WorldWideScience

Sample records for instruction independent study

  1. A Classroom Observational Study of Qatar's Independent Schools: Instruction and School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Douglas J.; Sadiq, Hissa M.; Lynch, Patricia; Parker, Dawn; Viruru, Radhika; Knight, Stephanie; Waxman, Hersh; Alford, Beverly; Brown, Danielle Bairrington; Rollins, Kayla; Stillisano, Jacqueline; Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M. Hamdan; Nasser, Ramzi; Allen, Nancy; Al-Binali, Hessa; Ellili, Maha; Al-Kateeb, Haithem; Al-Kubaisi, Huda

    2016-01-01

    Qatar initiated a K-12 national educational reform in 2001. However, there is limited information on the instructional practices of the teachers in the reform schools. This project was an observational study of classrooms with a stratified random sample of the first six cohorts of reform schools. Specifically, 156 classrooms were observed in 29…

  2. Instructional Quality Features in Videotaped Biology Lessons: Content-Independent Description of Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfner, Tobias; Förtsch, Christian; Boone, William; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2017-09-01

    A number of studies on single instructional quality features have been reported for mathematics and science instruction. For summarizing single instructional quality features, researchers have created a model of three basic dimensions (classroom management, supportive climate, and cognitive activation) of instructional quality mainly through observing mathematics instruction. Considering this model as valid for all subjects and as usable for describing instruction, we used it in this study which aimed to analyze characteristics of instructional quality in biology lessons of high-achieving and low-achieving classes, independently of content. Therefore, we used the data of three different previous video studies of biology instruction conducted in Germany. From each video study, we selected three high-achieving and three low-achieving classes (N = 18 teachers; 35 videos) for our multiple-case study, in which conspicuous characteristics of instructional quality features were qualitatively identified and qualitatively analyzed. The amount of these characteristics was counted in a quantitative way in all the videos. The characteristics we found could be categorized using the model of three basic dimensions of instructional quality despite some subject-specific differences for biology instruction. Our results revealed that many more characteristics were observable in high-achieving classes than in low-achieving classes. Thus, we believe that this model could be used to describe biology instruction independently of the content. We also make the claims about the qualities for biology instruction—working with concentration in a content-structured environment, getting challenged in higher order thinking, and getting praised for performance—that could have positive influence on students' achievement.

  3. Are animacy effects in episodic memory independent of encoding instructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelin, Margaux; Bugaiska, Aurélia; Méot, Alain; Bonin, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The adaptive view of human memory [Nairne, J. S. 2010. Adaptive memory: Evolutionary constraints on remembering. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 53 pp. 1-32). Burlington: Academic Press; Nairne, J. S., & Pandeirada, J. N. S. 2010a. Adaptive memory: Ancestral priorities and the mnemonic value of survival processing. Cognitive Psychology, 61, 1-22, 2010b; Memory functions. In The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral science, (Vol 3, 4th ed. pp. 977-979). Hokoben, NJ: John Wiley & Sons] assumes that animates (e.g., baby, rabbit presented as words or pictures) are better remembered than inanimates (e.g., bottle, mountain) because animates are more important for fitness than inanimates. In four studies, we investigated whether the animacy effect in episodic memory (i.e., the better remembering of animates over inanimates) is independent of encoding instructions. Using both a factorial (Studies 1 and 3) and a multiple regression approach (Study 2), three studies tested whether certain contexts drive people to attend to inanimate more than to animate things (or the reverse), and therefore lead to differential animacy effects. The findings showed that animacy effects on recall performance were observed in the grassland-survival scenario used by Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007. Adaptive memory: Survival processing enhances retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 33, 263-273) (Studies 1-3), when words were rated for their pleasantness (Study 2), and in explicit learning (Study 3). In the non-survival scenario of moving to a foreign land (Studies 1-2), animacy effects on recall rates were not reliable in Study 1, but were significant in Study 2, whereas these effects were reliable in the non-survival scenario of planning a trip as a tour guide (Study 3). A final (control) study (Study 4) was conducted to test specifically whether animacy effects are related to the more organised

  4. International Instructional Systems: Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…

  5. The Effects of Textisms on Learning, Study Time, and Instructional Perceptions in an Online Artificial Intelligence Instructional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Robert; Bryant, Nathan L.; Dodson, Phillip T.; Entwistle, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of textisms (i.e., abbreviated spellings, acronyms, and other shorthand notations) on learning, study time, and instructional perceptions in an online artificial intelligence instructional module. The independent variable in this investigation was experimental condition. For the control…

  6. Independent Interactive Inquiry-Based Learning Modules Using Audio-Visual Instruction In Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Scott N.; Green, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Simulations can make complex ideas easier for students to visualize and understand. It has been shown that guidance in the use of these simulations enhances students’ learning. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of the Independent Interactive Inquiry-based (I3) Learning Modules, which use existing open-source Java applets, combined with audio-visual instruction. Students are guided to discover and visualize important concepts in post-calculus and algebra-based courses in p...

  7. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): FMEA/CIL instructions and ground rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traves, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    The McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company was selected to conduct an independent assessment of the Orbiter Failure Mode and Effects Analysis/Critical Items List (FMEA/CIL). Part of this effort involved an examination of the FMEA/CIL preparation instructions and ground rules. Assessment objectives were to identify omissions and ambiguities in the ground rules that may impede the identification of shuttle orbiter safety and mission critical items, and to ensure that ground rules allow these items to receive proper management visibility for risk assessment. Assessment objectives were followed during the performance of the assessment without being influenced by external considerations such as effects on budget, schedule, and documentation growth. Assessment personnel were employed who had a strong reliability background but no previous space shuttle FMEA/CIL experience to ensure an independent assessment would be achieved. The following observations were made: (1) not all essential items are in the CIL for management visibility; (2) ground rules omit FMEA/CIL coverage of items that perform critical functions; (3) essential items excluded from the CIL do not receive design justification; and (4) FMEAs/CILs are not updated in a timely manner. In addition to the above issues, a number of other issues were identified that correct FMEA/CIL preparation instruction omissions and clarify ambiguities. The assessment was successful in that many of the issues have significant safety implications.

  8. Independent Study Project, Topic: Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notre Dame High School, Easton, PA.

    Using this guide and the four popular books noted in it, a student, working independently, will learn about some of the classical ideas and problems of topology: the Meobius strip and Klein bottle, the four color problem, genus of a surface, networks, Euler's formula, and the Jordan Curve Theorem. The unit culminates in a project of the students'…

  9. The effects of field dependent/independent style awareness on learning strategies and outcomes in an instructional hypermedia module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyle, Clifford Omodele

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-dependent/independent style awareness affects learning outcomes and learning strategies used in a hypermedia instructional module. Field-dependent/independent style was measured using the Global Embedded Figures Test. Style awareness meant that students were provided with information and explanations about their individual cognitive styles and the learning strategies that accommodate those styles. The study entailed examining students' achievement in a multiple-choice test and performance in a design task, and also their navigation patterns as they studied a science-oriented Webquest. The sample consisted of 149 eighth-grade students in 10 sections of a science class taught by two teachers in a public middle school. A two-group posttest-only design on one factor (style awareness) was used. Sixty-eight students in five sections of the class were assigned to the treatment group (field dependent/independent style awareness) while the other 81 students in five sections were assigned to the control group (no field dependent/independent style awareness). The study took place over a period of 6 days. On the first day, students in the treatment group were first tested and debriefed on their individual styles. Next, all students in both the treatment and control groups studied the hypermedia instructional module (Webquest) over a period of two days. On the fourth and fifth days students worked on the performance tasks, and on the sixth day students took the multiple-choice test and students in the control group were tested and debriefed on their individual styles. The findings indicate that style awareness significantly influenced the learning strategies of field-dependent students as they studied and carried out learning tasks in the Webquest. Field-dependent students with style awareness used hypertext links and navigated the menu sequentially a greater number of times than their counterparts with no style awareness

  10. No Certification, No Training...No Problem: The Influence of Formative Beliefs and Learning Experiences in the Instructional Practice of New Independent School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derick Graham

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to answer the question: "To what extent do prior beliefs about and experiences of teaching and learning influence the instructional practices of new independent school teachers," who are generally not required to have any formal pedagogical training or hold teacher certification prior to beginning full-time employment.…

  11. Instructed Pragmatics at a Glance: Where Instructional Studies Were, Are, and Should Be Going

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings together the research and developments of instructed pragmatics over the past three decades by reporting the synthesis findings of instructional intervention studies in interlanguage pragmatics. Two questions have guided this investigation: (1) is instruction effective in learning pragmatics?; and (2) what methods are most…

  12. Hypothetical learning trajectory design on the history of Indonesian independence struggle in Mathematics logic instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra Nurjanah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at developing learning resources for mathematics logic using the hypothetical learning trajectory designed through reflection on the history of Indonesian independence struggle. The study was carried out at the Department of Mathematics Education of the Faculty of Teacher Training and Educational Sciences Nusantara Islamic University (Uninus. The study used design research consisted of three stages: preparing the experiments, design the experiments, and retrospective analysis. Preparing the experiments stage has been completed and design the experiments stage is currently under preparation. The main activities accomplished in preparing the experiments stage consisted of: studies of Indonesian independence struggle, curriculum analysis, literature review, and early prototype design. Design the experiments phase has enabled the development of the research instruments. The learning trajectory which has been designed in the first stage involved: reflections on the history of Indonesian independence struggle; implication and bi-implication; implication, bi-implication and their truth in the context of the history of the Indonesian independence struggle; and implication, bi-implication and their truth in the context of mathematics. Based on the results of discussions with colleagues, the students’ ability in mathematical thinking can be developed by using the history of Indonesian independence struggle as the context of learning in a mathematics logics course.

  13. The impact of inquiry-based instructional professional development upon instructional practice: An action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Frances A.

    This mixed method case study employs action research, conducted over a three month period with 11 elementary math and science practitioners. Inquiry as an instructional practice is a vital component of math and science instruction and STEM teaching. Teachers examined their beliefs and teaching practices with regard to those instructional factors that influence inquiry instruction. Video-taped lessons were compared to a rubric and pre and post questionnaires along with two interviews which informed the study. The results showed that while most beliefs were maintained, teachers implemented inquiry at a more advanced level after examining their teaching and reflecting on ways to increase inquiry practices. Because instructional practices provide only one component of inquiry-based instruction, other components need to be examined in a future study.

  14. Across the Desk: Teaching Through Independent Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamdin, Lois; Worby, Diana

    1976-01-01

    Independent study is addressed as a creative and alternative mode of learning. Its unique advantages and strengths are examined along with its planning and structure, the student/instructor interaction, the use of learning resources, examples of disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches, the products of such study, and methods of evaluation.…

  15. Effect of pre-entry instruction as an additional part of radiation training beginner's course on reduction of radioactive contamination in two independent unsealed radioisotope facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki; Kaneko, Mamoru; Okumura, Yutaka; Shimasaki, Tatsuya; Kojima, Akihiro; Shiraishi, Yoshioki; Horiuchi, Seikoh

    2005-01-01

    The education for radiation workers is essential for the safety of radiation facility that stands on radiation protection practice by each worker. Japanese laws concerning radiation safety requires each radiation worker attending the 6 hours beginner's training course before entering the control area. However, in unsealed radioisotope facilities, radioactive contaminations in the control area may still take place because practical procedures for radiation safety vary depending on the type of experiments and the characteristics of radioisotopes. Therefore, an additional and practical training for each radiation worker is needed. In an attempt to give the workers an additional training of this kind, the pre-entry instruction was performed independently in Center for Frontier Life Sciences, Nagasaki University and in Institute of Resource Development and Analysis Kumamoto University. In this study, the efficacy of the instruction in each facility was assessed quantitatively on the basis of the incidence of contamination in the control area. The instruction covered laboratory rules, radioisotope ordering information, description of sign-up sheets, radioactive waste management, use of survey meters, and lab tour with an appropriate modification to meet with a specificity of each experiment. The instruction was given to beginners and to refreshers who have not handled radioisotopes for a long period, in a face-to-face manner for 1 hour before they start working radioisotopes. To examine the education effect on the reduction of contamination in a typical and frequently used laboratory, the contamination in molecular biology room of Nagasaki University was surveyed directly by a GM survey meter on a daily basis. In Kumamoto University, contamination on the surface of the entire floor in the control area was surveyed monthly by the smear method to know the education effect on general reduction of contamination. The results revealed that the number of contamination decreased

  16. Learning How the Electron Transport Chain Works: Independent and Interactive Effects of Instructional Strategies and Learners' Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Arrastia-Lloyd, Meagan C.; Nelson, David W.; Liang, Xinya; Farrell, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop an expert-like mental model of complex systems, causal reasoning is essential. This study examines the differences between forward and backward instructional strategies in terms of efficiency, students' learning and progression of their mental models of the electronic transport chain in an undergraduate metabolism course…

  17. Experience with an Independent Study Program in Pathophysiology for Doctor of Pharmacy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Milap C.

    1986-01-01

    A pharmacy doctoral program's independent-study component in pathophysiology, supported by computer-assisted instruction and self-evaluation, has the advantages of self-pacing, reduced faculty time commitment, and increased ability to work effectively with physicians. Disadvantages include student feeling of isolation, imbalanced content, and…

  18. Successful AP Music Theory Instruction: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan O.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine the instructional approach of a highly successful Advanced Placement Music Theory teacher. I visited the participant's class twice a week for 14 weeks, taking field notes, conducting interviews, and collecting instructional artifacts. Analysis of qualitative data revealed three main themes: classroom…

  19. Critical Thinking and Online Supplemental Instruction: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Holmes, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of research is available regarding supplemental instruction; however, a dearth exists regarding online supplemental instruction and critical thinking. This case study explored what was assumed to be known of critical thinking and investigated the extent to which critical thought was promoted within a university's online supplemental…

  20. College Online Developmental Reading Instruction: Creating a Path to Independent and Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. Janet

    2010-01-01

    Online courses require students to be independent readers and efficient learners. College students who need developmental reading lack these qualities; consequently, faculty do not generally view developmental reading courses as appropriate for an online format. However, an effectively designed online course based on best practices can engage less…

  1. Learning how the electron transport chain works: independent and interactive effects of instructional strategies and learners' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Arrastia-Lloyd, Meagan C; Nelson, David W; Liang, Xinya; Farrell, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop an expert-like mental model of complex systems, causal reasoning is essential. This study examines the differences between forward and backward instructional strategies' in terms of efficiency, students' learning and progression of their mental models of the electronic transport chain in an undergraduate metabolism course (n = 151). Additionally, the participants' cognitive flexibility, prior knowledge, and mental effort in the learning process are also investigated. The data were analyzed using a series of general linear models to compare the strategies. Although the two strategies did not differ significantly in terms of mental model progression and learning outcomes, both groups' mental models progressed significantly. Mental effort and prior knowledge were identified as significant predictors of mental model progression. An interaction between instructional strategy and cognitive flexibility revealed that the backward instruction was more efficient than the conventional (forward) strategy for students with lower cognitive flexibility, whereas the conventional instruction was more efficient for students with higher cognitive flexibility. The results are discussed and suggestions for future research on the possible moderating role of cognitive flexibility in the area of health education are presented.

  2. Study of the 5E Instructional Model to Improve the Instructional Design Process of Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiuhua; Gao, Chong; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 5E instructional model on the teaching processes of novice teachers. First, we conducted a teaching design training project based on the 5E model for 40 novice teachers, and compared pre-texts of the teachers' teaching process from before the training with post-texts obtained immediately following the…

  3. Demonstrating Empathy: A Phenomenological Study of Instructional Designers Making Instructional Strategy Decisions for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Linda S.

    2017-01-01

    Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…

  4. The STEM Lecture Hall: A Study of Effective Instructional Practices for Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Lynn Christine

    First-generation, low-income, underrepresented minority (URM) and female undergraduates are matriculating into science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors at unprecedented levels. However, a disproportionate number of these students end up graduating in non-STEM disciplines. Attrition rates have been observed to spike in conjunction with introductory STEM courses in chemistry, biology, and physics. These "gateway" courses tend to be housed in large, impersonal lecture halls. First-generation and URM students struggle in this environment, possibly because of instructors' reliance on lecture-based content delivery and rote memorization. Recent social psychological studies suggest the problem may be related to cultural mismatch, or misalignment between independent learning norms typical of American universities and interdependent learning expectancies for first-generation and URM students. Value-affirming and utility-value interventions yield impressive academic achievement gains for these students. These findings overlap with a second body of literature on culturally responsive instruction. Active gateway learning practices that emphasize interactive instruction, frequent assessment, and epistemological instruction can be successful because of their propensity to incorporate values affirming and utility-value techniques. The present study observed instruction for gateway STEM courses over a three-year period at the University of California, Irvine (N = 13,856 undergraduates in 168 courses). Exploratory polychoric factor analysis was used to identify latent variables for observational data on gateway STEM instructional practices. Variables were regressed on institutional student data. Practices implemented in large lecture halls fall into three general categories: Faculty-Student Interaction, Epistemological Instruction, and Peer Interaction . The present study found that Faculty-Student Interaction was negatively associated with student outcomes for

  5. A Methodological Study Evaluating a Pretutorial Computer-Compiled Instructional Program in High School Physics Instruction Initiated from Student-Teacher Selected Instructional Objectives. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, B. Charles; Denton, Jon J.

    A study sought to develop and evaluate an instructional model which utilized the computer to produce individually prescribed instructional guides to account for the idiosyncratic variations among students in physics classes at the secondary school level. The students in the treatment groups were oriented toward the practices of selecting…

  6. A narrative study of novice elementary teachers' perceptions of science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Roberta

    It is hoped that, once implemented, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will engage students more deeply in science learning and build science knowledge sequentially beginning in Kindergarten (NRC, 2013). Early instruction is encouraged but must be delivered by qualified elementary teachers who have both the science content knowledge and the necessary instructional skills to teach science effectively to young children (Ejiwale, 2012, Spencer, Vogel, 2009, Walker, 2011). The purpose of this research study is to gain insight into novice elementary teachers' perceptions of science instruction. This research suggests that infusion of constructivist teaching in the elementary classroom is beneficial to the teacher's instruction of science concepts to elementary students. Constructivism is theory that learning is centered on the learner constructing new ideas or concepts built upon their current/past knowledge (Bruner, 1966). Based on this theory, it is recommended that the instructor should try to encourage students to discover principles independently; essentially the instructor presents the problem and lets students go (Good & Brophy, 2004). Discovery learning, hands-on, experimental, collaborative, and project-based learning are all approaches that use constructivist principles. The NGSS are based on constructivist principles. This narrative study provides insight into novice elementary teachers' perceptions of science instruction considered through the lens of Constructivist Theory (Bruner, 1960).

  7. Computer-Assisted Instruction Case Study: The Introductory Marketing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Steven J.; Grimm, Jim L.

    1979-01-01

    Briefly reviews research on the effectiveness of CAI in instruction, and describes a study comparing the performance of students using one program for basic marketing--TRMP (Tutorial Review of Marketing Principles)--with or without a study guide, the study guide alone, and a traditional class. (BBM)

  8. Comparative Study of Learning Using E-Learning and Printed Materials on Independent Learning and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Utami, Niken; Aziz Saefudin, Abdul

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to determine: 1) differences in students taking independent learning by using e-learning and the students who attend the learning by using the print instructional materials ; 2) differences in the creativity of students who follow learning with e-learning and the students who attend the learning by using the print instructional materials ; 3) differences in learning independence and creativity of students attend learning with e-learning and the students who attend lessons using printed teaching materials in the subject of Mathematics Instructional Media Development. This study was a quasi-experimental research design using only posttest control design. The study population was all students who take courses in Learning Mathematics Media Development, Academic Year 2014/2015 100 students and used a random sample (random sampling) is 60 students. To test the hypothesis used multivariate analysis of variance or multivariable analysis of variance (MANOVA) of the track. The results of this study indicate that 1) There is a difference in student learning independence following study using the e-learning and the students who attend lessons using printed teaching materials in the lecture PMPM ( F = 4.177, p = 0.046 0.05) ; No difference learning independence and creativity of students attend learning by using e-learning and the students who attend the learning using printed teaching materials in the lecture PMPM (F = 2.452, p = 0.095 > 0.05). Based on these studies suggested that the learning using e -learning can be used to develop student creativity, while learning to use e -learning and teaching materials can be printed to use to develop students’ independence.

  9. Instruction and Pragmatic Change during Study Abroad Email Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcón-Soler, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with the effect of instruction and study abroad (SA) on pragmatic knowledge. More specifically, the focus is on gains in explicit knowledge of request mitigators, and whether learners draw on this knowledge when they perform email requests. Email requests produced by 60 Spanish students staying abroad (30 treatment/30 control…

  10. Case-Based Instructional Practices: A Multiple-Case Study from Torts, Marketing, and Online Instructional Design Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji yoon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive account on case-based instructional practices. Semester-long participant observation records in torts, marketing, and online instructional design classes, instructor interviews, course syllabi and teaching materials were used to describe the within-class complexity of the practices in terms…

  11. Gender Differences in Instructional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Review of Studies Using the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinger, Philip; Dongyu, Li; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Instructional leadership has assumed steadily increasing importance within the general role set of principals over the past 60 years. One persisting finding within this corpus of studies concerns the consistently higher ratings obtained by female principals on instructional leadership when compared with their male counterparts. This…

  12. Web-Delivered Supplemental Instruction: Dynamic Customizing of Search Algorithms to Enhance Independent Learning for Developmental Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksa, Isak; Goldberg, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Traditional peer-to-peer Supplemental Instruction (SI) was introduced into higher education over a quarter of a century ago and promptly became an integral part of the developmental mathematics curricula in many senior and community colleges. Later, some colleges introduced Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI) and, in recent years,…

  13. OER Use in Intermediate Language Instruction: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study in the experimental use of Open Educational Resources (OERs) in intermediate level language instruction. The resources come from three sources: the instructor, the students, and open content repositories. The objective of this action research project was to provide student-centered learning materials, enhance…

  14. Learning How to Improve Vocabulary Instruction through Teacher Study Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimino, Joseph; Taylor, Mary Jo

    2009-01-01

    Professional development with proven positive effects on vocabulary instruction and student achievement: that's what reading teachers are looking for, and that's what the Teacher Study Group (TSG) model delivers. With the nine complete TSG sessions in this book, K-8 teachers will form dynamic in-school learning groups with their fellow educators…

  15. Location Independent Professional Project: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, J.A.; Long, J.P.; Miller, M.M.

    1999-02-01

    This pilot study project explored the problem of providing access to the nomadic worker who desires to connect a computer through network access points at a number of different locations within the SNL/NM campus as well as outside the campus. The design and prototype development gathered knowledge that may allow a design to be developed that could be extended to a larger number of SNL/NM network drop boxes. The focus was to provide a capability for a worker to access the SNL IRN from a network drop box (e.g. in a conference room) as easily as when accessing the computer network from the office normally used by the worker. Additional study was done on new methods to authenticate the off campus worker, and protect and control access to data.

  16. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  17. Applying Case-Based Method in Designing Self-Directed Online Instruction: A Formative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Heng; Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Arnone, Marilyn P.; Choi, Ikseon

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the case-based method (CBM) instructional-design theory and its application in designing self-directed online instruction. The purpose of this study was to validate and refine the theory for a self-directed online instruction context. Guided by formative research methodology, this study first developed an online tutorial…

  18. Education research: evaluating the use of podcasting for residents during EEG instruction: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalem-Owen, Meriem; Chau, Destiny F; Sardam, Sean C; Fahy, Brenda G

    2011-08-23

    Educational methods for residents are shifting toward greater learner independence aided by technological advances. A Web-based program using a podcast was created for resident EEG instruction, replacing conventional didactics. The EEG curriculum also consisted of EEG interpretations under the tutelage of a neurophysiologist. This pilot study aimed to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of the podcast as a new teaching tool. A podcast for resident EEG instruction was implemented on the Web, replacing the traditional lecture. After Institutional Review Board approval, consent was obtained from the participating residents. Using 25-question evaluation tools, participants were assessed at baseline before any EEG instruction, and reassessed after podcasting and after 10 clinical EEG exposures. Each 25-item evaluation tool contained tracings used for clinical EEG interpretations. Scores after podcast training were also compared to scores after traditional didactic training from a previous study among anesthesiology trainees. Ten anesthesiology residents completed the study. The mean scores with standard deviations are 9.50 ± 2.92 at baseline, 13.40 ± 3.31 (p = 0.034) after the podcast, and 16.20 ± 1.87 (p = 0.019) after interpreting 10 EEGs. No differences were noted between the mean educational tool scores for those who underwent podcasting training compared to those who had undergone traditional didactic training. In this pilot study, podcast training was as effective as the prior conventional lecture in meeting the curricular goals of increasing EEG knowledge after 10 EEG interpretations as measured by assessment tools.

  19. The efficacy of preopoerative instruction in reducing anxiety following gyneoncological surgery: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gungor Tayfun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is a quasi-experimental case control research focusing on the impact of systematic preoperative instruction on the level of postoperative anxiety in gyneoncologic patients. The population studied consists of the gyneoncologic surgery patients admitted to the Gynecologic Oncology Service at Zekai Tahir Burak Gynecology Training and Research Hospital from May to September 2010. Patients and methods Through a random sampling, 60 patients were recruited in each group. The study group was given a systematic preoperative instruction while the control group was given routine nursing care. Patients were interviewed in the postoperative period and anxiety was measured. The data-collecting tool consisted of the Individual Information Form and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The collected data were analyzed by using the SPSS Program to find the frequency, the percentage, the mean and the standard variables, and the hypothesis was tested with Chi-square, variance, and t-independent test. Results It was found that the incidence rates from the post-operative anxiety score of the study group were lower than those of the control group (p Conclusions Results of this study suggest that preoperative instruction programs aiming at informing gyneoncologic surgery patients at the preoperative stage should be organized in hospitals and have an essential role.

  20. Inquiry-Based Instruction in the Social Studies: Successes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' perceptions, understanding, and use of inquiry-based instruction in the social studies, to assess the impact of inquiry-based units on instruction, to detail implementation successes and challenges reported by teachers when implementing inquiry-based instruction, and to provide…

  1. Assessing Library Instruction through Web Usability and Vocabulary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Remi

    2008-01-01

    Can we use the methods of Web usability testing to learn about library instruction? This article is among the first in the field trying to establish a link between usability and instruction. The author discusses useful insights that Web usability can bring to our pedagogy as well as to the efficiency of library instruction. The result of a Web…

  2. Integrating Direct and Inquiry-Based Instruction in the Teaching of Critical Thinking: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kelly Y. L.; Ho, Irene T.; Hau, Kit-Tai; Lai, Eva C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is a unifying goal of modern education. While past research has mostly examined the efficacy of a single instructional approach to teaching critical thinking, recent literature has begun discussing mixed teaching approaches. The present study examines three modes of instruction, featuring the direct instruction approach and the…

  3. Data Collection Management. A Supporting Report of the Instructional Dimensions Study, 1976-1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Morris

    This report is one of 8 volumes which describe the findings and procedures of the Instructional Dimensions Study, an in-depth assessment of the relationships between selected instructional constructs and students' achievement. These constructs include individualization, opportunity to learn, motivational factors, instructional events, and teacher…

  4. A Methodological Study of a Computer-Managed Instructional Program in High School Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Jon James

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an instructional model which utilized the computer to produce individually prescribed instructional guides in physics at the secondary school level. The sample consisted of three classes. Of these, two were randomly selected to serve as the treatment groups, e.g., individualized instruction and…

  5. Evaluating the Use of Instructional Coaching as a Tool to Improve Teacher Instructional Strategies at a Title 1 Middle School: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmond, Karen W.

    2017-01-01

    This action research study focused on the use of an instructional coaching model to support teachers in the use of Marzano's nine research-based instructional strategies at a low performing Title 1 middle school. The intervention was carried out over five and a half -month period and was aimed at improving teachers' classroom instruction. The…

  6. Independent Senior Women Who Travel Internationally: A Collective Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Nine independent women over age 55 who traveled internationally were investigated through a qualitative case study. The purpose of the study was to explore the women's attitudes, actions, and motivations during and after their international travel experiences. The adult, aging, experiential, and transformational theories of researchers such as…

  7. Independent Study Workbooks for Proofs in Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Lara; Brown, Gavin; Dunning, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale research project based on workbooks designed to support independent study of proofs in a first course on abstract algebra. We discuss the lecturers' aims in designing the workbooks, and set these against a background of research on students' learning of group theory and on epistemological beliefs and study habits…

  8. Counterbalancing clinical supervision and independent practice: case studies in learning thoracic epidural catheter insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T

    2010-12-01

    Thoracic epidural catheter placement is an example of a demanding and high-risk clinical skill that junior anaesthetists need to learn by experience and under the supervision of consultants. This learning is known to present challenges that require further study. Ten consultant and 10 trainee anaesthetists in a teaching hospital were interviewed about teaching and learning this skill in the operating theatre, and a phenomenological analysis of their experience was performed. Trainee participation was limited by time pressure, lack of familiarity with consultants, and consultants' own need for clinical experience. There was a particular tension between safe and effective consultant practice and permitting trainees' independence. Three distinct stages of participation and assistance were identified from reports of ideal practice: early (part-task or basic procedure, consultant always present giving instruction and feedback), middle (independent practice with straightforward cases without further instruction), and late (skill extension and transfer). Learning assistance provided by consultants varied, but it was often not matched to the trainees' stages of learning. Negotiation of participation and assistance was recognized as being useful, but it did not happen routinely. There are many obstacles to trainees' participation in thoracic epidural catheter insertion, and learning assistance is not matched to need. A more explicit understanding of stages of learning is required to benefit the learning of this and other advanced clinical skills.

  9. A phenomenological study on the impacts of embedding disciplinary literacy during science instruction on elementary teachers' metacognition of instructional techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kelley

    The educational community has been increasing its focus on literacy for several years. The modern definition of literacy requires students to be an informed and integrated thinker, synthesizing new information beyond the mere ability to read and write (Guzzetti & Bang, 2011). This qualitative phenomenological study focused on how teachers of science view literacy and how that view changes when they implement the concept of disciplinary literacy into science instruction. This phenomenological study examined how teachers became more metacognitive of their instructional methods after implementation of the Question-Answer Relationship strategy (QAR) and direct vocabulary instruction into their science instruction. Teachers utilized schema theory and social cognitive theory to integrate the two strategies into their science lessons throughout the study. This phenomenological study collected data during a six-week implementation period through interviews, observations, teacher journals and collection of artifacts from 12 teachers who taught students in grades one through five and three literacy specialists in a rural central Maine school. These data sources were analyzed using Moustakas' (1994) seven steps to discover themes that were identified from the data. Findings from this study, as viewed through the pragmatic lens, suggested that teachers benefit from systematic reflection of their teaching to develop literacy rich content area lessons that address all of the students' learning needs.

  10. Independent sector treatment centres: the first independent evaluation, a Scottish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Allyson M; Kirkwood, Graham

    2009-07-01

    The pound5 billion English Independent Sector Treatment Centre (ISTC) programme remains unevaluated because of a lack of published contract data and poor quality data returns. Scotland has a three-year pilot ISTC, the Scottish Regional Treatment Centre (SRTC), the contract for which is now in the public domain. This study aims to conduct an independent evaluation of the performance of the SRTC during the first year of operation. A retrospective analysis of the SRTC comparing activity as reported by hospital episode statistics returned to ISD Scotland with: volume and cost data in the SRTC contract; a 10-month audit carried out by management consultants Price Waterhouse Coopers (PWC); and an internal NHS Tayside performance report. All day-case and inpatient activity at the SRTC from 1 December 2006 to 31 January 2008. Activity and cost. The annual contract was based on patient referrals to the SRTC and not actual treatments. The contract was awarded on the basis of 2624 referrals a year, total value of pound5,667,464. According to ISD data, the SRTC performed 831 procedures (32% of annual contract) in the first 13 months worth pound1,035,603 (18%). PWC's figures report 2200 referrals (84%) to the SRTC at a cost of 2,642,000 (47%) in the first 10 months. Basing the SRTC contract on payments for referrals rather than actual treatment represents a major departure from normal standards of reporting and commissioning and may have resulted in over-payment for referrals for patients who did not receive treatment of up to pound3 million in the first 10 months. The PWC report falls well below the standards one would expect of an independent evaluation and we were unable to validate PWC's analysis and the claim of value for money. If wave-one ISTCs in England perform similarly to the SRTC then as much as pound927 million may have been paid for patients who did not receive treatment. We recommend a moratorium on all ISTC contracts until the contracts have been published and

  11. A National Study Assessing the Teaching and Learning of Introductory Astronomy; Part I: The Effect of Interactive Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, E. E.; Rudolph, A. L.; Brissenden, G.; Schlingman, W. M.

    2011-09-01

    We present the results of a national study on the teaching and learning of astronomy taught in general education, non-science major, introductory astronomy courses (Astro 101). Nearly 4000 students enrolled in 69 sections of Astro 101 taught at 31 institutions completed (pre- and post- instruction) the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI) from Fall 2006 to Fall 2007. The classes varied in size from very small (N 4-year colleges and universities. To study how the instruction in different classrooms affected student learning, we developed and administered an Interactivity Assessment Instrument (IAI). This short survey, completed by instructors, allowed us to estimate the fraction of classroom time spent on learner- centered, active-engagement instruction such as Peer Instruction and collaborative tutorials. Pre-instruction LSCI scores were clustered around ˜25% (24 ± 2%), independent of class size and institution type; however, the gains measured varied from about (-)0.07-0.50. The distribution of gain scores indicates that differences were due to instruction in the classroom, not the type of class or institution. Interactivity Assessment Scores (IAS's) ranged from 0%-50%, showing that our IAI was able to distinguish between classes with higher and lower levels of interactivity. A comparison of class-averaged gain score to IAS showed that higher interactivity classes (IAS > 25%) were the only instructional environments capable of reaching the highest gains ( > 0.30). However, the range of gains seen for both groups of classes was quite wide, suggesting that the use of interactive learning strategies is not sufficient by itself to achieve high student gain.

  12. Exploratory Study of Children's Task Groups: Instructional Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyton, Joann; Dodson, Nancy L.

    Despite the increasing popularity of cooperative learning techniques in elementary instruction, many educators believe that children do not possess effective group interaction skills and advocate that children be taught the group communication skills necessary for group interaction as a separate instructional component. Unfortunately,…

  13. Multimedia Instruction & Language Learning Attitudes: A Study with University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Izquierdo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of two types of Multimedia Instruction (MI and learners’ second language (L2 proficiency on language learning attitudes. During four weeks, university learners of French received MI on the distinctive use of the perfective and the imperfective past in one of the four following conditions: learners with low L2 proficiency level exposed to MI with (n=17 or without language awareness tasks (n=17, and learners with intermediate L2 proficiency level exposed to MI with (n=14 or without language awareness tasks (n=28. Before and after the experiment, participants completed the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB. Non-parametric analyses revealed a positive enhancement of classroom-related attitudes only among intermediate learners exposed to MI without Language Awareness Tasks. Nevertheless, the results showed similar as well as stable attitudes towards language learning in all the experimental conditions.

  14. Chronic disease and independence in old age: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Pauline J.

    2006-01-01

    This report uses case study methodology to examine the issue of long-term care of the elderly in the United Kingdom, including where that care should take place. The report will examine the difficulties inherent in maintaining independent living for the elderly (in particular the danger and cost of falls). The case study presented is that of an elderly female patient who had suffered from chronic rheumatoid arthritis for over 10 years. She was admitted to hospital several times from December 2003 to January 2004. The discussion of her case is set in the context of the sociology of ageing; long-term care of the elderly and the UK National Service Frameworks, of which standard six relates to falls in the elderly. The report will also consider the problems in deciding whether it is necessary to terminate independent living for an individual

  15. Training Problems of Religious Studies in Independent Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Erpay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Kazakhstan training questions about religious studies still didn't receive enough attention since after statehood formation and before independence the Kazakhs endured a set of various historical events. Some of these events negatively affected people's consciousness. Seventy years of atheistic education changed people’s spiritual and cultural basis, as a result religious concepts partially lost the importance. After independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan started raise questions about teaching religious studies. However, heterogeneity in religious beliefs of the population to some extent negatively influences training in religious studies. Therefore study of the reasons for emergence of this problem turned into an actual problem. Within this article the genesis analysis of modern training problems in religious studies was carried out and ways of their decision were considered. Currently some religious studies teaching centers and preparation of the corresponding experts are formed. However, despite of the training standards are identical for all centers, ways of their implementation differ from each other. The reason for that – features of the outlook created under the influence of historical factors. These features cause necessity of teaching religious studies in high school. In article the questions on this problem was considered and necessary answers were given. The main method used in research work is the c omparative historical method. In summary it is necessary to specify that authors within article do the full analysis of questions of teaching of the subject "Religious studies" and offer solutions of these questions.

  16. A Study of Differentiated Instruction Based on the SIOP Model in Georgia Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Sherry Marie

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study investigated the teachers' concerns of the sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP) model (Echevarria, Short and Vogt, 2008) as a means to differentiate instruction for LEP students in public school classrooms. This study took place in one central Georgia school district with a sample of 16 teachers who…

  17. Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Case Study of Two Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Hussein, Farhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship in achievement gap between English language learners (ELLs) utilizing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in the classroom, and ELLs relying solely on traditional classroom instruction. The study findings showed that students using CAI to supplement traditional lectures performed better…

  18. Interpretation of drug label instructions: A study among four immigrants groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ellen S.; Blom, Lyda; Winters, Nina A.; Van Hulten, Rolf P.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Poor understanding of medical instructions or misinterpretations can be a cause for not using medication as prescribed. Previous studies reported misunderstanding of instructions and warnings on drug labels by up to 50 % of the adult population. Objective: The aim of this study was to

  19. Model-independent study of light cone current commutators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, S.R.; Dicus, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    An attempt is made to extract information on the nature of light cone current commutators (L. C. C.) in a model independent manner. Using simple assumptions on the validity of the DGS representation for the structure functions of deep inelastic scattering and using the Bjorken--Johnston--Low theorem it is shown that in principle the L. C. C. may be constructed knowing the experimental electron--proton scattering data. On the other hand the scaling behavior of the structure functions is utilized to study the consistency of a vanishing value for various L. C. C. under mild assumptions on the behavior of the DGS spectral moments. (U.S.)

  20. Ex-post evaluation. Research independency of the basic science study of JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Shoji

    2010-06-01

    A research independency was defined here as the continuity and the development of a corresponding research field with an evolution of history. The authors took three fields as research parameters for the ex-post evaluation. They were all belonged to the basic science field studied in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The first parameter was actinides, which was situated in the center of research networking from the viewpoint of socio-economy. The second parameter was positron, which was situated in the periphery of research networking and the third one was neutron, which had competition with other research organizations in Japan. The three were supported and promoted financially by the JAERI. The target year was covered from 1978 to 2002, a 25-years. INIS (International Nuclear Information Systems) operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was used as the tool for the present bibliometric study. It was revealed that important factors that led the sustainable success of the research independency were the constant efforts to accomplish their mission, the education of their successors to instructing the explicit and tacit research findings and the construction of intellectual networking with learned circles and industries, those were in good collaboration with JAERI. These were quantitatively clarified. Conversely, main factors that impeded the development of the research independency were discontinuance of research caused by a retirement, a change of post or that of occupation, and an unexpected accident (death) of the core researchers. Among three parameters, the authors confirmed that there occurred the time-dependent stage of germination, development and declination of the research independency attributing to the interaction between the succession factors and impeded factors. For this kind of ex-post evaluation, the support of field research laboratory was inevitable. (author)

  1. Operationalising elaboration theory for simulation instruction design: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Ng, Gary; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating the Delphi process within the simplifying conditions method (SCM) described in elaboration theory (ET) to identify conditions impacting the complexity of procedural skills for novice learners. We generated an initial list of conditions impacting the complexity of lumbar puncture (LP) from key informant interviews (n = 5) and a literature review. Eighteen clinician-educators from six different medical specialties were subsequently recruited as expert panellists. Over three Delphi rounds, these panellists rated: (i) their agreement with the inclusion of the simple version of the conditions in a representative ('epitome') training scenario, and (ii) how much the inverse (complex) version increases LP complexity for a novice. Cronbach's α-values were used to assess inter-rater agreement. All panellists completed Rounds 1 and 2 of the survey and 17 completed Round 3. In Round 1, Cronbach's α-values were 0.89 and 0.94 for conditions that simplify and increase LP complexity, respectively; both values increased to 0.98 in Rounds 2 and 3. With the exception of 'high CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) pressure', panellists agreed with the inclusion of all conditions in the simplest (epitome) training scenario. Panellists rated patient movement, spinal anatomy, patient cooperativeness, body habitus, and the presence or absence of an experienced assistant as having the greatest impact on the complexity of LP. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using expert consensus to establish conditions impacting the complexity of procedural skills, and the benefits of incorporating the Delphi method into the SCM. These data can be used to develop and sequence simulation scenarios in a progressively challenging manner. If the theorised learning gains associated with ET are realised, the methods described in this study may be applied to the design of simulation training for other procedural and non-procedural skills

  2. The control of independent students’ work effectiveness during pathophysiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Melnikova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The course of Pathophysiology study includes both auditoria hours (lectures and practical classes and independent work of students. The latter makes up 38% of total hours given for Pathophysiology study. Independent work of students includes the following items: preparation for practical classes, writing reviews on different topics, preparation for current and final computer testing, study of the topics which are not discussed during lectures and practical classes. In order to assimilate the course of Pathophysiology completely students should effectively use their hours given for independent work. Unfortunately, the level of students’ independent individual work is low; it includes only learning of single facts, that is not enough for higher medical education. THE AIM OF STUDY: To propose the method of control of the effectiveness of students’ independent work. The most important part of student’s individual work is preparation for study in auditoria, because it determines the qualitative level of study during practical classes. The student should enter the class not only with the knowledge of basic sciences (Anatomy, Histology, Biochemistry, Normal Physiology etc. but also with the understanding of key items of the topic of the practical class. The problem consists in the following: the teacher can’t check the level of basic knowledge in each student – there is not enough time during practical class for this procedure. In order to increase the effectiveness of individual students’ work a special workbook for the practical classes was developed at the Pathophysiology department. While preparing for practical classes students write down basic items of the topic, refresh some questions from Normal Physiology, Biochemistry and other subjects. In the beginning of the practical class the teacher controls the level of student’s preparation to the topic by checking the fulfillment of tasks in the workbook. It takes a little time, but it

  3. The Use of Theatrical Skits in Instructional Television Lectures: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, F. R.; And Others

    This study describes the development of an innovative instructional technique, peculiar to television, that presents information in a dramatic form through televised skits. Primary concerns of the project were the measurement of student attitudes toward receiving instructional television material in skit form, the measurement of the amount of…

  4. Towards an Understanding of Instructional Design Heuristics: An Exploratory Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cindy S.; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that experienced instructional designers often use heuristics and adapted models when engaged in the instructional design problem-solving process. This study used the Delphi technique to identify a core set of heuristics designers reported as being important to the success of the design process. The overarching purpose of the…

  5. Upper Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Spelling Instruction: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of research has been conducted regarding spelling instruction at the early childhood and lower elementary levels, but not at the upper elementary level. This qualitative study explored the perceptions and experiences of upper elementary teachers to gain a better understanding of how they instruct spelling and their related…

  6. A Design Study of a Multimedia Instructional Grammar Program with Embedded Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Natalya A.; Thompson, Ann D.; Phye, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    This is a design study meant to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating three rather different theoretical perspectives for future efforts in multimedia instructional design. A multimedia instructional grammar program contextualized within the teaching of English as a Second Language (ESL) was developed and evaluated. The program design was…

  7. Effects of Writing Instruction on Kindergarten Students' Writing Achievement: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cindy D'On

    2015-01-01

    This full-year experimental study examined how methods of writing instruction contribute to kindergarten students' acquisition of foundational and compositional early writing skills. Multiple regression with cluster analysis was used to compare 3 writing instructional groups: an interactive writing group, a writing workshop group, and a…

  8. Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction: An Efficacy Study in Grades 3-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbers, Kimberly; Dostal, Hannah; Graham, Steve; Branum-Martin, Lee; Kilpatrick, Jennifer; Saulsburry, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted to examine the impact of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction on 3rd-5th grade deaf and hard of hearing students' writing and written language compared to a business-as-usual condition (treatment group N = 41, comparison group N = 22). A total of 18 hours of instruction was provided for each of two…

  9. Comparative studies of atomic independent-particle potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, J.D.; Ganas, P.S.; Green, A.E.S.

    1979-01-01

    A number of atomic properties are compared in various independent-particle models for atoms. The models studied are the Hartree-Fock method, a variationally optimized potential model, a parametrized analytic form of the same model, parametrized analytic models constructed to fit atomic energy levels, the so-called Hartree-Fock-Slater model, and the Xα model. The physical properties compared are single-particle energy levels, total energies, and dipole polarizabilities. The extent to which the virial theorem is satisfied in the different models is also considered. The atoms Be, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe and ions O v and Al iv hav been compared. The results show that the experimental properties can be well represented by several of the independent-particle models. Since it has been shown that the optimized potential models yield wavefunctions that are almost the same as Hartree-Fock wavefunctions, they provide a natural solution to the problem of extending the Hartree-Fock method to excited states

  10. Teaching Literacy: Methods for Studying and Improving Library Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meggan Houlihan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The aim of this paper is to evaluate teaching effectiveness in one-shotinformation literacy (IL instruction sessions. The authors used multiple methods,including plus/delta forms, peer evaluations, and instructor feedback surveys, in aneffort to improve student learning, individual teaching skill, and the overall IL programat the American University in Cairo.Methods – Researchers implemented three main evaluation tools to gather data in thisstudy. Librarians collected both quantitative and qualitative data using studentplus/delta surveys, peer evaluation, and faculty feedback in order to draw overallconclusions about the effectiveness of one-shot IL sessions. By designing a multi-methodstudy, and gathering information from students, faculty, and instruction librarians,results represented the perspectives of multiple stakeholders. Results – The data collected using the three evaluation tools provided insight into the needs and perspectives of three stakeholder groups. Individual instructors benefit from the opportunity to improve teaching through informed reflection, and are eager for feedback. Faculty members want their students to have more hands-on experience, but are pleased overall with instruction. Students need less lecturing and more authentic learning opportunities to engage with new knowledge.Conclusion – Including evaluation techniques in overall information literacy assessment plans is valuable, as instruction librarians gain opportunities for self-reflection and improvement, and administrators gather information about teaching skill levels. The authors gathered useful data that informed administrative decision making related to the IL program at the American University in Cairo. The findings discussed in this paper, both practical and theoretical, can help other college and university librarians think critically about their own IL programs, and influence how library instruction sessions might be evaluated and

  11. Independent regulatory authorities - a comparative study of European energy regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander Johansen, K.; Holm Pedersen, L.; Moll Soerensen, E.

    2004-04-01

    Independent regulatory authorities are widely recommended as part of the institutional design of liberalised energy markets - not least by the European Commission. This report describes and compares the regulatory authorities for energy in the EU. Arguments for regulatory independence are presented and discussed, and an index is developed to measure the degree of conformance to theories of regulatory independence. It is established that the main pattern of variation is that countries, which formerly had strong state-owned companies, have chosen to create regulatory authorities at state level with many institutional safeguards for independence. (au)

  12. Effect of frying instructions for food handlers on acrylamide concentration in French fries: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Luning, P A; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the effect of frying instructions on food handlers' control decisions in restaurants and to investigate the impact of control decisions on the variation and concentration of acrylamide in French fries. The concentrations of acrylamide and reducing sugars were analyzed, the frying temperature and time were measured, and thawing practices were observed. The results obtained before and after instructions were provided to the food handlers were compared for restaurants as a group and for each restaurant. Frying instructions supported food handlers' decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175°C; all handlers started frying at the correct temperature. However, the effect of the instructions on the food handlers' decisions for frying time differed; most handlers increased the frying time beyond 240 s to achieve crispier French fries with a final color dictated by their preference. Providing instructions did not result in a significant difference in the mean concentration of acrylamide in French fries for the restaurants as a group. However, data analyzed for each restaurant revealed that when food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower (169 μg/kg) than that before instructions were provided (1,517 μg/kg). When food handlers did not complying with the frying instructions, mean acrylamide concentrations were even higher than those before instructions were provided. Two different strategies were developed to overcome the noncompliant behavior of food handlers: establishing requirements for the features of commercial fryers and strict monitoring of compliance with instructions.

  13. The Impact of Collegial Instruction on Peers’ Pedagogical Knowledge (PK: An EFL Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Latif

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Shared responsibilities such as mentoring, instruction, learner monitoring and classroom management enable the peers to observe, review, reflect on and learn from the overall practical professional expertise of one another through collegial instruction experience. The present exploratory case study has The present exploratory case study has attempted to study collegial teaching as an innovative instruction model (as an alternative to solo-based instruction models in a General Business English course in SAPco (An automotive part supplier in Iran. To this end, the researcher has mainly tried to concentrate  on two expert business English teachers' perceptions concerning their experience of collegial teaching for business English courses, observing their reflections before and after the course, to focus on the possible impacts of this type of instruction on their pedagogical knowledge as language teacher. As a result, as it is indicated in overall reflections of the participant colleagues, collegial instruction is believed to lead toward a more efficient transferability and development of teachers' pedagogical knowledge than what can take place as a result of individually run traditional practices. Moreover, this type of instruction can be a rather cost-effective and timesaving alternative to traditional OJT (on the job training courses for teacher development authorities and curriculum developers who are concerned about and willing to promote professional development of their teachers.

  14. Does physics instruction foster university students' cognitive processes?: A descriptive study of teacher activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G. M.; de Jong, Ton

    This study aims at giving a systematic description of the cognitive activities involved in teaching physics. Such a description of instruction in physics requires a basis in two models, that is, the cognitive activities involved in learning physics and the knowledge base that is the foundation of expertise in that subject. These models have been provided by earlier research. The model of instruction distinguishes three main categories of instruction process: presenting new information, integrating (i.e., bringing structure into) new knowledge, and connecting elements of new knowledge to prior knowledge. Each of the main categories has been divided into a number of specific instruction processes. Hereby any limited and specific cognitive teacher activity can be described along the two dimensions of process and type of knowledge. The model was validated by application to lectures and problem-solving classes of first year university courses. These were recorded and analyzed as to instruction process and type of knowledge. Results indicate that teachers are indeed involved in the various types of instruction processes defined. The importance of this study lies in the creation of a terminology that makes it possible to discuss instruction in an explicit and specific way.

  15. High School Students with Learning Disabilities: Mathematics Instruction, Study Skills, and High Stakes Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews characteristics of high school students with learning disabilities and presents instructional modifications and study skills to help them succeed in algebra and geometry courses and on high stakes mathematics assessments.

  16. An approach to participatory instructional design in secondary education: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könings, Karen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Könings, K. D., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). An approach to participatory instructional design in secondary education: an exploratory study. Educational Research, 52(1), 45-59.

  17. A Study of Music Instruction in Preschool Education Training : Part II

    OpenAIRE

    丸山, 京子; Kyoko, Maruyama

    2001-01-01

    Last year, the author and others studied music instruction in preschool education training. In that paper, we learn what was required to become successful preschool teacher and the relationship between kindergarten children and preschool education major students. Based on the results of that study, the author has come to realize the importance of music instruction and music performance in childhood development in the preschool curriculum.

  18. Programmed Instruction in Secondary Education: A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Class Size on Its Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Andrea; Archwamety, Teara; McFarland, Max

    This review used meta-analytic techniques to integrate findings from 30 independent studies that compared programmed instruction to conventional methods of instruction at the secondary level. The meta-analysis demonstrated that programmed instruction resulted in higher achievement when compared to conventional methods of instruction (average…

  19. A Case Study of Tack Tiles[R] Literacy Instruction for a Student with Multiple Disabilities Including Congenital Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…

  20. Principals' Perceptions of Their Instructional Leadership Behaviors in Jewish Day Schools: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Devorah Grosser

    2016-01-01

    This study examined principals' perceptions of their instructional leadership behavior. It incorporates a mixed-methodology and explored principals' perceptions of instructional leadership as defined by Hallinger and Murphy (1985). The perceptions of male and female principals' instructional leadership behaviors were compared. In addition, other…

  1. A study of teacher-researcher collaboration on reading instruction for Chapter one students

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhaes, Maria Cecilia Camargo

    1990-01-01

    This study examines a collaborative endeavor in which a Chapter One teacher and a reseacher worked together to plan, conduct and reflect on a reading instruction designed to promote strategic reading. For eleven weeks, data were collected during conversations and reflective/planning sessions conducted by the teacher and the researcher and during instruction for a group of fourth-and fifth-gratle students. Ethnographic methods such as participant observation, interview...

  2. STUDY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS AND SYNTAX AS AN EFFORT FOR DEVELOPING ‘OIDDE’ INSTRUCTIONAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atok Miftachul Hudha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century requires the availability of human resources with seven skills or competence (Maftuh, 2016, namely: 1 critical thinking and problem solving skills, 2 creative and innovative, 3 behave ethically, 4 flexible and quick to adapt, 5 competence in ICT and literacy, 6 interpersonal and collaborative capabilities, 7 social skills and cross-cultural interaction. One of the competence of human resources of the 21st century are behaving ethically should be established and developed through learning that includes the study of ethics because ethical behavior can not be created and owned as it is by human, but must proceed through solving problem, especially ethical dilemma solving on the ethical problems atau problematics of ethics. The fundamental problem, in order to ethical behavior competence can be achieved through learning, is the right model of learning is not found yet by teachers to implement the learning associated with ethical values as expected in character education (Hudha, et al, 2014a, 2014b, 2014c. Therefore, it needs a decent learning model (valid, practical and effective so that ethics learning, to establish a human resources behave ethically, can be met. Thus, it is necessary to study (to analyze and modificate the steps of learning (syntax existing learning model, in order to obtain the results of the development model of learning syntax. One model of learning that is feasible, practical, and effective question is the learning model on the analysis and modification of syntax model of social learning, syntax learning model systems behavior (Joyce and Weil, 1980, Joyce, et al, 2009 as well as syntax learning model Tri Prakoro (Akbar, 2013. The modified syntax generate learning model 'OIDDE' which is an acronym of orientation, identify, discussion, decision, and engage in behavior.

  3. Effects of Strategy Instruction in an EFL Reading Comprehension Course: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lopera Medina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategy instruction is useful in teaching contexts. This paper examines the effects of strategy instruction in an EFL reading comprehension course carried out with 26 undergraduate students at a Colombian university. As a research method, a case study was implemented. There were three instruments with which to collect data: reading comprehension tests, teacher's field notes and self-reflection in class at the strategy instruction phase, and a learning perception questionnaire. Given that students improved in reading comprehension, it would seem that reading strategy instruction is indeed very useful. Also, it was noted that when students applied reading strategies, they became more self-confident and this in turn enhanced their motivation. Finally, when students applied the reading strategy approach, the use of dictionaries decreased considerably.

  4. Overview of Instructional Technology Used in the Education of Occupational Therapy Students: A Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan M. Gee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the type of instructional technology (IT master’s degree level occupational therapy educational programs routinely use as a part of their lecture- and laboratory-based instruction. Surveying the administrators of 121 graduate occupational therapy programs in the United States, we found that the majority of the respondents identified their program as using IT in some form for lecturebased courses, with less inclusion of IT for laboratory-based courses. Hybrid instruction, with the majority of the content being delivered face-to-face and the remainder via online, were the trends among the respondents. The findings also indicated that the respondents’ programs avoid certain IT, including synchronous online chat rooms or instant messaging, digital image collections, blogs or online journaling, Wikis, and audio/video podcasting. Few of the respondents said their programs had made a significant leap into implementing a larger online presence with instructional technology

  5. Student Voice on the Instructional Qualities of the Effective English Language Teacher: A Collective Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Vong Siu Phern

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A majority of Malaysian students only have average English language proficiency, although instructional qualities of the effective English language teacher have by far been expounded by English language experts. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the extent to which the responses of student voice representing above average, average and below average English language proficiency from the primary, secondary and tertiary levels - have agreed with expert opinion’s description of instructional qualities of the effective English language teacher. In this respect, student voice was analysed using triangulation not only on the instructional qualities discussed, but also on the literature review. Interesting findings revealed that student voice still had something extra to contribute in determining the instructional qualities of the effective English language teacher, with a touch of irony and constructive criticism on how such qualities of English language teachers/lecturers could still improve, so as to appear more effective in learners’ eyes.

  6. A comparative study of independent particle model based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We find that among these three independent particle model based methods, the ss-VSCF method provides most accurate results in the thermal averages followed by t-SCF and the v-VSCF is the least accurate. However, the ss-VSCF is found to be computationally very expensive for the large molecules. The t-SCF gives ...

  7. Classroom-based narrative and vocabulary instruction: results of an early-stage, nonrandomized comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Olszewski, Abbie; Fargo, Jamison; Gillam, Ronald B

    2014-07-01

    This nonrandomized feasibility study was designed to provide a preliminary assessment of the impact of a narrative and vocabulary instruction program provided by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) in a regular classroom setting. Forty-three children attending 2 first-grade classrooms participated in the study. Children in each classroom were divided into high- and low-risk subgroups on the basis of their performance on a narrative test. Narrative and vocabulary instruction was provided by an SLP in 1 classroom for three 30-min periods per week for 6 weeks. The children in the experimental classroom made clinically significant improvements on narrative and vocabulary measures; children in the comparison classroom did not. Within the experimental classroom, children in the high-risk subgroup demonstrated greater gains in narration and fewer gains in vocabulary than children in the low-risk subgroup. There were no subgroup differences in the comparison classroom. These preliminary results provide early evidence of the feasibility of implementing a narrative instruction program in a classroom setting. Children at a high risk for language difficulties appeared to profit more from the narrative instruction than from the embedded vocabulary instruction. More extensive research on this instructional program is warranted.

  8. Instructional multimedia: An investigation of student and instructor attitudes and student study behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Educators in allied health and medical education programs utilize instructional multimedia to facilitate psychomotor skill acquisition in students. This study examines the effects of instructional multimedia on student and instructor attitudes and student study behavior. Methods Subjects consisted of 45 student physical therapists from two universities. Two skill sets were taught during the course of the study. Skill set one consisted of knee examination techniques and skill set two consisted of ankle/foot examination techniques. For each skill set, subjects were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental group. The control group was taught with live demonstration of the examination skills, while the experimental group was taught using multimedia. A cross-over design was utilized so that subjects in the control group for skill set one served as the experimental group for skill set two, and vice versa. During the last week of the study, students and instructors completed written questionnaires to assess attitude toward teaching methods, and students answered questions regarding study behavior. Results There were no differences between the two instructional groups in attitudes, but students in the experimental group for skill set two reported greater study time alone compared to other groups. Conclusions Multimedia provides an efficient method to teach psychomotor skills to students entering the health professions. Both students and instructors identified advantages and disadvantages for both instructional techniques. Reponses relative to instructional multimedia emphasized efficiency, processing level, autonomy, and detail of instruction compared to live presentation. Students and instructors identified conflicting views of instructional detail and control of the content. PMID:21693058

  9. Instructional multimedia: An investigation of student and instructor attitudes and student study behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavanaugh Cathy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educators in allied health and medical education programs utilize instructional multimedia to facilitate psychomotor skill acquisition in students. This study examines the effects of instructional multimedia on student and instructor attitudes and student study behavior. Methods Subjects consisted of 45 student physical therapists from two universities. Two skill sets were taught during the course of the study. Skill set one consisted of knee examination techniques and skill set two consisted of ankle/foot examination techniques. For each skill set, subjects were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental group. The control group was taught with live demonstration of the examination skills, while the experimental group was taught using multimedia. A cross-over design was utilized so that subjects in the control group for skill set one served as the experimental group for skill set two, and vice versa. During the last week of the study, students and instructors completed written questionnaires to assess attitude toward teaching methods, and students answered questions regarding study behavior. Results There were no differences between the two instructional groups in attitudes, but students in the experimental group for skill set two reported greater study time alone compared to other groups. Conclusions Multimedia provides an efficient method to teach psychomotor skills to students entering the health professions. Both students and instructors identified advantages and disadvantages for both instructional techniques. Reponses relative to instructional multimedia emphasized efficiency, processing level, autonomy, and detail of instruction compared to live presentation. Students and instructors identified conflicting views of instructional detail and control of the content.

  10. Promoting Academic Achievement in the Middle School Classroom: Integrating Effective Study Skills Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Christin

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to discover what study skills are most useful for middle school students, as well as strategies for integrating study skills instruction into the four main content area classrooms (English, math, science, and social studies) at the middle school level. Twenty-nine in-service middle school teachers participated in the study by…

  11. The Use of Instructional Simulations to Support Classroom Teaching: A Crisis Communication Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflet, Mark; Brown, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how exposure to classroom instruction affected the use of a computer simulation that was designed to provide students an opportunity to apply material presented in class. The study involved an analysis of a computer-based crisis communication case study designed for a college-level public relations…

  12. Servant First: A Multicase Study Exploring Servant Leadership in Community College Instructional Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marvin Lee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the application of servant leadership principles to community college instructional administration. The study conducted was a multicase research design. The conceptual framework for the study was based on Greenleaf's work in servant leadership as expressed in 10 characteristics of servant leaders…

  13. Self-Regulated Strategic Writing for Academic Studies in an English-Medium-Instruction Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingjing; Gao, Xuesong

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the processes of utilization of resources in secondary students' self-regulated strategic writing for academic studies in an English as medium of instruction context in Hong Kong. Drawing on multiple data sources collected through the observation of lessons, stimulated recall and semi-structured interviews, the study examined…

  14. Techniques for studies of unbinned model independent CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedford, Nicholas; Weisser, Constantin; Parkes, Chris; Gersabeck, Marco; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Chen, Shanzhen [University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    Charge-Parity (CP) violation is a known part of the Standard Model and has been observed and measured in both the B and K meson systems. The observed levels, however, are insufficient to explain the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe, and so other sources need to be found. One area of current investigation is the D meson system, where predicted levels of CP violation are much lower than in the B and K meson systems. This means that more sensitive methods are required when searching for CP violation in this system. Several unbinned model independent methods have been proposed for this purpose, all of which need to be optimised and their sensitivities compared.

  15. A grounded theory study on the role of differentiated instruction in effective middle school science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian Kirby

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model explaining the role of differentiated instruction (DI) in effective middle school science teaching. The study examined the best teaching practices and differentiated elements from eight general education middle school science teachers, all scoring at the highest level of a teaching effectiveness measure on their evaluations, through a collection of observational, interview, survey, and teaching artifact data. The data were analyzed through the methodology of a systematic grounded theory qualitative approach using open, axial, and selective coding to develop a model describing how and to what degree effective middle school science teachers differentiated their best teaching practices. The model that emerged from the data shows instruction as a four-phase process and highlights the major elements of best practices and DI represented at each phase. The model also depicts how teachers narrowed the scope of their differentiating strategies as instruction progressed. The participants incorporated DI into their pedagogies, though in different degrees at each phase, and primarily by using variety to present concepts with multiple types of instruction followed by a series of sense-making activities related to several learning modalities. Teachers scaffolded students carefully, using informal and formal assessment data to inform future instructional decisions and especially their plans to reteach or extend on a concept. The model is intended to provide insight into the value of DI for middle school science teaching.

  16. Balancing Direction and Independence in Second Language Vocabulary Learning: A Gesture Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison, Lake

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study looks at the effect of learning second language vocabulary with gesture. Specifically, this current study asks whether researcher-instructed or student-constructed gestures are more effective. Depth of processing theories (Craik and Lockhart 1972) as well as more recent educational frameworks like ICAP ("Interactive,"…

  17. Evaluation of a pictograph enhancement system for patient instruction: a recall study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Perri, Seneca; Nakamura, Carlos; Kuang, Jinqiu; Hill, Brent; Bui, Duy Duc An; Stoddard, Gregory J; Bray, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel computer application called Glyph that automatically converts text to sets of illustrations using natural language processing and computer graphics techniques to provide high quality pictographs for health communication. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the Glyph system to illustrate a set of actual patient instructions, and tested patient recall of the original and Glyph illustrated instructions. We used Glyph to illustrate 49 patient instructions representing 10 different discharge templates from the University of Utah Cardiology Service. 84 participants were recruited through convenience sampling. To test the recall of illustrated versus non-illustrated instructions, participants were asked to review and then recall a set questionnaires that contained five pictograph-enhanced and five non-pictograph-enhanced items. The mean score without pictographs was 0.47 (SD 0.23), or 47% recall. With pictographs, this mean score increased to 0.52 (SD 0.22), or 52% recall. In a multivariable mixed effects linear regression model, this 0.05 mean increase was statistically significant (95% CI 0.03 to 0.06, pillustration is a novel approach to improve the comprehension and recall of discharge instructions. Our results showed a statistically significant in recall with automated illustrations. Subjects with no-colleague education and younger subjects appeared to benefit more from the illustrations than others. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. A Case Study: Implementing an Interactive Video Instruction System in Teaching Electronics and Industrial Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipe, Ron; And Others

    A study examined the development and implementation of an interactive video instruction system for teaching electronics and industrial maintenance at the University of Tennessee. The specific purposes of the study were to document unusual problems that may be encountered when this new technology is implemented, suggest corrective actions, and…

  19. Preparation and Instructional Competency Needs of the New Dental Hygiene Educator: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the instructional competency needs of new dental hygiene educators. The purpose of this qualitative and phenomenological study was twofold: (a) to explore the lived experiences and perceptions of 14 dental hygiene educators who have transitioned from clinical practice into the California Community College education system to…

  20. Instructional Uses of Podcasting in Online Learning Environments: A Cooperative Inquiry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abbie; Brown, Carol; Fine, Bethann; Luterbach, Kenneth; Sugar, William; Vinciguerra, David C.

    2009-01-01

    A report on the results of a year-long cooperative inquiry study in which 11 faculty members at a southeastern university examined their various uses of podcasting for instruction. Through participation in the study, members developed insights into what technologies are most commonly applied to the task of podcast production and dissemination as…

  1. A Study of Validity and Reliability on the Instructional Capacity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Mehmet Tufan; Eres, Figen

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool that can determine the instructional capacity, according to teacher opinions. In the academic year of 2016-2017, 1011 teachers working in the public high schools and vocational technical schools in Ankara participated in the study. The total number of items on the scale was…

  2. Determining New Trends with Regard to the Studies in Curricula and Instruction Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursen, Cigdem; Koruroglu, Ayten; Bahali, Sultan; Mercan, Naziyet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the new trends concerning curricula and instruction. The articles that are published in journals of SSCI and ERIC databases are taken into the scope of this study. The new trends regarding relevant literature are tried to be identified by analysing 3079 articles in total through the content analysis method.…

  3. Singing and Vocal Instruction in Primary Schools: An Analysis from Six Case Studies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Albina; Rusinek, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how specialist music teachers sing and teach how to sing, based on data collected from six case studies carried out in Spanish primary schools. The study aimed at understanding classroom singing practices, and in particular the provision or absence of vocal instruction in relation with teachers' singing models. The findings…

  4. Brain-Based Learning and Classroom Practice: A Study Investigating Instructional Methodologies of Urban School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lajuana Trezette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of brain-based instructional strategies by teachers serving at Title I elementary, middle, and high schools within the Memphis City School District. This study was designed to determine: (a) the extent to which Title I teachers applied brain-based strategies, (b) the differences in…

  5. Studying the Impact of Three Different Instructional Methods on Preservice Teachers' Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Yasemin Demiraslan; Andre, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the impact of three types of instructional methods (case-based learning, worked example and faded worked example) on preservice teachers' (n?=?72) decision-making about classroom management. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to investigate both the outcomes and the processes of preservice teachers' decision-making…

  6. Using Inquiry-Based Instructional Strategies to Increase Student Achievement in 3rd Grade Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae-Jones, Wanda Joycelyn

    2017-01-01

    21st Century skills such as critical-thinking and problem-solving skills are very important when it comes to Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics or STEM. But those same skills should be integrated in social studies. The impact of students' learning in social studies as a result of implementing inquiry-based instructional strategies was…

  7. Reviewing Instructional Studies Conducted Using Video Modeling to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Cimen; Diken, Ibrahim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored 31 instructional research articles written using video modeling to children with autism and published in peer-reviewed journals. The studies in this research have been reached by searching EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, ERIC and other Anadolu University online search engines and using keywords such as "autism, video modeling,…

  8. Through Rubrics and Scaffolded Instruction: A Programmatic Self-Study of Writing Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfu Mi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Colleagues in a teacher education program describe their journey of programmatic self-study as they examine how they teach and assess teacher candidates’ writing in a series of three required and sequenced undergraduate literacy courses. They lead the reader through the questions they asked themselves about their instruction and their reflective process with a goal of improving teacher candidates’ technical, reflective, and creative writing. Readers are encouraged to reflect on their expectations for teacher candidates’ writing in light of instruction and assessment. Implications for teacher education are explored.

  9. On the Effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction: A Systematic Review of Supplemental Instruction and Peer-Assisted Study Sessions Literature between 2001 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip; van der Meer, Jacques; Skalicky, Jane; Cowley, Kym

    2014-01-01

    Supplemental instruction (SI)--variously known as peer-assisted learning, peer-assisted study sessions, and other names--is a type of academic support intervention popular in higher education. In SI sessions, a senior student facilitates peer learning between undergraduates studying a high-risk course. This article presents a systematic review of…

  10. An Empirical Study of Hospitality Management Student Attitudes toward Group Projects: Instructional Factors and Team Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngsoo; Ro, Heejung

    2012-01-01

    The development of positive attitudes in team-based work is important in management education. This study investigates hospitality students' attitudes toward group projects by examining instructional factors and team problems. Specifically, we examine how the students' perceptions of project appropriateness, instructors' support, and evaluation…

  11. Design Models as Emergent Features: An Empirical Study in Communication and Shared Mental Models in Instructional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botturi, Luca

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an empirical study that investigated the instructional design process of three teams involved in the development of an e-­learning unit. The teams declared they were using the same fast-­prototyping design and development model, and were composed of the same roles (although with a different number of SMEs).…

  12. Elementary Teachers' Experiences and Perceptions of Departmentalized Instruction: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Alecia; Schmertzing, Lorraine; Schmertzing, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This case study investigated elementary teachers' experiences and perceptions during a trial year of departmentalized instruction in a rural south Georgia elementary school. To inform their decision about whole-school departmentalization for the future, school administrators appointed twelve first through third grade teachers to pilot the…

  13. Does physics instruction foster university students' cognitive processes? : a descriptive study of teacher activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson - Hessler, M.G.M.; Jong, de T.

    1993-01-01

    This study aims at giving a systematic description of the cognitive activities involved in teaching physics. Such a description of instruction in physics requires a basis in two models, that is, the cognitive activities involved in learning physics and the knowledge base that is the foundation of

  14. Effect of frying instructions for food handlers on acrylamide concentration in French Fries: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Luning, P.A.; Jinap, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the effect of frying instructions on food handlers' control decisions in restaurants and to investigate the impact of control decisions on the variation and concentration of acrylamide in French fries. The concentrations of acrylamide and

  15. Does Empathy Predict Instructional Assignment-Related Stress? A Study in Special and General Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platsidou, Maria; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    The role of empathy in the teaching profession has been vastly investigated in relation to its effect on students, but research on how teachers' empathy affects their own well-being at work is limited. This study investigated empathy and instructional assignment-related stress factors of primary school teachers serving in general or special…

  16. Longitudinal Study of Factors Impacting the Implementation of Notebook Computer Based CAD Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosen, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides information for higher education leaders that have or are considering conducting Computer Aided Design (CAD) instruction using student owned notebook computers. Survey data were collected during the first 8 years of a pilot program requiring engineering technology students at a four year public university to acquire a notebook…

  17. Exploring the Potential for Language Supportive Learning in English Medium Instruction: A Rwandan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Lizzi O.; Clegg, John; Tikly, Leon

    2016-01-01

    This article puts forward the argument for language supportive learning for learners in English medium instruction (EMI) classrooms based on the findings from a mixed methods study in Rwanda. The article first reviews the relevant literature and research which looks at the concept of language support, focusing on textbooks and pedagogy in…

  18. Instructional Technologies in the Workforce: Case Studies from the Nuclear Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, William C.; Roth, Gene L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes six types of instructional technology used in the nuclear industry: Study Pacs, computerized test banks, computer-based training, interactive videodisc, artificial intelligence, and full-scope simulation. Each description presents the need, training device, outcomes, and limitations or constraints on use. (SK)

  19. Responding to the Gulf War: A Case Study of Instructional Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merryfield, Merry M.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on study of teacher decision making regarding instruction about Gulf War. Finds teachers were influenced by student grade level, number of students in class from another culture, and their own knowledge of Middle Eastern history and geography. Concludes that local and state curriculum officials should provide more flexibility so teachers…

  20. Connecting Instructional and Cognitive Aspects of an LE: A Study of the Global Seminar Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyeva, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    My research problem is based on the lack of unifying conceptual cohesion between the discourses concerning cognitive and instructional aspects of learning environments (LE). I contrast that lack with practical developments of LE studies connected at the level of practical implementation and evaluation. Next, I briefly review the LE boundaries,…

  1. Longitudinal Study of Direct Instruction Effects from First through Third Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Randall J.; Burton, Jennifer Lyn; Silberg, Anna

    2006-01-01

    In a 3-year longitudinal study, the authors examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) on students' reading achievement, teacher perceptions, nature of the classroom, and special education referral rate. Urban and suburban students completed the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests in the fall of Grade 1 and spring of Grades 1, 2, and 3. Teachers…

  2. A Study of Student Perceptions of Exemplary Instruction and Servant Leader Behavioral Qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setliff, Richard C., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined students' perceptions of certain servant leader behaviors associated with either typical or outstanding instruction. Five servant leadership dimensions were considered: altruistic calling, emotional healing, wisdom, persuasive mapping, and organizational stewardship. Two groups of 300 students attending a midsized university…

  3. Clean indoor air increases physical independence : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, M.C.L.; Koren, L.G.H.; Kort, H.S.M.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Clean indoor air enhances health. In a pilot study, we examined whether a good indoor air quality increases the activity potential of older persons with chronic lung disease. Five older persons were studied while performing kitchen activities. Body movement and heart rate were monitored.

  4. An Evaluation of the Instruction of Generalization in Elementary School Social Studies Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mükerrem AKBULUT TAŞ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Generalizations are important content materials that should be instructed in the Social Studies program. The instruction of generalizations and the causal relationships emphasized in generalizations are important for students to have meaningful learning experiences and to gain causal reasoning and critical thinking skills. Social Studies program emphasizes the acquisition of creating scientific generalization skill as a fundamental skill to be instructed directly, and the importance of generalization instruction is highlighted. Therefore, this study is important in that it draws attention to the importance of teaching generalization and creates basis for the future research in the field. In this regard, it aims at evaluating the instruction of the generalizations in the “Our Country and the World” unit in Social Studies program for 6th grades in Primary School. In line with this general purpose, the instruction of the generalizations in the unit was analyzed qualitatively. The study was conducted with three social studies teachers working in three different schools located in Seyhan, Adana. The data were collected through the observation technique with a view to obtaining in depth data about the instruction of generalization in social studies lesson. Semi-structured observation form, prepared in the light of the generalization content elements, was used as the data collection tool. These content elements consisted of four aspects: generalization statement, concepts related to generalization, cause-effect relationships between concepts, and facts about generalization. In addition to observation, document analysis was conducted with a view to supporting results and strengthening the implications. The documentary analysis was performed based on the generalizations and previously identified elements about the generalizations in the scope of the six topics in the “Our Country and the World” unit. The data collected from the observations were

  5. Computer Assisted Instruction in Special Education Three Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    İbrahim DOĞAN; Ömür AKDEMİR

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the computer use of three students attending the special education center. Students have mental retardation, hearing problem and physical handicap respectively. The maximum variation sampling is used to select the type of handicap while the convenience sampling is used to select the participants. Three widely encountered handicap types in special education are chosen to select the study participants. The multiple holistic case study design is used i...

  6. Profile of elementary school science teacher instruction in disaster risk reduction: case study of volcano disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujianto; Prabowo; Wasis

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the profile of science' teacher instruction in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), as a feature of instructional quality, on students’ learning experiences. A qualitative study was done to observe teacher activities in teaching of disaster preparedness. Science teacher and 14 students at grade 4 of SDN (elementary school) Kiyaran 2 are involved as the subject of this study. Teacher’ instruction was coded with regard to preparation, action, and evaluation using observation sheets and documentation. Data analysis results showed a positive significant effect of the readiness during preparation on learning process of disaster risk reduction and an indirect effect of teacher’ action on students’ learning experiences. There is a lack of teaching materials about volcano disaster in the elementary school. Teacher found difficulties on evaluation of student achievement in disaster preparedness. These findings highlight the importance of DRR in uphold science teachers’ education. Items of teachers’ skill in preparing of DRR may be used to offer model of concrete instruction situation during university workshop for maintain teacher education.

  7. Response to Instruction in Preschool: Results of Two Randomized Studies with Children At Significant Risk of Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.

    2015-01-01

    Although response-to-instruction (RTI) approaches have received increased attention, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts of RTI approaches with preschool populations. This manuscript presents results of two studies examining impacts of Tier II instruction with preschool children. Participating children were identified as substantially delayed in the acquisition of early literacy skills despite exposure to high-quality, evidence-based classroom instruction. Study 1 included 93 children (M age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.62) attending 12 Title I preschools. Study 2 included 184 children (M age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.38) attending 19 Title I preschools. The majority of children were Black/African American, and about 60% were male. In both studies, eligible children were randomized to receive either 11 weeks of need-aligned, small-group instruction or just Tier I. Tier II instruction in Study 1 included variations of activities for code- and language-focused domains with prior evidence of efficacy in non-RTI contexts. Tier II instruction in Study 2 included instructional activities narrower in scope, more intensive, and delivered to smaller groups of children. Impacts of Tier II instruction in Study 1 were minimal; however, there were significant and moderate-to-large impacts in Study 2. These results identify effective Tier II instruction but indicate that the context in which children are identified may alter the nature of Tier II instruction that is required. Children identified as eligible for Tier II in an RTI framework likely require more intensive and more narrowly focused instruction than do children at general risk of later academic difficulties. PMID:26869730

  8. Reference Materials in LIS Instruction: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabina, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Delphi study conducted over a two-month period in 2011. The purpose of the study was to identify reference sources that should be covered in basic reference courses taught in LIS programs in the United States. The Delphi method was selected for its appropriateness in soliciting expert opinions and assessing the…

  9. Computer Assisted Instruction in Special Education Three Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim DOĞAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the computer use of three students attending the special education center. Students have mental retardation, hearing problem and physical handicap respectively. The maximum variation sampling is used to select the type of handicap while the convenience sampling is used to select the participants. Three widely encountered handicap types in special education are chosen to select the study participants. The multiple holistic case study design is used in the study. Results of the study indicate that teachers in special education prefer to use educational games and drill and practice type of computers programs. Also it is found that over use of the animation, text and symbols cause cognitive overload on the student with mental retardation. Additionally, it is also discovered that the student with hearing problem learn words better when the computers are used in education as compared to the traditional method. Furthermore the student with physical handicap improved his fine muscle control abilities besides planned course objectives when computers are used in special education.

  10. The Common Core State Standards and the Role of Instructional Materials: A Case Study on EdReports.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review research studies investigating the role of instructional materials in relation to the Common Core State Standards and to evaluate whether a new organisation, EdReports.org, founded to evaluate the alignment of instructional materials to the Common Core State Standards, has achieved its objectives. Content…

  11. Instructional Skills for On-the-Job Training and Experiential Learning: An Empirical Study of Japanese Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of on-the-job training (OJT), few systematic empirical studies have been conducted on how OJT trainers instruct trainees in firms. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the trainer's instructional skills for OJT using survey data collected from 715 employees covering 22 firms. Results…

  12. Digital Badges and Library Instructional Programs: Academic Library Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Andrea Reed; Puterbaugh, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This case study describes the planning, implementation, and migration process of Eastern University Library's information literacy digital badge. Prior to implementing a badging program, information literacy sessions were informally embedded in first-year college writing courses as a "one-shot" presentation. Spurred on by accreditation…

  13. Social Studies Instruction in a Non-Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Margaret M.

    Certain areas in the social studies can be effectively taught in a non-classroom setting. This experiment determined if, in a supermarket situation, consumer preferences (as measured in sales figures and augmented by questionnaire data) could be altered by the addition of nutritional information to the labels of sixteen items which had moderate…

  14. Advantages and disadvantages of stiffness instructions when studying postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T

    2016-05-01

    To understand the maintenance of upright stance, researchers try to discover the fundamental mechanisms and attentional resources devoted to postural control and eventually to the performance of other tasks (e.g., counting in the head). During their studies, some researchers require participants to stand as steady as possible and other simply ask participants to stand naturally. Surprisingly, a clear and direct explanation of the usefulness of the steadiness requirement seems to be lacking, both in experimental and methodological discussions. Hence, the objective of the present note was to provide advantages and disadvantages of this steadiness requirement in studies of postural control. The advantages may be to study fundamental postural control, to eliminate useless postural variability, to control spurious body motions and to control the participants' thoughts. As disadvantages, this steadiness requirement only leads to study postural control in unnatural upright stance, it changes the focus of attention (internal vs. external) and the nature of postural control (unconscious vs. conscious), it increases the difficulty of a supposedly easy control task and it eliminates or reduces the opportunity to record exploratory behaviors. When looking carefully at the four advantages of the steadiness requirement, one can believe that they are, in fact, more disadvantageous than advantageous. Overall therefore, this requirement seems illegitimate and it is proposed that researchers should not use it in the study of postural control. They may use this requirement only if they search to know the limit until which participants can consciously reduce their postural sway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of nuclear bremsstrahlung in the model independent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.K.

    1980-01-01

    The bremsstrahlung cross section for the scattering of protons by 12 C near the 1.7-MeV resonance has been measured by the Bologna group and the Brooklyn group. In this study, we have included in our calculations the correction terms in the Feshbach-Yennie approximation and have extracted the time delay in the P- 12 C reaction from the data of the Brooklyn group. The + p process near the (1236) has been systematically studied by an experimental group at UCLA. Recently, Liou and Nutt reported a calculation using the soft-photon approximation and their results agree very well with experiment for coplanar events. We have extended their calculation to noncoplanar cases and have found that the soft-photon approximation of Liou and Nutt can describe the experimental data very well not only for coplanar cases but also for noncoplanar cases for most photon angles. In addition, we have also used the Feshbach-Yennie approximation to calculate the + p cross sections. This approximation always predicts a bump in the bremsstrahlung spectrum, although the bump may be small for some photon angles. In most cases, the predicted cross sections are in good agreement with the UCLA data. However, the data for some angles can only be described by the Feshbach-Yennie approximation, and the peak cross section is too large at some angles. We have applied the soft-photon approximation of Liou and Nutt to calculate the proton-proton bremsstrahlung (pp) cross section and have compared our results with the experimental data at 730, 157, 48 and 42 MeV. We have found that we can use the soft-photon approximation to calculate the R-type cross section without any difficulty, but we cannot use the same approximation to predict the H-type cross section without some ambiguity. We have also applied the Feshbach-Yennie approximation to the pp process at 730-MeV taking into account the principal and correction terms

  16. Is DNA Alive? A Study of Conceptual Change Through Targeted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzig, Stephen B.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Izci, Kemal; Pires, J. Chris

    2013-08-01

    We are involved in a project to incorporate innovative assessments within a reform-based large-lecture biochemistry course for nonmajors. We not only assessed misconceptions but purposefully changed instruction throughout the semester to confront student ideas. Our research questions targeted student conceptions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) along with understanding in what ways classroom discussions/activities influence student conceptions. Data sources included pre-/post-assessments, semi-structured interviews, and student work on exams/assessments. We found that students held misconceptions about the chemical nature of DNA, with 63 % of students claiming that DNA is alive prior to instruction. The chemical nature of DNA is an important fundamental concept in science fields. We confronted this misconception throughout the semester collecting data from several instructional interventions. Case studies of individual students revealed how various instructional strategies/assessments allowed students to construct and demonstrate the scientifically accepted understanding of the chemical nature of DNA. However, the post-assessment exposed that 40 % of students still held misconceptions about DNA, indicating the persistent nature of this misconception. Implications for teaching and learning are discussed.

  17. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Claudia H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14. Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design. Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days. Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P

  18. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14). Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design). Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap) were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days). Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P = 0.002, P

  19. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  20. A case study of secondary teachers facilitating a historical problem-based learning instructional unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecore, John L.

    Current curriculum trends promote inquiry-based student-centered strategies as a way to foster critical thinking and learning. Problem-based learning (PBL), a type of inquiry focusing on an issue or "problem," is an instructional approach taught on the basis that science reform efforts increase scientific literacy. PBL is a constructivist approach to learning real life problems where understanding is a function of content, context, experiences, and learner goals; historical PBL situates the lesson in a historical context and provides opportunities for teaching NOS concepts. While much research exists on the benefits of historical PBL to student learning in general, more research is warranted on how teachers implement PBL in the secondary science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom-learning environment of four science teachers implementing a historical PBL instructional unit to identify the teachers' understandings, successes and obstacles. By identifying teachers' possible achievements and barriers with implementing a constructivist philosophy when executing historical PBL, educators and curriculum designers may improve alignment of the learning environment to constructivist principles. A qualitative interpretive case study guided this research study. The four participants of this study were purposefully and conveniently selected from biology teachers with at least three years of teaching experience, degrees in education, State Licensure, and completion of a PBL workshop. Data collection consisted of pre and post questionnaires, structured interviews, a card sort activity in which participants categorized instructional outcomes, and participant observations. Results indicated that the four teachers assimilated reform-based constructivist practices to fit within their preexisting routines and highlighted the importance of incorporating teachers' current systems into reform-based teacher instruction. While participating teachers

  1. Patient input into the development and enhancement of ED discharge instructions: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Barbara A; McCarthy, Danielle M; Forth, Victoria E; Tanabe, Paula; Schmidt, Michael J; Adams, James G; Engel, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    Previous research indicates that patients have difficulty understanding ED discharge instructions; these findings have important implications for adherence and outcomes. The objective of this study was to obtain direct patient input to inform specific revisions to discharge documents created through a literacy-guided approach and to identify common themes within patient feedback that can serve as a framework for the creation of discharge documents in the future. Based on extensive literature review and input from ED providers, subspecialists, and health literacy and communication experts, discharge instructions were created for 5 common ED diagnoses. Participants were recruited from a federally qualified health center to participate in a series of 5 focus group sessions. Demographic information was obtained and a Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) assessment was performed. During each of the 1-hour focus group sessions, participants reviewed discharge instructions for 1 of 5 diagnoses. Participants were asked to provide input into the content, organization, and presentation of the documents. Using qualitative techniques, latent and manifest content analysis was performed to code for emergent themes across all 5 diagnoses. Fifty-seven percent of participants were female and the average age was 32 years. The average REALM score was 57.3. Through qualitative analysis, 8 emergent themes were identified from the focus groups. Patient input provides meaningful guidance in the development of diagnosis-specific discharge instructions. Several themes and patterns were identified, with broad significance for the design of ED discharge instructions. Copyright © 2013 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Instructional Strategies on Math Anxiety and Achievement: A Mixed Methods Study of Preservice Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Janelle K.

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed how different instructional strategies affected preservice elementary teachers' levels of math anxiety and their achievement in a math content course while considering descriptions of their experiences in the course in relation to their math anxiety and achievement. The instructional strategies used were traditional teaching…

  3. The Quality of Instruction in Urban High Schools: Comparing Mathematics and Science to English and Social Studies Classes in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Valerie E.; Robinson, Shanta R.; Sebastian, James

    2012-01-01

    Is the quality of instruction systematically better in one subject than another? Teachers and students in the same Chicago high schools reported on one core-curriculum class (English, mathematics, science, or social studies) in 2007 surveys. Teachers commented on instructional demands and student participation. Students described engagement,…

  4. Instructional Design, Facilitation, and Perceived Learning Outcomes: An Exploratory Case Study of a Human Trafficking MOOC for Attitudinal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Loizzo, Jamie; Watson, William R.; Mueller, Chad; Lim, Jieun; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory case study describes the design and facilitation of a massive open online course (MOOC) for attitudinal change regarding human trafficking. It examines the course from the learners', instructor's, and instructional designer's perspectives. Two interviews with the instructor and instructional designer were conducted, and data from…

  5. Toward Effective and Compelling Instruction for High School eCommerce Students: Results from a Small Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Rodriguez, Diane; Love, Lakecia

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an instructional development effort to create effective and compelling instruction for eCommerce students. Results from a small field study inform the development project. Four high school students in an eCommerce course completed the standalone tutorial developed to teach them how to create a web page in the HyperText Markup…

  6. A Pilot Study of Students' Learning Outcomes Using Didactic and Socratic Instructional Methods: An Assessment Based on Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinde, Oluwatoyin Adenike

    2015-01-01

    This work is a pilot study on the learning outcomes of students, who were taught a research course for seven weeks, using didactic and Socratic instruction methods. The course was taught in two sessions concurrently. The students were divided into two groups (A and B) and both groups were taught either with Socratic instruction method or didactic…

  7. Assessing the Measurement Properties of the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale: A Meta-Analysis of Reliability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinger, Phillip; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chia-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Background: In a recent article, Hallinger (2011b) reviewed 135 empirical studies that had employed the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS) over the prior three decades. The author concluded that the PIMRS appeared to have attained a consistent record of yielding reliable and valid data on principal instructional leadership.…

  8. Development of Instructional Competencies for Assessing and Managing Suicide Risk for Baccalaureate Nursing Education: A Modified Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowski, Abigail; Roye, Carol

    2017-03-01

    Suicide is a major health problem and a leading cause of death throughout the world. A primary goal for suicide prevention is reforming health professional education in order to increase the competence of health professionals in assessing and managing suicide risk. Nursing leadership is involved in this reform, yet nurses frequently lack the competence to care for patients in suicidal crisis. An identified gap in baccalaureate nursing education is instructional competencies for assessing and managing suicide risk. A modified Delphi study was used. The study began with a focus group which was conducted in order to develop the Round I Survey which included forty-four competencies. After scoring these competencies, thirty-four were scored for inclusion, two were dropped and eight were revised according to panel members' comments. The Round II Survey comprised the eight revised competencies which were scored for inclusion, resulting in forty-two competencies in the final set of instructional competencies. Forty-two instructional competencies were developed: fourteen pre-assessment instructional competencies, fifteen assessment instructional competencies, and thirteen management instructional competencies. Incorporating these instructional competencies into baccalaureate nursing education might increase the competence of nursing students, and thus new nurses, in caring for patients at risk for suicide. These instructional competencies provide a first step to address the challenging task of intervening with patients at risk for suicide.

  9. Web-based vs. traditional classroom instruction in gerontology: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Judith E; Dobrosielski-Vergona, Kathleen A; Wingard, Robin G; Williams, Theresa M

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented comparable outcomes from Web-based and traditional classroom instruction. However, there is a paucity of literature comparing these two delivery formats for gerontology courses in dental hygiene curricula. This study examines the effectiveness of alternative methods of course delivery by comparing student profiles and instructional outcomes from a dental hygiene gerontology course offered both on the Web and in a traditional classroom setting. Questionnaires were sent to both groups of students completing the course. The instrument was designed to establish profiles of the participating students. The data collected included familiarity with Web-based instruction, extent of prior computer training, previous interaction with the elderly, and student evaluations of course effectiveness. Traditional instructional outcomes from evaluated course work were compared, as were post-course exam outcomes that assessed retention of course information six months after course completion. The statistical significance of these data was determined using Statistical Package for Social Scientists software (SPSS, Inc., version 12.0, Chicago, IL). A comparison of student characteristics enrolled in the two course formats revealed marked differences. The Web-based group (n=12) included dental hygiene students (67%) and other health care providers (25%). All participants in the traditional classroom format (n=32) were dental hygiene students. Half of the Web-based respondents were over 25 years of age, and the majority (n=8) had previously taken an online course. The majority of traditional classroom students were 25 years of age or younger (n=21) and had never taken a Web-based course (n=20). Statistically significant differences in instructional outcomes were observed between students enrolled in these two formats. Student retention of course material six months after completion of the course was greater in the Web-based format. Students selecting a Web

  10. A case study examining classroom instructional practices at a U.S. dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Dolan, Teresa A

    2005-06-01

    A case study is used to illustrate how an evaluation strategy was used to assess classroom instructional practices following a multiyear institutional curriculum revision process. From January through April of 2003, twelve faculty in medicine and three faculty in dentistry who taught in the first- and second-year basic science courses within the dental curriculum participated in a qualitative study. The purpose was to use a formative evaluation process to assess the impact of the curriculum revision at the level of classroom instruction. The observations revealed that seventeen of the twenty classes observed were teacher-centered, passive, and lacked observable effort to help students understand the relationship of the lecture content to the oral health problems. Findings illustrate the importance of using formative evaluation as a mechanism to assess change efforts and how evidence-based study can be used to support initiatives directed toward assessing active student learning and problem solving. Raising faculty awareness about the importance of acquiring evidence-based educational skills, aligning instruction with course goals and objectives, formatively assessing teaching, and providing learning experiences that will actually be used in practice are essential to ensuring that active learning and critical thinking are demonstrated in the curriculum.

  11. Making things explicit using instructional materials: a case study of a Singapore teacher's practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yew Hoong; Cheng, Lu Pien; Toh, Wei Yeng Karen; Kaur, Berinderjeet; Toh, Tin Lam

    2018-04-01

    The phrase `make it explicit' is a common advice given to teachers. It is, however, not clear to us what this actually means when translated into classroom practice. Our review found that we are not alone: "explicit" is used in different ways in the education literature. This paper explores, through a case study of a teacher who stated "making things explicit" as an ostensible goal of his instructional practice, how the explicitation is realised in teaching mathematics. In particular, we examine how he used the instructional materials that he crafted to fulfil his goal of explicitation. We were able to uncover three strategies he used: explicit-from, explicit-within, and explicit-to.

  12. Sleep disturbances and fatigue : independent predictors of sickness absence? A prospective study among 6538 employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultmann, Ute; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner

    Background: Although sleep disturbances and fatigue are common conditions, frequently shown to be associated with sickness absence, only a few studies have prospectively investigated their independent effects on sickness absence, while adjusting for depressive symptoms. This study aims (i) to

  13. Critical thinking instruction and technology enhanced learning from the student perspective: A mixed methods research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Ruth

    2017-03-01

    Critical thinking is acclaimed as a valuable asset for graduates from higher education programs. Technology has advanced in quantity and quality; recognized as a requirement of 21st century learners. A mixed methods research study was undertaken, examining undergraduate nursing student engagement with critical thinking instruction, platformed on two technology-enhanced learning environments: a classroom response system face-to-face in-class and an online discussion forum out-of-class. The Community of Inquiry framed the study capturing constructivist collaborative inquiry to support learning, and facilitate critical thinking capability. Inclusion of quantitative and qualitative data sources aimed to gather a comprehensive understanding of students' development of critical thinking and engagement with technology-enhanced learning. The findings from the students' perspectives were positive toward the inclusion of technology-enhanced learning, and use in supporting their development of critical thinking. Students considered the use of two forms of technology beneficial in meeting different needs and preferences, offering varied means to actively participate in learning. They valued critical thinking instruction being intentionally aligned with subject-specific content facilitating understanding, application, and relevance of course material. While the findings are limited to student participants, the instructional strategies and technology-enhanced learning identified as beneficial can inform course design for the development of critical thinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structured Narrative Retell Instruction for Young Children from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds: A Preliminary Study of Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M Adlof

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful acquisition of literacy depends on adequate development of decoding skills as well as broader, meaning-related knowledge and skills for text comprehension. Children from low socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds are often challenged in both domains, relative to peers who are not economically disadvantaged. The efficacy of code-focused instructional programs for at-risk preliterate children is well supported, but less evidence is available regarding interventions to improve broader language and comprehension skills. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a new intervention, structured narrative retell instruction (SNRI, and explored its potential to enhance meaning-related knowledge and skills, including vocabulary, listening comprehension, and narrative skills, in pre-literate, low SES children. SNRI used authentic children’s books to model comprehension processes, explicitly teach story grammar, and implicitly target microstructural aspects of narratives. Participants included 9 children with a mean age of 60 months, who were randomly assigned to SNRI or to code-focused literacy instruction (CFLI. Each group received 12, 40-minute instructional sessions over six weeks. Pre- and posttests were administered to assess vocabulary, listening comprehension, narrative macrostructure and narrative microstructure, as well as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and concepts of print. The feasibility of SNRI was demonstrated by completion of the designed study, moderately high treatment fidelity, and qualitative feedback from interventionists. The SNRI group also made significant gains on four of the seven meaning-related measures (p < .10. In comparison, the CFLI group made significant gains on two of seven meaning-related measures. We conclude that SNRI is feasible and shows potential for improving language skills related to comprehension and that further research investigating its efficacy is warranted.

  15. "Push as hard as you can" instruction for telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tulder, Raphael; Roth, Dominik; Havel, Christof; Eisenburger, Philip; Heidinger, Benedikt; Chwojka, Christof Constantin; Novosad, Heinz; Sterz, Fritz; Herkner, Harald; Schreiber, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    The medical priority dispatch system (MPDS®) assists lay rescuers in protocol-driven telephone-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Our aim was to clarify which CPR instruction leads to sufficient compression depth. This was an investigator-blinded, randomized, parallel group, simulation study to investigate 10 min of chest compressions after the instruction "push down firmly 5 cm" vs. "push as hard as you can." Primary outcome was defined as compression depth. Secondary outcomes were participants exertion measured by Borg scale, provider's systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and quality values measured by the skill-reporting program of the Resusci(®) Anne Simulator manikin. For the analysis of the primary outcome, we used a linear random intercept model to allow for the repeated measurements with the intervention as a covariate. Thirteen participants were allocated to control and intervention. One participant (intervention) dropped out after min 7 because of exhaustion. Primary outcome showed a mean compression depth of 44.1 mm, with an inter-individual standard deviation (SDb) of 13.0 mm and an intra-individual standard deviation (SDw) of 6.7 mm for the control group vs. 46.1 mm and a SDb of 9.0 mm and SDw of 10.3 mm for the intervention group (difference: 1.9; 95% confidence interval -6.9 to 10.8; p = 0.66). Secondary outcomes showed no difference for exhaustion and CPR-quality values. There is no difference in compression depth, quality of CPR, or physical strain on lay rescuers using the initial instruction "push as hard as you can" vs. the standard MPDS(®) instruction "push down firmly 5 cm." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. THE INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY OF WRITING COURSE AT ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF UMS: A NATURALISTIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fibrian Anindyawati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to get a thorough description of the teaching learning process of Writing Course at English Department of Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta, covering the syllabuses, the learning objectives, the instructional materials, the teachers’ roles, the students’ roles, the classroom techniques, the classroom procedures, the teaching media, and the assessment models. The data of this research were collected through observation, interview, and documentation. This research was a naturalistic study. The result shows that the syllabus used in Writing I & II is grammatical syllabus and Writing III & IV task-based syllabus. The learning objectives categorized into two namely, general objectives and specific objectives. The instructional materials were divided into three categories: printed materials, visual materials, and materials from the internet. The teachers’ roles were as organizer, consultant, feedback provider, assessor, and motivator. The students’ roles were as active participant, peer reviewer, and peer editor. The classroom techniques consist of brainstorming, discussion, question and answer, self-correction, assignment. The classroom procedures of Writing I & II were BKOF-MOT-ICOT; Writing III were reviewing, gathering ideas, organizing, build writing activity; and Writing IV were reviewing, explaining the materials, gathering ideas, organizing, build writing activity. The media used were LCD Projector, board, slides, and videos. The assessment model consisted of: multiple choices, weekly assignments, quizzes, mid-test, and final-test.     Keywords: Instruction, writing course, teaching writing

  17. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Uwe; Constantinescu, Mihai A; Woermann, Ulrich; Schmitz, Felix; Schnabel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the "Conventional Instruction" (CI) study group or to the "Video-based Instruction" (VI) study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a) of the preparation and (b) of the procedure as well as (c) the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire. The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (t=-78, pvideo-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4%) of students stated video instruction. In this study, the use of the video-based instruction emerged as the more effective teaching method for learning surgical hand disinfection for medical students and is preferable to conventional instruction. The video instruction is associated with a higher learning effectiveness, efficiency

  18. Published diagnostic models safely excluded colorectal cancer in an independent primary care validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Kok, Liselotte; Witteman, Ben J M; Goedhard, Jelle G; Romberg-Camps, Mariëlle J L; Muris, Jean W M; de Wit, Niek J; Moons, Karel G M

    OBJECTIVE: To validate published diagnostic models for their ability to safely reduce unnecessary endoscopy referrals in primary care patients suspected of significant colorectal disease. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Following a systematic literature search, we independently validated the identified

  19. Importance of Content and Format of Oral Health Instruction to Low-income Mexican Immigrant Parents: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Corissa P; Barker, Judith C; Hoeft, Kristin S; Guerra, Claudia; Chung, Lisa H; Burke, Nancy J

    2018-01-01

    This study's purpose was to explore how content and format of children's oral health instruction in the dental clinic is perceived by parents and might affect parents' knowledge and behaviors. Thirty low-income Mexican immigrant parents of children age five years and under were recruited from dental clinics in 2015 to 2016. In-person qualitative interviews in Spanish about their children's and their own experiences of dental care and home oral hygiene practices were conducted, digitally recorded, translated, and transcribed. Data analysis involved iteratively reading text data and developing and refining codes to find common themes. Twenty-five of 30 parents recalled receiving oral hygiene instruction, and 18 recalled receiving nutrition instruction and were included in analyses. The format and effectiveness of instruction varied. More engaging educational approaches were recalled and described in more detail than less engaging educational approaches. As a result of oral hygiene and nutritional instruction, most parents reported changing their oral hygiene home behaviors for their children; half aimed to reduce purchasing sugary foods and drinks. Most parents recalled receiving oral hygiene and nutrition instruction as part of their child's dental visit and reported incorporating the instruction and recommendations they received into their children's home routine.

  20. Investigating Instructional Design Management and Leadership Competencies--A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Chongwony, Lewis; Washington, Tawana

    2018-01-01

    Research in instructional design and educational technology journals typically focuses on the theories, technologies, and processes related to practice of instructional design. There is little research emphasis, however, on leadership and management of instructional design in higher education. Investigating the competencies associated with…

  1. A Study on how to make “independent students” in commercial high schools

    OpenAIRE

    石村, 雅雄; 谷本, 浩志

    2012-01-01

    In this past 10 years, commercial high schools' role and expectations are changed greatly. In this study, what should their teachers do for making "independent students" are clarified through researching, investigating and rearranging the present conditions and the problem of commercial high schools. And also, suggestions for making "independent students" are clarified based on Tanimoto's practices about teaching and student guidance. The summarized results are follows. It is very important t...

  2. A comparison study of instruction between international school and state school of middle school level in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamelasari, S. D.; Nurkhalisa, S.; Laksmana, S. I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the instruction in international school and state school in the middle level in Indonesia to find out the strength and weakness of each school in order to identify some professional development needs. The observation and interview were conducted to see the instruction of each school. Some pedagogy aspects consisting of attitude, strategy, and practice were observed to get the overview of instruction. Through this study, it has been found that the teachers apply an active learning approach that created an enthusiastic atmosphere of students’ participation. However, the different circumstance found is in the aspect of the number of students, the language of instruction and students’ characteristics between those schools.

  3. Board Size and Board Independence: A Quantitative Study on Banking Industry in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Rashid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship of board independence and board size with productivity and efficiency of the listed banks on the Karachi Stock Exchange, Pakistan. There is a lack of consensus regarding impact of corporate governance practices in correspondence to number of board members and board independence in banking sector. The derived results of the study show that there is a positive relationship between board independence and bank profitability and efficiency. Independent directors play a crucial role in providing genuine advice during executive decision making process which is an important source for improving overall corporate governance. Moreover, results regarding the role of control variables suggest a positive relationship of the total assets and deposits of the firm with the firm’s performance supporting stewardship theory in the market.

  4. Better learning through instructional science: a health literacy case study in "how to teach so learners can learn".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Ariela M; Echt, Katharina V; Cooper, Hannah L F; Miner, Kathleen R; Parker, Ruth

    2012-09-01

    Health education and behavior change interventions typically pay little attention to the intervention's instructional foundation. Combining the fields of health literacy, cognitive psychology, and adult learning theory, this article provides an integrative scientific approach, called the BEAN (Better Education and iNnovation) model, to creating an instructional foundation based on how individuals acquire knowledge and skills. The article uses a case study example from an adult literacy center's health literacy class to explore how environmental factors and instructional strategies can be applied to health education and behavior change interventions. Data for this case study were derived through 20 hours of classroom observation and qualitative interviews with 21 adult education students and 3 instructors. Results provide practical examples of environmental factors and instructional strategies designed to facilitate learning, such as fostering autonomy, activating prior knowledge, and fostering perspective change. Results also describe the resulting health behavior changes of students attending the health literacy class, such as increased medication adherence and physical activity, improved nutritional habits, and increased question asking of health practitioners. This article serves as a first step to encouraging researchers and educators to consider the importance of drawing on cognitive psychology and theories of adult learning to create a scientifically based instructional foundation for health behavior change programs. Additionally, by drawing on the expertise of adult educators well versed in the science of instructional design, this article also demonstrates that the adult education classroom is an excellent setting for conducting health education and behavior change interventions.

  5. Correlates of children's independent outdoor play: Cross-sectional analyses from the Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aggio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Time spent outdoors is associated with higher levels of physical activity. To date, correlates of independent outdoor play have not been investigated. This study aimed to identify potential demographic, behavioural, environmental and social correlates of children's independent outdoor play.Data were from the Millennium Cohort Study when children were aged 7years. Parents reported whether their children played out unsupervised (yes/no as well as the above mentioned correlates of unsupervised outdoor play. Children's physical activity levels were measured using waist worn accelerometry. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between correlates and odds of independent (unsupervised outdoor play. Adjusted multiple linear regression was used to estimate associations between independent outdoor play and objective measures of physical activity. Activity was measured as average daily moderate-to-vigorous activity, steps, and sedentary behaviour.3856 (n=29% participants were categorised as engaging in independent outdoor play. Older age, being white British, being in poverty, living in close proximity to both family friends and family, having fewer internalising problems, having more externalising conduct problems and fewer pro-social behaviours were associated with higher odds of independent outdoor play. Independent outdoor play was associated with >2 additional minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity (B=2.21 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.34, >330 additional steps per day (B=336.66 95% CI 209.80 to 463.51, and nearly 5min less time spent sedentary per day (B=−4.91 95% CI −7.54, −2.29Younger children, those from a higher socio-economic-status, those isolated in location from family friends and family, and those with high levels of prosocial behaviour have lower levels of independent outdoor play. Independent outdoor play was associated with higher levels of physical activity and less time sedentary. Future interventions to promote

  6. Organization of the independent work of students while studying engineering graphics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tel’noy Viktor Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the possibility of creating and implementing teaching conditions for the rational organization of the independent work of first-year students in state of adaptation to the study of the course of engineering drawing. Theoretical and methodological aspects of students’ independent work are presented: types and forms of organization and control, training and methodological support of their independent work. The authors used such an approach to independent work organization: teacher-led classes during the main types of training activities (lectures, practical and laboratory work; form of organization of training (extracurricular, and also self study using innovative teaching methods promotes creative activities of students and the development of competencies of a future skilled construction industry professional. The role of modern information and communication technologies in independent work of students was specified. According to the degree of coverage of students, taking into account individual characteristics and different levels of preparedness, the following forms of independent work organization were detached: individual, differentiated and front.In the process of engineering graphics studying it is recommended to use the following basic forms of independent work: ongoing work with the lecture material; selection and study of literature and electronic sources of information on the problems of the discipline; preparation for the main classroom training; performing calculation and graphic works; work in student scientific societies and carrying out research work; participation in scientific conferences, seminars and other. Emphasis on the formation of students’ skills in working with different types of educational and scientific literature, the ability to analyze, organize information in electronical library systems, open educational resources.

  7. Colonization of the Tongue Surface in Japanese Independent Elders: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Ohno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral care is important to decrease oral bacteria, especially in the dependent elders. There have been some reports on oral microflora in the dependent elders. However, investigations involving healthy independent elders are limited. The purpose of this study was to obtain more information on the microflora in Japanese independent elders. One hundred Japanese independent elders aged 65 years or older participated in this study. Eighty-one independent elders (male: 44, female: 37, mean age: 72.7 ± 5.8 participated in this study. Their mean Barthel Index was 99.1 ± 3.1, and mean score of MMSE was 28.0 ± 2.3. The tongue bacterial flora was examinved to identify microorganisms by the culture method. The predominant aerobic organisms were Streptococcus spp. (detection rate: 100%, Neisseria spp. (96%, and Corynebacterium spp. (56%. Candida spp. was also isolated (32%. In this study, the oral microflora of the tongue in Japanese independent elders was clarified. The results of this investigation may contribute to research on oral bacteria in elder persons in the future.

  8. Factors threatening the survival of independent financial advisers in their organisational life cycle: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle van Tonder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates various threats to the survival of independent financial advisers in their organisational life cycle.  Telephone interviews were conducted to gain more insight into the demographic data of the respondents and to attempt to group them into life cycle stages.  Personal interviews were conducted to investigate the respondents' problems.  The contribution of this study is twofold:  First, general life cycle stages applicable to the businesses of independent financial advisers were determined.  Secondly, the study identified the important problems as well as those that ought to be consideration in the advisers' businesses.  The findings could be of assistance to independent financial advisers in analysing both their current business position and their planning for future requirements as the business develops from one stage to the next.

  9. The Impact of "Virtualization" on Independent Study Course Completion Rates: The British Columbia Open University Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Louis

    2009-01-01

    In 1997 the British Columbia Open University (BCOU) adopted a virtualization strategy based primarily on twinning off-line independent study distance education courses (textbook-based with study guide and telephone and e-mail tutor support) with alternate online versions (textbook-based with integrated conferencing and communications provided…

  10. Pre-Service Teachers' Problems of Improvisation of Instructional Materials in Social Studies in Ekiti State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu-Raheem, B. O.; Oluwagbohunmi, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined problems of improvisation of instructional materials in Social Studies by pre-service teachers in Ekiti State University. The population for the study comprised all Social Studies pre-service teachers in the Faculty of Education. The sample consisted of 90 Social Studies pre-service teachers selected from 200, 300 and 400…

  11. Encoding instructions and stimulus presentation in local environmental context-dependent memory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markopoulos, G; Rutherford, A; Cairns, C; Green, J

    2010-08-01

    Murnane and Phelps (1993) recommend word pair presentations in local environmental context (EC) studies to prevent associations being formed between successively presented items and their ECs and a consequent reduction in the EC effect. Two experiments were conducted to assess the veracity of this assumption. In Experiment 1, participants memorised single words or word pairs, or categorised them as natural or man made. Their free recall protocols were examined to assess any associations established between successively presented items. Fewest associations were observed when the item-specific encoding task (i.e., natural or man made categorisation of word referents) was applied to single words. These findings were examined further in Experiment 2, where the influence of encoding instructions and stimulus presentation on local EC dependent recognition memory was examined. Consistent with recognition dual-process signal detection model predictions and findings (e.g., Macken, 2002; Parks & Yonelinas, 2008), recollection sensitivity, but not familiarity sensitivity, was found to be local EC dependent. However, local EC dependent recognition was observed only after item-specific encoding instructions, irrespective of stimulus presentation. These findings and the existing literature suggest that the use of single word presentations and item-specific encoding enhances local EC dependent recognition.

  12. A study of the effects of gender and different instructional media (computer-assisted instruction tutorials vs. textbook) on student attitudes and achievement in a team-taught integrated science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eardley, Julie Anne

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different instructional media (computer assisted instruction (CAI) tutorial vs. traditional textbook) on student attitudes toward science and computers and achievement scores in a team-taught integrated science course, ENS 1001, "The Whole Earth Course," which was offered at Florida Institute of Technology during the Fall 2000 term. The effect of gender on student attitudes toward science and computers and achievement scores was also investigated. This study employed a randomized pretest-posttest control group experimental research design with a sample of 30 students (12 males and 18 females). Students had registered for weekly lab sessions that accompanied the course and had been randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. The treatment group used a CAI tutorial for completing homework assignments and the control group used the required textbook for completing homework assignments. The Attitude toward Science and Computers Questionnaire and Achievement Test were the two instruments administered during this study to measure students' attitudes and achievement score changes. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), using hierarchical multiple regression/correlation (MRC), was employed to determine: (1) treatment versus control group attitude and achievement differences; and (2) male versus female attitude and achievement differences. The differences between the treatment group's and control group's homework averages were determined by t test analyses. The overall MANCOVA model was found to be significant at p factor set independent variables separately resulted in gender being the only variable that significantly contributed in explaining the variability in a dependent variable, attitudes toward science and computers. T test analyses of the homework averages showed no significant differences. Contradictory to the findings of this study, anecdotal information from personal communication, course

  13. Instructional Leadership as Defined by Virginia Elementary Title I Principals: a Delphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Rebecca G.

    2012-01-01

    Rebecca G. Eastwood Abstract Policymakers have tried to link the principal to student outcomes, thus shifting the role of the principal from manager to instructional leader of the school. The significance of instructional leadership has increased especially since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in January of 2002. However, a common definition of instructional leadership is difficult to locate in the literature. In this three-round Delp...

  14. A striving for independence: a qualitative study of women living with vertebral fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toss Göran

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative studies using generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL questionnaires have shown that osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have a significant negative effect on HRQOL, but there are only few studies that address what it means to live with vertebral fracture from a deeper experiential perspective. How HRQOL and daily life are affected several years after vertebral fracture and how women cope with this are more unclear. This study aimed to describe how HRQOL and daily life had been affected in women with vertebral fracture several years after diagnosis. Methods The study design was qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Swedish women during 2008. Data were analysed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Results The findings of this study revealed three themes related to the influence on HRQOL and daily life: A threatened independence, i.e. back pain, anxiety, negative impact on self-image and consequences in daily life; Strategies for maintaining independence, i.e. coping, self-care and support; and The importance of maintaining independence, i.e. the ability to perform everyday activities, social interaction and having something meaningful to do. The women were striving for independence or maintaining their independence by trying to manage different types of symptoms and consequences in different ways. Conclusion HRQOL and daily life were strongly affected in a negative way by the impact of the vertebral fracture. Information from this study may provide new knowledge and understanding of the women's experiences of living with vertebral fracture from an insider's point of view in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the women's everyday life. However, further evaluation is still needed in larger study groups.

  15. A striving for independence: a qualitative study of women living with vertebral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Inger; Ek, Anna-Christina; Toss, Göran; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta

    2010-04-16

    Quantitative studies using generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires have shown that osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have a significant negative effect on HRQOL, but there are only few studies that address what it means to live with vertebral fracture from a deeper experiential perspective. How HRQOL and daily life are affected several years after vertebral fracture and how women cope with this are more unclear. This study aimed to describe how HRQOL and daily life had been affected in women with vertebral fracture several years after diagnosis. The study design was qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Swedish women during 2008. Data were analysed using qualitative inductive content analysis. The findings of this study revealed three themes related to the influence on HRQOL and daily life: A threatened independence, i.e. back pain, anxiety, negative impact on self-image and consequences in daily life; Strategies for maintaining independence, i.e. coping, self-care and support; and The importance of maintaining independence, i.e. the ability to perform everyday activities, social interaction and having something meaningful to do. The women were striving for independence or maintaining their independence by trying to manage different types of symptoms and consequences in different ways. HRQOL and daily life were strongly affected in a negative way by the impact of the vertebral fracture. Information from this study may provide new knowledge and understanding of the women's experiences of living with vertebral fracture from an insider's point of view in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the women's everyday life. However, further evaluation is still needed in larger study groups.

  16. Pure study and experimental application of laser measurement for students in independent colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanyi; Liu, Zhe

    2017-08-01

    The cultivation of independent college students is the development of applied talents and the strength of students' innovative ability. This requires teachers to make better use of the resources of the school, to develop students' ability with greatest possible and to encourage students to learn independently and personality development. We can carry out multi-discipline curriculum design practice after the study of related disciplines in order to make students have a more in-depth understanding and learning of the professional courses. In this paper, we will research on curriculum design based on the combination of Laser Measurement Technology and Digital Image Processing.

  17. Technology Integration in EFL Classrooms: A Study of Qatari Independent Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaban, Youmen; Ellili-Cherif, Maha

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of teachers' individual characteristics and perceptions of environmental factors on the extent of technology integration into EFL (English as a Foreign Language) classrooms. To this end, a national survey examining EFL teachers' perceptions was conducted at Qatari Independent Schools. A total of…

  18. How Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience Support Invention: A Study with German Independent Inventors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieg, Harald A.; Bedenk, Stephan J.; Braun, Anna; Neyer, Franz J.

    2012-01-01

    How does invention depend on personality? Do inventors differ from noninventors? This study investigated the personal factors influencing a sample of independent inventors in Germany (N = 69). Standardized psychological questionnaires were employed to assess the Big Five personality dimensions, willingness to take risks, self-concept, and…

  19. Field study of visual and biological light conditions of independently-living elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.P.J.; Westerlaken, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    A field study was carried out to learn more about the influence of light on the lives of elderly people . The results should lead to the development and design of a light concept for elderly people that will improve their everyday health and well-being. Methods: Ninetyone independently-living

  20. Task Selection, Task Switching and Multitasking during Computer-Based Independent Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Detailed logs of students' computer use, during independent study sessions, were captured in an open-access computer laboratory. Each log consisted of a chronological sequence of tasks representing either the application or the Internet domain displayed in the workstation's active window. Each task was classified using a three-tier schema…

  1. Normative study of theme identifiability: Instructions with and without explanation of the false memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Maria Soledad; Cadavid, Sara

    2016-12-01

    False-memory illusions have been widely studied using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm (DRM). In this paradigm, words semantically related to a single nonpresented critical word are studied. In a later memory test, critical words are often falsely recalled and recognized. The present normative study was conducted to measure the theme identifiability of 60 associative word lists in Spanish that include six words (e.g., stove, coat, blanket, scarf, chill, and bonnet) that are simultaneously associated with three critical words (e.g., HEAT, COLD, and WINTER; Beato & Díez, Psicothema, 26, 457-463, 2011). Different levels of backward associative strength were used in the construction of the DRM lists. In addition, we used two types of instructions to obtain theme identifiability. In the without-explanation condition, traditional instructions were used, requesting participants to write the theme list. In the with-explanation condition, the false-memory effect and how the lists were built were explained, and an example of a DRM list and critical words was shown. Participants then had to discover the critical words. The results showed that all lists produced theme identifiability. Moreover, some lists had a higher theme identifiability rate (e.g., 61 % for the critical words LOVE, BOYFRIEND, COUPLE) than others (e.g., 24 % for CITY, PLACE, VILLAGE). After comparing the theme identifiabilities in the different conditions, the results indicated higher theme identifiability when the false-memory effect was explained than without such an explanation. Overall, these new normative data provide a useful tool for those experiments that, for example, aim to analyze the wide differences observed in false memory with DRM lists and the role of theme identifiability.

  2. Prospect for Cell Phones as Instructional Tools in the EFL Classroom: A Case Study of Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Roksana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potentiality of cell phone use in the EFL classroom of Bangladesh as an instructional tool. The researcher conducted a case study on Jahangirnagar University of Bangladesh. For the study, some SMS based class tests were conducted in the English Department of the university where one hundred…

  3. Effectiveness of Facebook Based Learning to Enhance Creativity among Islamic Studies Students by Employing Isman Instructional Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah; Daud, Mohd Khairul Azman Md; Hussin, Zaharah

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of Facebook based learning to enhance creativity among Islamic Studies students in the secondary educational setting in Malaysia. It describes the design process by employing the Isman Instructional Design Model. A quantitative study was carried out using experimental method and background survey. The…

  4. Instructional Suggestions Supporting Science Learning in Digital Environments Based on a Review of Eye-Tracking Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Chiou, Guo-Li; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to provide instructional suggestions for supporting science learning in digital environments based on a review of eye tracking studies in e-learning related areas. Thirty-three eye-tracking studies from 2005 to 2014 were selected from the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) database for review. Through a…

  5. A Case Study of Faculty Attitudes toward Library Instruction: The Citadel Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, J. Edmund

    1990-01-01

    Describes a survey of the teaching faculty at the Citadel that examined how the English faculty compared to other faculty in their perceptions and use of library instruction. It is concluded that the findings may be used to support an integrated, across-the-curriculum approach to library instruction. The questionnaire used is appended. (12…

  6. A Study of the Literature on Lab-Based Instruction in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, Gillian; Drayton, Brian; Cohen, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the practitioner literature on lab-based instruction in biology in "The American Biology Teacher" between 2007 and 2012. We investigated what laboratory learning looks like in biology classrooms, what topics are addressed, what instructional methods and activities are described, and what is being learned about student…

  7. The Strategic Use of Scaffolded Instruction in Social Studies Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Dimino, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    Several components of specialized instruction have historically influenced text-based interventions for students with learning disabilities (LD). This article addresses the unique role of scaffolded instruction, focusing on supporting students with LD to help them to develop strategies that promote reading for understanding and writing in social…

  8. Mother Tongue Instruction in Lubuagan: A Case Study from the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Stephen L.; Dekker, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    In the modern era, the prevailing model of public education has been that of "one size fits all", with private schooling being a small but notable exception. Language (of instruction) was generally viewed as a minor variable readily overcome by standard classroom instruction. As researchers have sharpened their focus on the reasons for…

  9. Mnemonic Instruction in Science and Social Studies for Students with Learning Problems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Jacqueline; Polloway, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, mnemonic instruction has been promoted as an effective strategy to teach students with learning problems including learning disabilities (LD) or mild intellectual disability (MID). This paper discusses mnemonic instruction, including types, versatility in use, and effectiveness with struggling learners. Specific emphasis then is…

  10. Predicting Teacher Job Satisfaction Based on Principals' Instructional Supervision Behaviours: A Study of Turkish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgan, Abdurrahman; Parylo, Oksana; Sungu, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative research examined instructional supervision behaviours of school principals as a predictor of teacher job satisfaction through the analysis of Turkish teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional supervision behaviours. There was a statistically significant difference found between the teachers' job satisfaction level and…

  11. Effects of Professional Development on Teachers' Instruction: Results from a Three-year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, Laura M.; Porter, Andrew C.; Garet, Michael S.; Yoon, Kwang Suk; Birman, Beatrice F.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of professional development on teachers' instruction using a purposeful sample of about 207 teachers across 5 states for 1996-1999. Professional development focused on specific instructional practices increased teachers' use of those practices in the classroom, and specific features, such as active learning opportunities,…

  12. The effect of minimalist footwear and instruction on running: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellona, Massimo Giuseppe; Buckley, Linda; Palmer, Lisa J M; Ormond, Roisin M; Owen, Gwawr; Watson, Daniel J; Woledge, Roger; Newham, Di

    2017-01-01

    It is not known whether the effects on altered running style which are attributed to minimalist footwear can be achieved by verbal instructions in standard running shoes (SRS). To explore the effect of Vibram FiveFingers (VFF) versus SRS plus running instruction on lower extremity spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb joint kinematics. 35 healthy subjects (mean=30 years, 18 females) were assessed on two occasions with 3D motion analysis. At each session subjects ran on a treadmill (3.58 m/s) for 2 min in either VFF or SRS (randomised order); with and without running instruction. Differences between spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb joint kinematics between conditions were assessed using a 2x2 repeated-measures ANOVA. Wearing VFF significantly increased cadence (pfootwear. However, the kinematic adaptations observed following instruction suggests that changes in joint angles previously attributed to minimalist footwear alone may be similarly achieved with instruction.

  13. Effectiveness of MMORPG-Based Instruction in Elementary English Education in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, S.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG)-based (massive multiplayer online role-playing game) instruction in elementary English education. The effectiveness of the MMORPG program was compared with face-to-face instruction and the independent variables (gender, prior knowledge, motivation…

  14. Mathematics Instruction for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Best-Evidence Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Nicole C.; Benner, Gregory J.; Tsai, Shu-Fei; Riccomini, Paul J.; Nelson, J. Ron

    2014-01-01

    The authors report findings of a best-evidence synthesis of the effects of mathematics instruction on the mathematics skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The goal of the synthesis was to extend previous research by (a) detailing independent variables, instructional components, and outcome measures for each study; (b)…

  15. BASIC Instructional Program: System Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dageforde, Mary L.

    This report documents the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP), a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language, as implemented in the MAINSAIL language, a machine-independent revision of SAIL which should facilitate implementation of BIP on other computing systems. Eight instructional modules which make up…

  16. Functional independence and mobility in kidney transplanted patients: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuíra O. Maia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS To assess functional independence, balance and mobility of kidney transplant recipients, to verify transplant time, donor type, regular exercise practice, musculoskeletal complaints, as well as association among these variables METHODS Observational study with 86 kidney transplant individuals, subjected to evaluation of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM and Timed Up and Go test (TUG. RESULTS The mean age of the study population was 43.98 years old, 50% of these individuals were between 5-10 years of transplantation and 50% between 10-15 years. Changes in mobility and balance (TUG were found in 9.3% of transplant patients, while 2.3% had deficits in functional independence (FIM. The association between TUG and the FIM (χ2= 19.964, p< 0.001 was found in 25% of the 9.3% of individuals who showed changes in TUG. It was found that only 20.9% of kidney transplant between 5-10 years and 14.0% between 11 and 15 years performed regular physical exercises (χ2= 0.727, p= 0.394 and 67.4% presented prevalent complaints on lower limbs musculoskeletal. CONCLUSION Although the level of dependence and impairments in mobility and balance found in renal transplants are low, deficits in mobility and balance may lead to changes in the ability to perform their functional activities independently.

  17. The Effectiveness of Computer-Based Spaced Repetition in Foreign Language Vocabulary Instruction: A Double-Blind Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Klepikova, Tatiana A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is twofold; first, we present an empirical study evaluating the effectiveness of a novel CALL tool for foreign language vocabulary instruction based on spaced repetition of target vocabulary items. The study demonstrates that by spending an average of three minutes each day on automatically generated vocabulary…

  18. A Study of the Relationship between Gender, Salary, and Student Ratings of Instruction at a Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magel, Rhonda C.; Doetkott, Curt; Cao, Li

    2017-01-01

    Salary studies in the United States and some other countries show a gap between male and female faculty salaries in higher education that widens over time. The present study examines one possible explanation, particularly at research universities, by examining changes in faculty salaries in relation to student ratings of instruction. Student…

  19. The Impact of Mass and Universal Higher Education on Curriculum and Instruction: Case Studies of China and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    Based on case studies of China and Japan, this study undertakes comparative research on major aspects of university curriculum and instruction-teaching activities of academics, their role in curriculum development, and their perceptions of these activities--between a mass and a universal higher education system. Major findings from the APA…

  20. What Spelling Tells Us about the Orthographic Development and Word Study Instruction with Emergent Bilingual Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Darl; Bear, Donald R.

    2018-01-01

    Educators need ways to assess orthographic knowledge and differentiate word study instruction for secondary, emergent bilingual learners. In this study, the spelling of 199 students in grades 7-12 across eight features and four spelling stages was examined to understand students' orthographic development; all but two were learning Spanish and…

  1. REPP: A Case Study in Federal Financing--Long Term Fiscal and Instructional Implications. A Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Kathleen M.

    A study was conducted at the College of the Redwoods to analyze the fiscal, institutional, and instructional impact of the Redwood Employees Protection Plan (REPP) program, a federally funded retraining program for timber workers displaced by redwood park expansion. The study involved telephone interviews with 37 former and current students, 16…

  2. Trends in Educational Research: A Content Analysis of the Studies Published in International Journal of Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eray Eğmir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the studies published in International Journal of Instruction [IJI] in the last ten years. This study is a qualitative, descriptive literature review study. The data was collected through document analysis, coded using constant comparison and analysed using content analysis. Frequencies and percentages were calculated. As IJI being an international, open access journal, the results of this analysis are expected to give a clue about the research trends in the field of education. Beyond this, within this study, the topics, the techniques of sampling, the methods of research, the statistical procedures and the countries in which the researches took place and some other variables were examined. The results showed that studies in the field of education mostly employ quantitative methods, purposive or random sampling techniques, and a sample size of below 500. Data collection tools mostly consist of scales and the data are mostly analyzed using descriptive statistics. Publishing studies from 35 different countries, IJI has a high level of internationality

  3. The structure of contraceptive education and instruction within nurse led family planning clinics: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayter, Mark

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to explore and analyse how nurses instruct women in contraceptive use during consultations in family planning clinics to produce a grounded theory of contraceptive education. Nurses play a key role in instructing women how to use contraception in family planning clinic consultations. These one-to-one situations are encounters where women are taught how to use contraceptive methods effectively. However, very little is known about the nature of these consultations. A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach was used. Three linked 'core categories' emerged from the data analysis. Firstly, women are educated about their body and how it responds to contraception: 'reproductive education'. This core category is closely linked to 'surveillance' where women are taught to monitor their reproductive health and to 'contraceptive regimen' where women are instructed in techniques to successfully use a contraceptive method. Together these three core categories present a grounded theory of 'contraceptive education'. Nursing practice in this important area of women's health care is complex and requires skilled practitioners. This study presents unique empirical data into how nurses conduct one-to-one consultations with women - providing a novel insight into how contraception is explained in clinical situations. Key issues for practice from the data were the lack of a balance when discussing side effects, the rigidity of some instructions and the lack of recognition of risk from sexually transmitted infection. Nurses working in sexual health need to ensure that women understand the often complex instructions they provide and that rigid instruction be occasionally amended to enable some flexibility. The manner in which side-effects are discussed should also be balanced. Nurses need to address the risk of sexually transmitted infections more substantially in contraceptive discussions.

  4. Independent predictors of tuberculosis mortality in a high HIV prevalence setting: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Dominique J; Schomaker, Michael; Wilkinson, Robert J; de Azevedo, Virginia; Maartens, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Identifying those at increased risk of death during TB treatment is a priority in resource-constrained settings. We performed this study to determine predictors of mortality during TB treatment. We performed a retrospective analysis of a TB surveillance population in a high HIV prevalence area that was recorded in ETR.net (Electronic Tuberculosis Register). Adult TB cases initiated TB treatment from 2007 through 2009 in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify risk factors for death (after multiple imputations for missing data). Model selection was performed using Akaike's Information Criterion to obtain the most relevant predictors of death. Of 16,209 adult TB cases, 851 (5.3 %) died during TB treatment. In all TB cases, advancing age, co-infection with HIV, a prior history of TB and the presence of both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB were independently associated with an increasing hazard of death. In HIV-infected TB cases, advancing age and female gender were independently associated with an increasing hazard of death. Increasing CD4 counts and antiretroviral treatment during TB treatment were protective against death. In HIV-uninfected TB cases, advancing age was independently associated with death, whereas smear-positive disease was protective. We identified several independent predictors of death during TB treatment in resource-constrained settings. Our findings inform resource-constrained settings about certain subgroups of TB patients that should be targeted to improve mortality during TB treatment.

  5. A comparative study of students' track and field technical performance in sport education and in a direct instruction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José; Hastie, Peter; Araújo, Rui; Farias, Cláudio; Rolim, Ramiro; Mesquita, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    This study examined students' technical performances improvements in three track and field events (hurdles, shot put, and long jump) following either a Sport Education season or a Direct Instruction unit. An experienced Physical Education teacher taught two classes totalling 47 sixth-grade students (25 boys and 22 girls, aged between 10 and 13 years old) in 20, 45-minute lessons over 10 weeks. The students' technical performances were analysed and evaluated through systematic observation of videos. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare scores at three time points (pre-test, post-test and retention), and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the differences within each instructional model at each assessment moment, as well as by gender and skill level. The impact of each instructional model in student learning was markedly distinct. While in Sport Education students of both genders and skill levels improved significantly in all events, in Direct Instruction, evidence of significant improvements was limited to boys and students of higher skill level. Key pointsThe impact of each teaching approach in student learning was distinct. While in Sport Education the technical performance improvements spread throughout students of both genders and skill levels, in Direct Instruction significant improvements were exclusive to boys and students of higher skill level.The extended analysis in the current study, taking into account student gender and skill level, permitted a more comprehensive measure of the learning impact of the two approaches. More sophisticated analyses of the tasks and instructional strategies of each approach are encouraged.

  6. Information Literacy Instruction Assessment and Improvement through Evidence Based Practice: A Mixed Method Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Wakimoto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective — This study explored first-year students’ learning and satisfaction in a required information literacy course. The study asked how students understand connections between themselves and information literacy in terms of power, society, and personal relevance to assess if students’ understanding of information literacy increased after taking the course. Student satisfaction with the course also was measured.Methods — The study used pre- and post tests and focus group session transcripts which were coded and analyzed to determine student learning and satisfaction during the regular 2008-2009 academic year at California State University, East Bay.Results — Many students entered the course without any concept of information literacy; however, after taking the course they found information literacy to be personally relevant and were able to articulate connections among information, power, and society. The majority of students were satisfied with the course. The results from analyzing the pre- and post-tests were supported by the findings from the focus group sessions.Conclusion — The results of this study are supported by other studies that show the importance of personal relevancy to student learning. In order to fully assess information literacy instruction and student learning, librarians should consider incorporating ways of assessing student learning beyond testing content knowledge and levels of competency.

  7. SU-E-T-49: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, H; Tachibana, H; Kamima, T; Takahashi, R; Kawai, D; Sugawara, Y; Yamamoto, T; Sato, A; Yamashita, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: AAPM TG114 does not cover the independent verification for IMRT. We conducted a study of independent dose verification for IMRT in seven institutes to show the feasibility. Methods: 384 IMRT plans in the sites of prostate and head and neck (HN) were collected from the institutes, where the planning was performed using Eclipse and Pinnacle3 with the two techniques of step and shoot (S&S) and sliding window (SW). All of the institutes used a same independent dose verification software program (Simple MU Analysis: SMU, Triangle Product, Ishikawa, JP), which is Clarkson-based and CT images were used to compute radiological path length. An ion-chamber measurement in a water-equivalent slab phantom was performed to compare the doses computed using the TPS and an independent dose verification program. Additionally, the agreement in dose computed in patient CT images between using the TPS and using the SMU was assessed. The dose of the composite beams in the plan was evaluated. Results: The agreement between the measurement and the SMU were −2.3±1.9 % and −5.6±3.6 % for prostate and HN sites, respectively. The agreement between the TPSs and the SMU were −2.1±1.9 % and −3.0±3.7 for prostate and HN sites, respectively. There was a negative systematic difference with similar standard deviation and the difference was larger in the HN site. The S&S technique showed a statistically significant difference between the SW. Because the Clarkson-based method in the independent program underestimated (cannot consider) the dose under the MLC. Conclusion: The accuracy would be improved when the Clarkson-based algorithm should be modified for IMRT and the tolerance level would be within 5%

  8. A study of potential sources of linguistic ambiguity in written work instructions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the results of a small experimental study that investigated potential sources of ambiguity in written work instructions (WIs). The English language can be highly ambiguous because words with different meanings can share the same spelling. Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous WIs can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. To study possible sources of ambiguity in WIs, we determined which of the recommended action verbs in the DOE and BWXT writer's manuals have numerous meanings to their intended audience, making them potentially ambiguous. We used cognitive psychology techniques to conduct a survey in which technicians who use WIs in their jobs indicated the first meaning that came to mind for each of the words. Although the findings of this study are limited by the small number of respondents, we identified words that had many different meanings even within this limited sample. WI writers should pay particular attention to these words and to their most frequent meanings so that they can avoid ambiguity in their writing.

  9. Documenting Elementary Teachers' Sustainability of Instructional Practices: A Mixed Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Bridget A.

    School reform programs focus on making educational changes; however, research on interventions past the funded implementation phase to determine what was sustained is rarely done (Beery, Senter, Cheadle, Greenwald, Pearson, et al., 2005). This study adds to the research on sustainability by determining what instructional practices, if any, of the Teaching SMARTRTM professional development program that was implemented from 2005--2008 in elementary schools with teachers in grades third through eighth were continued, discontinued, or adapted five years post-implementation (in 2013). Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: What do teachers who participated in Teaching SMARTRTM and district administrators share about the sustainability of Teaching SMARTRTM practices in 2013? What teaching strategies do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use in their science classrooms five years postimplementation (2013)? What perceptions about the roles of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) have five years later (2013)? And, What classroom management techniques do the teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use five years post implementation (2013)? A mixed method approach was used to answer these questions. Quantitative teacher survey data from 23 teachers who participated in 2008 and 2013 were analyzed in SAS v. 9.3. Descriptive statistics were reported and paired t-tests were conducted to determine mean differences by survey factors identified from an exploratory factor analysis, principal axis factoring, and parallel analysis conducted with teacher survey baseline data (2005). Individual teacher change scores (2008 and 2013) for identified factors were computed using the Reliable Change Index statistic. Qualitative data consisted of interviews with two district administrators and three teachers who responded to the survey in both

  10. The Relative Effectiveness of Three Types of Notes Used as Adjunct Study Activities to Group Audiovisual Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Marvin H.

    A graduate thesis investigated the value of notetaking and prepared notes as adjunctive activities in audiovisual instruction. In the first experiment, taking notes on prepared topic outlines was found to be better than taking notes on blank paper. In the second experiment, not taking on topic outlines and the use of study guides were shown to be…

  11. Sociomoral Atmosphere in Direct-Instruction, Eclectic, and Constructivist Kindergartens: A Study of Teachers' Enacted Interpersonal Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Rheta; And Others

    This study examined the interactions between teachers and children in three kindergarten classrooms. Programs used in the classrooms were: a direct-instruction (DI) program, representing a cultural transmission paradigm; a contructivist program (CON), representing the cognitive-developmental paradigm; and an eclectic program (ECL), combining…

  12. A Study of the Influence of Advertising Techniques on Selection of Instructional Reading Materials by Prospective Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, M. Jean; And Others

    This study examined the effect of three different modes of presentation on elementary education majors' selection and rating of materials for reading instruction. Materials were chosen to represent each of the following propaganda techniques: glittering generalities, name calling, transfer, testimonial, bandwagon, and card stacking. Students in…

  13. A Case Study on the Effects of an L2 Writing Instructional Model for Blended Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Lee; Lee, Chung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    This case study explores EFL (English as a foreign language) students' perceptions toward a prototype of an instructional model for second language (L2) writing in blended learning and the effects of the model on the development of L2 writing skills in higher education. This model is primarily founded on the process-oriented writing approach…

  14. Self-Instructional Module Based on Cognitive Load Theory: A Study on Information Retention among Trainee Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chiek Pin; Tasir, Zaidatun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research is to study the information retention among trainee teachers using a self-instructional printed module based on Cognitive Load Theory for learning spreadsheet software. Effective pedagogical considerations integrating the theoretical concepts related to cognitive load are reflected in the design and development of the…

  15. Empirical Study on the Effect of Digital Game-Based Instruction on Students' Learning Motivation and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chun

    2017-01-01

    As pupils are largely increased the opportunities to contact digital games, the effect of digital games has been broadly discussed and studied. Digital games no longer play the function of entertainment, but could assist students in more active learning and deeper and broader learning, when being applied to instruction. It is limited to learn in…

  16. The Influence of Principal Leadership on Classroom Instruction and Student Learning: A Study of Mediated Pathways to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, James; Allensworth, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of principal leadership in high schools on classroom instruction and student achievement through key organizational factors, including professional capacity, parent-community ties, and the school's learning climate. It identifies paths through which leadership explains differences in achievement and…

  17. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

  18. Living arrangements of young adults living independently: evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, K S; Garner, T I

    1990-12-01

    A cross-country comparison of the impact of socioeconomic factors on household formation by young adults in the 15-24 age group is presented. "Of those young people living independently (not in their parental homes), how do incomes from various sources affect their decision whether to live alone or with others? The sample did not include all persons in the 15-24 age group, only those living independently. A logit analysis of the living alone question was conducted using data from five countries (Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States) included in the LIS [Luxembourg Income Study] data base to determine whether differences across countries exist." excerpt

  19. Supervising Model of Independent Enterprise Group (Study of Community Development PT Badak NGL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermansyah Hermansyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to arrange an empowerment model of enterprise group through the program of Community Development in order to be independent and ready to compete, which is begun from the empirical study of the success of Cipta Busana Cooperative.. This research uses the descriptive analysis by using a case study on one enterprise supervised by PT Badak NGL that is Koperasi Cipta Busana (Kocibu. Kocibu is chosen to be the object of research due to its success to achieve the target to be the independent supervised enterprise in the fourth year. The data analysis method used in this research is the explorative analysis. Based on the research, there are some results such as that Kocibu is one of the supervised Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises of PT Badak NGL that could develop and be independent through several supporting programs. Some of key successes of Kocibu are as follows: a high commitment, a good leader, and intensive supervising programs. Besides, a good marketing system also contributes to the key of success. There are some aspects that naturally contribute to the Kocibu improvement and emerge naturally as follows: the leader figure and the high commitment from the stakeholders. While, the aspects emerged by design are: the supervising and training programs, the evaluation, the determination of rules, and the business targets. Hopefully, after this research has been conducted, the aspects appeared naturaly would be realized so early that the success of the public empowerment program will be able to increase. 

  20. The Usher lifestyle survey: maintaining independence: a multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damen, Godelieve W J A; Krabbe, Paul F M; Kilsby, M; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M

    2005-12-01

    Patients with Usher syndrome face a special set of challenges in order to maintain their independence when their sight and hearing worsen. Three different types of Usher (I, II and III) are distinguished by differences in onset, progression and severity of hearing loss, and by the presence or absence of balance problems. In this study 93 Usher patients from seven European countries filled out a questionnaire on maintaining independence (60 patients type I, 25 patients type II, four patients type III and four patients type unknown). Results of Usher type I and II patients are presented. Following the Nordic definition of maintaining independence in deaf-blindness, three domains are investigated: access to information, communication and mobility. Research variables in this study are: age and type of Usher, considered hearing loss- and the number of retinitis pigmentosa-related sight problems. Usher type I patients tend to need more help than Usher type II patients and the amount of help that they need grows when patients get older or when considered hearing loss worsens. No patterns in results were seen for the number of retinitis pigmentosa related sight problems.

  1. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. Objective: This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. Methodology: A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the “Conventional Instruction” (CI study group or to the “Video-based Instruction” (VI study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a of the preparation and (b of the procedure as well as (c the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire.Results: The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (=-78, <0.44 or in the quality (=-99, <0.34. With respect to performance, it was possible to demonstrate a strong treatment effect. In the practical (=-3.33, <0.002, =0.943 and in the total score (=-2.65, <0.011, =0.751, the group with video-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4% of students stated video instruction

  2. A meta-study of qualitative research examining determinants of children's independent active free play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Homan; Tamminen, Katherine A; Clark, Alexander M; Slater, Linda; Spence, John C; Holt, Nicholas L

    2015-01-24

    To produce a meta-study by completing a systematic review of qualitative research examining determinants of independent active free play in children. Following systematic electronic and manual searches and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 46 studies were retained and subjected to meta-method, meta-theory, and meta-data analyses, followed by a final meta-synthesis. Identified determinants of independent active free play were child characteristics (age, competence, and gender), parental restrictions (safety concerns and surveillance), neighborhood and physical environment (fewer children to play with, differences in preferences for play spaces between parents and children, accessibility and proximity, and maintenance), societal changes (reduced sense of community, good parenting ideal, changing roles of parents, privatization of playtime and play spaces), and policy issues (need to give children voice). An ecological model depicting these factors, and the relationships therein, was created. This comprehensive meta-study helps establish a knowledge base for children's independent active free play research by synthesizing a previously fragmented set of studies. Parents' perceived safety concerns are the primary barrier to children's active free play. These safety concerns are moderated by child-level factors (age, competence, gender) and broader social issues. Interventions should focus on community-level solutions that include children's perspectives. From a methods perspective, the reviewed studies used a range of data collection techniques, but methodological details were often inadequately reported. The theoretical sophistication of research in this area could be improved. To this end, the synthesis reported in this study provides a framework for guiding future research.

  3. LANGUAGE LEARNING UNDER CLASSROOM CONDITIONS DURING THE TRANSITION TO HYBRID INSTRUCTION: A CASE-STUDY OF STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Lisbeth O. Swain; Timothy D. Swain

    2017-01-01

    We examined the unmanipulated performance of students under real classroom conditions in order to assess the effect of a technology-enhanced hybrid learning approach to second language, (L2) instruction on beginning and advanced Spanish language learners. This research focused on the transition period of technology implementation when the entire section of Spanish of a modern language department of a liberal arts university transitioned from traditional face-to-face instruction, to a technolo...

  4. Exploring cultural differences in feedback processes and perceived instructiveness during clerkships: replicating a Dutch study in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhoyo, Yoyo; van Hell, Elisabeth A; Prihatiningsih, Titi S; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2014-03-01

    Cultural differences between countries may entail differences in feedback processes. By replicating a Dutch study in Indonesia, we analysed whether differences in processes influenced the perceived instructiveness of feedback. Over a two-week period, Indonesian students (n = 215) recorded feedback moments during clerkships, noting who provided the feedback, whether the feedback was based on observations, who initiated the feedback, and its perceived instructiveness. Data were compared with the earlier Dutch study and analysed with χ(2) tests, t-tests and multilevel techniques. Cultural differences were explored using Hofstede's Model, with Indonesia and the Netherlands differing on "power distance" and "individualism." Perceived instructiveness of feedback did not differ significantly between both countries. However, significant differences were found in feedback provider, observation and initiative. Indonesian students perceived feedback as more instructive if provided by specialists and initiated jointly by the supervisor and student (βresidents = -0.201, p culture. Further research is necessary to unravel other possible influences of culture in implementing feedback procedures in different countries.

  5. Hyperhomocysteinemia is independently associated with albuminuria in the population-based CoLaus study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased serum levels of homocysteine and uric acid have each been associated with cardiovascular risk. We analyzed whether homocysteine and uric acid were associated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR and albuminuria independently of each other. We also investigated the association of MTHFR polymorphisms related to homocysteine with albuminuria to get further insight into causality. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study in Caucasians (n = 5913. Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as total serum homocysteine ≥ 15 μmol/L. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g. Results Uric acid was associated positively with homocysteine (r = 0.246 in men and r = 0.287 in women, P P for trend P P = 0.004 were significantly associated with albuminuria, independently of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The 2-fold higher risk of albuminuria associated with hyperhomocysteinemia was similar to the risk associated with hypertension or diabetes. MTHFR alleles related to higher homocysteine were associated with increased risk of albuminuria. Conclusions In the general adult population, elevated serum homocysteine and uric acid were associated with albuminuria independently of each other and of renal function.

  6. pH-independent immediate release polymethacrylate formulations--an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Bart; Vandeputte, Reinout; De Geest, Bruno G; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Using Eudragit® E PO (EudrE) as a polymethacrylate carrier, the aim of the study was to develop a pH-independent dosage form containing ibuprofen (IBP) as an active compound via chemical modification of the polymer (i.e. quaternization of amine function) or via the addition of dicarboxylic acids (succinic, glutaric and adipic acid) to create a pH micro-environment during dissolution. Biconvex tablets (diameter: 10 mm; height: 5 mm) were produced via hot melt extrusion and injection molding. In vitro dissolution experiments revealed that a minimum of 25% of quaternization was sufficient to partially (up to pH 5) eliminate the pH-dependent effect of the EudrE/IBP formulation. The addition of dicarboxylic acids did not alter IBP release in a pH 1 and 3 medium as the dimethyl amino groups of EudrE are already fully protonated, while in a pH 5 solvent IBP release was significantly improved (cf. from 0% to 92% release after 1 h dissolution experiments upon the addition of 20 wt.% succinic acid). Hence, both approaches resulted in a pH-independent (up to pH 5) immediate release formulation. However, the presence of a positively charged polymer induced stability issues (recrystallization of API) and the formulations containing dicarboxylic acids were classified as mechanically unstable. Hence, further research is needed to obtain a pH-independent immediate release formulation while using EudrE as a polmethacrylate carrier.

  7. Acquiring Science and Social Studies Knowledge in Kindergarten through Fourth Grade: Conceptualization, Design, Implementation, and Efficacy Testing of Content-Area Literacy Instruction (CALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Dombek, Jennifer; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Spencer, Mercedes; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Coffinger, Sean; Zargar, Elham; Wood, Taffeta; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    With national focus on reading and math achievement, science and social studies have received less instructional time. Yet, accumulating evidence suggests that content knowledge is an important predictor of proficient reading. Starting with a design study, we developed content-area literacy instruction (CALI) as an individualized (or personalized)…

  8. SU-F-T-268: A Feasibility Study of Independent Dose Verification for Vero4DRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, M; Kokubo, M; Takahashi, R; Takayama, K; Tanabe, H; Sueoka, M; Okuuchi, N; Ishii, M; Iwamoto, Y; Tachibana, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd.) has been released for a few years. The treatment planning system (TPS) of Vero4DRT is dedicated, so the measurement is the only method of dose verification. There have been no reports of independent dose verification using Clarksonbased algorithm for Vero4DRT. An independent dose verification software program of the general-purpose linac using a modified Clarkson-based algorithm was modified for Vero4DRT. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of independent dose verification program and the feasibility of the secondary check for Vero4DRT. Methods: iPlan (Brainlab AG) was used as the TPS. PencilBeam Convolution was used for dose calculation algorithm of IMRT and X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo was used for the others. Simple MU Analysis (SMU, Triangle Products, Japan) was used as the independent dose verification software program in which CT-based dose calculation was performed using a modified Clarkson-based algorithm. In this study, 120 patients’ treatment plans were collected in our institute. The treatments were performed using the conventional irradiation for lung and prostate, SBRT for lung and Step and shoot IMRT for prostate. Comparison in dose between the TPS and the SMU was done and confidence limits (CLs, Mean ± 2SD %) were compared to those from the general-purpose linac. Results: As the results of the CLs, the conventional irradiation (lung, prostate), SBRT (lung) and IMRT (prostate) show 2.2 ± 3.5% (CL of the general-purpose linac: 2.4 ± 5.3%), 1.1 ± 1.7% (−0.3 ± 2.0%), 4.8 ± 3.7% (5.4 ± 5.3%) and −0.5 ± 2.5% (−0.1 ± 3.6%), respectively. The CLs for Vero4DRT show similar results to that for the general-purpose linac. Conclusion: The independent dose verification for the new linac is clinically available as a secondary check and we performed the check with the similar tolerance level of the general-purpose linac. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and

  9. SU-F-T-268: A Feasibility Study of Independent Dose Verification for Vero4DRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, M; Kokubo, M [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Takahashi, R [Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Takayama, K [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Tanabe, H; Sueoka, M; Okuuchi, N [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Ishii, M; Iwamoto, Y [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Tachibana, H [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd.) has been released for a few years. The treatment planning system (TPS) of Vero4DRT is dedicated, so the measurement is the only method of dose verification. There have been no reports of independent dose verification using Clarksonbased algorithm for Vero4DRT. An independent dose verification software program of the general-purpose linac using a modified Clarkson-based algorithm was modified for Vero4DRT. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of independent dose verification program and the feasibility of the secondary check for Vero4DRT. Methods: iPlan (Brainlab AG) was used as the TPS. PencilBeam Convolution was used for dose calculation algorithm of IMRT and X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo was used for the others. Simple MU Analysis (SMU, Triangle Products, Japan) was used as the independent dose verification software program in which CT-based dose calculation was performed using a modified Clarkson-based algorithm. In this study, 120 patients’ treatment plans were collected in our institute. The treatments were performed using the conventional irradiation for lung and prostate, SBRT for lung and Step and shoot IMRT for prostate. Comparison in dose between the TPS and the SMU was done and confidence limits (CLs, Mean ± 2SD %) were compared to those from the general-purpose linac. Results: As the results of the CLs, the conventional irradiation (lung, prostate), SBRT (lung) and IMRT (prostate) show 2.2 ± 3.5% (CL of the general-purpose linac: 2.4 ± 5.3%), 1.1 ± 1.7% (−0.3 ± 2.0%), 4.8 ± 3.7% (5.4 ± 5.3%) and −0.5 ± 2.5% (−0.1 ± 3.6%), respectively. The CLs for Vero4DRT show similar results to that for the general-purpose linac. Conclusion: The independent dose verification for the new linac is clinically available as a secondary check and we performed the check with the similar tolerance level of the general-purpose linac. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and

  10. Changing learning with new interactive and media-rich instruction environments: virtual labs case study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Camillan

    2003-01-01

    Technology has created a new dimension for visual teaching and learning with web-delivered interactive media. The Virtual Labs Project has embraced this technology with instructional design and evaluation methodologies behind the simPHYSIO suite of simulation-based, online interactive teaching modules in physiology for the Stanford students. In addition, simPHYSIO provides the convenience of anytime web-access and a modular structure that allows for personalization and customization of the learning material. This innovative tool provides a solid delivery and pedagogical backbone that can be applied to developing an interactive simulation-based training tool for the use and management of the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) image information system. The disparity in the knowledge between health and IT professionals can be bridged by providing convenient modular teaching tools to fill the gaps in knowledge. An innovative teaching method in the whole PACS is deemed necessary for its successful implementation and operation since it has become widely distributed with many interfaces, components, and customizations. This paper will discuss the techniques for developing an interactive-based teaching tool, a case study of its implementation, and a perspective for applying this approach to an online PACS training tool. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. Provocation to Learn - A Study in the Use of Personal Response Systems in Information Literacy Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Alicia Matesic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of Personal Response Systems (PRS or “clickers” in universityclassrooms has opened an avenue for new forms of communication betweeninstructors and students in large-enrolment classes. Because it allows instructorsto pose questions and receive tabulated responses from students in real-time,proponents of this technology herald it as an innovative means for encouraginghigher levels of participation, fostering student engagement, and streamlining theassessment process. Having already been experimentally deployed acrossdisciplines ranging from business to the arts and sciences, it is also beginning tobe used in the context of information literacy instruction. In this project weemployed the technology not to transfer actual skills, but to advertise theexistence of online library guides, promote the use of the library within thecontext of the course itself, and “provoke” students to adopt a more activeapproach to research as a recursive process. Our findings suggest that studentsadapt easily to the use of this technology and feel democratically empowered torespond to their instructors in a variety of ways that include anonymous clickerresponses as well as more traditional means such as the raising of hands andposing questions verbally. The particular value of this study was to show thatthese broader findings seem equally applicable to pedagogical settings in whichlearning objectives are built around and integrated with the principles ofinformation literacy.

  12. A Case Study Investigating Secondary Science Teachers' Perceptions of Science Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Phyllis Ann

    This project study addressed the lack of inclusion of discipline literacy pedagogy in secondary classrooms in a rural school district in eastern North Carolina. Discipline literacy practices are recommended in the Common Core Standards for History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. The district had implemented content area reading strategies across content areas, yet no significant progress in secondary students' reading abilities had been demonstrated in statewide or national assessments. The conceptual framework that drove this study was disciplinary literacy, founded by the literacy research of Shanahan, Shanahan, and Zygouris-Coe. Within a qualitative case study method, this investigation of 8 secondary science teachers' experiences teaching literacy during content instruction focused on practices of embedding science-specific reading strategies into lessons and factors that influence teachers' decisions to participate in professional development to advance their learning of discipline-specific literacy methods. Data were collected and triangulated using a focus group and 8 individual interviews. Data from both methods were analyzed into codes and categories that developed into emergent themes. Findings from the focus group and individual interviews revealed that the science teachers possessed limited knowledge of science-specific reading strategies; used random, general literacy practices; and had completed inadequate professional development on science-related topics. Positive change may occur if district leaders support teachers in expanding their knowledge and application of discipline literacy strategies through participation in discipline literacy-focused professional development. The study may provide educators and researchers a deeper understanding of disciplinary literacy and increase research on the topic.

  13. Situation and person attributions under spontaneous and intentional instructions: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestemont, Jenny; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Ma, Ning; Van Hoeck, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research explores how observers make causal beliefs about an event in terms of the person or situation. Thirty-four participants read various short descriptions of social events that implied either the person or the situation as the cause. Half of them were explicitly instructed to judge whether the event was caused by something about the person or the situation (intentional inferences), whereas the other half was instructed simply to read the material carefully (spontaneous inferences). The results showed common activation in areas related to mentalizing, across all types of causes or instructions (posterior superior temporal sulcus, temporo-parietal junction, precuneus). However, the medial prefrontal cortex was activated only under spontaneous instructions, but not under intentional instruction. This suggests a bias toward person attributions (e.g. fundamental attribution bias). Complementary to this, intentional situation attributions activated a stronger and more extended network compared to intentional person attributions, suggesting that situation attributions require more controlled, extended and broader processing of the information. PMID:22345370

  14. Situation and person attributions under spontaneous and intentional instructions: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestemont, Jenny; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Ma, Ning; Van Hoeck, Nicole; Van Overwalle, Frank

    2013-06-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research explores how observers make causal beliefs about an event in terms of the person or situation. Thirty-four participants read various short descriptions of social events that implied either the person or the situation as the cause. Half of them were explicitly instructed to judge whether the event was caused by something about the person or the situation (intentional inferences), whereas the other half was instructed simply to read the material carefully (spontaneous inferences). The results showed common activation in areas related to mentalizing, across all types of causes or instructions (posterior superior temporal sulcus, temporo-parietal junction, precuneus). However, the medial prefrontal cortex was activated only under spontaneous instructions, but not under intentional instruction. This suggests a bias toward person attributions (e.g. fundamental attribution bias). Complementary to this, intentional situation attributions activated a stronger and more extended network compared to intentional person attributions, suggesting that situation attributions require more controlled, extended and broader processing of the information.

  15. A Comparative Study of Students’ Track and Field Technical Performance in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira, Peter Hastie, Rui Araújo, Cláudio Farias, Ramiro Rolim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined students’ technical performances improvements in three track and field events (hurdles, shot put, and long jump following either a Sport Education season or a Direct Instruction unit. An experienced Physical Education teacher taught two classes totalling 47 sixth-grade students (25 boys and 22 girls, aged between 10 and 13 years old in 20, 45-minute lessons over 10 weeks. The students’ technical performances were analysed and evaluated through systematic observation of videos. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare scores at three time points (pre-test, post-test and retention, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the differences within each instructional model at each assessment moment, as well as by gender and skill level. The impact of each instructional model in student learning was markedly distinct. While in Sport Education students of both genders and skill levels improved significantly in all events, in Direct Instruction, evidence of significant improvements was limited to boys and students of higher skill level.

  16. The effects of computer game elements in physics instruction software for middle schools: A study of cognitive and affective gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, David Alan

    Can the educational effectiveness of physics instruction software for middle schoolers be improved by employing "game elements" commonly found in recreational computer games? This study utilized a selected set of game elements to contextualize and embellish physics word problems with the aim of making such problems more engaging. Game elements used included: (1) a fantasy-story context with developed characters; and (2) high-end graphics and visual effects. The primary purpose of the study was to find out if the added production cost of using such game elements was justified by proportionate gains in physics learning. The theoretical framework for the study was a modified version of Lepper and Malone's "intrinsically-motivating game elements" model. A key design issue in this model is the concept of "endogeneity", or the degree to which the game elements used in educational software are integrated with its learning content. Two competing courseware treatments were custom-designed and produced for the study; both dealt with Newton's first law. The first treatment (T1) was a 45 minute interactive tutorial that featured cartoon characters, color animations, hypertext, audio narration, and realistic motion simulations using the Interactive PhysicsspTM software. The second treatment (T2) was similar to the first except for the addition of approximately three minutes of cinema-like sequences where characters, game objectives, and a science-fiction story premise were described and portrayed with high-end graphics and visual effects. The sample of 47 middle school students was evenly divided between eighth and ninth graders and between boys and girls. Using a pretest/posttest experimental design, the independent variables for the study were: (1) two levels of treatment; (2) gender; and (3) two schools. The dependent variables were scores on a written posttest for both: (1) physics learning, and (2) attitude toward physics learning. Findings indicated that, although

  17. Promoting student case creation to enhance instruction of clinical reasoning skills: a pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Hamsika; Gesundheit, Neil; Nevins, Andrew B; Pompei, Peter; Bruce, Janine; Merrell, Sylvia Bereknyei

    2018-01-01

    It is a common educational practice for medical students to engage in case-based learning (CBL) exercises by working through clinical cases that have been developed by faculty. While such faculty-developed exercises have educational strengths, there are at least two major drawbacks to learning by this method: the number and diversity of cases is often limited; and students decrease their engagement with CBL cases as they grow accustomed to the teaching method. We sought to explore whether student case creation can address both of these limitations. We also compared student case creation to traditional clinical reasoning sessions in regard to tutorial group effectiveness, perceived gains in clinical reasoning, and quality of student-faculty interaction. Ten first-year medical students participated in a feasibility study wherein they worked in small groups to develop their own patient case around a preassigned diagnosis. Faculty provided feedback on case quality afterwards. Students completed pre- and post-self-assessment surveys. Students and faculty also participated in separate focus groups to compare their case creation experience to traditional CBL sessions. Students reported high levels of team engagement and peer learning, as well as increased ownership over case content and understanding of clinical reasoning nuances. However, students also reported decreases in student-faculty interaction and the use of visual aids ( P study suggest that student-generated cases can be a valuable adjunct to traditional clinical reasoning instruction by increasing content ownership, encouraging student-directed learning, and providing opportunities to explore clinical nuances. However, these gains may reduce student-faculty interaction. Future studies may be able to identify an improved model of faculty participation, the ideal timing for incorporation of this method in a medical curriculum, and a more rigorous assessment of the impact of student case creation on the

  18. Opium could be considered an independent risk factor for lung cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Naghan, Parisa Adimi; Taslimi, Shervin; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi, Seyyed Meisam; Khosravi, Adnan; Karimi, Shirin; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mortaz, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and half of all incident lung cancers are believed to occur in the developing countries, including Iran. We investigated the association of opium with the risk of lung cancer in a case-control study. We enrolled 242 cases and 484 matched controls in this study. A questionnaire was developed, containing questions on basic demographic characteristics, as well as lifelong history of smoking cigarettes, exposure to passive smoking, opium use and alcohol consumption. For smoking cigarettes and opium and also oral opium intake frequency, duration and cumulative use were categorized into three groups: no use, low use and high use. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariate analysis in men showed that after adjusting for the effect of ethnicity, education and pack years of smoking cigarettes, smoking opium remained as a significant independent risk factor with an OR of 3.1 (95% CI 1.2-8.1). In addition, concomitant heavy smoking of cigarettes and opium dramatically increased the risk of lung cancer to an OR of 35.0 (95% CI 11.4-107.9). This study demonstrated that smoking opium is associated with a high risk of lung cancer as an independent risk factor. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. THE TYPES OF INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS OF ECONOMIC SPECIALTIES IN THE STUDY OF MATHEMATICAL DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Horbach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the types of independent work of students in higher school and determines the most appropriate ones for the students majoring in economics during their study of mathematical disciplines. There have been defined training and professional skills, which a future economist will gain in the process of self-study of mathematical disciplines. These skills have been proved to be the most determinative in formation of professional independence as a basic quality of a future economist. The scheme which reveals the relationship of classification bases of self work with its forms and types as well as educational skills which are formed in the course of its implementation to be transformed in the future into professional skills of economists has been worked out. It has been highlighted that the use of these types of self work will help create optimal conditions for efficient management of training and learning activities of students of economic specialties in the study of mathematical disciplines.

  20. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Study: Design and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Blair, Steven; Church, Tim; Espeland, Mark A.; Gill, Thomas M.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; McDermott, Mary M.; Miller, Michael E.; Nayfield, Susan; Newman, Anne B.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Bonds, Denise; Romashkan, Sergei; Hadley, Evan; Pahor, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Background. As the number of older adults in the United States rises, maintaining functional independence among older Americans has emerged as a major clinical and public health priority. Older people who lose mobility are less likely to remain in the community; demonstrate higher rates of morbidity, mortality, and hospitalizations; and experience a poorer quality of life. Several studies have shown that regular physical activity improves functional limitations and intermediate functional outcomes, but definitive evidence showing that major mobility disability can be prevented is lacking. A Phase 3 randomized controlled trial is needed to fill this evidence gap. Methods. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase 3 multicenter randomized controlled trial designed to compare a supervised moderate-intensity physical activity program with a successful aging health education program in 1,600 sedentary older persons followed for an average of 2.7 years. Results. LIFE's primary outcome is major mobility disability, defined as the inability to walk 400 m. Secondary outcomes include cognitive function, serious fall injuries, persistent mobility disability, the combined outcome of major mobility disability or death, disability in activities of daily living, and cost-effectiveness. Conclusions. Results of this study are expected to have important public health implications for the large and growing population of older sedentary men and women. PMID:21825283

  1. Exploring the Amount and Type of Writing Instruction during Language Arts Instruction in Kindergarten Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners' writing performance.

  2. Exploring the Amount and Type of Writing Instruction during Language Arts Instruction in Kindergarten Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners’ writing performance. PMID:24578591

  3. Obesity is independently associated with spinal anesthesia outcomes: a prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available The influence of body-mass index (BMI on spinal anesthesia is still controversial, with discrepant results reported in previous studies. To compare spinal anesthesia in obese and non-obese subjects, the anesthesia profiles in patients who underwent spinal anesthesia using intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine were compared. A total of 209 patients undergoing elective total knee replacement arthroplasty (TKRA surgery under spinal anesthesia were divided into an NO (non-obese group (BMI < 30 kg/m2, n = 141 and an O (obese group (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, n = 68. Anesthesia was deemed successful if a bilateral T12 sensory block occurred within 15 minutes of intrathecal drug administration, and if the level of sensory block was higher than T12 when the surgery ended. Logistic regression analysis with multiple variables known to influence spinal anesthesia was performed to identify which parameters independently determined the spinal anesthesia outcome. Similar doses of bupivacaine were administered to the NO and O groups. The incidence of anesthesia failure was significantly lower in the O group [n = 43 (30.5% in the NO group vs. n = 10 (18.9% in the O group, p = 0.014]. The independent predictors for successful anesthesia in all patients were dose of hyperbaric bupivacaine [odds ratio (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.64-2.73] and obese status (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, OR 2.86, 95% CI: 1.25-6.52. Time to first report of postoperative pain and time to first self-void were significantly longer in the O group. These results suggest that the duration of block with hyperbaric bupivacaine is prolonged in obese patients and obesity is independently associated with spinal anesthesia outcomes, as is bupivacaine dosage. A further study enrolling patients with morbid obesity and using a fixed bupivacaine dosage is required to confirm the effect of obesity on spinal anesthesia.

  4. Stroke-induced immunodepression and dysphagia independently predict stroke-associated pneumonia - The PREDICT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sarah; Harms, Hendrik; Ulm, Lena; Nabavi, Darius G; Mackert, Bruno-Marcel; Schmehl, Ingo; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J; Montaner, Joan; Bustamante, Alejandro; Hermans, Marcella; Hamilton, Frank; Göhler, Jos; Malzahn, Uwe; Malsch, Carolin; Heuschmann, Peter U; Meisel, Christian; Meisel, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Stroke-associated pneumonia is a frequent complication after stroke associated with poor outcome. Dysphagia is a known risk factor for stroke-associated pneumonia but accumulating evidence suggests that stroke induces an immunodepressive state increasing susceptibility for stroke-associated pneumonia. We aimed to confirm that stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome is associated with stroke-associated pneumonia independently from dysphagia by investigating the predictive properties of monocytic HLA-DR expression as a marker of immunodepression as well as biomarkers for inflammation (interleukin-6) and infection (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein). This was a prospective, multicenter study with 11 study sites in Germany and Spain, including 486 patients with acute ischemic stroke. Daily screening for stroke-associated pneumonia, dysphagia and biomarkers was performed. Frequency of stroke-associated pneumonia was 5.2%. Dysphagia and decreased monocytic HLA-DR were independent predictors for stroke-associated pneumonia in multivariable regression analysis. Proportion of pneumonia ranged between 0.9% in the higher monocytic HLA-DR quartile (≥21,876 mAb/cell) and 8.5% in the lower quartile (≤12,369 mAb/cell). In the presence of dysphagia, proportion of pneumonia increased to 5.9% and 18.8%, respectively. Patients without dysphagia and normal monocytic HLA-DR expression had no stroke-associated pneumonia risk. We demonstrate that dysphagia and stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome are independent risk factors for stroke-associated pneumonia. Screening for immunodepression and dysphagia might be useful for identifying patients at high risk for stroke-associated pneumonia.

  5. Epicardial adipose tissue radiodensity is independently related to coronary atherosclerosis. A multidetector computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracon, R.; Kruk, M.; Kepka, C.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary research indicates that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may display both anti- and proatherosclerotic properties. Because the varying radiodensities of selected human tissues assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has been shown to reflect differences in biological characteristics, the present study investigated the hypothesis that the proatherosclerotic properties of EAT may be linked to its radiodensity. The study included 164 consecutive patients (82 females, mean age 58.8±11.1 years) with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing MDCT coronary angiography. Coronary atherosclerosis was defined as: CAD (id est (ie), presence of at least 1 coronary stenosis ≥50%) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) determined by Agatston score. EAT radiodensity was assessed by MDCT and averaged -81.00±4.64 HU (Hounsfield unit (HU) scale). Mean CAC score was 96.0±220.0. Patients with CAD (n=36) showed higher EAT radiodensity than patients without CAD (-78.99±4.12 vs. -81.57±4.64 HU, P<0.01). In the multivariable model, only EAT radiodensity and age were independently associated with CAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95%confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.28; OR 1.08, 95%CI 1.04-1.12; respectively). EAT radiodensity also correlated with CAC score (r=0.23, P<0.01). EAT radiodensity (P<0.001), age (P<0.001), sex (P=0.03), and past smoking (P<0.01) were independent correlates of CAC in the multivariable linear regression model. Increased EAT radiodensity is independently associated with coronary atherosclerosis, which may reflect the unfavorable, proatherosclerotic metabolic properties of more radiodense epicardial fat. (author)

  6. An animal model for instructing and the study of in situ arterial bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, J; Chang, B B; Paty, P S; Kaufman, J; Leather, R P; Shah, D M

    1990-11-01

    A canine model that used the cephalic vein to bypass from the brachial to the ulnar artery was designed for use in instructing and evaluating surgical technique needed for constructing an in situ arterial bypass. This model was used for instructing vascular residents in the in situ vein bypass technique. The use of this model enabled the resident to become more adept with the instruments for valve incision and construction of small vessel anastomosis. The improvement in the resident's operative technique was reflected by a decrease in the number of technical complications (missed valves, missed arteriovenous fistulas, poorly constructed anastomoses) and improved patency rate.

  7. Maximising Students' Progress and Engagement in Science through the Use of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) 5E Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Biological Sciences Curriculum Studies (BSCS) 5E Instructional Model (often referred to as the 5Es) consists of five phases. Each phase has a specific function and contributes both to teachers' coherent instruction and to students' formulation of a better understanding of scientific knowledge, attitudes and skills. Evidence indicates that the…

  8. A Comparative Study of Two Methods of Instruction in a University Animal Biology Course: Audio-Tutorial with Conventional Lecture-Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsey, Robert Ellis

    In this comparative study of instructional methods involving university students, pre- and posttest data were collected from achievement and attitude instruments as well as from opinion questionnaires. The major findings included: (1) students taught via audio-tutorial instruction demonstrated significantly greater achievement gain; (2) the number…

  9. Rap Music Literacy: A Case Study of Millennial Audience Reception to Rap Lyrics Depicting Independent Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody-Ramirez, Mia; Scott, Lakia M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a feminist lens and a constructivist approach as the theoretical framework, we used rap lyrics and videos to help college students explore mass media's representation of the "independent" Black woman and the concept of "independence" in general. Students must be able to formulate their own concept of independence to…

  10. Legal and actual central bank independence : A case study of Bank of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artha, I.K.D.S.; de Haan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Indicators of central bank independence (CBI) based on the interpretation central bank laws in place may not capture the actual independence of the central bank. This paper develops an indicator of actual independence of the Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank of Indonesia, for the period

  11. Pediatric cardiac surgery Parent Education Discharge Instruction (PEDI) program: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveski, Sandra L; Zhelva, Bistra; Paul, Reena; Conway, Rosalind; Carlson, Anna; Soma, Gouthami; Kools, Susan; Franck, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    In developing countries, more children with complex cardiac defects now receive treatment for their condition. For successful long-term outcomes, children also need skilled care at home after discharge. The Parent Education Discharge Instruction (PEDI) program was developed to educate nurses on the importance of discharge teaching and to provide them with a structured process for conducting parent teaching for home care of children after cardiac surgery. The aim of this pilot study was to generate preliminary data on the feasibility and acceptability of the nurse-led structured discharge program on an Indian pediatric cardiac surgery unit. A pre-/post-design was used. Questionnaires were used to evaluate role acceptability, nurse and parent knowledge of discharge content, and utility of training materials with 40 nurses and 20 parents. Retrospective audits of 50 patient medical records (25 pre and 25 post) were performed to evaluate discharge teaching documentation. Nurses' discharge knowledge increased from a mean of 81% to 96% (P = .001) after participation in the training. Nurses and parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the education materials (3.75-4 on a 4.00-point scale). Evidence of discharge teaching documentation in patient medical records improved from 48% (12 of 25 medical records) to 96% (24 of 25 medical records) six months after the implementation of the PEDI program. The structured nurse-led parent discharge teaching program demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, utility, and sustainability in the cardiac unit. Future studies are needed to examine nurse, parent, child, and organizational outcomes related to this expanded nursing role in resource-constrained environments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Design study on an independently-tunable-cells thermionic RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, H.; Tanaka, T.; Hinode, F.; Kawai, M.

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of a thermionic RF gun have been studied by a 3-D simulation code developed using an FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method as a Maxwell's equations solver. The gun is consists of two independent power feeding cavities, so that we call it independently-tunable-cells (ITC)'-RF gun. The first cell is the cathode cell and the second one is an accelerating cell. The ITC gun can be operated at various modes of different RF-power ratio and phase between two cavities. Simulation study shows a velocity-bunching like effect may be occurred in the gun, so that the short pulse beam from the thermionic RF gun is a better candidate to produce the coherent THz synchrotron radiation. Expected bunch length with a total charge of ∼20 pC (1% energy width from the top energy) is around 200 fs (fwhm). Even the beam energy extracted from the gun is varied by which the input powers are changed, almost same shape of the longitudinal phase space can be produced by tuning the phase. (author)

  13. Homelessness as an independent risk factor for mortality: results from a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David S

    2009-06-01

    Homelessness is associated with increased risks of mortality but it has not previously been possible to distinguish whether this is typical of other socio-economically deprived populations, the result of a higher prevalence of morbidity or an independent risk of homelessness itself. The aim of this study was to describe mortality among a cohort of homeless adults and adjust for the effects of morbidity and socio-economic deprivation. Retrospective 5-year study of two fixed cohorts, homeless adults and an age- and sex-matched random sample of the local non-homeless population in Greater Glasgow National Health Service Board area for comparison. Over 5 years of observation, 1.7% (209/12 451) of the general population and 7.2% (457/6323) of the homeless cohort died. The hazard ratio of all-cause mortality in homeless compared with non-homeless cohorts was 4.4 (95% CI: 3.8-5.2). After adjustment for age, sex and previous hospitalization, homelessness was associated with an all-cause mortality hazard ratio of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3-1.9). Homelessness had differential effects on cause-specific mortality. Among patients who had been hospitalized for drug-related conditions, the homeless cohort experienced a 7-fold increase in risk of death from drugs compared with the general population. Homelessness is an independent risk factor for deaths from specific causes. Preventive programmes might be most effectively targeted at the homeless with these conditions.

  14. A comparative study in the UNCITRAL model law about the independence of the arbitration clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Darami Zadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to investigate the independence of the arbitration clause from the main contract in the International Commercial Arbitration Law of Iran with a comparative study in the UNCITRAL model law. The effectiveness of this type of procedure, its coordination with the specific objectives and the special status of international traders has led to their increasing willingness to use this legal solution. We use a comparative method, quasi-experimental, to describe similarities and differences in variables in two or more existing groups in a natural setting; it resembles an experiment as it uses manipulation but lacks random assignment of individual subjects.  This study begins analyzing international arbitration and the UNCITRAL model rules (Chapters I to VI, then reviewing the national arbitration (Chapter V; thus, the effects of the principle of independence of the arbitration clause can be seen (Chapter VII and, later, the problems that arise (Chapters VIII to X. Even so, the main conclusion is that the parties usually agree to resolve their international disputes through arbitration, which is judged privately and universally accepted.

  15. Improved application of independent component analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging study via linear projection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhiying; Chen, Kewei; Wu, Xia; Reiman, Eric; Peng, Danling; Yao, Li

    2009-02-01

    Spatial Independent component analysis (sICA) has been widely used to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The well accepted implicit assumption is the spatially statistical independency of intrinsic sources identified by sICA, making the sICA applications difficult for data in which there exist interdependent sources and confounding factors. This interdependency can arise, for instance, from fMRI studies investigating two tasks in a single session. In this study, we introduced a linear projection approach and considered its utilization as a tool to separate task-related components from two-task fMRI data. The robustness and feasibility of the method are substantiated through simulation on computer data and fMRI real rest data. Both simulated and real two-task fMRI experiments demonstrated that sICA in combination with the projection method succeeded in separating spatially dependent components and had better detection power than pure model-based method when estimating activation induced by each task as well as both tasks.

  16. Independent and opposite associations of waist and hip circumferences with diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia : the AusDiab Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M B; Zimmet, Paul Z; Visser, M; Dekker, J M; Seidell, J C; Shaw, Jonathan E

    OBJECTIVE: Fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio has been shown to be an important independent predictor of glucose intolerance. Few studies, however, have considered the contributions of the waist and hip circumferences independently. The aim of this study was to investigate the

  17. Independent and opposite associations of waist and hip circumferences with diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia : the AusDiab Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.B.; Zimmet, P.Z.; Visser, M.; Dekker, J.M.; Seidell, J.C.; Shaw, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio has been shown to be an important independent predictor of glucose intolerance. Few studies, however, have considered the contributions of the waist and hip circumferences independently. The aim of this study was to investigate the

  18. The Effect of Interactive Instruction in the Astro 101 Classroom: Report on a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Consiglio, D.; Schlingman, W. M.; Gonzaga, V.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted a national research study designed to determine the effect of interactive learning strategies on students' conceptual learning in general education astronomy courses (Astro 101). Nearly 4000 students at 31 institutions, (4-year and 2-year) around the country participated in the study. Our results show dramatic improvement in student learning with increased use of interactive learning strategies independent of institution type or class size, and after controlling for individual student characteristics. In addition, we find that the positive effects of interactive learning strategies apply equally to men and women, across ethnicities, for students with all levels of prior mathematical preparation and physical science course experience, independent of GPA, and regardless of primary language. These results powerfully illustrate that all categories of students can benefit from the effective implementation of interactive learning strategies. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program, and Award No. 0847170, a PAARE grant funding the California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  19. Integrating Assessment into Recurring Information Literacy Instruction: A Case Study from LIS Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Information literacy instruction is integrated into the distance education program in library and information science (LEEP) at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). This article describes the LEEP program and the library services provided to its students. Published research on LEEP and related topics in librarianship is reviewed.…

  20. New York State Middle Schools and Instructional Scheduling, Teaming and Common Planning: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Chad; Babo, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Data regarding the type of instructional scheduling utilized along with the use of teaming and common planning at the middle school level has not been collected nor reported on the New York State School Report Card, and therefore it is not known whether and how middle schools are implementing these three school supports. Consequently, the purpose…

  1. A Study on Information Technology Integrated Guided Iscovery Instruction towards Students' Learning Achievement and Learning Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Chich-Jen; Yu, Lean

    2016-01-01

    In the information explosion era with constant changes of information, educators have promoted various effective learning strategies for students adapting to the complex modern society. The impact and influence of traditional teaching method have information technology integrated modern instruction and science concept learning play an important…

  2. Using Think-Aloud Protocols to Uncover Misconceptions and Improve Developmental Math Instruction: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Secolsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in education continue to escalate around the world. The focus on outcomes assessment has narrowed instructional research and curriculum evaluation to standardized testing in certain subject areas. A prototype for a quantitative literacy assessment instrument was developed with the goal of diagnosing student misconceptions of basic mathematics content and changing instructional practices to undo the misconceptions by applying cognitive psychological theory. Two hundred thirty-eight basic math high school students and 209 remedial community college students in New Jersey and New York were administered the instrument, which had been based on coded data from think-aloud protocols. The instrument asked students to answer 20 basic mathematics items and, in addition, to evaluate four possible solution strategies. For each item, frequencies of selected solution strategies and the association between strategy selection and performance on the 20-question math test are presented as a means for improving instruction. Follow-up research is proposed for determining whether undoing the student misconceptions first before teaching material on a new unit of instruction may yield more positive student outcomes.

  3. A Three Cohort Study of Role-Play Instruction for Agile Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    Agile Project Management methods and processes that emphasize action and feedback over planning continue to gain prominence for Information Systems projects. This topic is an ideal candidate to lead the evolution of project management instruction from teaching "about" to learning "how to." This paper describes a role-play…

  4. Learner Resistance to English-Medium Instruction Practices: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ping

    2018-01-01

    The internationalization of higher education has resulted in the growth of English-medium instruction (EMI) practices and research. The existing EMI research has documented learners' favorable attitudes toward EMI but not necessarily its practices. Learners' dissatisfaction has not been viewed as a form of resistance. Through the notion of learner…

  5. The ESP Instruction: A Study Based on the Pattern of Autonomous Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous inquiry learning is a kind of learning model, which relies mainly on learners and emphasizes that learners should inquire knowledge actively; moreover, ESP, which emphasizes the combination of language learning and specific purposes learning, is a goal-oriented and well targeted instruction system. Therefore, ESP and autonomous inquiry…

  6. A Case Study of a Co-Instructed Multidisciplinary Senior Capstone Project in Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jinny; Oyamot, Clifton; Parent, David; Speer, Leslie; Basu, Anuradha; Gerston, Larry

    2014-01-01

    As societal challenges involving sustainable development increase, the need to effectively integrate this inherently multidisciplinary topic into existing curricula becomes more pressing. Multidisciplinary, team-taught, project-based instruction has shown effectiveness in teaching teamwork, communication, and life-long learning skills, and…

  7. Mathematics Teaching as Problem Solving: A Framework for Studying Teacher Metacognition Underlying Instructional Practice in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Alice F.; Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    1998-01-01

    Uses a "teaching as problem solving" perspective to examine the components of metacognition underlying the instructional practice of seven experienced and seven beginning secondary-school mathematics teachers. Data analysis of observations, lesson plans, videotapes, and audiotapes of structured interviews suggests that the metacognition of…

  8. Computer-Assisted Instruction to Teach DOS Commands: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWeeney, Mark G.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program used to teach DOS commands. Pretest and posttest results for 65 graduate students using the program are reported, and it is concluded that the CAI program significantly aided the students. Sample screen displays for the program and several questions from the pre/posttest are included. (nine…

  9. Evaluating Instructional Effects of Flipped Classroom in University: A Case Study on Electronic Business Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenlong; Xie, Wenjing

    2018-01-01

    Flipped classroom provides the new ideas and ways for the innovation of university pedagogical mode. Nowadays instructors may apply this new approach to liberal arts majors in university class in order to make up for the problems of low instructional effects in traditional teaching method. From the subjective and objective perspectives, this…

  10. Phenomenological versus Instructional Approach to Curriculum Formation for Sustainable Development: A Lithuanian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duobliene, Lilija

    2013-01-01

    The policy and philosophy of school curriculum formation in this article is interpreted from phenomenological and critical pedagogy perspectives. The main features of the phenomenology, set against the instructional method for an individual's development, and his/her relationship with the surroundings, are herein explicated. The distinction…

  11. Is DNA Alive? a Study of Conceptual Change through Targeted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzig, Stephen B.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Izci, Kemal; Pires, J. Chris

    2013-01-01

    We are involved in a project to incorporate innovative assessments within a reform-based large-lecture biochemistry course for nonmajors. We not only assessed misconceptions but purposefully changed instruction throughout the semester to confront student ideas. Our research questions targeted student conceptions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)…

  12. Applying Constructivist Instructional Strategies to E-Learning: A Case Study of a Web Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye Diana

    2014-01-01

    As the practice of e-learning continues to proliferate, online educators, especially in the computing disciplines, are facing special challenges, due to the lack of relevant literature, the technical nature of the courses, and the perceived need for direct student support mechanisms. This paper presents a constructivist instructional approach to…

  13. A Study in Instructional Design: A Multi-Modal Approach to Business Logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert E.; And Others

    Pennsylvania State University provided financial grants and support services to faculty members for improvement of instruction. Funds were provided for released time for faculty, audiovisual production materials, and research and evaluation. An extension course in business logistics was developed using these funds. Lecture presentations were…

  14. Teaching about Contemporary Germany: Instructional Materials for the Social Studies Classroom. Correlation Charts, Content and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Glen

    This manual contains a description of each of the instructional kits for teaching about Germany offered by the Goethe Institute. Each kit contains lessons plans, handouts, worksheets, color transparencies, and other support materials. This teaching packet provides information regarding the "best fit" of each lesson in the instructional…

  15. [Basic and clinical studies of pressure-independent damaging factors of open angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araie, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    Pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma involves both pressure-dependent damaging factors and pressure-independent damaging factors. The high prevalence of open-angle glaucoma with normal pressure (normal-tension glaucoma) in Japan implies that treatment of pressure-independent damaging factors in Japanese open-angle glaucoma patients is of importance. In an attempt to investigate the roles of pressure-independent damaging factors in open-angle glaucoma, we carried out basic and clinical studies and obtained the following results. 1. The rate of deterioration of visual field after trabeculectomy in normal tension glaucoma patients with post-operative intraocular pressure (IOP) of 10 mmHg was found to be -0.25 dB/year of mean deviation (MD), suggesting that contribution of pressure-independent damaging factors to the deterioration of MD in open-angle glaucoma is around -0.25 dB/year of mean deviation (MD). 2. Experiments using isolated purified cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) indicated that calcium-channel blockers and some of antiglaucoma drugs showed neuroprotective effects on RGCs at concentrations of 0.01 microM or higher. 3. In mice, damage to RGCs resulted in secondary degeneration of neurons and activation of glial cells in the lateral geniculate nucleous (LGN) and superior colliculus, and these secondary changes in the central nervous system (CNS) due to RGC damage was partly ameliorated by systemic administration of memantine. 4. Mice experimental high IOP glaucoma models could be established using laser irradiation of the limbal area, and the usefulness of Tonolab in IOP measurements of mice eye was confirmed. 5. Monkey experimental high IOP glaucoma models revealed that in the glaucomatous optic nerve head vaso-constrictive reactions to an alpha-1 agonist was abolished, while vasodilative reaction to a prostaglandin FP receptor agonist was retained. 6. In monkeys with experimental high IOP glaucoma, secondary damage to neurons in the LGN and the glial

  16. Effector-independent brain activity during motor imagery of the upper and lower limbs: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2014-10-03

    We utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate the common brain region of motor imagery for the right and left upper and lower limbs. The subjects were instructed to repeatedly imagined extension and flexion of the right or left hands/ankles. Brain regions, which included the supplemental motor area (SMA), premotor cortex and parietal cortex, were activated during motor imagery. Conjunction analysis revealed that the left SMA and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/ventral premotor cortex (vPM) were commonly activated with motor imagery of the right hand, left hand, right foot, and left foot. This result suggests that these brain regions are activated during motor imagery in an effector independent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Webquest on the achievement and motivation on Jordanian university students of (Independent & Dependent cognitive style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamah Mohammad Ameen Aldalalah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of webquest on the jordanian students’ of different cognitive style. The independent variables were the instruction (conventional & webquest. The dependent variables were the students’ achievement and motivation. The instructionrating variable is cognitive style (independent & dependent. The study sample consisted of 72 undergraduate educational technology students, information and communication technology students and graphic design students. Inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the data. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and T-TEST was carried out to examine the main effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables. The findings of this study showed that students using the webquest instruction performed significantly better on achievement and motivation than students using the conventional instruction. Independent cognitive style students performed significantly better on achievement and motivation than dependent cognitive style students. The webquest instruction was found to help students with dependent cognitive style on achievement and motivation

  18. Environmental implications of electricity purchase from independent power producers: a case study from Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin Shrestha; Ram M Shrestha

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect on the environment of electricity purchase from independent power producers (IPPs) in the case of Thailand. The environmental implication is evaluated in terms of the net change in emission of air pollutants with electricity purchase from IPPs by a utility. The main finding of the study is that electricity purchase from a non-dispatchable IPP plant based on coal-fired generation would increase the net emissions compared with that without the purchase from IPPs. The study also shows that the lower plant factor of the IPP plant would also increase the emission of air pollutants. Furthermore, with non-dispatchable IPP plants, the total emission of air pollutants would increase, whereas with dispatchable IPP plants the total emission would decrease with the level of electricity purchases. (author)

  19. An Independent Evaluation of the FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis Alternative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Paul S.

    1996-01-01

    The present instruments of safety and reliability risk control for a majority of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs/projects consist of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Critical Items List (CIL), and Hazard Report (HR). This extensive analytical approach was introduced in the early 1970's and was implemented for the Space Shuttle Program by NHB 5300.4 (1D-2. Since the Challenger accident in 1986, the process has been expanded considerably and resulted in introduction of similar and/or duplicated activities in the safety/reliability risk analysis. A study initiated in 1995, to search for an alternative to the current FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis methodology generated a proposed method on April 30, 1996. The objective of this Summer Faculty Study was to participate in and conduct an independent evaluation of the proposed alternative to simplify the present safety and reliability risk control procedure.

  20. Rethinking the bathroom for adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: an exploratory pilot study addressing privacy and independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claire Bernatchez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Caring for a child with cerebral palsy (CP at home represents a major challenge and can have a significant impact on the caregiver’s physical and psychological well-being. Caregivers and professionals often feel uncomfortable with adolescents’ emerging behaviours. Adolescents’ need for privacy requires a certain level of independence to be achieved. However, the physical environment may cause problems in achieving the required degree of privacy. The main objective of this study was to explore and identify realistic, evidence-based solutions to promote independence and privacy in the bathroom for teenagers with CP. The authors used a two-stage co-design process: the conception of the design solution, followed by validation. The results of this project demonstrate the need to combine original technical aids and environmental settings to create a safe, hygienic environment for the user. The results can guide therapists in their clinical approach to designing washing facilities that meet the hygiene and psychological needs of other adolescents, adults and seniors with mobility impairments.

  1. Recharge quantification with radiocarbon: Independent corroboration in three Karoo aquifer studies in Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.; Bredenkamp, D.B.; Janse van Rensburg, H.; Farr, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental isotope data from a 'snapshot' sampling hold out the promise of producing acceptable estimates of ground water recharge for resource management purposes. In three major ground water developments in Botswana, estimates of recharge to the Karoo aquifers in the Kalahari, were based on residence times derived from radiocarbon data. In the assessment, three factors needed to be considered: 1) the model leading to acceptable values of residence times 2) the initial, or recharge, radiocarbon value and 3) appropriate values of aquifer porosity. In the three studies, porosity had been measured on numerous drill cores obtained from the principal fractured sandstone aquifers. The resulting isotope-based recharge values correspond reasonably with independent recharge assessments using the equal volume method to analyse long-term rest level observations in two cases; in the third, recharge was independently assessed on the basis of chloride balance in both unsaturated and saturated zones. It is concluded that a) the isotope snapshot approach can give acceptable values for recharge in the development of ground water resources, providing rational management information early in the life of a ground water supply scheme; b) the exponential model and an initial radiocarbon values of 85% atmospheric are realistic in this environment and c) the total porosity appears to be the appropriate parameter in the calculation of recharge. This also provides an insight into the behaviour of the aquifers. (author)

  2. A Methodological Alternative to Media Comparison Studies: Linking Information Utilization Strategies and Instructional Approach in Hypermedia Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Catrambone, Richard; Gerjets, Peter; Scheiter, Katharina; Vollmann, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    Literature reviews on hypermedia learning have yet failed to show consistent positive effects of learner-controlled nonlinear information access. We argue that a possible reason for this lack of evidence in favor of hypermedia learning results from the fact that not sufficient attention is paid to the strategies of information utilization learners deploy. The few studies that do analyze these strategies fail to link them to an instructional approach, which hampers a deeper interpretation of s...

  3. Is preeclampsia an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, George F; Aziz, Michael M; Boccia Liang, Claire; Williams, Shauna F; Apuzzio, Joseph J; Bilinski, Robyn; Mornan, Adenieki J D; Shah, Leena P

    2015-10-01

    To determine if preeclampsia is an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction and what factors among patients with preeclampsia are associated with diastolic dysfunction. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who delivered between 2008 and 2013 at a single institution who had a maternal echocardiogram during their pregnancy or within 5months of delivery. Patients with structural heart disease, ejection fraction less than 45%, pulmonary embolus, or age over 45years were excluded. Medical records were reviewed for medical and obstetric complications and echocardiogram findings. Demographic characteristics and rate of diastolic dysfunction were compared between patients with preeclampsia and without preeclampsia. Multivariate logistic regression was performed controlling for age, ethnicity, gestational age at delivery, diabetes, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), antihypertensive use and magnesium sulfate administration. Sixty-six patients were identified, of which 39 (59%) had preeclampsia. Past history of preeclampsia, IUGR in the current pregnancy, antihypertensive use and magnesium sulfate use were higher in the preeclampsia group. Fifteen patients (39%) in the preeclampsia group were African-American compared to 2 (3%) in the control group (ppreeclampsia were found to have diastolic dysfunction compared to 3 (11%) controls (OR=6.18, 95% CI 1.59,24.02; p=0.006). Logistic regression analysis did not reveal other independent predictors of diastolic dysfunction. In the patients with preeclampsia, history of preeclampsia with severe features and IUGR were not associated with diastolic dysfunction. Our study supports previous findings that preeclampsia is associated with diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Mozart Effect: Music Listening Is Not Music Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Frances H.; Hinton, Sean C.

    2006-01-01

    "The Mozart effect" originally referred to the phenomenon of a brief enhancement of spatial-temporal abilities in college students after listening to a Mozart piano sonata (K. 448). Over time, this term was conflated with an independent series of studies on the effects of music instruction. This occurrence has caused confusion that has been…

  5. Computer-associated health complaints and sources of ergonomic instructions in computer-related issues among Finnish adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of computers has increased among adolescents, as have musculoskeletal symptoms. There is evidence that these symptoms can be reduced through an ergonomics approach and through education. The purpose of this study was to examine where adolescents had received ergonomic instructions related to computer use, and whether receiving these instructions was associated with a reduced prevalence of computer-associated health complaints. Methods Mailed survey with nationally representative sample of 12 to 18-year-old Finns in 2001 (n = 7292, response rate 70%). In total, 6961 youths reported using a computer. We tested the associations of computer use time and received ergonomic instructions (predictor variables) with computer-associated health complaints (outcome variables) using logistic regression analysis. Results To prevent computer-associated complaints, 61.2% reported having been instructed to arrange their desk/chair/screen in the right position, 71.5% to take rest breaks. The older age group (16-18 years) reported receiving instructions or being self-instructed more often than the 12- to 14-year-olds (p ergonomic instructions on how to prevent computer-related musculoskeletal problems fail to reach a substantial number of children. Furthermore, the reported sources of instructions vary greatly in terms of reliability. PMID:20064250

  6. Promoting student case creation to enhance instruction of clinical reasoning skills: a pilot feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekar H

    2018-04-01

    and peer learning, as well as increased ownership over case content and understanding of clinical reasoning nuances. However, students also reported decreases in student–faculty interaction and the use of visual aids (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of our feasibility study suggest that student-generated cases can be a valuable adjunct to traditional clinical reasoning instruction by increasing content ownership, encouraging student-directed learning, and providing opportunities to explore clinical nuances. However, these gains may reduce student–faculty interaction. Future studies may be able to identify an improved model of faculty participation, the ideal timing for incorporation of this method in a medical curriculum, and a more rigorous assessment of the impact of student case creation on the development of clinical reasoning skills. Keywords: case-based learning, undergraduate medical education, student case creation

  7. Experimental study of a quantum random-number generator based on two independent lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Xu, Feihu

    2017-12-01

    A quantum random-number generator (QRNG) can produce true randomness by utilizing the inherent probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics. Recently, the spontaneous-emission quantum phase noise of the laser has been widely deployed for quantum random-number generation, due to its high rate, its low cost, and the feasibility of chip-scale integration. Here, we perform a comprehensive experimental study of a phase-noise-based QRNG with two independent lasers, each of which operates in either continuous-wave (CW) or pulsed mode. We implement the QRNG by operating the two lasers in three configurations, namely, CW + CW, CW + pulsed, and pulsed + pulsed, and demonstrate their trade-offs, strengths, and weaknesses.

  8. A comparative study to investigate burnup in research reactor fuel using two independent experimental methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Mehmood, T.; Ayazuddin, S.K.; Salahuddin, A.; Pervez, S.

    2001-01-01

    Two independent experimental methods have been used for the comparative study of fuel burnup measurement in low enriched uranium, plate type research reactor. In the first method a gamma ray activity ratio method was employed. An experimental setup was established for gamma ray scanning using prior calibrated high purity germanium detector. The computer software KORIGEN gave the theoretical support. In the second method reactivity difference technique was used. At the same location in the same core configuration the fresh and burned fuel element's reactivity worth was estimated. For theoretical estimated curve, group cross-sections were generated using computer code WIMS-D/4, and three dimensional modeling was made by computer code CITATION. The measured burnup of different fuel elements using these methods were found to be in good agreement

  9. Testing independence between two Poisson-generated multinomial variables in case-series and cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocine, Mounia; Guillemot, Didier; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Moreau, Thierry

    2005-12-30

    In case-series or cohort studies, we propose a test of independence between the occurrences of two types of recurrent events (such as two repeated infections) related to an intermittent exposure (such as an antibiotic treatment). The test relies upon an extension of a recent method for analysing case-series data, in the presence of one type of recurrent event. The test statistic is derived from a bivariate Poisson generated-multinomial distribution. Simulations for checking the validity of the test concerning the type I error and the power properties are presented. The test is illustrated using data from a cohort on antibiotics bacterial resistance in schoolchildren. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. US independent to spend over $1bn in next three years. Case study: Anadarko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This special report draws together four articles connected with the current state of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry. The first looks at rapidly expanding demand for LNG in the Asia-Pacific region. Growth prospects for the industry are good with a tripling of output anticipated by the year 2015. The Tiga project, in Malaysia, part of an ambitious expansion programme, is set to enable Malaysia to challenge Indonesia as the world's leading LNG producer, and is described in the second report. Thirdly, the increasing size of bulk gas carriers, the most sophisticated merchant ships afloat, offer improved economic returns. Plans are underway for a vessel capable of carrying 160,000 cm of gas. The report concludes with a case study of the A3 company Anadarko's financial prospects. The US independent company is planning an ambitious capital expenditure programme of over $1bn in the next three years. (UK)

  11. Pre-recorded instructional audio vs. dispatchers’ conversational assistance in telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A randomized controlled simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkun, Alexei; Glotov, Maksim; Ndjamen, Herman Franklin; Alaiye, Esther; Adeleke, Temidara; Samarin, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the effectiveness of the telephone chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guided by a pre-recorded instructional audio when compared with dispatcher-assisted resuscitation. METHODS: It was a prospective, blind, randomised controlled study involving 109 medical students without previous CPR training. In a standardized mannequin scenario, after the step of dispatcher-assisted cardiac arrest recognition, the participants performed compression-only resuscitation guided over the telephone by either: (1) the pre-recorded instructional audio (n=57); or (2) verbal dispatcher assistance (n=52). The simulation video records were reviewed to assess the CPR performance using a 13-item checklist. The interval from call reception to the first compression, total number and rate of compressions, total number and duration of pauses after the first compression were also recorded. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the recording-assisted and dispatcher-assisted groups based on the overall performance score (5.6±2.2 vs. 5.1±1.9, P>0.05) or individual criteria of the CPR performance checklist. The recording-assisted group demonstrated significantly shorter time interval from call receipt to the first compression (86.0±14.3 vs. 91.2±14.2 s, PCPR. Future studies are warranted to further assess feasibility of using instructional audio aid as a potential alternative to dispatcher assistance.

  12. Serum testosterone levels in males are not associated with entrepreneurial behavior in two independent observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Haring, Robin; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Groenen, Patrick J F; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Frank H; Koellinger, Philipp D; Kohlmann, Thomas; Nauck, Matthias A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; van Rooij, Frank J A; Wallaschofski, Henri; Thurik, A Roy

    2013-07-02

    Previous research has suggested a positive association between testosterone (T) and entrepreneurial behavior in males. However, this evidence was found in a study with a small sample size and has not been replicated. In the present study, we aimed to verify this association using two large, independent, population-based samples of males. We tested the association of T with entrepreneurial behavior, operationalized as self-employment, using data from the Rotterdam Study (N=587) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (N=1697). Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the serum. Free testosterone (FT), non-SHBG-bound T (non-SHBG-T), and the TT/SHBG ratio were calculated and used as measures of bioactive serum T, in addition to TT adjusted for SHBG. Using logistic regression models, we found no significant associations between any of the serum T measures and self-employment in either of the samples. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study on the relationship between serum T and entrepreneurial behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aligning library instruction with the needs of basic sciences graduate students: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A

    2012-10-01

    How can an existing library instruction program be reconfigured to reach basic sciences graduate students and other patrons missed by curriculum-based instruction? The setting is an academic health sciences library that serves both the university and its affiliated teaching hospital. The existing program was redesigned to incorporate a series of seven workshops that encompassed the range of information literacy skills that graduate students in the basic sciences need. In developing the new model, the teaching librarians made changes in pedagogy, technology, marketing, and assessment strategies. Total attendance at the sessions increased substantially in the first 2 years of the new model, increasing from an average of 20 per semester to an average of 124. Survey results provided insight about what patrons wanted to learn and how best to teach it. Modifying the program's content and structure resulted in a program that appealed to the target audience.

  14. A qualitative study of the instructional behaviors and practices of a dyad of educators in self-contained and inclusive co-taught secondary biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Shanon D.

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1997) mandates that students with disabilities have access to the general education curriculum. School districts have developed a variety of service delivery models to provide challenging educational experiences for all students. Co-teaching or collaborative teaching is the most widely used of the different service delivery models. While the philosophy of inclusion is widely accepted, the efficacy of the various inclusion models has recently been the focus of educational research. Researchers have questioned whether the presence of a special educator in the general education classroom has resulted in students with high incidence disabilities receiving specialized instruction. A qualitative study was designed to examine the instructional behaviors and practices exhibited and used by a dyad of educators in self-contained learning disabilities and inclusive co-taught secondary Biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period. In addition to utilizing interviews, observations, and classroom observation scales to answer the research questions, supporting student data (time-sampling measurement/opportunity to learn and student grades) were collected. The study concluded that the presence of a special educator in a co-taught classroom: (1) did contribute to the creation of a new learning environment, and notable changes in the instructional behaviors and practices of a general educator; (2) did contribute to limited specialized instruction for students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms and embedded (not overt) special education practices related to the planning and decision-making of the educators; (3) did contribute to the creation of a successful co-teaching partnership including the use of effective teaching behaviors; and (4) did impact success for some of the students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms; but (5) did not ensure the continuation of some of the new

  15. [Genetic counseling and instruction of marriage for deaf young people: study of 115 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Dai, Pu; Wang, Guo-Jian; Yuan, Yong-Yi; Li, Qi; Zhang, Xin; Kang, Dong-Yang; Han, Dong-Yi

    2009-03-17

    To invesigate the molecular pathogenesis of deafness among the youth by means of genetic testing so as to provide pre-marriage genetic counseling and instruction for the deaf youth. 217 deaf young people, 126 males and 91 females, aged 18.9 (16 - 26), from Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, underwent history taking, auditory testing, and collection of peripheral blood samples. Genomic DNA and mitochondrial DNA were extracted to undergo sequence analysis of the entire gene GJB2, common point mutation of SLC26A4 gene, and mutation of mtDNA A1555G. Genetic prediction and marriage instruction were provided to each subject based on these results. Twenty-three of the 117 persons (10.5%), 13 males and 10 females, were mtDNA A1555G mutation carriers and they were instructed that they, their maternal relatives, and the offspring of the female carriers, should they be born, should strictly avoid the administration of amino glycoside antibiotics. Twenty eight of the 115 persons (12.9%), were confirmed to carry homozygous or compound GJB2 mutations, 5 individuals (2.3%) carried heterozygous GJB2 mutation, 19 (8.8%) carried homozygous or compound SLC26A4 mutations, and one (0.5%) carried heterozygous SLC26A4 mutation. The suggestion for them was to avoid getting married with deaf partners caused by the same deaf gene or with individuals carrying mutations in the same deaf gene. Meanwhile, suggestions such as avoiding aggressive exercises and head injury were provided to the deaf young people with SLC26A4 mutations. Genetic testing can provide more accurate and useful genetic counseling and instruction to deaf young people for their partner selection and eugenics.

  16. Are air pollution and traffic noise independently associated with atherosclerosis: the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälsch, Hagen; Hennig, Frauke; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Dragano, Nico; Jakobs, Hermann; Memmesheimer, Michael; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    Living close to high traffic has been linked to subclinical atherosclerosis, however it is not clear, whether fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution or noise, two important traffic-related exposures, are responsible for the association. We investigate the independent associations of long-term exposure to fine PM and road traffic noise with thoracic aortic calcification (TAC), a reliable measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. We used baseline data (2000-2003) from the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based cohort of 4814 randomly selected participants. We assessed residential long-term exposure to PM with a chemistry transport model, and to road traffic noise using façade levels from noise models as weighted 24 h mean noise (Lden) and night-time noise (Lnight). Thoracic aortic calcification was quantified from non-contrast enhanced electron beam computed tomography. We used multiple linear regression to estimate associations of environmental exposures with ln(TAC+1), adjusting for each other, individual, and neighbourhood characteristics. In 4238 participants (mean age 60 years, 49.9% male), PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) and Lnight are both associated with an increasing TAC-burden of 18.1% (95% CI: 6.6; 30.9%) per 2.4 µg/m(3) PM2.5 and 3.9% (95% CI 0.0; 8.0%) per 5dB(A) Lnight, respectively, in the full model and after mutual adjustment. We did not observe effect measure modification of the PM2.5 association by Lnight or vice versa. Long-term exposure to fine PM and night-time traffic noise are both independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and may both contribute to the association of traffic proximity with atherosclerosis.

  17. Electronic Learning Courses as a Means to Activate Students' Independent Work in Studying Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurygin, Viktor Yurjevich; Krasnova, Lyubov Alekseevna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are special requirements to the system of higher education, focused not only on imparting knowledge to students, but also on the formation of the continuous need for independent self-education, self-creative approach to getting knowledge throughout their active life. In this regard, the role of students' independent work with its…

  18. Strategic Entry and the Relationship between Number of Independent and Non-Independent Candidates: A Study of Parliamentary Elections in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    The paper attempts to examine the nature and the extent of strategic entries of independent candidates in elections following FPTP rule. The paper observes that besides individual incentives of the candidates, a major factor behind the emergence of independents under FPTP systems could be the surreptitious strategic floating of such candidates by major political parties. Accordingly, the paper proposes to use the number of non-independent candidates in a constituency as a readily observable e...

  19. Editorial - Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise

    2007-01-01

    Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....

  20. Design studies of heavy ion linear accelerators constructed of independently phased spiral resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.H.; Armstrong, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are reported for two linear accelerators for heavy ions. One accelerator is a high-intensity machine which would operate with 100 percent duty factor and would produce tin ions with 6.1 MeV/A. Alternatively, it could be operated under pulsed conditions with 25 percent duty factor and would then accelerate uranium ions to 8.1 MeV/A, tin ions to 10.5 MeV/A, and all lighter ions to higher velocities. It would be injected with a positive multicharge ion source and a 4-MV single-ended dc generator. Also, design studies are reported for small postaccelerator injected by a model FN tandem. Both accelerators use three-drift-tube spiral resonators operating at room temperature. Magnetic quadrupole singlets are placed between all resonators to provide radial focussing. Each resonator is independently phased according to the velocity of the ion to be accelerated. The ability to adjust the phase of each resonator permits variations in final energy and other beam properties with great flexibility. (U.S.)

  1. The effect of self-regulated strategy instruction and behavioral consultation on motivation : A longitudinal study on the effect of school-based interventions in secondary education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, Alexander; Prince, Arnout; Opdenakker, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Studies show a decrease in students’ motivation in secondary education. Hence, it was investigated whether training of teachers could stop this decline. Two interventions were implemented in prevocational secondary education, being self-regulated strategy instruction and behavioral consultation

  2. Makiguchi Tsunesaburo and Language, Value-Creative Composition Instruction, and the Geography of Identity in Community Studies: A Response to Politicized Imagining and Ineffective Critical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulah, Jason

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author examines Makiguchi Tsunesaburo's philosophy and practice of human geography ("jinsei chirigaku"), community studies ("kyodoka"), and composition instruction based on "value-creating pedagogy" ("soka kyoikugaku") for thinking through and responding to two competing trends…

  3. Psychologicai study on independence consciousness of chinese female university students : Applying Cinderella Complex Scales and of Women's Social Roles

    OpenAIRE

    鄭, 艶花; Zheng, Yanhua

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and clarify the independence consciousness of female university students of China applying psychological research methods. In the course of the study a questionnaire research was conducted on eighty three Chinese female university students with regard to the scales of Cinderella complex and the social role attitudes. Firstly the results indicate positive correlations between the independent variable of "defend-family-traditionalism factor" with three fa...

  4. Vitamin D and health care costs: Results from two independent population-based cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, A; Wallaschofski, H; Nauck, M; Marschall, P; Flessa, S; Grabe, H J; Schmidt, C O; Baumeister, S E

    2017-10-31

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher morbidity. However, there is few data regarding the effect of vitamin D deficiency on health care costs. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration (25OHD) and direct health care costs and hospitalization in two independent samples of the general population in North-Eastern Germany. We studied 7217 healthy individuals from the 'Study of Health in Pomerania' (SHIP n = 3203) and the 'Study of Health in Pomerania-Trend' (SHIP-Trend n = 4014) who had valid 25OHD measurements and provided data on annual total costs, outpatient costs, hospital stays, and inpatient costs. The associations between 25OHD concentrations (modelled continuously using factional polynomials) and health care costs were examined using a generalized linear model with gamma distribution and a log link. Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks of hospitalization. In cross-sectional analysis of SHIP-Trend, non-linear associations between the 25OHD concentration and inpatient costs and hospitalization were detected: participants with 25OHD concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 ng/ml had 226.1%, 51.5% and 14.1%, respectively, higher inpatient costs than those with 25OHD concentrations of 20 ng/ml (overall p-value = 0.001) in multivariable models. We found a relation between lower 25OHD concentrations and increased inpatient health care costs and hospitalization. Our results thus indicate an influence of vitamin D deficiency on health care costs in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. mprovements in the Process of Requisite Elicitation for Public Management Software: A Case Study Using Work Instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOES, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirements elicitation is not an easy task. Different expectations between users and analysts, redundancy of information and lack of standardization can make this task difficult and conflicting. When it comes to software for the public sector this task becomes somewhat more complicated because of the constant changes in federal laws and regulations. This paper presents a case study of applying work instructions to remedy these kind of problems, as well as others found in the company where the study was carried out. We achieved very promising results, namely better utilization of human resources and reduction of job demand.

  6. Attitude of patients, healthcare professionals, and noninjured lay persons towards online video instructions on mild traumatic brain injury: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Amber E; Hamer, Maaike van den; Deelstra, Carianne K; Beeck, Ed F van; Dippel, Diederik W J; Haagsma, Juanita A; Rood, Pleunie P M

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the attitude of patients, healthcare professionals, and noninjured lay persons towards adding a video with discharge instructions to patient care for patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). A survey was conducted at the emergency department (ED). Participants consisted of MTBI patients (n = 50), healthcare professionals (n = 50), and noninjured lay persons (n = 50). The participants viewed a video with discharge instructions on MTBI and filled out a questionnaire that measured their attitude towards the use of a video as part of discharge instructions. Nearly all healthcare professionals (94%) and 70% of the noninjured lay persons considered the video to be a valuable addition to oral discharge instructions. For 84% of patients, verbal information from the doctor is of importance. And, 50% of patients would like to receive additional video discharge instructions. The majority of noninjured lay persons and healthcare professionals and half of the MTBI patients consider a video with discharge instructions to be a valuable addition to patient care. Video discharge instructions are a relative low-cost measure that could enhance patient care at the ED, provided that this does not compromise the personal contact between patient and healthcare professional.

  7. Independent Study: The Culture of Mentored Undergraduate Research at The College of Wooster (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, M.; Judge, S.; Wiles, G. C.; Wilson, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The foundation of a Wooster education is the Independent Study (I.S.) program. Established in 1947, the I.S. program is widely recognized as an exemplary undergraduate research experience (AAC&U; US News and World Report; College that Change Lives by Loren Pope). I.S. requires every Wooster student to complete an original research project. This presentation describes the details of the Wooster I.S. and, based on our experiences, gives strategies for a successful mentored undergraduate research program. Overall, the I.S. process resembles a graduate research project. Students typically begin their work in the spring of their junior year when they review the literature, learn techniques, and write a proposal for their Senior I.S. research. Many students conduct field and lab work over the following summer, although this is not a requirement of the program. In their senior year, students work one-on-one with faculty members and sometimes in small (~4 person) research groups to drive their projects forward with an increasing sense of independence. I.S. culminates in a written thesis and oral defense. Most of our students present their work at national meetings and many projects are published in peer-reviewed journals. The success of the I.S. program is largely the result of two key components: (1) the integration of undergraduate research into the curriculum, and (2) the focus on student mentoring. We have thoughtfully structured our courses so that, as students move toward I.S., they progress from concrete to abstract concepts, and from simple to complex skills. The College also recognizes the value of I.S by assigning it credit; Students earn a full course credit for each semester of I.S. (3 courses total) and there is some credit in the faculty teaching load for I.S. advising. Advisors are really mentors who are invested in their students' academic and scholarly success. As mentors, we emphasize collaboration, provide guidance and support, and hold students

  8. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Si Hassen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes.

  9. Attribution of emotions to body postures: an independent component analysis study of functional connectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libero, Lauren E; Stevens, Carl E; Kana, Rajesh K

    2014-10-01

    The ability to interpret others' body language is a vital skill that helps us infer their thoughts and emotions. However, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been found to have difficulty in understanding the meaning of people's body language, perhaps leading to an overarching deficit in processing emotions. The current fMRI study investigates the functional connectivity underlying emotion and action judgment in the context of processing body language in high-functioning adolescents and young adults with autism, using an independent components analysis (ICA) of the fMRI time series. While there were no reliable group differences in brain activity, the ICA revealed significant involvement of occipital and parietal regions in processing body actions; and inferior frontal gyrus, superior medial prefrontal cortex, and occipital cortex in body expressions of emotions. In a between-group analysis, participants with autism, relative to typical controls, demonstrated significantly reduced temporal coherence in left ventral premotor cortex and right superior parietal lobule while processing emotions. Participants with ASD, on the other hand, showed increased temporal coherence in left fusiform gyrus while inferring emotions from body postures. Finally, a positive predictive relationship was found between empathizing ability and the brain areas underlying emotion processing in ASD participants. These results underscore the differential role of frontal and parietal brain regions in processing emotional body language in autism. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Comparing brain graphs in which nodes are regions of interest or independent components: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingbao; Du, Yuhui; Chen, Jiayu; He, Hao; Sui, Jing; Pearlson, Godfrey; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-11-01

    A key challenge in building a brain graph using fMRI data is how to define the nodes. Spatial brain components estimated by independent components analysis (ICA) and regions of interest (ROIs) determined by brain atlas are two popular methods to define nodes in brain graphs. It is difficult to evaluate which method is better in real fMRI data. Here we perform a simulation study and evaluate the accuracies of a few graph metrics in graphs with nodes of ICA components, ROIs, or modified ROIs in four simulation scenarios. Graph measures with ICA nodes are more accurate than graphs with ROI nodes in all cases. Graph measures with modified ROI nodes are modulated by artifacts. The correlations of graph metrics across subjects between graphs with ICA nodes and ground truth are higher than the correlations between graphs with ROI nodes and ground truth in scenarios with large overlapped spatial sources. Moreover, moving the location of ROIs would largely decrease the correlations in all scenarios. Evaluating graphs with different nodes is promising in simulated data rather than real data because different scenarios can be simulated and measures of different graphs can be compared with a known ground truth. Since ROIs defined using brain atlas may not correspond well to real functional boundaries, overall findings of this work suggest that it is more appropriate to define nodes using data-driven ICA than ROI approaches in real fMRI data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural studies on a 2,3-diphosphoglycerate independent phosphoglycerate mutase from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, M; Setlow, P; Lamani, E; Jedrzejas, M J

    1999-06-15

    Phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM), an important enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group between the 2 and the 3 positions of glyceric acid. The gene coding for the 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate independent monomeric PGM from Bacillus stearothermophilus (57 kDa), whose activity is extremely pH sensitive and has an absolute and specific requirement for Mn2+, has been cloned and the enzyme overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. Circular dichroism studies showed at most only small secondary structure changes in the enzyme upon binding to Mn2+ or its 3-phosphoglycerate substrate, but thermal unfolding analyses revealed that Mn2+ but not 3-phosphoglycerate caused a large increase in the enzyme's stability. Diffraction-quality crystals of the enzyme were obtained at neutral pH in the presence of 3-phosphoglyceric acid with ammonium sulfate as the precipitating agent; these crystals diffract X rays to beyond 2.5-A resolution and belong to the orthorhombic space group C2221 with unit cell dimensions, a = 58.42, b = 206.08, c = 124.87 A, and alpha = beta = gamma = 90.0 degrees. The selenomethionyl version of the B. stearothermophilus protein has also been overexpressed, purified, and crystallized. Employing these crystals, the determination of the three-dimensional structure of this PGM by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method is in progress. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Common effects of amnestic mild cognitive impairment on resting-state connectivity across four independent studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eTam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional connectivity is a promising biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease. However, previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in Alzheimer’s disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI have shown limited reproducibility as they have had small sample sizes and substantial variation in study protocol. We sought to identify functional brain networks and connections that could consistently discriminate normal aging from aMCI despite variations in scanner manufacturer, imaging protocol, and diagnostic procedure. We therefore combined four datasets collected independently, including 112 healthy controls and 143 patients with aMCI. We systematically tested multiple brain connections for associations with aMCI using a weighted average routinely used in meta-analyses. The largest effects involved the superior medial frontal cortex (including the anterior cingulate, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and middle temporal lobe. Compared with controls, patients with aMCI exhibited significantly decreased connectivity between default mode network nodes and between regions of the cortico-striatal-thalamic loop. Despite the heterogeneity of methods among the four datasets, we identified common aMCI-related connectivity changes with small to medium effect sizes and sample size estimates recommending a minimum of 140 to upwards of 600 total subjects to achieve adequate statistical power in the context of a multisite study with 5-10 scanning sites and about 10 subjects per group and per site. If our findings can be replicated and associated with other established biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (e.g. amyloid and tau quantification, then these functional connections may be promising candidate biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease.

  13. A Study and Review of Effects of Botulinum Toxins on Mast Cell Dependent and Independent Pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Roshni; Marino, Marc J; Paul, Snighdha; Wang, Zhenping; Mascarenhas, Nicholas L; Pellett, Sabine; Johnson, Eric A; DiNardo, Anna; Yaksh, Tony L

    2018-03-23

    Pruriceptive itch originates following activation of peripheral sensory nerve terminals when pruritogens come in contact with the skin. The ability of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) to attenuate transmitter release from afferent terminals provides a rationale for studying its effect on pruritus. This study investigated the effects of BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1 on mast cell dependent (Compound 48/80:48/80) and independent (Chloroquine:CQ) scratching. C57Bl/6 male mice received intradermal injection of 1.5 U of BoNT/A1, BoNT/B1 or saline 2, 7, 14 and 21 days prior to ipsilateral 48/80 or CQ at the nape of the neck. Ipsilateral hind paw scratching was determined using an automated recording device. The effect of BoNTs on 48/80 mediated mast cell degranulation was analyzed in human and murine mast cells and the presence of SNAREs was determined using qPCR, immunostaining and Western blot. Pre-treatment with BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1 reduced 48/80 and CQ induced scratching behavior starting on day 2 with reversal by day 21. Both serotypes inhibited 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation. qPCR and immunostaining detected SNAP-25 mRNA and protein, respectively, in mast cells, however, Western blots did not. This study demonstrates the long-lasting anti-pruritic effects of two BoNT serotypes, in a murine pruritus model using two different mechanistically driven pruritogens. These data also indicate that BoNTs may have a direct effect upon mast cell degranulation.

  14. Using a Study Circle Model to Improve Teacher Confidence and Proficiency in Delivering Pronunciation Instruction in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echelberger, Andrea; McCurdy, Suzanne Gichrist; Parrish, Betsy

    2018-01-01

    Adult English language learners are hungry for pronunciation instruction that helps them to "crack the code" of speaking intelligible English (Derwing, 2003). Research indicates benefits of pronunciation instruction with adult learners, yet many teachers believe they lack the knowledge and background to make sound instructional decisions…

  15. Instructional design strategies for developing an interactive video educational program for pregnant teens: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, P M; Morrow, J R; Smith, P

    1984-01-01

    One hundred forty-six teens attending an urban maternity hospital's prenatal clinic completed a questionnaire designed to assist in the development of educational programs utilizing computer-assisted television instruction or interactive video. Ninety-five percent of the teens agreed that additional information about desirable health behaviors during pregnancy would be helpful. Forty-six percent preferred obtaining information from a health professional at the hospital. Although 90% said that the race of the narrator for a film show was unimportant, responses regarding racial preference corresponded to the racial distribution of participants. Seventy-six percent of the teens preferred the narrator to be younger than 35 years of age, and 54% preferred a female narrator. Race was associated with video game experiences, preferences about the narrator's age and race, and favorite television shows. Age was not associated with responses to any of the questions. Although only 19% had ever used a computer, 98% stated they would like to try a computer with assistance. More than half (55%) knew how to type and 83% had played video games; of those who had played video games, 93% said they enjoyed doing so. Eighty-three percent of the respondents always or sometimes enjoyed cartoons. Favorite television shows and cartoon characters were identified. The design implications of the teens' preferences to the development of instruction using computers coupled with other emerging technologies are discussed.

  16. Effectiveness of basic life support instruction in physical education students--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielec, Grzegorz; Klajman, Paweł; Pęczak-Graczyk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    According to the literature, 40% of injuries affecting school-age children are sports related. The role of physical education students, as future teachers, seems to be of high importance in terms of protecting children's safety during sports classes. The aim is to evaluate the level of basic life support (BLS) knowledge and skills in physical education students instructed with the use of different methods. Second-year physical education students (n=104, M age=20±0.6 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: experimental 1 (E1), experimental 2 (E2), and control (C). Group E1 students participated in a 2-hour BLS course based on computer-assisted presentations. Group E2 trainees practiced BLS algorithm in pairs during a 2-hour course. No manikins were used in both intervention groups. Students of Group C were asked to learn BLS algorithm on their own. All groups fulfilled a 10-question multiple-choice test on BLS at the beginning and the end of the experiment. After completing the course participants performed BLS on a manikin. The results of knowledge test were not significant before an experiment but differed essentially among the groups afterward (analysis of variance contrast analysis, peducation students. Moreover, permanent consultation on instructional methods with emergency medicine experts is recommended for university teachers.

  17. Acute stress alters auditory selective attention in humans independent of HPA: a study of evoked potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Elling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute stress is a stereotypical, but multimodal response to a present or imminent challenge overcharging an organism. Among the different branches of this multimodal response, the consequences of glucocorticoid secretion have been extensively investigated, mostly in connection with long-term memory (LTM. However, stress responses comprise other endocrine signaling and altered neuronal activity wholly independent of pituitary regulation. To date, knowledge of the impact of such "paracorticoidal" stress responses on higher cognitive functions is scarce. We investigated the impact of an ecological stressor on the ability to direct selective attention using event-related potentials in humans. Based on research in rodents, we assumed that a stress-induced imbalance of catecholaminergic transmission would impair this ability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The stressor consisted of a single cold pressor test. Auditory negative difference (Nd and mismatch negativity (MMN were recorded in a tonal dichotic listening task. A time series of such tasks confirmed an increased distractibility occurring 4-7 minutes after onset of the stressor as reflected by an attenuated Nd. Salivary cortisol began to rise 8-11 minutes after onset when no further modulations in the event-related potentials (ERP occurred, thus precluding a causal relationship. This effect may be attributed to a stress-induced activation of mesofrontal dopaminergic projections. It may also be attributed to an activation of noradrenergic projections. Known characteristics of the modulation of ERP by different stress-related ligands were used for further disambiguation of causality. The conjuncture of an attenuated Nd and an increased MMN might be interpreted as indicating a dopaminergic influence. The selective effect on the late portion of the Nd provides another tentative clue for this. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prior studies have deliberately tracked the adrenocortical influence

  18. Economic independence in survivors of cancer diagnosed at a young age: A Norwegian national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnes, Maria W; Lie, Rolv Terje; Bjørge, Tone; Syse, Astri; Ruud, Ellen; Wesenberg, Finn; Moster, Dag

    2016-12-15

    The impact of cancer on socioeconomic outcomes is attracting attention as the number of survivors of cancer in young age continues to rise. This study examines economic independence in a national cohort of survivors of cancer at a young age in Norway. Through the linkage of several national registries, the study cohort comprised 1,212,013 individuals born in Norway during 1965 through 1985, of which 5440 had received a cancer diagnosis before age 25 years. Follow-up was through 2007, and the main outcomes were receipt of governmental financial assistance, employment, income, and occupation. Analytic methods included Cox proportional hazard regression, log-binomial regression, and quantile regression models. Individuals in the cancer survivor group had an increased probability of receiving governmental financial assistance (men: hazard ratio [HR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.5; women: HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.6) and of not being employed (men: HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.7; women: HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6) compared with those in the noncancer group. Income discrepancies were particularly pronounced for survivors of central nervous system tumors. There was no difference in representation in higher skilled occupations. Survivors of cancer at a young age in Norway had an increased risk of being economically dependent and unemployed. This was evident in several tumor groups and was most pronounced in female survivors. There were only small differences in income or representation in higher skilled occupations for most employed survivors compared with the noncancer group. The current results are important for understanding the impact of a cancer diagnosis at a young age on subsequent job market outcomes. Cancer 2016;122:3873-3882. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  19. A comparative study on the effectiveness of still pictures and moving pictures as aids in vocabulary instruction to Turkish EFL students

    OpenAIRE

    Kumbaroğlu, Didem

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent Univ., 1998. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1998. Includes bibliographical refences. Vocabulary instruction is an important aspect of language teaching, whose difficulty is acknowledged by researchers as well as teachers and students. Still pictures and moving pictures (video) are often used as aids in EFL vocabulary instruction. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the role of ...

  20. Studying generalised dark matter interactions with extended halo-independent methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix [DESY, Notkestraße 85,D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wild, Sebastian [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München,James-Franck-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-10-20

    The interpretation of dark matter direct detection experiments is complicated by the fact that neither the astrophysical distribution of dark matter nor the properties of its particle physics interactions with nuclei are known in detail. To address both of these issues in a very general way we develop a new framework that combines the full formalism of non-relativistic effective interactions with state-of-the-art halo-independent methods. This approach makes it possible to analyse direct detection experiments for arbitrary dark matter interactions and quantify the goodness-of-fit independent of astrophysical uncertainties. We employ this method in order to demonstrate that the degeneracy between astrophysical uncertainties and particle physics unknowns is not complete. Certain models can be distinguished in a halo-independent way using a single ton-scale experiment based on liquid xenon, while other models are indistinguishable with a single experiment but can be separated using combined information from several target elements.

  1. Studying generalised dark matter interactions with extended halo-independent methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Wild, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    The interpretation of dark matter direct detection experiments is complicated by the fact that neither the astrophysical distribution of dark matter nor the properties of its particle physics interactions with nuclei are known in detail. To address both of these issues in a very general way we develop a new framework that combines the full formalism of non-relativistic effective interactions with state-of-the-art halo-independent methods. This approach makes it possible to analyse direct detection experiments for arbitrary dark matter interactions and quantify the goodness-of-fit independent of astrophysical uncertainties. We employ this method in order to demonstrate that the degeneracy between astrophysical uncertainties and particle physics unknowns is not complete. Certain models can be distinguished in a halo-independent way using a single ton-scale experiment based on liquid xenon, while other models are indistinguishable with a single experiment but can be separated using combined information from several target elements.

  2. Independent cellular effects of cold ischemia and reperfusion: experimental molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó-García, E; Humanes-Sánchez, B; Mojena-Sánchez, M; Rodrígez, J C J; Hernández-Fernández, C; Tejedor-Jorge, A; Fernández, A L

    2013-04-01

    There is less information available on cell cultures on the exclusive effects of either duration of cold ischemia (CI) or rewarming-reperfusion in the kidney subjected to initial warm ischemia (WI). Therefore, the goals of our work were: (1) to evaluate the consequences on tubular cellular viability of different durations of CI on a kidney after an initial period of WI, and (2) to analyze the additional effect on tubular cell viability of rewarming of the same kidney. Sixteen mini-pig were used. All the animals were performed a right nephrectomy after 45-minute occlusion of the vascular pedicle. The kidneys were then divided into 2 groups (phase 1): cold storage in university of wisconsin (UW) solution for 3 hours (group A, n = 8) at 4°C, or cold storage in UW for 12 hours (group B, n = 8) at 4°C. Four organs of group A and four organs of group B were autotrasplanted (AT) and reperfused for 1 hour (phase 2). Nephrectomy was finally done. Biopsies were taken from all groups to perform cultures of proximal tubule epithelium cells. The biopsies were subjected to studies of cellular morphological viability (contrast phase microscopy [CPM]) and quantitative (confluence cell [CC]) parameters. Phase of pure CI effects (phase 1): Both CC rate and CPM parameters were significantly lower in group B compared with group A, where cell activity reached almost normal results. Phase of CI + AT (phase 2): At produced additional harmful effects in cell cultures compared with those obtained in phase 1, more evident in group B cells. The presence of cold storage followed by rewarming-reperfusion induces independent and cumulative detrimental effects in viability of renal proximal tubule cells. CI periods ≤ 3 hours may ameliorate the injuries secondary to reperfusion in comparison with longer CI periods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reflective thinking in solving an algebra problem: a case study of field independent-prospective teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustan, S.; Juniati, Dwi; Yuli Eko Siswono, Tatag

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, reflective thinking is one of the important things which become a concern in learning mathematics, especially in solving a mathematical problem. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the student used reflective thinking when solved an algebra problem. The subject of this research is one female student who has field independent cognitive style. This research is a descriptive exploratory study with data analysis using qualitative approach to describe in depth reflective thinking of prospective teacher in solving an algebra problem. Four main categories are used to analyse the reflective thinking in solving an algebra problem: (1) formulation and synthesis of experience, (2) orderliness of experience, (3) evaluating the experience and (4) testing the selected solution based on the experience. The results showed that the subject described the problem by using another word and the subject also found the difficulties in making mathematical modelling. The subject analysed two concepts used in solving problem. For instance, geometry related to point and line while algebra is related to algebra arithmetic operation. The subject stated that solution must have four aspect to get effective solution, specifically the ability to (a) understand the meaning of every words; (b) make mathematical modelling; (c) calculate mathematically; (d) interpret solution obtained logically. To test the internal consistency or error in solution, the subject checked and looked back related procedures and operations used. Moreover, the subject tried to resolve the problem in a different way to compare the answers which had been obtained before. The findings supported the assertion that reflective thinking provides an opportunity for the students in improving their weakness in mathematical problem solving. It can make a grow accuracy and concentration in solving a mathematical problem. Consequently, the students will get the right and logic answer by reflective thinking.

  4. A pilot study of the effects of RightStart instruction on early numeracy skills of children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mononen, Riikka; Aunio, Pirjo; Koponen, Tuire

    2014-05-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of an early numeracy program, RightStart Mathematics (RS), on Finnish kindergartners with specific language impairment (SLI). The study applied a pre-test-instruction-post-test design. The children with SLI (n=9, Mage=82.11 months) received RS instruction two to three times a week for 40 min over seven months, which replaced their business-as-usual mathematics instruction. Mathematical skill development among children with SLI was examined at the individual and group levels, and compared to the performance of normal language-achieving age peers (n=32, Mage=74.16 months) who received business-as-usual kindergarten mathematics instruction. The children with SLI began kindergarten with significantly weaker early numeracy skills compared to their peers. Immediately after the instruction phase, there was no significant difference between the groups in counting skills. In Grade 1, the children with SLI performed similarly to their peers in addition and subtraction skills (accuracy) and multi-digit number comparison, but showed weaker skills in arithmetical reasoning and in matching spoken and printed multi-digit numbers. Our pilot study showed encouraging signs that the early numeracy skills of children with SLI can be improved successfully in a kindergarten small-classroom setting with systematic instruction emphasizing visualization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring Effectiveness and Moderators of Language Learning Strategy Instruction on Second Language and Self-Regulated Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardasheva, Yuliya; Wang, Zhe; Adesope, Olusola O.; Valentine, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized recent research on strategy instruction (SI) effectiveness to estimate SI effects and their moderators for two domains: second/foreign language and self-regulated learning. A total of 37 studies (47 independent samples) for language domain and 16 studies (17 independent samples) for self-regulated learning domain…

  6. The Instructional Network: Using Facebook to Enhance Undergraduate Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter; Gregory, Karen; Eddy, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is a website with over one billion users worldwide that is synonymous with social-networking. However, in this study, Facebook is used as an "instructional network". Two sections of an undergraduate calculus course were used to study the effects of participating in a Facebook group devoted solely to instruction. One section was…

  7. Role-playing is an effective instructional strategy for genetic counseling training: an investigation and comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Yan; Song, Ming; Xiao, Wen-Gang; Bai, Yun

    2016-09-02

    Genetic diseases represent a significant public health challenge in China that will need to be addressed by a correspondingly large number of professional genetic counselors. However, neither an official training program for genetic counseling, nor formal board certification, was available in China before 2015. In 2009, a genetic counseling training program based on role-playing was implemented as a pilot study at the Third Military Medical University to train third-year medical students. Questionnaires on participant attitudes to the program and role-playing were randomly administered to 324 students after they had finished their training. Pre- and post-training instructional tests, focusing on 42 key components of genetic counseling, were administered randomly to 200 participants to assess mastery of each component. Finally, scores in final examinations of 578 participants from 2009 to 2011 were compared to scores obtained by 614 non-participating students from 2006 to 2008 to further assess program efficacy. Both the training program and the instructional strategy of role-playing were accepted by most participants. Students believed that role-playing improved their practice of genetic counseling and medical genetics, enhanced their communication skills, and would likely contribute to future professional performance. The average understanding of 40 of the key points in genetic counseling was significantly improved, and most students approached excellent levels of mastery. Scores in final examinations and the percentages of students scoring above 90 were also significantly elevated. Role-playing is a feasible and effective instructional strategy for training genetic counselors in China as well as in other developing countries.

  8. Feedback and learning support that fosters students' independent learning: an Australian case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine students’ reactions to formative (i.e. face to face, audio, wiki and live, email) feedback. This approach is used to improve students’ communication and critical-thinking skills and to encourage independent learning. This paper provides empirical evidence from 327 students

  9. The Usher lifestyle survey : maintaining independence: a multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Godelieve W J A; Krabbe, Paul F M; Kilsby, M; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M

    2005-01-01

    Patients with Usher syndrome face a special set of challenges in order to maintain their independence when their sight and hearing worsen. Three different types of Usher (I, II and III) are distinguished by differences in onset, progression and severity of hearing loss, and by the presence or

  10. The Usher lifestyle survey: maintaining independence: a multi-centre study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, G.W.J.A.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Kilsby, M.; Mylanus, E.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with Usher syndrome face a special set of challenges in order to maintain their independence when their sight and hearing worsen. Three different types of Usher (I, II and III) are distinguished by differences in onset, progression and severity of hearing loss, and by the presence or

  11. 25 CFR 67.15 - Special instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Area Director, the Assistant Secretary may issue special instructions not inconsistent with the... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special instructions. 67.15 Section 67.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PREPARATION OF A ROLL OF INDEPENDENT...

  12. Instructional Podcasting with Undergraduate Digital Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin M.; Willis, Dottie

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of instructional podcasts with students in introductory computer application classes at a small, independent, private university. Participants were all undergraduates in the school of education. In an effort to model effective use of instructional technology for preservice teachers and to "meet digital native…

  13. Frailty syndrome in an independent urban population in Brazil (FIBRA study: a cross-sectional populational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Barradas Calado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Frailty is a multifactorial syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of frailty syndrome in an elderly urban population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study carried out at the homes of a randomized sample representing the independent elderly individuals of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. METHODS: Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data and criteria of the frailty phenotype were obtained at the subjects' homes; 385 individuals were evaluated. Frailty was defined based on detection of weight loss, exhaustion, weakness, slowness and low physical activity level. Individuals with three or more of these characteristics were classified as frail and those with one or two as pre-frail. Specific cutoff points for weakness, slowness and low physical activity level were calculated. RESULTS: The participants' mean age was 73.9 ± 6.5 years, and 64.7% were women. 12.5% had lost weight over the last year; 20.5% showed exhaustion, 17.1% slowness, 24.4% low physical activity level and 20.5% weakness. 9.1% were considered frail and 49.6% pre-frail. Frail subjects were older, attended more medical visits, had a higher chance of hospitalization within the last 12 months and had more cerebrovascular events, diabetes, neoplasms, osteoporosis and urinary and fecal incontinence. CONCLUSION: In this independent elderly population, there were numerous frail and pre-frail individuals. Frailty syndrome was associated with high morbidity. Cutoff points for weakness, slowness and low physical activity level should be adjusted for the population under study. It is essential to identify frail and pre-frail older individuals for appropriate interventions.

  14. A case study of full integration of the arts into core subject area instruction in one East Texas secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leysath, Maggie

    This exploratory phenomenological case study investigated the influence the full integration of the arts into core subject instruction has on classroom environment, student academic achievement, and student engagement as perceived by administrators, teachers, and students in one East Texas secondary school. Participant interviews were analyzed using Creswell's (2012) six-step method for analyzing phenomenological studies. The researcher implemented three learning activities in which ceramics learning objectives were fully integrated with chemistry learning objectives. The first activity combined clay properties and pottery wheel throwing with significant numbers. The second activity combined glaze formulation with moles. The third combined stoichiometry with the increased glaze formula for students to glaze the bowls they made. Findings suggest the full integration of art in core subject area instruction has numerous positive effects. Participants reported improved academic achievement for all students including reluctant learners. Students, teachers, and the administrator reported greater participation in the art integrated activities. Participants perceived a need for further training for teachers and administrators for greater success.

  15. Monitoring Progress toward Independent Silent Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, Lillian H.; Hildebrandt, Jeannette

    1984-01-01

    Concludes, among other things, that fluent oral reading is an important step toward reading for meaning and independent silent reading and that silent reading should be encouraged from the beginning of reading instruction. (FL)

  16. Study of grid independence of finite element method on MHD free convective casson fluid flow with slip effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, R. Srinivasa; Ramesh, K.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the grid independence of finite element method on MHD Casson fluid flow past a vertically inclined plate filled in a porous medium in presence of chemical reaction, heat absorption, an external magnetic field and slip effect has been investigated. For this study of grid independence, a mathematical model is developed and analyzed by using appropriate mathematical technique, called finite element method. Grid study discussed with the help of numerical values of velocity, temperature and concentration profiles in tabular form. avourable comparisons with previously published work on various special cases of the problem are obtained.

  17. Instructional Partners, Principals, Teachers, and Instructional Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    This handbook examines various topics of interest and concern to teachers as they work with instructional assistants forming a classroom instructional partnership and functioning as a team. These topics include: (1) instructional assistant qualifications; (2) duties--instructional, classroom clerical, auxillary; (3) factors to be considered when…

  18. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  19. The potential of Supplemental Instruction in engineering education - helping new students to adjust to and succeed in University studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2015-07-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a programme that is attached to difficult courses with the objective of increasing student performance and retention. However, an SI programme also has the potential to increase overall student performance and retention during the first critical year if applied to introductory courses. In this study the latter objective is investigated in an engineering educational environment. The study shows that an SI programme attached to difficult first semester courses for new engineering students has substantial positive effects on both first-year student performance and retention. Both male and female students appear to benefit from attending SI to the same extent. Some potential reasons for these improved first-year student performances are that attendance at SI sessions appears to lead to improved self-confidence, a broader network of study partners, improved study strategies and problem-solving skills and an increased ability to critically review material and work with others.

  20. Independent life history evolution between generations of bivoltine species: a case study of cyclical parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Glen R; Ott, James R

    2017-04-01

    Successive generations of bi- and multivoltine species encounter differing biotic and abiotic environments intra-annually. The question of whether selection can independently adjust the relationship between body size and components of reproductive effort within successive generations in response to generation-specific environmental variation is applicable to a diversity of taxa. Herein, we develop a conceptual framework that illustrates increasingly independent life history adjustments between successive generations of taxa exhibiting complex life cycles. We apply this framework to the reproductive biology of the gall-forming insect, Belonocnema treatae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). This bivoltine species expresses cyclical parthenogenesis in which alternating sexual and asexual generations develop in different seasons and different environments. We tested the hypotheses that ecological divergence between the alternate generations is accompanied by generational differences in body size, egg size, and egg number and by changes in the relationships between body size and these components of reproductive effort. Increased potential reproductive effort of sexual generation B. treatae is attained by increased body size and egg number (with no trade-off between egg number and egg size) and by a significant increase in the slope of the relationship between body size and potential fecundity. These generation-specific relationships, interpreted in the context of the model framework, suggest that within each generation selection has independently molded the relationships relating body size to potential fecundity and potential reproductive effort in B. treatae. The conceptual framework is broadly applicable to comparisons involving the alternating generations of bi- and multivoltine species.

  1. A comparison of citations across multidisciplinary psychology journals: a case study of two independent journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R

    2010-02-01

    Citation rates and impact factors are often used in an attempt to evaluate the apparent prestige of scholarly journals and the quality of research published by individual scholars. However, the apparent prestige of "top tier" journals may reflect aggressive marketing and advertising efforts as much as scholarship. Some journals have retained their independence from professional organizations and the funding, marketing, and advocacy policies that may be associated with such organizations. While lacking as much visibility as organizational journals and sometimes considered "lower tier," independent journals may be able to provide comparable scientific quality as measured by citation rates. To test this, the citation rates of 169 articles published by a frequently cited scholar were compared across first- and second-tier journals, including many sponsored and marketed by large professional organizations, and to rates for two independent journals combined, Psychological Reports and Perceptual and Motor Skills. Citation rates were higher for first-tier journals but for most comparisons, especially those that controlled for heterogeneity of variance, results did not differ in statistically significant ways among the three tiers of journals, though some nonsignificant trends (p journals appear to be a relatively weak indicator of scientific merit; journals at any tier contain articles that are useful and of good quality.

  2. Interoperability in practice: case study of the Slovenian independence war of 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Prebilič

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper will examine the theory of the interoperability of armed forces through the case of he Slovenian Independence War of 1991. Although defense system interoperability is a well-established concept, there are many obstacles to its implementation. Some defense systems do not deliberately support the idea of interoperability. One such example is the total defense system in SFR Yugoslavia, which is comprised of two defense components: the Yugoslav People’s Army (YPA and territorial defense structures organized by the federal republic. The question of interoperability is highly relevant since the war was fought between the YPA and the defense forces of the newly proclaimed independent state, Slovenia, who were partners in the total defense concept. Due to the clear asymmetry, interoperability offered a great advantage in the independence war. The Slovenian defense forces were combined into three structures: the former militia as an internal security element, the territorial defense as a military component, and the national protection forces as a “civil” defense element. Although each structure had its own command and organizational structure, during the Slovenian War they were combined into a well-structured and organized defense element that achieved victory against a much stronger, better equipped, and better supported army.

  3. The Mississippian Leadville Limestone Exploration Play, Utah and Colorado-Exploration Techniques and Studies for Independents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2008-09-30

    The Mississippian (late Kinderhookian to early Meramecian) Leadville Limestone is a shallow, open-marine, carbonate-shelf deposit. The Leadville has produced over 53 million barrels (8.4 million m{sup 3}) of oil/condensate from seven fields in the Paradox fold and fault belt of the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. The environmentally sensitive, 7500-square-mile (19,400 km{sup 2}) area that makes up the fold and fault belt is relatively unexplored. Only independent producers operate and continue to hunt for Leadville oil targets in the region. The overall goal of this study is to assist these independents by (1) developing and demonstrating techniques and exploration methods never tried on the Leadville Limestone, (2) targeting areas for exploration, (3) increasing deliverability from new and old Leadville fields through detailed reservoir characterization, (4) reducing exploration costs and risk especially in environmentally sensitive areas, and (5) adding new oil discoveries and reserves. The final results will hopefully reduce exploration costs and risks, especially in environmentally sensitive areas, and add new oil discoveries and reserves. The study consists of three sections: (1) description of lithofacies and diagenetic history of the Leadville at Lisbon field, San Juan County, Utah, (2) methodology and results of a surface geochemical survey conducted over the Lisbon and Lightning Draw Southeast fields (and areas in between) and identification of oil-prone areas using epifluorescence in well cuttings from regional wells, and (3) determination of regional lithofacies, description of modern and outcrop depositional analogs, and estimation of potential oil migration directions (evaluating the middle Paleozoic hydrodynamic pressure regime and water chemistry). Leadville lithofacies at Libon field include open marine (crinoidal banks or shoals and Waulsortian-type buildups), oolitic and peloid shoals, and middle shelf. Rock units with open-marine and restricted

  4. The Mississippian Leadville Limestone Exploration Play, Utah and Colorado-Exploration Techniques and Studies for Independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2008-01-01

    The Mississippian (late Kinderhookian to early Meramecian) Leadville Limestone is a shallow, open-marine, carbonate-shelf deposit. The Leadville has produced over 53 million barrels (8.4 million m 3 ) of oil/condensate from seven fields in the Paradox fold and fault belt of the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. The environmentally sensitive, 7500-square-mile (19,400 km 2 ) area that makes up the fold and fault belt is relatively unexplored. Only independent producers operate and continue to hunt for Leadville oil targets in the region. The overall goal of this study is to assist these independents by (1) developing and demonstrating techniques and exploration methods never tried on the Leadville Limestone, (2) targeting areas for exploration, (3) increasing deliverability from new and old Leadville fields through detailed reservoir characterization, (4) reducing exploration costs and risk especially in environmentally sensitive areas, and (5) adding new oil discoveries and reserves. The final results will hopefully reduce exploration costs and risks, especially in environmentally sensitive areas, and add new oil discoveries and reserves. The study consists of three sections: (1) description of lithofacies and diagenetic history of the Leadville at Lisbon field, San Juan County, Utah, (2) methodology and results of a surface geochemical survey conducted over the Lisbon and Lightning Draw Southeast fields (and areas in between) and identification of oil-prone areas using epifluorescence in well cuttings from regional wells, and (3) determination of regional lithofacies, description of modern and outcrop depositional analogs, and estimation of potential oil migration directions (evaluating the middle Paleozoic hydrodynamic pressure regime and water chemistry). Leadville lithofacies at Libon field include open marine (crinoidal banks or shoals and Waulsortian-type buildups), oolitic and peloid shoals, and middle shelf. Rock units with open-marine and restricted

  5. The Impacts of Theme-Based Language Instruction: A Case Study of an Advanced Chinese Intensive Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Theme-based language teaching under Content-Based Instruction (CBI is a pedagogical approach that emphasizes learning professional content along with language skills. This paper reports a case study on the impacts of a theme-based advanced Chinese intensive program in a university setting. It begins with a review of CBI and its theme-based approach and then discusses the program design, curriculum development, and instructional practice of the program. The impacts of the theme-based approach are examined based on the pre- and post-proficiency test results, learners’ self-reported surveys on the themes and topics, and the reading strategies covered in the program. Qualitative analysis of learners’ self-reflections and program evaluations is also presented. Based on the evidence collected, this paper argues that the theme-based model has positive impacts on improving language proficiency, preparing for academic and professional language use, cultivating strategic language learners, and revitalizing Chinese teaching at the superior level.

  6. Improving Reading Instruction through Research-Based Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Vickie Lynn

    2010-01-01

    The diverse population of students in grades 1- 3 at a suburban elementary school has created a challenge for teachers when differentiating instruction in reading. The purpose of this doctoral project study was to explore the lived experiences of these teachers as they have acquired research-based instructional strategies in reading that support…

  7. Principals' instructional management skills and middle school science teacher job satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs-Harper, Nzinga A.

    The purpose of this research study was to determine if a relationship exists between teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional leadership behaviors and middle school teacher job satisfaction. Additionally, this study sought to assess whether principal's instructional leadership skills were predictors of middle school teachers' satisfaction with work itself. This study drew from 13 middle schools in an urban Mississippi school district. Participants included teachers who taught science. Each teacher was given the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS; Hallinger, 2011) and the Teacher Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (TJSQ; Lester, 1987) to answer the research questions. The study was guided by two research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between the independent variables Defining the School's Mission, Managing the Instructional Program, and Developing the School Learning Climate Program and the dependent variable Work Itself?; (b) Are Defining the School's Mission, Managing the Instructional Program, and Developing the School Learning Climate Program predictors of Work Itself? The Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis were utilized to examine the relationship between the three dimensions of principals' instructional leadership and teacher satisfaction with work itself. The data revealed that there was a strong, positive correlation between all three dimensions of principals' instructional leadership and teacher satisfaction with work itself. However, the multiple regression analysis determined that teachers' perceptions of principals' instructional management skills is a slight predictor of Defining the School's Mission only.

  8. Students and Instructors Opinions about Piano Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the opinions of the students and piano instructors in the Turkish Education Faculties' Fine Arts Instruction Departments' music instruction programs about piano instruction. The study data were collected using a questionnaire administered to the piano instructors and the students who took lessons from them. The study results…

  9. Constructing a history of independent Mozambique, 1974-1982: a study in photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew A. Thompson

    Full Text Available The taking and publication of photographs played an important role in Mozambique's independence and in the years after 1975. As settlers departed Mozambique in the wake of riots and the Portuguese handover of power, the newly independent government, Frelimo, assumed control of abandoned commercial studios and other photographic equipment. Frelimo used legal and technical distinctions to create a group of photographers who traveled with and photographed its leader President Machel, while the other photographers, lumped under the heading 'commercial', were responsible for studio portraits also known as headshots. In one respect, press photographs allowed Frelimo to document and transmit its political ideologies to public audiences. In another respect, commercial studio portraits, which individuals carried on identification cards in their wallets, permitted Frelimo to categorise populations as employed versus unemployed or as possible enemies of the state. These contrasting forms of image making illuminate the reality that Frelimo supplemented the 'more positive' political power represented through press photographs of President Machel with 'more negative' forces of self-identification and public shaming. This article uses photographs and oral histories with photographers, journalists and government leaders to explore the inter-relationship between press and commercial photography from 1974 to 1982, a time of transition for the Frelimo government from a liberation movement into a political party. By exploring the uneasy and tenuous relationship that ensued between institutions and technologies that supported photography's practice in Mozambique, this article considers how Frelimo's control over photography - and photographers' own compliance - impacted on the historical and visual representation of Mozambique's independence.

  10. Active Learning through Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…

  11. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism: association study in three independent samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Klaus D.

    2008-01-01

    networks implicated by the candidate genes resulting from the estrogen selection. We identified ten candidate genes using this approach that are all active in glucose metabolism and particularly in the glycolysis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that variants of the glycolytic genes are associated...... to nationality or gender. CONCLUSION: Several gene variants in the Glycolysis were associated with schizophrenia in three independent samples. However, the findings are weak and not resistant to correction for multiple testing, which may indicate that they are either spurious or may relate to a particular...

  12. A Study Of Student's Independent Thinking As Manifested In Real Achievement Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Karaja, Adbul Qader I. [عبد القادر اسماعيل كراجه

    1998-01-01

    The major aim of the paper is to examine to what extent expectancy as an expression of perceived ability is related to amount of independent thinking as manifested in the examination situation, and to what extent the latter is a determinant of grades. A randomly selected sample of 117 students, 77 female and 40 male were asked one week before their examination of psychology to estimate as realistically as possible the grades (1.4-4.0) in fact they think they will get in the examination0 ...

  13. Study of λφ4 theory in the coupled independent double-oscillator approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, H.; Stevenson, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    A scalar field can be viewed as an infinite set of coupled oscillators, one at each lattice point in space, as the lattice spacing goes to zero. Λφ 4 theory considers the case when each oscillator is given a potential of the form V(φ) = 1/2m 2 φ 2 + λφ 4 . The question the authors wish to investigate is whether or not such a potential can cause spontaneous symmetry breaking. They approach this problem by defining an open-quotes effective potentialclose quotes which takes into account the quantum effects of the oscillators. This is useful because a double well effective potential would imply spontaneous symmetry breaking. They consider a variational calculation with a trial wavefunctional that is a product of independent double-oscillator wavefunctions. Each double-oscillator wavefunction is defined to be the sum of two Gaussians with the same widths, centered around φ o . They then define the effective potential at φ o to be the energy density resulting from this variational calculation, where the separation and the width of the Gaussians are the parameters which are allowed to vary. They call this the open-quotes Coupled Independent Double-Oscillator Approximation.close quotes The goal of this research is to compute this effective potential, renormalize the variables, and to gain additional insight into whether or not spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs

  14. Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes: the LADIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Moleiro, Carla; Ferro, José M; O'Brien, John T; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Fazekas, Franz; Scheltens, Philip; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Inzitari, Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC). The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly) prospective study evaluated the impact of WMC on the transition of independent older subjects into disability. Subjects were evaluated annually over a 3 year period with a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Previous episodes of depression and current DS were assessed during each interview. Severity of DS was assessed using the self-rated 15 item Geriatric Depression Scale. A neuropsychological battery and clinical criteria for cognitive impairments were applied in all clinical visits, and cognitive compound measures were made based on neuropsychological results. MRI was performed at baseline and at year 3. 639 subjects were included (74.1 ± 5 years old, 55% women, 9.6 ± 3.8 years of schooling). Dementia was diagnosed in 90 patients and cognitive impairment not dementia in 147 patients at the last clinical evaluation. DS were an independent predictor of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia) during follow-up, independent of the effect of the severity of WMC, medial temporal lobe atrophy, age, education or global cognitive function at baseline. DS are associated with an increase risk of cognitive decline, independent of the effect of WMC, probably due to an additive or synergistic effect. In this context, DS probably represent a subtle ongoing organic dysfunction.

  15. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  16. Reviews in instructional video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were

  17. An Empirical Study on the Application of Cooperative Learning to Comprehensive English Classes in a Chinese Independent College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ji

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated a comparison between the effect of cooperative learning and lecture teaching on Comprehensive English classes in a Chinese Independent College. An empirical study for two semesters was carried out in the forms of pretest, posttest, questionnaire and interviews. While control class was taught in the conventional way,…

  18. A cross-cultural, multilevel study of inquiry-based instruction effects on conceptual understanding and motivation in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Meiko

    Student achievement and motivation to learn physics is highly valued in many industrialized countries including the United States and Japan. Science education curricula in these countries emphasize the importance and encourage classroom teachers to use an inquiry approach. This dissertation investigated high school students' motivational orientations and their understanding of physics concepts in a context of inquiry-based instruction. The goals were to explore the patterns of instructional effects on motivation and learning in each country and to examine cultural differences and similarities. Participants consisted of 108 students (55 females, 53 males) and 9 physics teachers in the United States and 616 students (203 females and 413 males) and 11 physics teachers in Japan. Students were administered (a) Force Concept Inventory measuring physics conceptual understanding and (b) Attitudes about Science Questionnaire measuring student motivational orientations. Teachers were given a survey regarding their use of inquiry teaching practices and background information. Additionally, three teachers in each country were interviewed and observed in their classrooms. For the data analysis, two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methods were used to examine individual student differences (i.e., learning, motivation, and gender) within each classroom (i.e., inquiry-based teaching, teaching experience, and class size) in the U.S. and Japan, separately. Descriptive statistical analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that there was a cultural similarity in that current teaching practices had minimal influence on conceptual understanding as well as motivation of high school students between the U.S. and Japan. In contrast, cultural differences were observed in classroom structures and instructional approaches. Furthermore, this study revealed gender inequity in Japanese students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy. Limitations of the study, as well as

  19. Children, Technology, and Instruction: A Case Study of Elementary School Children Using an Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Examines elementary school students' use of an online public access catalog to investigate the interaction between children, technology, curriculum, instruction, and learning. Highlights include patterns of successes and breakdowns; search strategies; instructional approaches and childrens' interests; structure of interaction; search terms; and…

  20. Improve Student Understanding Ability Through Gamification in Instructional Media Based Explicit Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausi, N.; Prabawa, H. W.; Sutarno, H.

    2017-02-01

    In an effort to maximize a student’s academic growth, one of the tools available to educators is the explicit instruction. Explicit instruction is marked by a series of support or scaffold, where the students will be guided through the learning process with a clear statement of purpose and a reason for learning new skills, a clear explanation and demonstration of learning targets, supported and practiced with independent feedback until mastery has been achieved. The technology development trend of todays, requires an adjustment in the development of learning object that supports the achievement of explicit instruction targets. This is where the gamification position is. In the role as a pedagogical strategy, the use of gamification preformance study class is still relatively new. Gamification not only use the game elements and game design techniques in non-game contexts, but also to empower and engage learners with the ability of motivation on learning approach and maintains a relaxed atmosphere. With using Reseach and Development methods, this paper presents the integration of technology (which in this case using the concept of gamification) in explicit instruction settings and the impact on the improvement of students’ understanding.

  1. Numerical studies of time-independent and time-dependent scattering by several elliptical cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigsch, Martin

    2007-07-01

    A numerical solution to the problem of time-dependent scattering by an array of elliptical cylinders with parallel axes is presented. The solution is an exact one, based on the separation-of-variables technique in the elliptical coordinate system, the addition theorem for Mathieu functions, and numerical integration. Time-independent solutions are described by a system of linear equations of infinite order which are truncated for numerical computations. Time-dependent solutions are obtained by numerical integration involving a large number of these solutions. First results of a software package generating these solutions are presented: wave propagation around three impenetrable elliptical scatterers. As far as we know, this method described has never been used for time-dependent multiple scattering.

  2. Frequency-independent radiation modes of interior sound radiation: Experimental study and global active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, C.; Papantoni, V.; Algermissen, S.; Monner, H. P.

    2017-08-01

    Active control of structural sound radiation is a promising technique to overcome the poor passive acoustic isolation performance of lightweight structures in the low-frequency region. Active structural acoustic control commonly aims at the suppression of the far-field radiated sound power. This paper is concerned with the active control of sound radiation into acoustic enclosures. Experimental results of a coupled rectangular plate-fluid system under stochastic excitation are presented. The amplitudes of the frequency-independent interior radiation modes are determined in real-time using a set of structural vibration sensors, for the purpose of estimating their contribution to the acoustic potential energy in the enclosure. This approach is validated by acoustic measurements inside the cavity. Utilizing a feedback control approach, a broadband reduction of the global acoustic response inside the enclosure is achieved.

  3. The extrapolation of creep rupture data by PD6605 - An independent case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J., E-mail: john.bolton@uwclub.net [65 Fisher Avenue, Rugby, Warks CV22 5HW (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    The worked example presented in BSI document PD6605-1:1998, to illustrate the selection, validation and extrapolation of a creep rupture model using statistical analysis, was independently examined. Alternative rupture models were formulated and analysed by the same statistical methods, and were shown to represent the test data more accurately than the original model. Median rupture lives extrapolated from the original and alternative models were found to diverge widely under some conditions of practical interest. The tests prescribed in PD6605 and employed to validate the original model were applied to the better of the alternative models. But the tests were unable to discriminate between the two, demonstrating that these tests fail to ensure reliability in extrapolation. The difficulties of determining when a model is sufficiently reliable for use in extrapolation are discussed and some proposals are made.

  4. A qualitative study of independent fast food vendors near secondary schools in disadvantaged Scottish neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrade, Michelle; Dick, Smita; Crawford, Fiona; Jepson, Ruth; Ellaway, Anne; McNeill, Geraldine

    2014-08-04

    Preventing and reducing childhood and adolescent obesity is a growing priority in many countries. Recent UK data suggest that children in more deprived areas have higher rates of obesity and poorer diet quality than those in less deprived areas. As adolescents spend a large proportion of time in school, interventions to improve the food environment in and around schools are being considered. Nutrient standards for school meals are mandatory in the UK, but many secondary pupils purchase foods outside schools at break or lunchtime that may not meet these standards. Qualitative interviews were conducted with fast food shop managers to explore barriers to offering healthier menu options. Recruitment targeted independently-owned shops near secondary schools (pupils aged c.12-17) in low-income areas of three Scottish cities. Ten interviews were completed, recorded, and transcribed for analysis. An inductive qualitative approach was used to analyse the data in NVivo 10. Five themes emerged from the data: pride in what is sold; individual autonomy and responsibility; customer demand; profit margin; and neighbourhood context. Interviewees consistently expressed pride in the foods they sold, most of which were homemade. They felt that healthy eating and general wellbeing are the responsibility of the individual and that offering what customers want to eat, not necessarily what they should eat, was the only way to stay in business. Most vendors felt they were struggling to maintain a profit, and that many aspects of the low-income neighbourhood context would make change difficult or impossible. Independent food shops in low-income areas face barriers to offering healthy food choices, and interventions and policies that target the food environment around schools should take the neighbourhood context into consideration.

  5. Case Studies of Secondary School Teachers Designing Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction and Their Students' Socioscientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Engin

    Addressing socioscientific issues (SSI) has been one of the main focuses in science education since the Science, Technology, and Society (STS) movement in the 1970s (Levinson, 2006); however, teaching controversial socioscientific issues has always been challenging for teachers (Dillon, 1994; Osborne, Duschl, & Fairbrother, 2002). Although teachers exhibit positive attitudes for using controversial socioscientific issues in their science classrooms, only a small percentage of them actually incorporate SSI content into their science curricula on a regular basis (Sadler, Amirshokoohi, Kazempour, & Allspaw, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009). The literature in science education has highlighted the signi?cant relationships among teacher beliefs, teaching practices, and student learning (Bryan & Atwater, 2002; King, Shumow, & Lietz, 2001; Lederman, 1992). Despite the fact that the case studies present a relatively detailed picture of teachers' values and motivations for teaching SSI (e.g. Lee, 2006; Lee & Witz, 2009; Reis & Galvao, 2004), these studies still miss the practices of these teachers and potential outcomes for their students. Therefore, there is a great need for in-depth case studies that would focus on teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based learning environments, their deeper beliefs and motivations for teaching SSI, and their students' response to these practices (Lee, 2006). This dissertation is structured as three separate, but related, studies about secondary school teachers' experiences of designing and teaching SSI-based classes and their students' understanding of science and SSI reasoning. The case studies in this dissertation seek answers for (1) teachers' practices of designing and teaching SSI-based instruction, as well as its relation to their deeper personal beliefs and motivations to teach SSI, and (2) how their students respond to their approaches of teaching SSI in terms of their science understanding and SSI reasoning. The first paper

  6. A Study To Determine Instructors Self-Reported Instructional Strategies Which Foster Science Literacy In An EFL (English as a Foreign Language) Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseworthy, Mark Joseph

    2011-12-01

    This research titled 'A Study to Determine Instructors Self-Reported Instructional Strategies Which Foster Science Literacy in an EFL (English as a Foreign Language) Environment' is an ethnographic study based on grounded theory principles and research design. The essence of the research was to answer five research questions that would ultimately create a foundation for instructional strategies allowing science instructors to foster science literacy in an EFL environment. The research attempts to conceptualize the research participants' instructional strategies that promote strong science literacy skills. Further to this, consider the complexities that this learning environment inherently offers, where the learning event is occurring in an English environment that is a second language for the learner. The research was designed to generate personal truths that produced common themes as it relates to the five research questions posed in this thesis; what instructional strategies do current post secondary science instructors at one College in Qatar believe foster science literacy in an EFL environment? As well, do science instructors believe that total immersion is the best approach to science literacy in an EFL environment? Is the North American model of teaching/learning science appropriate in this Middle Eastern environment? Are the current modes of teaching/instruction optimizing student's chances of success for science literacy? What do you feel are the greatest challenges for the EFL learner as it relates to science?

  7. Systematic instruction of assistive technology for cognition (ATC) in an employment setting following acquired brain injury: A single case, experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Laurie E; Glang, Ann; Pinkelman, Sarah; Albin, Richard; Harwick, Robin; Ettel, Deborah; Wild, Michelle R

    2015-01-01

    Assistive technology for cognition (ATC) can be an effective means of compensating for cognitive impairments following acquired brain injury. Systematic instruction is an evidence-based approach to training a variety of skills and strategies, including the use of ATC. This study experimentally evaluated systematic instruction applied to assistive technology for cognition (ATC) in a vocational setting. The study used a single-case, multiple-probe design across behaviors design. The participant was a 50-year old female with cognitive impairments following an acquired brain injury (ABI). As a part-time employee, she was systematically instructed on how to operate and routinely use selected applications (apps) on her iPod Touch to support three work-related skills: (a) recording/recalling the details of work assignments, (b) recording/recalling work-related meetings and conversations, and (c) recording/performing multi-step technology tasks. The experimental intervention was systematic instruction applied to ATC. The dependent measures were: (a) the use of ATC at work as measured by an ATC routine task analysis; and (b) recall of work-related tasks and information. Treatment effects were replicated across the three work-related skills and were maintained up to one year following the completion of intensive training across behaviors with periodic review (booster sessions). Systematic instruction is a critical component to teaching the routine use of ATC to compensate for cognitive impairments following ABI.

  8. Improve Outcomes Study subjects Chemistry Teaching and Learning Strategies through independent study with the help of computer-based media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharti, Gulmah

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to see the improvement of student learning outcomes by independent learning using computer-based learning media in the course of STBM (Teaching and Learning Strategy) Chemistry. Population in this research all student of class of 2014 which take subject STBM Chemistry as many as 4 class. While the sample is taken by purposive as many as 2 classes, each 32 students, as control class and expriment class. The instrument used is the test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple choice with the number of questions as many as 20 questions that have been declared valid, and reliable. Data analysis techniques used one-sided t test and improved learning outcomes using a normalized gain test. Based on the learning result data, the average of normalized gain values for the experimental class is 0,530 and for the control class is 0,224. The result of the experimental student learning result is 53% and the control class is 22,4%. Hypothesis testing results obtained t count> ttable is 9.02> 1.6723 at the level of significance α = 0.05 and db = 58. This means that the acceptance of Ha is the use of computer-based learning media (CAI Computer) can improve student learning outcomes in the course Learning Teaching Strategy (STBM) Chemistry academic year 2017/2018.

  9. Peyton’s four-step approach: differential effects of single instructional steps on procedural and memory performance – a clarification study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krautter M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Markus Krautter,1 Ronja Dittrich,2 Annette Safi,2 Justine Krautter,1 Imad Maatouk,2 Andreas Moeltner,2 Wolfgang Herzog,2 Christoph Nikendei2 1Department of Nephrology, 2Department of General Internal and Psychosomatic Medicine, University of Heidelberg Medical Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Although Peyton’s four-step approach is a widely used method for skills-lab training in undergraduate medical education and has been shown to be more effective than standard instruction, it is unclear whether its superiority can be attributed to a specific single step. Purpose: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the differential learning outcomes of the separate steps of Peyton’s four-step approach. Methods: Volunteer medical students were randomly assigned to four different groups. Step-1 group received Peyton’s Step 1, Step-2 group received Peyton’s Steps 1 and 2, Step-3 group received Peyton’s Steps 1, 2, and 3, and Step-3mod group received Peyton’s Steps 1 and 2, followed by a repetition of Step 2. Following the training, the first independent performance of a central venous catheter (CVC insertion using a manikin was video-recorded and scored by independent video assessors using binary checklists. The day after the training, memory performance during delayed recall was assessed with an incidental free recall test. Results: A total of 97 participants agreed to participate in the trial. There were no statistically significant group differences with regard to age, sex, completed education in a medical profession, completed medical clerkships, preliminary memory tests, or self-efficacy ratings. Regarding checklist ratings, Step-2 group showed a superior first independent performance of CVC placement compared to Step-1 group (P<0.001, and Step-3 group showed a superior performance to Step-2 group (P<0.009, while Step-2 group and Step-3mod group did not differ (P=0.055. The findings were similar in the incidental

  10. Boosting orthographic learning during independent reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    2016-01-01

    . The present training study was conducted to assess experimentally whether this relation between prior orthographic knowledge and orthographic learning while reading is causal by assessing whether instruction designed to increase sublexical orthographic knowledge would facilitate orthographic learning during......Research has shown that phonological decoding is critical for orthographic learning of new words during independent reading. Moreover, correlational studies have demonstrated that the strength of orthographic learning is related to the orthographic knowledge with which readers approach a text...... independent reading. A group of Danish-speaking third graders (n = 21) was taught conditional spelling patterns conforming to the opaque Danish writing system, with emphasis on how to map the spellings onto their pronunciations. A matched control group (n = 21) received no treatment. Both groups were exposed...

  11. Functional independence and health-related functional status following spinal cord injury : a prospective study of the association with physical capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, Janneke A.; Post, Marcel W.; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Stam, Henk J.; Bergen, Michael P.; Sluis, Tebbe A.; van den Berg-Emons, Hendrika J.; Bussmann, Johannes B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine changes in functional independence following spinal cord injury and to evaluate the association between functional independence and physical capacity. Design: Multi-centre prospective cohort study. Subjects: Patients with spinal cord injury admitted for initial

  12. Engaging in Argument from Evidence and the Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 3-5: A case study in complementing professional learning experiences with instructional materials aligned to instructional goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Weiss, E. L.

    2016-12-01

    K-5 science teachers, who often lack a science background, have been tasked with a huge challenge in implementing NGSS—to completely change their instructional approach from one that views science as a body of knowledge to be imparted to one that is epistemic in nature. We have found that providing high-quality professional learning (PL) experiences is often not enough and that teachers must have instructional materials that align with their instructional goals. We describe a case study in which the Lawrence Hall of Science (the Hall) used the Hall-developed Ocean Sciences Sequence for Grades 3-5 (OSS 3-5) to support a rigorous PL program for grade 3-5 teachers focused on the NGSS science and engineering practice, engaging in argument from evidence. Developed prior to the release of NGSS, the Ocean Literacy Framework and the NGSS precursor, A Framework for K-12 Science Education, informed the content and instructional approaches of OSS 3-5. OSS 3-5 provides a substantial focus on making evidence-based explanations (and other science practices), while building students' ocean sciences content knowledge. From 2013-2015, the Hall engaged cohorts of teachers in a rigorous PL experience focused on engaging in argument from evidence. During the summer, teachers attended a week-long institute, in which exemplar activities from OSS 3-5 were used to model instructional practices to support arguing from evidence and related practices, e.g., developing and using models and constructing explanations. Immediately afterward, teachers enacted what they'd learned during a two-week summer school practicum. Here, they team-taught the OSS 3-5 curriculum, participated in video reflection groups, and received coaching and just-in-time input from instructors. In the subsequent academic year, many teachers began by teaching OSS 3-5 so that they could practice engaging students in argumentation in curriculum they'd already used for that purpose. Throughout the year, teachers

  13. Resident Perspectives of an Interactive Case Review Following Independent Didactic Study as a Method of Teaching a Pediatric Imaging Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Aleksandr; Dheer, Sachin; Nazarian, Levon N; Long, Suzanne S

    The ABR has recently changed the format of the board examination, in which the oral examination was replaced by a computer based multiple-choice test. The purpose of this study was to determine resident's perceptions of a new conference resembling the new ABR format. Residents were requested to review a series of didactic pediatric imaging presentations prior to attending case conference. During conference, unknown cases reflecting the subject matter from the didactic presentations were presented along with multiple-choice questions. We then surveyed resident perspectives after each case conference. Between 14 and 18 residents were surveyed at the end of each subspecialty case review presentation. About 94% of resident respondents felt that the independent didactic study followed by an interactive case review session would better prepare them for the ABR certification exams, compared to didactic lectures alone. Furthermore, 95% of the respondents indicated that they preferred the independent didactic review followed by interactive case review versus didactic lecture alone. Most the respondents (85%) felt that combining independent didactic review with interactive unknown case sessions made the material more interesting and provided greater understanding of the material. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of answers across the subspecialty sessions (p > .05). Radiology residents favorably reviewed the combination of independent review of didactic material prior to interactive case review. Material presented in this fashion is felt to be more interesting and is thought to result in enhanced understanding of pediatric radiology material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Independent alignment of RNA for dynamic studies using residual dipolar couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardaro, Michael F.; Varani, Gabriele, E-mail: varani@chem.washington.edu [University of Washington, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Molecular motion and dynamics play an essential role in the biological function of many RNAs. An important source of information on biomolecular motion can be found in residual dipolar couplings which contain dynamics information over the entire ms-ps timescale. However, these methods are not fully applicable to RNA because nucleic acid molecules tend to align in a highly collinear manner in different alignment media. As a consequence, information on dynamics that can be obtained with this method is limited. In order to overcome this limitation, we have generated a chimeric RNA containing both the wild type TAR RNA, the target of our investigation of dynamics, as well as the binding site for U1A protein. When U1A protein was bound to the portion of the chimeric RNA containing its binding site, we obtained independent alignment of TAR by exploiting the physical chemical characteristics of this protein. This technique can allow the extraction of new information on RNA dynamics, which is particularly important for time scales not covered by relaxation methods where important RNA motions occur.

  15. Evaluation of 3D modality-independent elastography for breast imaging: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, J J; Ong, R E; Yankeelov, T E; Miga, M I

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and preliminary testing of a three-dimensional implementation of an inverse problem technique for extracting soft-tissue elasticity information via non-rigid model-based image registration. The modality-independent elastography (MIE) algorithm adjusts the elastic properties of a biomechanical model to achieve maximal similarity between images acquired under different states of static loading. A series of simulation experiments with clinical image sets of human breasts were performed to test the ability of the method to identify and characterize a radiographically occult stiff lesion. Because boundary conditions are a critical input to the algorithm, a comparison of three methods for semi-automated surface point correspondence was conducted in the context of systematic and randomized noise processes. The results illustrate that 3D MIE was able to successfully reconstruct elasticity images using data obtained from both magnetic resonance and x-ray computed tomography systems. The lesion was localized correctly in all cases and its relative elasticity found to be reasonably close to the true values (3.5% with the use of spatial priors and 11.6% without). In addition, the inaccuracies of surface registration performed with thin-plate spline interpolation did not exceed empiric thresholds of unacceptable boundary condition error

  16. A Study on the Inter-Channel Communication Independence for SMART I and C System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwang Il; Keum, Jong Yong; Park, Je Yun

    2009-01-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) the greatest concern is to ensure the safety goal, so it is designed with a protection conception using diversity and redundancy methods. Usually the I and C (Instrumentation and Control) system of NPP is composed of four channels to enhance the performance of the safety functions and performs the monitoring and control functions. In these redundant structures, the most important thing is that a malfunction in one channel cannot affect the safety functions of the redundant channels. The communication network of the digital I and C system is playing a role in intra-channel communication and inter-channel communication in four-channel I and C structure. Recent licensee experience indicates that companies planning to use the interchannel communication must perform a detailed analysis of all credible failure modes. In this paper, we propose some evaluation criteria to evaluate the inter-channel communication independence of SMART I and C system and preliminary design for mitigating methodologies of each credible failure

  17. Quenched polyelectrolytes with hydrophobicity independent from chemical charge fraction: A SANS and SAXS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souha Ben Mahmoud

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate by SANS and SAXS the structure of semidilute aqueous hydrophobic quenched polyelectrolyte solutions, in which we can vary independently the hydrophobicity and the chemical/electrostatic charge fraction (above the Manning condensation threshold 36%. Such a de-correlation is the original point of the work, reached using statistical tri-copolymers poly(acrylamide-co-styrene-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sodium sulfonate, poly(AMx-co-STy-co-AMPSz. The hydrophobicity is brought by ST, the chemical electrostatic charge by AMPS and solubility without charge by AM. We consider that although these copolymers have chemical structure different from partially sulfonated polystyrene sulfonate, PS-co-SSNa, made of two monomers, one charged, one hydrophobic, they have however vicinal behavior. The variation of chemical charge, has no strong consequence on the structure properties which is in agreement with the fact that it is always larger than the Manning threshold. The dependence of q∗ with AM content shows that AM reduces hydrophobicity. The similarity with PS-co-SSNa, for which pearl necklace-like conformations were directly measured by SANS (form factor using ZAC method, suggests that pearl necklace conformations are also adopted by these tri-copolymers and that this behavior could be so generalized to a much larger range of synthetic hydrophobic polyelectrolytes using simple copolymerization.

  18. Cross-validation of independent ultra-low-frequency magnetic recording systems for active fault studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can; Bin, Chen; Christman, Lilianna E.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Klemperer, Simon L.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Kappler, Karl N.; Bleier, Tom E.; Dunson, J. Clark

    2018-04-01

    When working with ultra-low-frequency (ULF) magnetic datasets, as with most geophysical time-series data, it is important to be able to distinguish between cultural signals, internal instrument noise, and natural external signals with their induced telluric fields. This distinction is commonly attempted using simultaneously recorded data from a spatially remote reference site. Here, instead, we compared data recorded by two systems with different instrumental characteristics at the same location over the same time period. We collocated two independent ULF magnetic systems, one from the QuakeFinder network and the other from the United States Geological Survey (USGS)-Stanford network, in order to cross-compare their data, characterize data reproducibility, and characterize signal origin. In addition, we used simultaneous measurements at a remote geomagnetic observatory to distinguish global atmospheric signals from local cultural signals. We demonstrated that the QuakeFinder and USGS-Stanford systems have excellent coherence, despite their different sensors and digitizers. Rare instances of isolated signals recorded by only one system or only one sensor indicate that caution is needed when attributing specific recorded signal features to specific origins.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Direct Reading Instruction and the NYS ELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Carey, Margaret H.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of classroom based reading instruction ("direct instruction") on the standardized test scores of 6th grade students as measured by the New York State English Language Arts assessment (NYS ELA). It was hypothesized that the implementation of direct instruction in reading in grade 6 would improve NYS ELA…

  20. Possibilities of the Integration of the Method of the Ecologically Oriented Independent Scientific Research in the Study Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizans, Jurijs; Vanags, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse possibilities of the integration of the method of the ecologically oriented independent scientific research in the study process. In order to achieve the set aim, the following scientific research methods were used: analysis of the conceptual guidelines for the development of environmentally oriented entrepreneurship, interpretation of the experts' evaluation of the ecologically oriented management, analysis of the results of the students' ecologically oriented independent scientific research, as well as monographic and logically constructive methods. The results of the study give an opportunity to make conclusions and to develop conceptual recommendations on how to introduce future economics and business professionals with the theoretical and practical aspects of ecologically oriented management during the study process.

  1. Testing the Usability of a Portable DVD Player and Tailored Photo Instructions with Older Adult Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Christine E.; Zapata, Aimee Marie L.; Shinsky, Deanna N.; Goldstein, Mary K.

    2018-01-01

    DVD-delivered behavioral skills training may help disseminate efficacious treatments to older adults independent of internet access. The present study examined the usability of a portable DVD player alongside iterative revisions of accompanying instructions to be used by older adults in a DVD-delivered behavioral skills treatment study. The sample…

  2. Problem-Based Instructional Strategy and Numerical Ability as Determinants of Senior Secondary Achievement in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badru, Ademola K.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated Problem-based Instructional Strategy and Numerical ability as determinants of Senior Secondary Achievement in Mathematics. This study used 4 x 2 x 2 non-randomised control group Pretest-Posttest Quasi-experimental Factorial design. It consisted of two independent variables (treatment and Numerical ability) and one moderating…

  3. TH-AB-201-01: A Feasibility Study of Independent Dose Verification for CyberKnife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, A; Noda, T; Keduka, Y; Kawajiri, T; Itano, M; Yamazaki, T; Tachibana, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: CyberKnife irradiation is composed of tiny-size, multiple and intensity-modulated beams compared to conventional linacs. Few of the publications for Independent dose calculation verification for CyberKnife have been reported. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of independent dose verification for CyberKnife treatment as Secondary check. Methods: The followings were measured: test plans using some static and single beams, clinical plans in a phantom and using patient’s CT. 75 patient plans were collected from several treatment sites of brain, lung, liver and bone. In the test plans and the phantom plans, a pinpoint ion-chamber measurement was performed to assess dose deviation for a treatment planning system (TPS) and an independent verification program of Simple MU Analysis (SMU). In the clinical plans, dose deviation between the SMU and the TPS was performed. Results: In test plan, the dose deviations were 3.3±4.5%, and 4.1±4.4% for the TPS and the SMU, respectively. In the phantom measurements for the clinical plans, the dose deviations were −0.2±3.6% for the TPS and −2.3±4.8% for the SMU. In the clinical plans using the patient’s CT, the dose deviations were −3.0±2.1% (Mean±1SD). The systematic difference was partially derived from inverse square law and penumbra calculation. Conclusion: The independent dose calculation for CyberKnife shows −3.0±4.2% (Mean±2SD) and our study, the confidence limit was achieved within 5% of the tolerance level from AAPM task group 114 for non-IMRT treatment. Thus, it may be feasible to use independent dose calculation verification for CyberKnife treatment as the secondary check. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED)

  4. Scaffolding in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On-The-Job Training, developed as direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training. This method is still widely in use today because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. This paper is intended to be a study of the methods used in education in Knowledge Society, with more specific aspects in training the trainers; as a result of this approach, it promotes scaffolding in assisted instruction as a reflection of the digital age for the learning process. Training the trainers in old environment with default techniques and designing the learning process in assisted instruction, as an application of the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD to the area of computer literacy for the younger users, generate diversity in educational communities and requires standards for technology infrastructure, standards for the content, developed as a concepts map, and applications for personalized in-struction, based on ZPD theory.

  5. Using Rubrics as a Scientific Writing Instructional Method in Early Stage Undergraduate Neuroscience Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabough, Erin B D; Clabough, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Scientific writing is an important communication and learning tool in neuroscience, yet it is a skill not adequately cultivated in introductory undergraduate science courses. Proficient, confident scientific writers are produced by providing specific knowledge about the writing process, combined with a clear student understanding about how to think about writing (also known as metacognition). We developed a rubric for evaluating scientific papers and assessed different methods of using the rubric in inquiry-based introductory biology classrooms. Students were either 1) given the rubric alone, 2) given the rubric, but also required to visit a biology subject tutor for paper assistance, or 3) asked to self-grade paper components using the rubric. Students who were required to use a peer tutor had more negative attitudes towards scientific writing, while students who used the rubric alone reported more confidence in their science writing skills by the conclusion of the semester. Overall, students rated the use of an example paper or grading rubric as the most effective ways of teaching scientific writing, while rating peer review as ineffective. Our paper describes a concrete, simple method of infusing scientific writing into inquiry-based science classes, and provides clear avenues to enhance communication and scientific writing skills in entry-level classes through the use of a rubric or example paper, with the goal of producing students capable of performing at a higher level in upper level neuroscience classes and independent research.

  6. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  7. A study on the effectiveness of lockup-free caches for a Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) processor

    OpenAIRE

    Tharpe, Leonard.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis presents a simulation and analysis of the Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture and the effects on RISC performance of a lockup-free cache interface. RISC architectures achieve high performance by having a small, but sufficient, instruction set with most instructions executing in one clock cycle. Current RISC performance range from 1.5 to 2.0 CPI. The goal of RISC is to attain a CPI of 1.0. The major hind...

  8. Robust Tests for Additive Gene-Environment Interaction in Case-Control Studies Using Gene-Environment Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Lee, Seunggeun; Lee, Alice W

    2018-01-01

    test with case-control data. Our simulation studies suggest that the EB approach uses the gene-environment independence assumption in a data-adaptive way and provides power gain compared to the standard logistic regression analysis and better control of Type I error when compared to the analysis......There have been recent proposals advocating the use of additive gene-environment interaction instead of the widely used multiplicative scale, as a more relevant public health measure. Using gene-environment independence enhances the power for testing multiplicative interaction in case......-control studies. However, under departure from this assumption, substantial bias in the estimates and inflated Type I error in the corresponding tests can occur. This paper extends the empirical Bayes (EB) approach previously developed for multiplicative interaction that trades off between bias and efficiency...

  9. The Use of Case Studies To Teach Educational Psychology: A Comparison with Traditional Instruction. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James D.

    The use of case studies to teach educational psychology was studied, focusing on their effectiveness in helping students become more reflective in their thinking about the roles of teachers. The effects on content learned, affect and motivation, and performance were studied for students taught through case studies and through traditional…

  10. Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Conceptual Design Study: Advanced Independent Pitch Control; July 30, 2002--July 31, 2004 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.; Lang, E.; Hansen, A.C.; Cheney, M. C.; Quandt, G.; VandenBosche, J.; Meyer, T.

    2004-12-01

    AES conducted a conceptual study of independent pitch control using inflow angle sensors. The control strategy combined input from turbine states (rotor speed, rotor azimuth, each blade pitch) with inflow angle measurements (each blade angle of attack at station 11 of 15) to derive blade pitch demand signals. The controller reduced loads sufficiently to allow a 10% rotor extension and reduce COE by 6.3%.

  11. Teacher Use of Instructional Technology in a Special Education School for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Sola Özgüç

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate use of Instructional Technology (IT by special education teachers in a school for students with moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID. Research questions were a Which IT do teachers use during class time? b What are the ways of providing IT? (c What are the problems that teachers encountered while using IT? (d What are the results and effects of the encountered problems? (e Is there any use of assistive technology (AT devices? This is a case study based on collecting and analyzing qualitative data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine teachers; students with moderate to severe ID in the first, second, fifth, and seventh grade were observed in social studies lessons, as were eight teachers of those students. The study showed that use of IT is limited in a special school for children with ID and this situation is affecting teachers and students in a negative way. Also, use of AT is lacking

  12. Comparative effectiveness of instructional methods: oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nereyda P; Marks, John G; Sandow, Pamela R; Seleski, Christine E; Logan, Henrietta L

    2014-04-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of different methods of instruction for the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. A group of thirty sophomore students at the University of Florida College of Dentistry were randomly assigned to three training groups: video instruction, a faculty-led hands-on instruction, or both video and hands-on instruction. The training intervention involved attending two sessions spaced two weeks apart. The first session used a pretest to assess students' baseline didactic knowledge and clinical examination technique. The second session utilized two posttests to assess the comparative effectiveness of the training methods on didactic knowledge and clinical technique. The key findings were that students performed the clinical examination significantly better with the combination of video and faculty-led hands-on instruction (p<0.01). All students improved their clinical exam skills, knowledge, and confidence in performing the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination independent of which training group they were assigned. Utilizing both video and interactive practice promoted greater performance of the clinical technique on the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

  13. Standards for Academic and Professional Instruction in Foundations of Education, Educational Studies, and Educational Policy Studies Third Edition, 2012, Draft Presented to the Educational Community by the American Educational Studies Association's Committee on Academic Standards and Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutwiler, Sandra Winn; deMarrais, Kathleen; Gabbard, David; Hyde, Andrea; Konkol, Pamela; Li, Huey-li; Medina, Yolanda; Rayle, Joseph; Swain, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This third edition of the "Standards for Academic and Professional Instruction in Foundations of Education, Educational Studies, and Educational Policy Studies" is presented to the educational community by the American Educational Studies Association's Committee on Academic Standards and Accreditation. The Standards were first developed and…

  14. Content Area Reading Instruction for Secondary Teacher Candidates: A Case Study of a State-Required Online Content Area Reading Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Brad

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examined in a state-required, online preservice teacher course in content area reading instruction (CARI) at a large land-grant university in Minnesota. Few studies have been published to date on revitalized literacy teacher preparation efforts in CARI (See Vagle, Dillon, Davison-Jenkins, & LaDuca, 2005; Dillon, O'Brien,…

  15. WWC Review of the Report "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    A recent study, "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability," examined the effectiveness of "Solve It!," a program intended to improve the problem-solving skills of seventh-grade math students. During the program, students are taught cognitive strategies of…

  16. A Study of Principals' Instructional Leadership Behaviors and Beliefs of Good Pedagogical Practice among Effective California High Schools Serving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peariso, Jamon Frederick

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods descriptive and causal-comparative study investigates what instructional leadership behaviors effective California high school principals have and what their beliefs are in regards to pedagogy, related issues, and professional issues, either constructivist or instructivist in nature, in the environment of the current NCLB…

  17. Does a Math-Enhanced Curriculum and Instructional Approach Diminish Students' Attainment of Technical Skills? A Year-Long Experimental Study in Agricultural Power and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. Brent; Edwards, M. Craig; Leising, James G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically test the posit that students who participated in a contextualized, mathematics-enhanced high school agricultural power and technology (APT) curriculum and aligned instructional approach would not differ significantly (p less than 0.05) in their technical competence from students who participated in the…

  18. All Students Are Not Equal: A Case Study of Geometry Teachers' Instructional Strategies When Trained in Multiple-Intelligence-Based Practices in Secondary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Cassandre Y.

    2017-01-01

    Over 50% of secondary students failed the geometry end-of-course test in a Florida school district, indicating a need to improve academic performance. Secondary school students' learning characteristics and the effectiveness of teachers' instructional strategies are imperative to educational success. In this qualitative case study, geometry…

  19. The Lived Experiences of Leading Edge Certified Elementary School Teachers Who Use Instructional Technology to Foster Critical Thinking, Collaboration, Creativity, and Communication in Their Classrooms: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the perceptions of current and former Leading Edge Certified (LEC) elementary school teachers regarding instructional technology practices that facilitate students' development of critical thinking, collaboration, communication, and creativity (4Cs) in one-to-one computer…

  20. The Implications of Expanding the Instruction Time for the English Language Teaching Policy Implementation in the Sultanate of Oman: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study asks questions and elicits answers about the importance of English language teaching (ELT) instruction time on the national curriculum in the Sultanate of Oman from an ideological perspective. It triangulates data from semi-structured interviews made with different agents involved in the Omani ELT system and representing different…

  1. Instruction via Web-Based Modules in Early Childhood Personnel Preparation: A Mixed-Methods Study of Effectiveness and Learner Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Heidi L.; Lim, Chih-Ing

    2015-01-01

    Effective personnel preparation is critical to the development of a high quality early childhood workforce that provides optimal care and education for young children. This mixed-methods study examined the effectiveness of, and learner perspectives on, instruction via web-based modules within face-to-face early childhood personnel preparation…

  2. Teaching about Modern Germany: Instructional Materials for the Social Studies Classroom. Correlation Charts Indicating Content and Skills Addressed by Each Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethe House, New York, NY.

    This instructional booklet for the social studies classroom is a companion to a series about modern day Germany. The materials describe the documents in the series and present correlation charts for content and skills: (1) "A Kid Like Me across the Sea"; (2) "Communities and Regions"; (3) "Overview of Germany"; (4)…

  3. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed...... that they did not prevent firms' excessive risk taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous consensus...

  4. Agent independent task planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  5. The Effect of Different Attentional Focus Instructions during Finger Movement Tasks in Healthy Subjects: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Rossettini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available External focus of attention (EFA and internal focus of attention (IFA represent commonly used strategies to instruct subjects during exercise. Several studies showed EFA to be more effective than IFA to improve motor performance and learning. To date the role of these strategies on motor performance during finger movement was less studied. The objective of the study was to investigate motor performance, patient’s preference induced by IFA and EFA, and the focus during control condition. Ten healthy right-handed participants performed a finger movement task in control, EFA, and IFA conditions (counterbalanced. Errors, patient’s preference, and type of attentional focus spontaneously adopted during the control condition were recorded. EFA determined less error (p<0.01 compared to control and IFA. Participants preferred EFA against IFA and control condition. In the control group 10% of subjects adopted a purely EFA, 70% of subjects adopted a purely IFA, and 20% of subjects adopted a mixture of the two foci. Our results confirm that EFA is more effective than IFA and control in finger movement task. Due its clinical relevance, the interaction between attention and finger movement should be further investigated.

  6. Comparing independent microarray studies: the case of human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmati-Brivanlou Ali

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray studies of the same phenomenon in different labs often appear at variance because the published lists of regulated transcripts have disproportionately small intersections. We demonstrate that comparing studies by intersecting lists in this manner is methodologically flawed by reanalyzing three studies of the molecular signature of "stemness" in human embryonic stem cells. There are only 7 genes common to all three published lists, suggesting disagreement. Results Carefully reanalyzing all three together from the raw data we detect 111 genes upregulated and 95 downregulated in all three studies. The upregulated list was subject to rtRTPCR analysis and 75% of the genes were confirmed. Conclusion Our findings show that the three studies have a substantial core of common genes, which is missed if only the published lists are examined. Combined analysis of multiple experiments can be a powerful way to distil coherent conclusions.

  7. Independent and combined influence of neonatal and current body composition on academic performance in youth: The UP & DOWN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, I; Tejero-González, C M; Castro-Piñero, J; Conde-Caveda, J; Cabanas-Sanchez, V; Sallis, J F; Veiga, Óscar L

    2015-06-01

    Unhealthy body composition is a cause for concern across the lifespan. The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined associations between neonatal and current body composition with academic performance among youth. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 1557 youth (745 girls) aged 10.4 ± 3.4 years. Birth weight and length at birth were self-reported. Current body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat (BF%). Academic performance was assessed through schools records. Birth weight was related to all academic variables in boys, independent of potential confounders, including BMI; whereas WC, BMI and BF% were related to all academic performance indicators in both boys and girls, independent of potential confounders, including birth weight (all P academic performance were observed in both boys and girls for grade point average (GPA) indicator. Boys in the group with none adverse effect had significantly higher scores in GPA (score +0.535; 95% confidence interval, 0.082-0.989) than boys in the group of both adverse effects (P academic performance in youth. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  8. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Infor...

  9. Khan Academy as Supplemental Instruction: A Controlled Study of a Computer-Based Mathematics Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel P.; Rutherford, Teomara

    2017-01-01

    Khan Academy is a large and popular open educational resource (OER) with little empirical study into its impact on student achievement in mathematics when used in schools. In this study, we examined the use of Khan Academy as a mathematics intervention among seventh grade students over a 4-week period versus a control group. We also compared…

  10. The Hawaiian Monarchy: Instructional Materials/Resources for Grade 7 Social Studies. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Materials in this curriculum guide for a seventh grade social studies course focus on the development of the monarchy period in Hawaii's history. Following a course outline, 10 study units cover map skills, early historical background, and the reigns of the following kings and queens: Kamehameha, Liholiho, Kauikeaouli, Alexander Liholiho, Lot,…

  11. Patient adherence to prescribed medication instructions for dyspepsia: the DIAMOND-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, G.A.J.; Mesters, I.; Muris, J.W.M.; Marrewijk, C.J. van; Mujakovic, S.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Numans, M.E.; de Wit, N.J.; Samsom, M.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insight into patient adherence is needed to enable an effect evaluation of medication for dyspepsia. OBJECTIVES: Adherence was explored by investigating two adherence outcome measures (completeness and intake fidelity) using data from the DIAMOND-study. METHODS: The DIAMOND-study is a

  12. Introducing Project-Based Instruction in the Saudi ESP Classroom: A Study in Qassim University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsamani, Abdul-Aziz Saleh; Daif-Allah, Ayman Sabry

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the impact of introducing an integrative pedagogical approach in the ESP classes on developing the English language vocabulary of Computer Science and Information Technology students in the College of Science, Qassim University. The study suggests a framework for an ESP course-design employing students' project…

  13. Florida's Instructional Materials Specifications. K-12 Social Studies, 2004-2005 Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    An effective social studies program provides coordinated, systematic study, drawing upon such disciplines as economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, religion, and sociology. It prepares students to be personally and socially aware, promotes multiple perspectives, encourages intellectual curiosity, promotes…

  14. Here Today Gone Tomorrow: Conceptualizing Instructional Leadership through Case Studies of Unsustained Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Vivian; Sullivan, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines two case studies of failed leadership in school-based professional development. We describe the two initiatives and look to current leadership theories to help account for the events that occurred. The sociologist Bourdieu's concept of "habitus" offers an approach to understanding the relationship between individual…

  15. Strategy Instruction in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Susan R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments in strategy instruction for mathematics have been conducted using three models (direct instruction, self-instruction, and guided learning) applied to the tasks of computation and word problem solving. Results have implications for effective strategy instruction for learning disabled students. It is recommended that strategy instruction…

  16. The study of Kruskal's and Prim's algorithms on the Multiple Instruction and Single Data stream computer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauman Moscow State Technical University is implementing a project to develop operating principles of computer system having radically new architecture. A developed working model of the system allowed us to evaluate an efficiency of developed hardware and software. The experimental results presented in previous studies, as well as the analysis of operating principles of new computer system permit to draw conclusions regarding its efficiency in solving discrete optimization problems related to processing of sets.The new architecture is based on a direct hardware support of operations of discrete mathematics, which is reflected in using the special facilities for processing of sets and data structures. Within the framework of the project a special device was designed, i.e. a structure processor (SP, which improved the performance, without limiting the scope of applications of such a computer system.The previous works presented the basic principles of the computational process organization in MISD (Multiple Instructions, Single Data system, showed the structure and features of the structure processor and the general principles to solve discrete optimization problems on graphs.This paper examines two search algorithms of the minimum spanning tree, namely Kruskal's and Prim's algorithms. It studies the implementations of algorithms for two SP operation modes: coprocessor mode and MISD one. The paper presents results of experimental comparison of MISD system performance in coprocessor mode with mainframes.

  17. Environmental Sound Perception: Metadescription and Modeling Based on Independent Primary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McAdams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to transpose and extend to a set of environmental sounds the notion of sound descriptors usually used for musical sounds. Four separate primary studies dealing with interior car sounds, air-conditioning units, car horns, and closing car doors are considered collectively. The corpus formed by these initial stimuli is submitted to new experimental studies and analyses, both for revealing metacategories and for defining more precisely the limits of each of the resulting categories. In a second step, the new structure is modeled: common and specific dimensions within each category are derived from the initial results and new investigations of audio features are performed. Furthermore, an automatic classifier based on two audio descriptors and a multinomial logistic regression procedure is implemented and validated with the corpus.

  18. A Study of Holistic and Subskill Instructional Approaches to Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Richard T.

    1980-01-01

    In a six-week study involving seventh- to ninth-grade students in a summer corrective reading program, neither the holistic nor the subskill treatment had a significant advantage in improving student reading comprehension or attitude toward reading. (JT)

  19. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan Sebastiaan; Döhring, Falko R.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Verwey, Willem B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is

  20. The Audio-Tutorial Approach to Learning Through Independent Study and Integrated Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postlethwait, S. N.; And Others

    The rationale of the integrated experience approach to teaching botany at Purdue University is given and the history of the audio-tutorial course at Purdue and its present organization are described. A sample week's unit of study is given, including transcription of the tape, reproduction of printed materials and photographs of other materials…

  1. library use instruction and the pattern of utilization of library services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    The data collected was analysed using descriptive statistics (simple percentage %). ... semesters and it should be an independent credit carrying course under the General Studies ... large and well stocked a library is, if the ..... Online. LIBRARY USE INSTRUCTION AND THE PATTERN OF UTILIZATION OF LIBRARY ...

  2. Concurrent Development and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Paper-Based and Digitized Instructional Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annand, David

    2002-01-01

    Describes the simultaneous development of paper-based and digitized versions of a textbook and related instructional material used in an undergraduate, independent study, distance education course at Athabasca University (Canada). Used break-even analysis as an initial evaluation measure to determine cost-effectiveness, and discusses the next…

  3. Outcomes of independent midwifery attended births in birth centres and home births: a retrospective cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yaeko; Eto, Hiromi; Iida, Mariko

    2013-08-01

    the objective of this study was to describe and compare perinatal and neonatal outcomes of women who received care from independent midwives practicing home births and at birth centres in Tokyo. a retrospective cohort study. birth centres and homes serviced by independent midwives in Tokyo. of the 43 eligible independent midwives 19 (44%) (10 assisted birth at birth centres, nine assisted home birth) participated in the study. A total of 5477 women received care during their pregnancy and gave birth assisted by these midwives between 2001 and 2006. researchers conducted a retrospective chart review of women's individual data. Collected data included demographic characteristics, process of pregnancy and perinatal and neonatal outcomes. We also collected data about independent midwives and their practice. of the 5477 women, 83.9% gave birth at birth centres and 16.1% gave birth at home. The average age was 31.7 years old and the majority (70.6%) were multiparas. All women had vaginal spontaneous deliveries, with no vacuum, forceps or caesarean section interventions. No maternal fatalities were reported, nor were breech or multiple births. The average duration of the first and second stages of labour was 14.9 hours for primiparas and 6.2 hours for multiparas. Most women (97.1%) gave birth within 24 hours of membrane rupture. Maternal position during labour varied and family attended birth was common. The average blood loss was 371.3mL, while blood loss over 500mL was 22.6% and over 1000mL was 3.6%. Nearly 60% of women had intact perinea. There were few preterm births (0.6%) and post mature births (1.3%). Infant's average birth weight was 3126g and 0.5% were low-birthweight-infants, while 3.3% had macrosomia. Among primiparas, the birth centre group had more women experiencing an excess of 500mL blood loss compared to the home birth group (27.2% versus 17.6% respectively; RR 1.54; 95%CI 1.10 to 2.16). Multiparas delivering at birth centres were more likely to have a

  4. Eighth-grade science teachers use of instructional time: Examining questions from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and comparing TIMSS and National Science Foundation questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anne Burgess

    Did the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) ask science teachers the right questions about their use of instructional time? Part I of this 2-part study used the TIMSS database to answer the question: Do 8th grade science teachers in the U.S., Czech Republic, Hungary, Japan, and Korea differ significantly in their perceived use of instructional time? Using the instructional activities in the TIMSS teacher question "How did the lesson proceed?" the teacher-reported times were analyzed using a repeated measures multivariate analysis. Significant differences were found between teacher-reported times in the U.S. and the other 4 TIMSS countries, whose 8th grade students outperformed U.S. students on TIMSS achievement tests. Post-hoc analysis indicated that TIMSS U.S. 8th grade science teachers report spending more time on homework in class, on group activities, and on lab activities, but less time on topic development, than TIMSS teachers from some or all of the other countries. Part II of this study further examined the question "How did the lesson proceed?" by videotaping 6 classes of 8th grade science in Alabama and Virginia and comparing observer coding of the video to the teachers' recalled descriptions of the same class. The difference between observer and teacher responses using TIMSS categories was not significant; however, 43% of the total variance was explained by whether the teacher or the observer reported the times for the instructional activities. The teachers also responded to questions from the NSF Local Systemic Change Through Teacher Enhancement K--8 Teacher Questionnaire to describe the same class. The difference found between the teacher and the observer coding was not significant, but the amount of variance explained by the data source (observer or teacher) dropped to 33% when using NSF student activity categories and to 26% when using NSF teacher activity categories. The conclusion of this study was that questionnaires to

  5. SU-F-T-494: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification Using Golden Beam Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itano, M; Yamazaki, T [Inagi Municipal Hospital, Inagi, Tokyo (Japan); Tachibana, R; Uchida, Y [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Yamashita, M [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Shimizu, H [Kitasato University Medical Center, Kitamoto, Saitama (Japan); Sugawara, Y; Kotabe, K [National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kamima, T [Cancer Institute Hospital Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, R [Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Ishibashi, S [Sasebo City General Hospital, Sasebo, Nagasaki (Japan); Tachibana, H [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In general, beam data of individual linac is measured for independent dose verification software program and the verification is performed as a secondary check. In this study, independent dose verification using golden beam data was compared to that using individual linac’s beam data. Methods: Six institutions were participated and three different beam data were prepared. The one was individual measured data (Original Beam Data, OBD) .The others were generated by all measurements from same linac model (Model-GBD) and all linac models (All-GBD). The three different beam data were registered to the independent verification software program for each institute. Subsequently, patient’s plans in eight sites (brain, head and neck, lung, esophagus, breast, abdomen, pelvis and bone) were analyzed using the verification program to compare doses calculated using the three different beam data. Results: 1116 plans were collected from six institutes. Compared to using the OBD, the results shows the variation using the Model-GBD based calculation and the All-GBD was 0.0 ± 0.3% and 0.0 ± 0.6%, respectively. The maximum variations were 1.2% and 2.3%, respectively. The plans with the variation over 1% shows the reference points were located away from the central axis with/without physical wedge. Conclusion: The confidence limit (2SD) using the Model-GBD and the All-GBD was within 0.6% and 1.2%, respectively. Thus, the use of golden beam data may be feasible for independent verification. In addition to it, the verification using golden beam data provide quality assurance of planning from the view of audit. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development(AMED)

  6. SU-F-T-494: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification Using Golden Beam Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itano, M; Yamazaki, T; Tachibana, R; Uchida, Y; Yamashita, M; Shimizu, H; Sugawara, Y; Kotabe, K; Kamima, T; Takahashi, R; Ishibashi, S; Tachibana, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In general, beam data of individual linac is measured for independent dose verification software program and the verification is performed as a secondary check. In this study, independent dose verification using golden beam data was compared to that using individual linac’s beam data. Methods: Six institutions were participated and three different beam data were prepared. The one was individual measured data (Original Beam Data, OBD) .The others were generated by all measurements from same linac model (Model-GBD) and all linac models (All-GBD). The three different beam data were registered to the independent verification software program for each institute. Subsequently, patient’s plans in eight sites (brain, head and neck, lung, esophagus, breast, abdomen, pelvis and bone) were analyzed using the verification program to compare doses calculated using the three different beam data. Results: 1116 plans were collected from six institutes. Compared to using the OBD, the results shows the variation using the Model-GBD based calculation and the All-GBD was 0.0 ± 0.3% and 0.0 ± 0.6%, respectively. The maximum variations were 1.2% and 2.3%, respectively. The plans with the variation over 1% shows the reference points were located away from the central axis with/without physical wedge. Conclusion: The confidence limit (2SD) using the Model-GBD and the All-GBD was within 0.6% and 1.2%, respectively. Thus, the use of golden beam data may be feasible for independent verification. In addition to it, the verification using golden beam data provide quality assurance of planning from the view of audit. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development(AMED)

  7. The Vitality, Independence, and Vigor in the Elderly 2 Study (VIVE2): Design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirn, Dylan R; Koochek, Afsaneh; Reid, Kieran F; von Berens, Åsa; Travison, Thomas G; Folta, Sara; Sacheck, Jennifer; Nelson, Miriam; Liu, Christine; Phillips, Edward; Åberg, Anna Cristina; Nydahl, Margaretha; Gustafsson, Thomas; Cederholm, Tommy; Fielding, Roger A

    2015-07-01

    Nutritional supplementation may potentiate the increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis following exercise in healthy older individuals. Whether exercise and nutrition act synergistically to produce sustained changes in physical functioning and body composition has not been well studied, particularly in mobility-limited older adults. The VIVE2 study was a multi-center, randomized controlled trial, conducted in the United States and Sweden. This study was designed to compare the effects of a 6-month intervention with a once daily, experimental, 4 fl.oz. liquid nutritional supplement providing 150 kcal, whey protein (20 g), and vitamin D (800 IU) (Nestlé Health Science, Vevey, Switzerland), to a low calorie placebo drink (30 kcal, non-nutritive; identical format) when combined with group-based exercise in 150 community-dwelling, mobility-limited older adults. All participants participated in a structured exercise program (3 sessions/week for 6 months), which included aerobic, strength, flexibility, and balance exercises. The primary outcome was 6-month change in 400 m walk performance (m/s) between supplement and placebo groups. Secondary outcomes included 6 month change in: body composition, muscle cross-sectional area, leg strength, grip strength, stair climb time, quality of life, physical performance, mood/depressive symptoms and nutritional status. These outcomes were selected based on their applicability to the health and well-being of older adults. The results of this study will further define the role of nutritional supplementation on physical functioning and restoration of skeletal muscle mass in older adults. Additionally, these results will help refine the current physical activity and nutritional recommendations for mobility-limited older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Final Independent External Peer Review Report, Cache la Poudre at Greeley, Colorado General Investigation Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-06

    Analysis HEC -HMS Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System HEC - RAS Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System HEP Habitat...ecosystem restoration measures X Proficient with HEC models in particular HEC -Hydrologic Modeling System (HMS) and HEC - River Analysis System ( RAS ...over 100 floodplain studies, nearly all of which were completed using the Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System ( HEC - RAS ) (or HEC -2

  9. Vegetarian diet reduces the risk of hypertension independent of abdominal obesity and inflammation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chiu, Tina H T; Lee, Chun-Yi; Liu, Ting-Ting; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Hsiung, Chao A; Chiu, Yen-Feng

    2016-11-01

    A vegetarian diet may prevent elevation of blood pressures and lower the risk for hypertension through lower degrees of obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. This study investigated the association between a vegetarian diet and hypertension incidence in a cohort of Taiwanese adult nonsmokers and examined whether this association was mediated through inflammation, abdominal obesity, or insulin resistance (using fasting glucose as a proxy). This matched cohort study was from the 1994-2008 MJ Health Screening Database. Each vegetarian was matched with five nonvegetarians by age, sex, and study site. The analysis included 4109 nonsmokers (3423 nonvegetarians and 686 vegetarians), followed for a median of 1.61 years. The outcome includes hypertension incidence, as well as SBP and DBP levels. Regression analysis was performed to assess the association between vegetarian diet and hypertension incidence or future blood pressure levels in the presence/absence of potential mediators. Vegetarians had a 34% lower risk for hypertension, adjusting for age and sex (odds ratio: 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-0.87; SBP: -3.3 mmHg, P vegetarian diet and hypertension appeared to be consistent across age groups. Taiwanese vegetarians had lower incidence of hypertension than nonvegetarians. Vegetarian diets may protect against hypertension beyond lower abdominal obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance.

  10. The effects of modeling instruction on high school physics academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an ex post facto , quasi-experimental research methodology. The independent variables in this study were the instructional methods of teaching. The treatment variable was Modeling Instruction and the control variable was traditional lecture instruction. The Treatment Group consisted of participants in Physical World Concepts who received Modeling Instruction. The Control Group consisted of participants in Physical Science who received traditional lecture instruction. The dependent variable was gains scores on the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI). The participants for this study were 133 students each in both the Treatment and Control Groups (n = 266), who attended a public, high school in rural middle Tennessee. The participants were administered the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) prior to being taught the mechanics of physics. The FCI data were entered into the computer-based Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Two independent samples t-tests were conducted to answer the research questions. There was a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups concerning the instructional method. Modeling Instructional methods were found to be effective in increasing the academic achievement of students in high school physics. There was no statistically significant difference between FCI gains scores for gender. Gender was found to have no effect on the academic achievement of students in high school physics classes. However, even though there was not a statistically significant difference, female students' gains scores were higher than male students' gains scores when Modeling Instructional methods of teaching were used. Based on these findings, it is recommended

  11. Student Teachers' Cognition about L2 Pronunciation Instruction: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In view of the minimal attention pronunciation teacher preparation has received in second language (L2) teacher education, this study examined the cognition (i.e. beliefs, thoughts, attitudes and knowledge) development of 15 student teachers during a postgraduate subject on pronunciation pedagogy offered at an Australian tertiary institution.…

  12. STEAM Enacted: A Case Study of a Middle School Teacher Implementing STEAM Instructional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herro, Danielle; Quigley, Cassie

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation practices of a 6th grade middle school teacher enacting STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art and math) teaching in his classroom after participating in a 45-hour STEAM professional development. Case study is used to detail the process, successes, and challenges. Project-based learning, technology…

  13. Department Involvement in Instructional Materials Development for ODL Study at the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyanyiwa, Vincent Itai; Mutambanengwe, Betty

    2015-01-01

    The teaching and designing of modules at Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) is the principal responsibility of a single body of teaching staff, although some authors and content reviewers could be sourced from elsewhere if they are not available in ZOU. This survey, through a case study, examines the involvement of lecturers and staff in the…

  14. Fourth "R" in Analytic Mode: A Study of Alternatives to Religious Instruction in the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Noel W.

    This doctoral dissertation examines alternatives for public-school religious education which stress spiritual values but do not conflict with legal restrictions. The study is divided into four parts. Part one is an historical survey of religious education in public schools that includes an interpretation of the legal restrictions and the…

  15. A narrative approach to studying the diversification of inquiry learning across instructional settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N.P.G.; van Joolingen, W.R.; Haverkamp-Hermans, Gerdi G.N.; Bogner, Franz X.; Kretschmer, Thomas; Stracke, Christian M.; Lameras, Petros; Chioccariello, Augusto; Doran, Rosa; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Kastrinogiannis, Timotheos; Maravic, Jasminka; Crotty, Yvonne; Kelly, Claire; Markaki, Vassiliki; Lazoudis, Angelos; Koivula, Jani; Polymatidis, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    In this study we used a narrative approach to investigate the function that digital, interactive tools can fulfill in inquiry teaching and learning. Such a narrative can be conceived of as 'talking through' a lesson in which a teacher supports inquiry with technology. By subsequently coding these

  16. Pragmatic Instruction May Not Be Necessary among Heritage Speakers of Spanish: A Study on Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros García, María J.; Bachelor, Jeremy W.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the pragmatic competence of U.S. heritage speakers of Spanish in an attempt to determine (a) the degree of pragmatic transfer from English to Spanish experienced by heritage speakers when producing different types of requests in Spanish; and (b) how to best teach pragmatics to students of Spanish as a Heritage Language (SHL).…

  17. Integrating Critical Thinking Instruction and Assessment into Online University Courses: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason Heinrichs, Kim R.

    2016-01-01

    Universities claim that improved critical thinking ability is an educational outcome for their graduates, but they seldom create a path for students to achieve that outcome. In this practitioner action research study, the author created a job aid, entitled "Critical Thinking as a Differentiator for Distinguished Performance," to help…

  18. Results of Four Studies on Logo Programming, Problem Solving, and Knowledge-Based Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Karen; Black, John B.

    The results of four research studies conducted with subjects ranging in age and ability from elementary to graduate school students demonstrate that Logo programming environments can be instrumental in the development of five particular problem solving strategies: (1) subgoals formation; (2) forward chaining; (3) systematic trial and error; (4)…

  19. Case Studies in Sustainability Used in an Introductory Laboratory Course to Enhance Laboratory Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster-Teasley, Stephanie; Hargrove-Leak, Sirena; Gibson, Willietta; Leak, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This educational research seeks to develop novel laboratory modules by using Case Studies in the Science Teaching method to introduce sustainability and environmental engineering laboratory concepts to 21st century learners. The increased interest in "going green" has led to a surge in the number of engineering students studying…

  20. Instructional Coding System for Mathematics Program of Studies. MET, A Title IV-C Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfax County Public Schools, VA. Dept. of Instructional Services.

    This document is part of the Management for Effective Teaching (MET) support kit, a pilot project designed by the Fairfax County (Virginia) Public Schools to assist elementary school teachers in planning, managing, and implementing the county's Program of Studies (POS). This document provides an alpha-numeric coding system to be used in…

  1. Deliberation as Communication Instruction: A Study of a Climate Change Deliberation in an Introductory Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Sara A. Mehltretter

    2015-01-01

    The author argues that deliberation is an innovative method for teaching communication skills, particularly group communication, in the undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) curriculum. A case study using a deliberation activity on global climate change in an introductory biology course demonstrates how deliberative…

  2. Integrating Rapport-Building into Language Instruction: A Study of Korean Foreign Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Yung

    2016-01-01

    Using a conversation-analytic approach along with the notions of frame and footing (Goffman 1981), this study examines what strategies teachers use to build rapport with their students in Korean as a foreign language classrooms. It also discusses what kinds of interactional resources they employ in tandem with these strategies. Analysis of…

  3. Decentered Online Bible Instruction: How Active Learning Enhances the Study of Scripture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troftgruben, Troy M.

    2018-01-01

    The field of biblical studies lends itself well to decentered online learning--a kind that uses active learning to engage primary texts and their interpretations. Not only does such an approach work well in online and hybrid formats, it more readily welcomes readings that are more contextual, constructive, and collaborative. Three aspects best…

  4. Economics (A High School One Semester Course). Instructional Materials/Resources for Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackstadt, Stephen L.; And Others

    Designed to aid teachers of a high school economics course, this curriculum guide is presented in self-contained units of study. Thirteen units, each with specific lessons, cover economic problems, the market system, market structure, market imperfections, government regulation, the national economy, aggregate supply and demand, the business…

  5. Translating Vocabulary Research to Social Studies Instruction: Before, during, and after Text-Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairrell, Angela; Simmons, Deborah; Swanson, Elizabeth; Edmonds, Meaghan; Vaughn, Sharon; Rupley, William H.

    2011-01-01

    In the upper elementary grades, content-area text gains increasing importance as a primary source of reading and information. This article focuses on the specialized vocabulary demands of social studies texts and presents a framework of teaching and learning strategies based on vocabulary research. Strategies are introduced before, during, and…

  6. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Results: The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376. Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–3.14, p = 0.049, whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044. Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.77, p = 0.028. Conclusions: This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms.

  7. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24-83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376). Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-3.14, p = 0.049), whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044). Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.77, p = 0.028). This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The majority are not performing home-exercises correctly two weeks after their initial instruction-an assessor-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mathilde; Andersen, Malene H; Sevel, Claus; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas; Rathleff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Time-under-tension (TUT) reflects time under load during strength training and is a proxy of the total exercise dose during strength training. The purpose of this study was to investigate if young participants are able to reproduce TUT and exercise form after two weeks of unsupervised exercises. Material and Methods. The study was an assessor-blinded intervention study with 29 participants. After an initial instruction, all participants were instructed to perform two weeks of home-based unsupervised shoulder abduction exercises three times per week with an elastic exercise band. The participants were instructed in performing an exercise with a predefined TUT (3 s concentric; 2 s isometric; 3 s eccentric; 2 s break) corresponding to a total of 240 s of TUT during three sets of 10 repetitions. After completing two weeks of unsupervised home exercises, they returned for a follow-up assessment of TUT and exercise form while performing the shoulder abduction exercise. A stretch sensor attached to the elastic band was used to measure TUT at baseline and follow-up. A physiotherapist used a pre-defined clinical observation protocol to determine if participants used the correct exercise form. Results. Fourteen of the 29 participants trained with the instructed TUT at follow-up (predefined target: 240 s ±8%). Thirteen of the 29 participants performed the shoulder abduction exercise with a correct exercise form. Seven of the 29 participants trained with the instructed TUT and exercise form at follow-up. Conclusion. The majority of participants did not use the instructed TUT and exercise form at follow-up after two weeks of unsupervised exercises. These findings emphasize the importance of clear and specific home exercise instructions if participants are to follow the given exercise prescription regarding TUT and exercise form as too many or too few exercise stimuli in relation to the initially prescribed amount of exercise most likely will provide a

  9. Blended learning in K-12 mathematics and science instruction -- An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jason

    Blended learning has developed into a hot topic in education over the past several years. Flipped classrooms, online learning environments, and the use of technology to deliver educational content using rich media continue to garner national attention. While generally well accepted and researched in post-secondary education, not much research has focused on blended learning in elementary, middle, and high schools. This thesis is an exploratory study to begin to determine if students and teachers like blended learning and whether or not it affects the amount of time they spend in math and science. Standardized achievement test data were also analyzed to determine if blended learning had any effect on test scores. Based on student and teacher surveys, this population seems to like blended learning and to work more efficiently in this environment. There is no evidence from this study to support any effect on student achievement.

  10. Enhancing Science Education Instruction: A Mixed-Methods Study on University and Middle School Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Stone, Deborah S.

    The purpose of this concurrent mixed methods study was to examine the collaborative relationship between scientists and science teachers and to incorporate and advocate scientific literacy based on past and current educational theories such as inquiry based teaching. The scope of this study included archived student standardized test scores, semi-structured interviews, and a Likert scale survey to include open-ended comments. The methodology was based on the guiding research question: To what extent and in what ways does the collaboration and inquiry methodology, with GTF and PT teams, serve toward contributing to a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of this predicting relationship between student PASS scores, inquiry skills, and increased scientific literacy for GTF's, PT's, and students via an integrative mixed methods analysis? The data analysis considerations were derived from the qualitative data collected from the three GTF/PT teams by the use of recorded interviews and text answered survey comments. The quantitative data of archived student Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) scores on scientific literacy and inquiry tests and the Likert-scale portion of the survey were support data to the aforementioned qualitative data findings. Limitations of the study were (1) the population of only the GK-12 teachers and their students versus the inclusion of participants that did not experience the GK-12 Fellow partnerships within their classrooms, should they be considered as participants, (2) involved the researcher as a participant for two years of the program and objectivity remained through interpretation and well documented personal reflections and experiences to inform accuracy, and (3) cultural diversity contributed to the relationship formed between the research Fellow and science educator and communication and scientific language did form a barrier between the Fellow, educator, and student rapport within the classroom. This study

  11. Shoring up the pipeline: A case study of female navigation throughout the science instructional pathway (SIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aclufi, Allison Jill

    Female minority students are increasing in numbers as science majors, but are still under-represented when compared to White and Asian males in the workplace. Many factors have been proposed and studied, yet there has been little, if any, longitudinal study of possible exacerbating variables that may play a key role in deterring female minority students from pursuing a science degree and career. This study took a retro-longitudinal look at the experiences of ten successful science undergraduate female minority students. Two major domains already widely covered in the literature were identified: academic experiences and social-capital networks. Based on in-depth interviews, the following trends, in order of magnitude, were noted: students were focused and goal-orientated, insufficient amounts and access to science equipment, lack of science education in elementary school, no after-school science programs, indifferent or resistant stakeholders, males favored in the classroom, parent alienation from schools, inequitable access to academic information, parental encouragement, and a lack of ethnic identity in the context of a science student. Not all of these trends began in elementary school, most began in middle school and exacerbated throughout the remainder of student's K-12 education. The major factors that allowed for these students matriculation into a four-year university as undergraduate science majors was their goal-orientated dedication to a science career, and deliberate expansion of their social-capital networks to facilitate knowledge acquisition mandatory for college acceptance. A large-scale, longitudinal study, following students throughout their entire K-12 education would provide details that may be lost due to memory, and allow for the creation of more effective interventions to reduce student attrition.

  12. [Study of ATP-independent stages of reaction catalyzed by phage T4 RNA-ligase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebel'nyĭ, S N; Zernov, Iu P

    1986-01-01

    The isotope exchange between [5'-32P]pAP and A(5')ppAp catalyzed by enzyme was shown not to take place in the absence of the acceptor; i. e. the necessity of the acceptor presence during the second step of the process was demonstrated. The isotope exchange reaction between [5'32P]pAp and (pA)5p was studied. It was demonstrated that acceptor (pA)4, slightly whereas the acceptor (pU)4 completely inhibits the isotope reaction. The isotope reaction exchange between [5'-32P]pAp and (pU)4pAp does not take place. The question of existence of adenylated donor elimination mechanism in the presence of "poor" acceptors is considered on the basis of the data obtained.

  13. Dietary protein is associated with musculoskeletal health independently of dietary pattern: the Framingham Third Generation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Sahni, Shivani; Kiel, Douglas P; Tucker, Katherine L; Dufour, Alyssa B; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-03-01

    Background: Above-average dietary protein, as a single nutrient, improves musculoskeletal health. Evaluating the link between dietary protein and musculoskeletal health from a whole-diet perspective is important, as dietary guidelines focus on dietary patterns. Objective: We examined the prospective association of novel dietary protein food clusters (derived from established dietary pattern techniques) with appendicular lean mass (ALM), quadriceps strength (QS), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 2986 men and women, aged 19-72 y, from the Framingham Third Generation Study. Design: Total protein intake was estimated by food-frequency questionnaire in 2002-2005. A cluster analysis was used to classify participants into mutually exclusive groups, which were determined by using the percentage of contribution of food intake to overall protein intake. General linear modeling was used to 1 ) estimate the association between protein intake (grams per day) and BMD, ALM, appendicular lean mass normalized for height (ALM/ht 2 ), and QS (2008-2011) and to 2 ) calculate adjusted least-squares mean outcomes across quartiles of protein (grams per day) and protein food clusters. Results: The mean ± SD age of subjects was 40 ± 9 y; 82% of participants met the Recommended Daily Allowance (0.8 g · kg body weight -1 · d -1 ). The following 6 dietary protein food clusters were identified: fast food and full-fat dairy, fish, red meat, chicken, low-fat milk, and legumes. BMD was not different across quartiles of protein intake ( P -trend range = 0.32-0.82); but significant positive trends were observed for ALM, ALM/ht 2 ( P dietary protein is associated with ALM and QS but not with BMD. In this study, dietary protein food patterns do not provide further insight into beneficial protein effects on muscle outcomes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Instructional immediacy in elearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkem, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Instructor immediacy has been positively associated with many desirable academic outcomes including increased student learning. This study extends existing understanding of instructional immediacy behaviours in elearning by describing postgraduate nursing students' reflections on their own experience. An exploratory, descriptive survey design was used to collect qualitative data. Participants were asked what behaviours or activities help to create rapport or a positive interpersonal connection (immediacy) between students and their online teacher(s). Thematic analysis of the data revealed three main themes: acknowledging and affirming student's personal and professional responsibilities; providing clear and timely information; and utilising rich media. These findings give lecturers insight into instructional strategies they may adopt to increase immediacy in elearning and hence improve student learning outcomes.

  15. Efficient Vocational Skills Training for People with Cognitive Disabilities: An Exploratory Study Comparing Computer-Assisted Instruction to One-on-One Tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James R; Juszczak, Andrew; Engel, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction to that of one-on-one tutoring for teaching people with mild and moderate cognitive disabilities when both training methods are designed to take account of the specific mental deficits most commonly found in cognitive disability populations. Fifteen participants (age 22-71) received either computer-assisted instruction or one-on-one tutoring in three content domains that were of functional and daily relevance to them: behavioural limits, rights and responsibilities (two modules) and alphabetical sorting. Learning was assessed by means of a series of pretests and four learning cycle post-tests. Both instructional conditions maintained time-on-task and teaching material equivalence, and both incorporated a set of best-practices and empirically supported teaching techniques designed to address attentional deficits, stimulus processing inefficiencies and cognitive load limitations. Strong evidence of learning was found in both instructional method conditions. Moreover, in all content domains the two methods yielded approximately equivalent rates of learning and learning attainment. These findings offer tentative evidence that a repetitive, computer-assisted training program can produce learning outcomes in people with mild and moderate cognitive disabilities that are comparable to those achieved by high-quality one-on-one tutoring. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Use of a Fresh-Tissue Cadaver Model for the Instruction of Dermatological Procedures: A Laboratory Study for Training Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Jose A; Costello, Collin M; Maarouf, Melody; McCrary, Hilary C; Zeitouni, Nathalie C

    2017-09-01

    A realistic model for the instruction of basic dermatologic procedural skills was developed, while simultaneously increasing medical student exposure to the field of dermatology. The primary purpose of the authors' study was to evaluate the utilization of a fresh-tissue cadaver model (FTCM) as a method for the instruction of common dermatologic procedures. The authors' secondary aim was to assess students' perceived clinical skills and overall perception of the field of dermatology after the lab. Nineteen first- and second-year medical students were pre- and post-tested on their ability to perform punch and excisional biopsies on a fresh-tissue cadaver. Students were then surveyed on their experience. Assessment of the cognitive knowledge gain and technical skills revealed a statistically significant improvement in all categories (p < .001). An analysis of the survey demonstrated that 78.9% were more interested in selecting dermatology as a career and 63.2% of participants were more likely to refer their future patients to a Mohs surgeon. An FTCM is a viable method for the instruction and training of dermatologic procedures. In addition, the authors conclude that an FTCM provides realistic instruction for common dermatologic procedures and enhances medical students' early exposure and interest in the field of dermatology.

  17. Balancing collaborative and independent practice roles in clinical pharmacy: a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Megan B; Solomon, Jeffrey L; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Park, Angela M; Ourth, Heather; Morreale, Anthony P; Rose, Adam J

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacists (CPs) with a scope of practice operate as direct care providers and health care team members. Research often focuses on one role or the other; little is understood about the dynamic relationship between roles in practice settings. To identify the challenges CPs face in balancing dual roles as direct care providers and health care team members and the implications for CP effectiveness and quality of care. Pharmacists were interviewed with a primary purpose of informing an implementation effort. Besides the implementation, there were emergent themes regarding the challenges posed for CPs in negotiating dual roles. This study is, therefore, a secondary analysis of semistructured interviews and direct observation of 48 CPs, addressing this phenomenon. Interview data were entered into NVivo 10 and systematically analyzed using an emergent thematic coding strategy. Pharmacists describe role ambiguity, where they perform as direct providers or team members simultaneously or in quick succession. They note the existence of a "transaction cost," where switching causes loss of momentum or disruption of work flow. Additionally, pharmacists feel that fellow providers lack an understanding of what they do and that CP contributions are not evaluated accurately by other health professionals. It is a challenge for CPs to balance the distinct roles of serving as collaborators and primary providers. Frequent role switching is not conducive to optimal work efficiency or patient care. Our findings suggest concrete steps that medical centers can take to improve both CP worklife and quality of patient care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Gas independence in France in 2050. A 100% renewable gas mix in 2050? Study summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapelon, Guillain; Rabetsimamanga, Ony; Bosso, Valerie; Frederic, Sylvain; Leboul-Proust, Catherine; Legrand, Stephanie; Monin, William; Singly, Bertrand de; Combet, Emmanuel; Marchal, David; Meunier, Laurent; Varet, Anne; Vincent, Isabelle; Antoine, Loic; Bardinal, Marc; Bastide, Guillaume; Bodineau, Luc; Canal, David; El Khamlichi, Aicha; Gagnepain, Bruno; Mainsant, Arnaud; Parrouffe, Jean-Michel; Pouet, Jean-Christophe; Theobald, Olivier; Vidalenc, Eric; Thomas, Alban; Madiec, Philippe; Meradi, Sabra; Boure, Quentin; Cherrey, Marc; Coupe, Florian; Couturier, Christian; Metivier, Simon; Chiche, Alice

    2018-01-01

    ADEME contributes to the discussions on France's proactive strategy, notably by examining possible trajectories for the French energies of the future and has been publishing energy-climate scenarios on a regular basis since 2013. This study, 'A 100% renewable gas mix in 2050?', conducted by ADEME in collaboration with GRDF and GRTgaz, follows on from the works published in 2016 - 2017, and concerns the second most consumed energy in France, gas. Herein, ADEME explores the conditions of the technical and economic feasibility of a gas system in 2050 based on 100% renewable gas. The work is based on ADEME's 2035-2050 energy scenario, with a level of final demand for gas in 2050 of around 300 TWh, compared with today's figure of 460 TWh. The results, based on sensitivity analyses and various renewable gas production mix scenarios, reveal that there is a theoretical potential source of renewable gas that could fulfil this lower demand for energy in 2050 at an overall cost of gas between euros 116 and euros 153/MWh. It would involve making some modifications to the gas system and notably development of the complementarity between the gas network and the electric grid. This confirms that to improve the sustainability of our energy system, we must strengthen the interactions between the energy vectors and optimise their synergies, at various territorial scales

  19. France independent on gas by 2050. A 100 pc renewable gas mix by 2050? Study synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapelon, Guillain; Rabetsimamanga, Ony; Bosso, Valerie; Frederic, Sylvain; Legrand, Stephanie; Leboul-Proust, Catherine; Monin, William; Singly, Bertrand de; Combet, Emmanuel; Marchal, David; Meunier, Laurent; Varet, Anne; Vincent, Isabelle; Antoine, Loic; Bardinal, Marc; Bastide, Guillaume; Bodineau, Luc; Canal, David; El Khamlichi, Aicha; Gagnepain, Bruno; Mainsant, Arnaud; Parrouffe, Jean-Michel; Pouet, Jean-Christophe; Theobald, Olivier; Vidalenc, Eric; Thomas, Alban; Madiec, Philippe; Meradi, Sabra; Boure, Quentin; Cherrey, Marc; Coupe, Florian; Couturier, Christian; Metivier, Simon; Chiche, Alice

    2018-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of a study which aimed at determining what could be an available renewable or recovery gas resource by 2050 in metropolitan France, whether it would be sufficient to face gas demand every day and at any point of the network, which network or production sector evolutions would be needed, which are the available constraints and leeway, and which would be the impact on the average cost of supplied gas. Potential renewable resources come from methanization, pyro-gasification, and power-to-gas. The production mix assessment is based on an ADEME scenario for 2035-2050. Four scenarios have been defined to assess the different hypotheses, notably resources: a 100 per cent renewable and recovery energies, a 100 per cent renewable and recovery energies with a high pyro-gasification, a 100 per cent renewable and recovery energies with a biomass restrained to gas usages, and a 75 per cent renewable and recovery. Results are presented in terms of theoretical potential, gas demand meeting, cost, and avoided emissions. Lessons learned concern the possibility of a 100 per cent renewable gas system with necessary evolutions, and a complementarity between the gas and electric networks. Limitations and perspectives are discussed

  20. Energy efficiency advocacy groups: A study of selected interactive efforts and independent initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1994-03-01

    Non-utility groups participate in a myriad of activities--initiated by themselves and others--aimed at influencing the policies and actions of utilities and their regulators related to Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and Demand-Side Management (DSM). Some of these activities are not directed toward a particular regulatory body or utility but are designed to influence public knowledge and acceptance of IRP and DSM. Other activities involve interaction with a particular utility or regulatory body. The traditional forum for this interaction is an adversarial debate (i.e., litigation or regulatory intervention) over the merits of a utility`s plan or proposed action. However, an increasingly common forum is one in which non-utility groups and utilities cooperatively develop plans, policies, and/or programs. Arrangements of this type are referred to in this report as ``interactive efforts``. This report presents the findings derived from ten case studies of energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAG) activities to influence the use of cost-effective DSM and to promote IRP; nine of these ten cases involve some form of interactive effort and all of them also include other EEAG activities. The goal of this research is not to measure the success of individual activities of the various groups, but to glean from a collective examination of their activities an understanding of the efficacy of various types of interactive efforts and other EEAG activities and of the contextual and procedural factors that influence their outcomes.

  1. [Preventive home visits : Cross-sectional study to support an independent lifestyle for elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulc, Eva; Pallauf, Martin; Them, Christa; Wildbahner, Tanja

    2016-08-01

    In the interest of preventing or postponing dependency on care and assistance for as long as possible, preventive home visits to people aged over 70 years living at home were conducted by registered nurses. Assessment of the functional health of people over 70 years of age and counseling or information carried out based on the identified problem areas and resources. A multidimensional nursing assessment through self-evaluation was applied for 345 people aged over 70 years. The sample of people investigated showed a high level of competence in self-care; however, a large number of functional health impairments could be identified that are reflected in the high requirement for counseling and information. It became evident that recruiting of study participants was difficult and that care by family members was an important resource for people aged over 70 years. From this it was recommended that in the future sustainable advertising efforts should be conducted and special attention needs to be given to counseling and information for family members in preventive home visits.

  2. Similar representations of sequence knowledge in young and older adults: A study of effector independent transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sebastiaan Barnhoorn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system.We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65 – 74 and 32 young adults (18 – 30. During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two 6-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences

  3. Puzzle based teaching versus traditional instruction in electrocardiogram interpretation for medical students--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Jack; Dhoble, Abhijeet; Ferenchick, Gary

    2009-01-13

    Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG) interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents' and physicians' EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individualization of teaching methods has been shown to be viable and may result in improved learning. Puzzles have been shown to facilitate learning in a relaxed environment. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of teaching puzzle in EKG interpretation skills among medical students. This is a reader blinded crossover trial. Third year medical students from College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University participated in this study. Two groups (n = 9) received two traditional EKG interpretation skills lectures followed by a standardized exam and two extra sessions with the teaching puzzle and a different exam. Two other groups (n = 6) received identical courses and exams with the puzzle session first followed by the traditional teaching. EKG interpretation scores on final test were used as main outcome measure. The average score after only traditional teaching was 4.07 +/- 2.08 while after only the puzzle session was 4.04 +/- 2.36 (p = 0.97). The average improvement after the traditional session was followed up with a puzzle session was 2.53 +/- 1.94 while the average improvement after the puzzle session was followed with the traditional session was 2.08 +/- 1.73 (p = 0.67). The final EKG exam score for this cohort (n = 15) was 84.1 compared to 86.6 (p = 0.22) for a comparable sample of medical students (n = 15) at a different campus. Teaching EKG interpretation with puzzles is comparable to traditional teaching and may be particularly useful for certain subgroups of students. Puzzle session are more interactive and relaxing, and warrant further investigations on larger scale.

  4. Puzzle based teaching versus traditional instruction in electrocardiogram interpretation for medical students – a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Jack; Dhoble, Abhijeet; Ferenchick, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Background Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG) interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents' and physicians' EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individualization of teaching methods has been shown to be viable and may result in improved learning. Puzzles have been shown to facilitate learning in a relaxed environment. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of teaching puzzle in EKG interpretation skills among medical students. Methods This is a reader blinded crossover trial. Third year medical students from College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University participated in this study. Two groups (n = 9) received two traditional EKG interpretation skills lectures followed by a standardized exam and two extra sessions with the teaching puzzle and a different exam. Two other groups (n = 6) received identical courses and exams with the puzzle session first followed by the traditional teaching. EKG interpretation scores on final test were used as main outcome measure. Results The average score after only traditional teaching was 4.07 ± 2.08 while after only the puzzle session was 4.04 ± 2.36 (p = 0.97). The average improvement after the traditional session was followed up with a puzzle session was 2.53 ± 1.94 while the average improvement after the puzzle session was followed with the traditional session was 2.08 ± 1.73 (p = 0.67). The final EKG exam score for this cohort (n = 15) was 84.1 compared to 86.6 (p = 0.22) for a comparable sample of medical students (n = 15) at a different campus. Conclusion Teaching EKG interpretation with puzzles is comparable to traditional teaching and may be particularly useful for certain subgroups of students. Puzzle session are more interactive and relaxing, and warrant further investigations on larger scale. PMID:19144134

  5. Puzzle based teaching versus traditional instruction in electrocardiogram interpretation for medical students – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhoble Abhijeet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents' and physicians' EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individualization of teaching methods has been shown to be viable and may result in improved learning. Puzzles have been shown to facilitate learning in a relaxed environment. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of teaching puzzle in EKG interpretation skills among medical students. Methods This is a reader blinded crossover trial. Third year medical students from College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University participated in this study. Two groups (n = 9 received two traditional EKG interpretation skills lectures followed by a standardized exam and two extra sessions with the teaching puzzle and a different exam. Two other groups (n = 6 received identical courses and exams with the puzzle session first followed by the traditional teaching. EKG interpretation scores on final test were used as main outcome measure. Results The average score after only traditional teaching was 4.07 ± 2.08 while after only the puzzle session was 4.04 ± 2.36 (p = 0.97. The average improvement after the traditional session was followed up with a puzzle session was 2.53 ± 1.94 while the average improvement after the puzzle session was followed with the traditional session was 2.08 ± 1.73 (p = 0.67. The final EKG exam score for this cohort (n = 15 was 84.1 compared to 86.6 (p = 0.22 for a comparable sample of medical students (n = 15 at a different campus. Conclusion Teaching EKG interpretation with puzzles is comparable to traditional teaching and may be particularly useful for certain subgroups of students. Puzzle session are more interactive and relaxing, and warrant further investigations on larger scale.

  6. Businesses assisting K--12 science instruction: Four case studies of long-term school partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Trieste, Lynne M.

    Businesses lack enough qualified applicants to fill the increasing need for scientists and engineers while educators lack many resources for science programs in K-12 schools. This series of case studies searched for successful collaborations between the two in four geographic locations: Boise, Idaho; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles County, California, and Orange County, California. These science education partnerships were investigated to gain an understanding of long-term partnership structure, functioning and evaluation methods. Forty-nine individual interviews with representatives from the groups of stakeholders these programs impact were also conducted. Stakeholder groups included students, teachers, parents, school administrators, business liaisons, and non-profit representatives. Several recurring themes in these partnerships reinforced the existing literature research findings. Collaboration and communication between partners, teacher professional development, the need for more minority and female representation in physical science careers, and self-efficacy in relation to how people come to view their scientific abilities, are among these themes. Topics such as program replication, the importance of role models, programs using "hands-on" activities, reward systems for program participants, and program outcome measurement also emerged from the cases investigated. Third-party assistance by a non-profit entity is occurring within all of these partnerships. This assistance ranges from a service providing material resources such as equipment, lesson plans and meeting space, to managing the partnership fundraising, program development and evaluations. Discussions based upon the findings that support or threaten sustainment of these four partnerships, what a "perfect" partnership might look like, and areas in need of further investigation conclude this study.

  7. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity Are Independently Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome, Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örjan Ekblom

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the relation between lifestyle and the metabolic syndrome lack one or several aspects of the physical activity pattern in the analyses or cardiorespiratory fitness. Likewise, both uni- and triaxial accelerometry have been used, though, the predictive validity of these two modes has not been compared.The aims of the present study were firstly to investigate the independent relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity pattern to the metabolic syndrome (MetS and secondly to examine the predictive validity of uni- and triaxial accelerometry, respectively.Data was extracted from the SCAPIS pilot study (n=930, mean age 57.7 yrs. Physical activity pattern was assessed by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using cycle ergometry. MetS was defined per the Adult Treatment Panel III from the National Cholesterol Education Program definition.Time spent sedentary (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.54-4.24 for T3 vs T1, in light intensity (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.90 and in moderate-to-vigorous activity (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18-0.61, as well as cardiorespiratory fitness (OR: 0.24, 95% CI:0.12-0.48, were all independently related to the prevalence of MetS after adjustment for potential confounders, fitness and/or the other aspects of the physical activity pattern. In addition, we found that triaxial analyses were more discriminant, with ORs farther away from the reference group and additional significant ORs.The finding that several aspects of the physical activity pattern reveal independent relations to the MetS makes new possible targets for behaviour change of interest, focusing on both exercise and everyday life. When assessing the risk status of a patient, it is advised that triaxial accelerometry is used.

  8. Highly anisotropic mobility in solution processed TIPS-pentacene film studied by independently driven four GaIn probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Shinya; Takahashi, Kohtaro; Suzuki, Mitsuharu; Yamada, Hiroko; Miyahara, Ryosuke; Mukai, Kozo; Yoshinobu, Jun

    2017-08-01

    We have studied in-plane anisotropy in the field-effect mobility of solution-processed organic semiconductor 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene by using independently driven four gallium indium (Ga-In) probes. Liquid-metal Ga-In probes are highly effective for reproducible conductivity measurements of organic thin films. We demonstrated that a high mobility anisotropy of 44 was obtained by using a square four-probe method and a feedback circuit to keep the channel potential constant. The present method minimized the influences of the contact resistance and the insensitivity of anisotropy in a linear arrangement in two-dimensional field-effect transistors.

  9. Instructional Management Strategy: A Multi-Sites Study on Science Teaching for Islamic School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghofur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how management strategies in science learning are done by teachers in Islamic schools. This is motivated by the ranking of Indonesia which 87 percent of the population of Muslims always occupy the lowest position for the ability of science literacy. This research was conducted for four months using descriptive qualitative design with data collection technique of interview, observation and documentation. The subjects of the study were six Islamic schools in Lamongan, East Java. The six Islamic schools were chosen by purposive sampling. The results showed that the learning activities of science more dominated by teachers, students heard more explanation than the practice in verifying the process of science. The majority of teachers use lecture, question and answer methods, and assignments, and occasionally apply discussion and demonstration methods. Science laboratories in schools have not been maximally used, some have limited tools and materials, some of which lack laboratory space and even two schools without a science laboratory. Assessment of student learning progress done through pretest, posttest, daily test, question and answer during lessons, UTS and UAS. Teacher's strategy in managing student learning motivation by using animated video as apperception, integrating science materials with Islamic religious values.

  10. A Study Assessing the Potential of Negative Effects in Interdisciplinary Math–Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlung, Andreas; Bremer, Martina; Himelblau, Edward; Tullis, Alexa

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing enthusiasm for teaching approaches that combine mathematics and biology. The call for integrating more quantitative work in biology education has led to new teaching tools that improve quantitative skills. Little is known, however, about whether increasing interdisciplinary work can lead to adverse effects, such as the development of broader but shallower skills or the possibility that math anxiety causes some students to disengage in the classroom, or, paradoxically, to focus so much on the mathematics that they lose sight of its application for the biological concepts in the center of the unit at hand. We have developed and assessed an integrative learning module and found disciplinary learning gains to be equally strong in first-year students who actively engaged in embedded quantitative calculations as in those students who were merely presented with quantitative data in the context of interpreting biological and biostatistical results. When presented to advanced biology students, our quantitative learning tool increased test performance significantly. We conclude from our study that the addition of mathematical calculations to the first year and advanced biology curricula did not hinder overall student learning, and may increase disciplinary learning and data interpretation skills in advanced students. PMID:21364099

  11. Investigating Comprehension in Real World Tasks: Understanding Jury Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrow, Veda R.; Charrow, Robert

    This paper discusses the results of part of an ongoing project studying an aspect of real world language usage, the comprehension of standard jury instructions. Problems in the comprehension of these instructions include the memory load that they impose, the fact that most instructions are read only once, and the fact that instructions are written…

  12. An Analysis of Instructional Facilitators' Relationships with Teachers and Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Bret G.; Pijanowski, John C.; Duncan, Heather; Scherz, Susan; Hvidston, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the perspectives of Wyoming instructional facilitators, concerning three coaching constructs--namely, their instructional leadership roles, teachers' instructional practices, and the support that they receive from principals and teachers. Findings suggest that instructional facilitators were positive about their instructional…

  13. Can early physical therapy positively affect the onset of independent walking in infants with Down syndrome? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Bruno; Sommella, Nadia; Ciardi, Gianluca; Raiano, Enza; Scala, Iris; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Servodio Iammarrone, Clemente

    2018-02-19

    The development of both gross and fine motor skills in a child with Down syndrome is generally delayed. The most seriously affected stage is the achievement of independent walking ability, which influences the onset of all following motor and cognityive skills. The study objectives were (a) to assess the time taken to achieve independent walking ability in a cohort of children with Down syndrome, (b) to examine differences in walking onset by patient characteristics, (c) to verify the effect of early physical therapy (Neurodevelopmental Treatment on the basis of Bobath Concept practised within the first months of life) in the achievement of that skill. A retrospective study was carried out on a cohort of 86 children with Down Syndrome. The knowledge of the exact age of walking onset and information about comorobities and rehabilitation practised since birth were the eligibility criteria. The average age at which walking began in the sample was 26 months (Standard Deviation = 9.66). Some patient characteristics proved to be related negatively to the walking onset: gender male, trisomy 21, improved joint ligamentous laxity. When practised, early physical therapy was able to contrast the delay in walking. NDT-Bobath is a well-known and valid instrument for a child with Down syndrome to attain his highest possible psychomotor functioning level. This study pointed out for the first time ever its capability to contrast the delay on walking onset, which can influences positively the development of the following motor and cognitive skills.

  14. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in independent community-dwelling older adults: The Fujiwara-kyo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masanori; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Tomoda, Koichi; Fujita, Yukio; Yamauchi, Motoo; Osa, Takao; Uyama, Hiroki; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    As the Japanese population ages, the number of older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is expected to increase, but the prevalence of COPD in patients aged ≥80 years remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in independent community-dwelling older adults aged ≥80 years. We investigated the prevalence of COPD in 2862 independent community-dwelling older adults (1504 men, 1358 women, mean age 77.7 ± 7.0 years) who underwent spirometry in the Fujiwara-kyo study, a study of successful aging in older adults. Those participants with airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity dwelling older adults aged ≥80 years. However, the benefits of the spirometric screening and treatment for these patients needs to be determined. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2421-2426. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Moving-Talker, Speaker-Independent Feature Study, and Baseline Results Using the CUAVE Multimodal Speech Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Eric K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Strides in computer technology and the search for deeper, more powerful techniques in signal processing have brought multimodal research to the forefront in recent years. Audio-visual speech processing has become an important part of this research because it holds great potential for overcoming certain problems of traditional audio-only methods. Difficulties, due to background noise and multiple speakers in an application environment, are significantly reduced by the additional information provided by visual features. This paper presents information on a new audio-visual database, a feature study on moving speakers, and on baseline results for the whole speaker group. Although a few databases have been collected in this area, none has emerged as a standard for comparison. Also, efforts to date have often been limited, focusing on cropped video or stationary speakers. This paper seeks to introduce a challenging audio-visual database that is flexible and fairly comprehensive, yet easily available to researchers on one DVD. The Clemson University Audio-Visual Experiments (CUAVE database is a speaker-independent corpus of both connected and continuous digit strings totaling over 7000 utterances. It contains a wide variety of speakers and is designed to meet several goals discussed in this paper. One of these goals is to allow testing of adverse conditions such as moving talkers and speaker pairs. A feature study of connected digit strings is also discussed. It compares stationary and moving talkers in a speaker-independent grouping. An image-processing-based contour technique, an image transform method, and a deformable template scheme are used in this comparison to obtain visual features. This paper also presents methods and results in an attempt to make these techniques more robust to speaker movement. Finally, initial baseline speaker-independent results are included using all speakers, and conclusions as well as suggested areas of research are

  16. SU-E-T-48: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification for Conventional, SRS and SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, R; Kamima, T; Tachibana, H; Baba, H; Itano, M; Yamazaki, T; Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y; Shimizu, H; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Sugawara, Y; Sato, A; Nishiyama, S; Kawai, D; Miyaoka, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To show the results of a multi-institutional study of the independent dose verification for conventional, Stereotactic radiosurgery and body radiotherapy (SRS and SBRT) plans based on the action level of AAPM TG-114. Methods: This study was performed at 12 institutions in Japan. To eliminate the bias of independent dose verification program (Indp), all of the institutions used the same CT-based independent dose verification software (Simple MU Analysis, Triangle Products, JP) with the Clarkson-based algorithm. Eclipse (AAA, PBC), Pinnacle 3 (Adaptive Convolve) and Xio (Superposition) were used as treatment planning system (TPS). The confidence limits (CL, Mean±2SD) for 18 sites (head, breast, lung, pelvis, etc.) were evaluated in comparison in dose between the TPS and the Indp. Results: A retrospective analysis of 6352 treatment fields was conducted. The CLs for conventional, SRS and SBRT were 1.0±3.7 %, 2.0±2.5 % and 6.2±4.4 %, respectively. In conventional plans, most of the sites showed within 5 % of TG-114 action level. However, there were the systematic difference (4.0±4.0 % and 2.5±5.8 % for breast and lung, respectively). In SRS plans, our results showed good agreement compared to the action level. In SBRT plans, the discrepancy between the Indp was variable depending on dose calculation algorithms of TPS. Conclusion: The impact of dose calculation algorithms for the TPS and the Indp affects the action level. It is effective to set the site-specific tolerances, especially for the site where inhomogeneous correction can affect dose distribution strongly

  17. Postural balance and functional independence of elderly people according to gender and age: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Benincasa Nakagawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Aging causes changes in men and women. Studies have shown that women have worse postural balance and greater functional dependence than men, but there is no consensus regarding this. The aim of this study was to compare the balance and functional independence of elderly people according to sex and age, and to evaluate the association between postural balance and the number of drugs taken. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional at a state university. METHODS: 202 elderly people were evaluated regarding balance (Berg Scale, independence (Barthel Index, age, sex, number of medications and physical activity. RESULTS: The subjects comprised 117 women (70.2 ± 5.6 years old and 85 men (71.1 ± 6.9 years old. For balance, there was no significant difference regarding sex, but there was a difference regarding age (P < 0.0001. For functional independence, there was a difference regarding sex (P = 0.003, but not regarding age. The variables of age, medications and physical activity were significant for predicting the Berg score. For the Barthel index, only age and sex were significant. Elderly people who took three or more medications/day showed higher risk of falling than those who took up two drugs/day (odds ratio = 5.53, P < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval, 2.3-13.0. CONCLUSIONS: There was no sexual difference in relation to postural balance. However, people who were more elderly presented a high risk of falling. Functional dependence was worse among females. There was an association between the number of medication drugs and risk of falling.

  18. SU-E-T-48: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification for Conventional, SRS and SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, R; Kamima, T [The Cancer Institute Hospital of JFCR, Koto-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Tachibana, H; Baba, H [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Itano, M; Yamazaki, T [Inagi Municipal Hospital, Inagi, Tokyo (Japan); Ishibashi, S; Higuchi, Y [Sasebo City General Hospital, Sasebo, Nagasaki (Japan); Shimizu, H [Kitasato University Medical Center, Kitamoto, Saitama (Japan); Yamamoto, T [Otemae Hospital, Chuou-ku, Osaka-city (Japan); Yamashita, M [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Sugawara, Y [The National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, A [Itabashi Central General Hospital, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Nishiyama, S [Kuki General Hospital, Kuki, Saitama (Japan); Kawai, D [Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa-prefecture (Japan); Miyaoka, S [Kamitsuga General Hospital, Kanuma, Tochigi (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To show the results of a multi-institutional study of the independent dose verification for conventional, Stereotactic radiosurgery and body radiotherapy (SRS and SBRT) plans based on the action level of AAPM TG-114. Methods: This study was performed at 12 institutions in Japan. To eliminate the bias of independent dose verification program (Indp), all of the institutions used the same CT-based independent dose verification software (Simple MU Analysis, Triangle Products, JP) with the Clarkson-based algorithm. Eclipse (AAA, PBC), Pinnacle{sup 3} (Adaptive Convolve) and Xio (Superposition) were used as treatment planning system (TPS). The confidence limits (CL, Mean±2SD) for 18 sites (head, breast, lung, pelvis, etc.) were evaluated in comparison in dose between the TPS and the Indp. Results: A retrospective analysis of 6352 treatment fields was conducted. The CLs for conventional, SRS and SBRT were 1.0±3.7 %, 2.0±2.5 % and 6.2±4.4 %, respectively. In conventional plans, most of the sites showed within 5 % of TG-114 action level. However, there were the systematic difference (4.0±4.0 % and 2.5±5.8 % for breast and lung, respectively). In SRS plans, our results showed good agreement compared to the action level. In SBRT plans, the discrepancy between the Indp was variable depending on dose calculation algorithms of TPS. Conclusion: The impact of dose calculation algorithms for the TPS and the Indp affects the action level. It is effective to set the site-specific tolerances, especially for the site where inhomogeneous correction can affect dose distribution strongly.

  19. Independent associations of dairy and calcium intakes with colorectal cancers in the Adventist Health Study-2 cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Knutsen, Synnove F; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Mashchak, Andrew; Fraser, Gary E

    2017-10-01

    Results associating dairy and Ca intakes with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk have been mixed. Most previous analyses have suffered from confounding between dairy and Ca intakes. We examined independent associations between these variables, also dairy foods, and CRC incidence in a population with a large range of dairy intakes. Adventist Health Study-2 is a cohort study where subjects were enrolled 2002-2007. Proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR). Regression calibration was used to correct for dietary measurement error. The population lived in all states of the USA. There were 77712 analytic subjects, all of whom were Seventh-day Adventists. Much of their dietary Ca came from non-dairy sources. During a mean follow-up of 7·8 years, 380 incident colon cancer and 111 incident rectal cancer cases were observed. Comparing extreme quintiles of intake in measurement error-corrected analyses, dairy intake (HR=0·31; 95 % CI 0·09, 0·88), independent of total Ca, was inversely related with risk of rectal cancer but gave little indication of association with colon cancer. However, total Ca intake (independent of dairy) was associated with risk of colon cancer (HR=0·55; 95 % CI 0·28, 0·98) and there was little indication of association with rectal cancer. Traditional regression analyses and associations with macronutrients from dairy generally supported these results. Milk intake was also negatively associated with CRC (HR=0·63; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·89). Dairy intake may decrease the risk of rectal cancer, and Ca may reduce risk of colon cancer and CRC.

  20. Elementary Students' Retention of Environmental Science Knowledge: Connected Science Instruction versus Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; DeFranco, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 3rd-grade elementary students' gain and retention of science vocabulary over time in two different classes--"connected science instruction" versus "direct instruction." Data analysis yielded that students who received connected science instruction showed less gain in science knowledge in the short term compared to students who…

  1. Effective Multicultural Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin T. Thompson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The reason why the Trayvon Martin murder trial and similar court cases create a philosophical rift in our nation is due in part to flaws in the delivery of multicultural education. Traditional multicultural instruction does not prepare citizens for the subtleties and complexities of race relations. This study investigates critical strategies and practices that address multicultural missing gaps. I also seek to fill a void in the literature created by a lack of student input regarding teaching strategies that encourage lifelong learning. Students (N = 337 enrolled at a Midwestern university were asked to rate the efficacy of selected instructional strategies. Utilizing a 9-point Likert-type scale, students gave themselves a personal growth rating of 7.15 (SD = 1.47. Variables important to predicting that growth (R2 = .56, p < .0005 were a six-factor variable known as a non-color-blind instructional approach (t = 10.509, p ≤ .0005, allowing students an opportunity to form their own opinions apart from the instructor (t = 4.797, p ≤ .0005, and a state law that mandated multicultural training (t = 3.234, p = .001. Results demonstrated that utilizing a 35% traditional and 65% critical pedagogy mixture when teaching multicultural education helped promote win/win scenarios for education candidates hoping to become difference makers.

  2. Analyzing the Knowledge Construction and Cognitive Patterns of Blog-Based Instructional Activities Using Four Frequent Interactive Strategies (Problem Solving, Peer Assessment, Role Playing and Peer Tutoring): A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Ming; Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Sheng-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Instructional strategies can be helpful in facilitating students' knowledge construction and developing advanced cognitive skills. In the context of collaborative learning, instructional strategies as scripts can guide learners to engage in more meaningful interaction. Previous studies have been investigated the benefits of different instructional…

  3. Favoreciendo la alimentación independiente: Estudio de un caso Favoring the independent feeding: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carrera Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el desarrollo de las actividades de la vida diaria de la forma más autónoma e independiente posible debería ser prioritario en la valoración y cuidado de las personas dependientes. Objetivo: detección y corrección de los problemas que evitan la alimentación autónoma e independiente en una usuaria de centro residencial. Método: estudio de caso de base cualitativa mediante observación participante. Desarrollo: mayo-junio de 2010. Resultados: se observaron los siguientes problemas que dificultan la correcta alimentación: dificultad en la movilización de brazos y manos para llevar la comida a la boca, nerviosismo y ansiedad durante las comidas y sobreprotección de los cuidadores. Al final del periodo de estudio nuestra usuaria consigue realizar las comidas de forma autónoma e independiente. Discusión: una valoración individualizada puede poner de manifiesto capacidades desconocidas en una persona. Tras la evaluación inicial, se detectaron los problemas que impedían la alimentación de forma independiente de nuestra usuaria y se estableció un plan de acción consensuado con ella. Se apreció un cambio sustancial: no solo era capaz de realizar una comida por sí misma con la mínima ayuda indispensable, sino que aumentó su autoestima.Introduction: the development of the Daily Life Activities in the most autonomous and independent way ever possible should be a priority in the evaluation and care of the dependent people. Objective: detection and correction of the problems that avoid the autonomous and independent feeding in a user of our residential center. Method: Case Study with qualitative base by means of participant observation. Development: may-june 2010. Results: the problems observed that impede the correct feeding were:difficult movements of arms and hands to take the food to the mouth, nervousness and anxiety during the meals and overprotection of the carers. At the end of the period of study our user managed

  4. Uncovering the hidden risk architecture of the schizophrenias: confirmation in three independent genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo, Javier; Svrakic, Dragan M; Del Val, Coral; Romero-Zaliz, Rocío; Hernández-Cuervo, Helena; Fanous, Ayman H; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; de Erausquin, Gabriel A; Cloninger, C Robert; Zwir, Igor

    2015-02-01

    The authors sought to demonstrate that schizophrenia is a heterogeneous group of heritable disorders caused by different genotypic networks that cause distinct clinical syndromes. In a large genome-wide association study of cases with schizophrenia and controls, the authors first identified sets of interacting single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that cluster within particular individuals (SNP sets) regardless of clinical status. Second, they examined the risk of schizophrenia for each SNP set and tested replicability in two independent samples. Third, they identified genotypic networks composed of SNP sets sharing SNPs or subjects. Fourth, they identified sets of distinct clinical features that cluster in particular cases (phenotypic sets or clinical syndromes) without regard for their genetic background. Fifth, they tested whether SNP sets were associated with distinct phenotypic sets in a replicable manner across the three studies. The authors identified 42 SNP sets associated with a 70% or greater risk of schizophrenia, and confirmed 34 (81%) or more with similar high risk of schizophrenia in two independent samples. Seventeen networks of SNP sets did not share any SNP or subject. These disjoint genotypic networks were associated with distinct gene products and clinical syndromes (i.e., the schizophrenias) varying in symptoms and severity. Associations between genotypic networks and clinical syndromes were complex, showing multifinality and equifinality. The interactive networks explained the risk of schizophrenia more than the average effects of all SNPs (24%). Schizophrenia is a group of heritable disorders caused by a moderate number of separate genotypic networks associated with several distinct clinical syndromes.

  5. Quantitative study of Portland cement hydration by X-ray diffraction/Rietveld analysis and independent methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivener, K.L.; Fuellmann, T.; Gallucci, E.; Walenta, G.; Bermejo, E.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful technique for the study of crystalline materials. The technique of Rietveld refinement now enables the amounts of different phases in anhydrous cementitious materials to be determined to a good degree of precision. This paper describes the extension of this technique to a pilot study of the hydration of a typical Portland cement. To validate this XRD-Rietveld analysis technique, its results were compared with independent measures of the same materials by the analysis of backscattered electron images (BSE/IA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the internal consistency of the measurements was studied by comparing the XRD estimates of the amounts of hydrates formed with the amounts expected to form from the XRD estimates of the amounts of anhydrous materials reacted

  6. A Solution to the Small Enrollment Problem in Aerospace Engineering--Self-Paced Materials Used in an Independent Studies Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Wallace T.; Watkins, R. D.

    With the decline in enrollment in the early 1970's, many aerospace engineering departments had too few students to offer some required courses. At the University of Texas at Austin, a set of personalized system of instruction (PSI) materials for the aircraft performance, stability, and control course was developed. The paper includes a description…

  7. Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with insulin resistance independently of obesity in primary schoolchildren. The healthy growth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Androutsos, Odysseas; Hulshof, Toine; Dracopoulou, Maria; Chrousos, George P; Manios, Yannis

    2018-04-02

    To explore the associations of vitamin D status and obesity with insulin resistance (IR) in children. A sample of 2282 schoolchildren (9-13 years old) in Greece was examined. Sociodemographic, anthropometric (weight, height), biochemical (fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin and 25(OH)D), pubertal status and physical activity data were collected, using standard methods. The "Vitamin D Standardization Program" protocol was applied to standardize serum 25(OH)D values. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was higher in obese children compared to their over- and normal-weight counterparts (60.5% vs 51.6% and 51%, P = .017). Furthermore, children with IR (both obese and non-obese) had higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency compared to non-obese, non-insulin resistant children (66% and 59.2% vs 49.8%, P < .05), possibly indicating that IR is associated with vitamin D insufficiency, independently of obesity. In line with the above, the results from logistic regression analyses controlled for several potential confounders, showed a 1.48 (95% C.I: 1.2-1.84) higher likelihood for vitamin D insufficiency for insulin resistant children compared to the non-insulin resistant ones, while no significant association was observed with obesity. The present study revealed a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among schoolchildren in Greece, particularly among obese and insulin resistant ones. In addition, it highlighted that the significant association of vitamin D insufficiency with IR is possibly independent of obesity. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm this possible independent association but also explore the potential beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on IR and possibly on weight management too. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Case Study Evaluating Just-In-Time Teaching and Peer Instruction Using Clickers in a Quantum Mechanics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Ryan; Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) is an instructional strategy involving feedback from students on prelecture activities in order to design in-class activities to build on the continuing feedback from students. We investigate the effectiveness of a JiTT approach, which included in-class concept tests using clickers in an upper-division quantum…

  9. Improving K-2 Reading Instruction through the Use of a Coaching Model with Onsite Professional Development: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Paula J.

    2013-01-01

    Reading instruction at the K-2 grade levels is of utmost importance for a student's education. The foundational skills acquired during this time period will serve a student throughout their life. Elementary teachers often feel unprepared for the demands of the struggling, proficient and advanced readers within their classrooms. The professional…

  10. Impact of Online Instructional Game Features on College Students' Perceived Motivational Support and Cognitive Investment: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhao David; Johnson, Tristan E.; Han, Seung-Hyun Caleb

    2013-01-01

    Colleges and universities have begun to understand the instructional potential of digital game-based learning (DGBL) due to digital games' immersive features. These features, however, might overload learners as excessive motivational and cognitive stimuli thus impeding intended learning. Current research, however, lacks empirical evidences to…

  11. Reconsidering the Study of Mathematics Instructional Practices: The Importance of Curricular Context in Understanding Local and Global Teacher Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Lubienski, Sarah Theule; Id-Deen, Lateefah

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the case of one teacher, Jackie, whose instructional practices illuminate the importance of textbooks and student/parent expectations in shaping pedagogy. Jackie teaches in the Plainview district, which offers parents and students a choice between a reform-oriented, integrated curriculum ("Core Plus") and a more…

  12. Fostering Writing in Upper Primary Grades: A Study into the Distinct and Combined Impact of Explicit Instruction and Peer Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Fien; Van Keer, Hilde

    2018-01-01

    As writing is a complex and resource demanding task, high-quality writing instruction is indispensable from primary grades on to support beginning writers in developing effective writing skills. Writing research should therefore provide teachers and schools with evidence-based guidelines for teaching writing in daily practice. In this respect, the…

  13. Learning Science Content through Socio-Scientific Issues-Based Instruction: A Multi-Level Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2016-01-01

    Science educators have presented numerous conceptual and theoretical arguments in favor of teaching science through the exploration of socio-scientific issues (SSI). However, the empirical knowledge base regarding the extent to which SSI-based instruction supports student learning of science content is limited both in terms of the number of…

  14. A Qualitative Study of the Job Challenges of Instructional Deans in the Technical College System of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Perrin J.

    2014-01-01

    The Technical College System of Georgia serves the people and the state by creating a system of technical education whose purpose is to use the latest technology and easy access for all adult Georgians and corporate citizens. Within each technical college is a hierarchy of faculty, staff, and administrators. The instructional deans serve a vital…

  15. The Principal's Role in Leading Instructional Change: A Case Study in New Program Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breon, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The noise in generating an agreed upon definition of instructional leadership that extends beyond theory to the practice of principals has been almost deafening in the last few decades. Many emphasize the need for the role of the principal to adapt to meet the demands of leadership that maximizes student achievement, but lack the specificity to…

  16. Writing for Safety. Facilitating a Team Approach to Writing Operating Instructions. ANTA Leading Edge Training Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serle, Oenone

    The Australian engineering company, Jaques, and Swinburne University of Technology conducted a joint project to write more than 190 operating instructions for the company's 77 employees. First, the university's Workplace Skills Unit (WSU) interviewed 75 production workers to identify their language, literacy, and training needs. The WSU negotiated…

  17. Teaching, Learning, and Writing in the Third Space: A Study of Language and Culture Intersecting with Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma-Berge, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to compare the characteristics and attributes of an effective first grade teacher of writing to English learners through the lens of the "third space." The "third space" represents a place where sociocultural theory interacts with language and culture, and authentic, integrated literacy instruction. Because…

  18. Does chess instruction improve mathematical problem-solving ability? Two experimental studies with an active control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Giovanni; Gobet, Fernand

    2017-12-01

    It has been proposed that playing chess enables children to improve their ability in mathematics. These claims have been recently evaluated in a meta-analysis (Sala & Gobet, 2016, Educational Research Review, 18, 46-57), which indicated a significant effect in favor of the groups playing chess. However, the meta-analysis also showed that most of the reviewed studies used a poor experimental design (in particular, they lacked an active control group). We ran two experiments that used a three-group design including both an active and a passive control group, with a focus on mathematical ability. In the first experiment (N = 233), a group of third and fourth graders was taught chess for 25 hours and tested on mathematical problem-solving tasks. Participants also filled in a questionnaire assessing their meta-cognitive ability for mathematics problems. The group playing chess was compared to an active control group (playing checkers) and a passive control group. The three groups showed no statistically significant difference in mathematical problem-solving or metacognitive abilities in the posttest. The second experiment (N = 52) broadly used the same design, but the Oriental game of Go replaced checkers in the active control group. While the chess-treated group and the passive control group slightly outperformed the active control group with mathematical problem solving, the differences were not statistically significant. No differences were found with respect to metacognitive ability. These results suggest that the effects (if any) of chess instruction, when rigorously tested, are modest and that such interventions should not replace the traditional curriculum in mathematics.

  19. A Study of the Emergence of Student Tacit Knowledge in Response to Environmental Images and Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Rory J.

    The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of students' tacit understandings as they apply to environmental science content, and to discover how these understandings emerge and are viewed and interpreted by teachers. Towards that end over ten hours of classroom video was recorded and analyzed, from both large urban and smaller urban classrooms. Additionally, interviews were conducted with 15 students and two teachers to gain insight into their thinking on an array of topics related to the environment and environmental reasoning. It was hypothesized that students' understandings and teachers' interpretations of them may be influenced by their personal experiences with the natural world. For that reason, demographic information and self-reports of experiences were used to determine the extent to which tacit understandings are influenced by environmental experiences, and whether tacit understandings differed significantly by gender. The results indicate that there are significant differences between students from larger and smaller urban school districts, and males and females, in their interpretation of various environmental scenes. The data suggests that at least some of these differences are directly related to the students' experiences. The data also suggests that teachers are well aware of the importance of these less formal understandings though they are not always able to integrate them into their instruction in a timely manner. It is argued here that science education must change its focus if it is going to meet the needs of a 21st Century citizenship, making it necessary to find ways to embrace the understandings that students bring with them to school; including those, perhaps even especially those, that are mainly tacit.

  20. Self-Access Language Learning Programme: The Case of the English Language Voluntary Intensive Independent Catch-up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomi Papadima-Sophocleous

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether and to what extent an English Language Voluntary Intensive Independent Catch-up Study (ELVIICS, a Self-Access Language Learning (SALL programme, was effective in helping first-year Greek-Cypriot students fill in the gaps in their English language learning and come closer to the required language competence level of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR B1 level. It also examined students’ perceptions of such learning. The students followed the ELVIICS at their own pace, time and space until they felt they had reached the aimed level. Analysis of the achievement test results revealed that students’ language competence improved and reached the required level. Additional quantitative data also revealed that students felt ELVIICS also helped them improve their self-confidence, computer skills and autonomous learning. Moreover, students claimed that ELVIICS assisted them in getting through and successfully completing their compulsory course.