blending of instructional strategies in an occupational therapy (OT) entry-level master's course. The OT Adult Practice course uses case-based instructional strategies, clinical skills labs, and standardized patient experiences in a dovetailed approach across three…

  18. Translating Research into New Instructional Technologies for Higher Education: The Active Ingredient Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a research-based approach for developing new instructional technologies for higher education. The argument is made that the most common instructional methods used by faculty and educational technology in colleges and universities are based on adult learning theories that have not been supported in the past half-century of…

  19. Long multiplication by instruction sequences with backward jump instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    For each function on bit strings, its restriction to bit strings of any given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. Backward jump instructions

  20. Changing Perspectives on Research in Reading/Language Processing and Instruction. Thirty-Third Yearbook of the National Reading Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Jerome A., Ed.; Harris, Larry A., Ed.

    Reflecting current themes that researchers, by their selective attention, have indicated are important in the field of reading/language processing and instruction, this yearbook presents a collection of 51 selected research articles from the National Reading Conference for 1983. Included are the following articles, listed with their authors: (1)…

  1. Instructor Clarity and Student Motivation: Academic Performance as a Product of Students' Ability and Motivation to Process Instructional Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.; Kelsey, Dawn M.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the notion that the effect of instructor clarity on learning is conditioned upon students' motivation. We randomly assigned 128 participants to a video of a clear or an unclear lecture and asked them to report their motivation to deeply process lecture material. Results indicated that even with clear instruction, test scores were…

  2. A Phenomenological View of Teacher Efficacy as Experienced by Secondary Teachers Engaged in the Process of Instructional Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Shaftina Fiesta

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological was to describe teacher efficacy in the lived experiences of secondary teachers actively engaged in the instructional coaching process. The theoretical framework guiding this study was Albert Bandura's (1992) social cognitive theory as it expounds upon the role efficacy plays in human agency as it…

  3. Micro-Processes of Collaborative Innovation in Danish Welfare Settings:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores micro processes of collaborative innovation from a learning perspective. The point of departure for the chapter is my ongoing research with welfare service professionals who display considerable ambivalence towards innovation, feeling both enthusiastic towards it and burdene...... and performance and consequently how contemporary collaborative innovation can lead both to constructive and destructive processes.......This chapter explores micro processes of collaborative innovation from a learning perspective. The point of departure for the chapter is my ongoing research with welfare service professionals who display considerable ambivalence towards innovation, feeling both enthusiastic towards it and burdened...... by it. I start by framing the Danish discourse of public collaborative governance in two empirical fields: sitebased management and democracy in the 1990s, and social entrepreneurship and social innovation in the 2000s. I demonstrate how the prevailing discourses offer a number of scripts for action...

  4. Set up of Uranium-Molybdenum powder production (HMD process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Marisol; Pasqualini, Enrique E.; Gonzalez, Alfredo G.

    2003-01-01

    Powder metallurgy offers different alternatives for the production of Uranium-Molybdenum (UMo) alloy powder in sizes smaller than 150 microns. This powder is intended to be used as a dispersion fuel in an aluminum matrix for research, testing and radioisotopes production reactors (MTR). A particular process of massive hydriding the UMo alloy in gamma phase has been developed. This work describes the final adjustments of process variables to obtain UMo powder by hydriding-milling-de hydriding (HMD) and its capability for industrial scaling up. (author)

  5. Applying Statistical Process Quality Control Methodology to Educational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Carol Joyce

    A subset of Statistical Process Control (SPC) methodology known as Control Charting is introduced. SPC methodology is a collection of graphical and inferential statistics techniques used to study the progress of phenomena over time. The types of control charts covered are the null X (mean), R (Range), X (individual observations), MR (moving…

  6. Increased fairness in priority setting processes within the health sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zulu, Joseph M.; Michelo, Charles; Msoni, Carol

    2014-01-01

    administration, in non-governmental organizations (NGO) and in health facilities. RESULTS: During the baseline study, concepts of legitimacy and fairness in PS processes were found to be grounded in local values of equity and impartiality. Government and other organizational strategies strongly supported...

  7. RESPONSIVE URBAN MODELS BY PROCESSING SETS OF HETEROGENEOUS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Calvano

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some steps in experimentation aimed at describing urban spaces made following the series of earthquakes that affected a vast area of central Italy starting on 24 August 2016. More specifically, these spaces pertain to historical centres of limited size and case studies that can be called “problematic” (due to complex morphological and settlement conditions, because they are difficult to access, or because they have been affected by calamitous events, etc.. The main objectives were to verify the use of sets of heterogeneous data that are already largely available to define a workflow and develop procedures that would allow some of the steps to be automated as much as possible. The most general goal was to use the experimentation to define a methodology to approach the problem aimed at developing descriptive responsive models of the urban space, that is, morphological and computer-based models capable of being modified in relation to the constantly updated flow of input data.

  8. Considerations in setting up and planning a graft processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Mickey B C

    2017-12-01

    The graft processing facility forms one of the core components of a clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplant program. The quality of a graft is instrumental in leading to consistent and reproducible outcomes of engraftment and other parameters. As such, meticulous planning and consideration is required and will include core elements including physical design and clinical correlates. The successful running of such a facility depends on an overarching quality program and adherence to local and international regulatory guidelines. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Minimizing Banking Risk in a Lévy Process Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gideon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary functions of a bank are to obtain funds through deposits from external sources and to use the said funds to issue loans. Moreover, risk management practices related to the withdrawal of these bank deposits have always been of considerable interest. In this spirit, we construct Lévy process-driven models of banking reserves in order to address the problem of hedging deposit withdrawals from such institutions by means of reserves. Here reserves are related to outstanding debt and acts as a proxy for the assets held by the bank. The aforementioned modeling enables us to formulate a stochastic optimal control problem related to the minimization of reserve, depository, and intrinsic risk that are associated with the reserve process, the net cash flows from depository activity, and cumulative costs of the bank's provisioning strategy, respectively. A discussion of the main risk management issues arising from the optimization problem mentioned earlier forms an integral part of our paper. This includes the presentation of a numerical example involving a simulation of the provisions made for deposit withdrawals via treasuries and reserves.

  10. Knowledge processing and faculty engagement in multicultural university settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In educational studies much attention has been directed to engagement as a precondition for positive student outcomes. Very few studies, however, have focused on the engagement of the faculty members. This is a regrettable omission because engagement has been argued to lead to more satisfied, more...... – and faculty engagement. Our hypotheses are based on social learning theory and social exchange theory predicting that increased knowledge sharing activities could facilitate an environment in which faculty engagement thrives. In order to test our hypotheses we use multiple regression analysis. We assessed...... indicators of behavioural, cognitive and emotional engagement. Results showed consistent positive associations between group knowledge processing and all the studied faculty engagement indicators. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed in detail....

  11. Exploring cultural differences in feedback processes and perceived instructiveness during clerkships: replicating a Dutch study in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; van Hell, Elisabeth A; Prihatiningsih, Titi S; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2014-03-01

    Cultural differences between countries may entail differences in feedback processes. By replicating a Dutch study in Indonesia, we analysed whether differences in processes influenced the perceived instructiveness of feedback. Over a two-week period, Indonesian students (n = 215) recorded feedback moments during clerkships, noting who provided the feedback, whether the feedback was based on observations, who initiated the feedback, and its perceived instructiveness. Data were compared with the earlier Dutch study and analysed with χ(2) tests, t-tests and multilevel techniques. Cultural differences were explored using Hofstede's Model, with Indonesia and the Netherlands differing on "power distance" and "individualism." Perceived instructiveness of feedback did not differ significantly between both countries. However, significant differences were found in feedback provider, observation and initiative. Indonesian students perceived feedback as more instructive if provided by specialists and initiated jointly by the supervisor and student (βresidents = -0.201, p culture. Further research is necessary to unravel other possible influences of culture in implementing feedback procedures in different countries.

  12. The Musical Emotional Bursts: A validated set of musical affect bursts to investigate auditory affective processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien ePaquette

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Musical Emotional Bursts (MEB consist of 80 brief musical executions expressing basic emotional states (happiness, sadness and fear and neutrality. These musical bursts were designed to be the musical analogue of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV – a set of brief non-verbal affective vocalizations portraying different basic emotions. The MEB consist of short (mean duration: 1.6 sec improvisations on a given emotion or of imitations of a given MAV stimulus, played on a violin (n:40 or a clarinet (n:40. The MEB arguably represent a primitive form of music emotional expression, just like the MAV represent a primitive form of vocal, nonlinguistic emotional expression. To create the MEB, stimuli were recorded from 10 violinists and 10 clarinetists, and then evaluated by 60 participants. Participants evaluated 240 stimuli (30 stimuli x 4 [3 emotions + neutral] x 2 instruments by performing either a forced-choice emotion categorization task, a valence rating task or an arousal rating task (20 subjects per task; 40 MAVs were also used in the same session with similar task instructions. Recognition accuracy of emotional categories expressed by the MEB (n:80 was lower than for the MAVs but still very high with an average percent correct recognition score of 80.4%. Highest recognition accuracies were obtained for happy clarinet (92.0% and fearful or sad violin (88.0% each MEB stimuli. The MEB can be used to compare the cerebral processing of emotional expressions in music and vocal communication, or used for testing affective perception in patients with communication problems.

  13. Computer simulation of the behaviour of Julia sets using switching processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, Ashish [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, G.B. Pant Engineering College, Pauri Garhwal 246001 (India)], E-mail: ashish_ne@yahoo.com; Rani, Mamta [Department of Computer Science, Galgotia College of Engineering and Technology, UP Technical University, Knowledge Park-II, Greater Noida, Gautam Buddha Nagar, UP (India)], E-mail: vedicmri@sancharnet.in; Mahanti, P.K. [Department of CSAS, University of New Brunswick, Saint Johhn, New Brunswick, E2L4L5 (Canada)], E-mail: pmahanti@unbsj.ca

    2008-08-15

    Inspired by the study of Julia sets using switched processes by Lakhtakia and generation of new fractals by composite functions by Shirriff, we study the effect of switched processes on superior Julia sets given by Rani and Kumar. Further, symmetry for such processes is also discussed in the paper.

  14. Computer simulation of the behaviour of Julia sets using switching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negi, Ashish; Rani, Mamta; Mahanti, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the study of Julia sets using switched processes by Lakhtakia and generation of new fractals by composite functions by Shirriff, we study the effect of switched processes on superior Julia sets given by Rani and Kumar. Further, symmetry for such processes is also discussed in the paper

  15. Standard Setting as Psychometric Due Process: Going a Little Further Down an Uncertain Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Gregory J.

    The concept of due process provides an analogy for the process of standard setting that emphasizes many of the procedural and substantive elements of the process over technical and statistical concerns. Surely such concerns can and should continue to be addressed. However, a sound rationale for standard setting does not rest on this foundation.…

  16. A Set of English Instructional Materials Using Task-Based Learning for News Production Management Study Program in STMM “MMMTC” Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanna Gistha Wicita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The News Production Management Study Program (NPMSP in STMM “MMTC” Yogyakarta is a study program that has an English subject in the third semester. Due to the lack of time and materials for the students, English, which they will use a lot in journalism, becomes their barrier in learning. Therefore, this research attempted to develop a set of English instructional materials using task-based learning for the third semester students of the NPMSP STMM “MMTC” Yogyakarta. This research aimed to answer how the materials are developed and what the materials look like. To gather the information, the researcher adopted Borg & Gall’s (1986 Research and Development (R&D method which was combined with Kemp’s instructional design model (1977 covering eight flexible steps. Due to time and financial constraints, only five steps of R&D were conducted in designing the materials. To gather the information, the researcher conducted some interviews. After designing the materials, the interview was conducted. The interview results showed that the designed materials were good, appropriate, and applicable. Nine suggestions were obtained to revise the materials which covered the level of difficulty of the text, the content of the exercises, the overview of the learning materials, teaching media, lesson plans, instructions, layout, and material implementation. The materials consist of six units. Each unit contains five sessions, namely “What’s Up?”, “Entering the Newsroom”, “Journalists’ Project”, “Entering the News Editor Room”, and “Lesson Learned”.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2015.180107

  17. The Effects of Using Multimedia Presentations and Modular Worked-Out Examples as Instructional Methodologies to Manage the Cognitive Processing Associated with Information Literacy Instruction at the Graduate and Undergraduate Levels of Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Shawn P.

    2012-01-01

    Information literacy is a complex knowledge domain. Cognitive processing theory describes the effects an instructional subject and the learning environment have on working memory. Essential processing is one component of cognitive processing theory that explains the inherent complexity of knowledge domains such as information literacy. Prior…

  18. Algorithmic analysis of relational learning processes in instructional technology: Some implications for basic, translational, and applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvane, William J; Kledaras, Joanne B; Gerard, Christophe J; Wilde, Lorin; Smelson, David

    2018-07-01

    A few noteworthy exceptions notwithstanding, quantitative analyses of relational learning are most often simple descriptive measures of study outcomes. For example, studies of stimulus equivalence have made much progress using measures such as percentage consistent with equivalence relations, discrimination ratio, and response latency. Although procedures may have ad hoc variations, they remain fairly similar across studies. Comparison studies of training variables that lead to different outcomes are few. Yet to be developed are tools designed specifically for dynamic and/or parametric analyses of relational learning processes. This paper will focus on recent studies to develop (1) quality computer-based programmed instruction for supporting relational learning in children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disabilities and (2) formal algorithms that permit ongoing, dynamic assessment of learner performance and procedure changes to optimize instructional efficacy and efficiency. Because these algorithms have a strong basis in evidence and in theories of stimulus control, they may have utility also for basic and translational research. We present an overview of the research program, details of algorithm features, and summary results that illustrate their possible benefits. It also presents arguments that such algorithm development may encourage parametric research, help in integrating new research findings, and support in-depth quantitative analyses of stimulus control processes in relational learning. Such algorithms may also serve to model control of basic behavioral processes that is important to the design of effective programmed instruction for human learners with and without functional disabilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Does physics instruction foster university students' cognitive processes? : a descriptive study of teacher activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson - Hessler, M.G.M.; Jong, de T.

    1993-01-01

    This study aims at giving a systematic description of the cognitive activities involved in teaching physics. Such a description of instruction in physics requires a basis in two models, that is, the cognitive activities involved in learning physics and the knowledge base that is the foundation of

  20. Examining Feedback in an Instructional Video Game Using Process Data and Error Analysis. CRESST Report 817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschang, Rebecca E.; Kerr, Deirdre S.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Appropriately designed technology-based learning environments such as video games can be used to give immediate and individualized feedback to students. However, little is known about the design and use of feedback in instructional video games. This study investigated how feedback used in a mathematics video game about fractions impacted student…

  1. Understanding the Condemnation Process in Texas. Teachers Instructional Packet, TIP No. 8, Fall 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Real Estate Research Center.

    Part of a series of classroom aids designed for real estate instructors, this instructional packet was developed to help real estate students understand where the power to condemn property comes from, which entities have this power, what the condemnation procedure is in Texas, and how property rights are best protected. First, information about…

  2. An Alternative View of the Instructional Design Process: A Response to Smith and Boling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Yanchar, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    A recent literature review by Smith and Boling (2009) critically examines the received view of instructional design in educational technology. Smith and Boling conclude that the foundational literature characterizes design in a way that leads to a constrained understanding of design, especially by novices. They suggest that as a field we move…

  3. Examining the Role of Self-Disclosure and Connectedness in the Process of Instructional Dissent: A Test of the Instructional Beliefs Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zac D.; LaBelle, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between student-to-student communicative behaviors and communication outcomes in the college classroom. The instructional beliefs model was used to examine student self-disclosures, student perceptions of connectedness, and student enactment of instructional dissent. Students (N = 351) completed…

  4. Using a profiling process to insure program quality: Volume I - a self-instructional manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaser, J.S.; Roody, D.S.; Raizen, S.A.

    1996-11-01

    Between 1990 and 1995 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Center for Improving Science Education (National Center) developed a system for ongoing evaluation of K-12 educational programs in the DOE-supported national energy Laboratories. As part of the formative evaluation component of this collaborative endeavor, field staff in the Laboratories began creating profiles of their programs. However, many individuals within DOE Headquarters were not familiar with this profiling process and were unprepared to use the valuable information that the profiles generated. This manual was produced to orient Headquarters staff to profiling. It focuses on how Headquarters staff can use the profiling process to help their funded programs establish and/or maintain high quality. Its purpose, then, is not to train Headquarters staff to become proficient in profiling, but to show them how to draw on the Laboratories` use of profiling to bring about program improvement. Profiling is the process of systematically examining and describing a program`s elements against a set of components that define Effective Practice. The instrument used to capture the data for analysis is called a template, and most of this manual focuses on the templates and how to read and interpret them. However, since it is important to understand these data in context, the authors also describe what should accompany each template in a complete profiling packet and offer guidelines for reviewing complete packets and providing feedback to program managers.

  5. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction to Teach Research Methods to 4th-Grade Students in an Urban Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…

  6. Inclusive differentiated instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ljiljana S.

    2017-01-01

    expressive reading and information reception and comprehension; and C critical and creative reading and creative information processing. The students assigned to the experimental group learnt about and acquired literary theory concepts and special characteristics of literary genres within their 'zones of proximal development,' while the lessons taught to the control group were structured to suit an average or imaginary student. The same requirements were set on all students in the control group, regardless of their individual level of familiarity with literary theory notions and concepts and the degree to which they were capable of comprehending and experiencing a literary text. The results of the experiment carried out with such parallel groups show that the achievement of the students included in the experimental group, who were taught according to individualized instruction plans, was better in a way that was statistically significant, in comparison with both their knowledge of the subject matter before the experiment and the control group, whose members attended classes organized in a predominantly traditional, non-individualistic way.

  7. Some applications of fuzzy sets and the analytical hierarchy process to decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Alberto Rosas

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited This thesis examines the use of fuzzy set theory and the analytic hierarchy process in decision making. It begins by reviewing the insight of psychologists, social scientists and computer scientists to the decision making process. The Operations Research- Systems Analysis approach is discussed followed by a presentation of the basis of fuzzy set theory and the analytic hierarchy process. Two applications of these meth...

  8. Identification of electrical resistance of fresh state concrete for nondestructive setting process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Woo

    2015-01-01

    Concrete undergoes significant phase changes from liquid to solid states as hydration progresses. These phase changes are known as the setting process. A liquid state concrete is electrically conductive because of the presence of water and ions. However, since the conductive elements in the liquid state of concrete are consumed to produce non-conductive hydration products, the electrical conductivity of hydrating concrete decreases during the setting process. Therefore, the electrical properties of hydrating concrete can be used to monitor the setting process of concrete. In this study, a parameter identification method to estimate electrical parameters such as ohmic resistance of concrete is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed method for monitoring the setting process of concrete is experimentally validated

  9. Managing the construction bidding process : a move to simpler construction plan sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-31

    This project was conducted to determine whether construction plan sets could be significantly simplified to speed the process of moving projects to construction. The work steps included a literature review, a telephone survey of highway agencies in s...

  10. The impact of negative attentional set upon target processing in RSVP : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Dexuan; Zhou, Xiaolin; Martens, Sander

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether the negative attentional set, a form of top-down attentional bias, can be set up on a trial-by-trial basis and impair online target processing in an RSVP (Rapid Serial Visual Presentation) task in which two targets are to be identified. Using the N2pc (N2 posterior

  11. Technologies for the Fast Set-Up of Automated Assembly Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Ude, Ales; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2014-01-01

    of so called few-of-a-kind production. Therefore, most production of this kind is done manually and thus often performed in low-wage countries. In the IntellAct project, we have developed a set of methods which facilitate the set-up of a complex automatic assembly process, and here we present our work...

  12. Setting priorities in health care organizations: criteria, processes, and parameters of success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Douglas K

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospitals and regional health authorities must set priorities in the face of resource constraints. Decision-makers seek practical ways to set priorities fairly in strategic planning, but find limited guidance from the literature. Very little has been reported from the perspective of Board members and senior managers about what criteria, processes and parameters of success they would use to set priorities fairly. Discussion We facilitated workshops for board members and senior leadership at three health care organizations to assist them in developing a strategy for fair priority setting. Workshop participants identified 8 priority setting criteria, 10 key priority setting process elements, and 6 parameters of success that they would use to set priorities in their organizations. Decision-makers in other organizations can draw lessons from these findings to enhance the fairness of their priority setting decision-making. Summary Lessons learned in three workshops fill an important gap in the literature about what criteria, processes, and parameters of success Board members and senior managers would use to set priorities fairly.

  13. Setting priorities in health care organizations: criteria, processes, and parameters of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer L; Martin, Douglas K; Singer, Peter A

    2004-09-08

    Hospitals and regional health authorities must set priorities in the face of resource constraints. Decision-makers seek practical ways to set priorities fairly in strategic planning, but find limited guidance from the literature. Very little has been reported from the perspective of Board members and senior managers about what criteria, processes and parameters of success they would use to set priorities fairly. We facilitated workshops for board members and senior leadership at three health care organizations to assist them in developing a strategy for fair priority setting. Workshop participants identified 8 priority setting criteria, 10 key priority setting process elements, and 6 parameters of success that they would use to set priorities in their organizations. Decision-makers in other organizations can draw lessons from these findings to enhance the fairness of their priority setting decision-making. Lessons learned in three workshops fill an important gap in the literature about what criteria, processes, and parameters of success Board members and senior managers would use to set priorities fairly.

  14. CO 2 laser cutting of MDF . 1. Determination of process parameter settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, K. C. P.; Ng, S. L.; Black, I.

    2000-02-01

    This paper details an investigation into the laser processing of medium-density fibreboard (MDF). Part 1 reports on the determination of process parameter settings for the effective cutting of MDF by CO 2 laser, using an established experimental methodology developed to study the interrelationship between and effects of varying laser set-up parameters. Results are presented for both continuous wave (CW) and pulse mode (PM) cutting, and the associated cut quality effects have been commented on.

  15. STUDY REGARDING STUDENTS- SATISFACTION WITH INSTRUCTIONAL PROCESS AS A DIMENSION OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chis Alexandru

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic education in Romania has gone through many changes in recent years, in order to modernize and adapt to the requirements of the economy based on knowledge. But, regardless of the stage, students satisfaction is a key criterion for assessing the relevance and the accomplishment of the mission of universities in society. The highest satisfaction should be a constant concern for managers of higher education institutions. In order to achieve this goal, it is very important to periodically determine which are the most significant factors for students, how satisfied are they and which is the performance of the higher education for these attributes. The knowledge transfer process and the degree to which we can speak of a modern university tailored to the needs of the business environment and focused on increasing the relevance of the educational process for the labour market can be appreciated taking into consideration the content of the educational activities. The objective of this research is to identify relationships between the importance, satisfaction and performance of the instructional process in the process of improvement of the university management and the creation of better university programs. Our analysis was based on an empirical research conducted in a major Romanian faculty in the field: Faculty of Economics and Business Administration of Cluj-Napoca. The research was carried out by means of the survey method using quota sampling. Findings have revealed a significant positive contribution of the assessed factors to the increase of the quality of educational process. Also the factors that characterize the instructional process are correlated. The results revealed students concern to acquire practical knowledge. There is also a significant difference between students' expectations and students satisfaction regarding the quality of the content of teaching activity. Unfortunately, in case of all factors the performance of

  16. Application of Fuzzy Sets in an Expert System For Technological Process Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Tošenovský

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is preoccupied with application of an expert system in the management of a process with one input and one output, using the fuzzy set theory. It resolves the problem of formalization of a verbal description of the process management coupled with the use of process operator’s experience. The procedure that calculates regulatory intervention in the process is presented and accompanied by graphical illustrations.

  17. THE TECHER’S PERSONALITY – FUNDAMENTAL CONDITION IN THE UNIVERSITY INSTRUCTIVE-EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMENDANT TATIANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary system of education, one of the main indicators that traces the reform of European higher education is based on teaching centred on the student. For carrying out the instructive-educational activities there are three factors that have a determining role: the university students, the teaching staff and the higher education institution. The article emphasizes the teacher’s personality. The author considers the problem of the quality of studies based on a new type of organizing university education and proposes new ways of obtaining progress in education presented in the items of the PDCA cycle. Emphasis is laid on the formative-informative aspect of the agents involved in education – teacher-student and the role played by them in the university environment.

  18. Quality Control and Peer Review of Data Sets: Mapping Data Archiving Processes to Data Publication Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayernik, M. S.; Daniels, M.; Eaker, C.; Strand, G.; Williams, S. F.; Worley, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Data sets exist within scientific research and knowledge networks as both technical and non-technical entities. Establishing the quality of data sets is a multi-faceted task that encompasses many automated and manual processes. Data sets have always been essential for science research, but now need to be more visible as first-class scholarly objects at national, international, and local levels. Many initiatives are establishing procedures to publish and curate data sets, as well as to promote professional rewards for researchers that collect, create, manage, and preserve data sets. Traditionally, research quality has been assessed by peer review of textual publications, e.g. journal articles, conference proceedings, and books. Citation indices then provide standard measures of productivity used to reward individuals for their peer-reviewed work. Whether a similar peer review process is appropriate for assessing and ensuring the quality of data sets remains as an open question. How does the traditional process of peer review apply to data sets? This presentation will describe current work being done at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in the context of the Peer REview for Publication & Accreditation of Research Data in the Earth sciences (PREPARDE) project. PREPARDE is assessing practices and processes for data peer review, with the goal of developing recommendations. NCAR data management teams perform various kinds of quality assessment and review of data sets prior to making them publicly available. The poster will investigate how notions of peer review relate to the types of data review already in place at NCAR. We highlight the data set characteristics and management/archiving processes that challenge the traditional peer review processes by using a number of questions as probes, including: Who is qualified to review data sets? What formal and informal documentation is necessary to allow someone outside of a research team to review a data set

  19. Conference Proceedings: Aptitude, Learning, and Instruction. Volume 1. Cognitive Process Analyses of Aptitude,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    structures contained in the stimuli. The adaptation involved creating additional sets of positive sentences and generating companion sets of negative...new recipe, the creative chef considers the interactions of several known culinary achieve- ments. Within the same realm, consciousness is used to

  20. Missing in Action: Writing Process-Based Instructional Practices and Measures of Higher-Order Literacy Achievement in Predominantly Urban Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briddell, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study of 1,974 fifth grade students investigated potential relationships between writing process-based instruction practices and higher-order thinking measured by a standardized literacy assessment. Writing process is defined as a highly complex, socio-cognitive process that includes: planning, text production, review, metacognition, writing…

  1. The Integration of Technology in a Decentralized Curriculum Setting: The Case of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Instruction in Gorontalo, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmud, Karmila

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research explored the issues and challenges in teaching English as Foreign Language (EFL) in Gorontalo, Indonesia, from two main cases. First is the implementation of the "Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan" ("KTSP") in EFL Instructions; second is the integration of technology in EFL instruction. This…

  2. Power battles in ICT standards-setting process : lessons from mobile payments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Standards play an important role in ICT innovation to ensure the interoperability and interconnectivity. However, standardisation is a complex process that involves actors with different interests. Various studies, which are mainly economics, have tried to develop the standards-setting process

  3. Patient involvement in a scientific advisory process: setting the research agenda for medical products.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elberse, J.E.; Pittens, C.A.C.M.; de Cock Buning, J.T.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Patient involvement in scientific advisory processes could lead to more societally relevant advice. This article describes a case study wherein the Health Council of the Netherlands involved patient groups in an advisory process with a predefined focus: setting a research agenda for medical products

  4. An automated Y-maze based on a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) microcontroller for the assessment of continuous spontaneous alternation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-López, Francisco J; Álvarez-Cervera, Fernando J; Collí-Alfaro, José G; Bata-García, José L; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria; Góngora-Alfaro, José L

    2016-12-01

    Continuous spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB) in a Y-maze is used for evaluating working memory in rodents. Here, the design of an automated Y-maze equipped with three infrared optocouplers per arm, and commanded by a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) microcontroller is described. The software was devised for recording only true entries and exits to the arms. Experimental settings are programmed via a keyboard with three buttons and a display. The sequence of arm entries and the time spent in each arm and the neutral zone (NZ) are saved as a text file in a non-volatile memory for later transfer to a USB flash memory. Data files are analyzed with a program developed under LabVIEW® environment, and the results are exported to an Excel® spreadsheet file. Variables measured are: latency to exit the starting arm, sequence and number of arm entries, number of alternations, alternation percentage, and cumulative times spent in each arm and NZ. The automated Y-maze accurately detected the SAB decrease produced in rats by the muscarinic antagonist trihexyphenidyl, and its reversal by caffeine, having 100 % concordance with the alternation percentages calculated by two trained observers who independently watched videos of the same experiments. Although the values of time spent in the arms and NZ measured by the automated system had small discrepancies with those calculated by the observers, Bland-Altman analysis showed 95 % concordance in three pairs of comparisons, while in one it was 90 %, indicating that this system is a reliable and inexpensive alternative for the study of continuous SAB in rodents.

  5. The Role of Unconscious Information Processing in the Acquisition and Learning of Instructional Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Bakar, Zainudin Abu; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates how the unconscious information processing can create satisfactory learning outcomes, and can be used to ameliorate the challenges of teaching students to regulate their learning processes. The search for the ideal model of human information processing as regards achievement of teaching and learning objectives is a…

  6. Processes and Instructions Encouraging Thai Students Consistently Pass the First Round of The National Physics Academics Olympiads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teevasuthornsakul, Chalongchai; Manosuttirit, Artnarong; Suwanno, Chirasak; Sutsaguan, Lanchakorn

    2010-07-01

    This research focused on the processes and physics instruction of 25 schools located in Bangkok and up-country in Thailand in order to explain why many of their students have passed the first round of the National Physics Academic Olympiads consistently. The high schools in Thailand can apply and support their students and develop their potential in physics. The development of physics professional is the cornerstone of a developing country and increase physics quality base on sciences development in the future in Thailand. The duration of collecting all data was from May 2007 to May 2009. The methodology for this research was the qualitative research method. The researchers interviewed managers, teachers and students at each school location or used semi-structured interview forms. The researchers used the Investigator Triangulation approach to check the qualitative data and the Cause and Effect Analysis approach to analyze situation factors. The results showed that in processes were include 1) enhanced the students with the Academic Olympiads to develop the capacities of students; 2) motivated the students with processes such as good instruction in physics and special privilege in continuing studies in university; and 3) tutorial systems and drill and practice systems support students into subsequent rounds. 4) Admiration activities accommodated the students continually and suitably. Most of the teaching styles used in their lectures, in both basic contents and practice, encouraged students to analyze entrance examination papers, little laboratory. While students say that" They just know that a physics laboratory is very important to study physics after they passed Olympic camp."

  7. Self-reference modulates the processing of emotional stimuli in the absence of explicit self-referential appraisal instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Paul; Herbert, Beate M.

    2011-01-01

    Self-referential evaluation of emotional stimuli has been shown to modify the way emotional stimuli are processed. This study aimed at a new approach by investigating whether self-reference alters emotion processing in the absence of explicit self-referential appraisal instructions. Event-related potentials were measured while subjects spontaneously viewed a series of emotional and neutral nouns. Nouns were preceded either by personal pronouns (‘my’) indicating self-reference or a definite article (‘the’) without self-reference. The early posterior negativity, a brain potential reflecting rapid attention capture by emotional stimuli was enhanced for unpleasant and pleasant nouns relative to neutral nouns irrespective of whether nouns were preceded by personal pronouns or articles. Later brain potentials such as the late positive potential were enhanced for unpleasant nouns only when preceded by personal pronouns. Unpleasant nouns were better remembered than pleasant or neutral nouns when paired with a personal pronoun. Correlation analysis showed that this bias in favor of self-related unpleasant concepts can be explained by participants’ depression scores. Our results demonstrate that self-reference acts as a first processing filter for emotional material to receive higher order processing after an initial rapid attention capture by emotional content has been completed. Mood-congruent processing may contribute to this effect. PMID:20855295

  8. Neural Differences in Bilingual Children's Arithmetic Processing Depending on Language of Instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondt, K.; Struys, E.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Metens, T.; Paquier, P.; Craen, P. van de; Bosch, M.P.C.; Denolin, V.

    2011-01-01

    Many children in bilingual regions follow lessons in a language at school (school-language) that they hardly ever speak at home or in other informal settings. What are the neural effects of this phenomenon? This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigates the effects of using

  9. Psychology of Agenda-Setting Effects. Mapping the Paths of Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell McCombs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Need for Orientation introduced in the early years of agenda-setting research provided a psychological explanation for why agenda-setting effects occur in terms of what individuals bring to the media experience that determines the strength of these effects. Until recently, there had been no significant additions to our knowledge about the psychology of agenda-setting effects. However, the concept of Need for Orientation is only one part of the answer to the question about why agenda setting occurs. Recent research outlines a second way to answer the why question by describing the psychological process through which these effects occur. In this review, we integrate four contemporary studies that explicate dual psychological paths that lead to agenda-setting effects at the first and second levels. We then examine how information preferences and selective exposure can be profitably included in the agenda-setting framework. Complementing these new models of information processing and varying attention to media content and presentation cues, an expanded concept of psychological relevance, motivated reasoning goals (accuracy versus directional goals, and issue publics are discussed.

  10. Signal Processing for Nondifferentiable Data Defined on Cantor Sets: A Local Fractional Fourier Series Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From the signal processing point of view, the nondifferentiable data defined on the Cantor sets are investigated in this paper. The local fractional Fourier series is used to process the signals, which are the local fractional continuous functions. Our results can be observed as significant extensions of the previously known results for the Fourier series in the framework of the local fractional calculus. Some examples are given to illustrate the efficiency and implementation of the present method.

  11. ON THE ESTIMATION OF DISTANCE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS FOR POINT PROCESSES AND RANDOM SETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Stoyan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses various estimators for the nearest neighbour distance distribution function D of a stationary point process and for the quadratic contact distribution function Hq of a stationary random closed set. It recommends the use of Hanisch's estimator of D, which is of Horvitz-Thompson type, and the minussampling estimator of Hq. This recommendation is based on simulations for Poisson processes and Boolean models.

  12. Towards an Understanding of Instructional Design Heuristics: An Exploratory Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cindy S.; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that experienced instructional designers often use heuristics and adapted models when engaged in the instructional design problem-solving process. This study used the Delphi technique to identify a core set of heuristics designers reported as being important to the success of the design process. The overarching purpose of the…

  13. Use of simulated data sets to evaluate the fidelity of metagenomic processing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Shapiro, Harris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goltsman, Eugene [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; McHardy, Alice C. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Rigoutsos, Isidore [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Salamov, Asaf [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Korzeniewski, Frank [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Grigoriev, Igor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2007-01-01

    Metagenomics is a rapidly emerging field of research for studying microbial communities. To evaluate methods presently used to process metagenomic sequences, we constructed three simulated data sets of varying complexity by combining sequencing reads randomly selected from 113 isolate genomes. These data sets were designed to model real metagenomes in terms of complexity and phylogenetic composition. We assembled sampled reads using three commonly used genome assemblers (Phrap, Arachne and JAZZ), and predicted genes using two popular gene-finding pipelines (fgenesb and CRITICA/GLIMMER). The phylogenetic origins of the assembled contigs were predicted using one sequence similarity-based ( blast hit distribution) and two sequence composition-based (PhyloPythia, oligonucleotide frequencies) binning methods. We explored the effects of the simulated community structure and method combinations on the fidelity of each processing step by comparison to the corresponding isolate genomes. The simulated data sets are available online to facilitate standardized benchmarking of tools for metagenomic analysis.

  14. Complementary Self-Biased Logics Based on Single-Electron Transistor (SET)/CMOS Hybrid Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ki-Whan; Lee, Yong Kyu; Sim, Jae Sung; Kim, Kyung Rok; Lee, Jong Duk; Park, Byung-Gook; You, Young Sub; Park, Joo-On; Jin, You Seung; Kim, Young-Wug

    2005-04-01

    We propose a complementary self-biasing method which enables the single-electron transistor (SET)/complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) hybrid multi-valued logics (MVLs) to operate well at high temperatures, where the peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) of the Coulomb oscillation markedly decreases. The new architecture is implemented with a few transistors by utilizing the phase control capability of the sidewall depletion gates in dual-gate single-electron transistors (DGSETs). The suggested scheme is evaluated by a SPICE simulation with an analytical DGSET model. Furthermore, we have developed a new process technology for the SET/CMOS hybrid systems. We have confirmed that both of the fabricated devices, namely, SET and CMOS transistors, exhibit the ideal characteristics for the complementary self-biasing scheme: the SET shows clear Coulomb oscillations with a 100 mV period and the CMOS transistors show a high voltage gain.

  15. Development of a Goal Setting Process and Instrumentation for Teachers and Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minix, Nancy; And Others

    A pilot program, the Career Ladder Plan, was developed in Kentucky to evaluate a teacher's performance in terms of professional growth and development and professional leadership/initiative based on that teacher's performance on a setting/goal attainment process. Goals jointly selected by the teacher and his/her principal must contribute to school…

  16. The Minimum Data Set Depression Quality Indicator: Does It Reflect Differences in Care Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, S.F.; Cadogan, M.P.; Cabrera, G.R.; Al-Samarrai, N.R.; Jorge, J.S.; Levy-Storms, L.; Osterweil, D.; Schnelle, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of this work was to determine if nursing homes that score differently on prevalence of depression, according to the Minimum Data Set (MDS) quality indicator, also provide different processes of care related to depression. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study with 396 long-term residents in 14 skilled nursing…

  17. Factors Influencing the Degree of Intrajudge Consistency during the Standard Setting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    The accuracy of standards obtained from judgmental methods is dependent on the quality of the judgments made by experts throughout the standard setting process. One important dimension of the quality of these judgments is the consistency of the judges' perceptions with item performance of minimally competent candidates. Several interrelated…

  18. Setting up a randomized clinical trial in the UK: approvals and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Louise Eleanor; Bearn, David R

    2013-06-01

    Randomized clinical trials are considered the 'gold standard' in primary research for healthcare interventions. However, they can be expensive and time-consuming to set up and require many approvals to be in place before they can begin. This paper outlines how to determine what approvals are required for a trial, the background of each approval and the process for obtaining them.

  19. Proceedings of the First International Research Workshop for Process Improvement in Small Settings, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NeedsCONTINOUS IMPROVEMENT CYCLE Banco de Datos Organizaci ón Data Bank of the Organization ’s Projects Project Data Established Improvements Te m pl at es Te...25 From Bedini G, Alejandro. Calidad y conocimiento , Cartagena de Indias Colombia. CMU/SEI-2006-SR...135 4.3 A Pattern- Based Approach to Deploy Process Improvements in Small Settings

  20. Formal participation in the IASB's due process of standard setting : A multi-issue/multiperiod analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, A.; Lybaert, N.; Orens, R.; van der Tas, L.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper sets out to enquire about the nature of constituents' participation in the IASB's due process in terms of representation (constituents' diversity and characteristics) and drivers to participate. We choose to adopt a multi-issue/multi-period approach to investigate constituents' formal

  1. Strategy for design NIR calibration sets based on process spectrum and model space: An innovative approach for process analytical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, V; Cordobés, M; Blanco, M; Alcalà, M

    2015-10-10

    The pharmaceutical industry is under stringent regulations on quality control of their products because is critical for both, productive process and consumer safety. According to the framework of "process analytical technology" (PAT), a complete understanding of the process and a stepwise monitoring of manufacturing are required. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with chemometrics have lately performed efficient, useful and robust for pharmaceutical analysis. One crucial step in developing effective NIRS-based methodologies is selecting an appropriate calibration set to construct models affording accurate predictions. In this work, we developed calibration models for a pharmaceutical formulation during its three manufacturing stages: blending, compaction and coating. A novel methodology is proposed for selecting the calibration set -"process spectrum"-, into which physical changes in the samples at each stage are algebraically incorporated. Also, we established a "model space" defined by Hotelling's T(2) and Q-residuals statistics for outlier identification - inside/outside the defined space - in order to select objectively the factors to be used in calibration set construction. The results obtained confirm the efficacy of the proposed methodology for stepwise pharmaceutical quality control, and the relevance of the study as a guideline for the implementation of this easy and fast methodology in the pharma industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of problem-based and lecture-based instructional strategies on learner problem solving performance, problem solving processes, and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Yusra Laila

    This study compared the effect of lecture-based instruction to that of problem-based instruction on learner performance (on near-transfer and far-transfer problems), problem solving processes (reasoning strategy usage and reasoning efficiency), and attitudes (overall motivation and learner confidence) in a Genetics course. The study also analyzed the effect of self-regulatory skills and prior-academic achievement on performance for both instructional strategies. Sixty 11th grade students at a public math and science academy were assigned to either a lecture-based instructional strategy or a problem-based instructional strategy. Both treatment groups received 18 weeks of Genetics instruction through the assigned instructional strategy. In terms of problem solving performance, results revealed that the lecture-based group performed significantly better on near-transfer post-test problems. The problem-based group performed significantly better on far-transfer post-test problems. In addition, results indicated the learners in the lecture-based instructional treatment were significantly more likely to employ data-driven reasoning in the solving of problems, whereas learners in the problem-based instructional treatment were significantly more likely to employ hypothesis-driven reasoning in problem solving. No significant differences in reasoning efficiency were uncovered between treatment groups. Preliminary analysis of the motivation data suggested that there were no significant differences in motivation between treatment groups. However, a post-research exploratory analysis suggests that overall motivation was significantly higher in the lecture-based instructional treatment than in the problem-based instructional treatment. Learner confidence was significantly higher in the lecture-based group than in the problem-based group. A significant positive correlation was detected between self-regulatory skills scores and problem solving performance scores in the problem

  3. Essential processes for cognitive behavioral clinical supervision: Agenda setting, problem-solving, and formative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Ballantyne, Elena C; Scallion, Laura M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical supervision should be a proactive and considered endeavor, not a reactive one. To that end, supervisors should choose supervision processes that are driven by theory, best available research, and clinical experience. These processes should be aimed at helping trainees develop as clinicians. We highlight 3 supervision processes we believe should be used at each supervision meeting: agenda setting, encouraging trainee problem-solving, and formative feedback. Although these are primarily cognitive-behavioral skills, they can be helpful in combination with other supervision models. We provide example dialogue from supervision exchanges, and discuss theoretical and research support for these processes. Using these processes not only encourages trainee development but also models for them how to use the same processes and approaches with clients. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Use of research-based instructional strategies in introductory physics: Where do faculty leave the innovation-decision process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Charles; Dancy, Melissa; Niewiadomska-Bugaj, Magdalena

    2012-12-01

    During the fall of 2008 a web survey, designed to collect information about pedagogical knowledge and practices, was completed by a representative sample of 722 physics faculty across the United States (50.3% response rate). This paper presents partial results to describe how 20 potential predictor variables correlate with faculty knowledge about and use of research-based instructional strategies (RBIS). The innovation-decision process was conceived of in terms of four stages: knowledge versus no knowledge, trial versus no trial, continuation versus discontinuation, and high versus low use. The largest losses occur at the continuation stage, with approximately 1/3 of faculty discontinuing use of all RBIS after trying one or more of these strategies. Nine of the predictor variables were statistically significant for at least one of these stages when controlling for other variables. Knowledge and/or use of RBIS are significantly correlated with reading teaching-related journals, attending talks and workshops related to teaching, attending the physics and astronomy new faculty workshop, having an interest in using more RBIS, being female, being satisfied with meeting instructional goals, and having a permanent, full-time position. The types of variables that are significant at each stage vary substantially. These results suggest that common dissemination strategies are good at creating knowledge about RBIS and motivation to try a RBIS, but more work is needed to support faculty during implementation and continued use of RBIS. Also, contrary to common assumptions, faculty age, institutional type, and percentage of job related to teaching were not found to be barriers to knowledge or use at any stage. High research productivity and large class sizes were not found to be barriers to use of at least some RBIS.

  5. Use of research-based instructional strategies in introductory physics: Where do faculty leave the innovation-decision process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Henderson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the fall of 2008 a web survey, designed to collect information about pedagogical knowledge and practices, was completed by a representative sample of 722 physics faculty across the United States (50.3% response rate. This paper presents partial results to describe how 20 potential predictor variables correlate with faculty knowledge about and use of research-based instructional strategies (RBIS. The innovation-decision process was conceived of in terms of four stages: knowledge versus no knowledge, trial versus no trial, continuation versus discontinuation, and high versus low use. The largest losses occur at the continuation stage, with approximately 1/3 of faculty discontinuing use of all RBIS after trying one or more of these strategies. Nine of the predictor variables were statistically significant for at least one of these stages when controlling for other variables. Knowledge and/or use of RBIS are significantly correlated with reading teaching-related journals, attending talks and workshops related to teaching, attending the physics and astronomy new faculty workshop, having an interest in using more RBIS, being female, being satisfied with meeting instructional goals, and having a permanent, full-time position. The types of variables that are significant at each stage vary substantially. These results suggest that common dissemination strategies are good at creating knowledge about RBIS and motivation to try a RBIS, but more work is needed to support faculty during implementation and continued use of RBIS. Also, contrary to common assumptions, faculty age, institutional type, and percentage of job related to teaching were not found to be barriers to knowledge or use at any stage. High research productivity and large class sizes were not found to be barriers to use of at least some RBIS.

  6. Interdisciplinary and Intercultural Differences in Learning Strategy Use: Implications for Language Processing, Curriculum and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad F.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examines English as foreign language college interdisciplinary and intercultural differences in learning strategy use and their implications for language processing. Positivism underpins this research at the levels of ontology (standardized variables), epistemology (detachment from the subjects) and methodology, using nomothetic…

  7. Developmental Changes in Memory: The Effects of Processing Time and Rehearsal Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Mary J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An overt rehearsal procedure was used to investigate the relationship between children's rehearsal strategies and free recall performance. Subjects were 72 third- and 72 sixth-grade children. Investigated were the effects of increased processing time and rehearsal training upon recall. (MS)

  8. Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement (ITEMS) Module: Using Automated Processes to Generate Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    Changes to the design and development of our educational assessments are resulting in the unprecedented demand for a large and continuous supply of content-specific test items. One way to address this growing demand is with automatic item generation (AIG). AIG is the process of using item models to generate test items with the aid of computer…

  9. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) is an instruction processing paradigm that has been in the spot- light due to its adoption by the next generation of Intel. Processors starting with the IA-64. The EPIC processing paradigm is an evolution of the Very Long Instruction. Word (VLIW) paradigm. This article gives an ...

  10. Development of a set of process and structure indicators for palliative care: the Europall project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woitha Kathrin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By measuring the quality of the organisation of palliative care with process and structure quality indicators (QIs, patients, caregivers and policy makers are able to monitor to what extent recommendations are met, like those of the council of the WHO on palliative care and guidelines. This will support the implementation of public programmes, and will enable comparisons between organisations or countries. Methods As no European set of indicators for the organisation of palliative care existed, such a set of QIs was developed. An update of a previous systematic review was made and extended with more databases and grey literature. In two project meetings with practitioners and experts in palliative care the development process of a QI set was finalised and the QIs were categorized in a framework, covering the recommendations of the Council of Europe. Results The searches resulted in 151 structure and process indicators, which were discussed in steering group meetings. Of those QIs, 110 were eligible for the final framework. Conclusions We developed the first set of QIs for the organisation of palliative care. This article is the first step in a multi step project to identify, validate and pilot QIs.

  11. Diazo processing of LANDSAT imagery: A low-cost instructional technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusch, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Diazo processing of LANDSAT imagery is a relatively simple and cost effective method of producing enhanced renditions of the visual LANDSAT products. This technique is capable of producing a variety of image enhancements which have value in a teaching laboratory environment. Additionally, with the appropriate equipment, applications research which relys on accurate and repeatable results is possible. Exposure and development equipment options, diazo materials, and enhancement routines are discussed.

  12. Health technology assessment process of a cardiovascular medical device in four different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Lemgruber, Alexandre; Caro Martínez, Araceli; García-Mochón, Leticia; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Lessa, Fernanda

    2017-10-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a tool to help the decision-making process. The aim is to describe methods and processes used in the reimbursement decision making for drug-eluting stents (DES) in four different settings. DES as a technology under study was selected according to different criteria, all of them agreed by a working group. A survey of key informants was designed. DES was evaluated following well-structured HTA processes. Nonetheless, scope for improvement was observed in relation to the data considered for the final decision, the transparency and inclusiveness of the process as well as in the methods employed. An attempt to describe the HTA processes of a well-known medical device.

  13. Development and Testing of an Experimental Polysensory Instructional System for Teaching Electric Arc Welding Processes. Report No. 24. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Harold A.

    The population of the study consisted of 15 high school industrial arts students, 10 freshman and sophomore college students, and 10 adults. A polysensory, self-pacing instructional system was developed which included (1) pretests and post tests, (2) a general instruction book, (3) equipment to practice arc welding, (4) programed instruction…

  14. Instructions included? Make safety training part of medical device procurement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, James P

    2010-04-01

    Before hospitals embrace new technologies, it's important that medical personnel agree on how best to use them. Likewise, hospitals must provide the support to operate these sophisticated devices safely. With this in mind, it's wise for hospitals to include medical device training in the procurement process. Moreover, purchasing professionals can play a key role in helping to increase the amount of user training for medical devices and systems. What steps should you take to help ensure that new medical devices are implemented safely? Here are some tips.

  15. (Re)framing school as a setting for promoting health and wellbeing: a double translation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordin, Lone Lindegard; Jourdan, Didier; Simovska, Venka

    2018-01-01

    , but entangled, processes of translation. At the national level, despite resistance by a number of actors with differing priorities, the translation resulted in the integration of selected key principles of the setting approach to health promotion in the national curriculum for health education. At the municipal......The aim of this article is to discuss the ways in which the setting approach to health promotion in schools, as part of knowledge-based international policies and guidelines, is embedded in the Danish policy landscape and enacted at the local governance level. The study draws on the sociology...... level, however, the principles seem to be ‘lost in translation’, as the treatment of schools as settings for promoting health and wellbeing remains largely subordinate to the discourses of disease prevention and individual behaviour regulation, dominated by the agenda of actors in the health sector....

  16. Implementing a framework for goal setting in community based stroke rehabilitation: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobbie, Lesley; McLean, Donald; Dixon, Diane; Duncan, Edward; Wyke, Sally

    2013-05-24

    Goal setting is considered 'best practice' in stroke rehabilitation; however, there is no consensus regarding the key components of goal setting interventions or how they should be optimally delivered in practice. We developed a theory-based goal setting and action planning framework (G-AP) to guide goal setting practice. G-AP has 4 stages: goal negotiation, goal setting, action planning & coping planning and appraisal & feedback. All stages are recorded in a patient-held record. In this study we examined the implementation, acceptability and perceived benefits of G-AP in one community rehabilitation team with people recovering from stroke. G-AP was implemented for 6 months with 23 stroke patients. In-depth interviews with 8 patients and 8 health professionals were analysed thematically to investigate views of its implementation, acceptability and perceived benefits. Case notes of interviewed patients were analysed descriptively to assess the fidelity of G-AP implementation. G-AP was mostly implemented according to protocol with deviations noted at the planning and appraisal and feedback stages. Each stage was felt to make a useful contribution to the overall process; however, in practice, goal negotiation and goal setting merged into one stage and the appraisal and feedback stage included an explicit decision making component. Only two issues were raised regarding G-APs acceptability: (i) health professionals were concerned about the impact of goal non-attainment on patient's well-being (patients did not share their concerns), and (ii) some patients and health professionals found the patient-held record unhelpful. G-AP was felt to have a positive impact on patient goal attainment and professional goal setting practice. Collaborative partnerships between health professionals and patients were apparent throughout the process. G-AP has been perceived as both beneficial and broadly acceptable in one community rehabilitation team; however, implementation of novel

  17. Implementing a framework for goal setting in community based stroke rehabilitation: a process evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Goal setting is considered ‘best practice’ in stroke rehabilitation; however, there is no consensus regarding the key components of goal setting interventions or how they should be optimally delivered in practice. We developed a theory-based goal setting and action planning framework (G-AP) to guide goal setting practice. G-AP has 4 stages: goal negotiation, goal setting, action planning & coping planning and appraisal & feedback. All stages are recorded in a patient-held record. In this study we examined the implementation, acceptability and perceived benefits of G-AP in one community rehabilitation team with people recovering from stroke. Methods G-AP was implemented for 6 months with 23 stroke patients. In-depth interviews with 8 patients and 8 health professionals were analysed thematically to investigate views of its implementation, acceptability and perceived benefits. Case notes of interviewed patients were analysed descriptively to assess the fidelity of G-AP implementation. Results G-AP was mostly implemented according to protocol with deviations noted at the planning and appraisal and feedback stages. Each stage was felt to make a useful contribution to the overall process; however, in practice, goal negotiation and goal setting merged into one stage and the appraisal and feedback stage included an explicit decision making component. Only two issues were raised regarding G-APs acceptability: (i) health professionals were concerned about the impact of goal non-attainment on patient’s well-being (patients did not share their concerns), and (ii) some patients and health professionals found the patient-held record unhelpful. G-AP was felt to have a positive impact on patient goal attainment and professional goal setting practice. Collaborative partnerships between health professionals and patients were apparent throughout the process. Conclusions G-AP has been perceived as both beneficial and broadly acceptable in one community

  18. Process-Driven Math: An Auditory Method of Mathematics Instruction and Assessment for Students Who Are Blind or Have Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Ann P.; Smith, Luke A.; Price, Jordan A.; Prickett, Logan C.; Ragland, Matthew F.

    2017-01-01

    Process-Driven Math is a fully audio method of mathematics instruction and assessment that was created at Auburn University at Montgomery, Alabama, to meet the needs of one particular student, Logan. He was blind, mobility impaired, and he could not speak above a whisper. Logan was not able to use traditional low vision tools like braille and…

  19. Implementing standard setting into the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP Part 1 examination - Process and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S C; Mohd Amin, S; Lee, T W

    2016-01-01

    The College of General Practitioners of Malaysia and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners held the first Conjoint Member of the College of General Practitioners (MCGP)/Fellow of Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (FRACGP) examination in 1982, later renamed the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP examinations. The examination assesses competency for safe independent general practice and as family medicine specialists in Malaysia. Therefore, a defensible standard set pass mark is imperative to separate the competent from the incompetent. This paper discusses the process and issues encountered in implementing standard setting to the Conjoint Part 1 examination. Critical to success in standard setting were judges' understanding of the process of the modified Angoff method, defining the borderline candidate's characteristics and the composition of judges. These were overcome by repeated hands-on training, provision of detailed guidelines and careful selection of judges. In December 2013, 16 judges successfully standard set the Part 1 Conjoint examinations, with high inter-rater reliability: Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.926 (Applied Knowledge Test), 0.921 (Key Feature Problems).

  20. Effect of Delayed Reinforcement on Skill Acquisition during Discrete-Trial Instruction: Implications for Treatment-Integrity Errors in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Regina A.; Kodak, Tiffany; Adolf, Kari J.

    2016-01-01

    We used an adapted alternating treatments design to compare skill acquisition during discrete-trial instruction using immediate reinforcement, delayed reinforcement with immediate praise, and delayed reinforcement for 2 children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants acquired the skills taught with immediate reinforcement; however, delayed…

  1. Optimal PID settings for first and second-order processes - Comparison with different controller tuning approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Iosif

    2016-01-01

    PID controllers are extensively used in industry. Although many tuning methodologies exist, finding good controller settings is not an easy task and frequently optimization-based design is preferred to satisfy more complex criteria. In this thesis, the focus was to find which tuning approaches, if any, present close to optimal behavior. Pareto-optimal controllers were found for different first and second-order processes with time delay. Performance was quantified in terms of the integrat...

  2. Decision making using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and fuzzy set theory in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J.Y.; Lee, K.J.; Kim, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The major problem is how to consider the differences in opinions, when many experts are involved in decision making process. This paper provides a simple general methodology to treat the differences in various opinions. The authors determined the grade of membership through the process of magnitude estimation derived from pairwise comparisons and AHP developed by Saaty. They used fuzzy set theory to consider the differences in opinions and obtain the priorities for each alternative. An example, which can be applied to radioactive waste management, also was presented. The result shows a good agreement with the results of averaging methods

  3. Making sense of intercultural interaction processes in international joint venture settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li

    , i.e. competence building interaction, decision making interaction, and socializing interaction, which is consistent with the three major processes of learning, power bargaining, and relationship building as suggested by IJV literature. Second, interaction processes appear to be shaped by individual...... approach toward decision making, a mutual learning attitude, the appreciation and strategic utilization of emergent ties between individual members put together in work settings, the proper implementation of consensus-facilitating mechanisms like ISO standards, and a holistic view of knowledge transfer...... in terms of core skills as well as non-core yet critically supporting skills like decision making and project/ time management....

  4. Appropriate criteria set for personnel promotion across organizational levels using analytic hierarchy process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Noven Castillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there has been limited established specific set of criteria for personnel promotion to each level of the organization. This study is conducted in order to develop a personnel promotion strategy by identifying specific sets of criteria for each level of the organization. The complexity of identifying the criteria set along with the subjectivity of these criteria require the use of multi-criteria decision-making approach particularly the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. Results show different sets of criteria for each management level which are consistent with several frameworks in literature. These criteria sets would help avoid mismatch of employee skills and competencies and their job, and at the same time eliminate the issues in personnel promotion such as favouritism, glass ceiling, and gender and physical attractiveness preference. This work also shows that personality and traits, job satisfaction and experience and skills are more critical rather than social capital across different organizational levels. The contribution of this work is in identifying relevant criteria in developing a personnel promotion strategy across organizational levels.

  5. Experimental processing of a model data set using Geobit seismic software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sang Yong [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    A seismic data processing software, Geobit, has been developed and is continuously updated to implement newer processing techniques and to support more hardware platforms. Geobit is intended to support all Unix platforms ranging from PC to CRAY. The current version supports two platform, i.e., PC/Linux and Sun Sparc based Sun OS 4.1.x. PC/Linux attracted geophysicists in some universities trying to install Geobit in their laboratories to be used as their research tool. However, one of the problem is the difficulty in getting the seismic data. The primary reason is its huge volume. The field data is too bulky to fit their relatively small storage media, such as PC disk. To solve the problem, KIGAM released a model seismic data set via ftp.kigam.re.kr. This study aims two purposes. The first one is testing Geobit software for its suitability in seismic data processing. The test includes reproducing the model through the seismic data processing. If it fails to reproduce the original model, the software is considered buggy and incomplete. However, if it can successfully reproduce the input model, I would be proud of what I have accomplished for the last few years in writing Geobit. The second purpose is to give a guide on Geobit usage by providing an example set of job files needed to process a given data. This example will help scientists lacking Geobit experience to concentrate on their study more easily. Once they know the Geobit processing technique, and later on Geobit programming, they can implement their own processing idea, contributing newer technologies to Geobit. The complete Geobit job files needed to process the model data is written, in the following job sequence: (1) data loading, (2) CDP sort, (3) decon analysis, (4) velocity analysis, (5) decon verification, (6) stack, (7) filter analysis, (8) filtered stack, (9) time migration, (10) depth migration. The control variables in the job files are discussed. (author). 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION IN HIGHER EDUCATION SERVICES - AN EMPIRICAL EVALUATION OF BUSINESS PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Lavinia Popescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The deep changes which happen in today society impose of educational institutions new exigencies for qualifications of the young generation. Taking her the former responsibilities of people, those see obliged all the time to adjust oneself by new curricular projects at quick economical and social change which influence decisive the conception what regarding the role of education system. For this reason any entity for profit to a big notoriety, for use at maximum theopportunities offered by market and for neutralization the threats of external environment in the first place is necessary to invest in human component and in them perfection, the key of any successful business. That is why a special importance presents the adaptation capacity of educational entities to continuum improvement of them offers which to lead to essentials elements of concept super named “the new paradigm of marketing”. The study it is based by primary quantitative research method by conclusive-descriptive nature based by the divided plans or transversal research how this is known in specialty literature and it is a punctual investigation through the Romanian students at master. The quantitative data processed using SPSS.

  7. Standard operational radiation protection instructions for process instrumentation and control engineering applying radiometric equipment containing sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    According to article 16(3) of the Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of 11 October 1984, operational radiation protection instructions have to be worked out for each type of nuclear energy application. Based on the valid legal provisions of the GDR and on experience and knowledge gained in practice, the most important operational instructions and procedures for the operation of radiometric equipment containing sealed sources were compiled. The example should enable the management to make the instructions directly applicable and, if necessary, to modify or supplement them

  8. The Impact of Processing Instruction on the Recognition and Production of English Derivational Affixes Among EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Baleghizadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of processing instruction (PI as opposed to traditional deductive exercise-based intervention (TI in teaching English derivational affixes. There was also a comparison non-intervention (NI group, and the groups were posttested. To teach the target affixes via PI, new structured input tasks were developed. In all, 101 adult male and female lower-intermediate participants initially took part in the study, but this was later reduced to 71 as a result of the pretest, and so on. The results were analyzed through MANOVA and paired t test. In recognition, PI and TI outperformed non-intervention, while PI and TI did not outperform one another. In production, TI outperformed the other groups, while the other groups did not outperform one another. More studies must be carried out before drawing any conclusions about the transferability of PI to output activities for teaching derivational affixes. The students were also interviewed to survey their attitudes. Affectively, PI created self-confidence and an enjoyable atmosphere among the learners. Also cognitively, PI was the only group that satisfied the participants in their ability to recognize and produce derivational affixes. We found PI a highly effective and positive approach for teaching recognizing derivational affixes. We also believe it to possess a high potential for teaching their production, as it gave the participants a good sense of self-confidence for the production of the affixes.

  9. Impairment in local and global processing and set-shifting in body dysmorphic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Lauren; Hovav, Sarit; Helleman, Gerhard; Feusner, Jamie D.

    2014-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by distressing and often debilitating preoccupations with misperceived defects in appearance. Research suggests that aberrant visual processing may contribute to these misperceptions. This study used two tasks to probe global and local visual processing as well as set shifting in individuals with BDD. Eighteen unmedicated individuals with BDD and 17 non-clinical controls completed two global-local tasks. The embedded figures task requires participants to determine which of three complex figures contained a simpler figure embedded within it. The Navon task utilizes incongruent stimuli comprised of a large letter (global level) made up of smaller letters (local level). The outcome measures were response time and accuracy rate. On the embedded figures task, BDD individuals were slower and less accurate than controls. On the Navon task, BDD individuals processed both global and local stimuli slower and less accurately than controls, and there was a further decrement in performance when shifting attention between the different levels of stimuli. Worse insight correlated with poorer performance on both tasks. Taken together, these results suggest abnormal global and local processing for non-appearance related stimuli among BDD individuals, in addition to evidence of poor set-shifting abilities. Moreover, these abnormalities appear to relate to the important clinical variable of poor insight. Further research is needed to explore these abnormalities and elucidate their possible role in the development and/or persistence of BDD symptoms. PMID:24972487

  10. Point process analyses of variations in smoking rate by setting, mood, gender, and dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Rathbun, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    The immediate emotional and situational antecedents of ad libitum smoking are still not well understood. We re-analyzed data from Ecological Momentary Assessment using novel point-process analyses, to assess how craving, mood, and social setting influence smoking rate, as well as assessing the moderating effects of gender and nicotine dependence. 304 smokers recorded craving, mood, and social setting using electronic diaries when smoking and at random nonsmoking times over 16 days of smoking. Point-process analysis, which makes use of the known random sampling scheme for momentary variables, examined main effects of setting and interactions with gender and dependence. Increased craving was associated with higher rates of smoking, particularly among women. Negative affect was not associated with smoking rate, even in interaction with arousal, but restlessness was associated with substantially higher smoking rates. Women's smoking tended to be less affected by negative affect. Nicotine dependence had little moderating effect on situational influences. Smoking rates were higher when smokers were alone or with others smoking, and smoking restrictions reduced smoking rates. However, the presence of others smoking undermined the effects of restrictions. The more sensitive point-process analyses confirmed earlier findings, including the surprising conclusion that negative affect by itself was not related to smoking rates. Contrary to hypothesis, men's and not women's smoking was influenced by negative affect. Both smoking restrictions and the presence of others who are not smoking suppress smoking, but others’ smoking undermines the effects of restrictions. Point-process analyses of EMA data can bring out even small influences on smoking rate. PMID:21480683

  11. Outsourcing Set Intersection Computation Based on Bloom Filter for Privacy Preservation in Multimedia Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of cloud computing, the advantages of low cost and high computation ability meet the demands of complicated computation of multimedia processing. Outsourcing computation of cloud could enable users with limited computing resources to store and process distributed multimedia application data without installing multimedia application software in local computer terminals, but the main problem is how to protect the security of user data in untrusted public cloud services. In recent years, the privacy-preserving outsourcing computation is one of the most common methods to solve the security problems of cloud computing. However, the existing computation cannot meet the needs for the large number of nodes and the dynamic topologies. In this paper, we introduce a novel privacy-preserving outsourcing computation method which combines GM homomorphic encryption scheme and Bloom filter together to solve this problem and propose a new privacy-preserving outsourcing set intersection computation protocol. Results show that the new protocol resolves the privacy-preserving outsourcing set intersection computation problem without increasing the complexity and the false positive probability. Besides, the number of participants, the size of input secret sets, and the online time of participants are not limited.

  12. Determinants of corporate lobbying intensity in the lease standard-setting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Mellado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The highly controversial lease standard-setting project that will replace the standards currently in place, establishes a new approach that includes the recognition of all assets and liabilities associated with lease contracts on the balance sheet, regardless of their classification. The complex standard-setting process and the heated debate among stakeholders makes the analysis of the lobbying phenomenon an important matter for study. The aim of this paper is to find explanatory factors that predict the behaviour of corporate groups with respect to the lease standard-setting process. To achieve this objective, we scrutinize the submission of comment letters by 306 non-financial listed companies in response to the discussion paper (DP 2009 and two exposure drafts (ED 2010 and ED 2013 elaborated jointly by the IASB and the FASB by distinguishing among three degrees of intensity in lobbying activities, depending on participation in the different discussion periods. Our empirical study is conducted through a multivariate analysis that shows the intensity of lobbying by considering participation in the three consultation periods. The results show that the intensity of lobbying is associated with size, profitability, age, industry and managerial ownership. The evidence can be used to predict lobbying behaviour. The research has implications for standard setters and contributes to prior lobbying research.

  13. Fuzzy sets on step of planning of experiment for organization and management of construction processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapidus Azariy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, problems of mathematical modeling and experiment planning of the organization and management of construction. The authors designated the basic restrictions and the difficulties in this field. Concluded that the planning of research experiment is possible in the information sphere with using of heuristic, graphical, mathematical models, as well as neural networks and genetic algorithms. The authors note the need for use of expert information in the case of the formalization of quality parameters. The article presented an overview of the translation methods of qualitative information into mathematical language. Comparison of methods the qualimetry of USSR scientists, the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy set theory were performed. The benefits of the latter for interpretation of qualitative parameters were identified. The authors have given many examples of application fuzzy sets for formalization of organizational factors of construction processes. Finally, there conclusion was made about progressiveness and effectiveness of fuzzy set theory to describe the qualitative parameters of organization and management of construction.

  14. Stakeholder views on criteria and processes for priority setting in Norway: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidem, Jeremy M

    2017-06-01

    Since 2013, Norway has engaged in political processes to revise criteria for priority setting. These processes have yielded key efficiency and equity criteria, but excluded potentially relevant social values. This study describes the views of 27 stakeholders in Norway's health system regarding a wider set of priority-setting criteria and procedural characteristics. Between January and February 2016, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of policymakers, hospital administrators, practitioners, university students and seniors. Improving health among low-socioeconomic-status groups was considered an important policy objective: some favored giving more priority to diseases affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, and some believed inequalities in health could be more effectively addressed outside the health sector. Age was not widely accepted as an independent criterion, but deemed relevant as an indicator of capacity to benefit, cost-effectiveness and health loss. Cost-effectiveness, severity and health-loss measures were judged relevant to policymaking, but cost-effectiveness and health loss were considered less influential to clinical decision-making. Public engagement was seen as essential yet complicated by media and stakeholder pressures. This study highlights how views on the relevance and implementation of criteria can vary significantly according to the health system level being evaluated. Further, the findings suggest that giving priority to socioeconomically disadvantaged groups and reducing inequalities in health may be relevant preferences not captured in recent policy proposals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The implementation and evaluation of therapeutic touch in burn patients: an instructive experience of conducting a scientific study within a non-academic nursing setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Martine; Visser, Adriaan; Eybrechts, Maggie; van Komen, Rob; Oen, Irma; Olff, Miranda; Dokter, Jan; Boxma, Han

    2012-12-01

    Evaluation of therapeutic touch (TT) in the nursing of burn patients; post hoc evaluation of the research process in a non-academic nursing setting. 38 burn patients received either TT or nursing presence. On admission, days 2, 5 and 10 of hospitalization, data were collected on anxiety for pain, salivary cortisol, and pain medication. Interviews with nurses were held concerning research in a non-academic setting. Anxiety for pain was more reduced on day 10 in the TT-group. The TT-group was prescribed less morphine on day 1 and 2. On day 2 cortisol level before dressing changes was higher in the TT-group. The situational challenges of this study led to inconsistencies in data collection and a high patient attrition rate, weakening its statistical power. Conducting an effect study within daily nursing practice should not be done with a nursing staff inexperienced in research. Analysis of the remaining data justifies further research on TT for burn patients with pain, anxiety for pain, and cortisol levels as outcomes. Administering and evaluating TT during daily care requires nurses experienced both in TT and research, thus leading to less attrition and missing data, increasing the power of future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preface to the Viewpoint Set: Nanostructured metals - Advances in processing, characterization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    with increasingly finer structures in order to improve properties and sustainability. The structural scale of interest in such materials is therefore reduced to the nanometer range, which means that characterization and modeling of nanostructured metals now address an audience including not only physicists...... and materials scientists but also technologists and engineers. The present Viewpoint Set therefore covers metallic materials with a structural scale ranging from micrometer to nanometer in dimensions and focuses on processing techniques such as plastic deformation and phase transformations. As a result......The theme of two viewpoint sets has been nanostructured metals: one in 2003 on “Mechanical properties of fully dense nanocrystalline metals” (Scripta Materialia 2003;49:625–680) and one in 2004 on “Metals and alloys with a structural scale from the micrometer to the atomic dimensions” (Scripta...

  17. A System for Individualizing Instruction. Practical Answers to U-SAIL Implementation Questions. Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah System Approach to Individualized Learning Project.

    The U-SAIL system is a practical approach to individualization of instruction in which a problem-solving process is employed to install a program in logical sequential phases. U-SAIL is a nationally validated, successfully replicated, cost-feasible system for individualization of instruction which can be implemented in a variety of settings with…

  18. The process of care in integrative health care settings - a qualitative study of US practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan

    2014-10-23

    There is a lack of research on the organisational operations of integrative healthcare (IHC) practices. IHC is a therapeutic strategy integrating conventional and complementary medicine in a shared context to administer individualized treatment. To better understand the process of care in IHC - the way in which patients are triaged and treatment plans are constructed, interviews were conducted with integrative health care leaders and practitioners in the US. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a pragmatic group of fourteen leaders and practitioners from nine different IHC settings. All interviews were conducted face-to-face with the exception of one phone interview. Questions focussed on understanding the "process of care" in an integrative healthcare setting. Deductive categories were formed from the aims of the study, focusing on: organisational structure, processes of care (subcategories: patient intake, treatment and charting, use of guidelines or protocols), prevalent diseases or conditions treated, and the role of research in the organisation. The similarities and differences of the ITH entities emerged from this process. On an organisational level, conventional and CM services and therapies were co-located in all nine settings. For patients, this means there is more opportunity for 'seamless care'. Shared information systems enabled easy communication using internal messaging or email systems, and shared patient intake information. But beyond this infrastructure alignment for integrative health care was less supported. There were no use of protocols or guidelines within any centre, no patient monitoring mechanism beyond that which occurred within one-on-one appointments. Joint planning for a patient treatment was typically ad hoc through informal mechanisms. Additional duties typically come at a direct financial cost to fee-for-service practitioners. In contrast, service delivery and the process of care within hospital inpatient services followed

  19. Controllable SET process in O-Ti-Sb-Te based phase change memory for synaptic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kun; Li, Ruiheng; Chen, Xin; Wang, Yong; Shen, Jiabin; Xia, Mengjiao; Lv, Shilong; Ji, Zhenguo; Song, Zhitang

    2018-02-01

    The nonlinear resistance change and small bit resolution of phase change memory (PCM) under identical operation pulses will limit its performance as a synaptic device. The octahedral Ti-Te units in Ti-Sb-Te, regarded as nucleation seeds, are degenerated when Ti is bonded with O, causing a slower crystallization and a controllable SET process in PCM cells. A linear resistance change under identical pulses, a resolution of ˜8 bits, and an ON/OFF ratio of ˜102 has been achieved in O-Ti-Sb-Te based PCM, showing its potential application as a synaptic device to improve recognition performance of the neural network.

  20. [Nursing students' perception of the learning process in a hospital setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Elcilene Andreíne Terra Durgante; Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identijf how nursing students perceive and experience the learning process during curricular practice in a hospital setting. A qualitative, retrospective, documentary study was developed in an undergraduate nursing course. Data were comprised of 162 posts made by 34 students in the online discussion forum of the Learning Management System Moodle, during the first half of 2011. The following themes emergedfrom t he thematic content analysis: "nursing students' understanding about the professional practice," and "the teaching and learning process in the perspective of nursing students." The study demonstrated that the forum was a place for reporting experiences such as the description of the physical area, performing procedures, perception of nursing care activities, conJlicts with peers, coping with death and learning evaluation. The online discussion forum needs to be used by professors as a space of interaction so as to contribute to professional training.

  1. Online measurement for geometrical parameters of wheel set based on structure light and CUDA parallel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaihua; Shao, Zhencheng; Chen, Nian; Wang, Wenjie

    2018-01-01

    The wearing degree of the wheel set tread is one of the main factors that influence the safety and stability of running train. Geometrical parameters mainly include flange thickness and flange height. Line structure laser light was projected on the wheel tread surface. The geometrical parameters can be deduced from the profile image. An online image acquisition system was designed based on asynchronous reset of CCD and CUDA parallel processing unit. The image acquisition was fulfilled by hardware interrupt mode. A high efficiency parallel segmentation algorithm based on CUDA was proposed. The algorithm firstly divides the image into smaller squares, and extracts the squares of the target by fusion of k_means and STING clustering image segmentation algorithm. Segmentation time is less than 0.97ms. A considerable acceleration ratio compared with the CPU serial calculation was obtained, which greatly improved the real-time image processing capacity. When wheel set was running in a limited speed, the system placed alone railway line can measure the geometrical parameters automatically. The maximum measuring speed is 120km/h.

  2. Directional Processing and Noise Reduction in Hearing Aids: Individual and Situational Influences on Preferred Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C; Fischer, Rosa-Linde

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of individual differences in hearing aid (HA) outcome is a prerequisite for more personalized HA fittings. Currently, knowledge of how different user factors relate to response to directional processing (DIR) and noise reduction (NR) is sparse. To extend a recent study linking preference for DIR and NR to pure-tone average hearing thresholds (PTA) and cognitive factors by investigating if (1) equivalent links exist for different types of DIR and NR, (2) self-reported noise sensitivity and personality can account for additional variability in preferred DIR and NR settings, and (3) spatial target speech configuration interacts with individual DIR preference. Using a correlational study design, overall preference for different combinations of DIR and NR programmed into a commercial HA was assessed in a complex speech-in-noise situation and related to PTA, cognitive function, and different personality traits. Sixty experienced HA users aged 60-82 yr with controlled variation in PTA and working memory capacity took part in this study. All of them had participated in the earlier study, as part of which they were tested on a measure of "executive control" tapping into cognitive functions such as working memory, mental flexibility, and selective attention. Six HA settings based on unilateral (within-device) or bilateral (across-device) DIR combined with inactive, moderate, or strong single-microphone NR were programmed into a pair of behind-the-ear HAs together with individually prescribed amplification. Overall preference was assessed using a free-field simulation of a busy cafeteria situation with either a single frontal talker or two talkers at ±30° azimuth as the target speech. In addition, two questionnaires targeting noise sensitivity and the "Big Five" personality traits were administered. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses and repeated-measures analyses of variance with a focus on potential interactions between the HA

  3. Adaptive Fault Detection for Complex Dynamic Processes Based on JIT Updated Data Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinna Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel fault detection technique is proposed to explicitly account for the nonlinear, dynamic, and multimodal problems existed in the practical and complex dynamic processes. Just-in-time (JIT detection method and k-nearest neighbor (KNN rule-based statistical process control (SPC approach are integrated to construct a flexible and adaptive detection scheme for the control process with nonlinear, dynamic, and multimodal cases. Mahalanobis distance, representing the correlation among samples, is used to simplify and update the raw data set, which is the first merit in this paper. Based on it, the control limit is computed in terms of both KNN rule and SPC method, such that we can identify whether the current data is normal or not by online approach. Noted that the control limit obtained changes with updating database such that an adaptive fault detection technique that can effectively eliminate the impact of data drift and shift on the performance of detection process is obtained, which is the second merit in this paper. The efficiency of the developed method is demonstrated by the numerical examples and an industrial case.

  4. Setting Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steels for Rapid Hot Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbbe, Christian; Hering, Oliver; Hiegemann, Lars; Tekkaya, A. Erman

    2016-01-01

    Hot stamping of sheet metal is an established method for the manufacturing of light weight products with tailored properties. However, the generally-applied continuous roller furnace manifests two crucial disadvantages: the overall process time is long and a local setting of mechanical properties is only feasible through special cooling techniques. Hot forming with rapid heating directly before shaping is a new approach, which not only reduces the thermal intervention in the zones of critical formability and requested properties, but also allows the processing of an advantageous microstructure characterized by less grain growth, additional fractions (e.g., retained austenite), and undissolved carbides. Since the austenitization and homogenization process is strongly dependent on the microstructure constitution, the general applicability for the process relevant parameters is unknown. Thus, different austenitization parameters are analyzed for the conventional high strength steels 22MnB5, Docol 1400M, and DP1000 in respect of the mechanical properties. In order to characterize the resulting microstructure, the light optical and scanning electron microscopy, micro and macro hardness measurements, and the X-ray diffraction are conducted subsequent to tensile tests. The investigation proves not only the feasibility to adjust the strength and ductility flexibly, unique microstructures are also observed and the governing mechanisms are clarified. PMID:28773354

  5. A set of simple cell processes is sufficient to model spiral cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun-Usan, Miguel; Marín-Riera, Miquel; Grande, Cristina; Truchado-Garcia, Marta; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    During cleavage, different cellular processes cause the zygote to become partitioned into a set of cells with a specific spatial arrangement. These processes include the orientation of cell division according to: an animal-vegetal gradient; the main axis (Hertwig's rule) of the cell; and the contact areas between cells or the perpendicularity between consecutive cell divisions (Sachs' rule). Cell adhesion and cortical rotation have also been proposed to be involved in spiral cleavage. We use a computational model of cell and tissue biomechanics to account for the different existing hypotheses about how the specific spatial arrangement of cells in spiral cleavage arises during development. Cell polarization by an animal-vegetal gradient, a bias to perpendicularity between consecutive cell divisions (Sachs' rule), cortical rotation and cell adhesion, when combined, reproduce the spiral cleavage, whereas other combinations of processes cannot. Specifically, cortical rotation is necessary at the 8-cell stage to direct all micromeres in the same direction. By varying the relative strength of these processes, we reproduce the spatial arrangement of cells in the blastulae of seven different invertebrate species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Effects of memory instruction on attention and information processing: Further investigation of inhibition of return in item-method directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kate M; Hamm, Jeff P; Taylor, Tracy L

    2014-02-01

    In the item-method directed-forgetting paradigm, the magnitude of inhibition of return (IOR) is larger after an instruction to forget (F) than after an instruction to remember (R). In the present experiments, we further investigated this increased magnitude of IOR after F as compared to R memory instructions (dubbed the F > R IOR difference), in order to understand both the consequences for information processing and the purpose of the differential withdrawal of attention that results in this difference. Words were presented in one of four peripheral locations, followed by either an F or an R memory instruction. Then, a target appeared in either the same location as the previous word or one of the other locations. The results showed that the F > R IOR difference cannot be explained by attentional momentum (Exp. 1), that the spatial compatibility of the response options with target locations is not necessary for the F > R IOR difference to emerge (Exp. 2), and that the F > R IOR difference is location-specific rather than response-specific (Exp. 3). These results are consistent with the view that F > R IOR represents a bias against responding to information emanating from an unreliable source (Taylor & Fawcett, 2011).

  7. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  8. Documentation and Instructions for Running Two Python Scripts that Aid in Setting up 3D Measurements using the Polytec 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohe, Daniel Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently purchased a Polytec 3D Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer for vibration measurement. This device has proven to be a very nice tool for making vibration measurements, and has a number of advantages over traditional sensors such as accelerometers. The non-contact nature of the laser vibrometer means there is no mass loading due to measuring the response. Additionally, the laser scanning heads can position the laser spot much more quickly and accurately than placing an accelerometer or performing a roving hammer impact. The disadvantage of the system is that a significant amount of time must be invested to align the lasers with each other and the part so that the laser spots can be accurately positioned. The Polytec software includes a number of nice tools to aid in this procedure; however, certain portions are still tedious. Luckily, the Polytec software is readily extensible by programming macros for the system, so tedious portions of the procedure can be made easier by automating the process. The Polytec Software includes a WinWrap (similar to Visual Basic) editor and interface to run macros written in that programming language. The author, however, is much more proficient in Python, and the latter also has a much larger set of libraries that can be used to create very complex macros, while taking advantage of Python’s inherent readability and maintainability.

  9. A Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) Approach Improves Science Process Skills in 4-H Animal Science Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Katie C.

    2010-01-01

    A new Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) approach was designed for youth who participated in the Minnesota State Fair Livestock interview process. The project and evaluation were designed to determine if the new SET approach increased content knowledge and science process skills in participants. Results revealed that youth participants not…

  10. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 3: The Legislative and Regulatory Processes. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The third of a 17-module self-instructional course on student financial aid administration, this module offers a systematic introduction to the management of federal financial aid programs authorized by Title IV of the Higher Education Act to novice financial aid administrators and other institutional personnel. It teaches the administrator to…

  11. Teaching Critical Questions about Argumentation through the Revising Process: Effects of Strategy Instruction on College Students' Argumentative Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ferretti, Ralph P.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of self-regulated strategy development revising instruction for college students that targeted the use of argumentation schemes and critical questions were assessed in three conditions. In the first condition, students were taught to revise their essays by asking and answering critical questions about the "argument from consequences"…

  12. Consensus and contention in the priority setting process: examining the health sector in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colenbrander, Sarah; Birungi, Charles; Mbonye, Anthony K

    2015-06-01

    Health priority setting is a critical and contentious issue in low-income countries because of the high burden of disease relative to the limited resource envelope. Many sophisticated quantitative tools and policy frameworks have been developed to promote transparent priority setting processes and allocative efficiency. However, low-income countries frequently lack effective governance systems or implementation capacity, so high-level priorities are not determined through evidence-based decision-making processes. This study uses qualitative research methods to explore how key actors' priorities differ in low-income countries, using Uganda as a case study. Human resources for health, disease prevention and family planning emerge as the common priorities among actors in the health sector (although the last of these is particularly emphasized by international agencies) because of their contribution to the long-term sustainability of health-care provision. Financing health-care services is the most disputed issue. Participants from the Ugandan Ministry of Health preferentially sought to increase net health expenditure and government ownership of the health sector, while non-state actors prioritized improving the efficiency of resource use. Ultimately it is apparent that the power to influence national health outcomes lies with only a handful of decision-makers within key institutions in the health sector, such as the Ministries of Health, the largest bilateral donors and the multilateral development agencies. These power relations reinforce the need for ongoing research into the paradigms and strategic interests of these actors. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  13. Electrophysiological evidence of atypical processing underlying mental set shifting in ecstasy polydrug and polydrug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Carl A; Fairclough, Stephen H; McGlone, Francis P; Fisk, John E; Montgomery, Catharine

    2013-12-01

    Executive functioning deficits are reported in ecstasy users. However research into mental set switching has been equivocal, with behavioral studies suggesting the function is preserved. The current study sought to address the issue of switching deficits in ecstasy users by combining behavioral performance with electrophysiological correlates (electroencephalography; EEG). Twenty ecstasy polydrug users, 20 nonecstasy polydrug users, and 20 drug naive controls were recruited. Participants completed questionnaires about their drug use, sleep quality, fluid intelligence, and current mood state. Each participant completed a mental set switching task (the number-letter task) while EEG measures were recorded. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no between-group differences on performance of the task; however a regression suggested that ecstasy use was a significant predictor for performance, after controlling for cannabis use. Mixed ANOVA revealed a significant effect of group on the P3, with significant differences between both drug groups and naives. There was also an interaction between electrode and group on the P2 component, with ecstasy users differing from both other groups. On the P3 component the results suggest a reduction in positivity at parieto-occipital electrodes for drug users compared to controls. Furthermore a significant increase in negativity in ecstasy users compared to control groups could be observed in several occipito-parietal electrodes at an N2 component as well as observable atypicalities in early processing (P2) displayed by ecstasy users and polydrug controls. The present study provides evidence of atypical processing of attentional shifting in ecstasy and polydrug users. Deficits in this executive function could reflect cognitive inflexibility and paucity of rapid behavioral adjustment, which may be problematic in real world situations.

  14. High-Throughput Tabular Data Processor - Platform independent graphical tool for processing large data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanecki, Piotr; Bałut, Magdalena; Buckley, Patrick G; Ochocka, J Renata; Bartoszewski, Rafał; Crossman, David K; Messiaen, Ludwine M; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz

    2018-01-01

    High-throughput technologies generate considerable amount of data which often requires bioinformatic expertise to analyze. Here we present High-Throughput Tabular Data Processor (HTDP), a platform independent Java program. HTDP works on any character-delimited column data (e.g. BED, GFF, GTF, PSL, WIG, VCF) from multiple text files and supports merging, filtering and converting of data that is produced in the course of high-throughput experiments. HTDP can also utilize itemized sets of conditions from external files for complex or repetitive filtering/merging tasks. The program is intended to aid global, real-time processing of large data sets using a graphical user interface (GUI). Therefore, no prior expertise in programming, regular expression, or command line usage is required of the user. Additionally, no a priori assumptions are imposed on the internal file composition. We demonstrate the flexibility and potential of HTDP in real-life research tasks including microarray and massively parallel sequencing, i.e. identification of disease predisposing variants in the next generation sequencing data as well as comprehensive concurrent analysis of microarray and sequencing results. We also show the utility of HTDP in technical tasks including data merge, reduction and filtering with external criteria files. HTDP was developed to address functionality that is missing or rudimentary in other GUI software for processing character-delimited column data from high-throughput technologies. Flexibility, in terms of input file handling, provides long term potential functionality in high-throughput analysis pipelines, as the program is not limited by the currently existing applications and data formats. HTDP is available as the Open Source software (https://github.com/pmadanecki/htdp).

  15. Optimization of super-resolution processing using incomplete image sets in PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Guoping; Pan, Tinsu; Clark, John W; Mawlawi, Osama R

    2008-12-01

    Super-resolution (SR) techniques are used in PET imaging to generate a high-resolution image by combining multiple low-resolution images that have been acquired from different points of view (POVs). The number of low-resolution images used defines the processing time and memory storage necessary to generate the SR image. In this paper, the authors propose two optimized SR implementations (ISR-1 and ISR-2) that require only a subset of the low-resolution images (two sides and diagonal of the image matrix, respectively), thereby reducing the overall processing time and memory storage. In an N x N matrix of low-resolution images, ISR-1 would be generated using images from the two sides of the N x N matrix, while ISR-2 would be generated from images across the diagonal of the image matrix. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether the two proposed SR methods can achieve similar performance in contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the SR image generated from a complete set of low-resolution images (CSR) using simulation and experimental studies. A simulation, a point source, and a NEMA/IEC phantom study were conducted for this investigation. In each study, 4 (2 x 2) or 16 (4 x 4) low-resolution images were reconstructed from the same acquired data set while shifting the reconstruction grid to generate images from different POVs. SR processing was then applied in each study to combine all as well as two different subsets of the low-resolution images to generate the CSR, ISR-1, and ISR-2 images, respectively. For reference purpose, a native reconstruction (NR) image using the same matrix size as the three SR images was also generated. The resultant images (CSR, ISR-1, ISR-2, and NR) were then analyzed using visual inspection, line profiles, SNR plots, and background noise spectra. The simulation study showed that the contrast and the SNR difference between the two ISR images and the CSR image were on average 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively. Line profiles of

  16. Expression of the histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ during the strobilation process of Mesocestoides corti (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Caroline B; Monteiro, Karina M; Teichmann, Aline; da Silva, Edileuza D; Lorenzatto, Karina R; Cancela, Martín; Paes, Jéssica A; Benitz, André de N D; Castillo, Estela; Margis, Rogério; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2015-08-01

    The histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ is implicated in processes of chromatin remodelling and gene expression regulation. It has been associated with the control of developmental processes, but little is known about its function in helminth parasites. In Mesocestoides corti, a partial cDNA sequence related to SET/TAF-Iβ was isolated in a screening for genes differentially expressed in larvae (tetrathyridia) and adult worms. Here, the full-length coding sequence of the M. corti SET/TAF-Iβ gene was analysed and the encoded protein (McSET/TAF) was compared with orthologous sequences, showing that McSET/TAF can be regarded as a SET/TAF-Iβ family member, with a typical nucleosome-assembly protein (NAP) domain and an acidic tail. The expression patterns of the McSET/TAF gene and protein were investigated during the strobilation process by RT-qPCR, using a set of five reference genes, and by immunoblot and immunofluorescence, using monospecific polyclonal antibodies. A gradual increase in McSET/TAF transcripts and McSET/TAF protein was observed upon development induction by trypsin, demonstrating McSET/TAF differential expression during strobilation. These results provided the first evidence for the involvement of a protein from the NAP family of epigenetic effectors in the regulation of cestode development.

  17. Cultural dimensions of learning: Addressing the challenges of multicultural instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Parrish

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations. It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framework (CDLF, which describes a set of eight cultural parameters regarding social relationships, epistemological beliefs, and temporal perceptions, and illustrates their spectrums of variability as they might be exhibited in instructional situations. The article also explores the literature on instructional design and culture for guidelines on addressing the cross-cultural challenges faced by instructional providers. It suggests that these challenges can be overcome through increased awareness, culturally sensitive communication, modified instructional design processes, and efforts to accommodate the most critical cultural differences. Finally, it describes the use of the CDLF questionnaire as a tool to illuminate the range of preferences existing among learners and to discover the potential range of strategies and tactics that might be useful for a given set of learners.

  18. Process and impact evaluation of the Romp & Chomp obesity prevention intervention in early childhood settings: lessons learned from implementation in preschools and long day care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Bell, Andrew C; Kremer, Peter; Park, Janet; Demajo, Lisa; Smith, Michael; Sharp, Sharon; Nichols, Melanie; Carpenter, Lauren; Boak, Rachel; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-06-01

    The Romp & Chomp controlled trial, which aimed to prevent obesity in preschool Australian children, was recently found to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and improve children's dietary patterns. The intervention focused on capacity building and policy implementation within various early childhood settings. This paper reports on the process and impact evaluation of this trial and the lessons learned from this complex community intervention. Process data was collected throughout and audits capturing nutrition and physical activity-related environments and practices were completed postintervention by directors of Long Day Care (LDC) centers (n = 10) and preschools (n = 41) in intervention and comparison (n = 161 LDC and n = 347 preschool) groups. The environmental audits demonstrated positive impacts in both settings on policy, nutrition, physical activity opportunities, and staff capacity and practices, although results varied across settings and were more substantial in the preschool settings. Important lessons were learned in relation to implementation of such community-based interventions, including the significant barriers to implementing health-promotion interventions in early childhood settings, lack of engagement of for-profit LDC centers in the evaluation, and an inability to attribute direct intervention impacts when the intervention components were delivered as part of a health-promotion package integrated with other programs. These results provide confidence that obesity prevention interventions in children's settings can be effective; however, significant efforts must be directed toward developing context-specific strategies that invest in policies, capacity building, staff support, and parent engagement. Recognition by funders and reviewers of the difficulties involved in implementing and evaluating such complex interventions is also critical to strengthening the evidence base on the effectiveness of such public health

  19. Breeding and Genetics Symposium: really big data: processing and analysis of very large data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J B; Newman, S; Foertter, F; Aguilar, I; Coffey, M

    2012-03-01

    15 m. Large data sets also create challenges for the delivery of genetic evaluations that must be overcome in a way that does not disrupt the transition from conventional to genomic evaluations. Processing time is important, especially as real-time systems for on-farm decisions are developed. The ultimate value of these systems is to decrease time-to-results in research, increase accuracy in genomic evaluations, and accelerate rates of genetic improvement.

  20. What's statistical about learning? Insights from modelling statistical learning as a set of memory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Erik D

    2017-01-05

    Statistical learning has been studied in a variety of different tasks, including word segmentation, object identification, category learning, artificial grammar learning and serial reaction time tasks (e.g. Saffran et al. 1996 Science 274: , 1926-1928; Orban et al. 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: , 2745-2750; Thiessen & Yee 2010 Child Development 81: , 1287-1303; Saffran 2002 Journal of Memory and Language 47: , 172-196; Misyak & Christiansen 2012 Language Learning 62: , 302-331). The difference among these tasks raises questions about whether they all depend on the same kinds of underlying processes and computations, or whether they are tapping into different underlying mechanisms. Prior theoretical approaches to statistical learning have often tried to explain or model learning in a single task. However, in many cases these approaches appear inadequate to explain performance in multiple tasks. For example, explaining word segmentation via the computation of sequential statistics (such as transitional probability) provides little insight into the nature of sensitivity to regularities among simultaneously presented features. In this article, we will present a formal computational approach that we believe is a good candidate to provide a unifying framework to explore and explain learning in a wide variety of statistical learning tasks. This framework suggests that statistical learning arises from a set of processes that are inherent in memory systems, including activation, interference, integration of information and forgetting (e.g. Perruchet & Vinter 1998 Journal of Memory and Language 39: , 246-263; Thiessen et al. 2013 Psychological Bulletin 139: , 792-814). From this perspective, statistical learning does not involve explicit computation of statistics, but rather the extraction of elements of the input into memory traces, and subsequent integration across those memory traces that emphasize consistent information (Thiessen and Pavlik

  1. ObspyDMT: a Python toolbox for retrieving and processing large seismological data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hosseini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present obspyDMT, a free, open-source software toolbox for the query, retrieval, processing and management of seismological data sets, including very large, heterogeneous and/or dynamically growing ones. ObspyDMT simplifies and speeds up user interaction with data centers, in more versatile ways than existing tools. The user is shielded from the complexities of interacting with different data centers and data exchange protocols and is provided with powerful diagnostic and plotting tools to check the retrieved data and metadata. While primarily a productivity tool for research seismologists and observatories, easy-to-use syntax and plotting functionality also make obspyDMT an effective teaching aid. Written in the Python programming language, it can be used as a stand-alone command-line tool (requiring no knowledge of Python or can be integrated as a module with other Python codes. It facilitates data archiving, preprocessing, instrument correction and quality control – routine but nontrivial tasks that can consume much user time. We describe obspyDMT's functionality, design and technical implementation, accompanied by an overview of its use cases. As an example of a typical problem encountered in seismogram preprocessing, we show how to check for inconsistencies in response files of two example stations. We also demonstrate the fully automated request, remote computation and retrieval of synthetic seismograms from the Synthetics Engine (Syngine web service of the Data Management Center (DMC at the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS.

  2. The Balanced Scorecard of acute settings: development process, definition of 20 strategic objectives and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groene, Oliver; Brandt, Elimer; Schmidt, Werner; Moeller, Johannes

    2009-08-01

    Strategy development and implementation in acute care settings is often restricted by competing challenges, the pace of policy reform and the existence of parallel hierarchies. To describe a generic approach to strategy development, illustrate the use of the Balanced Scorecard as a tool to facilitate strategy implementation and demonstrate how to break down strategic goals into measurable elements. Multi-method approach using three different conceptual models: Health Promoting Hospitals Standards and Strategies, the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Model and the Balanced Scorecard. A bundle of qualitative and quantitative methods were used including in-depth interviews, standardized organization-wide surveys on organizational values, staff satisfaction and patient experience. Three acute care hospitals in four different locations belonging to a German holding group. Chief executive officer, senior medical officers, working group leaders and hospital staff. Development and implementation of the Balanced Scorecard. Twenty strategic objectives with corresponding Balanced Scorecard measures. A stepped approach from strategy development to implementation is presented to identify key themes for strategy development, drafting a strategy map and developing strategic objectives and measures. The Balanced Scorecard, in combination with the EFQM model, is a useful tool to guide strategy development and implementation in health care organizations. As for other quality improvement and management tools not specifically developed for health care organizations, some adaptations are required to improve acceptability among professionals. The step-wise approach of strategy development and implementation presented here may support similar processes in comparable organizations.

  3. ObspyDMT: a Python toolbox for retrieving and processing large seismological data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Kasra; Sigloch, Karin

    2017-10-01

    We present obspyDMT, a free, open-source software toolbox for the query, retrieval, processing and management of seismological data sets, including very large, heterogeneous and/or dynamically growing ones. ObspyDMT simplifies and speeds up user interaction with data centers, in more versatile ways than existing tools. The user is shielded from the complexities of interacting with different data centers and data exchange protocols and is provided with powerful diagnostic and plotting tools to check the retrieved data and metadata. While primarily a productivity tool for research seismologists and observatories, easy-to-use syntax and plotting functionality also make obspyDMT an effective teaching aid. Written in the Python programming language, it can be used as a stand-alone command-line tool (requiring no knowledge of Python) or can be integrated as a module with other Python codes. It facilitates data archiving, preprocessing, instrument correction and quality control - routine but nontrivial tasks that can consume much user time. We describe obspyDMT's functionality, design and technical implementation, accompanied by an overview of its use cases. As an example of a typical problem encountered in seismogram preprocessing, we show how to check for inconsistencies in response files of two example stations. We also demonstrate the fully automated request, remote computation and retrieval of synthetic seismograms from the Synthetics Engine (Syngine) web service of the Data Management Center (DMC) at the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS).

  4. Integrating Cross-Case Analyses and Process Tracing in Set-Theoretic Research: Strategies and Parameters of Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Derek; Rohlfing, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the combination of two methods on the basis of set theory. In our introduction and this special issue, we focus on two variants of cross-case set-theoretic methods--"qualitative comparative analysis" (QCA) and typological theory (TT)--and their combination with process tracing (PT).…

  5. Instructional Style Meets Classroom Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan

    1991-01-01

    Nine elementary teachers explain how they design their classrooms to match and support their instructional styles. The teachers focus on whole language programs, student portfolios, science activity set-ups, technology transformation, learning center strategies, and space utilization. (SM)

  6. Adaptive Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talla, Surendranath

    2000-01-01

    .... With in this context, we ask ourselves the following questions. 1. Can application performance be improved if the compiler had the freedom to pick the instruction set on a per application basis? 2...

  7. mprovements in the Process of Requisite Elicitation for Public Management Software: A Case Study Using Work Instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOES, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirements elicitation is not an easy task. Different expectations between users and analysts, redundancy of information and lack of standardization can make this task difficult and conflicting. When it comes to software for the public sector this task becomes somewhat more complicated because of the constant changes in federal laws and regulations. This paper presents a case study of applying work instructions to remedy these kind of problems, as well as others found in the company where the study was carried out. We achieved very promising results, namely better utilization of human resources and reduction of job demand.

  8. Integrating cross-case analyses and process tracing in set-theoretic research: Strategies and parameters of debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Rohlfing, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the combination of two methods on the basis of set theory. In our introduction and this special issue, we focus on two variants of cross-case set-theoretic methods - Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and typological theory...... – and their combination with process tracing. Our goal is to broaden and deepen set-theoretic empirical research and equip scholars with guidance on how to implement it in multi-method research (MMR). At first glance, set-theoretic cross-case methods and process tracing seem to be highly compatible when causal...... relationships are conceptualized in terms of set-theory. However, multiple issues have not so far been thoroughly addressed. Our paper builds on the emerging MMR literature and seeks to enhance it in four ways. First, we offer a comprehensive and coherent elaboration of the two sequences in which case studies...

  9. Demonstrating Empathy: A Phenomenological Study of Instructional Designers Making Instructional Strategy Decisions for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Linda S.

    2017-01-01

    Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…

  10. The actor set-up of TV advertising. A new process for hybrid formats

    OpenAIRE

    von Rimscha, M Bjørn; Rademacher, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a basic description of the advertising process in TV advertising and discusses how this process might be altered when 30 second spots are replaced by hybrid advertising formats such as sponsoring and placements. For each actor in the process the potential benefit of hybrid advertising is identified and the respective interest in changing the process is deduced. A qualitative interview study with representatives from each actor in the process is used to illustrate that con...

  11. Process for nondestructively testing with radioactive gas using a chill set sealant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    An article surface is nondestructively tested for substantially invisible surface voids by absorbing a radioactive gas thereon. The adsorbed radioactive gas is disproportionately retained on those surfaces presented by the substantially invisible surface voids as compared to the remaining surfaces of the article contacted by the radioactive gas. The radiation released by the radioactive gas remaining adsorbed is used to identify the substantially invisible voids. To immobilize the radioactive gas adjacent or within the surface voids, a sealant composition is provided which is capable of being chill set. The temperatures of the article surface to be tested and the sealant composition are then related so that the article surface is at a temperature below the chill set temperature of the sealant composition and the sealant composition is at a temperature above its chill set temperature. The article portion to be tested is then coated with sealant composition to form a chill set coating thereon of substantially uniform thickness. (U.S.)

  12. Setting Goals and Objectives for LD Children-Process and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, Elizabeth R.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are problems and procedures in setting goals and objectives for learning disabled children in the implementation of Individualized Education Programs required by the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. (Author/ DLS)

  13. Solving large sets of coupled equations iteratively by vector processing on the CYBER 205 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolsma, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    The set of coupled linear second-order differential equations which has to be solved for the quantum-mechanical description of inelastic scattering of atomic and nuclear particles can be rewritten as an equivalent set of coupled integral equations. When some type of functions is used as piecewise analytic reference solutions, the integrals that arise in this set can be evaluated analytically. The set of integral equations can be solved iteratively. For the results mentioned an inward-outward iteration scheme has been applied. A concept of vectorization of coupled-channel Fortran programs, based on this integral method, is presented for the use on the Cyber 205 computer. It turns out that, for two heavy ion nuclear scattering test cases, this vector algorithm gives an overall speed-up of about a factor of 2 to 3 compared to a highly optimized scalar algorithm for a one vector pipeline computer

  14. A two-center-oscillator-basis as an alternative set for heavy ion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, V.; Reinhard, P.G.; Drechsel, D.

    1977-01-01

    The two-center-oscillator-basis, which is constructed from harmonic oscillator wave functions developing about two different centers, suffers from numerical problems at small center separations due to the overcompleteness of the set. In order to overcome these problems we admix higer oscillator wave functions before the orthogonalization, or antisymmetrization resp. This yields a numerically stable basis set at each center separation. The results obtained for the potential energy suface are comparable with the results of more elaborate models. (orig.) [de

  15. Diseño instruccional: oficio, fase y proceso Desenho instruccional: ofício, fase e processo Instructional Design: Role, Phase and Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Chiappe. Laverde

    2008-12-01

    ício.The article offers a conceptual look at instructional design as a term now being used frequently in processes to generate educational material and virtual learning environments. It begins with a review of the history and evolution of instructional design and ends with a theoretical proposal. The objective of the article is to construct a critical proposal in response to the current debate over instructional design. The proposal places special emphasis on differences compared to the models that have served historically as the principal reference on this subject. To accomplish this, the term instruction is examined in depth, so as to arrive at a comprehensive approach to the globality of instructional design. The importance of identifying both the profile and the particular role of an instructional designer is emphasized as a way to establish a frame of reference for defining the practice of instructional design, the relationships constructed by institutional designers, and the interdisciplinary knowledge particular to their role.

  16. Editorial - Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise

    2007-01-01

    Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....

  17. Developing a set of consensus indicators to support maternity service quality improvement: using Core Outcome Set methodology including a Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, K J; Allin, B; Jolly, M; Hardie, T; Knight, M

    2018-05-16

    To develop a core metric set to monitor the quality of maternity care. Delphi process followed by a face-to-face consensus meeting. English maternity units. Three representative expert panels: service designers, providers and users. Maternity care metrics judged important by participants. Participants were asked to complete a two-phase Delphi process, scoring metrics from existing local maternity dashboards. A consensus meeting discussed the results and re-scored the metrics. In all, 125 distinct metrics across six domains were identified from existing dashboards. Following the consensus meeting, 14 metrics met the inclusion criteria for the final core set: smoking rate at booking; rate of birth without intervention; caesarean section delivery rate in Robson group 1 women; caesarean section delivery rate in Robson group 2 women; caesarean section delivery rate in Robson group 5 women; third- and fourth-degree tear rate among women delivering vaginally; rate of postpartum haemorrhage of ≥1500 ml; rate of successful vaginal birth after a single previous caesarean section; smoking rate at delivery; proportion of babies born at term with an Apgar score improvement. Achieving consensus on core metrics for monitoring the quality of maternity care. © 2018 The Authors. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Innovation in the Teaching-learning Processes: A Case Study Using Just-in-Time Teaching and Peer Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Maldonado-Fuentes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning quality constitutes one of the main challenges faced by Higher Education, thus a student centered teaching and the development of educational innovations that use active methodologies have been promoted. This article aims to evaluate the impact of using Just-in-Time Teaching and Peer Instruction on the results of teaching a subject, of disciplinary character, in 17 students of a career on an initial teacher training belonging to Chile’s Council of Rectors. A pre and postest model was applied between August and December 2012. The analysis used descriptive techniques that allowed the characterization of the admission profile and inferentials to explain, statistically, the observed differences in the performance of the subjects. In terms of perception, a positive assessment of the relationship between students and the teacher in the classroom was observed, this stood out above the improvement in the handling of disciplinary content.

  19. The Mere Exposure Instruction Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Pieter; Mertens, Gaëtan; Smith, Colin Tucker; De Houwer, Jan

    2017-09-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to the well-established finding that people evaluate a stimulus more positively after repeated exposure to that stimulus. We investigated whether a change in stimulus evaluation can occur also when participants are not repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, but are merely instructed that one stimulus will occur frequently and another stimulus will occur infrequently. We report seven experiments showing that (1) mere exposure instructions influence implicit stimulus evaluations as measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT), personalized Implicit Association Test (pIAT), or Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), but not with an Evaluative Priming Task (EPT), (2) mere exposure instructions influence explicit evaluations, and (3) the instruction effect depends on participants' memory of which stimulus will be presented more frequently. We discuss how these findings inform us about the boundary conditions of mere exposure instruction effects, as well as the mental processes that underlie mere exposure and mere exposure instruction effects.

  20. Efficient Buffer Capacity and Scheduler Setting Computation for Soft Real-Time Stream Processing Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekooij, Marco; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Wiggers, M.H.; van Meerbergen, Jef

    2007-01-01

    Soft real-time applications that process data streams can often be intuitively described as dataflow process networks. In this paper we present a novel analysis technique to compute conservative estimates of the required buffer capacities in such process networks. With the same analysis technique

  1. Casemix and process indicators of outcome in stroke. The Royal College of Physicians minimum data set for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, P; Rudd, A

    1998-01-01

    The emphasis on outcomes measurement requires that casemix is considered in any comparative studies. In 1996 the Intercollegiate Working Party for Stroke agreed a minimum data set to measure the severity of casemix in stroke. The reasons for its development, the evidence base supporting the items included and the possible uses of the data set are described. It is currently being evaluated in national outcome and process audits to be reported at a later date.

  2. Facility transition instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facility transition instruction was initiated in response to the need for a common, streamlined process for facility transitions and to capture the knowledge and experience that has accumulated over the last few years. The instruction serves as an educational resource and defines the process for transitioning facilities to long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Generally, these facilities do not have identified operations missions and must be transitioned from operational status to a safe and stable configuration for long-term S and M. The instruction can be applied to a wide range of facilities--from process canyon complexes like the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility or B Plant, to stand-alone, lower hazard facilities like the 242B/BL facility. The facility transition process is implemented (under the direction of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office [RL] Assistant Manager-Environmental) by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. management, with input and interaction with the appropriate RL division and Hanford site contractors as noted in the instruction. The application of the steps identified herein and the early participation of all organizations involved are expected to provide a cost-effective, safe, and smooth transition from operational status to deactivation and S and M for a wide range of Hanford Site facilities

  3. A Design-Based Research Case Study Documenting a Constructivist ID Process and Instructional Solution for a Cross-Cultural Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Monica W.; Unger, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    As the need for instructing a globalized workforce increases, instructional designers must embrace the constraints and the opportunities these projects provide in order to move the field of cross-cultural instructional design (ID) forward. Cross-cultural projects offer multiple avenues for growth in ID practice, overcoming cultural barriers, and a…

  4. Supervising nursing students in a technology-driven medication administration process in a hospital setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaard, Mette; Orbæk, Janne

    2016-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to identify, describe and synthesize the experiences of nurse supervisors and the factors that influence the supervision of pre-graduate nursing students in undertaking technology-driven medication administration in hospital settings...

  5. Standard setting in the teaching and learning process in the Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standards are set at different levels to govern different requirements that collectively add up to the ingredients of quality education of a child. This study investigated whether or not there are quantitative standards of achievement for guiding teaching and learning in the school system in Kenya. It also investigated teachers' ...

  6. The processing cost of reference-set computation: guess patterns in acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    1999-01-01

    An idea which got much attention in linguistic theory in the nineties is that the well-formedness of sentences is not always determined by absolute conditions, but it may be determined by a selection of the optimal competitor out of a relevant reference-set. A restricted version of this was assumed

  7. Proceedings of the First International Research Workshop for Process Improvement in Small Settings, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Suzanne; Graettinger, Caroline; Kost, Keith

    2006-01-01

    ... enterprises, small organizations within large companies, and small projects. The presentations addressed starting and sustaining process improvement, qualitative and quantitative studies, and using Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI...

  8. Proceedings of the First International Research Workshop for Process Improvement in Small Settings, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Suzanne; Graettinger, Caroline; Kost, Keith

    2006-01-01

    .... Attendees from Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Germany, Ireland, India, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Spain, and the United States discussed the challenges of process improvement in small and medium size...

  9. Predictive information speeds up visual awareness in an individuation task by modulating threshold setting, not processing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, Esther; Van Opstal, Filip; Verguts, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Theories on visual awareness claim that predicted stimuli reach awareness faster than unpredicted ones. In the current study, we disentangle whether prior information about the upcoming stimulus affects visual awareness of stimulus location (i.e., individuation) by modulating processing efficiency or threshold setting. Analogous research on stimulus identification revealed that prior information modulates threshold setting. However, as identification and individuation are two functionally and neurally distinct processes, the mechanisms underlying identification cannot simply be extrapolated directly to individuation. The goal of this study was therefore to investigate how individuation is influenced by prior information about the upcoming stimulus. To do so, a drift diffusion model was fitted to estimate the processing efficiency and threshold setting for predicted versus unpredicted stimuli in a cued individuation paradigm. Participants were asked to locate a picture, following a cue that was congruent, incongruent or neutral with respect to the picture's identity. Pictures were individuated faster in the congruent and neutral condition compared to the incongruent condition. In the diffusion model analysis, the processing efficiency was not significantly different across conditions. However, the threshold setting was significantly higher following an incongruent cue compared to both congruent and neutral cues. Our results indicate that predictive information about the upcoming stimulus influences visual awareness by shifting the threshold for individuation rather than by enhancing processing efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enablers and Inhibitors to English Language Learners' Research Process in a High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Un

    2015-01-01

    This researcher sought to examine enablers and inhibitors to English language learner (ELL) students' research process within the framework of Carol C. Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP). At a high school forty-eight ELL students in three classes, an English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher, and a biology teacher participated in the…

  11. Online Communication Settings and the Qualitative Research Process: Acclimating Students and Novice Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Katherine

    2018-06-01

    In the last 20 years, qualitative research scholars have begun to interrogate methodological and analytic issues concerning online research settings as both data sources and instruments for digital methods. This article examines the adaptation of parts of a qualitative research curriculum for understanding online communication settings. I propose methodological best practices for researchers and educators that I developed while teaching research methods to undergraduate and graduate students across disciplinary departments and discuss obstacles faced during my own research while gathering data from online sources. This article confronts issues concerning the disembodied aspects of applying what in practice should be rooted in a humanistic inquiry. Furthermore, as some approaches to online qualitative research as a digital method grow increasingly problematic with the development of new data mining technologies, I will also briefly touch upon borderline ethical practices involving data-scraping-based qualitative research.

  12. DICE based flip-flop with SET pulse discriminator on a 90 nm bulk CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maru, A.; Kuboyama, S.; Shindou, H.; Ebihara, T.; Tamura, T.; Makihara, A.; Hirao, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, due to the demand for increased integration and device scaling, integrated circuits have been designed with the design rule less than 100 nm. In such integrated circuits, SEUs and SETs are serious problems because their supply voltage and the threshold voltage of the transistors are decreased. A DICE-based flip-flop with a SET pulse discriminator circuit on a 90-nm bulk CMOS was designed and fabricated. Its improved performance was demonstrated through radiation testing and discussion. SEU sensitivity for the angled irradiation was measured and discussed in this study. The test of edge-on irradiation was performed for the first time. The importance of the angled irradiation for the memory cells that have redundant memory nodes was demonstrated. (author)

  13. How organizational context affects bioethical decision-making: pharmacists' management of gatekeeping processes in retail and hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Social science studies of bioethics demonstrate that ethics are highly contextual, functioning differently across local settings as actors make daily decisions "on the ground." Sociological studies that demonstrate the key role organizations play in shaping ethical decision-making have disproportionately focused on physicians and nurses working in hospital settings where they contend with life and death issues. This study broadens our understanding of the contexts of ethical decision-making by empirically examining understudied healthcare professionals - pharmacists - working in two organizational settings, retail and hospital, where they act as gatekeepers to regulated goods and services as they contend with ethical issues ranging from the serious to the mundane. This study asks: How do organizations shape pharmacists' identification, negotiation, and resolution of ethical challenges; in other words, how do organizations shape pharmacists' gatekeeping processes? Based on 95 semi-structured interviews with U.S. pharmacists practicing in retail and hospital pharmacies conducted between September 2009 and May 2011, this research finds that organizations influence ethical decision-making by shaping how pharmacists construct four gatekeeping processes: medical, legal, fiscal, and moral. Each gatekeeping process manifests differently across organizations due to how these settings structure inter-professional power dynamics, proximity to patients, and means of accessing information. Findings suggest new directions for theorizing about ethical decision-making in medical contexts by drawing attention to new ethical actors, new organizational settings, an expanded definition of ethical challenges, and a broader conceptualization of gatekeeping. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementing standard setting into the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP Part 1 examination – Process and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Sook-Ching

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The College of General Practitioners of Malaysia and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners held the first Conjoint Member of the College of General Practitioners (MCGP/Fellow of Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (FRACGP examination in 1982, later renamed the Conjoint MAFP/FRACGP examinations. The examination assesses competency for safe independent general practice and as family medicine specialists in Malaysia. Therefore, a defensible standard set pass mark is imperative to separate the competent from the incompetent.

  15. Quality initiatives: planning, setting up, and carrying out radiology process improvement projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Eric P; Szklaruk, Janio; Puthooran, Leejo; Stone, Danna; Stevens, Brian L; Modaro, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    In the coming decades, those who provide radiologic imaging services will be increasingly challenged by the economic, demographic, and political forces affecting healthcare to improve their efficiency, enhance the value of their services, and achieve greater customer satisfaction. It is essential that radiologists master and consistently apply basic process improvement skills that have allowed professionals in many other fields to thrive in a competitive environment. The authors provide a step-by-step overview of process improvement from the perspective of a radiologic imaging practice by describing their experience in conducting a process improvement project: to increase the daily volume of body magnetic resonance imaging examinations performed at their institution. The first step in any process improvement project is to identify and prioritize opportunities for improvement in the work process. Next, an effective project team must be formed that includes representatives of all participants in the process. An achievable aim must be formulated, appropriate measures selected, and baseline data collected to determine the effects of subsequent efforts to achieve the aim. Each aspect of the process in question is then analyzed by using appropriate tools (eg, flowcharts, fishbone diagrams, Pareto diagrams) to identify opportunities for beneficial change. Plans for change are then established and implemented with regular measurements and review followed by necessary adjustments in course. These so-called PDSA (planning, doing, studying, and acting) cycles are repeated until the aim is achieved or modified and the project closed.

  16. Implementation of nursing process in clinical settings: the case of three governmental hospitals in Ethiopia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semachew, Ayele

    2018-03-13

    The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the implementation of the nursing process at three randomly selected governmental hospitals found in Amhara Region North West Ethiopia. From the total 338 reviewed documents, 264 (78.1%) have a nursing process format attached with the patient's profile/file, 107 (31.7%) had no nursing diagnosis, 185 (54.7%) of nurses stated their plan of care based on priority, 173 (51.2%) of nurses did not document their interventions based on plan and 179 (53.0%) of nurses did not evaluate their interventions. The overall implementation of nursing process among Felege Hiwot Referal hospital, Debretabor general hospital and Finoteselam general hospitals were 49.12, 68.18, and 69.42% respectively. Nursing professionals shall improve documentation required in implementing the nursing process. Nursing managers (matron, ward heads) shall supervise the overall implementation of nursing process. Hospital nursing services managers (matrons) shall arrange and facilitate case presentations by the nursing staffs which focus on documentation and updates on nursing process. Hospitals need to establish and support nursing process coordinating staff in their institution.

  17. Process-based interpretation of conceptual hydrological model performance using a multinational catchment set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet, Carine; Merz, Ralf; Merz, Bruno; Parajka, Juraj; Oudin, Ludovic; Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles

    2017-08-01

    Most of previous assessments of hydrologic model performance are fragmented, based on small number of catchments, different methods or time periods and do not link the results to landscape or climate characteristics. This study uses large-sample hydrology to identify major catchment controls on daily runoff simulations. It is based on a conceptual lumped hydrological model (GR6J), a collection of 29 catchment characteristics, a multinational set of 1103 catchments located in Austria, France, and Germany and four runoff model efficiency criteria. Two analyses are conducted to assess how features and criteria are linked: (i) a one-dimensional analysis based on the Kruskal-Wallis test and (ii) a multidimensional analysis based on regression trees and investigating the interplay between features. The catchment features most affecting model performance are the flashiness of precipitation and streamflow (computed as the ratio of absolute day-to-day fluctuations by the total amount in a year), the seasonality of evaporation, the catchment area, and the catchment aridity. Nonflashy, nonseasonal, large, and nonarid catchments show the best performance for all the tested criteria. We argue that this higher performance is due to fewer nonlinear responses (higher correlation between precipitation and streamflow) and lower input and output variability for such catchments. Finally, we show that, compared to national sets, multinational sets increase results transferability because they explore a wider range of hydroclimatic conditions.

  18. Manager Experiences with the Return to Work Process in a Large, Publically Funded, Hospital Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Myburgh, Corrie; Young, Amanda Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous research on the role of managers in the return to work (RTW) process has primarily been conducted in contexts where the workplace has declared organizational responsibility for the process. While this is a common scenario, in some countries, including Denmark, there is no explicit......, organizational, and policy factors. Instances were observed where supervisors faced the dilemma of balancing ethical and managerial principles with requirements of keeping staffing budgets. Conclusion Although it is not their legislative responsibility, Danish managers play a key role in the RTW process. As has...... been observed in other contexts, Danish supervisors struggle to balance considerations for the returning worker with those of their teams....

  19. Data Set for the manuscript entitled, "Sample Processing Approach for Detection of Ricin in Surface Samples."

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figure. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Shah, S., S. Kane, A.M. Erler, and T. Alfaro. Sample Processing Approach for Detection of Ricin in...

  20. Associations between neural correlates of visual stimulus processing and set-shifting in ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sultson, Hedvig; van Meer, Floor; Sanders, Nicole; van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Danner, Unna N.; Hoek, Hans W.; Adan, Roger A. H.; Smeets, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Women ill with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been shown to exhibit altered cognitive functioning, particularly poor set-shifting (SS). In this study, we investigated whether brain activation in frontal and parietal regions during visual stimulus processing correlates with SS ability. Women currently

  1. Implementation Process and Acceptance of a Setting Based Prevention Programme to Promote Healthy Lifestyle in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Birgit; Strauss, Angelika; Mayer, Andrea; Duvinage, Kristin; Mitschek, Christine; Koletzko, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the implementation process of a kindergarten-based intervention ("TigerKids") to promote a healthy lifestyle. Design: Questionnaire survey among kindergarten teachers about programme implementation and acceptance. Setting: Kindergartens in Bavaria, Germany. Methods: Two hundred and fifteen kindergartens were…

  2. A tale of two audits: statistical process control for improving diabetes care in primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussein, Fahad Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes constitutes a major burden of disease globally. Both primary and secondary prevention need to improve in order to face this challenge. Improving management of diabetes in primary care is therefore of fundamental importance. The objective of these series of audits was to find means of improving diabetes management in chronic disease mini-clinics in primary health care. In the process, we were able to study the effect and practical usefulness of different audit designs - those measuring clinical outcomes, process of care, or both. King Saud City Family and Community Medicine Centre, Saudi National Guard Health Affairs in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Simple random samples of 30 files were selected every two weeks from a sampling frame of file numbers for all diabetes clients seen over the period. Information was transferred to a form, entered on the computer and an automated response was generated regarding the appropriateness of management, a criterion mutually agreed upon by care providers. The results were plotted on statistical process control charts, p charts, displayed for all employees. Data extraction, archiving, entry, analysis, plotting and design and preparation of p charts were managed by nursing staff specially trained for the purpose by physicians with relevant previous experience. Audit series with mixed outcome and process measures failed to detect any changes in the proportion of non-conforming cases over a period of one year. The process measures series, on the other hand, showed improvement in care corresponding to a reduction in the proportion non-conforming by 10% within a period of 3 months. Non-conformities dropped from a mean of 5.0 to 1.4 over the year (P process audits and feedbacks. Frequent process audits in the context of statistical process control should be supplemented with concurrent outcome audits, once or twice a year.

  3. Instruction understanding for intelligent robots in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambayashi, Shaw; Abe, Yasuaki

    1993-01-01

    As a first step to realize an autonomous mobile robot for plant maintenance, where the robot is capable to understand instructions written in natural languages, we have developed a prototype of instruction understanding system which makes the robot construct its motion sequences to approach instrumentations and inspect them from input sentences written in Japanese. In the prototype system, the instruction understanding and planning capabilities are integrated by an inference engine which consists of a cyclic operation of three processings, i.e., sensing, decision, and execution. Based on environmental data and current states of the robot, a proper process such as natural language processing is triggered by the decision part of the inference engine to accomplish the input instructions. The multiple- and dynamic-planning capabilities, which are necessary to cope with dynamic changes of environments surrounding the robot, are achieved by utilizing the cyclic inference engine together with a set of the inference packets which keep intermediate results of natural language processing and planning for respective input instructions. (orig.)

  4. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  5. Iterative algorithm of discrete Fourier transform for processing randomly sampled NMR data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanek, Jan; Kozminski, Wiktor

    2010-01-01

    Spectra obtained by application of multidimensional Fourier Transformation (MFT) to sparsely sampled nD NMR signals are usually corrupted due to missing data. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated on simulations and experiments. An effective iterative algorithm for artifact suppression for sparse on-grid NMR data sets is discussed in detail. It includes automated peak recognition based on statistical methods. The results enable one to study NMR spectra of high dynamic range of peak intensities preserving benefits of random sampling, namely the superior resolution in indirectly measured dimensions. Experimental examples include 3D 15 N- and 13 C-edited NOESY-HSQC spectra of human ubiquitin.

  6. Implementation of a Proposed Model of a Constructivist Teaching-Learning Process – A Step Towards an Outcome Based Education in Chemistry Laboratory Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Paz B. Reyes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study implemented the proposed model of a constructivist teachinglearning process and determined the extent by which the students manifested the institutional learning outcomes which include competency, credibility, commitment and collaboration. It also investigated if there was an improvement in the learning outcomes after the implementation of the constructivist teachinglearning process and determined the students’ acceptance of the constructivist teaching-learning process. Towards the end a plan of action was proposed to enhance the students’ manifestation of the institutional learning outcomes. It made use of the qualitative- quantitative method particularly the descriptive design. The results of the study revealed that the students manifest competency, credibility, commitment and collaboration as they accept positively the constructivist teaching-learning process in their chemistry laboratory subject. It can be deduced from the findings that the constructivist teaching-learning process improved the learning outcomes of the students. The use of the proposed plan of action is recommended for an effective chemistry laboratory instruction.

  7. Process-outcome interrelationship and standard setting in medical education: the need for a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Leif; Karle, Hans; Nystrup, Jørgen

    2007-09-01

    An outcome-based approach to medical education compared to a process/content orientation is currently being discussed intensively. In this article, the process and outcome interrelationship in medical education is discussed, with specific emphasis on the relation to the definition of standards in basic medical education. Perceptions of outcome have always been an integrated element of curricular planning. The present debate underlines the need for stronger focus on learning objectives and outcome assessment in many medical schools around the world. The need to maintain an integrated approach of process/content and outcome is underlined in this paper. A worry is expressed about the taxonomy of learning in pure outcome-based medical education, in which student assessment can be a major determinant for the learning process, leaving the control of the medical curriculum to medical examiners. Moreover, curricula which favour reductionism by stating everything in terms of instrumental outcomes or competences, do face a risk of lowering quality and do become a prey for political interference. Standards based on outcome alone rise unclarified problems in relationship to licensure requirements of medical doctors. It is argued that the alleged dichotomy between process/content and outcome seems artificial, and that formulation of standards in medical education must follow a comprehensive line in curricular planning.

  8. Modelling estimation and analysis of dynamic processes from image sequences using temporal random closed sets and point processes with application to the cell exocytosis and endocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Fernández, Ester

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, new models and methodologies are introduced for the analysis of dynamic processes characterized by image sequences with spatial temporal overlapping. The spatial temporal overlapping exists in many natural phenomena and should be addressed properly in several Science disciplines such as Microscopy, Material Sciences, Biology, Geostatistics or Communication Networks. This work is related to the Point Process and Random Closed Set theories, within Stochastic Ge...

  9. Instructional Regulation and Control: Cybernetics, Algorithmization and Heuristics in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, L. N.; And Others

    This book on the aspects of instructional processes focuses on control of student cognitive activity during instruction. Chapter 1 introduces the cybernetic approach to the theory of instruction. It is followed by a chapter on instructional effectiveness and efficiency. The third chapter discusses cognitive processes and thinking. Chapter 4…

  10. Computer-Supported Instruction in Enhancing the Performance of Dyscalculics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Praveen; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2010-01-01

    The use of instructional media is an essential component of teaching-learning process which contributes to the efficiency as well as effectiveness of the teaching-learning process. Computer-supported instruction has a very important role to play as an advanced technological instruction as it employs different instructional techniques like…

  11. Children's Learning in Scientific Thinking: Instructional Approaches and Roles of Variable Identification and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blums, Angela

    The present study examines instructional approaches and cognitive factors involved in elementary school children's thinking and learning the Control of Variables Strategy (CVS), a critical aspect of scientific reasoning. Previous research has identified several features related to effective instruction of CVS, including using a guided learning approach, the use of self-reflective questions, and learning in individual and group contexts. The current study examined the roles of procedural and conceptual instruction in learning CVS and investigated the role of executive function in the learning process. Additionally, this study examined how learning to identify variables is a part of the CVS process. In two studies (individual and classroom experiments), 139 third, fourth, and fifth grade students participated in hands-on and paper and pencil CVS learning activities and, in each study, were assigned to either a procedural instruction, conceptual instruction, or control (no instruction) group. Participants also completed a series of executive function tasks. The study was carried out with two parts--Study 1 used an individual context and Study 2 was carried out in a group setting. Results indicated that procedural and conceptual instruction were more effective than no instruction, and the ability to identify variables was identified as a key piece to the CVS process. Executive function predicted ability to identify variables and predicted success on CVS tasks. Developmental differences were present, in that older children outperformed younger children on CVS tasks, and that conceptual instruction was slightly more effective for older children. Some differences between individual and group instruction were found, with those in the individual context showing some advantage over the those in the group setting in learning CVS concepts. Conceptual implications about scientific thinking and practical implications in science education are discussed.

  12. The Processes that Promote Learning in Adult Mentoring and Coaching Dyadic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This is a study of 10 adults participating in one-to-one mentoring and/or coaching. Participants were selected for interviewing through a purposive sampling process from leading international mentoring and coaching organizations. Selection criteria included (a) being an adult, (b) participating in a dyadic learning, and (c) regarding that…

  13. Associations between structural quality aspects and process quality in Dutch early childhood education and care settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.; Leseman, P.P.M.; Verhagen, J.; Mulder, H.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between structural quality and process quality in early childhood education and care (ECEC) has been addressed in several studies. However, the findings are not conclusive. The present study was conducted in the Netherlands, which has a strongly regulated mid-quality ECEC system

  14. D-linking or set-restriction? Processing Which-questions in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, Jantien; Hoeks, John C. J.; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2013-01-01

    Research on Wh-questions suggests that Which questions are harder to process than Who questions (e.g., Who/Which athlete won the competition?). According to the Discourse (D)-linking Hypothesis, Which-questions differ from Who-questions in that Which questions need a link to a preceding discourse,

  15. The Coaching and Mentoring Process: The Obvious Knowledge and Skill Set for Organizational Communication Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowers, Robert H.; Barker, Randolph T.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the uses of coaching and mentoring as they apply to organizational communication professors. The authors contend that these professors already are proficient at coaching and mentoring and the coaching and mentoring processes are routinely undertaken as part of their standard university teaching responsibilities. As coaches,…

  16. Setting healthcare priorities: a description and evaluation of the budgeting and planning process in county hospitals in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasa, Edwine W; Cleary, Susan; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the budgeting and planning processes in public hospitals in Kenya. We used a qualitative case study approach to examine these processes in two hospitals in Kenya. We collected data by in-depth interviews of national level policy makers, hospital managers, and frontline practitioners in the case study hospitals (n = 72), a review of documents, and non-participant observations within the hospitals over a 7 month period. We applied an evaluative framework that considers both consequentialist and proceduralist conditions as important to the quality of priority-setting processes. The budgeting and planning process in the case study hospitals was characterized by lack of alignment, inadequate role clarity and the use of informal priority-setting criteria. With regard to consequentialist conditions, the hospitals incorporated economic criteria by considering the affordability of alternatives, but rarely considered the equity of allocative decisions. In the first hospital, stakeholders were aware of - and somewhat satisfied with - the budgeting and planning process, while in the second hospital they were not. Decision making in both hospitals did not result in reallocation of resources. With regard to proceduralist conditions, the budgeting and planning process in the first hospital was more inclusive and transparent, with the stakeholders more empowered compared to the second hospital. In both hospitals, decisions were not based on evidence, implementation of decisions was poor and the community was not included. There were no mechanisms for appeals or to ensure that the proceduralist conditions were met in both hospitals. Public hospitals in Kenya could improve their budgeting and planning processes by harmonizing these processes, improving role clarity, using explicit priority-setting criteria, and by incorporating both consequentialist (efficiency, equity, stakeholder satisfaction and understanding, shifted priorities

  17. Learning history by composing synthesis texts: Effects of an instructional programme on learning, reading and writing processes, and text quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, I.; Mateos, M.; Martín, E.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve learning from texts via strategies that train students how to process synthesis texts. Processing such texts requires goal-oriented interaction between reading and writing activities. The participants were 62 sixth-grade students, 33 in the experimental

  18. Scaffolding in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On-The-Job Training, developed as direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training. This method is still widely in use today because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. This paper is intended to be a study of the methods used in education in Knowledge Society, with more specific aspects in training the trainers; as a result of this approach, it promotes scaffolding in assisted instruction as a reflection of the digital age for the learning process. Training the trainers in old environment with default techniques and designing the learning process in assisted instruction, as an application of the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD to the area of computer literacy for the younger users, generate diversity in educational communities and requires standards for technology infrastructure, standards for the content, developed as a concepts map, and applications for personalized in-struction, based on ZPD theory.

  19. Processing and filtrating of driver fatigue characteristic parameters based on rough set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wenwu; Zhao, Xuyang

    2018-05-01

    With the rapid development of economy, people become increasingly rich, and cars have become a common means of transportation in daily life. However, the problem of traffic safety is becoming more and more serious. And fatigue driving is one of the main causes of traffic accidents. Therefore, it is of great importance for us to study the detection of fatigue driving to improve traffic safety. In the cause of determining whether the driver is tired, the characteristic quantity related to the steering angle of the steering wheel and the characteristic quantity of the driver's pulse are all important indicators. The fuzzy c-means clustering is used to discretize the above indexes. Because the characteristic parameters are too miscellaneous, rough set is used to filtrate these characteristics. Finally, this paper finds out the highest correlation with fatigue driving. It is proved that these selected characteristics are of great significance to the evaluation of fatigue driving.

  20. Impact of electronic prescribing in a hospital setting: a process-focused evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Thomas R; Geller, E Scott; Clarke, Steven W

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate effects of a natural CPOE implementation in a hospital setting and inform the efficacy of using CPOE rather than traditional paper medication orders. A multiple-baseline, quasi-experimental study of a naturally occurring CPOE intervention, with a non-equivalent control site. Compliance with medication-ordering protocols and time to first dose of antibiotics. Medication orders placed using CPOE were significantly more compliant than paper-based medication orders, and first doses of antibiotics were delivered significantly faster when ordered with CPOE than when placed using the standard paper-based system (p<.01). Findings support the use of CPOE and justify the need for interventions to increase CPOE adoption and consistent use among physicians.

  1. Simulation of the transient processes of load rejection under different accident conditions in a hydroelectric generating set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W. C.; Yang, J. D.; Chen, J. P.; Peng, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, C. C.

    2016-11-01

    Load rejection test is one of the essential tests that carried out before the hydroelectric generating set is put into operation formally. The test aims at inspecting the rationality of the design of the water diversion and power generation system of hydropower station, reliability of the equipment of generating set and the dynamic characteristics of hydroturbine governing system. Proceeding from different accident conditions of hydroelectric generating set, this paper presents the transient processes of load rejection corresponding to different accident conditions, and elaborates the characteristics of different types of load rejection. Then the numerical simulation method of different types of load rejection is established. An engineering project is calculated to verify the validity of the method. Finally, based on the numerical simulation results, the relationship among the different types of load rejection and their functions on the design of hydropower station and the operation of load rejection test are pointed out. The results indicate that: The load rejection caused by the accident within the hydroelectric generating set is realized by emergency distributing valve, and it is the basis of the optimization for the closing law of guide vane and the calculation of regulation and guarantee. The load rejection caused by the accident outside the hydroelectric generating set is realized by the governor. It is the most efficient measure to inspect the dynamic characteristics of hydro-turbine governing system, and its closure rate of guide vane set in the governor depends on the optimization result in the former type load rejection.

  2. Instructional Partners, Principals, Teachers, and Instructional Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    This handbook examines various topics of interest and concern to teachers as they work with instructional assistants forming a classroom instructional partnership and functioning as a team. These topics include: (1) instructional assistant qualifications; (2) duties--instructional, classroom clerical, auxillary; (3) factors to be considered when…

  3. A concept of volume rendering guided search process to analyze medical data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianlong; Xiao, Chun; Wang, Zhiyan; Takatsuka, Masahiro

    2008-03-01

    This paper firstly presents an approach of parallel coordinates based parameter control panel (PCP). The PCP is used to control parameters of focal region-based volume rendering (FRVR) during data analysis. It uses a parallel coordinates style interface. Different rendering parameters represented with nodes on each axis, and renditions based on related parameters are connected using polylines to show dependencies between renditions and parameters. Based on the PCP, a concept of volume rendering guided search process is proposed. The search pipeline is divided into four phases. Different parameters of FRVR are recorded and modulated in the PCP during search phases. The concept shows that volume visualization could play the role of guiding a search process in the rendition space to help users to efficiently find local structures of interest. The usability of the proposed approach is evaluated to show its effectiveness.

  4. Processes setting the characteristics of sea surface cooling induced by tropical cyclones

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, E.M.; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Madec, G.; Vialard, Jérôme; Samson, G.; Jourdain, N.C.; Menkès, Christophe; Jullien, S.

    2012-01-01

    A 1/2 degrees resolution global ocean general circulation model is used to investigate the processes controlling sea surface cooling in the wake of tropical cyclones (TCs). Wind forcing related to more than 3000 TCs occurring during the 1978-2007 period is blended with the CORE II interannual forcing, using an idealized TC wind pattern with observed magnitude and track. The amplitude and spatial characteristics of the TC-induced cooling are consistent with satellite observations, with an aver...

  5. Modeling entrepreneurial decision-making process using concepts from fuzzy set theory

    OpenAIRE

    Khefacha, Islem; Belkacem, Lotfi

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial culture are receiving an increased amount of attention in both academic research and practice. The different fields of study have focused on the analysis of the characteristics of potential entrepreneurs and the firm-creation process. In this paper, we develop and test an economic-psychological model of factors that influence individuals' intentions to go into business. We introduce a new measure of entrepreneurial intention based on the logic fuzzy techni...

  6. Comparative analysis of different process simulation settings of a micro injection molded part featuring conformal cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    . In the reported work, process simulations using Autodesk Moldflow Insight 2015® are applied to a micro mechanical part to be fabricated by micro injection molding and with over-all dimensions of 12.0 × 3.0 × 0.8 mm³ and micro features (micro hole, diameter of 580 μm, and sharp radii down to 100 μm). Three...

  7. Process Development And Simulation For Cold Fabrication Of Doubly Curved Metal Plate By Using Line Array Roll Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, D. S.; Jung, C. G.; Seong, D. Y.; Yang, D. Y.; Han, J. M.; Han, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    For effective manufacturing of a doubly curved sheet metal, a novel sheet metal forming process is proposed. The suggested process uses a Line Array Roll Set (LARS) composed of a pair of upper and lower roll assemblies in a symmetric manner. The process offers flexibility as compared with the conventional manufacturing processes, because it does not require any complex-shaped die and loss of material by blank-holding is minimized. LARS allows flexibility of the incremental forming process and adopts the principle of bending deformation, resulting in a slight deformation in thickness. Rolls composed of line array roll sets are divided into a driving roll row and two idle roll rows. The arrayed rolls in the central lines of the upper and lower roll assemblies are motor-driven so that they deform and transfer the sheet metal using friction between the rolls and the sheet metal. The remaining rolls are idle rolls, generating bending deformation with driving rolls. Furthermore, all the rolls are movable in any direction so that they are adaptable to any size or shape of the desired three-dimensional configuration. In the process, the sheet is deformed incrementally as deformation proceeds simultaneously in rolling and transverse directions step by step. Consequently, it can be applied to the fabrication of doubly curved ship hull plates by undergoing several passes. In this work, FEM simulations are carried out for verification of the proposed incremental forming system using the chosen design parameters. Based on the results of the simulation, the relationship between the roll set configuration and the curvature of a sheet metal is determined. The process information such as the forming loads and torques acting on every roll is analyzed as important data for the design and development of the manufacturing system

  8. Applied Biomechanics in an Instructional Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jackie L.

    2006-01-01

    Biomechanics is the science of how people move better, meaning more skillfully and more safely. This article places more emphasis on skill rather than safety, though there are many parallels between them. It shares a few features of the author's paradigm of applied biomechanics and discusses an integrated approach toward a middle school football…

  9. The knowledge-learning-instruction framework: bridging the science-practice chasm to enhance robust student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R; Corbett, Albert T; Perfetti, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Despite the accumulation of substantial cognitive science research relevant to education, there remains confusion and controversy in the application of research to educational practice. In support of a more systematic approach, we describe the Knowledge-Learning-Instruction (KLI) framework. KLI promotes the emergence of instructional principles of high potential for generality, while explicitly identifying constraints of and opportunities for detailed analysis of the knowledge students may acquire in courses. Drawing on research across domains of science, math, and language learning, we illustrate the analyses of knowledge, learning, and instructional events that the KLI framework affords. We present a set of three coordinated taxonomies of knowledge, learning, and instruction. For example, we identify three broad classes of learning events (LEs): (a) memory and fluency processes, (b) induction and refinement processes, and (c) understanding and sense-making processes, and we show how these can lead to different knowledge changes and constraints on optimal instructional choices. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. ACE-FTS version 3.0 data set: validation and data processing update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Waymark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On 12 August 2003, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE was launched into a 74° inclination orbit at 650 km with the mission objective to measure atmospheric composition using infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy (Bernath et al. 2005. The ACE mission consists of two main instruments, ACE-FTS and MAESTRO (McElroy et al. 2007, which are being used to investigate the chemistry and dynamics of the Earth’s atmosphere.  Here, we focus on the high resolution (0.02 cm-1 infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer, ACE-FTS, that measures in the 750-4400 cm-1 (2.2 to 13.3 µm spectral region.  This instrument has been making regular solar occultation observations for more than nine years.  The current ACE-FTS data version (version 3.0 provides profiles of temperature and volume mixing ratios (VMRs of more than 30 atmospheric trace gas species, as well as 20 subsidiary isotopologues of the most abundant trace atmospheric constituents over a latitude range of ~85°N to ~85°S.  This letter describes the current data version and recent validation comparisons and provides a description of our planned updates for the ACE-FTS data set. [...

  11. Performance of the measures of processes of care for adults and service providers in rehabilitation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamm, Elena L; Rosenbaum, Peter; Wilkins, Seanne; Stratford, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, client-centered care has been embraced as a new philosophy of care by many organizations around the world. Clinicians and researchers have identified the need for valid and reliable outcome measures that are easy to use to evaluate success of implementation of new concepts. The current study was developed to complete adaptation and field testing of the companion patient-reported measures of processes of care for adults (MPOC-A) and the service provider self-reflection measure of processes of care for service providers working with adult clients (MPOC-SP(A)). A validation study. In-patient rehabilitation facilities. MPOC-A and measure of processes of care for service providers working with adult clients (MPOC-SP(A)). Three hundred and eighty-four health care providers, 61 patients, and 16 family members completed the questionnaires. Good to excellent internal consistency (0.71-0.88 for health care professionals, 0.82-0.90 for patients, and 0.87-0.94 for family members), as well as moderate to good correlations between domains (0.40-0.78 for health care professionals and 0.52-0.84 for clients) supported internal reliability of the tools. Exploratory factor analysis of the MPOC-SP(A) responses supported the multidimensionality of the questionnaire. MPOC-A and MPOC-SP(A) are valid and reliable tools to assess patient and service-provider accounts, respectively, of the extent to which they experience, or are able to provide, client-centered service. Research should now be undertaken to explore in more detail the relationships between client experience and provider reports of their own behavior.

  12. Process control for the Vivitron: the generator test set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, J.R.; Marsaudon, J.C.; Baumann, R.; Kapps, E.; Knaebel, R.; Persigny, J.

    1992-01-01

    The VIVITRON is a 35 MV Van de Graaff tandem electrostatic accelerator under construction at the CRN since 1985. About half of the parameters are controlled by equipments which are highly stressed by their physical environment: sparks, electrostatic field, X-rays, vacuum, and gas pressure. It needs a dedicated process control system. The described control system is used since early 1991 to perform the voltage tests of the generator. It provides important information for the accelerator tuning and for the full size control under development. (author)

  13. Application of a repetitive process setting to design of monotonically convergent iterative learning control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boski, Marcin; Paszke, Wojciech

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing an iterative learning control algorithm for discrete linear systems using repetitive process stability theory. The resulting design produces a stabilizing output feedback controller in the time domain and a feedforward controller that guarantees monotonic convergence in the trial-to-trial domain. The results are also extended to limited frequency range design specification. New design procedure is introduced in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) representations, which guarantee the prescribed performances of ILC scheme. A simulation example is given to illustrate the theoretical developments.

  14. Mathematical modeling of vibration processes in reinforced concrete structures for setting up crack initiation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. A.; Matveenko, B. P.; Serovaev, G. S.; Shardakov, I. N.; Shestakov, A. P.

    2015-03-01

    The contemporary construction industry is based on the use of reinforced concrete structures, but emergency situations resulting in fracture can arise in their exploitation. In a majority of cases, reinforced concrete fracture is realized as the process of crack formation and development. As a rule, the appearance of the first cracks does not lead to the complete loss of the carrying capacity but is a fracture precursor. One method for ensuring the safe operation of building structures is based on crack initiation monitoring. A vibration method for the monitoring of reinforced concrete structures is justified in this paper. An example of a reinforced concrete beam is used to consider all stages related to the analysis of the behavior of natural frequencies in the development of a crack-shaped defect and the use of the obtained numerical results for the vibration test method. The efficiency of the method is illustrated by the results of modeling of the physical part of the method related to the analysis of the natural frequency evolution as a response to the impact action in the crack development process.

  15. Processing large sensor data sets for safeguards : the knowledge generation system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Maikel A.; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Matthews, Robert F.

    2012-04-01

    Modern nuclear facilities, such as reprocessing plants, present inspectors with significant challenges due in part to the sheer amount of equipment that must be safeguarded. The Sandia-developed and patented Knowledge Generation system was designed to automatically analyze large amounts of safeguards data to identify anomalous events of interest by comparing sensor readings with those expected from a process of interest and operator declarations. This paper describes a demonstration of the Knowledge Generation system using simulated accountability tank sensor data to represent part of a reprocessing plant. The demonstration indicated that Knowledge Generation has the potential to address several problems critical to the future of safeguards. It could be extended to facilitate remote inspections and trigger random inspections. Knowledge Generation could analyze data to establish trust hierarchies, to facilitate safeguards use of operator-owned sensors.

  16. Gas industry standards board: Legal considerations in the standard setting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, M.T.; Adelman, D.I.

    1994-01-01

    On December 23, 1993, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued Order 563, a Final Rule adopting the agreements of informal industry-wide working groups to standardize information relating to pipeline capacity release programs mandated under Order 636. Order 563 is noteworthy for its reliance upon the industry to develop consensus standards for Commission adoption. The industry's success in reaching agreements on key communication standards issues spawned recommendations from the working groups to continue the development and maintenance of industry-wide standards through a permanent Gas Industry Standards Board (GISB). This article examines legal issues bearing on GISB's potential role in the regulatory process. Specifically, this article addresses constitutional and statutory considerations relating to the FERC's authority to delegate certain responsibilities to a voluntary, industry sponsored and supported private body such as that taking shape within the gas industry.

  17. The Role of Feedback in the Bologna Process, According to Goal Setting Theory: An Exploratory Study of Students' Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Terrón, Miriam; Balagué i Canadell, Jordi; Solé Pla, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study has been carried out while The Bologna Process was implemented in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). One of the main features of TBP is Lifelong Learning (LLL), introduced to improve student learning, by emphasizing the role of feedback. The Goal Setting Theory of Motivation (GST) considers feedback as a mechanism to enhance performance. Starting from this theoretical framework, our objective is to analyse whether, for those students with specific and challenging goals, fee...

  18. The Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM): A Frame to Set Up an Organizational Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Michel

    In this paper, we introduce the "Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM)" implemented to deploy Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-based Systems within a large industrial company. This model illustrates what could be two of the operating elements of the Model for General Knowledge Management within the Enterprise (MGKME) that are essential to set up the organizational learning process that leads people to appropriate and use concepts, methods and tools of an innovative technology: the "Ad hoc Infrastructures" element, and the "Organizational Learning Processes" element.

  19. Automated pre-processing and multivariate vibrational spectra analysis software for rapid results in clinical settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, T.; Kumar, P.; Fillipe, L.

    2018-02-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy, especially FTIR and Raman, has shown enormous potential in disease diagnosis, especially in cancers. Their potential for detecting varied pathological conditions are regularly reported. However, to prove their applicability in clinics, large multi-center multi-national studies need to be undertaken; and these will result in enormous amount of data. A parallel effort to develop analytical methods, including user-friendly software that can quickly pre-process data and subject them to required multivariate analysis is warranted in order to obtain results in real time. This study reports a MATLAB based script that can automatically import data, preprocess spectra— interpolation, derivatives, normalization, and then carry out Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) of the first 10 PCs; all with a single click. The software has been verified on data obtained from cell lines, animal models, and in vivo patient datasets, and gives results comparable to Minitab 16 software. The software can be used to import variety of file extensions, asc, .txt., .xls, and many others. Options to ignore noisy data, plot all possible graphs with PCA factors 1 to 5, and save loading factors, confusion matrices and other parameters are also present. The software can provide results for a dataset of 300 spectra within 0.01 s. We believe that the software will be vital not only in clinical trials using vibrational spectroscopic data, but also to obtain rapid results when these tools get translated into clinics.

  20. Goal setting in practice : the effects of personality and perceptions of the goal-setting process on job satisfaction and goal commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bipp, T.; Kleingeld, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study was to investigate how individual perceptions by employees of a goal-setting program and personality traits influence job satisfaction and goal commitment. Design/methodology/approach – Using the German version of Locke and Latham’s goal-setting questionnaire, 97

  1. The Effectiveness of Guided Induction versus Deductive Instruction on the Development of Complex Spanish "Gustar" Structures: An Analysis of Learning Outcomes and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Luis; Caras, Allison; Leow, Ronald P.

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analytic research suggests an edge of explicit over implicit instruction for the development of complex L2 grammatical structures, but the jury is still out as to which type of explicit instruction--"deductive" or "inductive," where rules are respectively provided or elicited--proves more effective. Avoiding this…

  2. Evaluation: Processes and Practices. Selected Papers from the Conference for the Evaluation of Instructional Materials (Washington, D.C., April 5-6, 1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Ginny, Ed.; And Others

    Selected papers from the Conference for the Evaluation of Instructional Materials treat the area of evaluation by describing Richard Dershimer's three-part evaluative schema, the Educational Products Information Exchange approach to evaluating instructional materials, the evaluation procedures in Montgomery county (Maryland), the Consumers Union…

  3. Large Grain Instruction and Phonological Awareness Skill Influence Rime Sensitivity, Processing Speed, and Early Decoding Skill in Adult L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Christine; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic knowledge, cognitive ability, and instruction influence how adults acquire a second orthography yet it remains unclear how different forms of instruction influence grain size sensitivity and subsequent decoding skill and speed. Thirty-seven monolingual, literate English-speaking adults were trained on a novel artificial orthography…

  4. Richardson Instructional Management System (RIMS). How to Blend a Computerized Objectives-Referenced Testing System, Distributive Data Processing, and Systemwide Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, N. Blyth

    Recent changes in the structure of curriculum and the instructional system in Texas have required a major reorganization of teaching, evaluating, budgeting, and planning activities in the local education agencies, which has created the need for a database. The history of Richardson Instructional Management System (RIMS), its data processing…

  5. Improve Student Understanding Ability Through Gamification in Instructional Media Based Explicit Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausi, N.; Prabawa, H. W.; Sutarno, H.

    2017-02-01

    In an effort to maximize a student’s academic growth, one of the tools available to educators is the explicit instruction. Explicit instruction is marked by a series of support or scaffold, where the students will be guided through the learning process with a clear statement of purpose and a reason for learning new skills, a clear explanation and demonstration of learning targets, supported and practiced with independent feedback until mastery has been achieved. The technology development trend of todays, requires an adjustment in the development of learning object that supports the achievement of explicit instruction targets. This is where the gamification position is. In the role as a pedagogical strategy, the use of gamification preformance study class is still relatively new. Gamification not only use the game elements and game design techniques in non-game contexts, but also to empower and engage learners with the ability of motivation on learning approach and maintains a relaxed atmosphere. With using Reseach and Development methods, this paper presents the integration of technology (which in this case using the concept of gamification) in explicit instruction settings and the impact on the improvement of students’ understanding.

  6. Computer programs in BASIC language for graphite furnace atomic absorption using the method of additions. Part 1. Operating instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, W.G. Jr.; Ryan, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    These instructions describe how to use BASIC language programs to process data from atomic absorption spectrophotometers using the graphite furnace and the method of additions calibration technique. The instructions cover loading the programs, responding to computer prompts, choosing among various options for processing the data, performing operations with an automatic sampler, and producing reports. How the programs interact with each other is also explained. Examples of computer/operator dialogue are presented for typical cases. In addition, a concise set of operating instructions is included as an appendix

  7. Setting a new paradigm in cognitive science information: contributions to the process of knowing the information professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Dal' Evedove

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies about human cognition represent a relevant perspective in information science, considering the subjective actions of information professionals and dialogic process that should permeate the activity of subjects dealing with the organization and representation of information.Objective: Explore the approach of the cognitive perspective in information science and their new settings by contemporary needs of information to reflect on the process of meeting the professional information through the social reality that permeates the contexts of information.Methodology: Reflection on theoretical aspects that deal with the cognitive development to discuss the implications of the cognitive approach in information science and its evolution in the scope of the representation and processing of information.Results: Research in Information Science must consider issues of cognitive and social order that underlie information processing and the process of knowing the information professional as knowledge structures must be explained from the social context of knowing subjects.Conclusions: There is a need to investigate the process of knowing the information professional in the bias of socio-cognitive approach, targeting new elements for the understanding of the relationship information (cognitive manifestations and its implications on the social dimension.

  8. Imprecision and uncertainty in information representation and processing new tools based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets and generalized nets

    CERN Document Server

    Sotirov, Sotir

    2016-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive and timely overview of advanced mathematical tools for both uncertainty analysis and modeling of parallel processes, with a special emphasis on intuitionistic fuzzy sets and generalized nets. The different chapters, written by active researchers in their respective areas, are structured to provide a coherent picture of this interdisciplinary yet still evolving field of science. They describe key tools and give practical insights into and research perspectives on the use of Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets and logic, and generalized nets for describing and dealing with uncertainty in different areas of science, technology and business, in a single, to date unique book. Here, readers find theoretical chapters, dealing with intuitionistic fuzzy operators, membership functions and algorithms, among other topics, as well as application-oriented chapters, reporting on the implementation of methods and relevant case studies in management science, the IT industry, medicine and/or ...

  9. Instructional multimedia: An investigation of student and instructor attitudes and student study behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Educators in allied health and medical education programs utilize instructional multimedia to facilitate psychomotor skill acquisition in students. This study examines the effects of instructional multimedia on student and instructor attitudes and student study behavior. Methods Subjects consisted of 45 student physical therapists from two universities. Two skill sets were taught during the course of the study. Skill set one consisted of knee examination techniques and skill set two consisted of ankle/foot examination techniques. For each skill set, subjects were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental group. The control group was taught with live demonstration of the examination skills, while the experimental group was taught using multimedia. A cross-over design was utilized so that subjects in the control group for skill set one served as the experimental group for skill set two, and vice versa. During the last week of the study, students and instructors completed written questionnaires to assess attitude toward teaching methods, and students answered questions regarding study behavior. Results There were no differences between the two instructional groups in attitudes, but students in the experimental group for skill set two reported greater study time alone compared to other groups. Conclusions Multimedia provides an efficient method to teach psychomotor skills to students entering the health professions. Both students and instructors identified advantages and disadvantages for both instructional techniques. Reponses relative to instructional multimedia emphasized efficiency, processing level, autonomy, and detail of instruction compared to live presentation. Students and instructors identified conflicting views of instructional detail and control of the content. PMID:21693058

  10. Instructional multimedia: An investigation of student and instructor attitudes and student study behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavanaugh Cathy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educators in allied health and medical education programs utilize instructional multimedia to facilitate psychomotor skill acquisition in students. This study examines the effects of instructional multimedia on student and instructor attitudes and student study behavior. Methods Subjects consisted of 45 student physical therapists from two universities. Two skill sets were taught during the course of the study. Skill set one consisted of knee examination techniques and skill set two consisted of ankle/foot examination techniques. For each skill set, subjects were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental group. The control group was taught with live demonstration of the examination skills, while the experimental group was taught using multimedia. A cross-over design was utilized so that subjects in the control group for skill set one served as the experimental group for skill set two, and vice versa. During the last week of the study, students and instructors completed written questionnaires to assess attitude toward teaching methods, and students answered questions regarding study behavior. Results There were no differences between the two instructional groups in attitudes, but students in the experimental group for skill set two reported greater study time alone compared to other groups. Conclusions Multimedia provides an efficient method to teach psychomotor skills to students entering the health professions. Both students and instructors identified advantages and disadvantages for both instructional techniques. Reponses relative to instructional multimedia emphasized efficiency, processing level, autonomy, and detail of instruction compared to live presentation. Students and instructors identified conflicting views of instructional detail and control of the content.

  11. Pre-Service Teachers: An Analysis of Reading Instruction in High Needs Districts Dual Language Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Whitacre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004. The student teaching experience is a critical component of the teacher preparation program. Through the use of the English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI, and researcher observation the hope is that these will aid in bringing to light the instructional activities used by pre-service teachers during reading instruction with ELLs. This study explores how pre-service bilingual teachers connect theory into practice by examining their instruction in the following categories: Instructional Practices, Interactive Teaching, English-Language Development, and Content Specific to Reading as listed in The English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI developed by Haager, Gersten, Baker, and Graves (2003. To capture these instructional events video tape recordings of eight South Texas pre-service teachers were taken during a reading language arts lesson in order to observe instruction in high need districts’ dual language/bilingual classrooms. Data were compiled to capture the nature and quality of instruction on key essential elements, as well as reading instructional practices specific to the teaching/learning process in the dual language classroom. The findings portray the results of the ELLCOI with bilingual/ESL pre- service teachers and how they make sense of their instructional practices as a means to instruction in one-way dual language public school classrooms.

  12. Implementation and evaluation of a peer review process for advanced practice nurses in a university hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergum, Shelly K; Canaan, Talitha; Delemos, Christi; Gall, Elizabeth Funke; McCracken, Bonnie; Rowen, Dave; Salvemini, Steve; Wiens, Kimberly

    2017-07-01

    Over the past decade, implementation of the peer review process for the development of the advanced practice nurse (APN) has been emphasized. However, little exists in the literature regarding APN peer review. The peer review process is intended to help demonstrate competency of care, enhance quality improvement measures, and foster the professional growth of the APN. APNs serving on a professional governance council within a university teaching hospital developed a model of peer review for APNs. Nine months after the tool was implemented, an anonymous follow-up survey was conducted. A follow-up request was sent 4 weeks later to increase the number of respondents. Likert scales were used to elicit subjective data regarding the process. Of 81 APNs who participated in the survey, more than half (52%) felt that the process would directly improve their professional practice. Survey results show that the peer review process affected APN professional practice positively. Additional research might include pathways for remediation and education of staff, evaluation of alternate methods to improve application to clinical practice, and collection of outcome data. The models presented provide a foundation for future refinement to accommodate different APN practice settings. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  13. Influence of different process settings conditions on the accuracy of micro injection molding simulations: an experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Gava, Alberto; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    Currently available software packages exhibit poor results accuracy when performing micro injection molding (µIM) simulations. However, with an appropriate set-up of the processing conditions, the quality of results can be improved. The effects on the simulation results of different and alternative...... process conditions are investigated, namely the nominal injection speed, as well as the cavity filling time and the evolution of the cavity injection pressure as experimental data. In addition, the sensitivity of the results to the quality of the rheological data is analyzed. Simulated results...... are compared with experiments in terms of flow front position at part and micro features levels, as well as cavity injection filling time measurements....

  14. EST Vocabulary Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia D.S. Bell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the investigation on the instruction of EST (English for Science and Technology vocabulary, in terms of receptive use of the language. It evaluates the effectiveness of two teaching approaches to the acquisition of vocabulary. The first approach consisted of teaching vocabulary through the use of dictionaries, where the words were merely translated into the learners’ L1 or defined in the target language thus promoting superficial level of word processing. The second approach employed activities promoting deep level of word processing. Data were analysed quantitatively. Results indicated that the two approaches seem to have some equipotentiality, as far as EST vocabulary is concerned.

  15. Increased fairness in priority setting processes within the health sector: the case of Kapiri-Mposhi District, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Joseph M; Michelo, Charles; Msoni, Carol; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Byskov, Jens; Blystad, Astrid

    2014-02-18

    The challenge of priority setting (PS) in health care within contexts of severe resource limitations has continued to receive attention. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) has emerged as a useful framework to guide the implementation of PS processes. In 2006, the AFR approach to enhance legitimate and fair PS was introduced by researchers and decision makers within the health sector in the EU funded research project entitled 'Response to Accountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT). The project aimed to strengthen fairness and accountability in the PS processes of health systems at district level in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. This paper focuses on local perceptions and practices of fair PS (baseline study) as well as at the evolution of such perceptions and practices in PS following an AFR based intervention (evaluation study), carried out at district level in Kapiri-Mposhi District in Zambia. Data was collected using in depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and review of documents from national to district level. The study population for this paper consisted of health related stakeholders employed in the district administration, in non-governmental organizations (NGO) and in health facilities. During the baseline study, concepts of legitimacy and fairness in PS processes were found to be grounded in local values of equity and impartiality. Government and other organizational strategies strongly supported devolution of PS and decision making procedures. However, important gaps were identified in terms of experiences of stakeholder involvement and fairness in PS processes in practice. The evaluation study revealed that a transformation of the views and methods regarding fairness in PS processes was ongoing in the study district, which was partly attributed to the AFR based intervention. The study findings suggest that increased attention was given to fairness in PS processes at district level. The changes were linked to a

  16. Optimization of Ventilation and Alarm Setting During the Process of Ammonia Leak in Refrigeration Machinery Room Based on Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the ventilation effect of ammonia leakage in the refrigeration machinery room, a food processing enterprise is selected as the subject investigated. The velocity and concentration field distribution during the process of ammonia leakage are discussed through simulation of refrigeration machinery room using CFD software. The ventilation system of the room is optimized in three aspects which are named air distribution, ventilation volume and discharge outlet. The influence of the ammonia alarm system through ventilation is also analyzed. The results show that it will be better to set the discharge outlet at the top of the plant than at the side of the wall, and the smaller of the distance between the air outlet and the ammonia gathering area, the better of the effect of ventilation will be. The air flow can be improved and the vortex flow can be reduced if the ventilation volume, the number of air vents and the exhaust velocity are reasonably arranged. Not only the function of the alarm could be ensured, but also the scope of the detection area could be enlarged if the detectors are set on the ceiling of the refrigeration units or the ammonia storage vessel.

  17. ISP: an optimal out-of-core image-set processing streaming architecture for parallel heterogeneous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Linh Khanh; Krüger, Jens; Dihl Comba, João Luiz; Silva, Cláudio T; Joshi, Sarang

    2012-06-01

    Image population analysis is the class of statistical methods that plays a central role in understanding the development, evolution, and disease of a population. However, these techniques often require excessive computational power and memory that are compounded with a large number of volumetric inputs. Restricted access to supercomputing power limits its influence in general research and practical applications. In this paper we introduce ISP, an Image-Set Processing streaming framework that harnesses the processing power of commodity heterogeneous CPU/GPU systems and attempts to solve this computational problem. In ISP, we introduce specially designed streaming algorithms and data structures that provide an optimal solution for out-of-core multiimage processing problems both in terms of memory usage and computational efficiency. ISP makes use of the asynchronous execution mechanism supported by parallel heterogeneous systems to efficiently hide the inherent latency of the processing pipeline of out-of-core approaches. Consequently, with computationally intensive problems, the ISP out-of-core solution can achieve the same performance as the in-core solution. We demonstrate the efficiency of the ISP framework on synthetic and real datasets.

  18. Improving satellite-based PM2.5 estimates in China using Gaussian processes modeling in a Bayesian hierarchical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenxi; Liu, Yang; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Using satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements and statistical models to estimate ground-level PM 2.5 is a promising way to fill the areas that are not covered by ground PM 2.5 monitors. The statistical models used in previous studies are primarily Linear Mixed Effects (LME) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models. In this study, we developed a new regression model between PM 2.5 and AOD using Gaussian processes in a Bayesian hierarchical setting. Gaussian processes model the stochastic nature of the spatial random effects, where the mean surface and the covariance function is specified. The spatial stochastic process is incorporated under the Bayesian hierarchical framework to explain the variation of PM 2.5 concentrations together with other factors, such as AOD, spatial and non-spatial random effects. We evaluate the results of our model and compare them with those of other, conventional statistical models (GWR and LME) by within-sample model fitting and out-of-sample validation (cross validation, CV). The results show that our model possesses a CV result (R 2  = 0.81) that reflects higher accuracy than that of GWR and LME (0.74 and 0.48, respectively). Our results indicate that Gaussian process models have the potential to improve the accuracy of satellite-based PM 2.5 estimates.

  19. Graphic Arts: Book Three. The Press and Related Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajollahi, Karim; And Others

    The third of a three-volume set of instructional materials for a graphic arts course, this manual consists of nine instructional units dealing with presses and related processes. Covered in the units are basic press fundamentals, offset press systems, offset press operating procedures, offset inks and dampening chemistry, preventive maintenance…

  20. INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN (ISD: Theory and Practice in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil GOKSEL CANBEK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The considerable changes in distance learning related technologies and Web 2.0 tools direct new immersive platforms to serve on the concept of avatar-driven interactions. In this sense, the immersive learning platforms, like Second Life (SL, embrace innovative forms of network based settings for effective community interactions. SL, as an interactive learning milieu, conducts 3D interactions and active education within the context of Instructional Systems Design (ISD which makes learning experiences efficient for both the tutor and learners on the platform designed on social networking. The platform gives an appropriate service to its users to be part of an instructional application of virtual worlds in where learners become connected though online activities. Within the learning theories existing nowadays, instructional designers, who are working in 3D environment like SL, are using mainly cognitive theory and constructivist strategy of learning. According to cognitive learning theory, people learn in different ways that are individually contextual and new trends in Instructional Design (ID had to address these differences. There are number of already approbated instructional models, which are used widely in the process of creation learning courses for 3D environments. The most frequently used model is ADDIE (Assess–Design–Develop–Implement– Evaluate, and the model PIE (Plan-Integrate–Evaluate, that is relatively new and become increasingly popular as it allows easy integration of technology in the classroom-oriented (virtual or real teaching. Based on the above mentioned concerns, this paper will examine the instructional design models used to create immersive courses within SL. Further, the paper will collect ideas on the instructional tools and technologies used for designing SL courses as these new technologies used in this environment draws heavily on andragogy. The paper will also clarify the obstacles on virtual learning

  1. Instructional skills evaluation in nuclear industry training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazour, T.J.; Ball, F.M.

    1985-11-01

    This report provides information to nuclear power plant training managers and their staffs concerning the job performance requirements of instructional personnel to implement prformance-based training programs (also referred to as the Systems Approach Training). The information presented in this report is a compilation of information and lessons learned in the nuclear power industry and in other industries using performance-based training programs. The job performance requirements in this report are presented as instructional skills objectives. The process used to develop the instructional skills objectives is described. Each objective includes an Instructional Skills Statement describing the behavior that is expected and an Instructional Skills Standard describing the skills/knowledge that the individual should possess in order to have achieved mastery. The instructional skills objectives are organized according to the essential elements of the Systems Approach to Training and are cross-referenced to three categories of instructional personnel: developers of instruction, instructors, and instructional managers/supervisors. Use of the instructional skills objectives is demonstrated for reviewing instructional staff training and qualification programs, developing criterion-tests, and reviewing the performance and work products of individual staff members. 22 refs

  2. Reconciling the influence of task-set switching and motor inhibition processes on stop signal after-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguera, Joaquin A; Lyman, Kyle; Zanto, Theodore P; Bollinger, Jacob; Gazzaley, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Executive response functions can be affected by preceding events, even if they are no longer associated with the current task at hand. For example, studies utilizing the stop signal task have reported slower response times to "GO" stimuli when the preceding trial involved the presentation of a "STOP" signal. However, the neural mechanisms that underlie this behavioral after-effect are unclear. To address this, behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) measures were examined in 18 young adults (18-30 years) on "GO" trials following a previously "Successful Inhibition" trial (pSI), a previously "Failed Inhibition" trial (pFI), and a previous "GO" trial (pGO). Like previous research, slower response times were observed during both pSI and pFI trials (i.e., "GO" trials that were preceded by a successful and unsuccessful inhibition trial, respectively) compared to pGO trials (i.e., "GO" trials that were preceded by another "GO" trial). Interestingly, response time slowing was greater during pSI trials compared to pFI trials, suggesting executive control is influenced by both task set switching and persisting motor inhibition processes. Follow-up behavioral analyses indicated that these effects resulted from between-trial control adjustments rather than repetition priming effects. Analyses of inter-electrode coherence (IEC) and inter-trial coherence (ITC) indicated that both pSI and pFI trials showed greater phase synchrony during the inter-trial interval compared to pGO trials. Unlike the IEC findings, differential ITC was present within the beta and alpha frequency bands in line with the observed behavior (pSI > pFI > pGO), suggestive of more consistent phase synchrony involving motor inhibition processes during the ITI at a regional level. These findings suggest that between-trial control adjustments involved with task-set switching and motor inhibition processes influence subsequent performance, providing new insights into the dynamic nature of executive control.

  3. The Multimodal Possibilities of Online Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2006-01-01

    The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it.  Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi-modal analy......The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it.  Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi...

  4. Strategy Instruction in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Susan R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments in strategy instruction for mathematics have been conducted using three models (direct instruction, self-instruction, and guided learning) applied to the tasks of computation and word problem solving. Results have implications for effective strategy instruction for learning disabled students. It is recommended that strategy instruction…

  5. Development of a MODIS-Derived Surface Albedo Data Set: An Improved Model Input for Processing the NSRDB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maclaurin, Galen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Xie, Yu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gilroy, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A significant source of bias in the transposition of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array (POA) irradiance arises from inaccurate estimations of surface albedo. The current physics-based model used to produce the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) relies on model estimations of surface albedo from a reanalysis climatalogy produced at relatively coarse spatial resolution compared to that of the NSRDB. As an input to spectral decomposition and transposition models, more accurate surface albedo data from remotely sensed imagery at finer spatial resolutions would improve accuracy in the final product. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an improved white-sky (bi-hemispherical reflectance) broadband (0.3-5.0 ..mu..m) surface albedo data set for processing the NSRDB from two existing data sets: a gap-filled albedo product and a daily snow cover product. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have provided high-quality measurements of surface albedo at 30 arc-second spatial resolution and 8-day temporal resolution since 2001. The high spatial and temporal resolutions and the temporal coverage of the MODIS sensor will allow for improved modeling of POA irradiance in the NSRDB. However, cloud and snow cover interfere with MODIS observations of ground surface albedo, and thus they require post-processing. The MODIS production team applied a gap-filling methodology to interpolate observations obscured by clouds or ephemeral snow. This approach filled pixels with ephemeral snow cover because the 8-day temporal resolution is too coarse to accurately capture the variability of snow cover and its impact on albedo estimates. However, for this project, accurate representation of daily snow cover change is important in producing the NSRDB. Therefore, NREL also used the Integrated Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System data set, which provides daily snow cover observations of the

  6. Direct Vocabulary Instruction in Preschool: A Comparison of Extended Instruction, Embedded Instruction, and Incidental Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…

  7. Managing Innovation and Change for Instructional Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holznagel, Donald C.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces the term "orgware" and reviews the literature on managing technological innovation in instructional settings. Six areas of management concern are described, and advice on managing innovation and change is provided. (11 references) (GLR)

  8. A risk modelling approach for setting process hygiene criteria for Salmonella in pork cutting plants, based on enterococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Anne Mette; Hansen, Tina Beck; Nauta, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Pork is known to be a key source of foodborne salmonellosis. Processing steps from slaughter to cutting and retail contribute to the Salmonella consumer exposure. In two extensive surveys comprising a total of 5,310 pork samples, cuttings and minced meat were analysed semiquantitatively for Salmo......Pork is known to be a key source of foodborne salmonellosis. Processing steps from slaughter to cutting and retail contribute to the Salmonella consumer exposure. In two extensive surveys comprising a total of 5,310 pork samples, cuttings and minced meat were analysed semiquantitatively...... for Salmonella and quantitatively for the hygiene indicator enterococci. The samples were collected in 2001/2002 and 2010/2011 in Danish cutting plants, retail supermarkets and butcher shops. A positive correlation between prevalence of Salmonella and number of enterococci was shown (Hansen et al., 2013......). As enterococci and Salmonella share a lower growth limit around 5°C, the positive correlation could imply that the meat had been exposed to temperatures above 5°C. Based on these findings, the objective of this study was to develop an approach for setting process hygiene criteria for predicting Salmonella risk...

  9. Testing a "content meets process" model of depression vulnerability and rumination: Exploring the moderating role of set-shifting deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Roberts, John E

    2016-03-01

    MacCoon and Newman's (2006) "content meets process" model posits that deficits in cognitive control make it difficult to disengage from negative cognitions caused by a negative cognitive style (NCS). The present study examined if the interactive effect of cognitive set-shifting abilities and NCS predicts rumination and past history of depression. Participants were 90 previously depressed individuals and 95 never depressed individuals. We administered three laboratory tasks that assess set-shifting: the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Task, the Emotional Card-Sorting Task, and the Internal Switch Task, and self-report measures of NCS and rumination. Shifting ability in the context of emotional distractors moderated the association between NCS and depressive rumination. Although previously depressed individuals had more NCS and higher trait rumination relative to never depressed individuals, shifting ability did not moderate the association between NCS and depression history. The cross-sectional correlational design cannot address the causal direction of effects. It is also not clear whether findings will generalize beyond college students. NCS was elevated in previously depressed individuals consistent with its theoretical role as trait vulnerability to the disorder. Furthermore, NCS may be particularly likely to trigger rumination among individuals with poor capacity for cognitive control in the context of emotional distraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Tablet Inscribed: Inclusive Writing Instruction with the iPad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the author's initial skepticism, a classroom set of iPads has reinforced a student-directed approach to writing instruction, while also supporting an inclusive classroom. Using the iPads, students guide their writing process with access to the learning management system, electronic information resources, and an online text editor. Students…

  11. A Model for Designing Library Instruction for Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Angela Doucet

    2013-01-01

    Providing library instruction in distance learning environments presents a unique set of challenges for instructional librarians. Innovations in computer-mediated communication and advances in cognitive science research provide the opportunity for designing library instruction that meets a variety of student information seeking needs. Using a…

  12. Making Instructional Decisions Based on Data: What, How, and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Rosemary, Catherine A.; Edwards, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    A carefully coordinated literacy assessment and instruction framework implemented school-wide can support school teams in making sense of various types of data for instructional planning. Instruction that is data based and goal driven sets the stage for continuous reading and writing improvement. (Contains 2 figures.)

  13. Joint modeling of multivariate longitudinal data and the dropout process in a competing risk setting: application to ICU data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deslandes Emmanuelle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint modeling of longitudinal and survival data has been increasingly considered in clinical trials, notably in cancer and AIDS. In critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU, such models also appear to be of interest in the investigation of the effect of treatment on severity scores due to the likely association between the longitudinal score and the dropout process, either caused by deaths or live discharges from the ICU. However, in this competing risk setting, only cause-specific hazard sub-models for the multiple failure types data have been used. Methods We propose a joint model that consists of a linear mixed effects submodel for the longitudinal outcome, and a proportional subdistribution hazards submodel for the competing risks survival data, linked together by latent random effects. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo technique of Gibbs sampling to estimate the joint posterior distribution of the unknown parameters of the model. The proposed method is studied and compared to joint model with cause-specific hazards submodel in simulations and applied to a data set that consisted of repeated measurements of severity score and time of discharge and death for 1,401 ICU patients. Results Time by treatment interaction was observed on the evolution of the mean SOFA score when ignoring potentially informative dropouts due to ICU deaths and live discharges from the ICU. In contrast, this was no longer significant when modeling the cause-specific hazards of informative dropouts. Such a time by treatment interaction persisted together with an evidence of treatment effect on the hazard of death when modeling dropout processes through the use of the Fine and Gray model for sub-distribution hazards. Conclusions In the joint modeling of competing risks with longitudinal response, differences in the handling of competing risk outcomes appear to translate into the estimated difference in treatment effect on the

  14. An optimized process flow for rapid segmentation of cortical bones of the craniofacial skeleton using the level-set method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedowski, T D; Fialkov, J; Pakdel, A; Whyne, C M

    2013-01-01

    Accurate representation of skeletal structures is essential for quantifying structural integrity, for developing accurate models, for improving patient-specific implant design and in image-guided surgery applications. The complex morphology of thin cortical structures of the craniofacial skeleton (CFS) represents a significant challenge with respect to accurate bony segmentation. This technical study presents optimized processing steps to segment the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of thin cortical bone structures from CT images. In this procedure, anoisotropic filtering and a connected components scheme were utilized to isolate and enhance the internal boundaries between craniofacial cortical and trabecular bone. Subsequently, the shell-like nature of cortical bone was exploited using boundary-tracking level-set methods with optimized parameters determined from large-scale sensitivity analysis. The process was applied to clinical CT images acquired from two cadaveric CFSs. The accuracy of the automated segmentations was determined based on their volumetric concurrencies with visually optimized manual segmentations, without statistical appraisal. The full CFSs demonstrated volumetric concurrencies of 0.904 and 0.719; accuracy increased to concurrencies of 0.936 and 0.846 when considering only the maxillary region. The highly automated approach presented here is able to segment the cortical shell and trabecular boundaries of the CFS in clinical CT images. The results indicate that initial scan resolution and cortical-trabecular bone contrast may impact performance. Future application of these steps to larger data sets will enable the determination of the method's sensitivity to differences in image quality and CFS morphology.

  15. Getting evidence-based pressure ulcer prevention into practice: a process evaluation of a multifaceted intervention in a hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sving, Eva; Fredriksson, Lennart; Gunningberg, Lena; Mamhidir, Anna-Greta

    2017-10-01

    To describe registered nurses', assistant nurses' and first-line managers' experiences and perceptions of a multifaceted hospital setting intervention focused on implementing evidence-based pressure ulcer prevention. Pressure ulcer prevention is deficient. Different models exist to support implementation of evidence-based care. Little is known about implementation processes. A descriptive qualitative approach. Five focus-group nurse interviews and five individual first-line manager interviews were conducted at five Swedish hospital units. Qualitative content analysis was used. The findings support that the intervention and the implementation process changed the understanding and way of working with pressure ulcer prevention: from treating to preventing. This became possible as 'Changed understanding enables changed actions - through one's own performance and reflection on pressure ulcer prevention'. Having a common outlook on pressure ulcer prevention, easy access to pressure-reducing equipment, and external and internal facilitator support were described as important factors for changed practices. Bedside support, feedback and discussions on current results increased the awareness of needed improvements. The multifaceted intervention approach and the participants' positive attitudes seemed to be crucial for changing understanding and working more preventatively. The strategies used and the skills of the facilitators need to be tailored to the problems surrounding the context. Feedback discussions among the staff regarding the results of the care provided also appear to be vital. It is crucial that dedicated facilitators are involved to promote the implementation process. A preventative mindset should be strived for. Creating an implementation plan with an outcome and a process evaluation should be emphasised. It is important to give the staff regular feedback on the quality of care and on those occasions allocate time for discussion and reflection. © 2016 John

  16. Healing process following application of set or fresh mineral trioxide aggregate as a root-end filling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehdi; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Habibi, Ataollah; Mohtasham, Nooshin

    2011-01-01

    An unsuccessful attempt to reach the apical area or to place the retrograde material is a major difficulty in periradicular surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the histological evaluation of the healing process following an orthograde versus a retrograde application of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a root-end filling material during apical surgery on cats' teeth in order to find out whether orthograde placement of MTA before surgery can be used instead of retrograde placement during surgery. In this experimental study, 24 canine teeth in 12 mature and healthy cats were filled with either MTA or gutta-percha in an orthograde manner. Two weeks later, the teeth with MTA were surgically exposed and resected to the set-MTA within the canals. The teeth previously filled by gutta-percha were also surgically exposed, and retrograde cavities were prepared at the root ends and filled with fresh-MTA. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized by vital perfusion. Six-micron histological slices were prepared from samples, stained by Hematoxylin & Eosin, and histologically studied by means of a light microscope. The collected data was analyzed by the Chi-square and the T-test. One of the samples in the fresh-MTA group was omitted during processing because of inappropriate sectioning. In the set-MTA group, 5 out of 12 showed chronic abscess, while in the fresh-MTA group, 2 out of 11 were discovered to have chronic abscess; however, no significant difference was observed (P>.05). Hard tissue healing (cementum, bone, cementum + bone formation) in the set-MTA and fresh-MTA groups were 7 out of 12 and 9 out of 11, respectively. While healing seemed more likely to occur in the fresh-MTA group, the difference was statistically insignificant (P>.05). The magnitude of bone, cementum, or bone and cementum formation showed slight differences between the two groups; however, the figures failed to show any marked differences (P>.05). Orthograde placement of MTA could be used

  17. Instruction of 27 March 1973 concerning implementation of Decree No 73-278 of 13 March 1973 setting up a Higher Council for Nuclear Safety and a Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    This Instruction specifies, on the basis of the 1973 Decree, the duties, in particular regarding licensing, of the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations. The Service is assisted in its work by the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and advisory groups.(NEA) [fr

  18. A quality improvement project using statistical process control methods for type 2 diabetes control in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, David; Douglas, Kate; Goldberg, Vera; Martinez, Boris; Garcia, Pablo; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rohloff, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Quality improvement (QI) is a key strategy for improving diabetes care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study reports on a diabetes QI project in rural Guatemala whose primary aim was to improve glycemic control of a panel of adult diabetes patients. Formative research suggested multiple areas for programmatic improvement in ambulatory diabetes care. This project utilized the Model for Improvement and Agile Global Health, our organization's complementary healthcare implementation framework. A bundle of improvement activities were implemented at the home, clinic and institutional level. Control charts of mean hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) and proportion of patients meeting target HbA1C showed improvement as special cause variation was identified 3 months after the intervention began. Control charts for secondary process measures offered insights into the value of different components of the intervention. Intensity of home-based diabetes education emerged as an important driver of panel glycemic control. Diabetes QI work is feasible in resource-limited settings in LMICs and can improve glycemic control. Statistical process control charts are a promising methodology for use with panels or registries of diabetes patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. The evolution of OPUS: A set of web-based GPS processing tools offered by the National Geodetic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Dr.; Mader, Dr.; Schenewerk, Dr.

    2012-04-01

    The Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) is a suite of web-based GPS processing tools that were initially developed by the National Geodetic Survey approximately eleven years ago. The first version, known as OPUS static (OPUS-S), processes L1 and L2 carrier-phase data in native receiver and RINEX formats. Datasets submitted to OPUS-S must be between two and 48 hours in duration and pass several quality control steps before being passed onto the positioning algorithm. OPUS-S was designed to select five nearby CORS to form baselines that are processed independently. The best three solutions are averaged to produce a final set of coordinates. The current version of OPUS-S has been optimized to accept and process GPS data from any location in the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and the Caribbean. OPUS Networks (OPUS-Net), one of the most recently developed versions and currently in beta testing, has many of the same processing characteristics and dataset requirements as OPUS-S but with one significant difference. OPUS-Net selects up to 10 IGS reference sites and three regional CORS to perform a simultaneous least squares adjustment with the user-submitted data. The CORS stations are primarily used to better estimate the troposphere while the position of the unknown station and the three CORS reference stations are determined from the more precisely known and monitored IGS reference stations. Additional enhancements to OPUS-Net are the implementation of absolute antenna patterns and ocean tides (FES2004), using reference station coordinates in IGS08 reference frame, as well as using improved phase ambiguity integer fixing and troposphere modeling (GPT and GMF a priori models). OPUS Projects, the final version of OPUS to be reviewed in this paper, is a complete web-based, GPS data processing and analysis environment. The main idea behind OPUS Projects is that one or more managers can define numerous, independent GPS projects. Each newly defined project is

  20. Reconciling the influence of task-set switching and motor inhibition processes on stop signal after-effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin A. Anguera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Executive response functions can be affected by preceding events, even if they are no longer associated with the current task at hand. For example, studies utilizing the stop signal task have reported slower response times to ‘GO’ stimuli when the preceding trial involved the presentation of a ‘STOP’ signal. However, the neural mechanisms that underlie this behavioral after-effect are unclear. To address this, behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG measures were examined in 18 young adults (18-30yrs on 'GO' trials following a previously ‘Successful Inhibition’ trial (pSI, a previously ‘Failed Inhibition’ trial (pFI, and a previous ‘GO’ trial (pGO. Like previous research, slower response times were observed during both pSI and pFI trials (i.e., ‘GO’ trials that were preceded by a successful and unsuccessful inhibition trial, respectively compared to pGO trials (i.e., ‘GO’ trials that were preceded by another ‘GO’ trial. Interestingly, response time slowing was greater during pSI trials compared to pFI trials, suggesting executive control is influenced by both task set switching and persisting motor inhibition processes. Follow-up behavioral analyses indicated that these effects resulted from between-trial control adjustments rather than repetition priming effects. Analyses of inter-electrode coherence (IEC and inter-trial coherence (ITC indicated that both pSI and pFI trials showed greater phase synchrony during the inter-trial interval compared to pGO trials. Unlike the IEC findings, differential ITC was present within the beta and alpha frequency bands in line with the observed behavior (pSI > pFI > pGO, suggestive of more consistent phase synchrony involving motor inhibition processes during the ITI at a regional level. These findings suggest that between-trial control adjustments involved with task-set switching and motor inhibition processes influence subsequent performance, providing new insights into the

  1. Software Engineering Design Principles Applied to Instructional Design: What Can We Learn from Our Sister Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Nor Hafizah; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2018-01-01

    The failure of many instructional design initiatives is often attributed to poor instructional design. Current instructional design models do not provide much insight into design processes for creating e-learning instructional solutions. Given the similarities between the fields of instructional design and software engineering, instructional…

  2. Using Agile Project Management to Enhance the Performance of Instructional Design Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, David S.; Cifuentes, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Instructional design models describe in detail methodologies for designing effective instruction. Several widely adopted models include suggestions for managing instructional design projects. However, these suggestions focus on how to manage the instructional design steps rather than the instructional design and development team process. The…

  3. Building Measures of Instructional Differentiation from Teacher Checklists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan; Swanlund, Andrew; Miller, Shazia; Konstantopoulos, Spyros; van der Ploeg, Arie

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is commonly believed to be critical to improving the quality and efficiency of teachers' instructional repertoires (Fischer & Rose, 2001; Tomlinson, 2004). Tomlinson (2000) describes differentiation in four domains: content, process, product, and learning environment. Content differentiation involves varying…

  4. Verification Process of Behavioral Consistency between Design and Implementation programs of pSET using HW-CBMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Ah; Lee, Jong Hoon; Yoo, Jun Beom

    2011-01-01

    Controllers in safety critical systems such as nuclear power plants often use Function Block Diagrams (FBDs) to design embedded software. The design is implemented using programming languages such as C to compile it into particular target hardware. The implementation must have the same behavior with the design and the behavior should be verified explicitly. For example, the pSET (POSAFE-Q Software Engineering Tool) is a loader software to program POSAFE-Q PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and is developed as a part of the KNICS (Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System R and D Center) project. It uses FBDs to design software of PLC, and generates ANSI-C code to compile it into specific machine code. To verify the equivalence between the FBDs and ANSI-C code, mathematical proof of code generator or a verification tools such as RETRANS can help guarantee the equivalence. Mathematical proof, however, has a weakness that requires high expenditure and repetitive fulfillment whenever the translator is modified. On the other hand, RETRANS reconstructs the generated source code without consideration of the generator. It has also a weakness that the reconstruction of generated code needs additional analysis This paper introduces verification process of behavioral consistency between design and its implementation of the pSET using the HW-CBMC. The HW-CBMC is a formal verification tool, verifying equivalence between hardware and software description. It requires two inputs for checking equivalence, Verilog for hard-ware and ANSI-C for software. In this approach, FBDs are translated into semantically equivalent Verilog pro-gram, and the HW-CBMC verifies equivalence between the Verilog program and the ANSI-C program which is generated from the FBDs

  5. Verification Process of Behavioral Consistency between Design and Implementation programs of pSET using HW-CBMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Ah; Lee, Jong Hoon; Yoo, Jun Beom [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Controllers in safety critical systems such as nuclear power plants often use Function Block Diagrams (FBDs) to design embedded software. The design is implemented using programming languages such as C to compile it into particular target hardware. The implementation must have the same behavior with the design and the behavior should be verified explicitly. For example, the pSET (POSAFE-Q Software Engineering Tool) is a loader software to program POSAFE-Q PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and is developed as a part of the KNICS (Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System R and D Center) project. It uses FBDs to design software of PLC, and generates ANSI-C code to compile it into specific machine code. To verify the equivalence between the FBDs and ANSI-C code, mathematical proof of code generator or a verification tools such as RETRANS can help guarantee the equivalence. Mathematical proof, however, has a weakness that requires high expenditure and repetitive fulfillment whenever the translator is modified. On the other hand, RETRANS reconstructs the generated source code without consideration of the generator. It has also a weakness that the reconstruction of generated code needs additional analysis This paper introduces verification process of behavioral consistency between design and its implementation of the pSET using the HW-CBMC. The HW-CBMC is a formal verification tool, verifying equivalence between hardware and software description. It requires two inputs for checking equivalence, Verilog for hard-ware and ANSI-C for software. In this approach, FBDs are translated into semantically equivalent Verilog pro-gram, and the HW-CBMC verifies equivalence between the Verilog program and the ANSI-C program which is generated from the FBDs

  6. Computer-based instruction system DIDAK and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvozdjak, L.; Hanulova, L.; Jankovicova, A.; Scepanek, L.

    1983-01-01

    The DIDAK system has been developed for the instruction and training of specialized personnel of nuclear power plants. The structure of the instruction system comprises three processes: the author process, the instruction process and the administration process. Author processes provide the didactic data structure with instruction texts. In the text data base the instruction material is stored in 6 direct access nonformatted files. The instruction system receives information from the text data base and presents it to the student. According to the student's response it creates the preconditions for the further operation of the system which it stores in the data base for administration of instruction. This base contains data on the identification of students, on the instruction process of the individual and the instruction process as a whole. Administrative processes take place in the final stage. They provide information on the general course of instruction and make final evaluations. From the data base of products of the instruction process the said administrative processes produce output information for the teacher. The subject matter of each subject is divided into a finite number of elementary units of subject matter. Each elementary unit provides basic information on the explained subject matter and is followed by a check of the student's knowledge. In dependence on the results of this check the student either advances to a higher level elementary unit or proceeds to an alternative branch of the initial unit. (E.S.)

  7. Instructional Design as Knowledge Management: A Knowledge-in-Practice Approach to Choosing Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Derrick; Fitzsimmons, Stacey; Flanagan, David

    2016-01-01

    Decisions about instructional methods are becoming more complex, with options ranging from problem sets to experiential service-learning projects. However, instructors not trained in instructional design may make these important decisions based on convenience, comfort, or trends. Instead, this article draws on the knowledge management literature…

  8. Training Higher Education Teachers for Instructional Design of Competency-based Education: Product-oriented versus Process-oriented Worked Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogveld, Bert; Paas, Fred; Jochems, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Teachers involved in the development of competency-based higher education (CBE) are expected to fulfil a new role of instructional designer. As a consequence, they are confronted with the problem to translate abstract new curriculum principles into concrete learning tasks. Recent studies have shown

  9. Evaluating the Impact of Instructional Support Using Data Mining and Process Mining: A Micro-Level Analysis of the Effectiveness of Metacognitive Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Christoph; Bannert, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In computer-supported learning environments, the deployment of self-regulatory skills represents an essential prerequisite for successful learning. Metacognitive prompts are a promising type of instructional support to activate students' strategic learning activities. However, despite positive effects in previous studies, there are still a large…

  10. Feasibility of Computer Processing of Technical Information on the Design of Instructional Systems. Final Report for the Period 1 July 1972 through 31 March 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, F. L.; And Others

    A feasibility study examined the capability of a computer-based system's handling of technical information pertinent to the design of instructional systems. Structured interviews were held to assess the information needs of both researchers and practitioners and an investigation was conducted of 10 computer-based information storage and retrieval…

  11. Is Intellectual Property Theft? BI's Hidden Ideology...And Two Reactions [and] In Defense of the Bibliographic Process [and] In Defense of Instruction Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Alistair S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the "hidden" ideology in traditional bibliographic instruction's treatment of intellectual property rights and copyright laws, and suggests that protection of these rights constitutes a form of stealing thoughts and ideas that should belong to the public. Reactions from two librarians who defend the current bibliographic…

  12. The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Knowledge of Math Problem-Solving Processes of Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawec, Jennifer; Huang, Jia; Montague, Marjorie; Kressler, Benikia; de Alba, Amanda Melia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of "Solve It!" instruction on students' knowledge of math problem-solving strategies. "Solve It!" is a cognitive strategy intervention designed to improve the math problem solving of middle school students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants included seventh- and eighth-grade…

  13. The Difficulties Experienced by Teachers in the Process of Primary Reading and Writing Instruction and Their Solution Offers for Eliminating These Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündogmus, Hatice Degirmenci

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current research is to identify the difficulties that primary school teachers experience in the primary reading and writing instruction, and to find out their solution offers for eliminating these difficulties. The study group of the research is composed of 51 primary school teachers selected by criterion sampling as a type of…

  14. Review of Instructional Approaches in Ethics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhearn, Tyler J; Steele, Logan M; Watts, Logan L; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane

    2017-06-01

    Increased investment in ethics education has prompted a variety of instructional objectives and frameworks. Yet, no systematic procedure to classify these varying instructional approaches has been attempted. In the present study, a quantitative clustering procedure was conducted to derive a typology of instruction in ethics education. In total, 330 ethics training programs were included in the cluster analysis. The training programs were appraised with respect to four instructional categories including instructional content, processes, delivery methods, and activities. Eight instructional approaches were identified through this clustering procedure, and these instructional approaches showed different levels of effectiveness. Instructional effectiveness was assessed based on one of nine commonly used ethics criteria. With respect to specific training types, Professional Decision Processes Training (d = 0.50) and Field-Specific Compliance Training (d = 0.46) appear to be viable approaches to ethics training based on Cohen's d effect size estimates. By contrast, two commonly used approaches, General Discussion Training (d = 0.31) and Norm Adherence Training (d = 0.37), were found to be considerably less effective. The implications for instruction in ethics training are discussed.

  15. An integrated multi attribute decision model for energy efficiency processes in petrochemical industry applying fuzzy set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylan, Osman; Kaya, Durmus; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Evaluation of compressors by comparing the different cost parameters. - Highlights: • Fuzzy sets and systems are used for decision making in MCDM problems. • An integrated Fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS approaches are employed for compressor selection. • Compressor selection is a highly complex and non-linear process. • This approach increases the efficiency, reliability of alternative scenarios, and reduces the pay-back period. - Abstract: Energy efficient technologies offered by the market increases productivity. However, decision making for these technologies is usually obstructed in the firms and comes up with organizational barriers. Compressor selection in petrochemical industry requires assessment of several criteria such as ‘reliability, energy consumption, initial investment, capacity, pressure, and maintenance cost.’ Therefore, air compressor selection is a multi-attribute decision making (MADM) problem. The aim of this study is to select the most eligible compressor(s) so as to avoid the high energy consumption due to the capacity and maintenance costs. It is also aimed to avoid failures due to the reliability problems and high pressure. MADM usually takes place in a vague and imprecise environment. Soft computing techniques such as fuzzy sets and system can be used for decision making where vague and imprecise knowledge is available. In this study, an integrated fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) and fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) methodologies are employed for the compressor selection. Fuzzy AHP was used to determine the weights of criteria and fuzzy TOPSIS was employed to order the scenarios according to their superiority. The total effect of all criteria was determined for all alternative scenarios to make an optimal decision. Moreover, the types of compressor, carbon emission, waste heat recovery and their capacities were analyzed and compared by statistical

  16. Effects of Instructions on False Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, John H.; And Others

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various processing instructions on the rate of false recognition. The continuous single-item procedure was used, and false recognitions of four types were examined: synonyms, antonyms, nonsemantic associates, and homonyms. The instructions encouraged subjects to think of associates, usages…

  17. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolli, Carlo; O' Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2017-10-17

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  18. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolli, Carlo; O'Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2018-01-23

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  19. HPV-QUEST: A highly customized system for automated HPV sequence analysis capable of processing Next Generation sequencing data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jiqiang; Gardner, Brent P; Chang, Kaifen; Yu, Fahong; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation sequencing (NGS) applied to human papilloma viruses (HPV) can provide sensitive methods to investigate the molecular epidemiology of multiple type HPV infection. Currently a genotyping system with a comprehensive collection of updated HPV reference sequences and a capacity to handle NGS data sets is lacking. HPV-QUEST was developed as an automated and rapid HPV genotyping system. The web-based HPV-QUEST subtyping algorithm was developed using HTML, PHP, Perl scripting language, and MYSQL as the database backend. HPV-QUEST includes a database of annotated HPV reference sequences with updated nomenclature covering 5 genuses, 14 species and 150 mucosal and cutaneous types to genotype blasted query sequences. HPV-QUEST processes up to 10 megabases of sequences within 1 to 2 minutes. Results are reported in html, text and excel formats and display e-value, blast score, and local and coverage identities; provide genus, species, type, infection site and risk for the best matched reference HPV sequence; and produce results ready for additional analyses.

  20. Delivering cognitive processing therapy in a community health setting: The influence of Latino culture and community violence on posttraumatic cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Luana; Eustis, Elizabeth H; Dixon, Louise; Valentine, Sarah E; Borba, Christina P C; Simon, Naomi; Kaysen, Debra; Wiltsey-Stirman, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Despite the applicability of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to addressing sequelae of a range of traumatic events, few studies have evaluated whether the treatment itself is applicable across diverse populations. The present study examined differences and similarities among non-Latino, Latino Spanish-speaking, and Latino English-speaking clients in rigid beliefs-or "stuck points"-associated with PTSD symptoms in a sample of community mental health clients. We utilized the procedures of content analysis to analyze stuck point logs and impact statements of 29 participants enrolled in a larger implementation trial for CPT. Findings indicated that the content of stuck points was similar across Latino and non-Latino clients, although fewer total stuck points were identified for Latino clients compared to non-Latino clients. Given that identification of stuck points is central to implementing CPT, difficulty identifying stuck points could pose significant challenges for implementing CPT among Latino clients and warrants further examination. Thematic analysis of impact statements revealed the importance of family, religion, and the urban context (e.g., poverty, violence exposure) in understanding how clients organize beliefs and emotions associated with trauma. Clinical recommendations for implementing CPT in community settings and the identification of stuck points are provided. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Application of quality risk management to set viable environmental monitoring frequencies in biotechnology processing and support areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandle, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Environmental monitoring programs are essential for pharmaceutical facilities in order to assess the level of environmental control. For biotechnology facilities there is little advice as to the frequency at which viable environmental monitoring should be conducted. This paper outlines an approach, based on the principles of quality risk management, for the development of a framework from which monitoring frequencies can be determined. This involved the identification of common hazards and the evaluation those hazards in terms of the severity of contamination and the probability of contamination occurring. These elements of risk were evaluated for different cleanrooms and the relative risks ranked. Once the risk scores were calculated, the methods for detecting risks within the cleanrooms were assessed. Risk filtering was then used to group different cleanrooms based on their relative risks and detection methods against predetermined monitoring frequencies. Through use of case study examples, the paper presents the model and describes how appropriate frequencies for the environmental monitoring of cleanrooms can be set. Cleanrooms in which biotechnology pharmaceutical processing takes place are subject to environmental monitoring. The frequency at which such monitoring should be performed can be difficult to determine. This paper uses quality risk assessment methods to construct a framework for determining monitoring frequencies and illustrates the suitability of the framework through a case study.

  2. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION. APPROXIMATELY 85 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, TEACHING MACHINES, RESPONSE MODE, SELF-INSTRUCTION, AND COMPUTER-ASSISTED…

  3. The Instructional Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Many administrators are so overwhelmed by the basic responsibilities of their daily work that there seems to be little or no time left for providing quality leadership in instruction. Instead, schools employ department chairs, instructional specialists, and coordinators to provide instructional leadership. How can administrators find time in the…

  4. Using the Nine Common Themes of Good Practice checklist as a tool for evaluating the research priority setting process of a provincial research and program evaluation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mador, Rebecca L; Kornas, Kathy; Simard, Anne; Haroun, Vinita

    2016-03-23

    Given the context-specific nature of health research prioritization and the obligation to effectively allocate resources to initiatives that will achieve the greatest impact, evaluation of priority setting processes can refine and strengthen such exercises and their outcomes. However, guidance is needed on evaluation tools that can be applied to research priority setting. This paper describes the adaption and application of a conceptual framework to evaluate a research priority setting exercise operating within the public health sector in Ontario, Canada. The Nine Common Themes of Good Practice checklist, described by Viergever et al. (Health Res Policy Syst 8:36, 2010) was used as the conceptual framework to evaluate the research priority setting process developed for the Locally Driven Collaborative Projects (LDCP) program in Ontario, Canada. Multiple data sources were used to inform the evaluation, including a review of selected priority setting approaches, surveys with priority setting participants, document review, and consultation with the program advisory committee. The evaluation assisted in identifying improvements to six elements of the LDCP priority setting process. The modifications were aimed at improving inclusiveness, information gathering practices, planning for project implementation, and evaluation. In addition, the findings identified that the timing of priority setting activities and level of control over the process were key factors that influenced the ability to effectively implement changes. The findings demonstrate the novel adaptation and application of the 'Nine Common Themes of Good Practice checklist' as a tool for evaluating a research priority setting exercise. The tool can guide the development of evaluation questions and enables the assessment of key constructs related to the design and delivery of a research priority setting process.

  5. Insights about the process and impact of implementing nursing guidelines on delivery of care in hospitals and community settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploeg Jenny

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of implementing nursing-oriented best practice guidelines on the delivery of patient care in either hospital or community settings. Methods A naturalistic study with a prospective, before and after design documented the implementation of six newly developed nursing best practice guidelines (asthma, breastfeeding, delirium-dementia-depression (DDD, foot complications in diabetes, smoking cessation and venous leg ulcers. Eleven health care organisations were selected for a one-year project. At each site, clinical resource nurses (CRNs worked with managers and a multidisciplinary steering committee to conduct an environmental scan and develop an action plan of activities (i.e. education sessions, policy review. Process and patient outcomes were assessed by chart audit (n = 681 pre-implementation, 592 post-implementation. Outcomes were also assessed for four of six topics by in-hospital/home interviews (n = 261 pre-implementation, 232 post-implementation and follow-up telephone interviews (n = 152 pre, 121 post. Interviews were conducted with 83/95 (87% CRN's, nurses and administrators to describe recommendations selected, strategies used and participants' perceived facilitators and barriers to guideline implementation. Results While statistically significant improvements in 5% to 83% of indicators were observed in each organization, more than 80% of indicators for breastfeeding, DDD and smoking cessation did not change. Statistically significant improvements were found in > 50% of indicators for asthma (52%, diabetes foot care (83% and venous leg ulcers (60%. Organizations with > 50% improvements reported two unique implementation strategies which included hands-on skill practice sessions for nurses and the development of new patient education materials. Key facilitators for all organizations included education sessions as well as support from champions and managers while key barriers were lack

  6. Evaluation of a pictograph enhancement system for patient instruction: a recall study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Perri, Seneca; Nakamura, Carlos; Kuang, Jinqiu; Hill, Brent; Bui, Duy Duc An; Stoddard, Gregory J; Bray, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel computer application called Glyph that automatically converts text to sets of illustrations using natural language processing and computer graphics techniques to provide high quality pictographs for health communication. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the Glyph system to illustrate a set of actual patient instructions, and tested patient recall of the original and Glyph illustrated instructions. We used Glyph to illustrate 49 patient instructions representing 10 different discharge templates from the University of Utah Cardiology Service. 84 participants were recruited through convenience sampling. To test the recall of illustrated versus non-illustrated instructions, participants were asked to review and then recall a set questionnaires that contained five pictograph-enhanced and five non-pictograph-enhanced items. The mean score without pictographs was 0.47 (SD 0.23), or 47% recall. With pictographs, this mean score increased to 0.52 (SD 0.22), or 52% recall. In a multivariable mixed effects linear regression model, this 0.05 mean increase was statistically significant (95% CI 0.03 to 0.06, pillustration is a novel approach to improve the comprehension and recall of discharge instructions. Our results showed a statistically significant in recall with automated illustrations. Subjects with no-colleague education and younger subjects appeared to benefit more from the illustrations than others. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. On algorithmic equivalence of instruction sequences for computing bit string functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We

  8. On algorithmic equivalence of instruction sequences for computing bit string functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We

  9. Solar Farm Suitability Using Geographic Information System Fuzzy Sets and Analytic Hierarchy Processes: Case Study of Ulleung Island, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangwon Suh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar farm suitability in remote areas will involve a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE process, particularly well suited for the geographic information system (GIS environment. Photovoltaic (PV solar farm criteria were evaluated for an island-based case region having complex topographic and regulatory criteria, along with high demand for low-carbon local electricity production: Ulleung Island, Korea. Constraint variables that identified areas forbidden to PV farm development were consolidated into a single binary constraint layer (e.g., environmental regulation, ecological protection, future land use. Six factor variables were selected as influential on-site suitability within the geospatial database to seek out increased annual average power performance and reduced potential investment costs, forming new criteria layers for site suitability: solar irradiation, sunshine hours, average temperature in summer, proximity to transmission line, proximity to roads, and slope. Each factor variable was normalized via a fuzzy membership function (FMF and parameter setting based on the local characteristics and criteria for a fixed axis PV system. Representative weighting of the relative importance for each factor variable was assigned via pairwise comparison completed by experts. A suitability index (SI with six factor variables was derived using a weighted fuzzy summation method. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess four different SI based on the development scenarios (i.e., the combination of factors being considered. From the resulting map, three highly suitable regions were suggested and validated by comparison with satellite images to confirm the candidate sites for solar farm development. The GIS-MCE method proposed can also be applicable widely to other PV solar farm site selection projects with appropriate adaption for local variables.

  10. Learning and Teaching about the Nature of Science through Process Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget K.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation, a three-paper set, explored whether the process skills-based approach to nature of science instruction improves teachers' understandings, intentions to teach, and instructional practice related to the nature of science. The first paper examined the nature of science views of 53 preservice science teachers before and after a…

  11. How is the process of setting micronutrients recommendations reflected in nutrition policies in Poland? The case study of folate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sicińska

    2018-03-01

    The current Polish nutrition recommendations for folate are consistent with the levels set by most other countries. The constant improvement of nutritional knowledge on folate among consumers, especially young women, is necessary.

  12. Holistic Medicine IV: Principles of Existential Holistic Group Therapy and the Holistic Process of Healing in a Group Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In existential holistic group therapy, the whole person heals in accordance with the holistic process theory and the life mission theory. Existential group psychotherapy addresses the emotional aspect of the human mind related to death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness, while existential holistic group therapy addresses the state of the person�s wholeness. This includes the body, the person�s philosophy of life, and often also love, purpose of life, and the spiritual dimension, to the same extent as it addresses the emotional psyche and sexuality, and it is thus much broader than traditional psychotherapy.Where existential psychotherapy is rather depressing concerning the fundamental human condition, existential holistic therapy conceives life to be basically good. The fundamentals in existential holistic therapy are that everybody has the potential for healing themselves to become loving, joyful, sexually attractive, strong, and gifted, which is a message that most patients welcome. While the patient is suffering and fighting to get through life, the most important job for the holistic therapist is to keep a positive perspective of life. In accordance with these fundamentals, many participants in holistic group therapy will have positive emotional experiences, often of an unknown intensity, and these experiences appear to transform their lives within only a few days or weeks of therapy.An important idea of the course is Bohm�s concept of �holo-movement� in the group, resulting from intense coherence between the group members. When the group comes together, the individual will be linked to the totality and the great movement forward towards love, consciousness, and happiness will happen collectively � if it happens at all. This gives the individual the feeling that everything that happens is right, important, and valuable for all the participants at the same time. Native Americans and other premodern people refer to this

  13. Holistic medicine IV: principles of existential holistic group therapy and the holistic process of healing in a group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

    2003-12-23

    In existential holistic group therapy, the whole person heals in accordance with the holistic process theory and the life mission theory. Existential group psychotherapy addresses the emotional aspect of the human mind related to death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness, while existential holistic group therapy addresses the state of the person"s wholeness. This includes the body, the person's philosophy of life, and often also love, purpose of life, and the spiritual dimension, to the same extent as it addresses the emotional psyche and sexuality, and it is thus much broader than traditional psychotherapy. Where existential psychotherapy is rather depressing concerning the fundamental human condition, existential holistic therapy conceives life to be basically good. The fundamentals in existential holistic therapy are that everybody has the potential for healing themselves to become loving, joyful, sexually attractive, strong, and gifted, which is a message that most patients welcome. While the patient is suffering and fighting to get through life, the most important job for the holistic therapist is to keep a positive perspective of life. In accordance with these fundamentals, many participants in holistic group therapy will have positive emotional experiences, often of an unknown intensity, and these experiences appear to transform their lives within only a few days or weeks of therapy. An important idea of the course is Bohm's concept of "holo-movement" in the group, resulting from intense coherence between the group members. When the group comes together, the individual will be linked to the totality and the great movement forward towards love, consciousness, and happiness will happen collectively--if it happens at all. This gives the individual the feeling that everything that happens is right, important, and valuable for all the participants at the same time. Native Americans and other premodern people refer to this experience as "the spiritual design

  14. Late Pleistocene dune-sourced alluvial fans in coastal settings: Sedimentary facies and related processes (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomar, F.; del Valle, L.; Fornós, J. J.; Gómez-Pujol, L.

    2018-05-01

    Aeolian-alluvial sedimentary interaction results in the formation of deposits characterized by typical alluvial sedimentary structures, but is composed of conspicuous amounts of aeolian sediments. The literature on this topic is limited and most works relate more with continental aeolian dunes or fluvial dune interference with fan bodies. Furthermore, there is a lack of examples of aeolian-alluvial sedimentary interference in coastal settings. In the western Mediterranean, there are many Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits built up partly by sediment originating from coastal dunes dismantled by alluvial streams. Very often, these deposits show a continuous sedimentary sequence through which we can derive the contribution and predominance of coastal, alluvial-colluvial and aeolian processes and their controls on landscape formation. This is an outstanding feature within coastal systems since it shows marine sediments reworked and integrated within coastal dune fields by aeolian transport, and the latter built up into alluvial fan bodies. In this sense, aeolian-alluvial interaction is the geomorphic-sedimentary expression of the coexistence and overlapping of alluvial and aeolian environments resulting in deposits sharing sedimentary features from both environments. The aim of this paper is to unravel the contribution of coastal dunes in the construction of alluvial fans bodies and identify the main sedimentary facies that constitute these deposits, as well as their climatic controls. For this reason, Es Caló fan (northern Mallorca) has been selected due to its well-exposed deposits exhibiting the alternation of aeolian, alluvial and colluvial deposits. Sedimentological and stratigraphic analyses based on 33 logs and complementary analyses demonstrate that most of the facies constituting the fan body are made up completely of marine bioclastic sands. These deposits record an alluvial fan sedimentary environment characterized by sediments inputs that do not proceed

  15. Effective instructional strategies in physics classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosa, Sachiko

    2011-04-01

    Instructional strategies such as Think-Pair-Share and Socratic questioning are powerful ways to get students engaged in thinking processes. In this talk, tips and techniques that help students make sense of physics concepts in lecture-based classes are presented with specific examples. The participants will see the effectiveness of the instructional strategies by actually experiencing the process as learners with the use of clickers.

  16. An Examination of the Workflow Processes of the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Program in Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, David J; Karuntzos, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is a public health program used to identify, reduce, and prevent problematic use, abuse, and dependence on alcohol and illicit drugs that has been adapted for implementation in emergency departments and ambulatory clinics nationwide. This study used a combination of observational, timing, and descriptive analyses from a multisite evaluation to understand the workflow processes implemented in 21 treatment settings. Direct observations of 59 SBIRT practitioners and semi-structured interviews with 170 stakeholders, program administrators, practitioners, and program evaluators provided information about workflow in different medical care settings. The SBIRT workflow processes are presented at three levels: service delivery, information storage, and information sharing. Analyses suggest limited variation in the overall workflow processes across settings, although performance sites tailored the program to fit with existing clinical processes, health information technology, and patient characteristics. Strategies for successful integration include co-locating SBIRT providers in the medical care setting and integrating SBIRT data into electronic health records. Provisions within the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 call for the integration of behavioral health and medical care services. SBIRT is being adapted in different types of medical care settings, and the workflow processes are being adapted to ensure efficient delivery, illustrating the successful integration of behavioral health and medical care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Priority Setting for Universal Health Coverage: We Need Evidence-Informed Deliberative Processes, Not Just More Evidence on Cost-Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Baltussen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Priority setting of health interventions is generally considered as a valuable approach to support low- and middle-income countries (LMICs in their strive for universal health coverage (UHC. However, present initiatives on priority setting are mainly geared towards the development of more cost-effectiveness information, and this evidence does not sufficiently support countries to make optimal choices. The reason is that priority setting is in reality a value-laden political process in which multiple criteria beyond cost-effectiveness are important, and stakeholders often justifiably disagree about the relative importance of these criteria. Here, we propose the use of ‘evidence-informed deliberative processes’ as an approach that does explicitly recognise priority setting as a political process and an intrinsically complex task. In these processes, deliberation between stakeholders is crucial to identify, reflect and learn about the meaning and importance of values, informed by evidence on these values. Such processes then result in the use of a broader range of explicit criteria that can be seen as the product of both international learning (‘core’ criteria, which include eg, cost-effectiveness, priority to the worse off, and financial protection and learning among local stakeholders (‘contextual’ criteria. We believe that, with these evidence-informed deliberative processes in place, priority setting can provide a more meaningful contribution to achieving UHC.

  18. Effectiveness of Facebook Based Learning to Enhance Creativity among Islamic Studies Students by Employing Isman Instructional Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah; Daud, Mohd Khairul Azman Md; Hussin, Zaharah

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of Facebook based learning to enhance creativity among Islamic Studies students in the secondary educational setting in Malaysia. It describes the design process by employing the Isman Instructional Design Model. A quantitative study was carried out using experimental method and background survey. The…

  19. Universal Design for Instruction: Extending the Universal Design Paradigm to College Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.

    2006-01-01

    Universal design for instruction (UDI) represents the systematic application of universal design, the construct from architecture and product development, to instructional practices in higher education. In addition to a description of the deliberative process by which UDI was developed, this article provides confirmatory evidence of the validity…

  20. When innovative instructional designs are too innovative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas; Wahl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    and it was developed to include, motivate and encourage the students to engage in more situated learning processes. The course is infamous for low attendance and for demotivating the students. The new instructional design utilized teacher-produced video-clips to qualify the students learning in the preparation...... for the lessons and new pedagogical activities during lessons to make the learning process more situated. The video-clips should also include more students through scaffolding the academic reading with video-clips. However, the outcome was not as planned. The students didn’t recognize the video......This paper presents a study of what happens when innovation of an instructional design is too innovative. The study investigates an implementation process of a new instructional design in nursing education. The new instructional design should be a step away for a functionalist approach to learning...

  1. Inside the Agenda-Setting Process: How Political Advertising and TV News Prime Viewers Think about Issues and Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleuder, Joan; And Others

    A study of the agenda-setting influence of the mass media on adult viewers explored (in a series of five experiments) how political knowledge stored in long term memory can be activated by the media, leading to decisions about issue salience. Spreading activation theory formed the basis for the study, and priming--the concept that the activation…

  2. A combined approach of generalized additive model and bootstrap with small sample sets for fault diagnosis in fermentation process of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunbo; Pan, Feng; Li, Yun

    2016-07-29

    Glutamate is of great importance in food and pharmaceutical industries. There is still lack of effective statistical approaches for fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate. To date, the statistical approach based on generalized additive model (GAM) and bootstrap has not been used for fault diagnosis in fermentation processes, much less the fermentation process of glutamate with small samples sets. A combined approach of GAM and bootstrap was developed for the online fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate with small sample sets. GAM was first used to model the relationship between glutamate production and different fermentation parameters using online data from four normal fermentation experiments of glutamate. The fitted GAM with fermentation time, dissolved oxygen, oxygen uptake rate and carbon dioxide evolution rate captured 99.6 % variance of glutamate production during fermentation process. Bootstrap was then used to quantify the uncertainty of the estimated production of glutamate from the fitted GAM using 95 % confidence interval. The proposed approach was then used for the online fault diagnosis in the abnormal fermentation processes of glutamate, and a fault was defined as the estimated production of glutamate fell outside the 95 % confidence interval. The online fault diagnosis based on the proposed approach identified not only the start of the fault in the fermentation process, but also the end of the fault when the fermentation conditions were back to normal. The proposed approach only used a small sample sets from normal fermentations excitements to establish the approach, and then only required online recorded data on fermentation parameters for fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate. The proposed approach based on GAM and bootstrap provides a new and effective way for the fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate with small sample sets.

  3. Written instructions for the transport of hazardous materials: Accident management instruction sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, K.

    1988-01-01

    In spite of the regulations and the safety provisions taken, accidents are not entirely avoidable in the transport of hazardous materials. For managing an accident and preventing further hazards after release of dangerous substances, the vehicle drivers must carry with them the accident management instruction sheets, which give instructions on immediate counter measures to be taken by the driver, and on information to be given to the police and the fire brigades. The article in hand discusses the purpose, the contents, and practice-based improvement of this collection of instruction sheets. Particular reference is given to the newly revised version of June 15, 1988 (Verkehrsblatt 1/88) of the 'Directives for setting up accident management instruction sheets - written instructions - for road transport of hazardous materials', as issued by the Federal Ministry of Transport. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Instruction in Information Structuring Improves Bayesian Judgment in Intelligence Analysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mandel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of brief instruction in information structuring (i.e., representing and integrating information for improving the coherence of probability judgments and binary choices among intelligence analysts. Forty-three analysts were presented with comparable sets of Bayesian judgment problems before and immediately after instruction. After instruction, analysts’ probability judgments were more coherent (i.e., more additive and compliant with Bayes theorem. Instruction also improved the coherence of binary choices regarding category membership: after instruction, subjects were more likely to invariably choose the category to which they assigned the higher probability of a target’s membership. The research provides a rare example of evidence-based validation of effectiveness in instruction to improve the statistical assessment skills of intelligence analysts. Such instruction could also be used to improve the assessment quality of other types of experts who are required to integrate statistical information or make probabilistic assessments.

  5. 36 CFR 223.118 - Appeal process for small business timber sale set-aside program share recomputation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appeal: (i) The appellant's name, mailing address, and daytime telephone number; (ii) The title or type... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal process for small... FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Administration § 223.118 Appeal process for small...

  6. Inactivation of a diverse set of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in ground beef by high pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are frequently implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls of ground beef. In this study we determined the High Pressure Processing (HPP) D-10 value (the processing conditions needed to reduce the microbial population by 1 log) of 39 individua...

  7. Optimized image processing with modified preprocessing of image data sets of a transparent imaging plate by way of the lateral view of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reissberg, S.; Hoeschen, C.; Redlich, U.; Scherlach, C.; Preuss, H.; Kaestner, A.; Doehring, W.; Woischneck, D.; Schuetze, M.; Reichardt, K.; Firsching, R.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the diagnostic quality of lateral radiographs of the cervical spine by pre-processing the image data sets produced by a transparent imaging plate with both-side reading and to evaluate any possible impact on minimizing the number of additional radiographs and supplementary investigations. Material and Methods: One hundred lateral digital radiographs of the cervical spine were processed with two different methods: processing of each data set using the system-imminent parameters and using the manual model. The difference between the two types of processing is the level of the latitude value. Hard copies of the processed images were judged by five radiologists and three neurosurgeons. The evaluation applied the image criteria score (ICS) without conventional reference images. Results: In 99% of the lateral radiographs of the cervical spine, all vertebral bodies could be completed delineated using the manual mode, but only 76% of the images processed by the system-imminent parameters showed all vertebral bodies. Thus, the manual mode enabled the evaluation of up to two additional more caudal vertebral bodies. The manual mode processing was significantly better concerning object size and processing artifacts. This optimized image processing and the resultant minimization of supplementary investigations was calculated to correspond to a theoretical dose reduction of about 50%. (orig.) [de

  8. Three-Dimensional Simulation of DRIE Process Based on the Narrow Band Level Set and Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cheng Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional topography simulation of deep reactive ion etching (DRIE is developed based on the narrow band level set method for surface evolution and Monte Carlo method for flux distribution. The advanced level set method is implemented to simulate the time-related movements of etched surface. In the meanwhile, accelerated by ray tracing algorithm, the Monte Carlo method incorporates all dominant physical and chemical mechanisms such as ion-enhanced etching, ballistic transport, ion scattering, and sidewall passivation. The modified models of charged particles and neutral particles are epitomized to determine the contributions of etching rate. The effects such as scalloping effect and lag effect are investigated in simulations and experiments. Besides, the quantitative analyses are conducted to measure the simulation error. Finally, this simulator will be served as an accurate prediction tool for some MEMS fabrications.

  9. Setting-Up Of A Film Dosimetry System For High Energy Electron Beams And Development Of Computer Programs For Data Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwob, N.; Schwob, W.; Loewenthal, E.

    1999-01-01

    Film dosimetry has the advantage over other dosimetry methods, of having a high spatial resolution and a fast two dimensional data acquisition. We have set up a system using a film digitizer with its associated software, dedicated to radiosurgery and we have developed data processing programs in Visual Basic for Excel. Data acquisition is not limited to water equivalent media: correction factors can be provided in the data processing procedure

  10. The ACT/NAGB Standard Setting Process: How "Modified" Does It Have To Be before It Is No Longer a Modified-Angoff Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckase, Mark D.

    The kernel of the Angoff method of standard setting (W. Angoff, 1971) would seem to be the judgment of whether a minimally competent person could answer an item on a test correctly or not. So it would seem that any procedure that requires independent judgment of the correctness or incorrectness of a response to items for a minimally acceptable…

  11. Charting Availability of Processed and Unprocessed Foods in School Neighbourhood Nutrition Environments in an Urban Australian Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaken, Holly; Vaughan, Lisa; Fa'avale, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    School Neighbourhood Nutrition Environments (SNNEs) can facilitate or impede healthy eating. This study describes the SNNEs surrounding 6 Good Start Program (GSP) schools in 5 suburbs in Logan, Queensland. Relative density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets was calculated for SNNEs surrounding GSP (6) and non-GSP (10) schools within the 5 suburbs. Relative accessibility of minimally processed and highly processed food and drink in SNNEs of the 6 GSP schools was determined using shelf measurements of snack foods. Unhealthy outlets greatly outnumber healthy outlets (mean relative density 15.6%, median 19.1%). The majority of outlets stock predominantly highly processed food and drink. Study areas are dominated by unhealthy food outlets and highly processed food. PMID:28553361

  12. Charting Availability of Processed and Unprocessed Foods in School Neighbourhood Nutrition Environments in an Urban Australian Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Oaken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available School Neighbourhood Nutrition Environments (SNNEs can facilitate or impede healthy eating. This study describes the SNNEs surrounding 6 Good Start Program (GSP schools in 5 suburbs in Logan, Queensland. Relative density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets was calculated for SNNEs surrounding GSP (6 and non-GSP (10 schools within the 5 suburbs. Relative accessibility of minimally processed and highly processed food and drink in SNNEs of the 6 GSP schools was determined using shelf measurements of snack foods. Unhealthy outlets greatly outnumber healthy outlets (mean relative density 15.6%, median 19.1%. The majority of outlets stock predominantly highly processed food and drink. Study areas are dominated by unhealthy food outlets and highly processed food.

  13. Charting Availability of Processed and Unprocessed Foods in School Neighbourhood Nutrition Environments in an Urban Australian Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaken, Holly; Vaughan, Lisa; Fa'avale, Nicola; Ware, Robert S; Schubert, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    School Neighbourhood Nutrition Environments (SNNEs) can facilitate or impede healthy eating. This study describes the SNNEs surrounding 6 Good Start Program (GSP) schools in 5 suburbs in Logan, Queensland. Relative density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets was calculated for SNNEs surrounding GSP (6) and non-GSP (10) schools within the 5 suburbs. Relative accessibility of minimally processed and highly processed food and drink in SNNEs of the 6 GSP schools was determined using shelf measurements of snack foods. Unhealthy outlets greatly outnumber healthy outlets (mean relative density 15.6%, median 19.1%). The majority of outlets stock predominantly highly processed food and drink. Study areas are dominated by unhealthy food outlets and highly processed food.

  14. The Psychotherapy Process with Adolescents: A First Pilot Study and Preliminary Comparisons between Different Therapeutic Modalities Using the "Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkova, Tetyana; Hillman, Saul; Midgley, Nick; Schneider, Celeste

    2011-01-01

    An innovative methodology is presented for describing the therapeutic processes involved in five types of adolescent treatments: psychoanalysis, psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, mentalisation-based treatment and interpersonal psychotherapy. Using the "Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set" (APQ), 18 experienced clinicians…

  15. Developing Process Maps as a Tool for a Surgical Infection Prevention Quality Improvement Initiative in Resource-Constrained Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Jared A; Koritsanszky, Luca A; Amenu, Demisew; Haynes, Alex B; Berry, William R; Alemu, Seifu; Jiru, Fekadu; Weiser, Thomas G

    2018-06-01

    Surgical infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). To improve adherence to critical perioperative infection prevention standards, we developed Clean Cut, a checklist-based quality improvement program to improve compliance with best practices. We hypothesized that process mapping infection prevention activities can help clinicians identify strategies for improving surgical safety. We introduced Clean Cut at a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia. Infection prevention standards included skin antisepsis, ensuring a sterile field, instrument decontamination/sterilization, prophylactic antibiotic administration, routine swab/gauze counting, and use of a surgical safety checklist. Processes were mapped by a visiting surgical fellow and local operating theater staff to facilitate the development of contextually relevant solutions; processes were reassessed for improvements. Process mapping helped identify barriers to using alcohol-based hand solution due to skin irritation, inconsistent administration of prophylactic antibiotics due to variable delivery outside of the operating theater, inefficiencies in assuring sterility of surgical instruments through lack of confirmatory measures, and occurrences of retained surgical items through inappropriate guidelines, staffing, and training in proper routine gauze counting. Compliance with most processes improved significantly following organizational changes to align tasks with specific process goals. Enumerating the steps involved in surgical infection prevention using a process mapping technique helped identify opportunities for improving adherence and plotting contextually relevant solutions, resulting in superior compliance with antiseptic standards. Simplifying these process maps into an adaptable tool could be a powerful strategy for improving safe surgery delivery in LMICs. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Programmed Instruction Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, B. F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of teaching machines, invented to restore the important features of personalized instruction as public school class size increased. Examines teaching and learning problems over the past 50 years, including motivation, attention, appreciation, discovery, and creativity in relation to programmed instruction.…

  17. Fashions in Instructional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapper, Christopher K.

    This paper on instructional development notes the trend toward teaching improvement efforts, classifies instructional development centers in terms of their differing philosophies of operation, and identifies some general problems that have been encountered in institutional efforts to improve teaching and learning. Centers in North America, Europe,…

  18. Pre-authorization processes have no effect on patients undergoing knee MRI in a pediatric setting when evaluated by specialists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Drew; Kan, J.H.; Bisset, George S. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); May, Megan [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Sports Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Pre-authorization processes are often used by medical insurance companies to reduce costs by managing the utilization of advanced diagnostic imaging, and their impact on patient care is unclear. The purpose of our study is to determine if a pre-authorization process increases the rate of surgically significant abnormal knee MRI and surgical referrals compared with patients referred from pediatric orthopedic specialists who do not undergo a pre-authorization process. A retrospective study was performed; 124 patients were identified who were referred for knee MRI by a pediatric orthopedist. The study population included patients who underwent an insurance pre-authorization process and the control group consisted of those who did not. The results of the MRI and whether they were deemed surgically significant, in addition to surgical referral, were recorded and compared. The study and control groups showed no statistically significant difference in outcome with regard to surgically significant findings on MRI (p = 0.92) or whether the patient required surgery (p = 0.6). In this population, there is no difference in the likelihood of an abnormal knee MRI demonstrating surgically significant findings or referral to surgery in patients who did and those who did not undergo an insurance pre-authorization process when patients are referred from a pediatric orthopedic specialist. The insurance pre-authorization process does not appear to have an impact on patient diagnosis and treatment and may unnecessarily add bureaucracy and costs. (orig.)

  19. Defining the "D" in ISD. Part 1: Task-General Instructional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ruth Colvin

    1986-01-01

    The first of two articles designed to provide guidelines for the instructional development phase of instructional systems development focuses on general instructional methods supporting all instructional tasks. Teaching methods that support selective attention, processing in working memory, and connecting in long-term memory are described and…

  20. Storytelling as an Instructional Method: Research Perspectives (Modeling and Simulations for Learning and Instruction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    told. In fact, storytelling does not stop in the classroom or in a formal training setting. Much of the culture and tradition of the military is passed...2010 2. REPORT TYPE Book 3. DATES COVERED 08-11-2006 to 31-12-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Storytelling as an Instructional Method Research...better instructional storytelling because military instructors have historically relied heavily on that technique. One of the workshops major goals was

  1. Continuous soil maps - a fuzzy set approach to bridge the gap between aggregation levels of process and distribution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruijter, de J.J.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Gaans, van P.F.M.

    1997-01-01

    Soil maps as multi-purpose models of spatial soil distribution have a much higher level of aggregation (map units) than the models of soil processes and land-use effects that need input from soil maps. This mismatch between aggregation levels is particularly detrimental in the context of precision

  2. Using Principles of Programmed Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Harry

    1971-01-01

    Although programmed instruction in accounting is available, it is limited in scope and in acceptance. Teachers, however, may apply principles of programming to the individualizing of instruction. (Author)

  3. Guidelines for Setting Up an Extended Field Trip to Florida and the Florida Keys: An Interactive Experiential Training Field Biology Program Consisting of Pretrip Instruction, Search Image Training, Field Exercises, and Observations of Tropical Habitats and Coral Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claude D.; And Others

    The importance of experiential aspects of biological study is addressed using multi-dimensional classroom and field classroom approaches to student learning. This document includes a guide to setting up this style of field experience. Several teaching innovations are employed to introduce undergraduate students to the literature, techniques, and…

  4. Can we decide which outcomes should be measured in every clinical trial? A scoping review of the existing conceptual frameworks and processes to develop core outcome sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzerda, Leanne; Rader, Tamara; Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten

    2014-05-01

    The usefulness of randomized control trials to advance clinical care depends upon the outcomes reported, but disagreement on the choice of outcome measures has resulted in inconsistency and the potential for reporting bias. One solution to this problem is the development of a core outcome set: a minimum set of outcome measures deemed critical for clinical decision making. Within rheumatology the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) initiative has pioneered the development of core outcome sets since 1992. As the number of diseases addressed by OMERACT has increased and its experience in formulating core sets has grown, clarification and update of the conceptual framework and formulation of a more explicit process of area/domain core set development has become necessary. As part of the update process of the OMERACT Filter criteria to version 2, a literature review was undertaken to compare and contrast the OMERACT conceptual framework with others within and outside rheumatology. A scoping search was undertaken to examine the extent, range, and nature of conceptual frameworks for core set outcome selection in health. We searched the following resources: Cochrane Library Methods Group Register; Medline; Embase; PsycInfo; Environmental Studies and Policy Collection; and ABI/INFORM Global. We also conducted a targeted Google search. Five conceptual frameworks were identified: the WHO tripartite definition of health; the 5 Ds (discomfort, disability, drug toxicity, dollar cost, and death); the International Classification of Functioning (ICF); PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System); and the Outcomes Hierarchy. Of these, only the 5 Ds and ICF frameworks have been systematically applied in core set development. Outside the area of rheumatology, several core sets were identified; these had been developed through a limited range of consensus-based methods with varying degrees of methodological rigor. None applied a framework to ensure content validity of

  5. Contribution of qualitative analysis and fuzzy sets to industrial process fault diagnosis: application to the Diapason project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmain, J.; Leyval, L.

    1994-01-01

    The construction of fault indicators is the foundation of model-based fault diagnosis. The development of precise mathematical models for complex facilities is generally difficult and expensive; new and less constraining techniques, notably seeking to account for behaviour, open new perspectives for fault detection and diagnosis. The authors propose a combined approach based on quantitative processing with qualitative assessment of the results. A veritable numerical-symbolic interface then ensures a more satisfactory balance between the two levels of knowledge - analytic and heuristic -necessary to optimize the performance of a diagnostic procedure. Our supervision support system DIAPASON provides operators of industrial continuous processes with an aid to watch and diagnosis. The reasoning is based on a causal graph and on a knowledge base. After an overview of qualitative simulation, defect diagnosis and fault diagnosis, the way in which these three cooperate in DIAPASON is amplified. (authors). 21 refs., 5 figs

  6. Contribution of qualitative analysis and fuzzy sets to industrial process fault diagnosis: Application to the DIAPASON project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmain, J.; Leyval, L.

    1994-01-01

    The construction of fault indicators is the foundation of model-based fault diagnosis. The development of precise mathematical models for complex facilities is generally difficult and expensive; new and less constraining techniques, notably seeking to account for behaviour, open new perspectives for fault detection and diagnosis. The authors propose a combined approach based on quantitative processing with qualitative assessment of the results. A veritable numerical-symbolic interface then ensure a more satisfactory balance between the two levels of knowledge - analytic and heuristic - necessary to optimize the performance of a diagnostic procedure. Our supervision support system DIAPASON provides operators of industrial continuous processes with an aid to watch and diagnosis. The reasoning is based on a casual graph and on a knowledge base. After an overview of qualitative simulation, defect diagnosis and fault diagnosis, the way in which these three cooperate in DIAPASON is amplified. (author). 21 refs, 5 figs

  7. Manager Experiences with the Return to Work Process in a Large, Publically Funded, Hospital Setting: Walking a Fine Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Myburgh, Corrie; Young, Amanda Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Previous research on the role of managers in the return to work (RTW) process has primarily been conducted in contexts where the workplace has declared organizational responsibility for the process. While this is a common scenario, in some countries, including Denmark, there is no explicit legal obligation on the workplace to accommodate RTW. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about the potential roles and contributions of managers in supporting returning employees in a context where they have no legal obligation to actively support RTW. Nineteen Danish hospital managers participated in a one-on-one interview or focus group discussions aimed at identifying barriers and facilitators for supporting employees in their RTW. Five individual interviews and two focus group discussions were conducted. Transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Four main themes were identified: (1) 'Coordinator and collaborator'; (2) 'Dilemmas of the RTW policy enforcer'; (3) 'The right to be sick and absent'; and (4) 'Keep the machinery running…'. Our findings indicated that supervisors' capacity to support returning workers was related to individual, communication, organizational, and policy factors. Instances were observed where supervisors faced the dilemma of balancing ethical and managerial principles with requirements of keeping staffing budgets. Although it is not their legislative responsibility, Danish managers play a key role in the RTW process. As has been observed in other contexts, Danish supervisors struggle to balance considerations for the returning worker with those of their teams.

  8. A GA Evolving Instructions for a Timetable Builder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, Christian; Correia, Sebastiao; Dorigo, Marco; Paechter, Ben; Rossi-Doria, Olivia; Snoek, M.; Burke, E.; De Causmaecker, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we present a Genetic Algorithm for tackling timetabling problems. Our approach uses an indirect solution representation, which denotes a number if instructions for a timetable builder on how to sequentially build a solution. These instructions are composed by a set of predefined

  9. MVP and Instructional Systems Design in Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is based on three premises. The first premise is that the use of instructional systems design (ISD) methods is important in online as well as traditional classroom settings. A second premise is that improving the motivational design of instruction brings benefits to teachers and learners alike. The third premise, specific to this…

  10. Instruction transfer and storage exploration for low energy embedded VLIWs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    Portable consumer electronics to play multimedia have to be high performant and flexible. Energy consumption has to be kept as low as possible to ensure a long battery lifetime. To be flexible, these systems often contain an instruction set processor. Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) processors

  11. Stand Up Comics: Instructional Humor and Student Engagment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortley, Amy; Dotson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the use of instructional humor in higher education settings and makes connections between the levels of student achievement in academics and the influence of appropriate instructional humor. The work of prominent researchers such as Wanzer, Frymier, and Irwin (2010), and Segrist & Hupp (2015), who postulate that…

  12. A Comparative Study of Applying Active-Set and Interior Point Methods in MPC for Controlling Nonlinear pH Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Syafiie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of Model Predictive Control (MPC using active-set method and interior point methods is proposed as a control technique for highly non-linear pH process. The process is a strong acid-strong base system. A strong acid of hydrochloric acid (HCl and a strong base of sodium hydroxide (NaOH with the presence of buffer solution sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 are used in a neutralization process flowing into reactor. The non-linear pH neutralization model governed in this process is presented by multi-linear models. Performance of both controllers is studied by evaluating its ability of set-point tracking and disturbance-rejection. Besides, the optimization time is compared between these two methods; both MPC shows the similar performance with no overshoot, offset, and oscillation. However, the conventional active-set method gives a shorter control action time for small scale optimization problem compared to MPC using IPM method for pH control.

  13. How to Set Up a Research Framework to Analyze Social-Ecological Interactive Processes in a Rural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Deconchat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary research frameworks can be useful in providing answers to the environmental challenges facing rural environments, but concrete implementation of them remains empirical and requires better control. We present our practical experience of an interdisciplinary research project dealing with non-industrial private forestry in rural landscapes. The theoretical background, management, and methodological aspects, as well as results of the project, are presented in order to identify practical key factors that may influence its outcomes. Landscape ecology plays a central role in organizing the project. The efforts allocated for communication between scientists from different disciplines must be clearly stated in order to earn reciprocal trust. Sharing the same nested sampling areas, common approaches, and analytical tools (GIS is important, but has to be balanced by autonomy for actual implementation of field work and data analysis in a modular and evolving framework. Data sets are at the heart of the collaboration and GIS is necessary to ensure their long-term management and sharing. The experience acquired from practical development of such projects should be shared more often in networks of teams to compare their behavior and identify common rules of functioning.

  14. Future thinking instructions improve prospective memory performance in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgassen, Mareike; Kretschmer, Anett; Schnitzspahn, Katharina Marlene

    2017-07-01

    Studies on prospective memory (PM) development in adolescents point to age-related increases through to adulthood. The goal of the present study was to examine whether instructing adolescents to engage in an episodic prospection of themselves executing future actions (i.e., future thinking) when forming an intention would improve their PM performance and reduce age-related differences. Further, we set out to explore whether future thinking instructions result in stronger memory traces and/or stronger cue-context associations by evaluating retrospective memory for the PM cues after task completion and monitoring costs during PM task processing. Adolescents and young adults were allocated to either the future thinking, repeated-encoding or standard condition. As expected, adolescents had fewer correct PM responses than young adults. Across age groups, PM performance in the standard condition was lower than in the other encoding conditions. Importantly, the results indicate a significant interaction of age by encoding condition. While adolescents benefited most from future thinking instructions, young adults performed best in the repeated-encoding condition. The results also indicate that the beneficial effects of future thinking may result from deeper intention-encoding through the simulation of future task performance.

  15. Probe code: a set of programs for processing and analysis of the left ventricular function - User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piva, R.M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The User's Manual of the Probe Code is an addendum to the M.Sc. thesis entitled A Microcomputer System of Nuclear Probe to Check the Left Ventricular Function. The Probe Code is a software which was developed for processing and off-line analysis curves from the Left Ventricular Function, that were obtained in vivo. These curves are produced by means of an external scintigraph probe, which was collimated and put on the left ventricule, after a venous inoculation of Tc-99 m. (author)

  16. The nature of instructional effects in color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonjić, Ana; Brainard, David H

    2016-06-01

    The instructions subjects receive can have a large effect on experimentally measured color constancy, but the nature of these effects and how their existence should inform our understanding of color perception remains unclear. We used a factorial design to measure how instructional effects on constancy vary with experimental task and stimulus set. In each of 2 experiments, we employed both a classic adjustment-based asymmetric matching task and a novel color selection task. Four groups of naive subjects were instructed to make adjustments/selections based on (a) color (neutral instructions); (b) the light reaching the eye (physical spectrum instructions); (c) the actual surface reflectance of an object (objective reflectance instructions); or (d) the apparent surface reflectance of an object (apparent reflectance instructions). Across the 2 experiments we varied the naturalness of the stimuli. We find clear interactions between instructions, task, and stimuli. With simplified stimuli (Experiment 1), instructional effects were large and the data revealed 2 instruction-dependent patterns. In 1 (neutral and physical spectrum instructions) constancy was low, intersubject variability was also low, and adjustment-based and selection-based constancy were in agreement. In the other (reflectance instructions) constancy was high, intersubject variability was large, adjustment-based constancy deviated from selection-based constancy and for some subjects selection-based constancy increased across sessions. Similar patterns held for naturalistic stimuli (Experiment 2), although instructional effects were smaller. We interpret these 2 patterns as signatures of distinct task strategies-1 is perceptual, with judgments based primarily on the perceptual representation of color; the other involves explicit instruction-driven reasoning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The Powdering Process with a Set of Ceramic Mills for Green Tea Promoted Catechin Extraction and the ROS Inhibition Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For serving green tea, there are two prominent methods: steeping the leaf or the powdered leaf (matcha style in hot water. The purpose of the present study was to reveal chemical and functional differences before and after the powdering process of green tea leaf, since powdered green tea may contribute to expanding the functionality because of the different ingesting style. In this study, we revealed that the powdering process with a ceramic mill and stirring in hot water increased the average extracted concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG by more than three times compared with that in leaf tea using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography–tandem mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses. Moreover, powdered green tea has a higher inhibition effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS production in vitro compared with the same amount of leaf tea. Our data suggest that powdered green tea might have a different function from leaf tea due to the higher catechin contents and particles.

  18. A Content Analysis of Instructional Design and Web Design Books: Implications for Inclusion of Web Design in Instructional Design Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obilade, Titilola T.; Burton, John K.

    2015-01-01

    This textual content analysis set out to determine the extent to which the theories, principles, and guidelines in 4 standard books of instructional design and technology were also addressed in 4 popular books on web design. The standard books on instructional design and the popular books on web design were chosen by experts in the fields. The…

  19. Gender Differences in Instructional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Review of Studies Using the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinger, Philip; Dongyu, Li; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Instructional leadership has assumed steadily increasing importance within the general role set of principals over the past 60 years. One persisting finding within this corpus of studies concerns the consistently higher ratings obtained by female principals on instructional leadership when compared with their male counterparts. This…

  20. Using Interactive Video Instruction To Enhance Public Speaking Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Michael W.; Kennan, William R.

    Noting that interactive video instruction (IVI) should not and cannot replace classroom instruction, this paper offers an introduction to interactive video instruction as an innovative technology that can be used to expand pedagogical opportunities in public speaking instruction. The paper: (1) defines the distinctive features of IVI; (2) assesses…

  1. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Behavior/Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Vincent; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of three learning modules to instruct the general public in methods of exploring human psychology and personal interrelationships. The first module, "The Basic Idea behind Rational-Emotive Therapy" by Vincent Larkin, distinguishes between rational and irrational fears and…

  2. Flipped Classroom Instruction for Inclusive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemueller, Lisa; Lindquist, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The flipped classroom is a teaching methodology that has gained recognition in primary, secondary and higher education settings. The flipped classroom inverts traditional teaching methods, delivering lecture instruction outside class, and devoting class time to problem solving, with the teacher's role becoming that of a learning coach and…

  3. Tic Tac Toe Math. Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard

    This instructional guide and set of three companion workbooks are intended for use in an arithmetic course based on the Tic Tac Toe method of addition and multiplication, which is an alternative means of learning to add and multiply that was developed for students whose learning disabilities (including difficulty in distinguishing left from right…

  4. Considerations for Designing Instructional Virtual Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennen, Vanessa Paz; Branch, Robert C.

    Virtual reality is an immersive, interactive medium that manipulates the senses in order provide users with simulated experiences in computer-generated worlds. The visual design of virtual reality is an important issue, but literature has tended to stress the medium's instructional potential rather than setting forth a protocol for designing…

  5. Priority Setting for Universal Health Coverage: We Need to Focus Both on Substance and on Process; Comment on “Priority Setting for Universal Health Coverage: We Need Evidence-Informed Deliberative Processes, not Just More Evidence on Cost-Effectiveness”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A. Lauer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In an editorial published in this journal, Baltussen et al argue that information on cost-effectiveness is not sufficient for priority setting for universal health coverage (UHC, a claim which is correct as far as it goes. However, their focus on the procedural legitimacy of ‘micro’ priority setting processes (eg, decisions concerning the reimbursement of specific interventions, and their related assumption that values for priority setting are determined only at this level, leads them to ignore the relevance of higher level, ‘macro’ priority setting processes, for example, consultations held by World Health Organization (WHO Member States and other global stakeholders that have resulted in widespread consensus on the principles of UHC. Priority setting is not merely about discrete choices, nor should the focus be exclusively (or even mainly on improving the procedural elements of micro priority setting processes. Systemic activities that shape the health system environment, such as strategic planning, as well as the substantive content of global policy instruments, are critical elements for priority setting for UHC.

  6. Computer Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Methodology for developing a computer assisted instruction (CAI) lesson (scripting, programing, and testing) is reviewed. A project done by Informatics Education Ltd. (IEL) for the Department of National Defense (DND) is used as an example. (JT)

  7. Bibliographic Instruction : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.

  8. Creating a Cycle of Continuous Improvement through Instructional Rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Looze, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional Rounds is a continuous improvement strategy that focuses on the technical core of educational systems as well as educators collaborating side-by-side. Concentrating on collective learning, this process only makes sense within an overall strategy of improvement. This case study examined the Instructional Rounds process in a northern…

  9. Tailoring consent to context: designing an appropriate consent process for a biomedical study in a low income setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasil Tekola

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is increasing recognition of the need for research in developing countries where disease burden is high. Understanding the role of local factors is important for undertaking ethical research in developing countries. We explored factors relating to information and communication during the process of informed consent, and the approach that should be followed for gaining consent. The study was conducted prior to a family-based genetic study among people with podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis in southern Ethiopia.We adapted a method of rapid assessment validated in The Gambia. The methodology was entirely qualitative, involving focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews. Discussions were conducted with podoconiosis patients and non-patients in the community, fieldworkers, researchers, staff of the local non-governmental organisation (NGO working on prevention and treatment of podoconiosis, and community leaders. We found that the extent of use of everyday language, the degree to which expectations of potential participants were addressed, and the techniques of presentation of information had considerable impact on comprehension of information provided about research. Approaching podoconiosis patients via locally trusted individuals and preceding individual consent with community sensitization were considered the optimal means of communication. Prevailing poverty among podoconiosis patients, the absence of alternative treatment facilities, and participants' trust in the local NGO were identified as potential barriers for obtaining genuine informed consent.Researchers should evaluate the effectiveness of consent processes in providing appropriate information in a comprehensible manner and in supporting voluntary decision-making on a study-by-study basis.

  10. Regulation of the forming process and the set voltage distribution of unipolar resistance switching in spin-coated CoFe2O4 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaqima, Millaty; Yoo, Pilsun; Huang, Wei; Lee, Bo Wha; Liu, Chunli

    2015-01-01

    We report the preparation of (111) preferentially oriented CoFe2O4 thin films on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates using a spin-coating process. The post-annealing conditions and film thickness were varied for cobalt ferrite (CFO) thin films, and Pt/CFO/Pt structures were prepared to investigate the resistance switching behaviors. Our results showed that resistance switching without a forming process is preferred to obtain less fluctuation in the set voltage, which can be regulated directly from the preparation conditions of the CFO thin films. Therefore, instead of thicker film, CFO thin films deposited by two times spin-coating with a thickness about 100 nm gave stable resistance switching with the most stable set voltage. Since the forming process and the large variation in set voltage have been considered as serious obstacles for the practical application of resistance switching for non-volatile memory devices, our results could provide meaningful insights in improving the performance of ferrite material-based resistance switching memory devices.

  11. Learning from Narrated Instruction Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayrac, Jean-Baptiste; Bojanowski, Piotr; Agrawal, Nishant; Sivic, Josef; Laptev, Ivan; Lacoste-Julien, Simon

    2017-09-05

    Automatic assistants could guide a person or a robot in performing new tasks, such as changing a car tire or repotting a plant. Creating such assistants, however, is non-trivial and requires understanding of visual and verbal content of a video. Towards this goal, we here address the problem of automatically learning the main steps of a task from a set of narrated instruction videos. We develop a new unsupervised learning approach that takes advantage of the complementary nature of the input video and the associated narration. The method sequentially clusters textual and visual representations of a task, where the two clustering problems are linked by joint constraints to obtain a single coherent sequence of steps in both modalities. To evaluate our method, we collect and annotate a new challenging dataset of real-world instruction videos from the Internet. The dataset contains videos for five different tasks with complex interactions between people and objects, captured in a variety of indoor and outdoor settings. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically discover, learn and localize the main steps of a task input videos.

  12. Robustness of movement models: can models bridge the gap between temporal scales of data sets and behavioural processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlägel, Ulrike E; Lewis, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Discrete-time random walks and their extensions are common tools for analyzing animal movement data. In these analyses, resolution of temporal discretization is a critical feature. Ideally, a model both mirrors the relevant temporal scale of the biological process of interest and matches the data sampling rate. Challenges arise when resolution of data is too coarse due to technological constraints, or when we wish to extrapolate results or compare results obtained from data with different resolutions. Drawing loosely on the concept of robustness in statistics, we propose a rigorous mathematical framework for studying movement models' robustness against changes in temporal resolution. In this framework, we define varying levels of robustness as formal model properties, focusing on random walk models with spatially-explicit component. With the new framework, we can investigate whether models can validly be applied to data across varying temporal resolutions and how we can account for these different resolutions in statistical inference results. We apply the new framework to movement-based resource selection models, demonstrating both analytical and numerical calculations, as well as a Monte Carlo simulation approach. While exact robustness is rare, the concept of approximate robustness provides a promising new direction for analyzing movement models.

  13. Instructional Screencast: A Research Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razak, Muhammad Razuan; Mohamad Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri

    2016-01-01

    The literature review indicates that the benefit of screencast as an instructional media has not clearly proved effective for all categories of students. This is due to the individual differences in processing the information. Inadequate screencast design will cause strain to students' cognitive process which might impede learning. This…

  14. Learning to Write with Interactive Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cheri

    2018-01-01

    Interactive writing is a process-oriented instructional approach designed to make the composing and encoding processes of writing overt and explicit for young students who are learning to write. It is particularly suitable for students who struggle with literacy learning. This article describes one first-grade teacher's use of interactive writing…

  15. Development of a new version of the Liverpool Malaria Model. I. Refining the parameter settings and mathematical formulation of basic processes based on a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Anne E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A warm and humid climate triggers several water-associated diseases such as malaria. Climate- or weather-driven malaria models, therefore, allow for a better understanding of malaria transmission dynamics. The Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM is a mathematical-biological model of malaria parasite dynamics using daily temperature and precipitation data. In this study, the parameter settings of the LMM are refined and a new mathematical formulation of key processes related to the growth and size of the vector population are developed. Methods One of the most comprehensive studies to date in terms of gathering entomological and parasitological information from the literature was undertaken for the development of a new version of an existing malaria model. The knowledge was needed to allow the justification of new settings of various model parameters and motivated changes of the mathematical formulation of the LMM. Results The first part of the present study developed an improved set of parameter settings and mathematical formulation of the LMM. Important modules of the original LMM version were enhanced in order to achieve a higher biological and physical accuracy. The oviposition as well as the survival of immature mosquitoes were adjusted to field conditions via the application of a fuzzy distribution model. Key model parameters, including the mature age of mosquitoes, the survival probability of adult mosquitoes, the human blood index, the mosquito-to-human (human-to-mosquito transmission efficiency, the human infectious age, the recovery rate, as well as the gametocyte prevalence, were reassessed by means of entomological and parasitological observations. This paper also revealed that various malaria variables lack information from field studies to be set properly in a malaria modelling approach. Conclusions Due to the multitude of model parameters and the uncertainty involved in the setting of parameters, an extensive

  16. Does overgeneral autobiographical memory result from poor memory for task instructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Paula K; Roberts, John E; Carlos, Erica L

    2008-10-01

    Considerable previous research has shown that retrieval of overgeneral autobiographical memories (OGM) is elevated among individuals suffering from various emotional disorders and those with a history of trauma. Although previous theories suggest that OGM serves the function of regulating acute negative affect, it is also possible that OGM results from difficulties in keeping the instruction set for the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) in working memory, or what has been coined "secondary goal neglect" (Dalgleish, 2004). The present study tested whether OGM is associated with poor memory for the task's instruction set, and whether an instruction set reminder would improve memory specificity over repeated trials. Multilevel modelling data-analytic techniques demonstrated a significant relationship between poor recall of instruction set and probability of retrieving OGMs. Providing an instruction set reminder for the AMT relative to a control task's instruction set improved memory specificity immediately afterward.

  17. Development of Cities Mentor Project: An Intervention to Improve Academic Outcomes for Low-Income Urban Youth through Instruction in Effective Coping Supported by Mentoring Relationships and Protective Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathryn E.; Farahmand, Farahnaz; Meyerson, David A.; Dubois, David L.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Barnett, Alexandra; Horwath, Jordan; Doxie, Jackie; Tyler, Donald; Harrison, Aubrey; Johnson, Sarah; Duffy, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes an iterative process used to develop a new intervention for low-income urban youth at risk for negative academic outcomes (e.g., disengagement, failure, drop-out). A series of seven steps, building incrementally one upon the other, are described: 1) identify targets of the intervention; 2) develop logic model; 3)…

  18. Single-instruction multiple-data execution

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Having hit power limitations to even more aggressive out-of-order execution in processor cores, many architects in the past decade have turned to single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) execution to increase single-threaded performance. SIMD execution, or having a single instruction drive execution of an identical operation on multiple data items, was already well established as a technique to efficiently exploit data parallelism. Furthermore, support for it was already included in many commodity processors. However, in the past decade, SIMD execution has seen a dramatic increase in the set of

  19. A generic method to optimize instructions for the control of evacuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibregtse, O.L.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Pel, A.J.; Bliemer, M.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    A method is described to develop a set of optimal instructions to evacuate by car the population of a region threatened by a hazard. By giving these instructions to the evacuees, traffic conditions and therefore the evacuation efficiency can be optimized. The instructions, containing a departure

  20. Shaping instructional communication competence of preservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandyonomanu, D.; Mutiah; Setianingrum, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to understand the process of shaping communication competence. Participants were pre-service teachers in the primary school education teacher who conducted teaching program internship program. Observations and interviews found that culture, experience, and education were the components that developed the communication competence within the instructional context. The former two components dominantly shape communication instructional competencies, whereas the latter contributes insignificantly. Education emphasizes on teacher’s pedagogy and professional competences. In the future, educational institutions for pre-service teachers could use this research results to Determine the process of developing communication competence.

  1. An Investigation of the Engagement of Elementary Students in the NCTM Process Standards after One Year of Standards-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, Jennifer Gale

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary mathematics education reform has placed increased emphasis on K-12 mathematics curriculum. Reform-based curricula, often referred to as "Standards-based" due to philosophical alignment with the NCTM Process Standards, have generated controversy among families, educators, and researchers. The mathematics education research…

  2. The Impact of Inquiry Based Instruction on Science Process Skills and Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers at a University Level Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ceylan; Sezen Vekli, Gülsah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of inquiry-based teaching approach on pre-service science teachers' laboratory self-efficacy perceptions and scientific process skills. The quasi experimental model with pre-test-post-test control group design was used as an experimental design in this research. The sample of this study included…

  3. FIFI 3: A digital computer code for the solution of sets of first order differential equations and the analysis of process plant dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, H.M.

    1965-11-01

    FIFI 3 is a FORTRAN Code embodying a technique for the analysis of process plant dynamics. As such, it is essentially a tool for the integration of sets of first order ordinary differential equations, either linear or non-linear; special provision is made for the inclusion of time-delayed variables in the mathematical model of the plant. The method of integration is new and is centred on a stable multistep predictor-corrector algorithm devised by the late Mr. F.G. Chapman, of the UKAEA, Winfrith. The theory on which the Code is based and detailed rules for using it are described in Parts I and II respectively. (author)

  4. Setting up processes and standardization of the equipment in order to optimize analyses of the wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Trong Phuc; Luu Anh Tuyen; La Ly Nguyen; Nguyen Thi Ngoc Hue; Pham Thi Hue; Do Duy Khiem

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of operating and optimizing the analyses of the equipment: wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF)- model S8 TIGER from Enhancing Equipment Project (TCTTB) 2011-2012, we set up sampling and analytical process for different sample kinds; we constructed multi-elemental calibration curve for clay sample; we analysed elemental concentrations of 5 clay samples by XRF method and compared the results with the results given by NAA method. Equipment sensitivity was tested by analysing elemental concentrations of 2 Kaolin standard samples. The results show that S8-Tiger equipment is within good condition and is able to analyze powder clay sample exactly. (author)

  5. A comparison between the first-fit settings of two multichannel digital signal-processing strategies: music quality ratings and speech-in-noise scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Paul; Searchfield, Grant; Coad, Gavin

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which level-dependent hearing aid digital signal-processing strategy (DSP) participants preferred when listening to music and/or performing a speech-in-noise task. Two receiver-in-the-ear hearing aids were compared: one using 32-channel adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) and the other wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) incorporating dual fast (4 channel) and slow (15 channel) processing. The manufacturers' first-fit settings based on participants' audiograms were used in both cases. Results were obtained from 18 participants on a quick speech-in-noise (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette, Gudmundsen, Revit, & Banerjee, 2004) task and for 3 music listening conditions (classical, jazz, and rock). Participants preferred the quality of music and performed better at the QuickSIN task using the hearing aids with ADRO processing. A potential reason for the better performance of the ADRO hearing aids was less fluctuation in output with change in sound dynamics. ADRO processing has advantages for both music quality and speech recognition in noise over the multichannel WDRC processing that was used in the study. Further evaluations of which DSP aspects contribute to listener preference are required.

  6. Instructional Technology and Objectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir S. Gur

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectification refers to the way in which everything (including human beings is treated as an object, raw material, or resource to be manipulated and used. In this article, objectification refers to the way that education is often reduced to the packaging and delivery of information. A critique of objectification in instructional technology is presented. In the context of Heidegger’s critique of technology, the authors claim that objectification in education is metaphysical in the sense that the intelligibility (being of education is equated with ready-to-use packages, and thus is reduced to delivery and transmission of objects. The embodiment dimension of teaching and learning can help us in resisting this reduction. The authors argue that objectification increases bureaucratic control over the teaching process and deskills teachers; and by which teachers are proletarianized. The authors conclude that instructional designers should create structures in which a care relation and dialogue between students and teachers can take place. Résumé: L’objectification réfère à la façon dont tout (incluant les être humains est traité comme un objet, une matière première ou une ressource qui peut être manipulée et utilisée. Dans cet article, l’objectification réfère à la façon dont l’éducation est souvent réduite à la mise en boîte et à la livraison de l’information. Une critique de l’objectification en technologie éducative est présentée. Dans le contexte de la critique de la technologie par Heidegger, les auteurs prétendent que l’objectification en éducation est métaphysique dans le sens que l’intelligibilité (être de l’éducation équivaut à la mise en boîte prêt-à –utiliser, et se résume donc à la livraison et à la transmission d’objets. L’incarnation de l’enseignement et de l’apprentissage peuvent nous aider à résister à cette réduction. Les auteurs arguent que l

  7. Computer-Based Mathematics Instructions for Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mustaq A.; Wall, Curtiss E.

    1996-01-01

    Almost every engineering course involves mathematics in one form or another. The analytical process of developing mathematical models is very important for engineering students. However, the computational process involved in the solution of some mathematical problems may be very tedious and time consuming. There is a significant amount of mathematical software such as Mathematica, Mathcad, and Maple designed to aid in the solution of these instructional problems. The use of these packages in classroom teaching can greatly enhance understanding, and save time. Integration of computer technology in mathematics classes, without de-emphasizing the traditional analytical aspects of teaching, has proven very successful and is becoming almost essential. Sample computer laboratory modules are developed for presentation in the classroom setting. This is accomplished through the use of overhead projectors linked to graphing calculators and computers. Model problems are carefully selected from different areas.

  8. SETS reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.

    1985-05-01

    The Set Equation Transformation System (SETS) is used to achieve the symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations. Symbolic manipulation involves changing equations from their original forms into more useful forms - particularly by applying Boolean identities. The SETS program is an interpreter which reads, interprets, and executes SETS user programs. The user writes a SETS user program specifying the processing to be achieved and submits it, along with the required data, for execution by SETS. Because of the general nature of SETS, i.e., the capability to manipulate Boolean equations regardless of their origin, the program has been used for many different kinds of analysis

  9. Counting SET-free sets

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Nate

    2016-01-01

    We consider the following counting problem related to the card game SET: How many $k$-element SET-free sets are there in an $n$-dimensional SET deck? Through a series of algebraic reformulations and reinterpretations, we show the answer to this question satisfies two polynomiality conditions.

  10. Use of school gardens in academic instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Heather; Beall, Deborah Lane; Lussier, Mary; McLaughlin, Peggy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2005-01-01

    To determine the status of gardens in California schools. A self-administered Internet and mailed survey was sent to all California principals (N = 9805). 4194 California school principals. School garden practices, attitudes associated with the use of gardens in schools, and perceptions of barriers to having and using school gardens in academic instruction. Descriptive statistics and chi-square; P science, environmental studies, and nutrition. Principals strongly agreed that resources such as curriculum materials linked to academic instruction and lessons on teaching nutrition in the garden would assist in the school garden being used for academic instruction. Principals deemed the garden as being not to slightly effective at enhancing the school meal program. School gardens appear to be predominantly used by most schools to enhance academic instruction. There is a need for curriculum materials and teacher training for gardening and nutrition. The link between the garden and the school meal program is an area that clearly requires attention. School lunch would be a logical setting for provision of edible produce, in addition to taste-testing of fresh produce in the garden or classroom setting.

  11. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Fadde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn’t get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters’ box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures

  12. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  13. When innovative instructional designs are too innovative: lack of schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas; Wahl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    and it was developed to motivate and encourage the students to engage in more situated learning processes. The course is infamous for low attendance and for demotivating the students; hence the new instructional design should motivate students to attend the lessons and to participate. The new instructional design...

  14. Project Management in Instructional Design: ADDIE Is Not Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooij, Shahron Williams

    2010-01-01

    In the digital age, instructional designers must possess both a sound instructional design knowledge base and solid project management skills that will enable them to complete courseware projects on time, on budget and in conformance with client expectations. Project management skills include the ability to apply repeatable processes, along with…

  15. Instructional Styles, Attitudes and Experiences of Seniors in Computer Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eileen; Lanuza, Catherine; Baciu, Iuliana; MacKenzie, Meagan; Nosko, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-four seniors were introduced to computers through a series of five weekly workshops. Participants were given instruction followed by hands-on experience for topics related to social communication, information seeking, games, and word processing and were observed to determine their preferences for instructional support. Observations of…

  16. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,…

  17. The Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT): the dimensionality of student perceptions of the instructional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M; Demers, Joseph A; Christ, Theodore J

    2014-06-01

    This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale items. Participants included 1,465 middle school students across 48 classrooms in the Midwest. Item analysis, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, was used to refine a 27-item scale with a second-order factor structure. Results support the interpretation of a single general dimension of the Classroom Teaching Environment with 6 subscale dimensions: Positive Reinforcement, Instructional Presentation, Goal Setting, Differentiated Instruction, Formative Feedback, and Instructional Enjoyment. Applications of REACT in research and practice are discussed along with implications for future research and the development of classroom environment measures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neale Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In this article, we analyze one case instance of how proposals for change to the priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA processes at a Canadian healthcare institution reached the decision agenda of the organization’s senior leadership. We adopt key concepts from an established policy studies framework – Kingdon’s multiple streams theory – to inform our analysis. Methods Twenty-six individual interviews were conducted at the IWK Health Centre in Halifax, NS, Canada. Participants were asked to reflect upon the reasons leading up to the implementation of a formal priority setting process – Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA – in the 2012/2013 fiscal year. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using Kingdon’s model as a template. Results The introduction of PBMA can be understood as the opening of a policy window. A problem stream – defined as lack of broad engagement and information sharing across service lines in past practice – converged with a known policy solution, PBMA, which addressed the identified problems and was perceived as easy to use and with an evidence-base from past applications across Canada and elsewhere. Conditions in the political realm allowed for this intervention to proceed, but also constrained its potential outcomes. Conclusion Understanding in a theoretically-informed way how change occurs in healthcare management practices can provide useful lessons to researchers and decision-makers whose aim is to help health systems achieve the most effective use of available financial resources.

  19. Ensuring due process in the IACUC and animal welfare setting: considerations in developing noncompliance policies and procedures for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Barbara C; Gografe, Sylvia; Pritt, Stacy; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; McWhirter, Camille A; Barman, Susan M; Comuzzie, Anthony; Greene, Molly; McNulty, Justin A; Michele, Daniel Eugene; Moaddab, Naz; Nelson, Randall J; Norris, Karen; Uray, Karen D; Banks, Ron; Westlund, Karin N; Yates, Bill J; Silverman, Jerald; Hansen, Kenneth D; Redman, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Every institution that is involved in research with animals is expected to have in place policies and procedures for the management of allegations of noncompliance with the Animal Welfare Act and the U.S. Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. We present here a model set of recommendations for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials to ensure appropriate consideration of allegations of noncompliance with federal Animal Welfare Act regulations that carry a significant risk or specific threat to animal welfare. This guidance has 3 overarching aims: 1 ) protecting the welfare of research animals; 2 ) according fair treatment and due process to an individual accused of noncompliance; and 3 ) ensuring compliance with federal regulations. Through this guidance, the present work seeks to advance the cause of scientific integrity, animal welfare, and the public trust while recognizing and supporting the critical importance of animal research for the betterment of the health of both humans and animals.-Hansen, B. C., Gografe, S., Pritt, S., Jen, K.-L. C., McWhirter, C. A., Barman, S. M., Comuzzie, A., Greene, M., McNulty, J. A., Michele, D. E., Moaddab, N., Nelson, R. J., Norris, K., Uray, K. D., Banks, R., Westlund, K. N., Yates, B. J., Silverman, J., Hansen, K. D., Redman, B. Ensuring due process in the IACUC and animal welfare setting: considerations in developing noncompliance policies and procedures for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials. © FASEB.

  20. Sedimentary processes in modern and ancient oceanic arc settings: evidence from the Jurassic Talkeetna Formation of Alaska and the Mariana and Tonga Arcs, western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    Sediment deposited around oceanic volcanic ares potentially provides the most complete record of the tectonic and geochemical evolution of active margins. The use of such tectonic and geochemical records requires an accurate understanding of sedimentary dynamics in an arc setting: processes of deposition and reworking that affect the degree to which sediments represent the contemporaneous volcanism at the time of their deposition. We review evidence from the modern Mariana and Tonga arcs and the ancient arc crustal section in the Lower Jurassic Talkeetna Formation of south-central Alaska, and introduce new data from the Mariana Arc, to produce a conceptual model of volcaniclastic sedimentation processes in oceanic arc settings. All three arcs are interpreted to have formed in tectonically erosive margin settings, resulting in long-term extension and subsidence. Debris aprons composed of turbidites and debris flow deposits occur in the immediate vicinity of arc volcanoes, forming relatively continuous mass-wasted volcaniclastic records in abundant accommodation space. There is little erosion or reworking of old volcanic materials near the arc volcanic front. Tectonically generated topography in the forearc effectively blocks sediment flow from the volcanic front to the trench; although some canyons deliver sediment to the trench slope, most volcaniclastic sedimentation is limited to the area immediately around volcanic centers. Arc sedimentary sections in erosive plate margins can provide comprehensive records of volcanism and tectonism spanning arc may be best reconstructed from sediments of the debris aprons for intervals up to ~ 20 My but no longer, because subduction erosion causes migration of the forearc basin crust and its sedimentary cover toward the trench, where there is little volcaniclastic sedimentation and where older sediments are dissected and reworked along the trench slope.