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Sample records for institutionalized retarded males

  1. Fears of institutionalized mentally retarded adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternlicht, M

    1979-01-01

    The patterns of fears of institutionalized mentally retarded adults were studied in a sample of i2 moderately retarded men and women between the ages of 21-49. The direct questioning method was employed. Two interviews were held, two weeks apart; the first interview elicited the Ss' fears, while the second concerned the fears of their friends. A total of 146 responses were obtained, and these were categorized according to the types of fears: supernatural-natural events, animals, physical injury, psychological stress, egocentric responses, and no fears. The Ss displayed a higher percentage of fears in the preoperational stage than in the concrete operational stage. In a comparison of male to female fears, only one category, that of fears of animals, reached significance. The study suggested that the same developmental trend of fears that appears in normal children appears in the retarded as well, and these fears follow Piaget's level of cognitive development, proceeding from egocentric perceptions of causality to realistic cause and effect thinking.

  2. Self-Perception of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: Effects on Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Yul; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The self-perception theory which predicts that the introduction of extrinsic rewards for behavior that was intrinsically rewarding may decrease overall motivation was tested on 44 mildly retarded institutionalized adolescents. (Author/CL)

  3. Oral Health and Nutritional Status of Semi-Institutionalized Persons with Mental Retardation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Luciana Rodrigues Vieira; Moreira, Emilia Addison Machado; Rauen, Michelle Soares; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck

    2009-01-01

    Association between oral health status and nutritional status was investigated in 200 semi-institutionalized persons with mental retardation aged 5-53 years, 45.5% female, in the cities of Florianopolis and Sao Jose, province of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, clinical-odontological examination revealed a high percentage of…

  4. Piagetian Object Permanence in Severely Mentally Retarded Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Beverly; And Others

    The measurability of sensorimotor development in 60 severely retarded, institutionalized adults was studied, using the Piagetian concept of object permanence in a delayed recall paradigm that involved special apparatus. Results suggested, among other things, that severely retarded, institutionalized adults learn most efficiently when trained with…

  5. study of oral and gingival microbial flora in institutionalized mentally

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    from the mouth and gingiva of 138 institutionalized mentally retarded patients of Sari to culture in specific media to ... Key words: Oral and gingival microbial flora, Mental retardation, D%, Sari ... staphylococcus aureus and, in case of negative.

  6. Evaluation of Hepatitis B Infection Prevalence in Institutionalized Intellectually Disabled Children

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    Foad Davoodbeglou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection causes chronic infection in human population, with high mortality. One of the high risk communities is mentally retarded children, who are institutionalized. Special conditions in these centers predispose children for HBV infection and transmission to healthy people. In this study our objective was to determine the prevalence of HBV infection among institutionalized mentally retarded children and study its associated risk factors.Materials and Methods: In this study, 250 mentally retarded children (younger than 14 years old were included. They were living in 5 nursing institutions, located in different parts of Tehran. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg was measured in the sera of these patients by ELISA method.Results: Among 250 children, 20 children (8% were HBsAg positive. HBV infection in girls was more than boys (11% to 5.6%. Among the types of mental retardation, children with cerebral palsy had the highest positive result for HBsAg. The most HBV infection (28.5% was seen in children with longest duration of being institutionalized (10 to 11 years. Vaccinated children were more HBsAg positive (8.7% than non-vaccinated children (5.3%. However, no significant relationship was observed between any of these factors and HBsAg positivity.Conclusion: Despite improvement of people’s health condition and implementation of HBV vaccination, the prevalence of HBV infection is increased in institutionalized mentally retarded children, which highlights the need for active measures to reduce this infection among this high risk population

  7. Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice: further ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice was studied as an evidence for the influence of hormones on the development of muscle mass. Male albino mice were castrated at 28days of age by open castration method. The weights and the muscle mass indices (mg muscle weight per gram body weight) of the ...

  8. Thyroid status in a large cohort of patients with mental retardation: the TOP-R (Thyroid Origin of Psychomotor Retardation) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Willem Edward; de Rijke, Yolanda B; van Toor, Hans; Visser, Theo J

    2011-09-01

    Abnormalities in thyroid state may affect development and function of the brain and result in mental retardation (MR). Thyroid parameters have not been systematically investigated in institutionalized MR subjects. The objective is to measure thyroid parameters in a novel cohort of 946 institutionalized subjects. The TOP-R (Thyroid Origin of Psychomotor Retardation) study is a cross-sectional nation-wide multicentre study. Subjects with unexplained MR. The majority of the MR subjects had thyroid parameters within the reference range used in our laboratory. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) use affected thyroid hormones (T4: 102·1 ± 1·2 vs 83·9 ± 1·2 nmol/l, P hyperthyroidism was 5·2% and 2·8%, respectively. We report thyroid parameters in a cohort of institutionalized subjects with MR. Our findings substantiate the fact that AEDs affect thyroid hormone levels. Future studies will be employed to investigate genetic causes of MR related to abnormalities in thyroid hormone homeostasis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The clinical phenotype in institutionalised adult males with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Trommelen, J.C.M.; Brunner, H.G.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In an institutionalised population of 471 mentally retarded adult residents (436 males and 35 females), 22 males (i.e. 5 % of the male population) had XLMR, accounting for 36.1 % of the residents diagnosed with a monogenic disorder (n = 61). Fragile X syndrome (FRAXA) was diagnosed in 16 residents,

  10. Behavioral Therapy of Phobias: A Case with Gynecomastia and Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenq, Bernard

    1974-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy, institutionalized for severe mental retardation, who was found to have obsessive tendencies and an IQ of 71 to 78, was systematically desensitized for phobias associated with ambigous sexual identity. (MC)

  11. Music Training for Severely and Profoundly Retarded Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Buford; Richmond, Bert O.

    Investigated were the effects of sex, ability and training method on the musical instrument playing ability of 16 institutionalized severely and profoundly retarded persons ages 7 to 20 years. Ss were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, and the time required to reach criterion playing a familiar tune was recorded. Data indicated…

  12. Images of Aging in Institutionalized and Non-Institutionalized Elderly People

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    Marlene Lopes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to assess and compare images and stereotypes of aging in institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly people. This is a descriptive study using a survey. Method: The instruments used were a sociodemographic questionnaire and the ImAges scale. A total of 120 elderly people, aged between 65 and 99 years, participated in this study. Results: Statistically significant differences were found, for the scale’s three factors, between institutionalized and non-institutionalized older adults. In the factor “dependence, sadness and old-fashioned”, the institutionalized participants presented a higher number of negative images and stereotypes (M = 51.8; DP = 6.01 than the non-institutionalized participants (M = 49.0; DP = 7.85, these differences were significant (t(118 = -2.16; p < 0.05. In the “maturity, activity and affectivity” factor, there were also significant differences (t(118 = 2.04; p < 0.05, the non-institutionalized participants present higher rates of positive images and stereotypes (M = 20.2; DP = 3.28, when compared to institutionalized participants (M = 19.0; DP = 3.310. Conclusion: The results suggested that institutionalized older adults presented more negative aging images than non-institutionalized.

  13. The Langer-Giedion phenotype associated with a unique skeletal finding in a mentally retarded adolescent male. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, G S; Fialkov, J

    1980-04-05

    A case of a mentally retarded male patient with associated physical abnormalities resembling the multiple exostoses-mental retardation syndrome (MEMR, Langer-Giedion or Ale-Calo syndrome) is reported. The patient represents one of the most severe examples of this condition; he also has a triphalangeal thumb with double distal phalanges, a feature not reported previously.

  14. Introduktion. Islam & institutioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian Arly

    2008-01-01

    Introduktion til Tidsskrift for Islamforskning temanummer Islam & institutioner Udgivelsesdato: 18-02......Introduktion til Tidsskrift for Islamforskning temanummer Islam & institutioner Udgivelsesdato: 18-02...

  15. Relationship of Level of Functioning of Institutionalized Women on a Task Analysis of Personal Care for Menstruation and the Adaptive Behavior Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Beverly W.; And Others

    A 40-item behavior analysis task, the Menstrual Care Scale, was developed and tested with 75 randomly selected institutionalized severely retarded women (13-59 years old). The need for developing personal care skills in menstruation habits had been identified as a priority area for sexuality instruction by staff and confirmed by analysis of…

  16. A System for Planning and Achieving Comprehensive Health Care in Residential Institutions for the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Harold A.

    Based on a view of health care intertwining medicine intimately with other components of institutional care, the monograph presents a system of concepts and operating techniques for providing comprehensive health care to institutionalized retardates. Background of the system is explained in terms of its research basis (two studies by the author of…

  17. Dysmorphology and mental retardation: molecular cytogenetic studies in dysmorphic mentally retarded patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Mieloo, H.; Syrrou, M.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Brunner, H.G.; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In an institutionalised population of 471 mentally retarded adult residents (436 males and 35 females), 18 patients (16 males and 2 females) with dysmorphic features were selected to perform FISH studies by using subtelomeric probes to discover cryptic terminal deletions or duplications,

  18. [Predictors of cognitive impairment in population over 64 years institutionalized and non-institutionalized].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Saldaña, Antonio; Sánchez-Ramos, José Luis; León-Jariego, José Carlos; Palacios-Gómez, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Describe the factors which can be associated with cognitive impairment in institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly. Cross-sectional study of 200 people aged over 64 in Huelva (Spain) in 2014. Of these, 100 people were institutionalized in a residential facility and 100 were not. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-35), basic activities of daily living by Barthel index, general health through the Goldberg GHQ-28 and social, clinical and behavioural variables were contemplated in the study. The association of cognitive impairment with all the variables was analysed using Chi-square test. Finally, a multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression to identify possible joint influence of variables to study on the cognitive impairment. The prevalence of cognitive impairment in those institutionalized was 47%, higher than that of non-institutionalized group which was only 8% (p<.001). The dependence for basic activities for daily living and learning activities were the only variables in both groups which were associated with the cognitive impairment. Institutionalization (OR=5.368), age (OR=1.066) and dependence for basic activities (OR=5.036) were negatively associated with CI, while learning activities (OR=.227) were associated in a positive way. Conducting learning activities and the promotion of personal autonomy can delay cognitive impairment in older people. It is important to include cognitive stimulation programs aimed at the old population, especially in residential institutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Institutionalization and Organizational Long-term Success

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    Denise L. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization processes have an ambivalent effect on organizational long-term success. Even though they foster organizational stability and permanence, they also bring about rigidity and resistance to change. As a result, successful organizations are likely to lose their competitive advantage over time. The paper addresses this issue through the investigation of the institutionalization processes of two long-lived companies: General Electric, a firm that has been a long-term success and its rival, Westinghouse, which was broken up after eleven decades of existence. The longitudinal, multilevel analysis of firms and industry has identified two different modes of organizational institutionalization. The reactive mode gives rise to rigidity and change resistance, much like institutional theory predicts; the proactive mode, on the other hand, neutralizes those negative effects of institutionalization processes. In the reactive mode, structure predominates. In the proactive mode, agency plays a major role in organizational institutionalization, and in managing the organization’s relations with the environment, clearly contributing to environmental institutionalization.

  20. Strategic Communication Institutionalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2013-01-01

    of institutionalization when strategic communication is not yet visible as organizational practice, and how can such detections provide explanation for the later outcome of the process? (2) How can studies of strategic communication benefit from an institutional perspective? How can the virus metaphor generate a deeper...... understanding of the mechanisms that interact from the time an organization is exposed to a new organizational idea such as strategic communication until it surfaces in the form of symptoms such as mission and vision statements, communication manuals and communication positions? The first part of the article...... focuses on a discussion of the virus metaphor as an alternative to the widespread fashion metaphor for processes of institutionalization. The second part of the article provides empirical examples of the virus metaphor employed, examples that are drawn from a study of the institutionalization of strategic...

  1. Future time perspective in institutionalized adolescents

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    María Claudia Carcelén Velarde

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the future goals and concerns of institutionalized adolescents, and also identifies their attitudes towards the past, the present and the future, comparing them with a group of non-institutionalized adolescents with similar characteristics. It is a descriptive study with a transversal design, of 34 institutionalized and 41 non-institutionalized adolescents between 15 to 17 years old. The instruments were the Motivational Induction Method (MIM and the Time Attitude Scale (TAS (Nuttin, 1985. Goals are related to interpersonal contacts, the self-realization and the self. Institutionalized adolescents show more goals related to the development of aptitudes and a major necessity of interpersonal contacts associated with the fear of the damage caused by settling these relationships.

  2. Referential first mention in narratives by mildly mentally retarded adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, K T; Sabsay, S

    1987-01-01

    Referential first mentions in narrative reports of a short film by 40 mildly mentally retarded adults and 20 nonretarded adults were compared. The mentally retarded sample included equal numbers of male and female, and black and white speakers. The mentally retarded speakers made significantly fewer first mentions and significantly more errors in the form of the first mentions than did nonretarded speakers. A pattern of better performance by black males than by other mentally retarded speakers was found. It is suggested that task difficulty and incomplete mastery of the use of definite and indefinite forms for encoding old and new information, rather than some global type of egocentrism, accounted for the poorer performance by mentally retarded speakers.

  3. Institutionalizing interactive governance for democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2013-01-01

    -institutional theory points out, however, the considerable regulatory impact of ‘soft’ forms of institutionalization such as incentives structures, sedimented normative codes, logics of appropriateness and routinized practices. The article explores the role that soft forms of institutionalization might play...

  4. Chemical Induced Xerostomia Among Institutionalized Eldery

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovski, Mihajlo; Minovska, Ana; Ivanovski, Kiro; Forna, Doriana Agop; Forna, Consuela Norna

    2015-01-01

    Subjective presence of dry mouth is most common oral problem among the institutionalized elderly. To assess the subjective presence of xerostomia among institutionalized elderly. Total numbers of 70 subjects older than 65 years institutionalized in one nursing home were evaluated. The subjective presence of xerstomia was determinated. To determine the level of expressiveness of xerostomia is used questionnaire recommended by Carda et al. 62.8% from the subjects believed that they ...

  5. Factors associated with sarcopenia in institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Alice Ferreira; Silva, Emanuelle Cruz da; Eickemberg, Michaela; Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; Barreto-Medeiros, Jairza Maria; Ramos, Lílian Barbosa

    2017-03-30

    The sarcopenia is a negative aspect for the health of the elderly, increased the risk for disease and mortality. Additionally can contributes greatly to functional reducing capacity and quality of life. To identify the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in institutionalized elderly. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted with 216 elderly people, aged ≥ 60 years, of both sexes, residents in long-term care facilities in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil. To identify sarcopenia was used the skeletal muscle Index. Covariates were considered: gender, age, time of institutionalization, type of institution, body mass index and functional capacity. The Association between sarcopenia and covariates was evaluated using the Poisson regression model with robust variance. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly was 72.2% and this condition was associated with male sex (PR = 1,33; CI 95% = 1,081,65), thinness (PR = 1,29; CI 95% = 1,16-1,43) and obesity (PR = 0,37; CI 95% = 0,23-0,61). The prevalence of sarcopenia was high among the elderly living in long-term institutions, especially among men. Elderly with thinness showed greater impairment of muscle reserves, while the state of obesity was protective.

  6. Estuary ecosystem restoration: implementing and institutionalizing adaptive management: Institutionalizing adaptive management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebberts, Blaine D. [Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 333 SW 1st Avenue, Portland OR 97204 U.S.A.; Zelinsky, Ben D. [Fish and Wildlife Division, Bonneville Power Administration, 905 NE 11th Avenue, Portland OR 97208 U.S.A.; Karnezis, Jason P. [Fish and Wildlife Division, Bonneville Power Administration, 905 NE 11th Avenue, Portland OR 97208 U.S.A.; Studebaker, Cynthia A. [Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 333 SW 1st Avenue, Portland OR 97204 U.S.A.; Lopez-Johnston, Siena [Fish and Wildlife Division, Bonneville Power Administration, 905 NE 11th Avenue, Portland OR 97208 U.S.A.; Creason, Anne M. [Fish and Wildlife Division, Bonneville Power Administration, 905 NE 11th Avenue, Portland OR 97208 U.S.A.; Krasnow, Lynne [Columbia Hydropower Branch, National Marine Fisheries Service, 1201 NE Lloyd Boulevard Suite 1100, Portland OR 97232 U.S.A.; Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 620 SW 5th Avenue, Suite 810, Portland OR 97204 U.S.A.; Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Science Laboratory, 1286 Washington Harbor Road, Sequim WA 98382 U.S.A.

    2017-08-25

    We successfully implemented and institutionalized an adaptive management (AM) process for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program, which is a large-scale restoration program focused on improving ecosystem conditions in the 234-km lower Columbia River and estuary. For our purpose, “institutionalized” means the AM process and restoration program are embedded in the work flow of the implementing agencies and affected parties. While plans outlining frameworks, processes, or approaches to AM of ecosystem restoration programs are commonplace, establishment for the long term is not. This paper presents the basic AM framework and explains how AM was implemented and institutionalized. Starting with a common goal, we pursued included a well-understood governance and decision-making structure, routine coordination and communication activities, data and information sharing, commitment from partners and upper agency management to the AM process, and meaningful cooperation among program managers and partners. The overall approach and steps to implement and institutionalize AM for ecosystem restoration explained here are applicable to situations where it has been less than successful or, as in our case, the restoration program is just getting started.

  7. Motor abilities, activities, and participation of institutionalized Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

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    Tainá Ribas Mélo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To assess motor abilities and functioning of institutionalized children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP within a contextual model of development. Methods: Eleven institutionalized Brazilian children and adolescents aged 2-19 (14 ± 5 years, 5 males and 6 females, were evaluated through the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and 66 and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM, and classified according to the ICF core set. Results: The evaluated individuals have severe impairments as indicated by their GMFM scores and confirmed by their need for full assistance in basic activities of daily living according to the FIM assessment. The difficulties manifested reflected on the ICF body functions and activities and participation domains. Conclusion: Most institutionalized children and adolescents with CP had GMFM-66 scores comparable to those indicated in literature. The ICF-based assessment identified environmental barriers that might be considered for improvement in order to facilitate activities and participation.

  8. AUTISTIC FEATURES IN CHILDREN WITH MENTAL RETARDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Nilamadhab; Khanna, Rakesh; Kar, Gopal Chandra

    1997-01-01

    Most of the autistic disorder patients are also mentally retarded and many mentally retarded persons exhibit autistic symptoms. By using a standard instrument (Ritvo-Freeman Real Life Rating Scale) the autistic features of the mentally retarded children were studied. The study also examined the influence of age, sex and level of mental retardation on the occurrence of autistic symptoms. Children who came for consultation to child psychiatric unit were compared with those at a school for children with mental retardation receiving stimulation. Male children from child psychiatric unit had significantly higher scores than those from the school. Social and language impairment could be reliably identified and grouped. It was possible to diagnose the syndrome of autism in children with mental retardation in a significant number (9.6%)as compared to that was possible only clinically (1.9%). More number of children with severe/ profound mental retardation could be diagnosed as autistic. The autistic syndrome in children with mental retardation can be picked up more effectively by the use of structured instrument. PMID:21584097

  9. Iconic Memory Deficit of Mildly Mentally Retarded Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Henry A.; Mosley, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Ten mildly retarded young adult males and nonretarded subjects matched for chronological age or mental age were required to recognize both verbal and nonverbal stimuli presented tachistoscopically. Results of a backward visual masking paradigm varying stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) indicated the retarded subjects performed poorer at the longest…

  10. Boligstandarden i plejehjem og andre institutioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalk, Georg

    Boligstandarden i plejehjem og institutioner for handicappede diskuteres meget for tiden. Denne rapport er den første landsdækkende undersøgelse af boligstandarden i plejehjem, beskyttede boliger og institutioner for voksne med handicap. Den indeholder blandt andet oplysninger om, hvor store være...

  11. Prevalence of oral lesions and chronic non-communicable diseases in a sample of Chilean institutionalized versus non-institutionalized elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla P. Lozano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile is experiencing a process of demographic aging with an increase in the number of elderly people, a percentage of which resides in Long-term Establishments for the Elderly (LEE. However, there is little information on the reality of the elderly in these long-term care facilities, so this study was conducted to compare the epidemiological profile of the prevalent oral pathologies as well as chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, of institutionalized versus noninstitutionalized elderly subjects. Seventy-six institutionalized and forty-three non-institutionalized subjects were examined intraorally, and their clinical health record, gender and age were obtained, according inclusion/exclusion criteria. The results indicate that female gender is the most common, with an average age of 78.5 year, with those 80 years old and above comprising the predominant group. The most prevalent oral lesions within the institutionalized group were denture stomatitis and irritative hyperplasia, while in the noninstitutionalized these two lesions were found less frequently. As for the presence of xerostomia, there was no difference between the groups. The most common condition in both groups was total maxillary and mandibular edentulous, with the latter variable present more frequently in the institutionalized group (p0.05, and depression was the most prevalent NCD in the non-institutionalized group (p<0.05. This study provides valuable information on the epidemiology of elderly´s oral lesions and NCDs to inform the decision-making process of public health policies.

  12. The Veterans Affairs Saint Louis University mental status exam (SLUMS exam) and the Mini-mental status exam as predictors of mortality and institutionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Oliver, D M; Malmstrom, T K; Allen, C M; Tumosa, N; Morley, J E

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate predictive validity of cognitive dysfunction of the Saint Louis University mental status (SLUMS) exam or mini-mental state exam (MMSE) for institutionalization and mortality after 7.5-years. Longitudinal study. Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center Veterans Affairs Hospital St. Louis, MO. Patients (N=705) were screened for cognitive dysfunction in 2003 using the SLUMS exam and MMSE, and mortality and institutionalization up to 7.5-years later were evaluated as outcome measures. The associations between outcome measures and MMSE and SLUMS exam total scores, and cognitive status were examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression. Five hundred thirty-three charts were reviewed, 176/533(33%) patients had died and 31/526 (6%) were institutionalized during 7.5-year follow-up period. All subjects were male with a mean age of 75 years and most had high school education or greater (71%). MMSE dementia, SLUMS dementia (ps<.001) and MCI (p<.05) groups had significantly lower survival rates than normal cognition group in the Kaplan-Meier curves. Scores classified as dementia on SLUMS (HR=2.4, 95% CI 1.6-3.7; p <.001) or MMSE (HR=2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.6; p <.001) both predicted mortality and, also, institutionalization (SLUMS: HR=3.5, 95% CI 1.3-9.1; p <.01; MMSE: HR=3.8, 95% CI 1.6-9.0; p <.001) after adjustment for covariates. Unadjusted SLUMS exam MCI predicted morality (HR=1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2; p <.019) but not institutionalization. The SLUMS exam and MMSE both predict mortality and institutionalization for male patients screened as positive for dementia.

  13. Factors Associated with Anemia in the Institutionalized Elderly.

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    Emanuelle Cruz da Silva

    Full Text Available As a common problem in long-term care facilities (LTCFs, anemia affects 25-63% of the elderly. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of anemia and its associated factors in the institutionalized elderly. The cross-sectional study was carried out with three hundred thirteen individuals aged ≥ 60 years, of both genders, living in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Poisson regression (PR with robust variance estimates was used to assess the factors related to anemia. The prevalence of anemia was 38%. Mild anemia was predominant in both genders (male: 26.8%; female: 21.1%, as normocytic and normochromic anemia, with no anisocytosis (69.75%. Anemia was associated with thinness (PR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04-2.72 and with moderate (PR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.07-3.63 and total (PR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.34-5.07 dependence in the final model. Severe dependence exhibited borderline significance (PR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.00-3.77. The prevalence of anemia was high in the institutionalized elderly in both genders, with characteristics suggesting chronic diseases as the causal factor, and the frequency of occurrence was higher in thinness elderly with moderate to total dependence.

  14. A framework for institutionalizing quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silimperi, Diana R; Franco, Lynne Miller; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Tisna; MacAulay, Catherine

    2002-12-01

    To develop a framework to support the institutionalization of quality assurance (QA). The framework for institutionalizing QA consists of a model of eight essential elements and a 'roadmap' for the process of institutionalization. The essential elements are the building blocks required for implementing and sustaining QA activities. Core QA activities include defining, measuring and improving quality. The essential elements are grouped under three categories: the internal enabling environment (internal to the organization or system), organizing for quality, and support functions. The enabling environment contains the essential elements of leadership, policy, core values, and resources. Organizing for quality includes the structure for implementing QA. Three essential elements are primarily support functions: capacity building, communication and information, and rewarding quality. The model can be applied at the level of an organization or a system. The paper also describes the process of institutionalizing QA, starting from a state of preawareness, passing through four phases (awareness, experiential, expansion, and consolidation), and culminating in a state of maturity. The process is not linear; an organization may regress, vacillate between phases, or even remain stagnant. Some phases (e.g. awareness and experiential) may occur simultaneously. The framework has been introduced in nearly a dozen countries in Latin America and Africa. The conceptual model has been used to support strategic planning and directing Ministry of Health work plans, and also as a resource for determining the elements necessary to strengthen and sustain QA. The next step will be the development and evaluation of an assessment tool to monitor developmental progress in the institutionalization of QA.

  15. Mere kapital til systemisk vigtige finansielle institutioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    . Basel-komiteen har endnu ikke udformet konkrete krav til systemisk vigtige finansielle institutioner, men rammerne for de samlede regulative Basel III-kapitalkrav er i dag så langt fremme, at de schweiziske myndigheders forslag til kapitalkrav for systemiske institutioner i det følgende sammenlignes med...... Basel III....

  16. Depressive symptoms in institutionalized older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maria Santiago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals.

  17. Oral health status and diet habit of institutionalized elder group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the oral health status and diet habits of institutionalized elders in Lagos, Nigeria Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized elders in Lagos State, Nigeria. Age and sex matched non-institutionalized elderly were also ...

  18. Autosomal recessive intestinal lymphangiectasia and lymphedema, with facial anomalies and mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Geerdink, R. A.; Hamel, B. C.; Hennekam, F. A.; Kraus, P.; Rammeloo, J. A.; Tillemans, A. A.

    1989-01-01

    We report on two male and two female relatives with intestinal lymphangiectasia; severe lymphedema of limbs, genitalia, and face; facial anomalies; seizures; mild growth retardation; and moderate mental retardation. Main facial anomalies are a flat face, flat nasal bridge, hypertelorism, small

  19. Formal home help services and institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yukari; Siersma, Volkert; Avlund, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    The effect of home help services has been inconsistent. Raising the hypothesis that receiving small amounts of home help may postpone or prevent institutionalization, the aim of the present study is to analyze how light and heavy use of home help services was related to the risk...... for institutionalization. The study was a secondary analysis of a Danish intervention study on preventive home visits in 34 municipalities from 1999 to 2003, including 2642 home-dwelling older people who were nondisabled and did not receive public home help services at baseline in 1999 and who lived at home 18 months...... after baseline. Cox regression analysis showed that those who received home help services during the first 18 months after baseline were at higher risk of being institutionalized during the subsequent three years than those who did not receive such services. However, receiving home help for less than 1h...

  20. Predictors of institutionalization in patients with dementia in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Jeong, Seong-Joo; Gormley, Niall; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2002-02-01

    Many studies have sought to determine the predictors of institutionalization of patients with dementia. Such studies, performed in developed western societies, have come to various conclusions which may not be supported in an East Asian culture such as that found in Korea. This study aimed to determine the factors that predict institutionalization of patients in Korea diagnosed with dementia. Seventy-nine cases (37 institutionalized, 42 community-dwelling) in the Kwangju area were evaluated for patient characteristics, severity of dementia symptoms, caregiver characteristics, burden and distress. Logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of actual institutionalization. Six predictors of institutionalization were identified. Of these, three were patient-related factors: higher score on the Clinical Dementia Rating, higher score on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and shorter duration of dementia. The other three were caregiver-related factors: younger age, higher education (formal schooling), and higher cost of home care. As seen in previous western studies, institutionalization of dementia sufferers was influenced by both patient and caregiver factors. But, the specific predictors and their relative influences might be explained best by the particular social, cultural and economic situation in Korea. This study was the first of its kind in Korea and, as such, could serve as a reference for future intra-cultural and cross-cultural comparisons. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Institutionalizing Strong Sustainability: A Rawlsian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Ott

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to provide some ethical orientation on how sustainability might be actualized by institutions. Since institutionalization is about rules and organization, it presupposes ideas and concepts by which institutions can be substantiated. After outlining terminology, the article deals with underlying ethical and conceptual problems which are highly relevant for any suggestions concerning institutionalization. These problems are: (a the ethical scope of the sustainability perspective (natural capital, poverty, sentient animals, (b the theory of justice on which ideas about sustainability are built (capability approach, Rawlsianism, and (c the favored concept of sustainability (weak, intermediate, and strong sustainability. These problems are analyzed in turn. As a result, a Rawlsian concept of rule-based strong sustainability is proposed. The specific problems of institutionalization are addressed by applying Rawls’s concept of branches. The article concludes with arguments in favor of three transnational duties which hold for states that have adopted Rawlsian strong sustainability.

  2. Understanding micro-processes of institutionalization: stewardship contracting and national forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Moseley; Susan Charnley

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines micro-processes of institutionalization, using the case of stewardship contracting within the US Forest Service. Our basic premise is that, until a new policy becomes an everyday practice among local actors, it will not become institutionalized at the macro-scale. We find that micro-processes of institutionalization are driven by a mixture of large-...

  3. Tourette syndrome, growth retardation, and platyspondyly: an entity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, Frederike Y.; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.

    2002-01-01

    A 14-year-old male is described with Tourette syndrome, platyspondyly, a marked delay in bone age, growth retardation that is more expressed in the limbs and talipes equinovarus. This appears to be a new entity

  4. Correlates of institutionalized senior veterans' quality of life in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Shinn-Jang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Senior veterans living in government sponsored, long-term care (LTC facilities, known as veterans' homes (VHs, are a special minority group in Taiwan. These seniors came from different provinces of mainland China during their teenage years at the end of civil wars in 1945. The situation of institutionalized senior veterans shares many characteristics with the concept of "total institution". Very little quality of life (QOL research has involved senior veterans. This study aimed to explore the QOL and related factors of VH-dwelling senior veterans in Taiwan. Methods Chronic conditions and socio-demographic characteristics of 260 male VH residents were recorded. The Brief Form of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF, Taiwanese version; Short-Form 36; Inventory of Socially Supportive Behavior questionnaire; Geriatric Depression Scale-short form; Barthel Index; and instrumental activities of daily living were used. Data analyses including descriptive and inferred statistics were performed using SPSS, version 17. Results WHOQOL-BREF showed acceptable reliability in this study. Compared to Taiwanese male norms, WHOQOL-BREF physical, psychological, and social relationship domain scores were around the 25th percentile, and the environment domain was about the 75th percentile. Our participants scored low in all concepts of SF-36. Although these residents rated the social support of their children, relatives, friends, social and medical staff as low, they gave high satisfaction ratings to their social supports. On multiple stepwise linear regression analysis, depressive symptoms, number of chronic conditions, retired military rank, and relatives' support correlated with QOL in both the physical and psychological domains. Friends' support and depressive symptoms correlated with the social relationships domain. Friends' support and instrumental activities of daily living correlated with the

  5. Mutations in the polyglutamine binding protein 1 gene cause X-linked mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalscheuer, V.M.M.; Freude, K.; Musante, L.; Jensen, L.R.; Yntema, H.G.; Gecz, J.; Sefiani, A.; Hoffmann, K.; Moser, B.; Haas, S.; Gurok, U.; Haesler, S.; Aranda, B.; Nshedjan, A.; Tzschach, A.; Hartmann, N.; Roloff, T.C.; Shoichet, S.; Hagens, O.; Tao, J.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Turner, G.; Chelly, J.; Moraine, C.; Fryns, J.P.; Nuber, U.; Hoeltzenbein, M.; Scharff, C.; Scherthan, H.; Lenzner, S.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Schweiger, S.; Ropers, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    We found mutations in the gene PQBP1 in 5 of 29 families with nonsyndromic (MRX) and syndromic (MRXS) forms of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Clinical features in affected males include mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, spastic paraplegia and midline defects. PQBP1 has previously

  6. Mutations in the polyglutamine binding protein 1 gene cause X-linked mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalscheuer, Vera M; Freude, Kristine; Musante, Luciana

    2003-01-01

    We found mutations in the gene PQBP1 in 5 of 29 families with nonsyndromic (MRX) and syndromic (MRXS) forms of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Clinical features in affected males include mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, spastic paraplegia and midline defects. PQBP1 has previou...

  7. Mutations in the polyglutamine binding protein 1 gene cause X-linked mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalscheuer, VM; Freude, K; Musante, L; Jensen, LR; Yntema, HG; Gecz, J; Sefiani, A; Hoffmann, K; Moser, B; Haas, S; Gurok, U; Haesler, S; Aranda, B; Nshedjan, A; Tzschach, A; Hartmann, N; Roloff, TC; Shoichet, S; Hagens, O; Tao, J; van Bokhoven, H; Turner, G; Chelly, J; Moraine, C; Fryns, JP; Nuber, U; Hoeltzenbein, M; Scharff, C; Scherthan, H; Lenzner, S; Hamel, BCJ; Schweiger, S; Ropers, Hans-Hilger

    2003-01-01

    We found mutations in the gene PQBP1 in 5 of 29 families with nonsyndromic (MRX) and syndromic (MRXS) forms of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Clinical features in affected males include mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, spastic paraplegia and midline defects. PQBP1 has previously

  8. Risk of falls and associated factors in institutionalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacy Aurelia Vieira de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the factors associated with the risk of falls in institutionalized elderly. Methods: analytical study carried out in two long-stay institutions for the elderly, with 61 residents of both sexes. Data collection was performed by means of a socio-demographic and clinical form and Downton’s Fall Risk Index. Results: 31 (50.8% old people at high risk of falling were identified. There was an association of risk for falls in institutionalized elderly with gender (p=0.007, age (p=0.004, time of institutionalization (p=0.028, adverse events (p=0.000, use (p=0.035 and number of drugs (p=0.038, use of auxiliary equipment (p=0.022, type of walking (p=0.044 and history of falls in the last 12 months (p=0.000 Conclusion: it is recognized as essential to identify factors associated with the occurrence of falls for the prioritization of specific interventions aimed at institutionalized elderly.

  9. Risk of falls and associated factors in institutionalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacy Aurelia Vieira de Sousa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the factors associated with the risk of falls in institutionalized elderly. Methods: analytical study carried out in two long-stay institutions for the elderly, with 61 residents of both sexes. Data collection was performed by means of a socio-demographic and clinical form and Downton’s Fall Risk Index. Results: 31 (50.8% old people at high risk of falling were identified. There was an association of risk for falls in institutionalized elderly with gender (p=0.007, age (p=0.004, time of institutionalization (p=0.028, adverse events (p=0.000, use (p=0.035 and number of drugs (p=0.038, use of auxiliary equipment (p=0.022, type of walking (p=0.044 and history of falls in the last 12 months (p=0.000. Conclusion: it is recognized as essential to identify factors associated with the occurrence of falls for the prioritization of specific interventions aimed at institutionalized elderly.

  10. Institutionalizing New Ideas Through Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Jancsary, Dennis; Höllerer, Markus A.

    How do visualization and visual forms of communication influence the process of transforming a novel idea into established organizational practice? In this paper, we build theory with regard to the role of visuals in manifesting and giving form to an innovative idea as it proceeds through various...... stages of institutionalization. Ideas become institutionalized not merely through widespread diffusion in a cognitive-discursive form but eventually through their translation into concrete activities and transformation into specific patterns of organizational practice. We argue that visualization plays...... a pivotal and unique role in this process. Visualization bridges the ideational with the practical realm by providing representations of ideas, connecting them to existing knowledge, and illustrating the specific actions that instantiate them. Similar to verbal discourse, and often in tandem, visual...

  11. The presence of subjective feelings of xerostomia in the institutionalized elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovski, Mihajlo; Minovska, Ana; Ivanovski, Kiro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The presence of subjective feelings of dry mouth is the most common oral problem in the institutionalized elderly. Purpose: to assess the subjective presence of xerostomia in the institutionalized elderly. Materials and method: Seventy individuals, older than 65 years and institutionalized in a particular nursing home, were evaluated. The subjective presence of xerstomia was determined. To determine the level of expressiveness of xerostomia, a questionnaire recommended b...

  12. Multidimensional Assessment Of Institutionalized Elderly: The Reality Of A Brazilian Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Viana de Lima Neto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population aging in Brazil is characterized by the accumulation of progressive disabilities in their functional activities and daily life. To consider the elderlies in his/her multiple dimensions turns out to be a critical issue to improve their assistance to an institutionalized level, improving their health and quality of life. To perform a mini-overall evaluation of institutionalized elderly person to trace their profile in relation to the socio-demographic, functional capacity, nutritional status and cognition. Methods: descriptive, cross-sectional study of quantitative approach conducted in facilities for the aged people in Natal, RN. Results: 63.3% of the elderly were female, with ages varying from 61 to 103 years. 60.0% were single; 56.7% were literate. 66.7% had no children and 55% lived with their families before the institutionalization. As for the institutionalization time, 63.3% resided in the institution for four years. As what concerns the aspects of health, 73.3 of the elderly presented hearing difficulties, 90% make use of medicines predominantly to diabetes and hypertension. There is clear evidence that the institutionalization has been harmful to the elderly as with regards basic activities of daily living, nutritional status and cognitive aspects. Conclusion: the progressive disability in functional activities of daily life interferes directly in the quality of life, increasing dependency and minimizing the autonomy of these individuals. It is necessary to effective implementation of public policies directed to the institutionalized elderly from the perspective of effective actions for improved attention and assistance. Descriptors: Aged, Institutionalization, Aging, Facilities for the Aged.

  13. Institutionalization of Gerontological Curricular Change in Schools of Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Stephen P.; Singleton, Judy L.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses factors associated with sustainability and institutionalization of change in the 67 Geriatric Enrichment in Social Work Education (GeroRich) projects, and the ways innovations introduced became institutionalized at the respective colleges and universities. An unobtrusive qualitative-descriptive research design was used to…

  14. The institutionalization of benchmarking in the Danish construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    , the chapter accounts for the data collection methods used to conduct the empirical data collection and the appertaining choices that are made, based on the account for analyzing institutionalization processes. The analysis unfolds over seven chapters, starting with an exposition of the political foundation...... and disseminated to the construction industry. The fourth chapter demonstrates how benchmarking was concretized into a benchmarking system and articulated to address several political focus areas for the construction industry. BEC accordingly became a political arena where many local perspectives and strategic...... emerged as actors expressed diverse political interests in the institutionalization of benchmarking. The political struggles accounted for in chapter five constituted a powerful political pressure and called for transformations of the institutionalization in order for benchmarking to attain institutional...

  15. Institutionalization of Organized Industrial Estates in Turkey, Problems Encountered and Proposed Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan DAĞLAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the aim of the study is to determine the institutionalization degree of organized industrial estates and to identify the faced problems and to develop solutions for these problems. By using survey method, information about problems and institutionalization status of organized industrial estates were obtained from managers of the active organized industrial estates. The problems of organized industrial estates are related to the management structure, qualified staff, energy, transportation, regulation and public improvements. Formalization, professionalism, accountability, transparency and social responsibility have been identified as the factors about the institutionalization of organized industrial estates in Turkey according to factor analysis. It could be argued that organized industrial estates in Turkey have an institutional structure and they have institutionalized. However, it could be said that organized industrial estates which operate in 80 cities of Turkey and more than one are in some cities are not at the same level of institutionalization.

  16. Naming Institutionalized Racism in the Public Health Literature: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeman, Rachel R; Murphy, Katy A; Karbeah, J'Mag; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes

    Although a range of factors shapes health and well-being, institutionalized racism (societal allocation of privilege based on race) plays an important role in generating inequities by race. The goal of this analysis was to review the contemporary peer-reviewed public health literature from 2002-2015 to determine whether the concept of institutionalized racism was named (ie, explicitly mentioned) and whether it was a core concept in the article. We used a systematic literature review methodology to find articles from the top 50 highest-impact journals in each of 6 categories (249 journals in total) that most closely represented the public health field, were published during 2002-2015, were US focused, were indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE and/or Ovid/MEDLINE, and mentioned terms relating to institutionalized racism in their titles or abstracts. We analyzed the content of these articles for the use of related terms and concepts. We found only 25 articles that named institutionalized racism in the title or abstract among all articles published in the public health literature during 2002-2015 in the 50 highest-impact journals and 6 categories representing the public health field in the United States. Institutionalized racism was a core concept in 16 of the 25 articles. Although institutionalized racism is recognized as a fundamental cause of health inequities, it was not often explicitly named in the titles or abstracts of articles published in the public health literature during 2002-2015. Our results highlight the need to explicitly name institutionalized racism in articles in the public health literature and to make it a central concept in inequities research. More public health research on institutionalized racism could help efforts to overcome its substantial, longstanding effects on health and well-being.

  17. Recurrent deletion of ZNF630 at Xp11.23 is not associated with mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lugtenberg, Dorien; Zangrande-Vieira, Luiz; Kirchhoff, Maria

    2010-01-01

    that the deletions resulted from non-allelic homologous recombination. In 2,121 healthy male controls, 10 ZNF630 deletions were identified. In total, there was a 1.6-fold higher frequency of this deletion in males with mental retardation as compared to controls, but this increase was not statistically significant (P......ZNF630 is a member of the primate-specific Xp11 zinc finger gene cluster that consists of six closely related genes, of which ZNF41, ZNF81, and ZNF674 have been shown to be involved in mental retardation. This suggests that mutations of ZNF630 might influence cognitive function. Here, we detected...... 12 ZNF630 deletions in a total of 1,562 male patients with mental retardation from Brazil, USA, Australia, and Europe. The breakpoints were analyzed in 10 families, and in all cases they were located within two segmental duplications that share more than 99% sequence identity, indicating...

  18. Institutionalized elderly people oral health status and treatment needs assessment in kathmandu district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Khanal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In Nepal, Senior citizens are the people who are 60 years and above as defined by the senior citizen act 2063. According to the 2011 census of Nepal, there were 2.1 million elderly inhabitants which constituted 8.1% of total population of Nepal. Aim: To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of institutionalized elderly people. Objectives: To assess the periodontal status, prosthetic status, and prosthetic needs and to compare community periodontal index and the loss of attachment (LOA with age and gender. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in six different old age homes of Kathmandu district. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 200 elderly living in six old age homes of Kathmandu district after obtaining consent from the concerned authorities. The clinical findings were recorded using the World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment Form 1997. SPSS version 20 software was used for data analysis and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among 200 elderly examined, 69 (34.5% were male and 131 (65.5% were female. During probing, calculus was detected among 37.5% of people. The highest prevalence of LOA 4–5 mm was found among 40.5% of people. The prosthetic need was 83%, of which 20% required complete denture, 63% required partial denture. On applying Chi-square test, LOA score was found to be statistically significant between male and female (P = 0.015. Conclusion: The oral health status of the institutionalized elderly was found to be poor.

  19. [The relationship between depressive symptoms and family functioning in institutionalized elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Simone Camargo; dos Santos, Ariene Angelini; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between family functioning and depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of quantitative character. A total of 107 institutionalized elderly were assessed using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Geriatric Depression Scale (to track depressive symptoms) and the Family APGAR (to assess family functioning). The correlation coefficient of Pearson's, the chi-square test and the crude and adjusted logistic regression were used in the data analysis with a significance level of 5 %. The institutionalized elderly with depressive symptoms were predominantly women and in the age group of 80 years and older. Regarding family functioning, most elderly had high family dysfunctioning (57 %). Family dysfunctioning was higher among the elderly with depressive symptoms. There was a significant correlation between family functioning and depressive symptoms. The conclusion is that institutionalized elderly with dysfunctional families are more likely to have depressive symptoms.

  20. Institutionalization of evidence-informed practices in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotná, Gabriela; Dobbins, Maureen; Henderson, Joanna

    2012-11-21

    The effective and timely integration of the best available research evidence into healthcare practice has considerable potential to improve the quality of provided care. Knowledge translation (KT) approaches aim to develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to address the research-practice gap. However, most KT research has been directed toward implementation strategies that apply cognitive, behavioral, and, to a lesser extent, organizational theories. In this paper, we discuss the potential of institutional theory to inform KT-related research. Despite significant research, there is still much to learn about how to achieve KT within healthcare systems and practices. Institutional theory, focusing on the processes by which new ideas and concepts become accepted within their institutional environments, holds promise for advancing KT efforts and research. To propose new directions for future KT research, we present some of the main concepts of institutional theory and discuss their application to KT research by outlining how institutionalization of new practices can lead to their ongoing use in organizations. In addition, we discuss the circumstances under which institutionalized practices dissipate and give way to new insights and ideas that can lead to new, more effective practices. KT research informed by institutional theory can provide important insights into how knowledge becomes implemented, routinized, and accepted as institutionalized practices. Future KT research should employ both quantitative and qualitative research designs to examine the specifics of sustainability, institutionalization, and deinstitutionalization of practices to enhance our understanding of these complex constructs.

  1. Effects of a reminiscence program among institutionalized elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-Moral, Juan Carlos; Charco-Ruiz, Laura; Mayordomo-Rodríguez, Teresa; Sales-Galán, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Institutionalization during old age requires tremendous adaptability. Among the main consequences of the difficulty of adapting to the institutional context are prevalent depressive symptoms and low well-being. Reminiscence therapy has proven to be among the most effective at minimizing these outcomes. This study purpose was to investigate the usefulness of reminiscence intervention in an elderly, institutionalized sample. Following a group format, the intervention lasted eight sessions and compared a treatment group and a control group, using pre-post measures and a single-blind design. We predicted that reminiscence intervention would have a positive impact on depressive symptoms, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. Significant results were obtained, including a drop in depressive symptoms and improved self-esteem, satisfaction, and psychological well-being. We conclude that reminiscence intervention yielded positive effects in institutionalized, elderly participants.

  2. Iconic-Memory Processing of Unfamiliar Stimuli by Retarded and Nonretarded Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Henry A.; Mosley, James L.

    1979-01-01

    The iconic-memory processing of unfamiliar stimuli by 11 mentally retarded males (mean age 22 years) was undertaken employing a visually cued partial-report procedure and a visual masking procedure. (Author/CL)

  3. Idea Generation in Highly Institutionalized Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agoguè, Marine; Boxenbaum, Eva

    innovation. An important question facing innovation research is thus how actors can generate ideas that break with the field frame in highly institutionalized fields? To answer this question, we draw on insights into dual process modeling from cognitive sciences. Dual process modeling emphasizes...... the different nature of the conscious (deliberate) and subconscious (implicit) systems involved in ideation. We further elaborate on how these two systems relate to four streams of research that management scholars evoke to model microprocesses of generating new ideas, namely metaphors, conceptual blending......The early phase of innovation processes in highly institutionalized fields relies on the capabilities of actors to generate new ideas that break with the field frame. Informed by a dominant logic, a field frame shapes collective cognition and can thus prevent the generation of new ideas and block...

  4. Cluster Management Institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Leo; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    of how it was legitimized as a “ready-to-use” management model. Further, our account reveals how cluster management translated into considerably different local variants as it travelled into specific organizations. However, these processes have not occurred sequentially with cluster management first...... legitimized at the field level, then spread, and finally translated into action in the adopting organizations. Instead, we observed entangled field and organizational-level processes. Accordingly, we argue that cluster management institutionalization is most readily understood by simultaneously investigating...

  5. Institutionalization of Social Media in Large Danish Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Lars; Svejvig, Per

    2014-01-01

    of the first stages of institutionalization as well as it points to critical issues related to the progression of this process. The paper adds to the emerging literature on social media by an industry level longitudinal study of how organizational use of social media can be understood as a process......Although social media research has accelerated dramatically in the last few years, few studies have addressed organizational use of social media as a process of institutionalization at industry level and over a longer time period. Against this backdrop, we present the findings from an industry...

  6. The relationship between depressive symptoms and family functioning in institutionalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Camargo de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between family functioning and depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of quantitative character. A total of 107 institutionalized elderly were assessed using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Geriatric Depression Scale (to track depressive symptoms and the Family APGAR (to assess family functioning. The correlation coefficient of Pearson’s, the chi-square test and the crude and adjusted logistic regression were used in the data analysis with a significance level of 5 %. The institutionalized elderly with depressive symptoms were predominantly women and in the age group of 80 years and older. Regarding family functioning, most elderly had high family dysfunctioning (57 %. Family dysfunctioning was higher among the elderly with depressive symptoms. There was a significant correlation between family functioning and depressive symptoms. The conclusion is that institutionalized elderly with dysfunctional families are more likely to have depressive symptoms.

  7. Tinnea pedis and other dermatological diseases in mentally-retarded children Tiña pedis y otras entidades dermatológicas en un grupo de niños con retraso mental

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Muñoz; María E. Vargas; María C. Ortega; Marta Lucía Escobar de Villalobos

    1991-01-01

    A group of 133 institutionalized, mentally-retarded children, was evaluated as to the presence of dermatological lesions with special emphasis on tinnea pedis. Mycotic lesions were found in 18 cases; the most frequent one was tinnea pedis (14 Cases) due to T. mentagrophytes or E. floccosum. Other dermatological diseases were found, namely: pediculosis (12 cases), warts (11 cases), chronic eczemas (9 cases), prur...

  8. Characterization of the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisélia Santana Souza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize the current stage of the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities. METHODS This study is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines, a cross-sectional, exploratory, and evaluative study composed by an information survey in a representative sample of cities, stratified by Brazilian regions. We interviewed municipal secretaries of health, responsible for pharmaceutical services, and pharmacists responsible for the dispensing of medicines. The variables selected from the interviews were grouped into five dimensions that defined three stages of pharmaceutical services institutionalization: incipient (0%-34.0%, partial (35.0%-69.0%, and advanced (70.0%-100%, estimated based on the interviewees’ answers. Frequencies were estimated with 95% confidence intervals. For the statistical association analysis, the Chi-square test was applied, with significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS Our results show a partial and heterogeneous process of institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazil, and an advanced stage in formal structures, such as the municipal health plans and the existence of a standardized list of medicines. The analysed variables in the “organization, structure, and financing” dimension configured stages that range from partial to advanced. The management presented partial institutionalization, positively showing the existence of computerized system, but also disparate results regarding the autonomy in the management of financial resources. Indispensable items related to the structure expressed disparities between the regions, with statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION The study showed a partial and heterogeneous process of institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities, showing regional

  9. Metabolic studies in older mentally retarded patients: significance of metabolic testing and correlation with the clinical phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Wevers, R.A.; Trommelen, J.C.M.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Brunner, H.G.; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In 471 adult mentally retarded adult patients (mean age 46 years; 92.6% males) living in an institution for the mentally retarded, a clinical examination, cytogenetic and molecular studies were done. 306 patients were screened for metabolic disorders. In 7 additional patients a metabolic disorder

  10. Theorization and Translation in IT Institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mathiassen, Lars; Newell, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Although institutional theory has become a more dominant perspective in information systems research, studies have only paid scant attention to how field dynamics and organizational processes coevolve during information technology institutionalization. Against this backdrop, we present a new...

  11. Social communication difficulties and autism in previously institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, April R; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-02-01

    To determine the risk of difficulties with social communication and restricted/repetitive behaviors as well as the rate of autism in children institutionalized in early infancy and to assess the impact of a foster care intervention on ameliorating this risk. Children abandoned at birth and raised in institutions in Bucharest, Romania were randomly assigned to a care-as-usual group (institutional care, CAUG), or placed in family-centered foster care (FCG) as part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). At approximately 10 years of age, the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) was administered to caregivers of children in both groups as well as to parents of a typically developing community sample (Never-Institutionalized group [NIG]) residing in Bucharest, Romania. Children scoring ≥12 on the SCQ underwent clinical evaluation for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers of children with a history of institutionalization reported that these children had significantly more deviant behavior than never-institutionalized children on all subdomains of the SCQ (all p communication. Three of 60 CAUG children, 2 of 57 FCG children, and none of the NIG children received a formal ASD diagnosis. Early institutional rearing was associated with an increased risk of social communication difficulties and ASD. A family-centered foster care intervention improved social communication skills. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Predictors of institutionalization of elderly persons in dependency situation in Andalusia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Pulido, Sandra; Garrido Peña, Francisco; Reyes Alcázar, Víctor; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Raposo Triano, María Fernanda; Martínez Domene, Manuel; Alonso Trujillo, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Identifying preferences regarding type of care and risk factors for institutionalization of elderly persons in dependency situations in Andalusia. The data on 200,039 persons registered in the System for Autonomy and Dependency Care over the period 2007-2012 were analysed. The study population was described in terms of: age, dependency situation, preferences, support network and clinical factors at the time of inclusion in the study. Separate analysis was made for men and women. A logistic regression model was designed to determine the risk factors for institutionalization for each sex. 87,4% of women and 85,9% of men expressed their wish to receive care in their own home. The risk of institutionalization is three times higher among men than among women. Among women, the risks of institutionalization are: level of dependency, wishing to move into a residential care home, medium consistency and fragility of support network and being diagnosed with dementia. Among men, the risks are: wishing to move into a residential care home and low or medium consistency of support network. Care in the home is the preferred alternative for elderly persons in dependency situations. The risk of institutionalization is conditioned more by the preferences of the person and their family and the characteristics of the support network than by individual's clinical condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. [Evaluation of growth and development of institutionalized children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Caroline Magna Pessoa; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Mendonça, Larissa Bento de Araújo; Custódio, Ires Lopes; Matias, Erica Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the growth and development of institutionalized children from 0-6 years old. It had a descriptive, transversal and quantitative approach, and was held in a shelter from the Bureau of Labor and Social Development of the Government of the State of Ceará, in the months of March and April 2011. The sample comprised 44 children. It the sample prevailed male children (59.1%), aged 24 to 72 months (56.8%) and with time of sheltering more than one year (72.7%). It was found that the children were in the normal range of nutrition; however, 65.9% of children did not achieve at least one of the development milestones proposed by the Ministry of Health. The study suggests a reflection on how children living in shelters are being assisted by the health team, making it necessary follow up their growth and development, in order to intervene on the alterations.

  14. Oral lesions and dental status among institutionalized orphans in Yemen: A matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeq Ali Al-Maweri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs and dental caries and to evaluate oral health practices among institutionalized orphan-children in Sana′a city, Yemen. Subjects and Methods: A sample of 202 institutionalized male-orphan-children in the main orphanage in Sana′a city, were matched to 202 non-orphan schoolchildren. Clinical examination included assessment of OMLs based on standard international diagnostic criteria and evaluation of dental status using the Decayed/decayed, Missed/missed and Filled/filled (DMFT/dmft index according to World Health Organization recommendations. Demographic data and oral hygiene practices were obtained by interviewing each subject using special questionnaire form. Results: Majority of children were in the 12-15 year age group. Nine types of lesions were reported among orphans; the most common lesions were fissured tongue (24.3%, herpes labialis (7.9% and traumatic ulcers (2.5%. The occurrence of herpes labialis was found to be significantly higher in orphans than in controls (P < 0.01. The prevalence of dental caries was insignificantly lower among the orphans (84.7% compared with the non-orphans (89.61%; P = 0.136. The mean dmft score was significantly lower in orphans than in controls (2.28 vs. 3.82; P = 0.001. Conclusions: The institutionalized children in this orphanage had a high prevalence of OMLs but low prevalence of dental caries, though they revealed poor oral hygiene practices. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health and oral health practices of children living in orphanages.

  15. Study on institutionalization of risk-informed performance-based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M. G.; Hong, S. Y.; Seo, M. R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    In this study, for the institutionalization of risk informed and performance based regulation in Korea, the latest technical movements of overseas countries are examined and reviewed. And the issues that was found when license change petition using risk information was submitted in Korean regulatory body are reviewed. Based on these review, the applicable areas to domestic situation will be found and proposed. This study can contribute to setting up the proper direction for the institutionalization of risk informed and performance based regulation.

  16. Exploring the Institutionalization of Corporate Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Patrick; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    by drawing on the prominent management practice of corporate responsibility. Our paper contributes to the development of a general theory of decoupling and institutionalization by examining the boundary conditions under which organizations adopt ceremonially or implement substantively a policy. We discuss...

  17. Relation between functional mobility and dynapenia in institutionalized frail elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Marcelino, Elessandra; Maia, Késsia Cristina; Borges, Noé Gomes

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the relation between functional mobility and dynapenia in institutionalized frail elderly. Methods A descriptive, correlational study involving 26 institutionalized elderly men and women, mean age 82.3±6 years. The instruments employed were the Mini Mental State Examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Timed Up and Go test, a handgrip dynamometer and a portable dynamometer for large muscle groups (sho...

  18. Relation between functional mobility and dynapenia in institutionalized frail elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Marcelino, Elessandra; Maia, Késsia Cristina; Borges Junior, Noé Gomes

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the relation between functional mobility and dynapenia in institutionalized frail elderly. Methods A descriptive, correlational study involving 26 institutionalized elderly men and women, mean age 82.3±6 years. The instruments employed were the Mini Mental State Examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Timed Up and Go test, a handgrip dynamometer and a portable dynamometer for large muscle groups ...

  19. Tracheostomy Complications in Institutionalized Children with Long-term Tracheostomy and Ventilator Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Lyndy J; Weber, Brittany C; Cunningham, Tina D; Baldassari, Cristina M

    2016-04-01

    (1) To identify tracheostomy complications in institutionalized children with chronic tracheostomy. (2) To determine factors that predispose to development of tracheostomy complications in institutionalized children with chronic tracheostomy. Case series with chart review over 10 years. Tertiary children's hospital. Children were included if they underwent tracheostomy before 21 years of age and resided at a pediatric nursing facility. Most children were ventilator dependent and had severe comorbid medical conditions, including developmental delay and cerebral palsy. The number of tracheostomy complications and unplanned hospital admissions were recorded. Interventions for tracheostomy complications were also reviewed. Thirty-two institutionalized children with chronic tracheostomy were included. The mean age at time of tracheostomy was 5.4 years, with a mean duration of institutionalization of 9.1 years. Twenty-seven children (84%) experienced tracheostomy complications. The total number of complications was 79. The most common tracheostomy complications identified were peristomal granulation (n = 13) and suprastomal granulation (n = 12). Age at time of tracheostomy, duration of institutionalization, and ventilator dependence did not predict the likelihood of developing a complication. Of 32 patients, 20 were evaluated in the emergency room during the study, and there were 48 unplanned admissions for tracheostomy-related complications during the study. Forty-five urgent direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy procedures were performed in a total of 20 children with tracheostomy complications. Tracheostomy complications are common in institutionalized children with chronic tracheostomy and are challenging to manage. Further research is necessary to determine novel ways to reduce tracheostomy complications in this population. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  20. Acute effects of exergames on cognitive function of institutionalized older persons: a single-blinded, randomized and controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; da Silva Figueiredo, Luiz Felipe; Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo de Tarso; Abud, Erick Lohan Rodrigues; Braga, Ana Elisa Mendes Montalvão; Barca, Maria Lage; Engedal, Knut; Nascimento, Osvaldo José M; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Laks, Jerson

    2017-06-01

    Improvements on balance, gait and cognition are some of the benefits of exergames. Few studies have investigated the cognitive effects of exergames in institutionalized older persons. To assess the acute effect of a single session of exergames on cognition of institutionalized older persons. Nineteen institutionalized older persons were randomly allocated to Wii (WG, n = 10, 86 ± 7 year, two males) or control groups (CG, n = 9, 86 ± 5 year, one male). The WG performed six exercises with virtual reality, whereas CG performed six exercises without virtual reality. Verbal fluency test (VFT), digit span forward and digit span backward were used to evaluate semantic memory/executive function, short-term memory and work memory, respectively, before and after exergames and Δ post- to pre-session (absolute) and Δ % (relative) were calculated. Parametric (t independent test) and nonparametric (Mann-Whitney test) statistics and effect size were applied to tests for efficacy. VFT was statistically significant within WG (-3.07, df = 9, p = 0.013). We found no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05). Effect size between groups of Δ % (median = 21 %) showed moderate effect for WG (0.63). Our data show moderate improvement of semantic memory/executive function due to exergames session. It is possible that cognitive brain areas are activated during exergames, increasing clinical response. A single session of exergames showed no significant improvement in short-term memory, working memory and semantic memory/executive function. The effect size for verbal fluency was promising, and future studies on this issue should be developed. RBR-6rytw2.

  1. Institutionalizing Peer-Mediated Instruction and Interventions in Schools: Beyond "Train and Hope."

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Sears, Margaret E.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides guidelines for knowing when to institutionalize peer-mediated instruction and interventions (PMII), and generalization techniques familiar to special educators are linked specifically to institutionalization of PMII. Barriers and promoters of sustained PMII in schools are identified, with implications for how stakeholders…

  2. Comparison of prescription drug use between community-dwelling and institutionalized elderly in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnell, Kristina; Fastbom, Johan

    2012-09-01

    Most previous studies about drug use in the elderly population have either investigated drug use in institutions or in the community-dwelling setting. Hence, very few studies have compared drug use in institutionalized and community-dwelling elderly, maybe because of a lack of sufficiently large databases. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in drug use patterns between community-dwelling and institutionalized elderly, after adjustment for age, gender and number of other drugs (used as a proxy for overall co-morbidity). We analysed data from individuals aged ≥65 years who filled at least one drug prescription between July and September 2008 and were consequently registered in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (n = 1,347,564; 1,260,843 community-dwelling and 86,721 institutionalized elderly). A list of current prescriptions was constructed for every individual on the arbitrarily chosen date 30 September 2008. Outcome measures were the 20 most common drug classes and the 20 most common individual drugs. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate whether institutionalization was associated with use of these drugs, after adjustment for age, gender and number of other drugs. Institutionalized elderly were more likely than community-dwelling elderly to use antidepressants, laxatives, minor analgesics, opioids and hypnotics/sedatives, after adjustment for age, gender and number of other drugs. On the contrary, institutionalization was negatively associated with use of lipid modifying agents, angiotensin II antagonists, selective calcium channel blockers, β-blocking agents and ACE inhibitors, after adjustment for age, gender and number of other drugs. Our results indicate that institutionalized elderly are more likely than community-dwelling elderly to use psychotropics, analgesics and laxatives, but less likely to receive recommended cardiovascular drug therapy, which may indicate a need for implementation of evidence-based guidelines for

  3. Association of frailty in hospitalized and institutionalized elderly in the community-dwelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzele Cristina Coelho Fabrício-Wehbe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the association between frailty with hospitalization and institutionalization in a follow-up study of elderly residents. Method: the follow-up study was performed in 2008 and 2013 with elderly of both genders, aged 65 years and older who were living in the community-dwelling. The sampling procedure performed was probabilistic, with dual-stage clustering. In 2008, 515 elderly people were interviewed and, in 2013, 262. We used the socioeconomic and demographic data, self-reported morbidity, specific data of hospitalization and institutionalization. Frailty was measured by the Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS, and functional capacity through the Functional Independence Measure. Results: we found the mean gross EFS score was higher among resident elderly who were hospitalized and institutionalized and was statistically significant in both investigated years. Conclusion: the confirmation of association between frailty and hospitalization and institutionalization reinforces the importance of the subject, and highlights frailty as an important tool for risk estimates for these adverse events.

  4. The State of Alaska's early experience with institutionalization of health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Anderson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Many nations routinely include health impact assessments (HIA in public policy decisions. Institutionalization of HIA formally integrates health considerations into a governmental decision-making process. We describe an example of institutionalization in the United States through Alaska's early experience with institutionalization of HIA. Literature review . HIA arose from a series of health conferences in the 1970s that affirmed the importance of “health for all.” A number of key milestones eventually defined HIA as a unique field of impact assessment. There are several approaches to institutionalization, and one common approach in the United States is through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA. NEPA formed the basis for the earliest HIAs in Alaska. Program description . Early HIAs in Alaska led to conferences, working groups, a state guidance document and the institutionalization of a HIA program within the Department of Health and Social Services in 2010. A medical epidemiologist staffs the program, which utilizes contractors to meet rising demand for HIA. The HIA program has sustainable funding from the state budget and from the state's natural resource permitting process. The HIA document is the main deliverable, but the program performs other tasks, including fieldwork and technical reviews. The HIA program works closely with a host of collaborative partners. Conclusion . Alaska's institutionalized HIA program benefits from sustainable funding that promotes continuous quality improvement and involves the program in the entire life cycle of a development project. The program structure adapts well to variations in workflow and supports a host of quality control activities. Currently, the program focuses on HIAs for natural resource development projects.

  5. Reducing SMEs informal economy through institutionalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Lopez Lira Arjona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The informal sector has been growing throughout the last century in emerging economies. Particularly in Latin America, both a long-term instability in economic and political environments, and a continuous migration from rural to urban areas; have triggered the appearance of unregulated businesses and employments. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs operate informally in one or more business processes, in order to reduce costs and maximize profits. Leaving aside tax evasion and illegal labor, such SMEs often have low technology and an unskilled work force; which threatens its survival in highly competitive environments. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact of the Multi National Corporation (MNC and the Academia in the formalization of SMEs. This is aimed through a collaborative model for the institutionalization of operational and managerial knowledge within SMEs. Qualitative results indicate that improvements are triggered by a self-conscious awareness of the value derived from institutionalizing best business practices.

  6. Relation between functional mobility and dynapenia in institutionalized frail elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Marcelino, Elessandra; Maia, Késsia Cristina; Borges, Noé Gomes

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relation between functional mobility and dynapenia in institutionalized frail elderly. A descriptive, correlational study involving 26 institutionalized elderly men and women, mean age 82.3±6 years. The instruments employed were the Mini Mental State Examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Timed Up and Go test, a handgrip dynamometer and a portable dynamometer for large muscle groups (shoulder, elbow and hip flexors, knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors). Significant negative correlation between functional mobility levels assessed by the Timed Up and Go test and dynapenia was observed in all muscle groups evaluated, particularly in knee extensors (r -0.65). A significant negative correlation between muscle strength, particularly knee extensor strength, and functional mobility was found in institutionalized elderly. Data presented indicate that the higher the muscle strength, the shorter the execution time, and this could demonstrate better performance in this functional mobility test.

  7. Characterization of the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gisélia Santana; Costa, Ediná Alves; Barros, Rafael Damasceno de; Pereira, Marcelo Tavares; Barreto, Joslene Lacerda; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Álvares, Juliana; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Leite, Silvana Nair

    2017-11-13

    To characterize the current stage of the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities. This study is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), a cross-sectional, exploratory, and evaluative study composed by an information survey in a representative sample of cities, stratified by Brazilian regions. We interviewed municipal secretaries of health, responsible for pharmaceutical services, and pharmacists responsible for the dispensing of medicines. The variables selected from the interviews were grouped into five dimensions that defined three stages of pharmaceutical services institutionalization: incipient (0%-34.0%), partial (35.0%-69.0%), and advanced (70.0%-100%), estimated based on the interviewees' answers. Frequencies were estimated with 95% confidence intervals. For the statistical association analysis, the Chi-square test was applied, with significance level of pautonomy in the management of financial resources. Indispensable items related to the structure expressed disparities between the regions, with statistically significant differences. The study showed a partial and heterogeneous process of institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian cities, showing regional disparities. Variables related to the normative aspects of institutionalization were positively highlighted in all dimensions; however, it is necessary to conduct new studies to evaluate the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services' finalistic activities.

  8. Institutionalizing and sustaining social change in health systems: the case of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Jerald; Valadez, Joseph J

    2017-11-01

    The key to high impact health services is institutionalizing and sustaining programme evaluation. Uganda represents a success story in the use of a specific programme evaluation method: Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS). Institutionalization is defined by two C's: competent programme evaluators and control mechanisms that effectively use evaluation data to improve health services. Sustainability means continued training and funding for the evaluation approach. Social science literature that researches institutionalization has emphasized 'stability', whereas in global health, the issue is determining how to improve the impact of services by 'changing' programmes. In Uganda, we measured the extent of the institutionalization and sustainability of evaluating programmes that produce change in nine districts sampled to represent three largely rural regions and varying levels of effective health programmes. We used the proportion of mothers with children aged 0-11 months who delivered in a health facility as the principal indicator to measure programme effectiveness. Interviews and focus groups were conducted among directors, evaluation supervisors, data collectors in the district health offices, and informant interviews conducted individually at the central government level. Seven of the nine districts demonstrated a high level of institutionalization of evaluation. The two others had only conducted one round of programme evaluation. When we control for the availability of health facilities, we find that the degree of institutionalization is moderately related to the prevalence of the delivery of a baby in a health facility. Evaluation was institutionalized at the central government level. Sustainability existed at both levels. Several measures indicate that lessons from the nine district case studies may be relevant to the 74 districts that had at least two rounds of programme evaluation. We note that there is an association between the evaluation data being used

  9. Cognitive Changes among Institutionalized Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jose I.; Menacho, Inmaculada; Alcalde, Concepcion; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Aguilar, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of different cognitive training procedures in elderly people was studied. Two types of methods to train cognitive and memory functions were compared. One method was based on new technologies and the other one on pencil-and-paper activities. Thirty-six elderly institutionalized people aged 68-94 were trained. Quantitative and memory…

  10. Does cognitive/physical screening in an outpatient setting predict institutionalization after hip fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongisto, Markus T; Nuotio, Maria; Luukkaala, Tiina; Väistö, Olli; Pihlajamäki, Harri K

    2016-10-22

    Institutionalization after hip fracture is a socio-economical burden. We examined the predictive value of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) for institutionalization after hip fracture to identify patients at risk for institutionalization. Fragility hip fracture patients ≥65 years of age (n = 584) were comprehensively examined at a geriatric outpatient clinic 4 to 6 months after surgery and followed 1 year postoperatively. A telephone interview with a structured inquiry was performed at 1, 4, and 12 months after hip fracture. Age-adjusted univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that IADL and MMSE scores measured at the outpatient clinic were significantly associated with living arrangements 1 year after hip fracture. Multivariate logistic regression analysis established that institutionalization 1 year after hip fracture was significantly predicted by institutionalization at 4 months (odds ratio [OR] 16.26, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 7.37-35.86), IADL <5 (OR 12.96, 95 % CI 1.62-103.9), and MMSE <20 (OR 4.19, 95 % CI 1.82-9.66). A cut-off value of 5 was established for IADL with 100 % (95 % CI 96 %-100 %) sensitivity and 38 % (95 % CI 33 %-43 %) specificity and for MMSE, a cut-off value of 20 had 83 % (95 % CI 74 %-91 %) sensitivity and 65 % (95 % CI 60 %-70 %) specificity for institutionalization. During the time period from 4 to 12 months, 66 (11 %) patients changed living arrangements, and 36 (55 %) of these patients required more supportive accommodations. IADL and MMSE scores obtained 4 to 6 months after hospital discharge may be applicable for predicting institutionalization among fragility hip fracture patients ≥65 years of age at 1 year after hip fracture. An IADL score of ≥5 predicted the ability to remain in the community. Changes in living arrangements also often occur after 4 months.

  11. The Institutionalization of Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayolle, Alain; Landström, Hans; Gartner, Bill

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we briefly identify three main challenges/issues that should be taken into consideration in the institutionalization of entrepreneurship research: (1) recognizing the complexity of the phenomenon under study; (2) producing interesting, relevant and useful research results for all...... stakeholders; and (3) developing a critical posture in research. Following the discussion of these challenges/issues we introduce the five contributions to the Special Issue that, in different ways, problematize and challenge mainstream research and approaches. These articles use ‘dissensus discourses’, apply...

  12. Fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Rajmohan; Khaleel, Asfia; Sankar, Nideesh; Kumar, Manoj; Kazhungil, Firoz; Raghuram, Thazhe Mangool

    2014-04-01

    Fetishistic transvestism is a disorder of sexual preference associated with fantasies and sexual urges to dress in opposite gender clothing as a means of arousal and as an adjunct to masturbation and coitus. The disorder has been reported in people with learning disabilities. The disorder has been reported in a young male with dull normal intelligence. Transvestism though has been described in schizophrenia and psychosis and fetishism has been described in the course of simple schizophrenia, there are no reports of fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis. A case of fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis with treatment and relevant review of literature is reported.

  13. Prevalence and treatment of pain in non-institutionalized very old population: transversal study at national level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Barrón, César; Narvaiza, Leire; Dapena, María D; Macho, Oscar; Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    In Europe, there is no conclusive data at national level about pain prevalence in non-institutionalized very old population. In USA, it has recently been reported a high prevalence (56 %); however, this data can not be extrapolated to other regions because the known influence of geographical and ethnic differences. Furthermore there are few data on use of treatments for pain in this population. To explore prevalence and considered pharmacological treatments for pain in this population. Transversal study on 551 participants aged 80 or more living in Spain (non-institutionalized). Probabilistic multistage sampling was carried out, stratified by sex and place of residence. All Spanish regions were considered for recruitment process. Pain (last 4 weeks), intensity (Face Pain Scale), localization and pharmacological treatments were evaluated by in-person interviews. Pain's prevalence was 52.5 % (CI 95 % 48.28-56.80) and 38.5 % experienced pain of at least moderate intensity. The most frequently involved body regions were lower limbs (26.6 %) and dorso-lumbar region (21.9 %). Only 40 % of participants with pain and 43.2 % with moderate or severe pain used analgesics, and paracetamol was less frequently used than non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at any pain intensity. Age was not associated with higher prevalence [odds ratios 0.97 (CI 95 % 0.93-1.02) in females and 0.99 (CI 95 % 0.92-1.06) in males]. The prevalence of pain in non-institutionalized very old people is high. Pain is probably being undertreated, even moderate or severe pain. Guideline's recommendations are probably not being considered to select the analgesic therapy.

  14. Quality of life in institutionalized elderly undergoing an active aging program

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Carlos Pires; Rebelo, Flávia Marisa Ramalho; Anes, Eugénia

    2016-01-01

    Living with quality is a growing concern of the old population. There is an increasing institutionalization of the elderly, and it is in this context that active aging programs assume relevance, allowing the elderly the contact with experiences that allow them to age with quality of life, by maintaining their autonomy and promoting their physical, mental and emotional well-being. This study aims to assess the quality of life of institutionalized elderly undergoing to an active aging program. ...

  15. Quality of life in institutionalized elderly undergoing an active aging program

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Carlos; Anes, Eugénia; Rebelo, Flávia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Living with quality is a growing concern of the old population. There is an increasing institutionalization of the elderly, and it is in this context that active aging programs assume relevance, allowing the elderly the contact with experiences that allow them to age with quality of life, by maintaining their autonomy and promoting their physical, mental and emotional well-being. Objective: To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of institutionalized elderly undergoing to an ac...

  16. Spatial practices and the institutionalization of water sanitation services in southern metropolises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putri, Prathiwi Widyatmi; Moulaert, Frank

    2017-01-01

    the city as a multi-scalar socio-ecological system in which different forms of human–water relations and their institutionalization are found. Particular attention is given to informality in this system and how it interacts with ‘regular’ state and corporate market sector practices. Within...... these interactive dynamics, informality is not only understood as a survival strategy but also as a creative practice connecting various social-ecological opportunities, traditional and contemporary technologies and modes of institutionalization to each other. Ongoing institutionalization processes in the formal...... and informal economy, as well as between them, are analysed. Opportunities to integrate and regularize the diverse water sanitation services into community-led closed water–wastewater cycles capable of ensuring public health and sustaining a bio-hydrological balance at the local level are explored....

  17. The Effects of Early Experience on Face Recognition: An Event-Related Potential Study of Institutionalized Children in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Westerlund, Alissa; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Data are reported from 3 groups of children residing in Bucharest, Romania. Face recognition in currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized, and never-institutionalized children was assessed at 3 time points: preintervention (n = 121), 30 months of age (n = 99), and 42 months of age (n = 77). Children watched photographs of caregiver…

  18. [The experience of adult Korean children caring for parents institutionalized with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Suhye; Tae, Young Sook

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the experience of adult Korean children who are caregivers for parents institutionalized with dementia. Participants were fourteen adult children caregivers of elders institutionalized with dementia. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews with individual participants from August to November, 2012. Theoretical sampling was used to the point of theoretical saturation. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's Grounded Theory Method. From open coding, 67 concepts, 29 sub-categories, and 14 categories were identified. Analysis revealed that the core category of the experience of adult children caring for their parents institutionalized with dementia was 'enduring the role of a prop' consisting of four phases: initial turmoil, exploration, role adjustment, and acclimation. To manage the role of a prop, participants utilized various action/interactional strategies such as overcoming the unfamiliarity, overseeing the nursing home care, and counterbalancing the caring roles. As a result, participants experienced ambivalence towards the existence of parents with dementia, changes in family relationships, altered viewpoint towards nursing homes, and restructuring of life. In-depth understanding of the experience will guide nurses to promote effective interventions in order to better support the Korean family caregivers of parents institutionalized with dementia.

  19. Factors Influencing Title VII Bilingual Program Institutionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gerald R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study of the primary restraining and driving forces that influence Title VII bilingual education programs found the external environment, the local community, to be the main factor influencing institutionalization and self-renewal. The internal environment--the local school, and the local school's organization or central office, school board,…

  20. How Does Ethics Institutionalization Reduce Academic Cheating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Ifeoluwa; Garner, Bart; Ammeter, Anthony; Krey, Nina; Beu Ammeter, Danielle; Schafer, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Extant research on academic cheating primarily focuses on the impact of honor codes on academic cheating. However, the influence of ethics institutionalization is curiously missing in past research. The authors developed and validated a structural equations model in the R programming language to examine the impact of formal (explicit) and informal…

  1. Institutionalizing Gender and Women's Rights and Citizenship at ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Institutionalizing Gender and Women's Rights and Citizenship at Cheikh Anta Diop ... The results will provide an information base for other teaching and research ... aux problèmes auxquels l'Inde est confrontée, comme le stress thermique, ...

  2. Institutionalized Technological Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Hansen, Hans Henrik; Stissing Jensen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    , and they become dependent of national and other institutional foresights. Since 2000 the Danish ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation has tendered nine technology foresights. These could be used by SMEs as supplementary to internal decision making. One also expects to see these foresights placed firmly...... in the national strategy of coordinating and strengthening policy on research, technology and innovation in one superministry. The paper evaluates the methods, impact and role in policy making of these technological foresights. The particular role of institutionalized public foresight in relation to enterprise......Technology and knowledge monitoring is a continual challenge especially for small and medium size enterprises. Technological foresight seemingly offers important parts of this crucial monitoring. The SMEs rarely possess sufficient resources to do systematic foresights, or forecasts however...

  3. Feminisms and Challenges to Institutionalized Philosophy of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Eric Dickman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For my invited contribution to this special issue of Religions on “Feminisms and the Study of ‘Religions,’” I focus on philosophy of religion and contestations over its relevance to the academic field of Religious Studies. I amplify some feminist philosophers’ voices—especially Pamela Sue Anderson—in corroboration with recent calls from Religious Studies scholars to diversify philosophy of religions in the direction of locating it properly within the current state of Religious Studies. I want to do this by thinking through two proposals in productive tension: first, any philosophy of religions worthy of the name is intrinsically feminist; second, any philosophy of religions worthy of the name is intrinsically traditional. I want to use the productive tension between these two to illuminate ways calls for broadening the field can be enhanced when such calls are seen as both feminist and traditional. I proceed as follows. First, I note three instances of explicitly feminist work in philosophy of religions that do not suffer from the same narrowness as so-called “traditional” philosophy of religion. Religious Studies critics of philosophy of religion overstate the case in claiming feminist philosophy of religion is too narrow. Second, I develop a useful distinction between the concepts of “tradition” and “institution” to locate forces of oppression more precisely in dynamics of institutionalization so that we might rehabilitate tradition as a resource for combating institutionalized oppressiveness. I do this in response to the hegemony of current philosophers of religion who claim to speak about “the traditional god.” And third, I briefly coordinate four topics in religions from diverse feminist perspectives to help refine paths of inquiry for future philosophy of religions that is both feminist and traditional. My hope is that these clarify a philosophy of religions renewed through feminisms—moving from fringe to

  4. DeFF programområdet Nye Institutioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Mai

    2009-01-01

    Tietgenskolen i Odense dannede den 24. oktober 2008 rammen om den workshop Nye Institutioner afholdt som led i udviklingen af en kommunikationsstrategi. Dagens tema var: Tidens udfordringer–nye roller og relationer for bibliotek og uddannelse, og formålet var at kaste lys over følgende spørgsmål...

  5. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone excess leads to fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Crespi, Erica J; Doop, Douglas D; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S; Yu, Sunkyung; Brown, Morton B; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2004-02-01

    Alterations in the maternal endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic environment disrupt the developmental trajectory of the fetus, leading to adult diseases. Female offspring of rats, subhuman primates, and sheep treated prenatally with testosterone (T) develop reproductive/metabolic defects during adult life similar to those that occur after intrauterine growth retardation. In the present study we determined whether prenatal T treatment produces growth-retarded offspring. Cottonseed oil or T propionate (100 mg, im) was administered twice weekly to pregnant sheep between 30-90 d gestation (term = 147 d; cottonseed oil, n = 16; prenatal T, n = 32). Newborn weight and body dimensions were measured the day after birth, and postnatal weight gain was monitored for 4 months in all females and in a subset of males. Consistent with its action, prenatal T treatment produced females and males with greater anogenital distances relative to controls. Prenatal T treatment reduced body weights and heights of newborns from both sexes and chest circumference of females. Prenatally T-treated females, but not males, exhibited catch-up growth during 2-4 months of postnatal life. Plasma IGF-binding protein-1 and IGF-binding protein-2, but not IGF-I, levels of prenatally T-treated females were elevated in the first month of life, a period when the prenatally T-treated females were not exhibiting catch-up growth. This is suggestive of reduced IGF availability and potential contribution to growth retardation. These findings support the concept that fetal growth retardation and postnatal catch-up growth, early markers of future adult diseases, can also be programmed by prenatal exposure to excess sex steroids.

  6. Predictors of Desire to Institutionalization in Dementia Caregivers From a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Yohannan, Sherin; Thirumoorthy, A; Sivakumar, Palanimuthu Thangaraju

    2017-08-01

    Older adults with dementia have higher rates of institutionalization than those without dementia. Desire to institutionalization (DTI) is an important factor influencing the actual institutionalization but is less well studied. This cross-sectional study examines the DTI with the scale of same name developed by Morycz, in 1985, in a sample of 50 caregivers of patients with dementia in a tertiary clinical care setting in a developing country. Caregiver burden associated with personal strain (by factor analyzed Zarit Burden Interview scale), and stress perceived out of caregiving (by Perceived Stress Scale) predicted higher DTI. Besides, those who were married had lower DTI scores. The factors which didn't affect DTI were total caregiver burden, family and social support, age of patient and caregiver, education of caregiver, severity and duration of dementia, and treatment duration. These results were different from those of developed country-based DTI studies and may indicate sociocultural differences.

  7. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  8. The Avahan Transition: Effects of Transition Readiness on Program Institutionalization and Sustained Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ozawa

    Full Text Available With declines in development assistance for health and growing interest in country ownership, donors are increasingly faced with the task of transitioning health programs to local actors towards a path to sustainability. Yet there is little available guidance on how to measure and evaluate the success of a transition and its subsequent effects. This study assesses the transition of the Avahan HIV/AIDS prevention program in India to investigate how preparations for transition affected continuation of program activities post-transition.Two rounds of two surveys were conducted and supplemented by data from government and Avahan Computerized Management Information Systems (CMIS. Exploratory factor analysis was used to develop two measures: 1 transition readiness pre-transition, and 2 institutionalization (i.e. integration of initial program systems into organizational procedures and behaviors post-transition. A fixed effects model was built to examine changes in key program delivery outcomes over time. An ordinary least square regression was used to assess the relationship between transition readiness and sustainability of service outcomes both directly, and indirectly through institutionalization.Transition readiness data revealed 3 factors (capacity, alignment and communication, on a 15-item scale with adequate internal consistency (alpha 0.73. Institutionalization was modeled as a unidimensional construct, and a 12-item scale demonstrated moderate internal consistency (alpha 0.60. Coverage of key populations and condom distribution were sustained compared to pre-transition levels (p<0.01. Transition readiness, but not institutionalization, predicted sustained outcomes post-transition. Transition readiness did not necessarily lead to institutionalization of key program elements one year after transition.Greater preparedness prior to transition is important to achieve better service delivery outcomes post-transition. This paper illustrates a

  9. Inhibitory Control and Working Memory in Post-Institutionalized Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.; Wright, Amanda J.; Luna, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitory control and working memory were examined in post-institutionalized (PI) children adopted into United States families from Russian institutions. The PI sample originated from institutions that were less severely depriving than those represented in previous studies and approximated the level of psychosocial deprivation, which is characterized by adequate physical resources but a lack of consistent and responsive caregiving. PI children (N=75; 29 male) ranged in age from 8–17 years (M=12.97; SD=3.03) and were grouped according to whether they were adopted after 14 months or before 9 months. A non-adopted comparison group (N=133; 65 male) ranged in age from 8–17 years (M=12.26; SD=2.75). PI children adopted after 14 months of age displayed poorer performance on the stop-signal and spatial span tasks relative to PI children adopted before 9 months of age after controlling for age at assessment. The two PI groups did not differ in their performance on a spatial self-ordered search task. Older-adopted PI children also showed poorer spatial span task performance compared to non-adopted children, but younger-adopted PI children did not. Task performance was significantly associated with parent-rated hyperactive-impulsive behavior in everyday contexts. These findings suggest that exposure to prolonged early institutional deprivation may be linked with inhibitory control and working memory difficulties years after adoption. PMID:23519375

  10. A Case of Male Goltz Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaswati Ghoshal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a boy with a clinical diagnosis of Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia, a rare genodermatosis characterized by widespread dysplasia of mesodermal and ectodermal tissues. A 9-year-old male patient with Goltz syndrome presented with typical skin lesions along with progressive dimness of vision and mental retardation since birth. It is inherited in an X-linked dominant fashion and is normally lethal in male patients, and so very few male patients, like the index case, have been reported.

  11. The Role of Visual Communication in the Process of Institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Jancsary, Dennis; Boxenbaum, Eva

    How does visual communication contribute to the emergence and consolidation of new institutions? Previous research on institutionalization has primarily focused on verbal text and neglected its interaction with visual forms of communication. We propose that a more thorough and systematic engagement...... of unique affordances (i.e., particular opportunities for meaning construction) of visual communication. First, we argue that the visual mode has certain ‘constitutive features’ that enable affordances different from those of verbal text. Second, we systematically discuss a set of affordances of visual...... communication and how it may extend, speed up, or strengthen the effect of verbal communication. Essentially, we argue that visual communication plays a crucial role in shaping the trajectory of institutionalization....

  12. Long-Term Adaptation to Institutionalization in Dementia Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Pot, Anne Margriet; Zarit, Steven H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Longitudinal research in dementia has acknowledged the importance of transitions during the course of family caregiving. However, long-term adaptation to institutionalization has received little attention. This study attempts to describe caregivers' adaptation (changes in stress, well-being, and psychosocial resources) to placement up to…

  13. Prader-Willi Syndrome in Two Institutionalized Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jeri J.

    1988-01-01

    Two case reports are presented of institutionalized women who were diagnosed as having Prader-Willi syndrome at the ages of 54 and 69. Implications are discussed for management of such persons and for program planning/funding for a much longer life expectancy than earlier realized. (Author/JDD)

  14. Seasonal Variation in Mortality, Medical Care Expenditure and Institutionalization in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolden, Herbert Jan Albert; Rohling, Jos Hermanus Theodoor; van Bodegom, David

    2015-01-01

    . It is therefore important to investigate the impact of the seasons on MCE both mediated and unmediated by mortality. METHODS: Data on mortality, MCE and institutionalization from people aged 65 and older in a region in the Netherlands from July 2007 through 2010 were retrieved from a regional health care insurer...... in mortality is similar for both institutionalized and community-dwelling elderly. Policy-makers, epidemiologists and health economists are urged to acknowledge and include the impact of the seasons in future policy and research....

  15. A multicomponent exercise program for institutionalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justine, Maria; Hamid, Tengku Aizan

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effects of a multicomponent exercise program on depression and quality of life in institutionalized older adults. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were recruited from a publicly funded shelter home in Seremban, Negeri Sembilan Malaysia. The experimental group consisted of 23 volunteers 60 or older who performed 60 minutes of supervised exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The control group consisted of 20 volunteers who continued with a sedentary lifestyle. At 12 weeks, the exercise group demonstrated an improvement in quality of life by 10.74% (p > 0.05) but not depression (-1.6%, p > 0.05). The control group demonstrated a decrease in both quality of life by 11.26% (p > 0.05) and level of depression by 17.7% (p > 0.05). This study suggests a multicomponent exercise program is a feasible intervention to improve quality of life in institutionalized older adults. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. COLOUR LEARNING IN RETARDED CHILDREN*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COLOUR LEARNING IN RETARDED CHILDREN* !\\'fRS E. K~SEBOOM, Principal, ADS. LEVIN, M.B., M.R.C.P., D.C.H., Hon. Medical Officer, Hamlet B School for. Retarded Children, Johannesburg. '... silly children, with no understanding .. -'. Jeremiah 4:22. Tt has been observed' that mentally retarded children have.

  17. Research on flame retardation of wool fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Ichiro; Ametani, Kazuo; Sawai, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    Flame retardant, vinyl phosphonate oligomer, was uniformly impregnated in wool fibers, and by irradiating low energy electron beam or cobalt-60 gamma ray, the flame retardation of fabrics was attempted, as the results, the following knowledges were obtained. At the rate of sticking of flame retardant lower than that in cotton fabrics, sufficient flame retarding property can be given. The flame retarding property withstands 30 times of washing. The lowering of strength due to the processing hardly arose. For the flame retardation, gamma-ray was more effective than electron beam. Since the accidents of burning clothes have occurred frequently, their flame retardation has been demanded. So far the flame retardation of cotton fabrics has been advanced, but this time the research on the flame retardation of wool fabrics was carried out by the same method. The experimental method is explained. As for the performance of the processed fabrics, the rate of sticking of the flame retardant, the efficiency of utilization, the flame retarding property, the endurance in washing and the tensile and tearing strength were examined. As the oxygen index was higher, the flame retarding property was higher, and in the case of the index being more than 27, the flame retarding property is sufficient, that is, the rate of sticking of 6% in serge and 5% in muslin. (K.I.)

  18. Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of cotton textiles based on UV-curable flame retardant coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Weiyi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Jie, Ganxin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Adaptability for Industrial Products, China National Electric Apparatus Research Institute, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Song, Lei; Hu, Shuang; Lv, Xiaoqi; Wang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2011-01-20

    The flame retardant coatings were prepared through UV-curable technique using tri(acryloyloxyethyl) phosphate (TAEP) and triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA). Results from FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that flame retardant coatings were successfully coated onto the surface of cotton fabrics. The flame retardancy of the treated fabrics was studied by Micro-scale Combustion Calorimeter (MCC) and limited oxygen index (LOI). The cottons coated flame retardant coatings had the lower peak heat release rate (PHRR), heat release capacity (HRC), total heat of combustion (THC) and higher LOI value compared with untreated cotton. The results from TGA test showed that the flame retardant coatings lowered the decomposition temperature of treated fabric. The thermal decomposition of cottons was monitored by real time FTIR analysis and thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR). The enhanced flame retardant action might be caused by thermal decomposition of TAEP structure, producing acidic intermediates, which could react with fabrics to alter its thermal decomposition process.

  19. Growth retardation and functional disability in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.; Zammurrad, S.; Rasheed, U.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of growth retardation and functional disability in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out at the Department of Rheumatology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad from March 2016 to December 2016. 92 patients with JIA were included in the study. Height and weight of each patient was recorded and BMI calculated. Functional Disability was determined by calculating the CHAQ Score, while disease activity was estimated through JADAS 27 score. Growth Retardation was defined as height, weight and/or BMI below the 3rd centile according to the CDC growth charts. A cut off of ?1 for CHAQ Score was used to define severe functional disability. Results: Out of 92 patients, there were 47 male (51.1%) and 45 (48.9%) females. Height, weight and BMI below 3rd centile was observed in 30(32.6%), 49(53.3%) and 41(44.6%) patients, respectively. The overall frequency of growth retardation was 64.1% (n=59) and severe functional disability (CHAQ Score ?1) was seen in 32.6% (n=30) of patients. Conclusions: Growth retardation was seen in more than half of patients with JIA and a significant proportion had severe functional disability. Severe functional disability was seen only in patients with active disease. (author)

  20. PPM-X: A new X-linked mental retardation syndrome with psychosis, pyramidal signs, and macroorchidism maps to Xq28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, S.; Splitt, M.; Edney, S. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    We report a three-generation family manifesting a previously undescribed X-linked mental retardation syndrome. Four of the six moderately retarded males have had episodes of manic-depressive psychosis. The phenotype also includes pyramidal signs, Parkinsonian features, and macroorchidism, but there are no characteristic dysmorphic facial features. Affected males do not show fragile sites at distal Xq on cytogenetic analysis, nor do they have expansions of the CGG repeats at the FRAXA, FRAXE, or FRAXF loci. Linkage analyses were undertaken, and a maximal LOD score of 3.311 at {theta} = .0 was observed with the microsatellite marker DXS1123 in Xq28. A recombination was detected in one of the affected males with DXS1691 (Xq28), which gives the proximal boundary of the localization. No distal recombination has been detected at any of the loci tested. 31 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Plasma zinc in institutionalized elderly individuals: Relation with immune and cardiometabolic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Márcia Cristina; de Oliveira, Larissa Praça; de Araújo Cabral, Natalia Louise; de Sousa, Sara Estéfani Soares; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura; de Oliveira Lyra, Clélia; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Sena-Evangelista, Karine Cavalcanti Mauricio; de Fatima Campos Pedrosa, Lucia

    2018-04-24

    Changes in zinc metabolism caused by aging and the institutionalization process may contribute to zinc deficiency in elderly individuals. Hypozincemia results in changes in glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory profiles. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma zinc concentrations and their relationships with sociodemographic, dietary, inflammatory, and cardiometabolic biomarkers in institutionalized elderly individuals. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 255 elderly adults living in nursing homes. The associations between plasma zinc and dietary zinc intake, sociodemographic indicators, and glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated. Independent variables were analyzed according to quartiles of plasma zinc concentrations (Q1: 93.7 μg/dL). The relationship between plasma zinc concentrations and predictor variables was also tested. In Q1, higher concentrations of the following variables were observed, compared with those in other quartiles: total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c; Q1 > Q2, Q3, Q4; all p  Q3, Q4; all p  Q3, Q4; p = 0.024 and p = 0.010, respectively); tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (Q1 > Q3, p = 0.003). A significant reduction in plasma zinc concentrations was observed with increasing age-adjusted institutionalization time (Δ = - 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.18 to -0.01). The concentrations of total cholesterol (Δ = - 0.19; 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.15), LDL-c (Δ = - 0.19; 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.15), triglycerides (Δ = - 0.11; 95% CI: -0.16 to -0.06), IL-6 (Δ = - 1.41; 95% CI: -2.64 to -0.18), and TNF-α (Δ = - 1.04; 95% CI: -1.71 to -0.36) were also significantly increased. In conclusion, decreased plasma zinc concentrations were associated with longer institutionalization time and worse lipid and inflammatory profiles in elderly institutionalized individuals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. The process of institutionalization of hygiene: the State, healt and hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Gutiérrez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to set out the process by which national elites made major efforts to the hygiene apparatus in Colombia a responsibility of the national state. The motivations behind this were a mix of racial, medical and social reasons. During this period, Colombian doctors, thanks to a racial ideology, built a pro-hygiene narrative in which they argued for the importance of institutionalizing the hygiene apparatus. The paper’s analysis is based upon legislation, reports to the National Congress and medical conferences. The sources have been studied from the perspective of discourse analysis. Key words: hygienism, institutionalization, racial theories. I

  3. Deepening the Institutionalization of Service-Learning: The Added Value of Assessing the Social Return of Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton-Nichols, Kathleen; Hatcher, Julie; Cecil, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to institutionalize service-learning are well documented (Furco 1996; Holland, 2000). Using Kecskes (2009) Community-Engaged Department Rubric we evaluated service-learning institutionalization within a school at a metropolitan campus. As a result, we propose adding an additional dimension, social return on investment. This added…

  4. Degree of cognitive impairment of older adults institutionalized in two homes for the elderly in the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga-Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine del Consuelo Camargo Hernández

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive impairment is one of the most frequent occurring problems in the older adult population as a result of ageing. Objective: To determine the degree of cognitive impairment of older adults institutionalized in two homes for the elderly in the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga, Santander in Colombia. Materials and methods: A quantitative study was made by using a cross-sectional descriptive design with a population of 165 and a sample of 60 older adults from two homes for the elderly, whose inclusion criteria were: age between 65 to 95 or more and presence or absence of chronic pathology. A non-probabilistic sampling was used for convenience, and the instrument MMSE (Mini-Mental cognitive exam was applied. Results: The older adult population who participated in the study is between the ages of 75 to 94. Most of them were male, had a primary school level, had family contact and the time for institutionalization was 1 to 5 years. Conclusions: 41.7% of older adults studied showed severe cognitive impairment and require nursing interventions focused on cognitive therapy.

  5. Durability of Effects of Group Counseling with Institutionalized Delinquent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfering, David L.

    1973-01-01

    The current study is a one-year follow-up of an earlier report that group counseling with institutionalized delinquent females resulted in significant gains in the connotative meanings of several concepts. (Author)

  6. Process of Institutionalization of Azerbaijan-Israeli Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E A Yakimova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells upon the process of formation and work peculiarities of the key structures of the Azerbaijani-Israeli cooperation. The author pinpoints achievements in the institutionalization of economic contacts, the main of which is the creation of a bilateral chamber of commerce. However the interaction potential is not fully exploited due to the absence of the Azerbaijani embassy in Israel.

  7. Filipino Arts among Elders in Institutionalized Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Satuito, James Cyril B.; Satumba, Miko Anne E.; Segui, Diego Rey A.; Serquina, Faith Evelyn C.; Serrano, Lawrence Jan P.; Sevilla, Madelyn D.

    2011-01-01

    The use of traditional art in recreational therapies is unexplored. This paper, thus, attempts to surface the unique power of traditional Filipino arts (TFA) as synergizing lens in capturing the individual and the collective experiences of a select group of Filipino elderly in an institutionalized care setting relative to their feelings of…

  8. Local Equilibrium and Retardation Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2018-01-01

    In modeling solute transport with mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT), it is common to use an advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with a retardation factor, or retarded ADE. This is commonly referred to as making the local equilibrium assumption (LEA). Assuming local equilibrium, Eulerian textbook treatments derive the retarded ADE, ostensibly exactly. However, other authors have presented rigorous mathematical derivations of the dispersive effect of MIMT, applicable even in the case of arbitrarily fast mass transfer. We resolve the apparent contradiction between these seemingly exact derivations by adopting a Lagrangian point of view. We show that local equilibrium constrains the expected time immobile, whereas the retarded ADE actually embeds a stronger, nonphysical, constraint: that all particles spend the same amount of every time increment immobile. Eulerian derivations of the retarded ADE thus silently commit the gambler's fallacy, leading them to ignore dispersion due to mass transfer that is correctly modeled by other approaches. We then present a particle tracking simulation illustrating how poor an approximation the retarded ADE may be, even when mobile and immobile plumes are continually near local equilibrium. We note that classic "LEA" (actually, retarded ADE validity) criteria test for insignificance of MIMT-driven dispersion relative to hydrodynamic dispersion, rather than for local equilibrium. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. A clinical study of mentally retarded children with fragile X syndrome inSaudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Husain, M.; Salih, Mustafa A.M.; Zaki, Osama K.; Al-Othman, L.; Al-Nasser, Mohammed N.

    2000-01-01

    Studies on fragile X syndrome are scarce in Saudi Arabia and othercountries of the Arabian Peninsula. The few studies previously done haveeither been in the form of case reports or those performed oninstitutionalized mentally retarded patients. The aim of this study was todetermine the prevalence of fragile X syndrome among cases with mentalretardation who have been referred to the pediatric neurology clinics of KingKhalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh. Cytogenetic studies wereperformed in 94 cases that were referred to the pediatric neurology clinicsof KKUH because of mental retardation and/or delayed milestones ofdevelopment, from July 1995 to December 1997. Six male probands (6.4%) showedthe classic fragile X chromosome and another six (including a four year oldgirl) were detected, following extension of the cytogenetic studies to all 32first-degree relatives. Affection of more than one sibling was ascertained infour families. One family had four brothers with fragile X syndrome, whereasanother formed part of a large kindred with twelve males and five females whowere mentally retarded. A clinical, physical and psychological screeningchecklist was applied to the eleven affected males. Large testicular size,long face and short attention span were the most frequent features and eachwas detected in nine patients (82%). Pes planus and history of delayed speechwere found in eight patients (73%). The study showed that the fragile Xsyndrome clinical screening checklist has been applied in other populationsmight equally valuable and applicable among the population of Saudi Arabia.However, the presence of pale blue eyes can be excluded and more weight givento positive family history of mental to the most common clinical diagnosticfeatures of fragile X syndrome. (author)

  10. Institutionalization of Technology Transfer Organizations in Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Han; Pinheiro, Rómulo

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of in-depth studies on how technology transfer organizations (TTOs) are organized and developed. This paper examines the evolution/institutionalization of TTOs in Tsinghua University (TU), as a microcosm of the development of TTOs in Chinese universities. It explores two issues in particular: what kinds of TTOs have been developed…

  11. X-linked mental retardation with thin habitus, osteoporosis, and kyphoscoliosis: Linkage to Xp21.3-p22.12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, J.F.; Lubs, H. [Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Schwartz, C. [Greenwood Genetic Center, SC (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-12

    We reevaluated a family previously described as having nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) by Snyder and Robinson (MINI 309583). Clinical and DNA studies were conducted on 17 relatives, including 6 males with mild-to-moderate mental retardation, 3 carrier females, and 8 normal males. In contrast to the normal appearance and minimal clinical findings reported 22 years ago, affected males were found to have a characteristic set of clinical findings. These developed gradually over the first 2 decades, and included thin body build with diminished muscle mass, osteoporosis and kyphoscoliosis, slight facial asymmetry with a prominent lower lip, nasal speech, high narrow or cleft palate, and long great toes. Carrier females were clinically normal. Multipoint linkage analysis indicated linkage to markers distal to the 3{prime} end of DMD (DXS41 and DXS989), with a maximal lod score of 4.7. On the basis of these findings, this entity is redefined as XLMR syndrome. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Institutionalization of Human Resource Management Practice in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Kostenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article touches upon the imperatives of forming HR- management practice in modern Russia. On the basis of the institutional theory and works by D. Nort, R. Scott, R. Coase, G. Buchanan, O. Williamson, P. Tolbert, and L. Zucker, we distinguished three main stages of introduction foreign HR- management models and technologies into the managing of local companies: Preinstitutional stage, characterized by the limited number of companies using this instrument; halfinstitutional stage when all the implanted approaches of HR-management become normative; complete institutionalization when this or that HR- management instrument is standard and legitimate. On the basis of research, conducted in 39 companies in SFD, the article gives the characteristics of HR-management instruments and technologies in terms of their institutionalization. In the article also showed the barriers which prevent fast and effective introduction of foreign management technologies into the HR-management practice in Russia. We pointed out some key instruments of Russian HR-management model and brought out possible directions in transformation of HR-management practice in our country.

  13. Feminism and the Academy. Exploring the Politics of Institutionalization in Gender Studies in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Liinason, Mia

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to analyze the process of institutionalization and neo-/interdisciplinarization in Women’s/Gender/Feminist Studies (WGFS) in Sweden, and the construction of feminist knowledge within this process. Furthermore, the thesis aims to contribute to the feminist debates on academic feminism as a transformative project. Three questions have guided the research process: 1) How has feminist knowledge been organized and institutionalized into the academy? 2) What are the e...

  14. Potentially inappropriate medication use among institutionalized elderly individuals in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cunha Xavier Pinto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the elderly population in Brazil has grown rapidly, as has concern for the health of this population. Institutionalization in nursing homes has appeared as an alternative form of health care for frail elderly that live alone. The present study evaluated the pharmacotherapy and inappropriate drug prescriptions for institutionalized elderly patients living in long-term institutions in southeastern Brazil. This research was conducted at five institutions with a total sample of 151 individuals aged at least 60 years. Databases were used to identify drug interactions, defined daily dose and inappropriate prescriptions. The prevalence of drug intake among the elderly was 95.36%, and there were an average of 3.31 ± 1.80 drug prescriptions per individual. Based on Beers criteria, the prevalence of inappropriate prescriptions was 25.83%. In addition, 70.2% of prescriptions were prescribed at a higher dosage than the defined daily dose (ATC/WHO. Potential drug interactions were identified for 54.11% of prescriptions; 81.42% of these were of moderate severity. The main inappropriate drugs were prescribed for cardiovascular and nervous system problems. Institutionalized elderly individuals presented a high consumption and misuse of medications, requiring professional intervention to monitor prescriptions and improve the quality of service for this population.

  15. Recurrent deletion of ZNF630 at Xp11.23 is not associated with mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lugtenberg, Dorien; Zangrande-Vieira, Luiz; Kirchhoff, Maria

    2010-01-01

    12 ZNF630 deletions in a total of 1,562 male patients with mental retardation from Brazil, USA, Australia, and Europe. The breakpoints were analyzed in 10 families, and in all cases they were located within two segmental duplications that share more than 99% sequence identity, indicating...

  16. Attachment security representations in institutionalized children and children living with their families: links to problem behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Nuno; Maia, Joana; Veríssimo, Manuela; Fernandes, Marilia; Silva, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    The present work analyses differences in the attachment representations of institutionalized children as compared with children from low and high educational level living with their natural families. Participants were 91 Portuguese children, 52% girls, aged 48-96 months. There were three different groups: 19 institutionalized children, 16 low educational level families' children and 56 from high educational level families'. Attachment representations were assessed for Security of the narratives of the Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist for parents and caretakers. Verbal skills were assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Revised. Results show that institutionalized children have significantly lower security of attachment representations, less verbal skills and higher aggressive behaviour than the other two groups. Attachment representations were associated with social/withdrawal and aggression, independently of age, verbal skills and parents' education. The main effect of institutionalization on externalizing aggressive behaviour was completely mediated by the security of attachment representations.  Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The need to establish a workable, modern and institutionalized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, Ethiopia is not gifted with workable, modernized and institutionalized commercial arbitration. It stands to the rear of commercial arbitration which is underpinned in diverse legal systems, used widely by many participants and acknowledged as relevant dispute resolution, particularly on commercial matters in ...

  18. Health Care Service Utilization of Dementia Patients before and after Institutionalization: A Claims Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Schwarzkopf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community-based and institutional dementia care has been compared in cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal information on the effect of institutionalization on health care service utilization is sparse. Methods: We analyzed claims data from 651 dementia patients via Generalized Estimation Equations to assess health care service utilization profiles and corresponding expenditures from four quarters before to four quarters after institutionalization. Results: In all domains, utilization increased in the quarter of institutionalization. Afterwards, the use of drugs, medical aids, and non-physician services (e.g., occupational therapy and physiotherapy remained elevated, but use of in- and outpatient treatment decreased. Cost of care showed corresponding profiles. Conclusion: Institutional dementia care seems to be associated with an increased demand for supportive services but not necessarily for specialized medical care.

  19. Disruptions of working memory and inhibition mediate the association between exposure to institutionalization and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibu, F; Sheridan, M A; McLaughlin, K A; Nelson, C A; Fox, N A; Zeanah, C H

    2016-02-01

    Young children raised in institutions are exposed to extreme psychosocial deprivation that is associated with elevated risk for psychopathology and other adverse developmental outcomes. The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is particularly high in previously institutionalized children, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. We investigated whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) explain the link between institutionalization and ADHD. A sample of 136 children (aged 6-30 months) was recruited from institutions in Bucharest, Romania, and 72 never institutionalized community children matched for age and gender were recruited through general practitioners' offices. At 8 years of age, children's performance on a number of EF components (working memory, response inhibition and planning) was evaluated. Teachers completed the Health and Behavior Questionnaire, which assesses two core features of ADHD, inattention and impulsivity. Children with history of institutionalization had higher inattention and impulsivity than community controls, and exhibited worse performance on working memory, response inhibition and planning tasks. Lower performances on working memory and response inhibition, but not planning, partially mediated the association between early institutionalization and inattention and impulsivity symptom scales at age 8 years. Institutionalization was associated with decreased EF performance and increased ADHD symptoms. Deficits in working memory and response inhibition were specific mechanisms leading to ADHD in previously institutionalized children. These findings suggest that interventions that foster the development of EF might reduce risk for psychiatric problems in children exposed to early deprivation.

  20. POLYAMIDE 6 WITH A FLAME RETARDANT ENCAPSULATED BY POLYAMIDE 66: FLAME RETARDATION, THERMO-DECOMPOSITION AND THE POTENTIAL MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-cheng Xiong; Li Chen; Bin Zhao; De-yi Wang; Yu-zhong Wang

    2012-01-01

    A novel encapsulated flame retardant containing phosphorus-nitrogen (MSMM-Al-P) was prepared by encapsulating with polyamide 66 (PA66-MSMM-Al-P) for the flame retardation of polyamide 6 (PA6).The structure and thermal properties of PA66-MSMM-Al-P were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.The flammability of PA6 containing' flame retardants (MSMMAl-P and PA66-MSMM-Al-P) was investigated by the limiting oxygen index test,vertical burning test and cone calorimeter.The flame retardancy and cone calorimetric analyses suggested a synergistic effect between PA66 and MSMM-Al-P in the flame-retardant PA6.Thermal stability of the flame-retardant PA6 was also investigated.

  1. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slunge, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.slunge@economics.gu.se [Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Box 640, S-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Tran, Trang Thi Huyen, E-mail: trang2k@yahoo.com [University of Gothenburg, Box 640, S-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries.

  2. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunge, Daniel; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen

    2014-01-01

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries

  3. Mental Retardation; Its Social Context and Social Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Bernard

    Concerned with mental retardation as a social product, the following topics are discussed: mental retardation as a social phenomenon, the concept of the retarded as surplus population, labeling and incompetence in relation to life chances, mental retardation as deviance and as incompetence, and findings on the prevalence of retardation in the…

  4. The measurement of retardation in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantchev, N; Widlöcher, D J

    1998-01-01

    The description of clinical features helps to distinguish between depressive illness and nondepressive psychic pain and enables the clinician to decide whether prescription of an antidepressant is beneficial. Psychomotor retardation is probably a central feature of depression, and this review discusses the methods available for measuring it. The Salpêtrière Retardation Rating Scale (SRRS) specifically measures psychomotor retardation; the scale and applications are described. Means of measuring motor and speech activity and an experimental approach for understanding the process underlying psychomotor retardation are reviewed. Comparison of the SRRS and other rating scale scores demonstrates that retardation is related to depression severity and therapeutic change and is a good criterion for prediction of therapeutic effect. The SRRS has been used to show that selective antidepressants target specific clinical dimensions of depression depending on the patient subgroup treated. Measures of motor and speech activity are sensitive to therapeutic response. Choice Reaction Time and Simple Reaction Time tasks are particularly suited for examining psychomotor retardation because they test the decision process while avoiding motivation and attention interference. Psychomotor retardation is a constant and probably central feature of depression. Means available for measuring it can be used to assess the effects of antidepressants on specific clinical dimensions.

  5. Costs of Malnutrition in Institutionalized and Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abizanda, Pedro; Sinclair, Alan; Barcons, Núria; Lizán, Luis; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess health economics evidence published to date on malnutrition costs in institutionalized or community-dwelling older adults. A systematic search of the literature published until December 2013 was performed using standard literature, international and national electronic databases, including MedLine/PubMed, Cochrane Library, ISI WOK, SCOPUS, MEDES, IBECS, and Google Scholar. Publications identified referred to the economic burden and use of medical resources associated with malnutrition (or risk of malnutrition) in institutionalized or community-dwelling older adults, written in either English or Spanish. Costs were updated to 2014 (€). A total of 9 studies of 46 initially retrieved met the preestablished criteria and were submitted to thorough scrutiny. All publications reviewed involved studies conducted in Europe, and the results regarding the contents of all the studies showed that total costs associated with malnutrition in institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults were considerably higher than those of well-nourished ones, mainly due to a higher use of health care resources (GP consultations, hospitalizations, health care monitoring, and treatments). Interventions to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition, such as the use of oral nutritional supplements, showed an important decrease in-hospital admissions and medical visits. Malnutrition is associated with higher health care costs in institutionalized or community-dwelling older adults. The adoption of nutritional interventions, such as oral nutritional supplements, may have an important impact in reducing annual health care costs per patient. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synergistic Effect of Nanosilica Aerogel with Phosphorus Flame Retardants on Improving Flame Retardancy and Leaching Resistance of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilica (Nano-SiO2 sol fabricated by a sol-gel process was introduced into wood modification with phosphorus flame retardants to improve the flame retardancy and leaching resistance of wood. The obtained materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, cone calorimetric (CONE, and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The residual rate of flame retardants before and after leaching was determinated by a leaching resistance. The results showed that the phosphorus flame retardants and SiO2 sol could reside in the poplar wood and are widely distributed in the vessels, pits, wood timber, and the spaces between wood cells of poplar substrate. TGA and CONE results indicated that the introduction of nano-SiO2 aerogel with phosphorus flame retardants had a significantly synergistic effect on improving the flame retardancy and inhibiting the release of smoke and toxic gases. In addition, the leaching resistance test, combined with infrared analysis and EDS analysis, confirmed that the phosphorus flame retardants were able to be fixed by SiO2 aerogel in the wood.

  7. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  8. Leadership for evidence-based practice: strategic and functional behaviors for institutionalizing EBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Ritchie, Judith A; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Charns, Martin P

    2014-08-01

    Making evidence-based practice (EBP) a reality throughout an organization is a challenging goal in healthcare services. Leadership has been recognized as a critical element in that process. However, little is known about the exact role and function of various levels of leadership in the successful institutionalization of EBP within an organization. To uncover what leaders at different levels and in different roles actually do, and what actions they take to develop, enhance, and sustain EBP as the norm. Qualitative data from a case study regarding institutionalization of EBP in two contrasting cases (Role Model and Beginner hospitals) were systematically analyzed. Data were obtained from multiple interviews of leaders, both formal and informal, and from staff nurse focus groups. A deductive coding schema, based on concepts of functional leadership, was developed for this in-depth analysis. Participants' descriptions reflected a hierarchical array of strategic, functional, and cross-cutting behaviors. Within these macrolevel "themes," 10 behavioral midlevel themes were identified; for example, Intervening and Role modeling. Each theme is distinctive, yet various themes and their subthemes were interrelated and synergistic. These behaviors and their interrelationships were conceptualized in the framework "Leadership Behaviors Supportive of EBP Institutionalization" (L-EBP). Leaders at multiple levels in the Role Model case, both formal and informal, engaged in most of these behaviors. Supportive leadership behaviors required for organizational institutionalization of EBP reflect a complex set of interactive, multifaceted EBP-focused actions carried out by leaders from the chief nursing officer to staff nurses. A related framework such as L-EBP may provide concrete guidance needed to underpin the often-noted but abstract finding that leaders should "support" EBP. © 2014 The Authors. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  9. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened as potential fire retardants for acrylic printing inks used on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants are selected according to their physical properties and their thermostabilities. A criterion for selecting a more stable fire retardant is established. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to determine thermostabilities. Results show that the fire retardant formulations are more thermally stable than the acrylic ink control. It is determined that an ink formulation containing a brominated phenol and carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile which has been modified with a brominated polymeric additive (BPA), yields the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of all the compounds tested. All of the fire-retardant formulations have a higher oxygen index than the baseline acrylic ink.

  10. CONSIDERATIONS ON CULTURAL MEMORY AND ITS INSTITUTIONALIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mitroiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study emphasizes the connection between the sites of memory and thenational identity, having as main objective to highlight the institutionalization ofthe cultural memory. Two main sites of memory are analysed: the archive and thelibrary, as representative for the cultural memory.The ideological and politicalinfluences are also revealed. The final part of this paper points out new challengesin the global digital age.

  11. Differentiation of retarded integrals and the divergence theorem for retarded functions with discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstock, F.I.; Lim, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    Theorems expressing the time derivatives of retarded volume and surface integrals are presented as well as the Gauss divergence theorem for retarded functions with discontinuities. These theorems greatly facilitate the analysis of gravitational radiation from the motion of disjoint matter distributions in general relativity and could find useful application in other branches of physics

  12. The Effect of 12 Weeks Dance Education on Physical Fitness Values At Mentally Retarded Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asena DORSAN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 12 weeks of dance education on the values of physical fitness at children with mental retarded. 22 educable mentally retarded children from Dr. Günseli - Dr. Bülent Akınsal Secondary School and Working Sc hool participated in this study. Mentally Disabled children who participated voluntarily were grouped as the average age of 16.27± 1.00 year with11 people (9 males, 2females of the experimental group and the average age of 15.90± 0.83 year to 11people(7 males, 4 females as the control group. Participants in the experimental group was implemented 12 - weekdance education program including 2 days a week, 2 hours a day. Program contents included the basic posture correction, flexibility, ability to maintain a rhythm, motion diversity and self - expression skills, pair work and group work. Physical fitness values of experimental and control group were measured in before and after studies. After the 12 - week dance education, It was determined that there was st atistically significant differences in vertical jump, flexibility, sprint and balance parameters between the experimental and control groups.(p<0.05. In the study of comparing the experimental group in itself, statistically significant differences were fo und of the specified physical fitness parameters (p<0.01. As a result; physical fitness levels of the educable mentally retarded individuals who regularly participated in dance activities showed significant improvements. The results of this study, it was observed that after 12 - week education program there was more development of many physical fitness parameters in the experimental group than the control group and this revealed that the importance of dance education on educable mentally retarded children.

  13. Trace elements studies on Karachi population part IV: blood copper, zinc, magnesium and lead levels in psychiatric patients with depression, mental retardation and seizure disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manser, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    Blood copper, zinc, magnesium and lead levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy for 15 males and 16 female suffering from depression, 6 males and 1 female with mental retardation and 3 males and 4 females with seizure disorders. They were all under no medication and belong to low income groups. No difference in copper levels was found between the sexes in any of the groups. The levels in all the groups were significantly higher than in the normals. In depressives, males had significantly higher zinc levels than females and only female depressives had lower levels from normals. In both depressives and normals, males had higher magnesium levels than females but no group of patients had significantly different levels from normals. Lead levels were significantly higher in female depressives and for those with seizure disorders than for controls. At least one metal abnormality was found in 21 (67.7%) depressive, 5 (71.4%) of those with mental retardation and 6 (85.7%) with seizure disorders. (author)

  14. Older residents' perspectives on aged sexuality in institutionalized elderly care: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Lieslot; Gastmans, Chris

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this systematic literature review is to investigate older residents' thoughts on, experiences of and engagement in sexual behavior and aged sexuality within institutionalized elderly care. Systematic literature review. We conducted an extensive search of the electronic databases Cinahl, Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and Invert for papers published between January 1980 and October 2014 when the searches were closed. Additional papers were identified through forward and backward citation chasing. Data from relevant studies were extracted by means of a data extraction form. Relevant data were isolated, summarized, compared, related and categorized according to theme. Quality assessment of the included studies focused on their adequacy of reporting the study's research aim, sampling, collection, and analysis procedures, ethical considerations and results. Twenty-five appropriate studies were identified. These studies varied in research design (using surveys, vignettes, focus groups, interviews, or observation), objectives, quality of reporting, and sample characteristics (i.e. male and/or female long-term care residents with and/or without dementia). Yet, they all point to the relevance of sex and sexuality in old age and emphasize the highly individual character of both sexual interest and expression. Older residents who wish to sexually express themselves, might do this in a wide variety of ways, including, but not limited to, daydreaming, dressing-up, looking for emotional and intellectual intimacy, stroking, caressing, kissing, and engaging in sexual intercourse. Overall, residents appear to have a rather positive attitude toward aged sexuality as such. When it comes to specific sexual behaviors or homosexuality, however, attitudes tend to be more negative. The perceived appropriateness of the displayed behavior is a predominant factor in determining older people's reactions to the sexual behavior of co-residents, rather than the potential

  15. The Right Brain: Surviving Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes two studies of brain hemisphere development which indicate children retarded in the functions of one hemisphere may not be retarded in the functions of the second hemisphere. Suggests that the left hemisphere functions may inhibit some right hemisphere functions. (SL)

  16. CT findings of mentally retarded patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Akihiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Cranial CT findings were compared according to the age group in 192 mentally retarded patients aged from 15 to 59 years and in 132 control subjects. Enlargement of the ventricles, cisterns or fissures was judged. The incidence of ''enlargement'' was higher, irrespective of age, in mentally retarded group than in the control group. When the mentally retarded patients were divided into the group with pathologic symptoms and the group without them, the incidence of ''enlargement'' was higher in the former group than in the control group, but there was no significant difference between the latter group and the control group. There was no consistent relationship between the degree of mental retardation and the incidence of ''enlargement''. Many of the mentally retarded patients with pathologic symptoms tended to have a wide range of enlargement, while many of the patients without them had narrowed lateral ventricle. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Transcriptional regulation of male-sterility in 7B-1 male-sterile tomato mutant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omidvar, Vahid; Mohorianu, I.; Dalmay, T.; Zheng, Y.; Fei, Z.; Pucci, A.; Mazzucato, E.; Večeřová, R.; Sedlářová, M.; Fellner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2017), č. článku e0170715. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : tapetum-degeneration-retardation * male reproductive development * early anther development * differential expression * lycopersicon-esculentum * stamenless-2 mutant * abscisic-acid * arabidopsis-thaliana * brassica-napus * cell-wall Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  18. Institutionalization of Information Security: Case of the Indonesian Banking Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Muhamad Faisal Fariduddin Attar

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the institutionalization of information security in the banking sector. This study is important to pursue since it explicates the internalization of information security governance and practices and how such internalization develops an organizational resistance towards security breach. The study argues that information…

  19. Influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' postural balance and risk of falls: a transversal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Oliveira Batista

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' balance and risk of falls.METHOD: to evaluate the risk of falls, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Get Up and Go test were used; and for measuring postural balance, static stabilometry was used, with acquisition of the elliptical area of 95% and mean velocities on the x and y axes of center of pressure displacement. Parametric and nonparametric measures of association and comparison (α<0.05 were used.RESULTS: there was no significant correlation between the length of institutionalization and the tests for evaluation of risk of falling, neither was there difference between groups and within subgroups, stratified by length of institutionalization and age. In the stabilometric measurements, there was a negative correlation between the parameters analyzed and the length of institutionalization, and difference between groups and within subgroups.CONCLUSION: this study's results point to the difficulty of undertaking postural control tasks, showing a leveling below the clinical tests' reference scores. In the stabilometric behavior, one should note the reduction of the parameters as the length of institutionalization increases, contradicting the assumptions. This study's results offer support for the development of a multi-professional model for intervention with the postural control and balance of older adults living in homes for the aged.

  20. Effectiveness of Flame Retardants in TufFoam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelow, Alexis Elizabeth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Nissen, April [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Massey, Lee Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    An investigation of polyurethane foam filled with known flame retardant fillers including hydroxides, melamine, phosphate-containing compounds, and melamine phosphates was carried out to produce a low-cost material with high flame retardant efficiency. The impact of flame retardant fillers on the physical properties such a s composite foam density, glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and thermal expansion of composite foams was investigated with the goal of synthesizing a robust rigid foam with excellent flame retardant properties.

  1. Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL Limitations: Immigration and Other Factors Associated with Institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203, Korean (n = 131, Japanese (n = 193, Filipino (n = 309, Asian Indian (n = 169, Chinese (n = 404, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54, and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040 aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8% (p < 0.001. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively. When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting.

  2. Teaching Community Skills to Formerly Institutionalized Adults: Eating Nutritionally Balanced Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Andrew L.

    1984-01-01

    Three formerly institutionalized adults increased their rate of appropriate food serving when cash reinforcement was made contingent on their meeting specified daily criteria. Instructions and self-monitoring and praise had little or no effect on the men's diets. (CL)

  3. Where's the Justice in Service-Learning? Institutionalizing Service-Learning from a Social Justice Perspective at a Jesuit University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuban, Sondra; Anderson, Jeffrey B.

    2007-01-01

    We attempt to answer "where" the social justice is in service-learning by probing "what" it is, "how" it looks in the process of being institutionalized at a Jesuit university, and "why" it is important. We develop themes about institutionalizing service-learning from a social justice perspective. Our themes were developed through an analysis of…

  4. Institutionalization and indiscriminate social behavior: Differential-susceptibility versus diathesis-stress models for the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, A R; Belsky, J; Li, Z; Baptista, J; Carvalho-Correia, E; Maciel, P; Soares, I

    2015-12-01

    Institutionalization adversely impacts children's emotional functioning, proving related to attachment disorders, perhaps most notably that involving indiscriminate behavior, the subject of this report. In seeking to extend work in this area, this research on gene X environment (GXE) interplay investigated whether the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and val66met Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) polymorphisms moderated the effect of institutional care on indiscriminate behavior in preschoolers. Eighty-five institutionalized and 135 home-reared Portuguese children were assessed using Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). GXE results indicated that s/s homozygotes of the 5-HTTLPR gene displayed significantly higher levels of indiscriminate behavior than all other children if institutionalized, something not true of such children when family reared. These findings proved consistent with the diathesis-stress rather than differential-susceptibility model of person×environment interaction. BDNF proved unrelated to indiscriminate behavior. Results are discussed in relation to previous work on this subject of indiscriminate behavior, institutionalization and GXE interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of American and Chinese family members' evaluations on institutionalized care for their older parents: potential development in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yushi; Buechel, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The evaluations on institutionalized care facilities from family members, after their loved ones moved into such services, are very different from culture to culture, family to family and person to person. According to a recent survey in the United States and China, it is found that different cultures and the different health conditions of the residents strongly influence family member's viewpoints on institutionalized care services. It is also found that the availability of the institutionalized care facilities plays a significant role, which strongly affects family members' evaluations on nursing home services.

  6. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  7. Interventions to delay institutionalization of frail older persons: design of a longitudinal study in the home care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Almeida Mello Johanna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people usually prefer staying at home rather than going into residential care. The Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance wishes to invest in home care by financing innovative projects that effectively help older people to stay at home longer. In this study protocol we describe the evaluation of 34 home care projects. These projects are clustered according to the type of their main intervention such as case management, night care, occupational therapy at home and psychological/psychosocial support. The main goal of this study is to identify which types of projects have the most effect in delaying institutionalization of frail older persons. Methods/design This is a longitudinal intervention study based on a quasi-experimental design. Researchers use three comparison strategies to evaluate intervention - comparison among different types of projects, comparisons between older persons in the projects and older persons not benefiting from a project but who are still at home and between older persons in the projects and older persons who are already institutionalized. Projects are asked to include clients who are frail and at risk of institutionalization. In the study we use internationally validated instruments such as the interRAI Home Care instrument, the WHO-QOL-8 and the Zarit Burden Interview-12. These instruments are filled out at baseline, at exit from the project and 6 months after baseline. Additionally, caregivers have to do a follow-up every 6 months until exit from the project. Criteria to exit the cohort will be institutionalization longer than 3 months and death. The main analysis in the study consists of the calculation of incidence rates, cumulative incidence rates and hazard rates of definitive institutionalization through survival analyses for each type of project. Discussion This research will provide knowledge on the functional status of frail older persons who are still living at

  8. Interventions to delay institutionalization of frail older persons: design of a longitudinal study in the home care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida Mello, Johanna; Van Durme, Therese; Macq, Jean; Declercq, Anja

    2012-08-06

    Older people usually prefer staying at home rather than going into residential care. The Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance wishes to invest in home care by financing innovative projects that effectively help older people to stay at home longer. In this study protocol we describe the evaluation of 34 home care projects. These projects are clustered according to the type of their main intervention such as case management, night care, occupational therapy at home and psychological/psychosocial support. The main goal of this study is to identify which types of projects have the most effect in delaying institutionalization of frail older persons. This is a longitudinal intervention study based on a quasi-experimental design. Researchers use three comparison strategies to evaluate intervention--comparison among different types of projects, comparisons between older persons in the projects and older persons not benefiting from a project but who are still at home and between older persons in the projects and older persons who are already institutionalized. Projects are asked to include clients who are frail and at risk of institutionalization. In the study we use internationally validated instruments such as the interRAI Home Care instrument, the WHO-QOL-8 and the Zarit Burden Interview-12. These instruments are filled out at baseline, at exit from the project and 6 months after baseline. Additionally, caregivers have to do a follow-up every 6 months until exit from the project. Criteria to exit the cohort will be institutionalization longer than 3 months and death. The main analysis in the study consists of the calculation of incidence rates, cumulative incidence rates and hazard rates of definitive institutionalization through survival analyses for each type of project. This research will provide knowledge on the functional status of frail older persons who are still living at home. This is important information to identify determinants of

  9. Leadership Behavior and Job Performance of Teachers in Public and Private Kindergartens: The Perspectives of Institutionalization, Reason, and Feeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigean; Cheng, Jaonan

    2012-01-01

    Chinese society is accustomed to using feelings, reasons, and institutionalizations to determine how to deal with events, which raises a number of questions. How can the directors of early education institutions incorporate feelings, reasons, and institutionalizations into their management? How can they enhance the job performance of teachers?…

  10. Factors affecting institutionalization in older Hong Kong Chinese patients after recovery from acute medical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, James Ka Hay; Chiu, Patrick Ka Chun; Chu, Leung Wing

    2009-01-01

    Older patients with medical illnesses are at risk of institutionalization. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors leading to institutionalization in older patients after recovery from medical illnesses. We studied 535 older patients in two convalescence hospitals in Hong Kong. Of them, 116 patients (21.7%) needed to move to nursing homes upon discharge. Univariate analysis showed that age, single/divorced/widowed status, longer length of stay, pressure sores, urinary incontinence, urinary catheterization, falls, dementia, diabetes mellitus, Barthel index (100), Elderly Mobility Score (EMS), Chinese version of the mini-mental state examination (C-MMSE) and albumin levels were significant factors associated with institutionalization. Multivariate analysis showed that being single/divorced/widowed (odds ratio=OR=2.74, 95% confidence interval=CI=1.36-5.53, p=0.0048), having urinary incontinence on discharge (OR=5.13, CI=2.66-10.6, p<0.001) and admission due to falls (OR=2.4, CI=1.03-5.57, p=0.04) were independent risk factors for nursing home admission. Higher admission EMS (OR=0.91, CI=0.84-0.97, p=0.009), admission C-MMSE (OR=0.93, CI=0.87-0.98, p=0.019), and discharge albumin levels (OR=0.93, CI=0.88-0.99, p=0.02) were independent protecting factors against nursing home admission. Knowledge of these factors can allow us to predict accommodation outcome and develop intervention strategy to reduce institutionalization in the older patients.

  11. Radiation and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    A brief article discusses mental retardation in children who had been exposed to ionizing radiation in utero. The time of greatest sensitivity is between the 8th and 15th week after conception and the time of lesser sensitivity between the 16th and 25th weeks. An examination of the thresholds for exposure indicate that severe mental retardation would not result from any present environmental exposures of the public. (U.K.)

  12. Institutionalized Stroke Patients: Status of Functioning of an Under Researched Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Almenkerk, S.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Eefsting, J.A.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In view of the development of an integrated care and treatment program for institutionalized stroke patients tailored to their needs, we aimed to explore their status of functioning in the physical, cognitive, emotional, communicative and social domains. In addition, we explored the

  13. Imitation and processes of institutionalization - Insights from Bourdieu's theory of practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieweke, Jost

    2014-01-01

    New institutional theory highlights the importance of language in processes of institutionalization, but Bourdieu argues that institutions are also transmitted by mimesis, i.e., the unconscious imitation of other actors' actions. The aim of this paper is to develop a framework that explains

  14. CASE REPORT OF A MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilka GALEVSKA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mental retardation is a complex individual and social problem. According to WHO, around 1-3 % of world population are mentally retarded people and the percentage between school children is around 2 %.The development of a mentally retarded child depends on factors related to the disability itself, all the limitations and characteristics which results from that. But, physical, psychical, educational and social development of a mentally retarded child, also, depend on other conditions, such as the family and the wider environment, their reactions, attitudes, awareness and sensitivity for special needs of the child, as well as their preparedness and possibilities to respond.At the same time, it is necessary that the mentally retarded child is detected and diagnosed in time, as well as the early start of an adequate treatment.

  15. A RESEARCH ON RELATIONSHIP OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION AND INSTITUTIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Sanal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization is a dynamic process which is developed as a result of enterprise sensitivity to the environmental transformation and consists of its efforts to conformity to this transformation. Institutional entrepreneurship, however, is the process of building a different constitution inside the enterprise to induce entrepreneurial spirit and to lead the association into transformation and modernism. These two notions can be seen as the activities that will achieve the permanency and the efficiency of family businesses which have a big interest in world economics. In this study, the components of the institutionalization are; social responsibility and professionalization, institutional entrepreneurship components are aimed to be measured on the basis of the risk and proactivity and the modernism in the family businesses which are sampling units. In this study, the deduced survey hypothesis are tested using the statistical analysis data, and the contribution of the study to the association is discussed in the light of derived findings and evaluations, also a set of suggestions which can enlighten the way for next studies are developed and how the business world will profit from this study is emphasized.

  16. Impacto da saúde bucal no cotidiano de idosos institucionalizados e não institucionalizados da cidade do Recife (PE, Brasil Impact of oral health in the daily life of institutionalized and non institutionalized elder in the city of Recife (PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Helena Alvim de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar a influência da saúde bucal no cotidiano de idosos institucionalizados e não institucionalizados da cidade do Recife (PE, bem como verificar se a saúde bucal tem a mesma relevância para os dois grupos estudados. Para avaliar a percepção de saúde bucal, utilizou-se o índice Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI. As faixas do GOHAI foram categorizadas em baixa percepção (The objective of the study is to assess the influence of oral health in the daily routine of both institutionalized and non-institutionalized elders living in the city of Recife-PE, as well as to come to conclusions concerning the relevance level of oral health in both groups. In order to assess the perception of oral health, it was used the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI. The GOHAI levels, concerning the perception, were categorized in: low (<= 50, average (51 to 60 and high (57 to 60. Oral health conditions were represented by the DMFT index (with cavity, lost and repaired teeth. It was observed that the percentage of elderly with a GOHAI not higher than 50 (low perception of oral health was rather higher in the non-institutionalized group than in the institutionalized (92,2% x 64,9%. The average DMFT and the number of lost teeth were higher in the institutionalized group (96,01% x 87,87%. The perception of oral health was lower for more than half of the examined elderly population, but there being a meaningful difference between the two groups concerning the GOHAI, with lower levels for the non-institutionalized group. The result of the perception of oral health was compatible with the high number of decayed and lost teeth.

  17. INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF FAMILY FARMING IN THE CONTEXT OF A FAMILY BUSINESS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Solonenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the situation of family farms in the world, highlighted their key role in ensuring food security and preserving natural resources. We consider the activities of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO of the United Nations aimed at supporting and developing family farms at the regional, national, international levels. In the process of reforming the agricultural sector of Ukraine is the search for effective forms and methods of management. By introducing international experience progressive institutional approach to a market economy in agricultural production, the country embarked on the creation of family farms. Family farms is the most effective form of economic activity in rural areas, provided their institutionalization, state support, fight against corruption and monopolies in agribusiness. In the article the formation of family farms in Ukraine from institutional positions. Reflects the process of formation of the Institute for Family Business in Ukraine as family farms. Defined intrinsic characteristics and stages of institutionalization of family farms. The analysis measures the state and society on the institutionalization of family farms in Ukraine. Outlined prospects of Ukrainian family farms and proposed institutional arrangements to ensure the balanced functioning of a viable model of family farm management in the context of the family business in Ukraine.

  18. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures

  19. Retardo mental Mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio M. Vasconcelos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão aborda as recentes descobertas da neurobiologia do retardo mental, enfatizando os novos recursos da citogenética, das técnicas moleculares e da neurorradiologia para esclarecer o diagnóstico. FONTES DE DADOS: O autor pesquisou o banco de dados MEDLINE da National Library of Medicine utilizando as palavras-chave "mental retardation", "developmental disability", "child" e "adolescent" em diferentes combinações, abrangendo o período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2003. Também foram utilizados os bancos de dados das revistas científicas Pediatrics e New England Journal of Medicine através da palavra-chave "mental retardation". No total, o autor consultou cerca de 1.500 títulos de artigos e 500 resumos, e teve acesso direto a 150 artigos completos pertinentes. Quando oportuno, algumas referências dos artigos consultados também foram consideradas. O site Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man foi utilizado como fonte de informações em genética clínica. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Em outubro de 2003, o total de síndromes genéticas associadas a retardo mental chegou a 1.149. Considerando-se o conjunto das causas genéticas ou ambientais e congênitas ou adquiridas de retardo mental, a avaliação diagnóstica atual é capaz de esclarecer a etiologia em 50 a 70% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O autor sugere uma avaliação diagnóstica do retardo mental em etapas lógicas, visando ao uso racional dos dispendiosos recursos da citogenética, biologia molecular e neuroimagem.OBJECTIVE: This paper describes recent advances in the neurobiology of mental retardation, emphasizing new diagnostic resources provided by cytogenetics, molecular testing, and neuroimaging. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE (January 2000 through October 2003, using the following key words: mental retardation, developmental disability, child, and adolescent. Search of the Pediatrics and New England Journal of Medicine websites using the key word mental retardation. The

  20. A Mutation Affecting the Sodium/Proton Exchanger, "SLC9A6," Causes Mental Retardation with Tau Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbern, James Y.; Neumann, Manuela; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Feldman, Gerald; Norris, Joy W.; Friez, Michael J.; Schwartz, Charles E.; Stevenson, Roger; Sima, Anders A. F.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied a family with severe mental retardation characterized by the virtual absence of speech, autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, late-onset ataxia, weakness and dystonia. Post-mortem examination of two males revealed widespread neuronal loss, with the most striking finding being neuronal and glial tau deposition in a pattern reminiscent…

  1. Flame Retardant Polyamide Fibres: The Challenge of Minimising Flame Retardant Additive Contents with Added Nanoclays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Horrocks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows that halogen-free, flame retarded polyamide 6 (PA6, fabrics may be produced in which component fibres still have acceptable tensile properties and low levels (preferably ≤10 wt % of additives by incorporating a nanoclay along with two types of flame retardant formulations. The latter include (i aluminium diethyl phosphinate (AlPi at 10 wt %, known to work principally in the vapour phase and (ii ammonium sulphamate (AS/dipentaerythritol (DP system present at 2.5 and 1 wt % respectively, believed to be condense phase active. The nanoclay chosen is an organically modified montmorillonite clay, Cloisite 25A. The effect of each additive system is analysed in terms of its ability to maximise both filament tensile properties relative to 100% PA6 and flame retardant behaviour of knitted fabrics in a vertical orientation. None of the AlPi-containing formulations achieved self-extinguishability, although the presence of nanoclay promoted lower burning and melt dripping rates. The AS/DP-containing formulations with total flame retardant levels of 5.5 wt % or less showed far superior properties and with nanoclay, showed fabric extinction times ≤ 39 s and reduced melt dripping. The tensile and flammability results, supported by thermogravimetric analysis, have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of action of each flame retardant/nanoclay type.

  2. Informal Evaluation and Institutionalization of Neoteric Technology Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Frank; Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Müller, Sune Dueholm

    2015-01-01

    in existing institutionalized technologies within the organization and that emerging technologies introduce neoteric ideas to the organization. Furthermore, we argue that when attempting to introduce technology-based ideas, human actors will focus their attention on ideas embedded in existing...... theories of creativity, Scandinavian institutionalism, and empirical data from two Danish organizations, this article investigates the interplay between creativity, technology, and human sensemaking in the process of translating and transforming technology ideas into full-fledged technological innovations....

  3. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults.

  4. Flame-retardant carbon nanotube films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janas, Dawid; Rdest, Monika; Koziol, Krzysztof K. K.

    2017-07-01

    We have demonstrated fire-retardancy properties of a polymer matrix-free CNT film for the first time. As compared with classical fire-retardant materials such as Kevlar, Twaron or Nomex, the CNT film showed a spectrum of advantages. The material is lightweight, flexible and well-adherent to even the most complicated shapes. The results have showed that by using CNTs for fire-retardancy we can extend the operational time almost two-fold, what makes CNTs a much better protection than the solutions employed nowadays. We believe that among other great properties of CNT, their macroscopic assemblies such as CNT films show significant potential for becoming a fire protective coating, which exhibits high performance in not sustaining fire.

  5. A methodological framework to support the initiation, design and institutionalization of participatory modeling processes in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbe, Johannes; Pahl-Wostl, Claudia; Adamowski, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Multiple barriers constrain the widespread application of participatory methods in water management, including the more technical focus of most water agencies, additional cost and time requirements for stakeholder involvement, as well as institutional structures that impede collaborative management. This paper presents a stepwise methodological framework that addresses the challenges of context-sensitive initiation, design and institutionalization of participatory modeling processes. The methodological framework consists of five successive stages: (1) problem framing and stakeholder analysis, (2) process design, (3) individual modeling, (4) group model building, and (5) institutionalized participatory modeling. The Management and Transition Framework is used for problem diagnosis (Stage One), context-sensitive process design (Stage Two) and analysis of requirements for the institutionalization of participatory water management (Stage Five). Conceptual modeling is used to initiate participatory modeling processes (Stage Three) and ensure a high compatibility with quantitative modeling approaches (Stage Four). This paper describes the proposed participatory model building (PMB) framework and provides a case study of its application in Québec, Canada. The results of the Québec study demonstrate the applicability of the PMB framework for initiating and designing participatory model building processes and analyzing barriers towards institutionalization.

  6. [Foundations for the institutionalization of health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Santelices C, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The Chilean health system has not been completely oblivious to health technology assessment (HTA). In fact, significant advances in the areas of health prioritization using criteria of disease burden, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness among others, can be acknowledged. The introduction of the reform of Explicit Health Guarantees (GES) has been an important milestone in this arena, allowing the consideration of other dimensions such as social preferences in health. However, the application of HTA encompasses the entire health system and in that sense the institutionalization of a process properly defined and extensively validated in our country, is imminent. This paper discusses the foundations on which progress must be made in institutionalizing HTA, starting from the architecture of our health care system and in light of the economic and social reality. We review some background information first, and then discuss some important considerations in our context, including information on the institutional and legal framework. It concludes with the authors' view on some key elements to consider in HTA in Chile, which does not necessarily represent the vision of the Ministry of Health.

  7. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  8. A Contigency Model for Predicting Institutionalization of Innovation Across Divergent Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Nancy J.

    This study was undertaken to compare the variables related to the successful institutionalization of changes across divergent organizations, and to design, through cross-validation, an interorganization model of change. Descriptive survey questionnaires and structured interviews were the instruments used. The respondent sample consisted of 1,500…

  9. Mental Retardation, Poverty and Community Based Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Helander

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A person with moderate mental retardation would, in a western country, be "diagnosed" early on in life. Consequently, such a child is likely to be sent for special education. Given the high level of job requirements, such a person is unlikely to be employed in the open market later in life. Mental retardation is one of the most frequent disabilities in most studies, mental retardation is found in about three percent of the population. Persons even with mild mental retardation have very large difficulties finding employment and are for this reason often deprived of opportunities for suitable and productive income generation this is why most stay poor. But disability does not only cause poverty poverty itself causes disability. This study follows an analysis, based on a review of the Swedish programme for mental retardation during the period 1930-2000. It is concluded that in Sweden a very large proportion of mild and moderate mental retardation has been eliminated though the combination of poverty alleviation with a community-based rehabilitation programme. For these situations a pro-active programme analysing and meeting the needs of the target groups should be useful as a means to achieve poverty alleviation.

  10. Karyotype analysis of a male exhibiting Meckel's diverticulum and aural atresia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frizzell, B.; Hicks, M.F. (David Lipscomb Univ., Nashville, TN (United States))

    Patau's Syndrome is caused by inheritance of an extra chromosome 13. It is characterized primarily by severe mental retardation, cleft palate, and retarded growth. Most fetuses expressing Patau's Syndrome spontaneously abort, and those that are born usually die before one year. Both Meckel's diverticulum and aural atresia are defects found in patients with Patau's at levels higher than those in the general population. An otherwise asymptomatic male expressing only Meckel's diverticulum and aural atresia has a female sibling whose son expressed Patau's syndrome. Twenty percent of patients with Patau's show a translocation of part of chromosome 13 to another D chromosome. If a translocation were the cause of the expression of Patau's in this family, it is possible that the normal male inherited a balanced translocation and the Patau's male received an unbalanced translocation. A karyotype analysis of the non-Patau's male was done to determine if such a translocation were present.

  11. The Conflicting Link between Institutionalized Participation and Trust: the Case of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Lanau

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between trust and institutionalized participation. Trust is defined as a subjective expectation about the world that can be disappointed. It is assumed to be related to time, authority, and knowledge. Further, it allows for a retrospective evaluation. In light of this definition, we first analyze the links between participation and trust in established relations between public authorities and citizens in liberal democracies. Next, we examine how institutionalized participation is currently conceived as an efficient tool for overcoming citizens' mistrust of political authorities and institutions. Finally, we argue that participation does not assuage that mistrust, but transforms the nature of the relationship between authorities and citizens, giving rise to what might be characterized as a "government of mistrust".

  12. The Lived Environment Life Quality Model for institutionalized people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Lampe, Jenna L; Logan, Christina A; Metcalfe, Amy R; Hoesly, Beth E

    2017-02-01

    There is a need for a conceptual practice model that explicates ecological complexities involved in using occupation to optimize the quality of life of institutionalized people with dementia. This study aimed to prepare the Lived Environment Life Quality Model, a dementia-specific conceptual practice model of occupational therapy in institutional facilities, for publication and application to practice. Interviews and focus groups with six expert occupational therapists were subjected to qualitative content analysis to confirm, disconfirm, and further develop the model. The model's lived-environment domain as the focus of assessment and intervention was extensively confirmed, and its quality-of-life domain as the focus of intervention goals and outcomes was both confirmed and further developed. As confirmed in this study, the Lived Environment Life Quality Model is a client-centred, ecologically valid, and occupation-focused guide to optimizing quality of life of institutionalized adults with dementia in present moments and progressively over time.

  13. Evaluation of Inheritance Pattern in Mentally Retarded Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Behnaz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mental retardation is one of the most important problems of general health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate inheritance pattern of mentally retarded patients in Yazd city. Methods: In a descriptive cross- sectional study, all medical records and pedigrees of 320 mentally retarded children whose parents had referred for genetic consultation to the Welfare center of Yazd city were reviewed. Results: Of the total, 62.8% of the parents had consanguineous marriage. Mean inbreeding coefficient of offsprings was 0.0713 in third degree related parents versus 0.0156 in non-related parents. Mental retardation was seen in 43.4% of first– degree relatives of children (6.6% of parents and 36.8% of siblings, respectively. Frequency of mental retardation did not differ significantly in both sexes. Pedigree showed inheritance pattern in 43.4% of patients (autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant and x-linked inheritance pattern were seen in 33.75%, 6.9% and 2.8%, respectively, while 37% of patients had no definite inheritance pattern. Abnormal karyotype were seen in 19.4% of patients, 28 of whom(8.75% of all patients had Down syndrome. The prevalence of autosomal recessive inheritance in patients with consanguineous marriages and non family marriages was 62.8 % and 10%, respectively (P=0. 002. Conclusion: Since multiple cases of mental retardation were seen in families and rate of consanguineous marriage was more in parents of mentally retarded children, genetic counseling in consanguinity marriages and families of mentally retarded children can prevent incidence of mental retardation in these families.

  14. The Political Construction of Mass Schooling: European Origins and Worldwide Institutionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Boli, John

    1987-01-01

    Examines the origins of state educational systems in Europe in the nineteenth century and the institutionalization of mass education throughout the world in the twentieth century. Shows how construction of mass educational systems became a major and indispensable component of every modern state's nation building activity. Discusses the usefulness…

  15. Nanocellular foam with solid flame retardant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Kelly-Rowley, Anne M.; Bunker, Shana P.; Costeux, Stephane

    2017-11-21

    Prepare nanofoam by (a) providing an aqueous solution of a flame retardant dissolved in an aqueous solvent, wherein the flame retardant is a solid at 23.degree. C. and 101 kiloPascals pressure when in neat form; (b) providing a fluid polymer composition selected from a solution of polymer dissolved in a water-miscible solvent or a latex of polymer particles in a continuous aqueous phase; (c) mixing the aqueous solution of flame retardant with the fluid polymer composition to form a mixture; (d) removing water and, if present, solvent from the mixture to produce a polymeric composition having less than 74 weight-percent flame retardant based on total polymeric composition weight; (e) compound the polymeric composition with a matrix polymer to form a matrix polymer composition; and (f) foam the matrix polymer composition into nanofoam having a porosity of at least 60 percent.

  16. The Role of Verbal and Visual Text in the Process of Institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jancsary, Dennis; Meyer, Renate; Höllerer, Markus A.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we develop novel theory on the differentiated impact of verbal and visual texts on the emergence, rise, establishment, and consolidation of institutions. Integrating key insights from social semiotics into a discursive model of institutionalization, we identify distinct affordanc...

  17. Orthognathic surgery for mentally retarded patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, A. G.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    The surgical treatment of mentally retarded children for esthetic reasons is discussed. In mentally retarded adults a facial deformity can give rise to functional problems; in some cases a facial deformity can stigmatize the mental state. In selected cases orthognathic surgery may offer a solution

  18. Risk factors for falls in the institutionalized elder population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Romero

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to determine the risk factorspredictors of falls in institutionalized elderlypeople. Methodology: Analysis of data from alongitudinal cohort study. Subjects: Institutionalizedelderly volunteers residents of a nursinghome in Arbelaez, Colombia enrolled andfollowed for six months (N= 116; mean age: 78years. Main outcome measures: Falls detected via nurses reports and medical records. Independentvariables: Baseline measures of demographics,medical history, drug intake, depression, mentalstate, visual acuity, orthostatic hypotension,body mass index, cardiovascular state, limbdeformities, limb strength, tone, trophism, rageof motion, Romberg, one leg balance test, GetUp and Go test and timed Get Up and Go test.Evaluation of home facilities by the TESS-NHand SCUEQS scales. Results: Over the six monthfollow-up 36% experienced a fall. All noneinjurious falls. The independent significantpredictors of all falls using logistic regression were female gender, history of dizziness and anabnormal one leg balance test. With coefficientB values of 1.029, 2.024 and 1.712, respectively.Conclusion: The female gender, the history ofdizziness and abnormal one-leg balance testappear to be the main and significant predictorsof falls in institutionalized elderly persons.However, no single factor seems to be accurateenough to be relied on as a sole predictor of fallrisk because so many diverse factors are involvedin falling

  19. Institutionalizing telemedicine applications: the challenge of legitimizing decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanaboni, Paolo; Lettieri, Emanuele

    2011-09-28

    During the last decades a variety of telemedicine applications have been trialed worldwide. However, telemedicine is still an example of major potential benefits that have not been fully attained. Health care regulators are still debating why institutionalizing telemedicine applications on a large scale has been so difficult and why health care professionals are often averse or indifferent to telemedicine applications, thus preventing them from becoming part of everyday clinical routines. We believe that the lack of consolidated procedures for supporting decision making by health care regulators is a major weakness. We aim to further the current debate on how to legitimize decision making about the institutionalization of telemedicine applications on a large scale. We discuss (1) three main requirements--rationality, fairness, and efficiency--that should underpin decision making so that the relevant stakeholders perceive them as being legitimate, and (2) the domains and criteria for comparing and assessing telemedicine applications--benefits and sustainability. According to these requirements and criteria, we illustrate a possible reference process for legitimate decision making about which telemedicine applications to implement on a large scale. This process adopts the health care regulators' perspective and is made up of 2 subsequent stages, in which a preliminary proposal and then a full proposal are reviewed.

  20. Psychometric Properties of Sexuality and the Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory (SMRAI) in University Student of Lima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Sergio A.; Rimachi, Marlon

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyze the psychometric properties of "Sexuality and the Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory" (SMRAI) in a sample of 144 psychology college students 2nd to the 9th, of a private university in Lima, of which 44 were males (30.6%) and 100 female (69.4%), aged between 17 and 43 years (average: 21.9). The confirmatory…

  1. Influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' postural balance and risk of falls: a transversal study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Wagner Oliveira; Alves, Edmundo de Drummond; Porto, Flávia; Pereira, Fabio Dutra; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' balance and risk of falls. METHOD: to evaluate the risk of falls, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Get Up and Go test were used; and for measuring postural balance, static stabilometry was used, with acquisition of the elliptical area of 95% and mean velocities on the x and y axes of center of pressure displacement. Parametric and nonparametric measures of association and comparison (αrisk of falling, neither was there difference between groups and within subgroups, stratified by length of institutionalization and age. In the stabilometric measurements, there was a negative correlation between the parameters analyzed and the length of institutionalization, and difference between groups and within subgroups. CONCLUSION: this study's results point to the difficulty of undertaking postural control tasks, showing a leveling below the clinical tests' reference scores. In the stabilometric behavior, one should note the reduction of the parameters as the length of institutionalization increases, contradicting the assumptions. This study's results offer support for the development of a multi-professional model for intervention with the postural control and balance of older adults living in homes for the aged. PMID:25296149

  2. Hypotensive responses to common daily activities in institutionalized elderly. A potential risk for recurrent falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, P V; Lipsitz, L A; Kelley, M; Koestner, J

    1990-07-01

    Transient hypotension may be one of many factors contributing to the high prevalence of falls among elderly people. To determine the frequency and magnitude of hypotensive responses to common daily activities, and their potential relationship to falls in the elderly, we examined blood pressure (BP) and heart rate during a standardized series of activities in 38 institutionalized recurrent fallers (age, 87 +/- 6 years), 20 institutionalized nonfallers (age, 85 +/- 5 years), and 10 healthy young control subjects (age, 24 +/- 3 years). The coefficient of variation for systolic BP during all activities was higher in elderly subjects (fallers, 14% +/- 5%; nonfallers, 12% +/- 3%) than in young control subjects (8% +/- 1%). In contrast, the coefficient of variation for heart rate during all activities was higher in young subjects than in the elderly subjects. Elderly subjects had marked BP reduction following meals and nitroglycerin, which was significantly greater in fallers than in nonfallers, independent of the cause of the fall. Thus, institutionalized elderly have marked BP variability and hypotensive responses to meals and nitroglycerin. A decline in BP during common preload-reducing stresses may predispose some elderly people to falls.

  3. Biparental inheritance of chromosomal abnormalities in male twins with non-syndromic mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Gilling; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Mang, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    In a monozygotic twin couple with mental retardation (MR), we identified a maternally inherited inversion and a paternally inherited translocation: 46,XY,inv(10)(p11.2q21.2)mat,t(9;18)(p22;q21.1)pat. The maternally inherited inv(10) was a benign variant without any apparent phenotypical...... implications. The translocation breakpoint at 9p was within a cluster of interferon a genes and the 18q21 breakpoint truncated ZBTB7C (zinc finger and BTB containing 7C gene). In addition, analyses with array-CGH revealed a 931 kb maternally inherited deletion on chromosome 8q22 as well as an 875 kb maternally...... inherited duplication on 5p14. The deletion encompasses the RIM2 (Rab3A-interacting molecule 2), FZD6 (Frizzled homolog 6) and BAALC (Brain and Acute Leukemia Gene, Cytoplasmic) genes and the duplication includes the 5' end of the CDH9 (cadherin 9) gene. Exome sequencing did not reveal any additional...

  4. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically…

  5. The Mentally Retarded Offender and Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamour, Miles; West, Bernadette

    The booklet provides an overview of the issues involved in correctional rehabilitation for the mentally retarded offender. Reviewed are clinical and legal definitions of criminal behavior and retardation, and discussed are such issues as law enforcement and court proceedings problems, pros and cons of special facilities, labeling, normalization,…

  6. Effects of Acute Low-Dose Exposure to the Chlorinated Flame Retardant Dechlorane 602 and Th1 and Th2 Immune Responses in Adult Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Tian, Jijing; Xie, Heidi Qunhui; She, Jianwen; Xu, Sherry Li; Xu, Tuan; Tian, Wenjing; Fu, Hualing; Li, Shuaizhang; Tao, Wuqun; Wang, Lingyun; Chen, Yangsheng; Zhang, Songyan; Zhang, Wanglong; Guo, Tai L; Zhao, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Although the chlorinated flame retardant Dechlorane (Dec) 602 has been detected in food, human blood, and breast milk, there is limited information on potential health effects, including possible immunotoxicity. We determined the immunotoxic potential of Dec 602 in mice by examining the expression of phenotypic markers on thymocyte and splenic lymphocyte subsets, Th1/Th2 transcription factors, and the production of cytokines and antibodies. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were orally exposed to environmentally relevant doses of Dec 602 (1 and 10 μg/kg body weight per day) for 7 consecutive days. Thymocyte and splenic CD4 and CD8 subsets and splenocyte apoptosis were examined by flow cytometric analysis. Cytokine expression was measured at both the mRNA and the protein levels. Levels of the transcription factors Th1 (T-bet and STAT1) and Th2 (GATA3) were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum levels of immunoglobulins IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgE were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets were decreased compared with vehicle controls, and apoptosis was significantly increased in splenic CD4+ T cells. Expression (mRNA and protein) of Th2 cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and IL-13] increased, and that of Th1 cytokines [IL-2, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] decreased. The Th2 transcriptional factor GATA3 increased, whereas the Th1 transcriptional factors T-bet and STAT1 decreased. As additional indicators of the Th2-Th1 imbalance, production of IgG1 was significantly increased, whereas IgG2a was reduced. To our knowledge, we are the first to report evidence of the effects of Dec 602 on immune function in mice, with findings indicating that Dec 602 exposure favored Th2 responses and reduced Th1 function. Feng Y, Tian J, Xie HQ, She J, Xu SL, Xu T, Tian W, Fu H, Li S, Tao W, Wang L, Chen Y, Zhang S, Zhang W, Guo TL, Zhao B. 2016. Effects of acute low

  7. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  8. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  9. SLEEP DISORDERS IN MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kelmanson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of the association between sleep disturbances and mental retardation in children. Attention is paid to the instant connection between sleep neurophysiology and intellectual progress, as well as between sleep disorders and the pathogenesis of mental retardation in children. The data on characteristic forms of sleep disturbances, including bed-time resistance, frequent night awakenings, parasomnias, abnormal sleep structure, and notably reduced REM-sleep proportion are provided. The potential role of abnormal melatonin production in the origins of sleep disturbances in children with mental retardation is discussed. Certain approaches to pharmacological and non-pharmacological corrections of sleep disorders are outlined.

  10. Evidence of institutionalizing elements in the Balanced Scorecard in the book Strategy in action: a view based on institutional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschoal Tadeu Russo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Balanced Scorecard (BSC is a methodology that allows managers to define and implement a set of financial or nonfinancial indicators in a balanced way to assess an organization's performance from four viewpoints. Many companies are unsuccessful in their implementation of the BSC. This lack of success may be attributed to different factors, such as strategic problems, planning failures, and poorly defined targets and goals. However, the failed implementation may be attributed in part to the failure to institutionalize habits and routines. In this regard, this objective of this paper is to use institutional theory to determine whether the book Strategy in Action: Balanced Scorecard contains evidence that the BSC model proposed by the authors (Kaplan & Norton includes elements that favor the model's institutionalization. For this purpose, a qualitative bibliographic survey was prepared. The survey revealed 404 clues that were rated according to Tolbert and Zucker's description of the processes inherent to institutionalization and to Scott's proposed framework of legitimation/legitimizing. These findings suggest that the book primarily legitimizes the BSC by examining organizations and describes it as an acknowledged management instrument. The aspects supporting the semi-institutional stage (26% of the findings and the total institutionalization stage (10% of findings suggest that the authors intended to propose a tool without focusing on the institutionalization process, which may partly explain the great difficulty faced by companies attempting to implement this methodology.

  11. Noncitizen: Plight of the Mentally Retarded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarnulis, Ed

    1974-01-01

    Mentally retarded citizens have been denied their human and civil rights, not only by the public, but by professionals--including social workers. The author claims that most programs for the mentally retarded are, at best, dehumanizing. Professionals have an ethical obligation to refuse to refer children to such programs. (Author)

  12. Development of highly fire-retardant irradiated polyolefin cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Keiji; Inui, Toshifumi; Uda, Ikujiro (Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1982-12-01

    In recent years, motors, automobiles, heaters, etc., have been made into light weight and compact form in view of labour-saving and energy-saving. For this purpose, the wires for the electrical appliances used for these equipment are required to reduce insulation thickness and to improve heat resistance. On the other hand, the requirement for fire-retardant property has become severer than before from the viewpoint of safety. As an insulation for the wires which meets such requirement, the polyolefin cross-linked by irradiation was investigated, and the heat-resistant, highly fire-retardant, polyolefin-insulated wires have been developed, which have passed vertical combustion test (VW-1) and have the insulation thickness of 0.4 mm (voltage rating 300V) and UL standard 125 deg C and 150 deg C grades. Fire-retardant polyolefin resin is normally obtained by adding halogen series flame retarders. The selection of flame retarders requires the investigation on high thermal stability, high flame retardation, no impedance to cross-linking, and good dispersion into polymers. The evaluation of heat resistance performed on two points, thermal aging and thermal deformation. The use of oxidation inhibitors is indispensable to improve the anti-thermal aging capability, but it is important to balance the requirements well by combining oxidation inhibitors, considering thermal deformation, colouring and discolouration. By comparative test with silicone rubber, cross-linked polyethylene and cross-linked PVC-insulated wires, the characteristics of highly fire-retardant wires, insulated with polyethylene cross-linked by irradiation, are described about the fire retardation, thermal deformation, thermal aging resistance, electrical characteristics and oil resistance.

  13. The Role of Rhetorical Strategies On The Pr ocess Of Institutionalization: A Qualitative Analysis Of Insurance Industry In Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gökoğlu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the role and effectiveness of rhetorical strategies in the process of institutionalization. Rhetorical strategies present continuity with regard to institutionalization of certain social phenomena in society and are classified as Pathos, Logos and Ethos (Aristotle 1991. When considered from this point of view, institutional actors representing the important sections of the society produce effective texts through the discourse they use and ensuredissemination of the ideas regarding social phenomena they defend. In the study, insurance industry was taken into the scope of research to present in company with which rhetorical strategies institutionalization takes place. In accordance with the idea t hat different strategies might be dominant in different contexts, the findings put forth as a result of Pathos, Ethos and Logos strategies.

  14. Institutionalization of safety re-assessment system for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. C.; Min, B. K.; Park, J. S.; Jung, H. D.; Oh, K. M.; Kim, W. K.; Lim, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, in-depth reviews of the foreign countries' experiences and practices in applications of the periodic safety review (PSR), backfitting and license renewal systems as well as the current status of nuclear power safety assurance programs and activities in Korea have been performed to investigate the necessity and feasibility of the application of the systems for the domestic operating nuclear power plants and to establish effective strategy and methodology for the institutionalization of a periodic safety re-assessment system appropriate to both the domestic and international nuclear power environments by incorporating the PSR with the backfitting and license renewal systems. For these purposes, the regulatory policy, fundamental principles and detailed requirements for the institutionalization of the safety re-assessment system and the effective measures for active implementation of the backfitting program have been developed and then a comparative study of benefits and shortcomings has been conducted for the three different models of the periodic safety re-assessment system incorporated with either the license renewal or life extension process, which have been considered as practicable ones in the domestic situation. The model chosen in this study as the most appropriate safety re-assessment system is the one that the re-assessments are performed at the interval of ten years throughout the service life of nuclear power plant and the ten-year license renewal or life extension after the expiration of design life can be permitted based on the regulatory review of the re-assessment results and follow-up measures. Finally, this paper has discussed on the details of the requirements, approach and procedures established for the institutionalization of the periodic safety re-assessment system chosen as the most appropriate one for domestic applications

  15. Deaf not Daft: The Deaf in Mental Subnormality Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chris

    1982-01-01

    Case studies of deaf or hearing impaired persons in institutions for the mentally retarded illustrate the ways in which the "invisible handicap" can mask cognitive ability, causing unnecessary institutionalization. (CL)

  16. Skeletal manifestations of stress in child victims of the Great Irish Famine (1845-1852): prevalence of enamel hypoplasia, Harris lines, and growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Jonny

    2014-09-01

    The Great Irish Famine of 1845-1852 is among the worst food crises in human history. While numerous aspects of this period have been studied by generations of scholars, relatively little attention has so far been given to the physiological impact it is likely to have had on the people who suffered and succumbed to it. This study examines the prevalence of enamel hypoplasia, Harris lines, and growth retardation in the nonadult proportion of a skeletal population comprising victims of the Famine who died in the workhouse in the city of Kilkenny between 1847 and 1851. The frequency of enamel hypoplasia in these children does not appear to have increased as a consequence of famine, although this fact is likely to be a reflection of the osteological paradox. Harris lines and growth retardation; however, were very prevalent, and the manifestation and age-specific distribution of these may be indicators of the Famine experience. While there was no clear correlation in the occurrence of the assessed markers, the presence of cribra orbitalia displayed a significant relationship to enamel hypoplasia in 1- to 5-year-old children. While starvation, metabolic disorders and infectious diseases are likely to have greatly contributed to the manifestation of the markers, the psychosocial stress relating to institutionalization in the workhouse should not be underestimated as a substantial causative factor for skeletal stress in this population. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Falls in institutionalized older adults: risks, consequences and antecedents

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo Neto, Antonio Herculano de; Patrício, Anna Cláudia Freire de Araújo; Ferreira, Milenna Azevedo Minhaqui; Rodrigues, Brenda Feitosa Lopes; Santos, Thayná Dias dos; Rodrigues, Thays Domingos de Brito; Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo da

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the occurrence of falls in institutionalized elderly addressing the risks, consequences and antecedents. Method: Cross-sectional study carried out with 45 older adults in Long-Term Care Facilities for the Older adult in João Pessoa, Brazil, in June and July 2016. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Berg Balance Scale were applied, classifying as risk of fall scores lower than 45. Descriptive statistics and tests were conducted: independent t-test, Anova ...

  18. Patient Satisfaction and Prognosis for Functional Improvement and Deterioration, Institutionalization, and Death Among Medicare Beneficiaries Over 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Hillary R; de Vries McClintock, Heather F; Kurichi, Jibby E; Kwong, Pui L; Xie, Dawei; Hennessy, Sean; Streim, Joel E; Stineman, Margaret G

    2017-01-01

    To examine how patient satisfaction with care coordination and quality and access to medical care influence functional improvement or deterioration (activity limitation stage transitions), institutionalization, or death among older adults. National representative sample with 2-year follow-up. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey from calendar years 2001 to 2008. Community-dwelling adults (N=23,470) aged ≥65 years followed for 2 years. Not applicable. A multinomial logistic regression model taking into account the complex survey design was used to examine the association between patient satisfaction with care coordination and quality and patient satisfaction with access to medical care and activities of daily living (ADL) stage transitions, institutionalization, or death after 2 years, adjusting for baseline socioeconomics and health-related characteristics. Out of 23,470 Medicare beneficiaries, 14,979 (63.8% weighted) remained stable in ADL stage, 2508 (10.7% weighted) improved, 3210 (13.3% weighted) deteriorated, 582 (2.5% weighted) were institutionalized, and 2281 (9.7% weighted) died. Beneficiaries who were in the top quartile of satisfaction with care coordination and quality were less likely to be institutionalized (adjusted relative risk ratio [RRR], .68; 95% confidence interval [CI], .54-.86). Beneficiaries who were in the top quartile of satisfaction with access to medical care were less likely to functionally deteriorate (adjusted RRR, .87; 95% CI, .79-.97), be institutionalized (adjusted RRR, .72; 95% CI, .56-.92), or die (adjusted RRR, .86; 95% CI, .75-.98). Knowledge of patient satisfaction with medical care and risk of functional deterioration may be helpful for monitoring and addressing disability-related health care disparities and the effect of ongoing policy changes among Medicare beneficiaries. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aquatic physical therapy as a treatment modality in healthcare for non-institutionalized elderly persons: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele da Silveira Sarmento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review scientific literature pertaining to aquatic physical therapy in the elderly and institutionalized population. Methods: A qualitative systematic review of electronic databases MEDLINE and LILACS, with the topic index terms: “hydrotherapy”, “homes for the aged or residential facilities”, and “aged. In light of the lack of studies carried out on the institutionalized population, we opted for reviewing literature on the effectiveness of this modality of physical therapy treatment on the non-institutionalized elderly population in order to produce knowledge that can be critically analyzed according to its potential applicability for the institutionalized population. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Delphi listing. Results: Of the 27 studies analyzed by their abstracts, 10 studies were excluded since they did not correspond to the eligibility criteria. We analyzed the subject characteristics of each study, as well as the quality of the methods (good methodological quality in 47% of the studies, the result measurements considered, the intervention strategies, the sites where they took place, and the professionals involved (76% by physical therapists. Conclusion: Although a large part of the studies demonstrated good results with aquatic physical therapy practice, none of them had been applied on long-stay institution for the elderly. Therefore, more studies are needed in this area for a model of assistance to long-stay institution for the elderly to be proposed.

  20. Autism and mental retardation among offspring born after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, Sven; Nygren, Karl-Gösta; Iliadou, Anastasia; Hultman, Christina M; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2013-07-03

    Between 1978 and 2010, approximately 5 million infants were born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments. Yet limited information on neurodevelopment after IVF exists, especially after the first year of life. To examine the association between use of any IVF and different IVF procedures and the risk of autistic disorder and mental retardation in the offspring. A population-based, prospective cohort study using Swedish national health registers. Offspring born between 1982 and 2007 were followed up for a clinical diagnosis of autistic disorder or mental retardation until December 31, 2009. The exposure of interest was IVF, categorized according to whether intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for male infertility was used and whether embryos were fresh or frozen. For ICSI, whether sperm were ejaculated or surgically extracted was also considered. Relative risks (RRs) for autistic disorder and mental retardation and rates per 100,000 person-years, comparing spontaneously conceived offspring with those born after an IVF procedure and comparing 5 IVF procedures used in Sweden vs IVF without ICSI with fresh embryo transfer, the most common treatment. We also analyzed the subgroup restricted to singletons. Of the more than 2.5 million infants born, 30,959 (1.2%) were conceived by IVF and were followed up for a mean 10 (SD, 6) years. Overall, 103 of 6959 children (1.5%) with autistic disorder and 180 of 15,830 (1.1%) with mental retardation were conceived by IVF. The RR for autistic disorder after any procedure compared with spontaneous conception was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.94-1.39; 19.0 vs 15.6 per 100,000 person-years). The RR for mental retardation was 1.18 (95% CI, 1.01-1.36; 46.3 vs 39.8 per 100,000 person-years). For both outcomes, there was no statistically significant association when restricting analysis to singletons. Compared with IVF without ICSI with fresh embryo transfer, there were statistically significantly increased risks of autistic disorder following

  1. Junior Enterprise: the process of institutionalization in public universities of Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Dheison dos Santos Penha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the process of institutionalization of Junior Enterprises (JEs of the public universities of Ceará, according to the model of institutionalization of Tolbert and Zucker (1999 in its three phases: habituation, objectification and sedimentation. This research is bibliographic, being classified as a descriptive study of qualitative and quantitative nature. The study was conducted in 10 JEs of Ceará. During data collection, questionnaires administered with members, and interviews with the presidents of the JEs were used. The results show that the main reason for the emergence of IOs in public universities of Ceará was the need to combine theory with practice, the main actors in the process of these entities were students. No resistance groups, but there is a threat at the prospect of continuity due to high turnover in JEs. The JEs are among the phases of objectification and sedimentation and isomorphic characteristics, among JEs, are related to the sharing of best management practices.

  2. Anxious-retarded depression: relation to family history of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Remco F. P.; Zwinderman, Koos H.; Goekoop, Jaap G.

    2004-01-01

    Anxious-retarded depression is a two-dimensionally defined subcategory of depression based on high scores for both anxiety and retardation. The anxious-retarded subcategory is related to melancholia as defined by DSM-IV. Patients with this diagnosis exhibit elevated plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP)

  3. Development of flame retardant, radiation resistant insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the cables used for nuclear power stations, in particular those ranked as IE class, flame retardation test, simulated LOCA environment test, radiation resistance test and so on are imposed. The results of the evaluation of performance by these tests largely depend on the insulating materials mainly made of polymers. Ethylene propylene copolymer rubber has been widely used as cable insulator because of its electrical characteristics, workability, economy and relatively good radiation resistance, but it is combustible, therefore, in the practical use, it is necessary to make it fire resistant. The author et al. have advanced the research on the molecular design of new fire retarding materials, and successfully developed acenaphthylene bromide condensate, which is not only fire resistant but also effective for improving radiation resistance. The condition of flame retardant, radiation resistant auxiliary agents is explained, and there are additive type and reaction type in fire retarding materials. The synthesis of acenaphthylene bromide condensate and its effect of giving flame retardant and radiation resistant properties are reported. The characteristics of the cables insulated with the flame retardant ethylene propylene rubber containing acenaphthylene bromide condensate were tested, and the results are shown. (Kako, I.).

  4. Increased lipolysis but diminished gene expression of lipases in subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy young males with intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Alibegovic, Amra C; Sonne, Mette P

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with a central fat distribution and risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adults when exposed to a sedentary Western lifestyle. Increased lipolysis is an early defect of metabolism in IUGR subjects, but the sites and molecular mechanisms involv...

  5. Video Games to Augment Leisure Programming in a State Hospital Residence for Developmentally Disabled Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Janet; Ball, Thomas S.

    1983-01-01

    Three mildly and moderately retarded, physically handicapped institutionalized men (17-30 years old) successfully participated in a recreation program involving adapted videogames. Doubles play fostered cooperative social interaction between players. (CL)

  6. A de novo 11p12-p15.4 duplication in a patient with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, mental retardation, and dysmorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Antonietta; Striano, Pasquale; Gimelli, Stefania; Ciampa, Clotilde; Santulli, Lia; Caranci, Ferdinando; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Gimelli, Giorgio; Striano, Salvatore; Zara, Federico

    2010-03-01

    We report a 22-year-old male patient with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, mental retardation and dysmorphisms. Standard cytogenetic analysis revealed a de novo interstitial duplication of the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p). High density array-CGH analysis showed that the rearrangement spans about 35Mb on chromosome 11p12-p15.4. Duplications of 11p are rare and usually involve the distal part of the chromosome arm (11p15), being not associated with epilepsy, whereas our patient showed a unique epileptic phenotype associated with mental retardation and dysmorphic features. The role of some rearranged genes in epilepsy pathogenesis in this patient is also discussed.

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Institutionalized World War II Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran

    1994-01-01

    Relatively little is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in World War II (WWII) veterans, despite the significant number of studies on this problem in Vietnam veterans. The authors document the prevalence of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders and investigate the etiological correlates of the syndrome in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans. Sixty-two cognitively intact subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residents in a veterans' long-term care facility, were assessed for past and present psychopathology. A second investigator, blind to patients' psychiatric status, determined the degree of combat exposure and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 23%. Of those veterans with PTSD, 57% experienced chronic symptoms. The lifetime prevalence of other diagnoses was also high, including 3 7% for major depression and 53% for alcohol abuse. There was a strong correlation between the severity of the combat stressor and the development of PTSD. Significant correlations between PTSD and some pre-war variables were also found: more family histories of alcohol abuse, more deaths of close family members in early life, and less likelihood of having held a job for more than 1 year prior to the war. PTSD in elderly, institutionalized WWII veterans is a common, serious problem that is often unrecognized. Copyright © 1994 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hospital information system institutionalization processes in indonesian public, government-owned and privately owned hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, P W; Hidayanto, A N; Ayuningtyas, Dumilah; Budi, Indra

    2016-11-01

    The Hospital Information System (HIS) could help hospitals as a public entity to provide optimal health services. One of the main challenges of HIS implementation is an institutional change. Using institutional theory as the analytical lens, this study aims to explain the institutionalization of HIS as an instance of e-health initiatives in Indonesia. Furthermore, this paper aims for hospital management and researchers to improve the understanding of the social forces that influence hospital personnel's HIS acceptance within an organizational context. We use case studies from four public, government-owned hospitals and four privately owned (public and specialty) hospitals to explain the HIS institutionalization process by exploring the three concepts of institutional theory: institutional isomorphism, institutional logic, and institutional entrepreneurship. This study reveals that differences exist between public, government-owned and private hospitals with regard to the institutionalization process: public, government-owned hospitals' management is more motivated to implement HIS to comply with the regulations, while private hospitals' management views HIS as an urgent requirement that must be achieved. The study findings also reveal that various institutional isomorphism mechanisms and forms of institutional logic emerge during the process. Finally, three factors-self-efficacy, social influence, and management support-have a significant influence on the individual acceptance of HIS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changing District Priorities for School-Business Collaboration: Superintendent Agency and Capacity for Institutionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.; Thompson, Hugh C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School district superintendents continue to favor collaborative relationships with their local business communities amid concerns over free-market competition, maintaining public legitimacy, and scarce financial resources. Prior research is inadequate regarding the development, implementation, and institutionalization of school and…

  10. The institutionalization of children's participation in a child protective service

    OpenAIRE

    Compte Nunes, Guillem

    2015-01-01

    [EN] In order to advance toward an understanding of the mechanisms of social transformation, overcoming the rhetoric about the importance of children’s participation and the marginalization of the knowledge on children’s issues, this paper identifies facilitating factors for and barriers against the institutionalization of children’s participation in a public child protective service. The results are interpreted through the 4I model of organizational learning. They highlight th...

  11. Caring for children with mental retardation: The experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caring for children with mental retardation at home requires great patience and understanding. Mothers often experience difficulties adjusting to the fact that their children are mentally retarded and that it cannot be cured. This study investigated the experiences of mothers caring for children with mental retardation.

  12. Suspected X-linked facial dysmorphia and growth retardation in related Labrador retriever puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, C; Hoffmann, H; Heinrich, F; Hellige, M; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Distl, O

    2017-02-01

    Seven male Labrador retriever puppies from four different litters were identified with a brachycephalic-like face and skull, associated with low birth weight, severe growth retardation, and reduced abilities to crawl and suckle, which were not compatible with survival. Excessive doming of the cranium, brachygnathia superior and inferior, and an abnormally opened fontanelle were found in all affected puppies by computed tomography and at post-mortem examination. Pedigree analysis supported an X-linked recessive mode of inheritance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    Flame retardants are widely used industrial chemicals that are added to polymers, such as polyurethane foam, to prevent them from rapidly burning if exposed to a small flame or a smoldering cigarette. Flame retardants, especially brominated flame retardants, are added to many polymeric products at percent levels and are present in most upholstered furniture and mattresses. Most of these chemicals are so-called "additive" flame retardants and are not chemically bound to the polymer; thus, they migrate from the polymeric materials into the environment and into people. As a result, some of these chemicals have become widespread pollutants, which is a concern given their possible adverse health effects. Perhaps because of their environmental ubiquity, the most heavily used group of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), was withdrawn from production and use during the 2004-2013 period. This led to an increasing demand for other flame retardants, including other brominated aromatics and organophosphate esters. Although little is known about the use or production volumes of these newer flame retardants, it is evident that some of these chemicals are also becoming pervasive in the environment and in humans. In this Account, we describe our research on the occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in the environment, with a specific focus on the Great Lakes region. This Account starts with a short introduction to the first generation of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated biphenyls, and then presents our measurements of their replacement, the PBDEs. We summarize our data on PBDE levels in babies, bald eagles, and in air. Once these compounds came off the market, we began to measure several of the newer flame retardants in air collected on the shores of the Great Lakes once every 12 days. These new measurements focus on a tetrabrominated benzoate, a tetrabrominated phthalate, a hexabrominated diphenoxyethane

  14. Sustained Attention of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Allison, Pamela

    1988-01-01

    The sustained attention of 23 young adults with mild mental retardation and nonretarded subjects was assessed. Findings suggested that the sustained attention of the retarded differs from that of the nonretarded on those vigilance tasks that place demands on memory abilities. (Author/DB)

  15. Toward a Model of Academic Integrity Institutionalization: Informing Practice in Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Tricia Bertram; Drinan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The strategic choices facing higher education in confronting problems of academic misconduct need to be rethought. Using institutional theory, a model of academic integrity institutionalization is proposed that delineates four stages and a pendulum metaphor. A case study is provided to illustrate how the model can be used by postsecondary…

  16. ANALYSIS OF FREQUENCY OF PHENYLKETONURIA AMONG INSTITUTIONALIZED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S VALIAN

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenylketonuria (PKU is a genetic disease, which is caused by deficiency in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH enzyme. Untreated patients will develop a severe mental retardation, which is irreversible. In this study, the incidence of the PKU disease among isolated mentally retarded residents in institutions in Isfahan, was investigated. Methods: A total number of 1541 patients were involved in the study. Of the patients studied, 611 with no known reason for their mental retardation were chosen for blood sampling. Blood samples were collected on filter papers and examined by Gutheri bacterial inhibition assay (GBIA, which is specific for PKU In patients with positive test, the serum phenylalanine was quatitavely analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography, HPLC. Results: Among the patients examined, 33 were found positive. Quantitative analysis of phenylalanine allowed classification of the patients, indicating 600 with classical, 36% with moderate, and 3% with mild type of PKU Furthermore; it was found that in 68% of the cases, parents are third grade relative. Discussion: The results obtained in this screening study indicated that 2.1% of the patients in the institutions for mentally related in Isfahan suffered from PKU The incidence of the disease is relatively high compare to the reports from other countries. Since, a large number of patients (68% are the results of consanguineous marriages, this kind of marriage could be considered as one of the important factors involved in the prevalence of PKU in Isfahan.

  17. Human exposure to brominated flame retardants through dust in different indoor environments: Identifying the sources of concentration differences in hair from men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqi; Dong, Zheng; Wang, Ying; Bao, Junsong; Yan, Yijun; Liu, Anming; Jin, Jun

    2018-08-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) can accumulate in humans and are associated with adverse health effects. The study was conducted to determine the differences in Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative brominated flame retardant (Alt-BFR) concentrations between men and women. We analyzed hair samples from 14 male and 20 female university students, paired dust samples from their dormitories (10 for males and 8 for females), and six dust samples from university teaching buildings. The total PBDE concentrations in hair from females were significantly (three times) higher (p = 0.012) than that from males (means 372 and 109 ng/g, respectively). The mean total PBDE concentrations in classroom and dormitory dust were 36100 and 2012 ng/g, respectively. The PBDE patterns were different in the male and female hair samples, as were the patterns in the classroom and dormitory dust. There are no reports concerning human exposure to BFRs through dust that was assessed considering academic and residential environments simultaneously. The differences between BFR exposure for males and females and the differences between BFR concentrations in hair samples from males and females were consistent for 71.4% of the compounds. However, using only dormitory dust in the calculations gave consistent differences only for 28.6% of the compounds, suggesting that the BFR concentration differences in hair were mainly because females spent much more time than males in classrooms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fire-Retardant, Self-Extinguishing Inorganic/Polymer Composite Memory Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Soumyajyoti; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Kumaraswamy, Guruswamy

    2017-12-27

    Polymeric foams used in furniture and automotive and aircraft seating applications rely on the incorporation of environmentally hazardous fire-retardant additives to meet fire safety norms. This has occasioned significant interest in novel approaches to the elimination of fire-retardant additives. Foams based on polymer nanocomposites or based on fire-retardant coatings show compromised mechanical performance and require additional processing steps. Here, we demonstrate a one-step preparation of a fire-retardant ice-templated inorganic/polymer hybrid that does not incorporate fire-retardant additives. The hybrid foams exhibit excellent mechanical properties. They are elastic to large compressional strain, despite the high inorganic content. They also exhibit tunable mechanical recovery, including viscoelastic "memory". These hybrid foams are prepared using ice-templating that relies on a green solvent, water, as a porogen. Because these foams are predominantly comprised of inorganic components, they exhibit exceptional fire retardance in torch burn tests and are self-extinguishing. After being subjected to a flame, the foam retains its porous structure and does not drip or collapse. In micro-combustion calorimetry, the hybrid foams show a peak heat release rate that is only 25% that of a commercial fire-retardant polyurethanes. Finally, we demonstrate that we can use ice-templating to prepare hybrid foams with different inorganic colloids, including cheap commercial materials. We also demonstrate that ice-templating is amenable to scale up, without loss of mechanical performance or fire-retardant properties.

  19. The falls and the fear of falling among elderly institutionalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study it is intended to characterize the history of falls and to evaluate the fear to fall in aged institutionalized. The sample is composed for 113 institutionalized aged people, 32 men and 81 women with a average 82,96 ± 7,03 age of years. The data had been collected by means of a questionnaire and statistical analyzed (descriptive statistics, parametric tests - Test T and Anova - Test U-Mann Whitney, and Test of Kruskal-Wallis – and the Test of Tukey. The results point in the direction of that the women present a bigger number of falls (24.8% and greater fear to fall (Med=55. The falls had occurred in its majority in the context of the room of the institutions. It was verified that people who had at least a fall experience present greater fear to fall comparatively (Med=55 with that they had not the same had no incident of fall in period of time (Med=77. Our results come to strengthen the hypothesis of the changeable sex to be able to be considered a factor of fall risk. Aged that they present a history of falls seems to be more vulnerable to develop the fear to fall.

  20. Effects of a long-term aerobic exercise intervention on institutionalized patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, José M; Ayán, Carlos; Varela, Silvia; Seijo, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Long-term interventions aimed at analyzing the impact of physical exercise on important health markers in institutionalized individuals with dementia are relatively scarce. This longitudinal study intends to identify the effects of a physical exercise program on cognitive decline, memory, depression, functional dependence and neuropsychiatric disturbances in institutionalized individuals with dementia. Randomized controlled trial. Homecare residents with dementia were assigned to an exercise (EG) or to a control group (CG). Participants in the EG cycled for at least 15min daily during 15 months, while those in the CG performed alternative sedentary recreational activities. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MEC), the Timed "Up & Go" Test, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the Katz Index, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation were administered before and after the intervention. Sixty-three individuals in the CG and 51 individuals in the EG completed the intervention. A statistically significant decline in cognitive function was observed in individuals included in the CG (p=0.015), while a slight improvement was observed in those included in the EG. Significant improvement was observed in the neuropsychiatric symptoms (p=0.020), memory function (p=0.028) and functional mobility (p=0.043) among those who exercised. Exercise seemed to have a greater effect in those suffering from severe cognitive impairment. This study provides evidence that aerobic physical exercise has a significant impact on improving cognitive functioning, behavior, and functional mobility in institutionalized individuals with dementia. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Deciding to institutionalize: caregiving crisis, intergenerational communication, and uncertainty management for elders and their children in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological study integrated crisis theory, social identity theory, and uncertainty management theory to conceptualize the decision-making process around institutionalization among nursing home residents and their children in Shanghai. I conducted face-to-face, semistructured interviews with 12 dyads of matched elders and their children (N = 24). The findings suggest that caregiving crises triggered intergenerational communication about caregiving alternatives and new arrangements, although each generation had different stances and motivations. Children finalized the decision by helping their parents to manage the uncertainties pertaining to institutionalization. This study sheds light on caregiving decision-making dynamics for the increasing aging population across cultures.

  2. Perceptual-Motor Attributes of Mentally Retarded Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    To evaluate six perceptual-motor attributes of trainable and educable mentally retarded children, a battery of tests was constructed which included body perception, gross agility, balance, locomotor ability, throwing, and tracking; 83 retarded subjects provided reliability data, and their scores, with those of 120 additional subjects, provided…

  3. Leadership for Evidence-Based Practice: Strategic and Functional Behaviors for Institutionalizing EBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Ritchie, Judith A; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Charns, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Background Making evidence-based practice (EBP) a reality throughout an organization is a challenging goal in healthcare services. Leadership has been recognized as a critical element in that process. However, little is known about the exact role and function of various levels of leadership in the successful institutionalization of EBP within an organization. Aims To uncover what leaders at different levels and in different roles actually do, and what actions they take to develop, enhance, and sustain EBP as the norm. Methods Qualitative data from a case study regarding institutionalization of EBP in two contrasting cases (Role Model and Beginner hospitals) were systematically analyzed. Data were obtained from multiple interviews of leaders, both formal and informal, and from staff nurse focus groups. A deductive coding schema, based on concepts of functional leadership, was developed for this in-depth analysis. Results Participants’ descriptions reflected a hierarchical array of strategic, functional, and cross-cutting behaviors. Within these macrolevel “themes,” 10 behavioral midlevel themes were identified; for example, Intervening and Role modeling. Each theme is distinctive, yet various themes and their subthemes were interrelated and synergistic. These behaviors and their interrelationships were conceptualized in the framework “Leadership Behaviors Supportive of EBP Institutionalization” (L-EBP). Leaders at multiple levels in the Role Model case, both formal and informal, engaged in most of these behaviors. Linking Evidence to Action Supportive leadership behaviors required for organizational institutionalization of EBP reflect a complex set of interactive, multifaceted EBP-focused actions carried out by leaders from the chief nursing officer to staff nurses. A related framework such as L-EBP may provide concrete guidance needed to underpin the often-noted but abstract finding that leaders should “support” EBP. PMID:24986669

  4. A Case Study of an Adolescent Male with XXXXY Klinefelter's Syndrome. Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Margaret K.; Radlinski, Sara

    1988-01-01

    The developmental history of a 14-year-old male with Klinefelter's Syndrome (XXXXY) is described. The boy's physical development was consistent with many patterns described in the XXXXY literature, although his retardation was not as severe as expected from the literature. (Author/DB)

  5. Crack retardation by load reduction during fatigue crack propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Nam, Ki Woo; Ahn, Seok Hwan; Do, Jae Yoon

    2003-01-01

    Fracture life and crack retardation behavior were examined experimentally using CT specimens of aluminum alloy 5083. Crack retardation life and fracture life were a wide difference between 0.8 and 0.6 in proportion to ratio of load reduction. The wheeler model retardation parameter was used successfully to predict crack growth behavior. By using a crack propagation rule, prediction of fracture life can be evaluated quantitatively. A statistical approach based on Weibull distribution was applied to the test data to evaluate the dispersion in the retardation life and fracture life by the change of load reduction

  6. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  7. The institutionalization of Jesus' charismatic authority, Part 1: Indirect Christology - direct Christology1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Dreyer

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns an investigation of the evolution of the Jesus tradition. Christological titles are studied in terms of the social theory of the institutionalization of charismatic authority. It makes use of Anthony Thiselton's and Bengt Holmberg's application of Max Weber's social theory. It is argued that the followers of Jesus acknowledged and expressed his authority by means of naming. These "names" developed into "titles" when the post-Easter followers of Jesus allocated power to him. The process of the institutionalization of Jesus' charismatic authority relates to the transmission from the oral tradition of Jesus' sayings and deeds to the written evidence. The article emphasizes the work done by the Jesus Seminar. The following "rules of written evidence" are considered: clustering and contexting; revision and commentary; false attribution; difficult sayings and the process of christianising. In Part 2 of the study, Weber,s social theory is applied to the Christological title "Son of Man".

  8. Access to medicines: relations with the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Damasceno de Barros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJETIVE To analyze the relationship between access to medicines by the population and the institutionalization of pharmaceutical services in Brazilian primary health care. METHODS This study is part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços 2015 (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services 2015, a cross-sectional, exploratory, and evaluative study composed of an information survey in a representative sample of cities, stratified by Brazilian regions. Access was defined based on the acquisition of medicines reported by the patient, ranging between: total, partial, or null. The institutionalization of pharmaceutical services was analyzed based on information provided by pharmaceutical services providers and by those responsible for medicines delivery. Chi-square test and multinomial logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS Full access to medicines was greater when professionals affirmed there were the following aspects of the dimensions: “management tools,” “participation and social control,” “financing,” and “personnel structure,” with significant associations in the bivariate analysis. The “pharmaceutical care” dimension did not achieve such an association. After multinomial logistic regression, full access was more prevalent when those in charge of pharmaceutical services stated that: they always or repeatedly attend meetings of the Municipal Health Council, OR = 3.3 (95%CI 1.5-7.3; there are protocols for medicines delivery, OR = 2.7 (95%CI 1.2-6.1; there is computerized system for managing pharmaceutical services, OR = 3.9 (95%CI 1.9-8.0; those responsible for medicines delivery reported having participated in a course or training for professionals in the past two years, OR = 2.0 (95%CI 1.1-3.5; there is computerized system for pharmaceutical services management, OR

  9. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  10. Fragile X founder effect and distribution of CGG repeats among the mentally retarded population of Andalusia, South Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda de Diego

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. We investigated the prevalence of the Fragile X syndrome in the population with mental retardation of unknown etiology in Andalusia, South Spain. We analyzed 322 unrelated patients (280 males and 42 females, and found a fragile X syndrome frequency of 6.5%. Among the non-fragile X chromosomes, the 29 CGG repeat was the most common allele. At the linked microsatellite DXS548 locus, we found a new allele which we called "allele 10" (17 CA. Similar to other south European populations, allele 2 (25 CA at the DXS548 locus and the fragile X allele were in linkage disequilibrium supporting the idea of a common founder chromosome predisposing to the CGG expansion.

  11. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  12. Moral reasoning of Piagetian-matched retarded and nonretarded children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, J V

    1983-09-01

    The moral reasoning of four IQ/etiology groups was investigated: 19 organically abnormal moderately retarded, 19 organically abnormal mildly retarded, 19 mildly retarded due to psychosocial disadvantage, and 19 nonretarded individuals. In each group 12 Ss were preoperational and seven concrete operational. Moral reasoning was assessed by an instrument using moral dilemmas based on Kohlberg's procedures. The Slosson Intelligence Test was used to determine the IQs and mental ages of each S. Piagetian stage was determined with the standard conservation of number tasks. The findings indicated no overall significant differences between the mildly retarded and the nonretarded Ss or between the mildly retarded and the moderately retarded Ss, but differences were found between the moderately retarded and the nonretarded Ss. A significant interaction was found between the two independent variables, IQ/etiology and cognitive level. The results were discussed as supporting Zigler's development position and as damaging to Kohlberg's position.

  13. Effectiveness of group reminiscence for improving wellbeing of institutionalized elderly adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Scaratti, Chiara; Morganti, Luca; Stramba-Badiale, Marco; Agostoni, Monica; Spatola, Chiara A M; Molinari, Enrico; Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-10-25

    Group reminiscence therapy is a brief and structured intervention in which participants share personal past events with peers. This approach has been shown to be promising for improving wellbeing and reducing depressive symptoms among institutionalized older adults. However, despite the considerable interest in reminiscence group therapy, controlled studies to determine its specific benefits as compared to generic social interactions with peers (group conversations about everyday subjects) are still lacking. We have designed a randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing the effects of group reminiscence therapy with those of group recreational activity on the psychological wellbeing of an institutionalized sample of older adults. The study includes two groups of 20 hospitalized elderly participants: the experimental group and the control group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive six sessions of group reminiscence therapy, while the control group will participate in a recreational group discussion. A repeated-measures design will be used post-intervention and three months post-intervention to evaluate changes in self-reported outcome measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and quality of life from baseline. The protocol of a study aimed at examining the specific effects of group reminiscence therapy on psychological wellbeing, depression, and quality of life among institutionalized elderly people is described. It is expected that the outcomes of this trial will contribute to our knowledge about the process of group reminiscence, evaluate its effectiveness in improving psychological wellbeing of institutionalized individuals, and identify the best conditions for optimizing this approach. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (registration number: NCT02077153) on 31 January 2014.

  14. Engineering of the institutionalization of the circular economy at the level of casting production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescan, M. M.; Soporan, V. F.; Crișan, D. M.; Lehene, T. R.; Pădurețu, S.; Samuila, V.

    2017-06-01

    This paper is motivated by the necessity of introducing the principles of circular economy at the level of different social - economic activities, and from this point of view one of the fields with a special potential is that of the manufacture of castings. Objective: to connect to the organizing and application of the methodology of the circular economy principles. The proposed method is an innovating one, being connected to the use of institutionalization engineering. Formulating the subject: The subject formulated to be solved aims at the introduction of new approaches, defined through institutionalization engineering, which proposes to set the correlation of actions between the specifics of the circular economy and the specific elements of the manufacture of castings. Research method: An institutional structuring operation was imposed for the optimization of the research method, in which different versions interact at the following levels: the level of public policies, the level of the regulatory framework, the level of technical solutions and the level of financing solutions and financial instruments. The determination of the optimal solution established in a dynamic context, favorable for the requirements of the different actors present within the process, appeals to the elements of critical thinking, specific for the engineer’s actions. Achievement of the research activity: The research activity structures a methodology of quantifying the contributions of each stage of the manufacturing process for castings at the fulfilling of the specific conditions of the circular economy, indicating the critical areas of action for more efficient actions of the circular economy, according to the market economy requirements, where there is a potential of implementing the technical solutions by quantizing the financial solutions and the opportunity of using the financial instruments. The major contribution of the research: The proposed methodology, with examples at the

  15. Effect of Early Referral to Specialist in Dementia on Institutionalization and Functional Decline: Findings from a Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimouguet, Clément; Le-Goff, Mélanie; Rizzuto, Debora; Berr, Claudine; Leffondré, Karen; Pérès, Karine; Dartigues, Jean FranÇois; Helmer, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Although early diagnosis has been hypothesized to benefit both patients and caregivers, until now studies evaluating the effect of early dementia diagnosis are lacking. To investigate the influence of early specialist referral for dementia on the risk of institutionalization and functional decline in Activity of Daily Living (ADL). Incident dementia cases were screened in a prospective population-based cohort, the Three-City Study, and initial specialist consultation for cognitive complaint was assessed at dementia diagnosis. Proportional hazard regression and illness-death models were used to test the association between specialist referral and, respectively, institutionalization and functional decline. Only one third of the incident individuals with dementia had consulted a specialist for cognitive problems early (36%). After adjustment on potential confounders (including cognitive and functional decline) and competing risk of death, participants who had consulted a specialist early in the disease course presented a higher rate of being institutionalized than those who did not (Hazard Ratio = 2.00, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.09- 3.64). But early specialist referral was not associated with further functional decline (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.71- 1.67). Early specialist referral in dementia is associated with increased risk of institutionalization but not with functional decline in ADL. These findings suggest that early care referral in dementia may be a marker of concern for patients and/or caregivers; subsequent medical and social care could be suboptimal or inappropriate to allow patients to stay longer at home.

  16. Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

  17. Political Parties and the Institutionalization of Education: A Comparative Analysis of Party Manifestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Anja P.

    2011-01-01

    Education has been featured prominently in recent election campaigns in different countries. This article explains this observation by the idea of a world culture and the global institutionalization of education. It compares party manifestors of 25 OECD countries from 1946 onward, analyzing how education developed in election campaigns over time…

  18. Flame retardancy and thermal properties of epoxy acrylate resin/alpha-zirconium phosphate nanocomposites used for UV-curing flame retardant films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Weiyi; Jie Ganxin; Song Lei; Wang Xin; Lv Xiaoqi; Hu Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reported the UV-curing flame retardant film, which consisted of epoxy acrylate resin (EA) used as an oligomer, tri(acryloyloxyethyl) phosphate (TAEP) and triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA) used as flame retardant (FR). The flame retardancy and thermal properties of films were reinforced by using alpha-zirconium phosphate (α-Zr (HPO 4 ) 2 H 2 O, α-ZrP). The morphology of nanocomposite film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the organophilic α-ZrP (OZrP) layers were dispersed well in epoxy acrylate resin. Microscale Combustion Calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR) were used to characterize the flame retardant property and thermal stability. It was found that the incorporation of TAEP and TGICA can reduce the flammability of EA. Moreover, further reductions were observed due to the addition of OZrP. The char residue for systems with or without OZrP was also explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  19. [Clinical features of strabismus in psychomotor retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Cabello, Belina; Arroyo-Yllanes, María Estela; Pérez-Pérez, José Fernando; Fonte-Vázquez, Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    In psychomotor retardation there is an abnormal development of mental, sensory and motor skills associated with ocular manifestations. There are biological and psychosocial risk factors that predispose an individual to neurological damage. From 50% to 80% of patients with strabismus retardation have special features that differentiate it from the rest of strabismus in healthy patients. To determine the most common type of strabismus in patients with psychomotor retardation and their clinical features. Patients with psychomotor retardation and strabismus were included. An ophthalmological examination was performed, as well as an evaluation of the characteristics of strabismus, including perinatal and post-natal history. Esotropia was the most frequent squint with 65.3%, followed by exotropia with 32.7%. The variability in the squint magnitude was 60% in both types, and 6 patients had dissociated vertical deviation. Most of the patients started to present strabismus since they were born. The most frequent perinatal risk factors were threatened miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, foetal distress, and hypoxia. Esotropia is the most common type of strabismus in psychomotor retardation. The variability of squint magnitude is a characteristic in these patients. The moderate variability is the most frequent in both esotropia and exotropia. The most common refractive error is hyperopic astigmatism in esotropia and the myopic kind in exotropia. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-concept in institutionalized children with disturbed attachment: The mediating role of exploratory behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacaru, V S; Sterkenburg, P S; Schuengel, C

    2018-05-01

    Self-concept is seen as both an outcome of sociocognitive and emotional development, and a factor in social and mental health outcomes. Although the contribution of attachment experiences to self-concept has been limited to quality of primary attachment relationships, little is known of the effects of disturbed attachment on self-concept in institutionalized children. Thus, the current study examined associations between disturbed attachment behaviours in institutionalized children and self-concept, testing limited exploration as an explanatory factor. Thirty-three institutionalized children, aged 4-12, participated in a multimethod and multi-informant assessment of disturbed attachment behaviours (i.e., Disturbances of Attachment Interview and Behavioral Signs of Disturbed Attachment in Young Children), self-concept (i.e., Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children), and exploratory behaviours (i.e., Student Exploratory Behaviours Observation Scale). Analyses were conducted using bootstrapping techniques. Global self-concept converged with teacher-rated children's self-concept, except for physical competence domain. Disturbed attachment behaviours were identified in 62.5% of the children, and this was associated with lower levels of exploration and lower scores on self-concept, compared with children without disturbed attachment behaviours. Furthermore, exploratory behaviours mediated the effects of disturbed attachment behaviours on self-concept. Institution-reared children with disturbed attachment behaviours were likely to have a negative perception of self and one's own competences. Limited exploratory behaviours explained this linkage. Targeting disordered attachment in children reared in institutions and their caregivers should become a high priority as a means for preventing socioemotional development issues. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Psychiatric Illness in Mentally Retarded Adolescents: Clinical Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele

    1998-01-01

    Describes the clinical features of the most important psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded adolescents: mood disorders, psychotic disorders, severe behavioral disorders, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit The impact of mental retardation on personality development is confirmed by the high psychopathological…

  2. The Van Hiele geometry thinking levels of mild mental retardation students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomad, Z. A.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Riyadi

    2017-12-01

    This research is to investigate the level of mild mental retardation geometry students thinking. This research focuses on the geometry thinking level based on Van Hiele theory. This study uses qualitative methods with case study strategy. Data obtained from observation and tests result. The subjects are 12 mental retardation students. The result show that ability of mild mental retardation students with each other is different but have same level of level thinking geometry. The geometry thinking level of mental retardation students was identified in level 1 of the Van Hiele theory. Based on the level thinking geometry of mental retardation students simplify geometry thinking teachers in selecting appropriate learning methods, choose the materials in accordance with ability, and can modify the material following the geometry thinking level of mental retardation students.

  3. Experimental intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marthens, E; Harel, S; Zamenshof, S

    1975-01-01

    The effects of experimental intrauterine growth retardation on subsequent fetal development, especially with respect to brain development, were studied in a new animal model. The rabbit was chosen since it has a perinatal pattern of brain development similar to that of the human. Experimental ischemia was induced during the last trimester by ligation of spiral arterioles and the differential effects on fetal development at term (30th gestational day) are reported. Specific brain regions were examined for wet weight, total cell number (DNA) and total protein content. Highly significant decreases in all these parameters were found in both the cortex and cerebellum following experimental intrauterine growth retardation; these two organs were differentially affected. The prospects and advantages of using this animal model for the study of the postnatal "catch-up growth" are discussed.

  4. Retarded Boson–Fermion interaction in atomic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    The retardation effect arises from the finite speed of light, and the fact that a virtual photon is always in transit. By separating the center of mass motion, a wave equa- tion that looks like the effective equation for only one spin-1/2 fermion is derived in §3. The retardation ef- fect can now be calculated to all orders. Separation ...

  5. Nonstatic one-boson-exchange potential with retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obinata, Toshio; Wada, Masanobu

    1975-01-01

    A one-boson-exchange potential (OBEP) with retardation represented in coordinate space is proposed, that produces a good fit to the experimental data such as the nuclear phase shifts, the deuteron properties and two-nucleon low-energy parameters. In addition to the scalar sigma 0 and Δ mesons, the well-established π, eta, ω and rho mesons have been exchanged in our OBEP. In the core region the hard core, Gaussian soft core and velocity-dependent core potentials are adopted. The characteristics of the retardation are discussed in detail as compared with those given in momentum space calculations. The OBEP's with and without retardation reproduce essentially the same phase shifts in spite of very different potential shapes, in particular in the central-to-tensor ratio. (auth.)

  6. Innovation by coercion: Emerging institutionalization of university-industry collaborations in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkova, Olga

    2016-08-01

    This article explores the emerging institutionalization of collaborative university-industry networks in Russia. The Russian government has attempted to use a top-down public policy scheme to stimulate and promote network-building in the R&D sector. In order to understand the initial organizational responses that universities and companies select while structuring collaborations, the article utilizes conceptual perspectives from institutional theory, especially drawing on arguments from strategic choice, network-building, and network failure studies.

  7. The difficulties of teacher in teaching geometry for mental retardation students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomad, Z. A.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Riyadi

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out the problems faced by teachers in teaching materials on mental retardation students. It focused on the difficulties faced by the teacher in teaching geometry. A qualitative method with field study approach used in this study. The subjects in this research are the teacher and mild mental retardation students. There are six teachers and six students involve as the subject which is chosen by purposive sampling. The data of this research is the observation and interview against teachers and mental retardation students. The data was analyzed qualitatively with Miles and Huberman steps. The results of this research show that mental retardation students have less attention to the materials, less special books or learning media props, difficult in the set the students, and the difficulty in choosing the material that suits the student needs and the condition of mental retardation students. There's not much pay attention to the children with special need, particularly mental retardation student. Thus, this study can help analyze the difficulties teachers so that learning math for mental retardation students more optimal.

  8. Post-Institutionalized Chinese and Eastern European Children: Heterogeneity in the Development of Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A.; Perlman, Susan B.; Fries, Alison B. Wismer; Pollak, Seth D.

    2006-01-01

    Post-institutionalized Chinese and Eastern European children participated in two emotion understanding tasks. In one task, children selected facial expressions corresponding to four emotion labels (happy, sad, angry, scared). The second task required children to match facial expressions to stories describing situations for these emotions. While…

  9. Melatonin and bright-light treatment for rest-activity disruption in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowling, G.A.; Burr, R.L.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Hubbard, E.M.; Luxenberg, J.S.; Mastick, J.; Cooper, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test whether the addition of melatonin to bright-light therapy enhances the efficacy in treating rest-activity (circadian) disruption in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Two nursing homes in San Francisco,

  10. FMR1 Knockout mice: A model to study fragile X mental retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostra, B.A.; Bakker, C.E.; Reyniers, E. [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the most frequent form of inherited mental retardation in humans with an incidence of 1 in 1250 males and 1 in 2500 females. The clinical syndrome includes moderate to severe mental retardation, autistic behavior, macroorchidism, and facial features, such as long face with mandibular prognathism and large, everted ears. The molecular basis for this disease is a large expansion of a triplet repeat (CGG){sub n} in the 5{prime} untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Due to this large expansion of the CGG repeat, the promoter region becomes methylated and the FMR1 gene is subsequently silenced. Hardly anything is known about the physiologic function of FMR1 and the pathologic mechanisms leading to these symptoms. Since the FMR1 gene is highly conserved in the mouse, we used the mouse to design a knockout model for the fragile X syndrome. These knockout mice lacking Fmrp have normal litter size suggesting that FMR1 is not essential in human gametogenesis and embryonic development. The knockout mice show the abnormalities also seen in the affected organs of human patients. Mutant mice show a gradual development through time of macroorchidism. In the knockout mice we observed cognitive defects in the form of deficits in learning (as shown by the hidden platform Morris water maze task) and behavioral abnormalities such as increased exploratory behavior and hyperactivity. Therefore this knockout mouse may serve as a valuable tool in studying the role of FMR1 in the fragile X syndrome and may serve as a model to elucidate the mechanisms involved in macroorchidism, abnormal behavior, and mental retardation.

  11. Institutionalizing Health Impact Assessment: A consultation with experts on the barriers and facilitators to implementing HIA in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Ballarini, Adele; Piccinelli, Cristiano; Viliani, Francesca; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2018-07-15

    A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is an evidence-based methodology that includes health promotion and protection goals in decision-making. HIA has been introduced and/or institutionalized to various extents in different countries. In order to promote HIA and preventive health assessments in Italy, a research methodology was followed to identify specific obstacles or facilitators. The experiences of various countries reported in the literature were analyzed in terms of facilitating or hindering the introduction and institutionalization of HIA. A consultation with the proponents of projects and plans in Italy was carried out with a multi-approach methodology in order to characterize the national context. A general implementation plan was drawn up from the international experiences. In Italy this is not yet in place. Specific areas of intervention need to be addressed, including: 1) data availability; 2) tools and methods; 3) engagement of stakeholders; 4) capacity building. The research suggests that the institutionalization of HIA in Italy rests on the government's commitment to providing specific legislation regarding HIA so that skills, intersectoral coordination and dedicated budgets can be built and maintained. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Crusted piloleiomyoma with mental retardation: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamboj Sangeeta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Piloleiomyoma is an uncommon benign smooth muscle neoplasm arising from arrector pili muscle. It is clinically defined by the presence of solitary or multiple reddish brown, dome-shaped, smooth papules or nodules, ranging in size from a few millimeters to a centimeter. The patients are otherwise healthy; but mental retardation developing in some patients with multiple Piloleiomyomas has been emerging as an intriguing matter for analysis by the scientists. In this case report, a mentally retarded patient with Piloleiomyoma is described, who, besides the characteristic smooth and dome-shaped lesions on the anterolateral aspect of the dorsum of the right foot, had developed crusting on one of the largest lesions. The histopathological features were consistent with Piloleiomyoma. The occurrence of Piloleiomyoma in a mentally retarded child and its unusual crusted nature has been rarely reported. The association between Piloleiomyoma and mental retardation is further stressed in this case report.

  13. Positivism as classical epistemological framework of educational policy and school practice institutionalization in contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindomar Wessler Boneti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article consists of an epistemological reflection on educational policies in order to contribute to the Red Latinoamerica de Estudios Epistemológicos en Política Educativa (ReLePe debate. It is about to rescue the historical journey of the positivist position as classical epistemological framework of the educational policy institutionalization with regard to the implementation of educational action, with special focus to the set of rules, norms and values that conduct school activity. It is argued that these frameworks are constituted from two interconnected movements: historical construction of the epistemological frameworks of science and the Modern State that with the new mode of production, capitalism, gives rise to the second one: bourgeois movement of class distinction based on lifestyle. Thus, from the “Modern Reason”, it was outlined what may be regarded as a “model of civility”, becoming the epistemological framework and goal of achieving the educational policy institutionalization and school activity in contemporaneity.

  14. Flame Retardant Effect of Nano Fillers on Polydimethylsiloxane Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdale, Pravin; Salimpour, Samera; Islam, Md Hujjatul; Cuttica, Fabio; Hernandez, Francisco C Robles; Tagliaferro, Alberto; Frache, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane has exceptional fire retardancy characteristics, which make it a popular polymer in flame retardancy applications. Flame retardancy of polydimethylsiloxane with different nano fillers was studied. Polydimethylsiloxane composite fire property varies because of the shape, size, density, and chemical nature of nano fillers. In house made carbon and bismuth oxide nano fillers were used in polydimethylsiloxane composite. Carbon from biochar (carbonised bamboo) and a carbon by-product (carbon soot) were selected. For comparative study of nano fillers, standard commercial multiwall carbon nano tubes (functionalised, graphitised and pristine) as nano fillers were selected. Nano fillers in polydimethylsiloxane positively affects their fire retardant properties such as total smoke release, peak heat release rate, and time to ignition. Charring and surface ceramization are the main reasons for such improvement. Nano fillers in polydimethylsiloxane may affect the thermal mobility of polymer chains, which can directly affect the time to ignition. The study concludes that the addition of pristine multiwall carbon nano tubes and bismuth oxide nano particles as filler in polydimethylsiloxane composite improves the fire retardant property.

  15. Autism and Mental Retardation of Young Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN ZHANG; CHENG-YE JI

    2005-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence and rehabilitation status of autism and mental retardation in China. Methods Screening test and clinical assessment were conducted for the diagnosis of autism and mental retardation. The assessment included investigation of the histories of medical conditions and development of these two disorders, utilization and needs for the rehabilitation service, and related intellectual and behavioral appraisal. Results Among the 7345 children investigated, the prevalence of autism disorder was 1.10 cases per 1000 children aged 2-6 years (95% CI=0.34 to 2.54), and the prevalence of mental retardation was 10.76 cases per 1000 children (95% CI=8.40 to 13.12). All the children suffering from autistic disorder were intellectually disabled, whereas 31.0% of the non-autism mental retardates had other disabilities. The medical conditions prior to birth and perinatal period were important potential factors for autism. Half of the autistic children and 84% of the children with non-autism mental retardation had never received any rehabilitative service. Conclusions The prevalence of autistic disorder in children aged 2-6 years in Tianjin is rather high. It is urgent to improve the status of the autistic and intelligently disabled young children in China. In order to upgrade the level of early diagnostic and improve the intervention to autism and mental retardation, public awareness and training courses should be heightened.

  16. Body Mass Index assessment of institutionalized aged people without cognitive impairment using clinical and nutritional factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Ruperto López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and obesity are recognized mortality risk factors in the general population. The aim of the study was to analyse the phenotypic distribution of body mass index (BMI, and to identify the prevalence of malnutrition and clinical and nutritional factors related to BMI in autonomous institutionalized elders. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive study in 104 institutionalized aged people (73% female, mean of age 86.4 [±6.2] years and time on institutionalization 25.7 [±21.7] months. Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA, anthropometric measures and laboratory parameters were used for nutritional assessment. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA-101; RJL-System was used for body composition analysis. The sample was classified into BMI tertiles (Tn: T1=<26.2kg/m2; T2=26.3-29.7kg/m2; and T3=≥29.8kg/m2. Results: The phenotypic distribution of BMI was: overweight 51% and, prevalence of obesity 29.8%. Mean of BMI: 28.3 (±4.6 kg/m2. Nutritional risk or malnutrition were 60.6% and 11.5%, respectively in the sample. The tertiles of BMI showed significant differences with: mid-arm muscle circumference, triceps-skinfold thickness, total body water (TBW (all, p<0.001. Subjects into T1 had significantly higher nutritional risk or malnutrition compared with T2 and T3 counterparts (p=0.015. Waist-circumference, calf-circumference (at least, p<0.01, and TBW (p<0.001 were independent predictors of BMI in the linear regression analysis (R2=0.52. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity measured by BMI is not an exclusion criterion of malnutrition in the geriatric population. Nutritional screening by MNA and the conjoint use of clinical-nutritional parameters are useful for identifying at nutritional risk or malnutrition. Further studies are needed to define the potential nutritional risk factors associated with BMI in autonomous institutionalized aged.

  17. Risk Factors to Growth Retardation in Major Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Uda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing in the life span of patients with major thalassemia should be followed by increased quality of life. There are factors which can affect growth retardation in these patients. The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors for growth retardation in patients with major thalassemia. An analytical study with cross-sectional design was conducted at Pediatric Thalassemia Clinics of Dr.Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, in June to July 2006. The subjects of this study were patients with major thalassemia. Inclusion criteria’s were age under 14 years old, had no chronic diseases like tuberculosis, cerebral palsy with complete medical records. Risk factors were the timing of diagnosis, initial and dose of deferoxamine, volume of transfused blood, mean pretransfusion hemoglobin level, family income, and age. Antropometric measurement indices were used to assess the growth which expressed in Z score. Growth evaluated based on height/age (H/A and growth retardation if H/A <-2 SD. Risk factors for growth retardation were analyzed separately using chi-square test and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Then they were analyzed simultaneously with logistic regression method. Subjects consisted of 152 patients with major thalassemia. Seventy three thalassemia patients were stunted. Analysis showed that age (OR: 5.42, 95% CI:2.32–12.65, p <0.001, dosage of deferoxamine (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.29–12.41, p: 0.016, and family income (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06–5.06, p: 0.036 were risks factors for growth retardation. Conclusion, risk factors for growth retardation in major thalassemia are age, dosage of deferoxamine, and family income.

  18. Aryl Polyphosphonates: Useful Halogen-Free Flame Retardants for Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aryl polyphosphonates (ArPPN have been demonstrated to function in wide applications as flame retardants for different polymer materials, including thermosets, polycarbonate, polyesters and polyamides, particularly due to their satisfactory thermal stability compared to aliphatic flame retardants, and to their desirable flow behavior observed during the processing of polymeric materials. This paper provides a brief overview of the main developments in ArPPN and their derivatives for flame-retarding polymeric materials, primarily based on the authors’ research work and the literature published over the last two decades. The synthetic chemistry of these compounds is discussed along with their thermal stabilities and flame-retardant properties. The possible mechanisms of ArPPN and their derivatives containing hetero elements, which exhibit a synergistic effect with phosphorus, are also discussed.

  19. Nonretarded and Mentally Retarded Children's Control over Syntax Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeavey, Breda C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Ten nonretarded preschoolers and 10 mildly mentally retarded children (mean age 8 years) were compared for control over various syntactic structures. The retarded children evidenced difficulties similar to those of younger nonretarded children. (Author/SB)

  20. Strategic Institutionalization of NKM in Newcomer NP Programme: The Nigeria Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akusu, P.; Ofodile, O.; Agedah, E.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Nigeria as a newcomer nation is strategically institutionalizing its NKM drive via two facets since it is going into an Inter-governmental Agreement (IGA) to acquire Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) from foreign technical partners. The NKM implementation strategies include (1) NKM with respect to nuclear research and development activities and (2) NKM with respect to NPP vendor. Some lessons learned in the implementation of the National Nuclear Power Programme (NNPP) are also outlined. (author

  1. Parental Attitude Towards Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEOKADIA WIATROWSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available https://doaj.org/puChild's developmental retardation is an undoubted condition for the absence of educational attainment and its unpleasant mental state. Due to the nature of multidimensional state of that, parental attitudes become relevant, as they affect the acceleration or retardation of development. Positive parental attitudes are the strong weapon for the child and his struggles on the way to an equal start and equal development opportunities. For this reason you should emphasize those factors that build the structures supporting developmental progression.An ecosystem approach to human development emphasizes each factor as relevant component for growth and expansion, without denying its own human activity and his self-determination rightblisher/metadata

  2. Not-Invented-Here: How Institutionalized Socialization Practices Affect the Formation of Negative Attitudes Toward External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza de Araújo; Fosfuri, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Management literature highlights several potential benefits of institutionalized socialization practices that attempt to increase cohesiveness among employees. This article posits that such practices might also contribute to a biased perception of internally generated knowledge and therefore...

  3. Corporate social policy - problems of institutionalization and experience of Russian oil and gas companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhoda, E.; Kolbysheva, Yu; Makoveeva, V.

    2015-11-01

    The article examines a range of problems related to the process of institutionalization in the corporate social policy, characterizing the social responsibility of business and representing a part of the general strategy of corporate social responsibility. The experience of the social policy implementation in oil and gas companies is analyzed.

  4. Influence of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene on the brain and working memory in men with normal FMR1 alleles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun Yi; Hessl, David; Iwahashi, Christine; Cheung, Katherine; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Hagerman, Paul J.; Rivera, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    The fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene plays an important role in the development and maintenance of neuronal circuits that are essential for cognitive functioning. We explored the functional linkage(s) among lymphocytic FMR1 gene expression, brain structure, and working memory in healthy adult males. We acquired T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging from 34 males (18–80 years, mean ± SD = 43.6 ± 18.4 years) with normal FMR1 alleles and performed genetic and working memory assessme...

  5. Institutionalized unpredictability and café routines: The case of young people in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čelebičić Vanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When life is very unpredictable or uncertain, a routine set of practices may become a very significant element in a person’s daily life, as it may allow a sense of protection from the unknown (Ehn & Löfgren 2010 and encourage feelings of belonging (Rapport & Dawson 1998. In this article I explore how people relate to the immediate future when their presents are filled with unpredictability. More specifically, I explore the everyday practices around café routines of some young people living in Bihać, a town in northwestern Bosnia- Herzegovina (BiH. Popular discourses often link between young people's tendencies to spend time in cafés with apathy and letargy, or alternativley with bad economic conditions. However, these views, whether empathetic or critical, are neither adeqate nor very empowering. Instead, I suggest that we must view café routines within the context of what I call ‘institutionalized unpredictability’. This allows us to distance ourselves from thinking about young people’s practices through dominant paradigms of engagement and disengagement and opens up the possibility to view café routines as ‘radically unpolitical' acts (Farthing 2010. I argue that café routines are both young people’s response to ‘institutionalized unpredictability’, as well as their way to criticize and reproduce it. I further show how institutionalized unpredictability was shaping and shaped by both state and nonstate related practices, relationships, processes and aspirations, suggesting that this is precisely what made it so powerfully pervasive and debilitating.

  6. Development of low-smoke, flame-retarding cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Kanemitsuya, K.; Furukawa, K.; Mio, K.

    1983-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the potential fire hazard of combustion gases from organic materials. Although cable industries have developed flame-retarding organic materials for the insulation and jacketing of wires and cables, there was insufficient prevention of toxic gas formation during combustion. To cope with these problems associated with conventional PVC cables, the authors have directed to develop low-smoke, flame-retarding plasticized PVC formulations retaining the original mechanical, electrical and aging properties. A series of basic investigations on smoke suppression followed by an evaluation on practical cables could indicate some effective means to end these problems. This paper describes the results and discussion on smoke suppressing study of plasticized PVC as well as behavior and characteristics of the low-smoke, flame-retarding PVC wires and cables using these materials. (author)

  7. Distal joint contractures, mental retardation, characteristic face and growth retardation: Chitayat syndrome revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortmann, S.B.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Schwahn, B.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Morava, E.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a patient with congenital distal limb contractures, characteristic face, prominent metopic sutures, narrow forehead, severe psychomotor and growth retardation, white matter lesions and failure to thrive. The child has many overlapping features with those reported previously by Chitayat.

  8. Epidemiology of Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Rick

    Prevalence data on mental retardation is presented including international estimates on general prevalence, age directions, geographical variations within the United States, racial and ethnic variations, economic class distributions, family variations, and population distribution in institutions. Statistics are also provided in areas of specific…

  9. [Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

    2013-09-01

    Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites.

  10. Um discurso a duas vozes: potencialidades de um estudo interpretativo sobre lei e institucionalização A discourse, two voices: strengths of an interpretative study on law and institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Manso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A ordem jurídica e a medida de internamento constituem-se como categorias centrais da análise de conteúdo das entrevistas de 15 jovens institucionalizados num Centro Educativo de Portugal, por prática de facto qualificado pela lei como crime. A técnica geradora de estrutura de discurso, usada como instrumento de validação comunicativa dos significados emergentes dos discursos, permite identificar as representações sociais que os jovens constroem sobre as categorias, a partir das quais o investigador realiza o seu próprio trabalho interpretativo. Os resultados apontam para uma concepção heterónoma do dever jurídico, sendo que os jovens associam ao internamento uma função, simultaneamente, educativa e sancionadora. Finalmente, este estudo pretende evidenciar as potencialidades de uma abordagem interpretativa em termos de investigação e intervenção.This study is based on the content analysis of interviews done with 15 young males institutionalized in a Re-Education Center in Portugal for offensive behavior and conflict with the law. The technique of generating discourse structure, used as a communication validity tool, allows the definition of law and institutionalization as the main categories. The main goal is to describe the social representations youngsters build about the categories, upon which the researcher performs her own interpretative work. The analyses revealed that youngsters conceive law in terms of its legal consequences, while perceiving institutionalization as an educational measure, in terms of their social rehabilitation, but also referring to it as a punishment element. This study aims at accounting for the potentialities of the interpretative approach concerning research and intervention.

  11. Fire-retardant-treated strandboard : properties and fire performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold Winandy; Qingwen Wang; Robert H. White

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a series of single-layer, randomly oriented strandboard panels made with one resin type, a single resin loading level, and four fire-retardant-treatment levels. The fire retardant (FR) evaluated was a pH-buffered combination of boric acid and organic phosphate. Siberian larch strands were separated into five batches. One batch of strands served as...

  12. Growth retardation in children injected with 224Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiess, H.; Mays, C.W.; Spiess-Paulus, E.

    1986-01-01

    We have obtained the adult heights of 133 patients formerly injected with 224 Ra as juveniles. 224 Ra induced growth retardation was greatest in children injected at young ages and increased with dose. The growth retardation was well represented as a 2% decrease in potential growth post irradiation per 100 rads of calculated average skeletal dose. (orig.)

  13. Psychomotor Retardation in untreated depressed elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Lia Beheydt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR is one of the core features in depression according to 17 DSM V1, but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study 18 investigating psychomotor retardation in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant 19 effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic 20 medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched 21 control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical 22 depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, 23 clinical ratings of psychomotor retardation and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. 24 Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method (GLM multivariate analysis of variance to 25 compare the clinical, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients 26 performed worse on all clinical, cognitive and psychomotor retardation measures. Both groups 27 showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger 28 for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: due to the restrictive 29 inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a 30 medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric 31 patients was found,. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive 32 load, it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression.

  14. Characteristics of Those Persons with Mental Retardation Registered with the Mental Retardation Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Errol; Ng, Pin Chee

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses an analysis of a computerized data bank on the mentally retarded population in Victoria, Australia. Prevalence rates, severity of handicap, age, sex, and residence type are reviewed and implications for community vocational and residential services for adults are noted. (CL)

  15. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... from them may not be service-connected. However, disability resulting from a mental disorder that is...

  16. STRUCTURE OF BODY DEFORMATIES AMONG PERSONS WITH MENTAL RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagoja GESHOSKI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to assess body structure deformities among people with mental retardation.Knowing the structure of people with mental retardation’s physical deformities is the starting basis of a quality program for preventive and corrective work. Also, it is a starting point in the process of special education and rehabilitation in regards to their removal and mitigation.The structure of the physical deformities among persons with mental retardation were analyzed in terms of age and degree of mental retardation in relation to everyday life activities.The inquiry covered 170 respondents with mental retardation in both sexes. All respondents were placed in an institution for treatment of persons with severe and profound mental retardation (Special Institute Deep River. On the basis of two criteria, participants are divided into groups. The first criterion forestablishing a group of level of mental retardation: Group I - severe mental retardation (TMR and Group II - profound mental retardation (DMR. A second criterion for establishing the age group of respondents: Group I - age 18 years; Group II- Age 19 - 30 years and Group III - over 31 years. The structure of the physical deformities was analyzed in terms of age and degree of mental retardation in relation to activities in everyday life.For the purposes of the planned research , an integral protocol is established for the evaluation of physical deformities among persons with disabilities, including: an application form for general information about the respondents, a questionnaire to assess somatic status, and a clinical sheet and test activities in everyday life (Test ASZH, Rusk, 1971. All data obtained by the research are expressed quantitatively and treated with the following statistical methods and procedures: number of repetitions, frequency and percentages, measure of central tendency, the arithmetic mean and standard deviation, χ2 and Fisher Exact - test

  17. Theoretical approach to the institutionalization of forms of governance resource provision of innovative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Asmolova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge economy research due to the actualization of the role of knowledge and information. Management, its impact and the institutionalization of management resource provision designed to overcome the problems inherent in the present stage of development. An important research direction is to carry out theoretical analysis of economic resources in the context of their occurrence, development and improvement. This assertion has identified the need to consider the theoretical approach to the institutionalization of forms of resource management software innovation and analysis and typology of approaches by different parameters on the basis of analysis of a large number of sources. The features of the concept of institutionalization as defined phenomenon in a time perspective. In an analysis conducted by scientists used studies from different periods in the development of economic science. The analysis of numerous professional and scientific research led to the conclusion that knowledge and information should be dis-regarded as a new type of economic production factors. Separately, analyzed the impact of globalization processes that have affected the scientific and innovative sphere. Allocated to a separate study by side issues of innovative development of the Russian economy, which prevents the unresolved improve the competitiveness of the national economic and inhibits the formation of regional and national innovation system, restraining the transition to an innovative model of development. Citing as evidence of the deepening of economic globalization, the role of new information technologies and the formation of a single information space. Noting the fact that if the earlier science developed to deepen knowledge on the basis of the social division of Sciences, in the coming century should happen deepening of knowledge on the basis of their socialization.

  18. Sex between persons with 'mental retardation': an ethical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiecker, B.; Steutel, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Is sex between people with "mental retardation" morally permissible and, if at all, under what conditions? This paper tries to answer this question, but only with regard to sex between biologically mature individuals with mild or moderate mental retardation. First, the concepts of "sexual activity"

  19. Trace element analysis of hair of mentally retarded children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, H.P.S.; Lal, G.; Sidhu, N.P.S.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    Unlike previously reported, Zn and Se levels were found to be the same in the hair of mentally retarded children and controls. Non-essential toxic Ag concentration was low whereas that of Hg, Au and Sc rather high in mentally retarded children. (author) 4 refs

  20. Psychometric properties of ADHD rating scales among children with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael L; Fee, Virginia E; Jones, Christie J

    2004-01-01

    The validity of hyperactivity rating scales in children with mental retardation was evaluated. Forty-eight children with mental retardation were rated by parents, teachers and teaching assistants on rating scales measuring Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as part of a related investigation. In addition, direct observations were conducted using the Abikoff Classroom Observation Code. The concurrent validity of each scale was examined. Scales completed by both teachers and teaching assistants were found to provide valid information for the assessment of ADHD in mentally retarded children. Results provided the best support for the ABC-C in the assessment of ADHD in mentally retarded children.

  1. Improving free play skills of severely retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehman, P; Marchant, J A

    1978-02-01

    Severely and profoundly retarded children are usually deficient in play skills. Since play facilitates socialization, language, and motor development, it is a vitally improtant skill to acquire. This pilot study examined the effects of a behavioral training program on the autistic, independent, and social types of play of four severely and profoundly retarded children. The training program involved the use of instructions, modeling, physical guidance, and verbal reinforcement. Results indicated that a marked increase in independent and social play occurred with the introduction of the training program with all four children. Occupational therapists can play an increasingly important role in helping educators formulate relevant educational programs for severely retarded children, particularly in the areas of play and motor skill development.

  2. Modeling and prediction of retardance in citric acid coated ferrofluid using artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jing-Fung; Sheu, Jer-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid coated (citrate-stabilized) magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) magnetic nanoparticles have been conducted and applied in the biomedical fields. Using Taguchi-based measured retardances as the training data, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for the prediction of retardance in citric acid (CA) coated ferrofluid (FF). According to the ANN simulation results in the training stage, the correlation coefficient between predicted retardances and measured retardances was found to be as high as 0.9999998. Based on the well-trained ANN model, the predicted retardance at excellent program from Taguchi method showed less error of 2.17% compared with a multiple regression (MR) analysis of statistical significance. Meanwhile, the parameter analysis at excellent program by the ANN model had the guiding significance to find out a possible program for the maximum retardance. It was concluded that the proposed ANN model had high ability for the prediction of retardance in CA coated FF. - Highlights: • The feedforward ANN is applied for modeling of retardance in CA coated FFs. • ANN can predict the retardance at excellent program with acceptable error to MR. • The proposed ANN has high ability for the prediction of retardance.

  3. The RRP Project: investigating radionuclide retardation in the host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Frieg, B.; Ota, K.; Bossart, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Radionuclide Retardation Project (RRP), which is a joint Nagra/PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp.) project, has two components: the first (the Excavation Project, EP) looks at the behaviour of radionuclides which are so strongly retarded in the experimental shear zone that they cannot pass through the zones in experimentally reasonable times. In order to determine where radionuclide retardation has occurred in the pore space, as well as the flowpath geometry in the shear zone, the entire injection zone has to be excavated and taken back to the laboratory for analysis of the sites of retardation of the radionuclides. This approach has the advantage of allowing a detailed 3D description of the experimental shear zone. The aim of the second component of the project (Connected Porosities, CP) is to examine the fate of those radionuclides which diffuse out of the main water-conducting features in the shear zone and into the pore spaces of the rock matrix, where they become trapped. This represents a potentially significant retardation mechanism in a repository host rock. (author) 8 figs., refs

  4. Assessment of dental caries and periodontal status in institutionalized hearing impaired children in Khordha District of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Jnaneswar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over 5% of the world's population has disabling hearing loss. The oral health of the disabled may be disused for the reason of the disabling condition, a challenging disease or the limited access to oral health care. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal status of institutionalized hearing impaired (HI children in Khordha district of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study on the HI children was conducted in Khordha district, Odisha. Type III examination procedure was conducted to assess the oral health status of the children. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square test and Student's t-test, and the significance level was fixed at P < 0.05. Results: The final population consisted of 540 HI children out of which 262 (48.5% were male and 278 (51.5% were female, 285 (52.8% children had severe hearing loss and 227 (42.0% had profound hearing loss. Bleeding on probing was found in 72 (13.3% female children as compared to 57 (10.6% male children. While 131 (24.3% female children had calculus, 124 (23.0% male children had the same condition. Total caries prevalence was 19.3%. Statistically highly significant difference was found for mean decayed teeth (DT, missing teeth decayed, missing filled teeth (FT (P < 0.001, while for mean FT there was no statistically significant difference according to age groups. Statistically highly significant difference was found for mean DT, extracted teeth and decayed, extracted, filled teeth (P < 0.001. Conclusion: An improved accessibility to dental services as well as dental health education is necessary to ensure the optimum dental health within the reach of these less fortunate children.

  5. Brominated flame retardants: occurrence, dietary intake and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter-Sorkina R de; Bakker MI; Wolterink G; Zeijlmaker MJ; SIR

    2006-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants have entered the human food chain. For the time being the occurrence of these chemicals in Dutch food does not pose a human health risk. However, this might easily change at increasing contents of flame retardants in Dutch food. The monitoring of brominated flame

  6. INSTITUTIONALIZATION AND EMOTIONAL LABOUR BEHAVIOUR: A RESEARCH IN HOSPITALITY ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Korkmaz, Emine Vasfiye; Çetinkaya, Ali Şükrü

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACTIncreasing   competition and globalization  make  obligatory businesses to  go towarddifferentiation. In competitive environment, that  businesses  institutionalize and  make  efforts of the  different  product and service  toward   customers   enables them to proceed  one  step further  than  their competitors. It  is considered that  expecting  the behavior of  emotional labor, defined  as   emotional expression exhibited together with service from the employees,whose  institutional...

  7. Depth-resolved phase retardation measurements for laser-assisted non-ablative cartilage reshaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Jong-In [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612 (United States); Vargas, Gracie [Center for Bioengineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Wong, Brian J F [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612 (United States); Milner, Thomas E [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2005-05-07

    Since polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is emerging as a new technique for determining phase retardation in biological materials, we measured phase retardation changes in cartilage during local laser heating for application to laser-assisted cartilage reshaping. Thermally-induced changes in phase retardation of nasal septal cartilage following Nd:YAG laser irradiation were investigated using a PS-OCT system. A PS-OCT system and infrared imaging radiometer were used to record, respectively, depth-resolved images of the Stokes parameters of light backscattered from ex vivo porcine nasal septal cartilage and radiometric temperature changes following laser irradiation. PS-OCT images of cartilage were recorded before (control), during and after laser irradiation. From the measured Stokes parameters (I, Q, U and V), an estimate of the relative phase retardation between two orthogonal polarizations was computed to determine birefringence in cartilage. Phase retardation images of light backscattered from cartilage show significant changes in retardation following laser irradiation. To investigate the origin of retardation changes in response to local heat generation, we differentiated two possible mechanisms: dehydration and thermal denaturation. PS-OCT images of cartilage were recorded after dehydration in glycerol and thermal denaturation in heated physiological saline. In our experiments, observed retardation changes in cartilage are primarily due to dehydration. Since dehydration is a principal source for retardation changes in cartilage over the range of heating profiles investigated, our studies suggest that the use of PS-OCT as a feedback control methodology for non-ablative cartilage reshaping requires further investigation.

  8. Depth-resolved phase retardation measurements for laser-assisted non-ablative cartilage reshaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Jong-In; Vargas, Gracie; Wong, Brian J F; Milner, Thomas E

    2005-01-01

    Since polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is emerging as a new technique for determining phase retardation in biological materials, we measured phase retardation changes in cartilage during local laser heating for application to laser-assisted cartilage reshaping. Thermally-induced changes in phase retardation of nasal septal cartilage following Nd:YAG laser irradiation were investigated using a PS-OCT system. A PS-OCT system and infrared imaging radiometer were used to record, respectively, depth-resolved images of the Stokes parameters of light backscattered from ex vivo porcine nasal septal cartilage and radiometric temperature changes following laser irradiation. PS-OCT images of cartilage were recorded before (control), during and after laser irradiation. From the measured Stokes parameters (I, Q, U and V), an estimate of the relative phase retardation between two orthogonal polarizations was computed to determine birefringence in cartilage. Phase retardation images of light backscattered from cartilage show significant changes in retardation following laser irradiation. To investigate the origin of retardation changes in response to local heat generation, we differentiated two possible mechanisms: dehydration and thermal denaturation. PS-OCT images of cartilage were recorded after dehydration in glycerol and thermal denaturation in heated physiological saline. In our experiments, observed retardation changes in cartilage are primarily due to dehydration. Since dehydration is a principal source for retardation changes in cartilage over the range of heating profiles investigated, our studies suggest that the use of PS-OCT as a feedback control methodology for non-ablative cartilage reshaping requires further investigation

  9. Labeling, Rehearsal, and Short-Term Memory in Retarded Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, John W.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A short-term memory task was used to explore the effects of verbal labeling and rehearsal on serial-position recall in mildly retarded 9-to 11-year-old children. Results support the view that verbal skills affect recall in mildly retarded children similarly to normal children. (Author/SDH)

  10. Sources of heterogeneity in developmental outcomes of children with past and current experiences of institutionalization in Russia: A four-group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Hein, Sascha; Doyle, Niamh; Hart, Lesley; Koposov, Roman; Macomber, Donna; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Strelina, Anastasia; Tan, Mei; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2017-01-01

    The present study sought to compare 4 groups of age- and gender-matched children-(a) those reared in institutions for children without parental care in Russia; (b) those raised by their biological parents in Russia; (c) those adopted to the United States from Russian institutions; and (d) those born in the United States and raised by their biological parents-on indicators of cognition, language, and early learning. In addition, we aimed to compare the effects of the length of time spent in an institution, the age of initial placement in an institution, the age at adoption, and pre-institutional risk factors (i.e., prenatal substance exposure and prematurity and low birth weight) on the above-mentioned outcomes in the 2 groups of children with institutionalization experiences. Our results confirm previous reports demonstrating negative consequences of institutionalization and substantial ameliorating effects of adoption. They also underscore the complexity of the effects of institutionalization and adoption, showing that they are intertwined with the effects of pre-institutional risk factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Educational Support Group in Changing Caregivers' Psychological Elder Abuse Behavior toward Caring for Institutionalized Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti

    2009-01-01

    Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…

  12. Flexible PVC flame retarded with expandable graphite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, WW

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available this outstanding fire resistance. Thus flame-retardant (FR) and smoke-suppressant (SS) additives must be incorporated in order to meet product test specifications such as oxygen index, heat release rate, smoke evolution, or the extent of burning [1]. Levchik... plot for the composites fabricated in this work. For a material to be effectively flame retarded both the fire load and the fire growth index should assume low values. Figure 11 shows a dramatic decrease for all the EG composites relative to the neat...

  13. Institutionalization of Markets and Issues of the Growth of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamazii Oksana V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article developes and proves a scientific hypothesis that strengthening the integration processes in the market space causes its institutionalization, and thus leads to the issues of proliferation of the free market players as a result of a division of spheres of influence between the major financial-industrial groups and corporations. It has been proved that a clear hierarchical structure, along with rigid subordination of free economic agents to the chief processor of resources within the growing corporations are those preconditions, which gradually form characteristics of an organization or an institution in terms of markets. An author's own definition of the notion of «institutional market» has been proposed, which is different from the classic formulation. It is emphasized that institutionalization of market space turns the latter into an another economic system, the main characteristics of which are: limited number of buyers and sellers; presence of conglomerates with rigid hierarchical relationships between buyers and sellers; etc. Enlargement and diversification of business as well as growth of its influence not only within its own industry sector, but also in the related sectors, leads to the fact that corporations are trying to control markets (supply and demand which meantime are turning into rigid management structures, acquiring characteristics of institutions (organizations. This hinders the market entry of new market players, increases risks of business and requires on the part of enterprises new marketing techniques for positioning the own ability to create customer value.

  14. Cognitive Representation of Motion in Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Frances A.; Wyatt, Beverly S.; Dulaney, Cynthia L.

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen adolescents with and 15 without mental retardation were compared on their tendency to show the representational momentum effect when viewing a stimulus array that implied motion. Participants with mental retardation showed the representational momentum effects as did the others, although the magnitude of the memory shift was smaller.…

  15. Short-Term Memory for Movement Duration in Mentally Retarded and Nonretarded Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Digby; Grundy, Stephen B.

    1984-01-01

    Both retarded and nonretarded adults (N=26) failed to benefit from opportunities to mentally rehearse their criterion movement over the retention interval, suggesting that strategic differences between the groups cannot explain the poorer performances of the retarded Ss. The retarded Ss appeared to have problems remembering the sensory…

  16. Protein enrichment of familiar foods as an innovative strategy to increase protein intake in institutionalized elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, J.; Roos, de N.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective
    To increase the protein intake of older adults, protein enrichment of familiar foods and drinks might be an effective and attractive alternative for oral nutritional supplements (ONS). We performed a pilot study to test whether these products could help institutionalized elderly to

  17. The effect of a nutrient dense drink on mental and physical function in institutionalized elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Mulders, A.J.M.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether in the current study the supply of a nutrient dense drink has a positive effect on mental and physical function of institutionalized elderly people. Design A 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, intervention trial. Setting Homes for

  18. Determination of Retardation Effects in the High Tc Cuprates from Sharvin Contact Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutscher, G.

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that retardation effects are essential to allow the attractive part of the electron-electron interaction (for instance, phonon mediated) to overcome the Coulomb repulsion. In new superconductors such as the cuprates for which the interaction is a priori unknown, it is therefore essential to determine the retarded and non retarded parts of the interaction. We show how this can be achieved by an analysis of Sharvin contact measurements between a noble metal tip and a cuprate. It turns out that both the retarded and non retarded parts are large, the former being however larger than the later

  19. Emotional intelligence and depressive symptoms in Spanish institutionalized elders: does emotional self-efficacy act as a mediator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Luque-Reca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. This work examines the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI and depressive symptomatology in institutionalized older adults, delving into the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Considering that previous evidence of the variation of the EI-depression relationship depending on whether the emotional ability or the perception of that ability is evaluated, a model of multiple mediation was tested in which the dimensions of emotional self-efficacy (ESE act as mediators in the relationship between ability EI and depressive symptomatology. Methods. The sample consisted of 115 institutionalized older adults (47.82% women; 80.3 ± 7.9 years of age from the province of Jaén (Spain who completed a test of ESE, a measure of ability EI, and a self-administered questionnaire of depressive symptoms. Results. The results showed a positive association between older adults’ emotional performance and depressive symptomatology, finding stronger associations with ESE than with EI abilities. In addition, multiple mediation analyses showed that two of the four dimensions of ESE fully mediated the relationship between ability EI and depressive symptoms. Discussion. These findings suggest that older adults’ high levels of emotional competence generate a feeling of ESE which can protect them against depressive symptoms. This work supports the predictive validity of emotional abilities and ESE for the mental health of a group that is particularly vulnerable to depression, institutionalized older adults. The limitations of the work are discussed, and future lines of research were considered.

  20. Self-perception of aging and acute medical events in chronically institutionalized middle-aged and older persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Yip, Leona C Y; Jim, Olivia T T; Hui, Anna N N

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship between self-perceptions of aging and acute medical events in chronically institutionalized middle-aged and older persons with schizophrenia. Participants were 83 persons with schizophrenia (30% women; mean age = 58.48, SD = 8.14) residing in a long-stay care home, who were without organic mental disorders, mental retardation, serious audiovisual impairment, and serious cognitive and physical impairment. They received assessments in body mass index, functional health, and global mental status, and responded to measures of self-perception of aging at baseline. Acute events that required medical attention were recorded for the next 3 months. 8% of the participants had acute medical events. Bivariate analysis suggested that number of comorbid medical conditions, mobility, Mini-Mental State Examination, and negative self-perception of aging were predictive of acute medical events. However, multivariate analysis (logistic regression) showed that only mobility (OR = 0.78, p = 0.04) and negative self-perception of aging (OR = 3.38, p = 0.02) had independent effects on acute medical events, with the latter being the stronger predictor. Positive aging self-perception, body mass index, and smoking were unrelated to medical events. Physical vulnerabilities may not be sufficient to explain the development of acute medical events in late-life schizophrenia. How individuals perceive their aging process, which is expected to regulate health behavior and help-seeking, may be an even more important factor. Further research should investigate whether such self-perceptions, which are probably rooted in stereotypes about aging socialized early in life, are modifiable in this population. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of auditory sensory memory of mentally retarded and nonretarded persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E M; Meyer, P A

    1981-07-01

    Performance of mentally retarded and nonretarded persons was compared in two experiments designed to identify processes of auditory sensory memory. In one study backward masking of pure tones occurred for a group of retarded adolescents; however, no differences in masking functions were obtained for the retarded group and control groups of equal CA and MA. In the second study a gap-detection task was used as an apparent index of echoic trace durability. Since retarded persons were hypothesized to have a less durable echoic trace, the unique prediction was made that they would outperform control subjects on the task. The retarded group was significantly more accurate and exhibited a lower threshold than did the nonretarded, CA-matched control group. The applicability of these tasks for investigations of mental development was noted, and suggestions were made concerning improvements and extensions of the present research. A theoretical model was proposed to incorporate te current pattern of results.

  2. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  3. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  4. Attachment security as a mechanism linking foster care placement to improved mental health outcomes in previously institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2012-01-01

    Children reared in institutions experience elevated rates of psychiatric disorders. Inability to form a secure attachment relationship to a primary caregiver is posited to be a central mechanism in this association. We determined whether the ameliorative effect of a foster care (FC) intervention on internalizing disorders in previously institutionalized children was explained by the development of secure attachment among children placed in FC. Second we evaluated the role of lack of attachment in an institutionalized sample on the etiology of internalizing disorders within the context of a randomized trial. A sample of 136 children (aged 6-30 months) residing in institutions was recruited in Bucharest, Romania. Children were randomized to FC (n = 68) or to care as usual (CAU; n = 68). Foster parents were recruited, trained, and overseen by the investigative team. Attachment security at 42 months was assessed using the Strange Situation Procedure, and internalizing disorders at 54 months were assessed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Girls in FC had fewer internalizing disorders than girls in CAU (OR = 0.17, p = .006). The intervention had no effect on internalizing disorders in boys (OR = 0.47, p = .150). At 42 months, girls in FC were more likely to have secure attachment than girls in CAU (OR = 12.5, p security predicted lower rates of internalizing disorders in both sexes. Development of attachment security fully mediated intervention effects on internalizing disorders in girls. Placement into FC facilitated the development of secure attachment and prevented the onset of internalizing disorders in institutionalized girls. The differential effects of FC on attachment security in boys and girls explained gender differences in the intervention effects on psychopathology. Findings provide evidence for the critical role of disrupted attachment in the etiology of internalizing disorders in children exposed to institutionalization. © 2011 The Authors

  5. The use of community-based social services by elderly people at risk of institutionalization: An evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bilsen, P.M.A.; Hamers, J.P.H.; Groot, W.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the use of community-based social services by elderly people at risk of institutionalization, who prefer to remain at home. Methods: A study with a longitudinal design (measurements at two points in time) was conducted. Results: One hundred and thirty-four elderly people (mean

  6. Prader-Willi Syndrome: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahling, Elizabeth F.

    1979-01-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome, also called "the eating disease", is a low-incidence handicap which cannot be diagnosed in infancy. Most adults reported in the literature are institutionalized and profoundly retarded. A study of the diagnosis and intervention of two Prader-Willi Syndrome children is presented. (Author/JKS)

  7. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  8. Acid-base synergistic flame retardant wood pulp paper with high thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Liu, Yuansen; Xu, Changan; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Qi

    2017-12-15

    Acid-catalytic degradation caused by acid source flame retardants is the main reason for a decline in thermal stability of flame-retarded lignocellulosic materials. In the present research, a guanidine phosphate (GP)/borax (BX) flame retardant system based on acid-base synergistic interaction was designed and used in wood pulp paper (WPP) to solve this problem. Results showed that the treated WPP obtained good flame retardancy with a limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 35.7%. As a basic flame retardant, borax could chemically combine with the acids released by guanidine phosphate, thus decreasing the acidity of the system in the initial heating stage. In this way, acid-catalytic degradation is greatly retarded on the lignocelluloses to improve thermal stability (the temperature of maximum degradation peak from 286°C to 314°C). Meanwhile, borax was also advantageous to form a denser and firmer condensed phase through reinforcement of the acid-base reaction product, borophosphates, allowing it to provide a protective barrier with higher quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Validity and reliability of the European portuguese version of neuropsychiatric inventory in an institutionalized sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Rita; Martins, Sonia; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Fernandes, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are very common in dementia and have been associated with patient and caregiver distress, increased risk of institutionalization and higher costs of care. In this context, the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) is the most widely used comprehensive tool designed to measure neuropsychiatric Symptoms in geriatric patients with dementia. The aim of this study was to present the validity and reliability of the European Portuguese version of NPI. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a convenience sample of institutionalized patients (≥ 50 years old) in three nursing homes in Portugal. All patients were also assessed with mini-mental state examination (MMSE) (cognition), geriatric depression scale (GDS) (depression) and adults and older adults functional assessment inventory (IAFAI) (functionality). NPI was administered to a formal caregiver, usually from the clinical staff. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were assessed in a subsample of 25 randomly selected subjects. The sample included 166 elderly, with a mean age of 80.9 (standard deviation: 10.2) years. Three out of the NPI behavioral items had negative correlations with MMSE: delusions (rs = -0.177, P = 0.024), disinhibition (rs = -0.174, P = 0.026) and aberrant motor activity (rs = -0.182, P = 0.020). The NPI subsection of depression/dysphoria correlated positively with GDS total score (rs = 0.166, P = 0.038). NPI showed good internal consistency (overall α = 0.766; frequency α = 0.737; severity α = 0.734). The inter-rater reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00 - 1.00), as well as test-retest reliability (ICC: 0.91, 95% CI 0.80 - 0.96). The results found for convergent validity, inter-rater and test-retest reliability, showed that this version appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptoms in institutionalized elderly.

  10. Adoptive and Birth Family Adjustment to Rearing Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Laraine Masters; Bush, Beverly A.

    The study identified 81 families who adopted children with mental retardation or at risk for mental retardation, and compared them with 61 matched families with similar birth children. For birth families, the initial diagnosis was a time of crisis, with high depression scores, while scores at follow-up (an average of 5.3 years later) indicated no…

  11. Life cycle assessment of flame retardants in an electronics application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, Niels; Krop, Hildo; van Ewijk, Harry; Leonards, Pim E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Flame retardants are added to plastics and textiles to save lives. However, certain brominated flame retardants (BFRs) form an environmental hazard and should be replaced by less harmful alternatives. In the recently completed European research project ENFIRO, we examined which alternatives

  12. Training processes in under 6s football competition: The transition from ingenuity to institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Merino Orozco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under 6s football competition is a school sport that has inherent educational implications. Moreover, it is a booming non-formal socio-educational framework where families and children lay training expectations and dreams. The aim is to comprehend the emerging learning processes promoted in this environment for 6 years-old children, when the child starts the institutionalization process in the ruled sport. The research uses a case study design, the ethnographic mode, through participant observation. It uses the narrative and image data to understand the scenario from the perspective of its builder. The results show that the institutionalization process starts from the ingenuity and lack of understanding of the child, who develops training processes in a prescriptive environment, where the competitive performance of the team is pursued. Promoting certain types of learning which the participant himself consciously considers inappropriate undertakes the presence of different kinds of behaviour, which go against the positive values usually attributed to football. The study claims for the necessity of taking advantage of the training opportunities which football offers to children such as the enhancing of creativity, self-efficacy and self-esteem.

  13. Sorption-capacity limited retardation of radionuclides transport in water-saturated packing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclides breakthrough times as calculated through constant retardation factors obtained in dilute solutions are non-conservative. The constant retardation approach regards the solid as having infinite sorption capacity throughout the solid. However, as the solid become locally saturated, such as in the proximity of the waste form-packing materials interface, it will exhibit no retardation properties, and transport will take place as if the radionuclides were locally non-reactive. The magnitude of the effect of finite sorption capacity of the packing materials on radionuclide transport is discussed with reference to high-level waste package performance. An example based on literature sorption data indicated that the breakthrough time may be overpredicted by orders of magnitude using a constant retardation factor as compared to using the entire sorption isotherm to obtain a concentration-dependent retardation factor. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Sorption-capacity limited retardation of radionuclides transport in water-saturated packing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclides breakthrough times as calculated through constant retardation factors obtained in dilute solutions are non-conservative. The constant retardation approach regards the solid as having infinite sorption capacity throughout the solid. However, as the solid becomes locally saturated, such as in the proximity of the waste form-packing materials interface, it will exhibit no retardation properties, and transport will take place as if the radionuclides were locally non-reactive. The magnitude of the effect of finite sorption capacity of the packing materials on radionuclide transport is discussed with reference to high-level waste package performance. An example based on literature sorption data indicates that the breakthrough time may be overpredicted by orders of magnitude using a constant retardation factor as compared to using the entire sorption isotherm to obtain a concentration-dependent retardation factor. 8 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  15. Geographic Information/GIS Institutionalization in the 50 States: Users and Coordinators (95-11)

    OpenAIRE

    Warnecke, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    This report analyzes recent information about the use and institutionalization of geographic information and related technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS), satellite imagery and the global positioning system (GI/GIS) in the 50 state governments. The devolution of federal responsibilities and activism by state governments are increasing the role of states in GI/GIS, as well as in the nation's governance in general.  An organizational chart for each state was prepar...

  16. The self-esteem and anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, Fatma; Arıkan, Duygu

    2013-11-01

    The study was carried out with the aim of determining the factors affecting and to evaluate anxiety situations and self-esteem of children with and without mentally retarded siblings. The sampling included 227 healthy children: 108 of them have mental retarded sibling and 119 of them do not have mental retarded sibling. The context of this study consisted of 15-18 year of age healthy children with mentally retarded siblings and 15-18 year of aged healthy children having at least one sibling between the dates February 15(st) and June 26(st) 2010. Personal Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Trait Anxiety Scale were used. It was found out that trait anxiety of 17-18 aged of children with mental retarded sibling (47.04 ± 7.3) was higher than that of the children without mental retarded siblings (44.05 ± 11.23) (P self-esteem of children with mentally retarded sibling was not affected from the handicap of their siblings (P > 0.05). Trait anxiety score averages of children with mentally retarded sibling and experience some difficulties due to his or her siblings's handicap (47.00 ± 7.76) were found higher than those of those of the children without any problem with the environment (42.61 ± 7.48) (P self-esteem in both groups were not significant different, score of trait anxiety for children with mentally disabled siblings was higher in comparison. It was concluded that anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings increased as self-esteem of these children decreased.

  17. Flame retardants: Dust - and not food - might be the risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Ballesteros-Gomez, A.M.; Leslie, H.A.; Brandsma, S.H.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Flame retardants (FRs) are used to delay ignition of materials such as furniture and electric and electronic instruments. Many FRs are persistent and end up in the environment. Environmental studies on flame retardants (FRs) took off in the late 1990s. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) appeared

  18. The effect of a nutrient dense drink on mental and physical function in institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, M; De Groot, L C P G M; Hoefnagels, W H L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R A M; Wouters-Wesseling, W; Mulders, A J M J; Van Staveren, W A

    2009-11-01

    To determine whether in the current study the supply of a nutrient dense drink has a positive effect on mental and physical function of institutionalized elderly people. A 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, intervention trial. Homes for the elderly and nursing homes in the Netherlands. Institutionalized elderly people older than 60 years, with a BMI Mental State Examination score of at least 10 points. In addition to their usual diet the participants (n=176) received either a nutrient dense drink or a placebo drink twice a day during 24 weeks. The functionality measures included cognitive function, mood, physical performance and the ability to perform activities of daily living. In the supplement group a favorable effect of the intervention drink on body weight (1.6 kg difference in change; P = .035), calf circumference (0.9 cm difference in change; P = .048), and blood values (e.g. Hcy decreased from 16.8 to 11.2 mumol/L in the supplement group) was found. In the total group no significant effect was found on functionality outcomes. However, a subgroup of participants with BMI at baseline below 24.4 kg/m2 performed better on the cognitive subscale of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (P = .09), and its language sub score (P = .01) after 24 weeks of intervention. The results in the total group of this trial suggest that the nutritional supplement used in this study improves nutritional status. Furthermore, the results of this trial suggest that it is effective as treatment for decreasing function in a subgroup of institutionalized elderly people with low BMI.

  19. Fire-retardant foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  20. Improved model of the retardance in citric acid coated ferrofluids using stepwise regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. F.; Qiu, X. R.

    2017-06-01

    Citric acid (CA) coated Fe3O4 ferrofluids (FFs) have been conducted for biomedical application. The magneto-optical retardance of CA coated FFs was measured by a Stokes polarimeter. Optimization and multiple regression of retardance in FFs were executed by Taguchi method and Microsoft Excel previously, and the F value of regression model was large enough. However, the model executed by Excel was not systematic. Instead we adopted the stepwise regression to model the retardance of CA coated FFs. From the results of stepwise regression by MATLAB, the developed model had highly predictable ability owing to F of 2.55897e+7 and correlation coefficient of one. The average absolute error of predicted retardances to measured retardances was just 0.0044%. Using the genetic algorithm (GA) in MATLAB, the optimized parametric combination was determined as [4.709 0.12 39.998 70.006] corresponding to the pH of suspension, molar ratio of CA to Fe3O4, CA volume, and coating temperature. The maximum retardance was found as 31.712°, close to that obtained by evolutionary solver in Excel and a relative error of -0.013%. Above all, the stepwise regression method was successfully used to model the retardance of CA coated FFs, and the maximum global retardance was determined by the use of GA.

  1. Flame retardancy and thermal behavior of intumescent flame-retardant EVA composites with an efficient triazine-based charring agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Ma, Wen; Wu, Xiao; Qian, Lijun; Jiang, Shan

    2018-04-01

    Intumescent flame retardant (IFR) EVA composites were prepared based on a hyperbranched triazine charring-foaming agent (HTCFA) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP). The synergistic effect of HTCFA and APP on the flame retardancy and thermal behavior of the composites were investigated through flammability tests, cone calorimeter measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) including evolved gas analysis (TG-IR) and residue analysis (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS), x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)). The flammability test results showed HTCFA/APP (1/3) system presented the best synergistic effect in flame-retardant EVA composites with the highest LOI value and UL-94 V-0 rating. As for cone calorimeter results, IFR changed the combustion behavior of EVA and resulted in remarkable decrease of flammability and smoke product. TGA results showed the synergistic effect between APP and HTCFA could strengthen the char-forming ability of composites. TG-IR results indicated the melt viscosities and gas release with increasing temperature were well-correlated for EVA/IFR composite. The residue analysis results from SEM, LRS, FT-IR and XPS revealed IFR promoted forming more compact graphitic char layer, connected by rich P–O–C and P–N structures.

  2. Environment-friendly, flame retardant thermoplastic elastomer-magnesium hydroxide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Xiaonan; Ao, Man; Guo, Xinwen; Xue, Dongfeng

    Halogen-free and environment-friendly magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) was synthesized to enhance the flame retardant properties of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE). When the Mg(OH)2 content was optimized to 35wt.%, the TPE-Mg(OH)2 composites exhibited the best flame retardant properties. The results showed that there was a delay of ignition time of the samples containing Mg(OH)2; compared with the samples without Mg(OH)2, the heat release rate and total heat release decrease by 31.4% and 35.6%, while total smoke production and mass loss rate reduce by 56% and 34.2%, respectively. This work opens a door to manufacture fire-resistant polymer-based composites with environmental-friendly flame retardant additives by controllable crystallization and chemical strategies.

  3. Moral and cognitive development in retarded and nonretarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J J; Achenbach, T M

    1975-07-01

    Subjects were 30 cultural-familially retarded and 30 nonretarded children matched for MA within 3 MA levels. The subjects were administered measures of moral judgement and cognitive operations hypothesized by Kohlberg to constitute necessary but not sufficient conditions for attainment of specific moral stages. Moral and cognitive performance improved with MA, but there were no differences between the MA-matched retarded and nonretarded children. Moral judgement related more strongly to MA then to any of the specific cognitive operations tested. The findings failed to support Kohlberg and Gilligan's (1971) hypothesis that the moral judgment of older individuals should be more advanced than that of younger individuals matched for cognitive level, but they were in accord with Zigler's (1969) "developmental" concept of cultural-familial retardation.

  4. Posturography and risk of recurrent falls in healthy non-institutionalized persons aged over 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, Séverine; Gueguen, René; Gauchard, Gérome C; Benetos, Athanase; Perrin, Philippe P

    2006-01-01

    A poor postural stability in older people is associated with an increased risk of falling. The posturographic tool has widely been used to assess balance control; however, its value in predicting falls remains unclear. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the predictive value of posturography in the estimation of the risk of recurrent falls, including a comparison with standard clinical balance tests, in healthy non-institutionalized persons aged over 65. Two hundred and six healthy non-institutionalized volunteers aged over 65 were tested. Postural control was evaluated by posturographic tests, performed on static, dynamic and dynamized platforms (static test, slow dynamic test and Sensory Organization Test [SOT]) and clinical balance tests (Timed 'Up & Go' test, One-Leg Balance, Sit-to-Stand-test). Subsequent falls were monitored prospectively with self-questionnaire sent every 4 months for a period of 16 months after the balance testing. Subjects were classified prospectively in three groups of Non-Fallers (0 fall), Single-Fallers (1 fall) and Multi-Fallers (more than 2 falls). Loss of balance during the last trial of the SOT sensory conflicting condition, when visual and somatosensory inputs were distorted, was the best factor to predict the risk of recurrent falls (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3-10.11). Multi-Fallers showed no postural adaptation during the repetitive trials of this sensory condition, contrary to Non-Fallers and Single-Fallers. The Multi-Fallers showed significantly more sway when visual inputs were occluded. The clinical balance tests, the static test and the slow dynamic test revealed no significant differences between the groups. In a sample of non-institutionalized older persons aged over 65, posturographic evaluation by the SOT, especially with repetition of the same task in sensory conflicting condition, compared to the clinical tests and the static and dynamic posturographic test, appears to be a more sensitive tool to

  5. The Effect of Retardation on the Spontaneous Breaking of Chiral Symmetry in GCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Sheng-Dong; ZHAI Chen-Yang; ZHOU Zhi-Ning; YANG Ze-Sen

    2001-01-01

    An effective Hamiltonian including current-current coupling from the global color symmetry model is -R2 2derived.Retardation effects are introduced by the factor ( R/ ) e ,instead of δ (r) in the correlation kernel,from which the retardation gap equation with α-α coupling in the 3po vacuum is obtained,qq condensations of different retardation parameters R with or without the α-α term are calculated.The results show the effects of retardation,and indicate that the typical value of R is about 2 fm-1 at reasonable value of qq condensation.And while taking typical value 1 fm-1 of R,the condensation 1/3 is about 13% larger than that with no retardation effect.With the α-αterms,the condensation (qq) 1/3 is about 17%o larger than that without it for all values of the parameter R.This shows that the retardation effects and the α-α terms are important for further studying in the Iow-energy region.``

  6. The Effects of Early Institutionalization on the Discrimination of Facial Expressions of Emotion in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hana; Moulson, Margaret C.; Fox, Nathan; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles A., III

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of institutionalization on the discrimination of facial expressions of emotion in three groups of 42-month-old children. One group consisted of children abandoned at birth who were randomly assigned to Care-as-Usual (institutional care) following a baseline assessment. Another group consisted of children…

  7. Roles of attachment and self-esteem: impact of early life stress on depressive symptoms among Japanese institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hanako; Tomoda, Akemi

    2015-02-05

    Although exposure to early life stress is known to affect mental health, the underlying mechanisms of its impacts on depressive symptoms among institutionalized children and adolescents have been little studied. To investigate the role of attachment and self-esteem in association with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and depressive symptoms, 342 children (149 boys, 193 girls; age range 9-18 years old, mean age = 13.5 ± 2.4) living in residential foster care facilities in Japan completed questionnaires related to internal working models, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Their care workers completed questionnaires on ACEs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was created and the goodness of fit was examined (CMIN = 129.223, df = 1.360, GFI = .959, AGFI = .936, CFI = .939, RMSEA = .033). Maltreatment negatively predicted scores on secure attachment, but positively predicted scores on avoidant and ambivalent attachment. The secure attachment score negatively predicted depressive symptoms. The ambivalent attachment score positively predicted depressive symptoms both directly and through self-esteem, whereas the avoidant attachment score positively predicted depressive symptoms only directly. Maltreatment neither directly predicts self-esteem nor depressive symptoms, and parental illness/death and parental sociopathic behaviors did not predict any variables. Results show that the adversity of child maltreatment affects depression through attachment styles and low self-esteem among institutionalized children. Implications of child maltreatment and recommendations for child welfare services and clinical interventions for institutionalized children are discussed.

  8. Flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance of silk fabric coated by graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yi-Min

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silk fabrics were coated by graphene oxide hydrosol in order to improve its flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance. In addition, montmorillonoid was doped into the graphene oxide hydrosol to further improve the flame retardancy of silk fabrics. The flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance were mainly characterized by limiting oxygen index, vertical flame test, smoke density test, and ultraviolet protection factor. The synergistic effect of graphene oxide and montmorillonoid on the thermal stabilization property of the treated silk fabrics was also investigated. The results show that the treated silk fabrics have excellent flame retardancy, thermal stability, smoke suppression, and ultraviolet resistance simultaneously.

  9. Epilepsy and Comorbid Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Preventable and unpreventable causes of childhood-onset epilepsy associated with mental retardation were determined in 692 patients with epilepsy onset between 1977 and 1985 in a Nova Scotia population-based cohort studied in the Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

  10. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  11. Development of Halogen-free flame-retardant cable for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Nobuhisa; Morii, Akira; Fujimura, Shunichi

    1992-01-01

    Conventional flame-retardant cables release a large volume of corrosive and toxic gases as well as smoke while combusted. Cables covered with halogen-free flame-retardant material, containing no halogen in it, have been developed to reduce generation of such gases and smoke, and have already been used in telecommunication service, subway and shipboard applications. However, for cables for nuclear power plant, covering materials should also have radiation resistance and other properties, including long-term physical stability. We have developed halogen-free flame-retardant cables for BWR nuclear power plant with sufficient flame retardancy radiation resistance and environmental resistance including steam-exposure resistance all of which are in accordance with Japanese specifications for BWR nuclear cables and have such characteristics as low corrosiveness, low toxicity and low smoke emission. (author)

  12. Development of halogen-free flame-retardant cable for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Nobuhisa; Morii, Akira; Fujimura, Shunichi

    1991-01-01

    Conventional flame-retardant cables release a large amount of corrosive and toxic gases and also smoke during combustion on fire. Cables covered with halogen-free flame-retardant material, containing no halogen in it, have been developed to reduce generation of such gases and smoke, and already used in telecommunication plant, subway and shipboard applications. In the case of nuclear power plant application, cable covering materials should also have radiation resistance and other properties including long-term physical stability. We have developed halogen-free flame-retardant cables for nuclear power plant with sufficient flame retardancy, radiation resistance, and environmental resistance including steam-exposure resistance, all of which are in accordance with Japanese specifications for nuclear cables, and with characteristics as low corrosiveness, low toxicity, and low smoke evolution. (author)

  13. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  14. Decision Making in Leisure. Empowerment for People with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Charles C.; Mahon, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    People with mental retardation have been overlooked in recreation/leisure and decision making, which are integral to full community participation. They must be provided with leisure education and decision-making skills. The article describes the Decision Making in Leisure model, explaining its use with individuals with mental retardation. (SM)

  15. Values and Moral Foundations as a Basis for Attitude toward Mentally Retarded People in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Анатольевич Сычев

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available An important factor of the successful integration of mentally retarded people is the readiness of the society to accept such people as equal members. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the attitude toward mentally retarded people depends on values and moral factors. The sample comprised 169 students of technical college and pedagogical university. The attitude toward mentally retarded people was measured using a modified version of Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory (MRAI-R by Antonak & Harth, values were tested using Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-R2 by Schwartz, and moral foundations were measured using Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ by Graham et al.. We elaborated modified Russian version of MRAI-R, showed its factor structure and good psychometric properties. The main moral factor of the attitude toward mentally retarded people was the importance of fairness: the higher it is the higher is the readiness to diminish the social distance with the mentally retarded. The importance of authority was associated with the low approval of inclusive education for the mentally retarded. The most important predictor of the attitude toward mentally retarded people was gender: girls demonstrated a more positive attitude towards the mentally retarded.

  16. Mental retardation after prenatal exposure. Re-analysis indicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    2000-01-01

    The current risk assessment for severe mental retardation after prenatal exposure to the A-bomb radiation is based on 21 cases exposed to more than 0.005 Gy, of which 17 were exposed in the most sensitive period 8-15 weeks p.c. The latest analysis, applying the best fitting model, indicates a threshold with a lower 95% bound of 0.06-0.31 Gy, depending on whether 2 cases with Down's syndrome are included or not. The authors have interpreted this as suggesting a threshold in the low-dose region. In the dose group 0.10-0.49 Gy, except one case with Down's syndrome there is only one other case, exposed 8 weeks p.c. to 0.14 Gy. However, in a RERF report (TR 13-91) concerning brain abnormalities detected by MRI in retarded persons, the same case is described. According to this report he was actually exposed to 0.86 Gy. The distance was 1060 m, and his mother exhibited severe epilation. These details indicate that the higher dose is correct and the lower dose is erroneous. In a small material the misclassification of one case has a deep influence on the result of the data analysis. Reclassification of this case will lead to a considerable change in the estimated threshold, notably in the 95% lower bound of the threshold. There will be no indication of severe retardation after less than 0.5 Gy even in the most sensitive period. This does not preclude a milder effect on intelligence from lower doses. The fraction of severe retardation after exposure to 1 Sv in the period 8-15 weeks p.c. has been estimated at 40%. The effect on intelligence score has been estimated at 30 IQ units per Sv in the same period. These estimates have been combined in ICRP 60 to create a model, based on a presumed normal distribution of IQ scores, according to which the final outcome for an individual is determined by his expected IQ without exposure. Thus the dose required to make an otherwise normal individual retarded would be high, while a much lower dose would be enough to bring an individual

  17. Child Maltreatment and Social Connectedness Among Formerly Institutionalized Females: Links With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Verbruggen, Janna

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of child maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence) and cumulative child maltreatment on depressive symptoms in adulthood, and examine the protective effects of social connectedness in a sample of formerly institutionalized females. The sample consisted of 124 females who were institutionalized in a Dutch juvenile justice institution during adolescence and were followed-up when they were on average 32 years old. Information about child maltreatment was extracted from treatment files. Retrospective data on social connectedness in young adulthood were established during interviews using a Life History Calendar. Relationship quality at follow-up was assessed with items derived from the Rochester Youth Development Study. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in adulthood. Results showed that 85.5% of the females experienced child maltreatment, and co-occurrence of subtypes was high. Cumulative child maltreatment increased the risk of depression in adulthood. Furthermore, social connectedness, that is, more employment over time and the quality of the romantic relationship at follow-up, protected against the development of depression. However, social connectedness did not buffer the effect of maltreatment on depression. Our findings indicate that treatment of these girls should focus on improving the social-emotional development to promote positive interpersonal relationships and include educational and vocational components to guide these girls toward increased opportunities on the labor market. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. An Even Distribution of Protein Intake Daily Promotes Protein Adequacy but Does Not Influence Nutritional Status in Institutionalized Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieland, Michael; Beelen, Janne; Laan, Anna C M; Poon, Shirley; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Seeman, Ego; Wang, Xiaofang; Iuliano, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Although it has been established that sufficient protein is required to maintain good nutritional status and support healthy aging, it is not clear if the pattern of protein consumption may also influence nutritional status, especially in institutionalized elderly who are at risk of malnutrition. Therefore, we aim to determine the association between protein intake distribution and nutritional status in institutionalized elderly people. Cross-sectional study among 481 institutionalized older adults. Dietary data from 481 ambulant elderly people (68.8% female, mean age 87.5 ± 6.3 years) residing in 52 aged-care facilities in Victoria, Australia, were assessed over 2 days using plate waste analysis. Nutritional status was determined using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment tool and serum (n = 208) analyzed for albumin, hemoglobin, and IGF-1. Protein intake distribution was classified as: spread (even distribution across 3 meals, n = 65), pulse (most protein consumed in one meal, n = 72) or intermediate (n = 344). Regression analysis was used to investigate associations. Mean protein intakes were higher in the spread (60.5 ± 2.0 g/d) than intermediate group (56.0 ± 0.8 g/d, P = .037), and tended to be higher than those in the pulse group (55.9 ± 1.9 g/d, P = .097). Residents with an even distribution of protein intake achieved a higher level of the recommended daily intake for protein (96.2 ± 30.0%) than the intermediate (86.3 ± 26.2%, P = .008) and pulse (87.4 ± 30.5%, P = .06) groups, and also achieved a greater level of their estimated energy requirements (intermediate; P = .039, pulse; P = .001). Nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment score) did not differ between groups (pulse; 20.5 ± 4.5, intermediate; 21.0 ± 2.5, spread; 20.5 ± 3.5), nor did any other indices of nutritional status. Meeting protein requirements is required before protein distribution may influence nutritional status in institutionalized

  19. Renal artery pulsatility index and renal volume: Normal fetuses versus growth-retarded fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soon; Woo, Bock Hi

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the blood flow velocity waveform of the renal artery and renal volume of growth-retarded fetuses and to compare them with those of normal fetuses. Pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography were obtained from seventy eight normal fetuses at the gestational age from twenty five to thirty nine weeks and eighteen intrauterine growth retarded fetuses whose weight was below ten percentile at birth. We studied changes of the pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume according to the gestational age and compared with those of growth-retarded fetuses. Pulsatility index (PI) of the fetal renal artery decreased throughout the gestational period (r=0.703, p<0.0001). In growth-retarded fetuses, despite of abnormal doppler velocity waveform of the middle cerebral artery, which was showing fetal hypoxia, the renal PI was not increased significantly. The fetal renal volume increased throughout the gestational period (r=0.834, p<0.0001) whereas in growth-retarded fetuses, all renal volume was below fifth percentile of normal fetuses. In growth-retarded fetuses, fetal renal volume was decreased significantly without change of the renal vascular flow. Therefore, the fetal renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography may be a helpful parameter in the diagnosis of growth-retarded fetuses.

  20. Renal artery pulsatility index and renal volume: Normal fetuses versus growth-retarded fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Soon; Woo, Bock Hi [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-15

    To evaluate the blood flow velocity waveform of the renal artery and renal volume of growth-retarded fetuses and to compare them with those of normal fetuses. Pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography were obtained from seventy eight normal fetuses at the gestational age from twenty five to thirty nine weeks and eighteen intrauterine growth retarded fetuses whose weight was below ten percentile at birth. We studied changes of the pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume according to the gestational age and compared with those of growth-retarded fetuses. Pulsatility index (PI) of the fetal renal artery decreased throughout the gestational period (r=0.703, p<0.0001). In growth-retarded fetuses, despite of abnormal doppler velocity waveform of the middle cerebral artery, which was showing fetal hypoxia, the renal PI was not increased significantly. The fetal renal volume increased throughout the gestational period (r=0.834, p<0.0001) whereas in growth-retarded fetuses, all renal volume was below fifth percentile of normal fetuses. In growth-retarded fetuses, fetal renal volume was decreased significantly without change of the renal vascular flow. Therefore, the fetal renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography may be a helpful parameter in the diagnosis of growth-retarded fetuses.

  1. Inherited retarded eruption in the permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P; Kotsaki, A

    1997-01-01

    The term retarded eruption, may be used in cases where eruption is inhibited, causing an interruption in the coordination of tooth formation and tooth eruption. The phenomenon may be local or general, and several etiological factors for retarded eruption have been listed, comprising a lack of space, ankylosis, cysts, supernumerary teeth, hormone and vitamin deficiencies and several developmental disturbances and syndromes. The present paper describes several cases of retarded eruption where no factors other than inheritance have been evident. So far 14 cases have been evaluated, 9 boys and 5 girls. In addition several cases have been registered among parents and grandparents of the probands. Typical features are: retarded eruption, defined as more than 3 SD beyond mean eruption figures, comprises all teeth in the permanent dentition, and in 5 cases also second primary molars. The chronology of tooth formation are within normal limits. Consequently the teeth finish development still laying deeply buried in the jaws, often in aberrant positions and with curves or hooks on the roots. When the teeth finally get the "signal" for eruption, 5-15 years beyond normal eruption time, they move rather quickly into right positions, despite the long eruption paths and the hooked roots. Permanent teeth without, as well as with predecessors, are affected. Extraction of predecessors does not seem to provoke eruption. The main features in management are to take care of the primary teeth, to improve-esthetics, and offer surgery and orthodontics when needed. Analyses of pedigrees indicates that the genetic transmittance may be autosomal dominant as both sexes are affected, about half of the siblings show the trait, and the trait shows continuity through generations.

  2. Flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance of silk fabric coated by graphene oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Yi-Min; Cao Ying-Ying; Chen Guo-Qiang; Xing Tie-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Silk fabrics were coated by graphene oxide hydrosol in order to improve its flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance. In addition, montmorillonoid was doped into the graphene oxide hydrosol to further improve the flame retardancy of silk fabrics. The flame retardancy and ultraviolet resistance were mainly characterized by limiting oxygen index, vertical flame test, smoke density test, and ultraviolet protection factor. The synergistic effect of graphene oxide and montmorillonoid on the the...

  3. Missing Teeth and Prosthodontic Replacement in an Institutionalized Dentate Population of 60 Years and Older in Qingdao, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Li, T.T.; Gerritsen, A.E.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate missing teeth and prosthodontic replacements in an institutionalized elderly population in China, and to assess dental functionality before and after the prosthodontic replacements based on a hierarchical dental functional classification (HDFC)

  4. Urinary incontinence and indwelling urinary catheters in acutely admitted elderly patients: relationship with mortality, institutionalization, and functional decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsma, A. M. Jikke; Buurman, Bianca M.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    To study differences in functional status at admission in acutely hospitalized elderly patients with urinary incontinence, a catheter, or without a catheter or incontinence (controls) and to determine whether incontinence or a catheter are independent risk factors for death, institutionalization, or

  5. Improvement of flame resistance of non-flame retardant cables by applying fire protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, Yujiro; Segoshi, Yoshinori; Jinno, Susumu; Mii, Kazuki

    2017-01-01

    The new regulatory requirements, which were put in force after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, impose the use of flame retardant cables on the plant components having safety functions for the purpose of fire protection. However, some Japanese nuclear power plants built in the early days use non-flame retardant cables that do not pass the demonstration test to check for the flame resistance. To cope with the new regulatory requirements, a fire protection measure for non-flame retardant cables was introduced to assure flame resistance of non-flame retardant cables equivalent to or higher than that of flame retardant cables. To illustrate the fire protection measure, both non-flame retardant cables and its cable tray are covered with fire protection sheet fabricated from incombustible material to form an assembly. Considering the demonstration test results, it can be concluded that flame resistance performance of non-flame retardant cables equivalent to or higher than that of flame retardant cables can be assured by forming the assembly even if an external fire outside the assembly and internal cable fire inside the assembly are assumed. This paper introduces the design of the assembly consisting of a bundle of cables and a cable tray and summarizes the results of demonstration tests. (author)

  6. [The history of the institutionalization of medical psychology in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnsperger, Hans; Mundschütz, Reinhard; Sonneck, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with Freudian psychoanalysis and the Zürich school of psychiatry, which in the early 20th century were the first to call for studies in medical psychology at universities, the article traces the path to the institutionalization of medical psychology in Austria especially in Vienna. Particular attention is devoted to the Academic Society for Medical Psychology (Akademischer Verein für Medizinische Psychologie) which held lectures and courses at the University of Vienna from 1926 to 1938. The Society can thus be viewed as a predecessor of the foundation of the institutes for medical psychology and psychotherapeutic clinics, starting in the late 1960s and continuing into the early 1980s.

  7. Impact of various sociodemographic factors on oral hygiene of mentally retarded residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Kothari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health of the mentally retarded (MR has received scant attention in the literature compared with the normal child even though they are much sufferer. Aim: To assess the impact of various sociodemographic factors on oral hygiene of MR subjects of Bhopal city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 267 MR subjects enrolled at various institutions of Bhopal city. A pretested proforma was used to record information about demographic data, socioeconomic status, the intelligent quotient of inmates, type of mental retardation, and dietary habits. The clinical examination was done to evaluate oral hygiene of subjects using oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analysis was applied using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: The mean OHI-S of MR was found out to be 2.51. Male had mean OHI-S of 2.95 while female had 1.65. Noninstitutionalized had poorer oral hygiene with mean OHI-S of 3.2. According to the degree of mental retardation, profound had the highest OHI-S score, i.e. 3.71 while mild had the lowest score, i.e. 1.01.

  8. Synergistic Flame Retardancy of Aluminium Dipropylphosphinate and Melamine in Polyamide 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic flame retardancy of aluminium dipropylphosphinate (ADPP and melamine (ME in polyamide 6 (PA6 was studied by the limiting oxygen index (LOI measurement, the vertical burning test, and the cone calorimeter test, and the mechanism was also discussed by thermogravimetric and residual analyses. The experimental results indicated that there was obvious synergistic flame retardancy between ADPP and ME under their appropriate weight ratios. The thermogravimetric results and the analysis of the residues obtained in cone calorimeter test showed that ADPP and ADPP/ME played the role of flame retardance by gaseous- and condensed-phase mechanisms, where, on one hand, they were decomposed into nonvolatile aluminum phosphate and promoted the carbonization of PA6, and the formed intumescent layer resulted in flame retardancy by the barrier effect on heat, air, and decomposition products, and on the other hand, they were decomposed into volatile phosphorus compounds which bring about flame retardancy by flame inhibition. Using a combination of ADPP and ME improved charring of PA6 and raised the residual rate of P and Al, thus, improving the barrier effect in the condensed phase.

  9. Individual Performance: From Common Source Bias to Institutionalized Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Heinesen, Eskil; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2016-01-01

    theory and the sociology of professions. Empirically, we ask whether different measures of individual performance produce different results. The investigated performance measures vary with regard to risk of common data source bias, standardization of assessment criteria, and external verification...... dimension for the same teachers: the teachers' self-reported contributions to students' academic skills, the students' marks for the year's work given by the teacher, marks in oral exams with one external examiner and the teacher, and marks in written exams with at least one external examiner....... The associations are systematically stronger when the performance measure comes from the same data source as the explanatory variables, but when separate data sources are used and the measurement scale is institutionalized, the level of external verification does not matter much. Based on institutional theory...

  10. Educational workshops for health promotion of institutionalized elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Grangeiro de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the experience of participation in workshops on health education for institutionalized elderly women. Data Synthesis: Actions of health education were performed through the development of educational workshops on lifestyle for 20 elderly women in a philanthropic institution of a municipality, during the month of October 2011. The workshops were divided into three meetings over 2 days. Empathic communication and interaction among the participants were sought through dynamics, aiming to motivate them to talk about the feelings aroused by figures. The healthy lifestyle was then approached, with explanation on diet and physical activity. Conclusion: The implementation of educational measures is effective for the health promotion, the development of critical thinking and the reduction of risk behaviors doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p595

  11. Some Thoughts on Counseling Parents of the Mentally Retarded. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, William R.

    Discussed are techniques in counseling parents of retarded children. Suggested are ways to structure the interview as well as methods to help the parents deal with such problems as overprotection and initial reactions to the diagnosis of retardation. (CL)

  12. Parenting Stress in Mothers of Mentally Retarded, Blind, Deaf and Physically Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Atefvahid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Parents of children with disabilities are poorer physical and mental health and greater stress experience. This study was conducted to evaluate Parenting stress in mothers of mentally retarded, blind, deaf and physically disabled children.Materials and Methods: This study was causal-comparative. The study population included 310 mothers of exceptional children (mothers of children with mental retardation, blind, deaf and physical-motor disabilities 7 to 12 years of age enrolled in primary schools in the academic year 90-1389 exceptional Tehran. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was used. The data obtained from questionnaires parenting stress using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were analyzed.Results: The results showed that parenting stress in mothers of blind with mentally retarded, deaf with mentally retarded, physically with blind and deaf children are significantly different. As well as, there was significant difference between the mean score of blind, physical disorders, mentally retarded and deaf groups in terms of distraction- hyperactivity subscale.Conclusion: Mothers of children with mental retardation, physical disorders, blind and deaf have most parenting stress respectively.

  13. Psychomotor Retardation in Depression: A Systematic Review of Diagnostic, Pathophysiologic, and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamila Bennabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor retardation is a central feature of depression which includes motor and cognitive impairments. Effective management may be useful to improve the classification of depressive subtypes and treatment selection, as well as prediction of outcome in patients with depression. The aim of this paper was to review the current status of knowledge regarding psychomotor retardation in depression, in order to clarify its role in the diagnostic management of mood disorders. Retardation modifies all the actions of the individual, including motility, mental activity, and speech. Objective assessments can highlight the diagnostic importance of psychomotor retardation, especially in melancholic and bipolar depression. Psychomotor retardation is also related to depression severity and therapeutic change and could be considered a good criterion for the prediction of therapeutic effect. The neurobiological process underlying the inhibition of activity includes functional deficits in the prefrontal cortex and abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission. Future investigations of psychomotor retardation should help improve the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mood disorders and contribute to improving their therapeutic management.

  14. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  15. Gender-specific hip fracture risk in community-dwelling and institutionalized seniors age 65 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterwald, M; Sidelnikov, E; Orav, E J; Dawson-Hughes, B; Theiler, R; Egli, A; Platz, A; Simmen, H P; Meier, C; Grob, D; Beck, S; Stähelin, H B; Bischoff-Ferrari, H A

    2014-01-01

    In this study of acute hip fracture patients, we show that hip fracture rates differ by gender between community-dwelling seniors and seniors residing in nursing homes. While women have a significantly higher rate of hip fracture among the community-dwelling seniors, men have a significantly higher rate among nursing home residents. Differences in gender-specific hip fracture risk between community-dwelling and institutionalized seniors have not been well established, and seasonality of hip fracture risk has been controversial. We analyzed detailed data from 1,084 hip fracture patients age 65 years and older admitted to one large hospital center in Zurich, Switzerland. In a sensitivity analysis, we extend to de-personalized data from 1,265 hip fracture patients from the other two large hospital centers in Zurich within the same time frame (total n = 2,349). The denominators were person-times accumulated by the Zurich population in the corresponding age/gender/type of dwelling stratum in each calendar season for the period of the study. In the primary analysis of 1,084 hip fracture patients (mean age 85.1 years; 78% women): Among community-dwelling seniors, the risk of hip fracture was twofold higher among women compared with men (RR = 2.16; 95% CI, 1.74-2.69) independent of age, season, number of comorbidities, and cognitive function; among institutionalized seniors, the risk of hip fracture was 26% lower among women compared with men (RR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.63-0.95) adjusting for the same confounders. In the sensitivity analysis of 2,349 hip fracture patients (mean age 85.0 years, 76% women), this pattern remained largely unchanged. There is no seasonal swing in hip fracture incidence. We confirm for seniors living in the community that women have a higher risk of hip fracture than men. However, among institutionalized seniors, men are at higher risk for hip fracture.

  16. 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) retards wound closure by inhibiting re-epithelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliver, S C; Ruckshanthi, J P D; Hardman, M J; Zeef, L A H; Ashcroft, G S

    2009-01-01

    The ongoing search for explanations as to why elderly males heal acute skin wounds more slowly than do their female counterparts (and are more strongly disposed to conditions of chronic ulceration) has identified endogenous oestrogens and androgens as being respectively enhancers and inhibitors of repair. We previously demonstrated that blocking the conversion of testosterone to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) limits its ability to impair healing, suggesting that DHT is a more potent inhibitor of repair than is testosterone. The present study aimed to delineate the central mechanisms by which androgens delay repair. Whilst the contractile properties of neither rat wounds in vivo nor fibroblast-impregnated collagenous discs in vitro appeared to be influenced by androgen manipulations, the global blockade of DHT biosynthesis markedly accelerated re-epithelialization of incisional and excisional wounds and reduced local expression of beta-catenin, a key inhibitor of repair. Moreover, DHT retarded the in vitro migration of epidermal keratinocytes following scratch wounding. By contrast, it failed to influence the migratory and proliferative properties of dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that its primary inhibitory effect is upon re-epithelialization. These novel findings may be of particular significance in the context of chronic ulceration, for which being male is a key risk factor.

  17. The role of civil society organizations in the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babis, Deby

    2014-12-01

    December 2013 marked a significant shift in Bolivia with the enactment of a law for the inclusion of indigenous doctors in the National Health System. This article traces the constellation of forces that led to the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia. It identifies three factors contributing to this health policy change. The first factor is the crystallization of a strong indigenous movement fighting for the recognition of cultural rights through the foundation of civil society organizations. Second is the rise to power of Evo Morales, the first Latin American president of indigenous origin, who has promoted multicultural policies, formally supported through the promulgation of a new constitution. Lastly is the influence of the global acceptance of alternative medicine. Indigenous doctor organizations in Bolivia have been highly involved throughout the entire process of institutionalization and have played a crucial role in it. An analysis of the relationship between these civil society organizations and the Bolivian government reveals a strong partnership. This dynamic can be described in terms of Interdependence Theory, as each party relied on the other in the promotion and practice of the law to achieve the integration of indigenous medicine as part of the Bolivian Health System. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Visual evoked potentials of mildly mentally retarded and control children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T; Pietz, J; Schellberg, D; Köhler, W

    1988-10-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded from 25 10- to 13-year-old mildly mentally retarded children and compared with those from 31 control children of the same age-range. Correlations of VEPs with age were weak, but a relationship between VEPs and IQ was demonstrated for the control group. The retarded group had significantly longer latencies and higher amplitude peaks than the control group, with the differences occurring primarily over non-specific cortex and for secondary components. Analysis also showed that the retarded group were neurophysiologically heterogeneous. Since the same children had been analyzed earlier by quantitative EEG methods, comparisons are made with respect to these two methods of investigating brain function.

  19. CRAFTING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR): A CASE STUDY OF CSR STRATEGIZING AND INSTITUTIONALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Krikorian, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation aims to fill a gap in CSR research by adopting a constructivist perspective to investigate how CSR practitioners craft strategies and how this contributes to the institutionalization of CSR in general, and of the ‘business case for CSR’ in particular. It does so by relying on the strategy-as-practice approach and the notions of institutional entrepreneurship and institutional work. This dissertation is based on a single-case study of two CSR practitioners who implemented a C...

  20. Influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' postural balance and risk of falls: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Wagner Oliveira; Alves Junior, Edmundo de Drummond; Porto, Flávia; Pereira, Fabio Dutra; Santana, Rosimere Ferreira; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio

    2014-01-01

    to ascertain the influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' balance and risk of falls. to evaluate the risk of falls, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Get Up and Go test were used; and for measuring postural balance, static stabilometry was used, with acquisition of the elliptical area of 95% and mean velocities on the x and y axes of center of pressure displacement. Parametric and nonparametric measures of association and comparison (αstudy's results point to the difficulty of undertaking postural control tasks, showing a leveling below the clinical tests' reference scores. In the stabilometric behavior, one should note the reduction of the parameters as the length of institutionalization increases, contradicting the assumptions. This study's results offer support for the development of a multi-professional model for intervention with the postural control and balance of older adults living in homes for the aged.

  1. Active ageing and quality of life: factors associated with participation in leisure activities among institutionalized older adults, with and without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Gloria; Rojo-Pérez, Fermina; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Prieto-Flores, Maria-Eugenia; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Martín-García, Salomé; Rojo-Abuín, José-Manuel; Forjaz, Maria-Joao

    2015-01-01

    Active ageing, considered from the perspective of participation in leisure activities, promotes life satisfaction and personal well-being. The aims of this work are to define and explain leisure activity profiles among institutionalized older adults, considering their sociodemographic characteristics and objective and subjective conditions in relation to their quality of life. Two samples of institutionalized people aged 60 and over were analysed together: 234 older adults without dementia and 525 with dementia. Sociodemographic, economic, family and social network, and health and functioning variables were selected. Cluster analysis was applied to obtain activity profiles according to the leisure activities, and ordinal regression models were performed to analyse factors associated to activity level. The sample was clustered into three groups of people: active (27%), moderately active (35%) and inactive people (38%). In the final regression model (Nagelkerke pseudo R(2) = 0.500), a higher level of activity was associated with better cognitive function (Pfeiffer scale), self-perceived health status and functional ability, as well as with a higher frequency of gathering with family and friends, and higher educational level. The decline in physical and mental health, the loss of functional capabilities and the weakening of family and social ties represent a significant barrier to active ageing in a context of institutionalization.

  2. Oral Health Status of Institutionalized Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham A. Diab

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the dental status of institutionalized intellectually disabled individuals in Lebanon and the role of background and behavioural determinants. Material and Methods: Oral health was recorded for 652 individuals (6, 12, 15 and 35 - 44 years old using the decayed, missing and filled teeth/decayed and filled teeth (DMFT/dft index. Data collected was statistically analysed with statistical significance set at P = 0.05. Results: Overall, mean DMFT index score was 5.86 (SD 6; composed of 3.64 (SD 4.05 decayed (D teeth; 1.71 (SD 4.38 missing (M teeth; 0.87 (SD 2.51 filled (F teeth. DMFT was highest in adults (12.71 [SD 7.43] and had a large component of missing (6.24 [SD 7.02] and filled (3.31 [SD 4.56] teeth. DMFT scores ranged between 3.5 (SD 4.44 at 6 years and 4.8 (SD 4.52 at 15 years and the decayed component was the main contributor. In multivariate analyses, governorate of residence was statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.040 and P ≤ 0.044 associated with D and DMFT, the degree of disability and caretaker educational level were statistically significantly (P = 0.009 and P = 0.008 associated with D, oral hygiene practices were statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.017; P < 0.001; P ≤ 0.017; P < 0.001 associated with D, M, F and DMFT and sugar consumption was statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.03 and P ≤ 0.019 associated with D and DMFT. Conclusions: In Lebanon, preventive and treatment programs to improve the oral health status of institutionalized intellectually disabled subjects are needed.

  3. Sexual self-esteem in mothers of normal and mentally-retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolizadeh, Jahanshir; Amiri, Mostafa; Nejad, Fahimeh Rastgoo

    2017-06-01

    Sexual self-esteem is negatively influenced by the stressful experiences in lifetime. This study compared the sexual self-esteem and its components in mothers with normal and mentally-retarded children in Qaen city, in 2014. A total of 120 mothers were selected and assigned into two groups of 60 samples based on convenient sampling method and randomized multiple stage sampling. Both groups completed sexual self-esteem questionnaire. The data were analyzed employing t-test through SPSS software version15. The results showed that the rate of sexual self-esteem in mothers of mentally-retarded children decreased significantly compared with that of mothers with normal children (pself-esteem including skill and experience, attractiveness, control, moral judgment, and adaptiveness in mothers of mentally-retarded children were significantly less than those of mothers with normal children (p self-esteem, especially the sexual one, be taught to mothers of mentally-retarded children by specialists.

  4. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation ...

  5. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  6. Flame retardancy of polyaniline-deposited paper composites prepared via in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianna; Qian, Xueren; An, Xianhui

    2013-01-30

    Polyaniline-deposited paper composites doped with three inorganic acids were prepared via in situ polymerization, and their flame-retardant properties were investigated. Both the conductivity and flame retardancy of the composite increased with the increase of the amount of the polyaniline deposited. The doping acid played a very key role in both the conductivity and flame retardancy of the composite. The comprehensive properties of the composite could be improved when codoped with an equimolar mixture of H(3)PO(4) and H(2)SO(4) or H(3)PO(4) and HCl. The decay of the flame retardancy of the composite in atmosphere was due to the dedoping of the polyaniline deposited on cellulose fibers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The process of institutionalization-deinstitutionalization and children’s psychological adjustment in Rwanda:: Parents matter

    OpenAIRE

    Nsabimana, Epaphrodite; Martin-Sölch, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Negative effects of institutionalization and positive effects of deinstitutionalization on children’s wellbeing have been well documented. However, the majority of reports on institutional care rely on adult interviews and there is a wide disparity of results and methodologies in few result-oriented studies of deinstitutionalization outcome. In addition, though all over the world, especially in developed countries, many children in orphanage have parents; little is known about on the effect o...

  8. Training processes in under 6s football competition: The transition from ingenuity to institutionalization

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Merino Orozco; Ana Arraiz Pérez; Fernando Sabirón Sierra

    2016-01-01

    Under 6s football competition is a school sport that has inherent educational implications. Moreover, it is a booming non-formal socio-educational framework where families and children lay training expectations and dreams. The aim is to comprehend the emerging learning processes promoted in this environment for 6 years-old children, when the child starts the institutionalization process in the ruled sport. The research uses a case study design, the ethnographic mode, through participant obser...

  9. Physical strength is associated with Mini-Mental State Examination scores in Spanish institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Albers, Ulrike; Tobaruela, José L; Meléndez, Agustín; Castillo, Manuel J; González-Gross, Marcela

    2013-10-01

    The present cross-sectional study aimed at assessing muscle strength of hands, the dominant arm and legs in Spanish institutionalized elderly people according to sex, age and cognitive status. A total of 153 elderly subjects (102 females, 51 males, mean age 83.6 ± 6.8 years) living in the region of Madrid were measured for handgrip strength (kg) with a Takei TKK 5101 digital dynamometer (range 5-100 kg, precision 0.1 kg), and arm and leg endurance strength (repetitions) according to the Rikli and Jones tests. Cognitive status was determined with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The values for men and women were, respectively: 23.5 ± 7.3 kg and 11.6 ± 4.6 kg (right handgrip), 22.0 ± 7.8 kg and 10.7 ± 4.8 kg (left handgrip), 13 ± 5 and 10 ± 5 repetitions (arm strength), 8 ± 5 and 5 ± 4 repetitions (legs strength), and 21 ± 6 and 17 ± 7 (MMSE score). All parameters were significantly higher for men (P ≤ 0.01), but strength decline with age was less pronounced in women. In all MMSE groups, lower strength was associated with lower cognitive status. Strength values were lower in older subjects in both sexes; this difference was higher in men than in women. Higher strength values were associated with better cognitive status, which was the most influencing variable, even more than sex and age. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation, X linked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbons Richard

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract X-linked alpha thalassaemia mental retardation (ATR-X syndrome in males is associated with profound developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, genital abnormalities and alpha thalassaemia. Female carriers are usually physically and intellectually normal. So far, 168 patients have been reported. Language is usually very limited. Seizures occur in about one third of the cases. While many patients are affectionate with their caregivers, some exhibit autistic-like behaviour. Patients present with facial hypotonia and a characteristic mouth. Genital abnormalities are observed in 80% of children and range from undescended testes to ambiguous genitalia. Alpha-thalassaemia is not always present. This syndrome is X-linked recessive and results from mutations in the ATRX gene. This gene encodes the widely expressed ATRX protein. ATRX mutations cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation at heterochromatic loci but it is not yet known whether this is responsible for the clinical phenotype. The diagnosis can be established by detection of alpha thalassaemia, identification of ATRX gene mutations, ATRX protein studies and X-inactivation studies. Genetic counselling can be offered to families. Management is multidisciplinary: young children must be carefully monitored for gastro-oesophageal reflux as it may cause death. A number of individuals with ATR-X are fit and well in their 30s and 40s.

  11. Identification of Important Community Living Skills for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, David L.; Harris, Mary B.

    1987-01-01

    Attempted to identify skills important for successful community living of adults with mental retardation. Individuals (N=73) who had significant contact with adults with mental retardation completed questionnaire on academic, leisure, personal, social, and vocational skills frequently taught to persons with mental handicaps. Subjects considered…

  12. Male cerebral palsy hospitalization as a potential indicator of neurological effects of methylmercury exposure in Great Lakes communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbertson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to methylmercury is known to result in severe neurological effects on the developing fetus and infant, including cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and seizures. Males are more susceptible than females to neurological damage from perinatal methylmercury exposures. Preliminary analyses of data and statistics for the hospitalization rates of males for cerebral palsy in the 17 Canadian Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes basin indicate a possible geographic association with locations with elevated mercury from natural or industrial sources

  13. Recent Developments in Organophosphorus Flame Retardants Containing P-C Bond and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Wendels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus compounds containing P-C bonds are increasingly developed as flame retardant additives due to their excellent thermal and hydrolytic stability and ease of synthesis. The latest development (since 2010 in organophosphorus flame retardants containing P-C bonds summarized in this review. In this review, we have broadly classified such phosphorus compounds based on the carbon unit linked to the phosphorus atom i.e., could be a part of either an aliphatic or an aromatic unit. We have only considered those published literature where a P-C bond was created as a part of synthetic strategy to make either an intermediate or a final organophosphorus compound with an aim to use it as a flame retardant. General synthetic strategies to create P-C bonds are briefly discussed. Most popular synthetic strategies used for developing P-C containing phosphorus based flame retardants include Michael addition, Michaelis–Arbuzov, Friedels–Crafts and Grignard reactions. In general, most flame retardant derivatives discussed in this review have been prepared via a one- to two-step synthetic strategy with relatively high yields greater than 80%. Specific examples of P-C containing flame retardants synthesized via suitable synthetic strategy and their applications on various polymer systems are described in detail. Aliphatic phosphorus compounds being liquids or low melting solids are generally applied in polymers via coatings (cellulose or are incorporated in the bulk of the polymers (epoxy, polyurethanes during their polymerization as reactive or non-reactive additives. Substituents on the P atoms and the chemistry of the polymer matrix greatly influence the flame retardant behavior of these compounds (condensed phase vs. the gas phase. Recently, aromatic DOPO based phosphinate flame retardants have been developed with relatively higher thermal stabilities (>250 °C. Such compounds have potential as flame retardants for high temperature processable

  14. The improvement for fire retardant and radiation resistance characteristics of chloroprene rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. Y.; Lee, C.; Kim, P. J.; Kim, J. H

    2004-04-01

    In the report, in order to improve the fire retardancy better Chloroprene Rubber (CR) after adding each fixed amount of inorganic metallic hydroxide, and then compared and assessed fire retardancy with electrical properties and mechanical properties we intended to choose the most excellent additives. Also according to Co{sup 60} {gamma}-ray irradiation, we compared electrical, echanical and fire retardant characteristics to analyse to have the additives of inorganic filler effect on CR's antirad characteristic. In result, CR containing inorganic additive, advanced considerably fire retardant characteristics, but seems to be tended to declined electrical and mechanical characteristics on the whole. In syntherically comparison, the specimen viewed the most excellent characteristics is CR containing Magnesium hydroxide. As to Co{sup 60} {gamma}-ray irradiated Chloroprene rubber containing inorganic additives, fire retardant characteristic are improved, but electrical and mechanical properties are deteriorated as a function of radiation dose. Comparing before irradiation and after irradiation, the best inorganic filler into CR consider Magnesium hydroxide. In this report, in case of adding 30 phr of inorganic filler to CR we observed fire retardancy and radiation resistance characteristics change in according to the kinds of additives, but the research for choosing the optimum amount of additives is considered to progress from now on as adjusting the amount of additives presented excellent characteristics.

  15. Institutionalizing provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for children: an observational case study from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanga, Jane N; Raymond, Juliette; Towle, Megan S; Mutembo, Simon; Fubisha, Robert Captain; Lule, Frank; Muhe, Lulu

    2012-01-01

    Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) is a priority strategy for increasing access for HIV-exposed children to prevention measures, and infected children to treatment and care interventions. This article examines efforts to scale-up paediatric PITC at a second-level hospital located in Zambia's Southern Province, and serving a catchment area of 1.2 million people. Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors for rapid institutionalization of PITC in Livingstone General Hospital. Methods included clinical observations, key informant interviews with programme management, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS) uptake data following the introduction of PITC. After PITC roll-out, the hospital experienced considerably higher testing uptake. In a 36-month period following PITC institutionalization, of total inpatient children eligible for PITC (n = 5074), 98.5% of children were counselled, and 98.2% were tested. Of children tested (n = 4983), 15.5% were determined HIV-infected; 77.6% of these results were determined by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing in children under the age of 18 months. Of children identified as HIV-infected in the hospital's inpatient and outpatient departments (n = 1342), 99.3% were enrolled in HIV care, including initiation on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. A number of good operational practices and enabling factors in the Livingstone General Hospital experience can inform rapid PITC institutionalization for inpatient and outpatient children. These include the placement of full-time nurse counsellors at key areas of paediatric intake, who interface with patients immediately and conduct testing and counselling. They are reinforced through task-shifting to peer counsellors in the wards. Nurse counsellor capacity to draw specimen for DNA PCR for children under 18 months has significantly enhanced early infant diagnosis. The hospital's bolstered antiretroviral

  16. Plasma-enhanced synthesis of green flame retardant cellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totolin, Vladimir

    The natural fiber-containing fabrics and composites are more environmentally friendly, and are used in transportation (automobiles, aerospace), military applications, construction industries (ceiling paneling, partition boards), consumer products, etc. Therefore, the flammability characteristics of the composites based on polymers and natural fibers play an important role. This dissertation presents the development of plasma assisted - green flame retardant coatings for cellulosic substrates. The overall objective of this work was to generate durable flame retardant treatment on cellulosic materials. In the first approach sodium silicate layers were pre-deposited onto clean cotton substrates and cross linked using low pressure, non-equilibrium oxygen plasma. A statistical design of experiments was used to optimize the plasma parameters. The modified cotton samples were tested for flammability using an automatic 45° angle flammability test chamber. Aging tests were conducted to evaluate the coating resistance during the accelerated laundry technique. The samples revealed a high flame retardant behavior and good thermal stability proved by thermo-gravimetric analysis. In the second approach flame retardant cellulosic materials have been produced using a silicon dioxide (SiO2) network coating. SiO 2 network armor was prepared through hydrolysis and condensation of the precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), prior coating the substrates, and was cross linked on the surface of the substrates using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) technique. Due to protection effects of the SiO2 network armor, the cellulosic based fibers exhibit enhanced thermal properties and improved flame retardancy. In the third approach, the TEOS/APP treatments were extended to linen fabrics. The thermal analysis showed a higher char content and a strong endothermic process of the treated samples compared with control ones, indicating a good thermal stability. Also, the surface analysis proved

  17. Assessing the Employment-Related Interpersonal Competence of Mildly Mentally Retarded Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Foss, Gilbert

    1986-01-01

    The Test of Interpersonal Competence for Employment (TICE) designed to assess a mildly retarded worker's knowledge of interpersonal skills in the employment setting, was developed based on analysis of problems that mildly retarded workers experience and identification of correct responses to those problems by competitive employers. Initial…

  18. Accelerated weathering of fire-retardant-treated wood for fire testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White

    2009-01-01

    Fire-retardant-treated products for exterior applications must be subjected to actual or accelerated weathering prior to fire testing. For fire-retardant-treated wood, the two accelerated weathering methods have been Method A and B of ASTM D 2898. The rain test is Method A of ASTM D 2898. Method B includes exposures to ultraviolet (UV) sunlamps in addition to water...

  19. THERMAL DEGRADATION AND FLAME RETARDANCY OF CALCIUM ALGINATE FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建; 夏延致

    2009-01-01

    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride.The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry(TG),X-ray diffraction(XRD),limiting oxygen index(LOI) and cone calorimeter(CONE).The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34,and the heat release rate(HRR),total heat release(THR),CO and CO_2 concentrations during ...

  20. Studies on flame retardancy of radiation crosslinked PE foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huili; Yao Zhanhai; Xu Jun

    1996-01-01

    CPE, DBDPO and Sb 2 O 3 were used as flame-retardant of PE foam. Effect of CPE on PE foam under radiation and it's flame-retardancy were studied. The result showed that CPE can enhance radiation cross-linking of PE, and trinary of addition being made of CPE, DBDPO and Sb 2 O 3 made oxygen index of PE foam achieve over 30, and self-extinguish, it did not influence manufacture and mechanical properties of PE foam

  1. A Case with Mental Retardation, Gynecomastia and Dysmorphic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The 17 years old boy was diagnosed as Borjeson Forsmann Lehmann Syndrome who was referred to our Genetic Diagnosis Center for his dysmorphic features, obesity, gynecomasty and mental retardation . There are so many diseases in differantial diagnosis of obesity and mental retardation that BFLS is a rare one of them. We aimed to discuss the findings of the patient clinically diagnosed as BFLS within the scope of literature. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1: 60-63

  2. Radiation and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    The editorial comments on a report published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima updating information on the induction of mental changes in the light of the revised and more detailed estimate of doses of radiation during pregnancies received by those exposed at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The estimated risks are little changed. The likelihood of a threshold for exposure during the 16th to 25th week is confirmed-at 700 mGy (with a lower 95% confidence interval of 200 mGy). For the more sensitive time between the eighth to 15th weeks a linear model with no threshold still gives a statistically adequate fit to the data. Now, however, if linear models are tested without the constraint of postulating a threshold of zero, fits are obtained indicating substantial thresholds below which mental retardation would not result. When data on all children are included the maximum likelihood threshold value averages about 250 mGy on the different criteria tested (with mean 95% confidence intervals of 0 and 550 mGy). Or if the analyses exclude five children with conditions that themselves sometimes cause mental retardation a threshold of about 400 mGy is indicated (with mean 95% confidence intervals of 150 and 600 mGy). (author)

  3. Smoke suppression properties of ferrite yellow on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane based on ammonium polyphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xilei; Jiang, Yufeng; Jiao, Chuanmei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Smoke suppression of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites has been investigated. • FeOOH has excellent smoke suppression abilities for flame retardant TPU composites. • FeOOH has good ability of char formation, hence improved smoke suppression property. -- Abstract: This article mainly studies smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of ferrite yellow (FeOOH) on flame retardant thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites using ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as a flame retardant agent. Smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of FeOOH on flame retardant TPU composites were intensively investigated by smoke density test (SDT), cone calorimeter test (CCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Remarkably, the SDT results show that FeOOH can effectively decrease the amount of smoke production with or without flame. On the other hand, the CCT data reveal that the addition of FeOOH can apparently reduce heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR), and total smoke release (TSR), etc. Here, FeOOH is considered to be an effective smoke suppression agent and a good synergism with APP in flame retardant TPU composites, which can greatly improve the structure of char residue realized by TGA and SEM results

  4. Long-Term Retardation of Uranium in the KURT Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Shin, Joo Do; Park, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    One of possibilities resolving this issue is to study the migration and retardation processes of radionuclides in the subsurface environments by using naturally occurring radionuclides as analogues of radioactive waste. To date, however, the long-term behavior of radionuclides in a granitic groundwater system is not yet fully understood. The ubiquitous presence of uranium (U) in rocks makes it an ideal natural analogue for studying the behaviors of radionuclides in a deep geological repository for the final disposal of HLW. In this study, long-term retardation behavior of natural uranium was investigated using granite rock samples taken from the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel), located in Daejeon city. The distribution of uranium and its binding mechanism in granite samples were investigated using the sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ICP-MS methods. In this study, the long-term retardation of uranium in the KURT environment was investigated using SCE and EPMA techniques combined with ICP-MS and XRD. Results showed that long-term interaction of rock with groundwater can change U species and mineralize dissolved U, which can consequently contribute to the retardation of U in the fractured granitic rock environment. This study will help us to understand the long-term behavior of radionuclides migrating through the fractured granite rock and then enhance the reliability of the safety assessment for a HLW repository

  5. Workability enhancement of geopolymer concrete through the use of retarder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umniati, B. Sri; Risdanareni, Puput; Zein, Fahmi Tarmizi Zulfikar

    2017-09-01

    Geopolymer concrete is a type of concrete manufactured without the addition of cement. In geopolymer concrete, along with an activator, cement as the concrete binder can be replaced by the fly ash. This will reduce global demand on cement, and therefore will reduce CO2 emission due to cement production. Thus, geopolymer concrete is commonly known as an eco-friendly concrete. Geopolymer concrete also offers a solution concerning with the utilization of the fly ash waste. However, despite of its environmental advantages, geopolymer concrete has a drawback, namelygeopolymer concrete set quickly, thus reducing its workability. This research aimed to increase the workability of geopolymer concrete by using retarder admixture (Plastocrete RT6 Plus). Retarder used varies within 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% of fly ash mass. As a control, geopolymer concrete without retarder (0%) were also made. Activator used in this research was Na2SiO3 mixed with NaOH 10 M solution, with ratio of 1:5. The results showed an optimum composition of geopolymer concrete with 0.6% retarder, where initial setting time occured after 6.75 hours, and the final setting time reached after 9.5 hours. Moreover, the slump of the geopolymer concrete was 8.8 cm, and the slump flow was 24 cm. The compressive strength of the geopolymer concrete at 28 days was 47.21 MPa. The experiment showed that the more retarder added, the setting time of the geopolymer concrete will be increased, thus increasing its workability.

  6. A Case with Mental Retardation, Gynecomastia and Dysmorphic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The 17 years old boy was diagnosed as Borjeson Forsmann Lehmann Syndrome who was referred to our Genetic Diagnosis Center for his dysmorphic features, obesity, gynecomasty and mental retardation . There are so many diseases in differantial diagnosis of obesity and mental retardation that BFLS is a rare one of them. We aimed to discuss the findings of the patient clinically diagnosed as BFLS within the scope of literature. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1.000: 60-63

  7. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Becher, G.; Berg, van den M.; Boer, de J.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organohalogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production volume

  8. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Joseph G.; Becher, Georg; Van Den Berg, Martin; Leonards, Pim E G

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organo-halogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production

  9. Sexuality in institutionalized elderly persons: a systematic review of argument-based ethics literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Lieslot; Gastmans, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Admission to a nursing home might challenge the way in which individuals experience their own sexuality, but it does not automatically diminish their need and desire for sexual fulfillment. Despite the fact that sexuality proves to be an intrinsic part of human existence, the sexual expression of geriatric residents remains a sensitive subject for many caregivers and family members. It evokes a variety of ethical issues and concerns, especially when dementia patients are involved. The overall objective of this review was to examine the ethical arguments and concepts about the debate on sexuality within a nursing home environment. We conducted a systematic search for argument-based ethics literature focusing on sexuality in institutionalized elderly people. Twenty-five appropriate studies were identified. A thematic analysis of the included literature led us to distinguish two major groups of ethical arguments: (i) principles and (ii) care. Ethics arguments on sexuality in institutionalized elderly are particularly guided by the principle of respect for autonomy and the concomitant notion of informed consent. Arguments related to care were also apparent within the research literature although they received considerably less attention than the arguments related to the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice. The lack of clarity in the conceptualization of the arguments referred to in the research literature indicates that there is a pressing need for a better defined, more fundamental philosophical-ethical analysis of the values at stake.

  10. Equally unequal: gender discrimination in the workplace among adults with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, Elona; Wolfson, Hagit; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira

    2003-01-01

    Gender discrimination in the work place has been widely reported. Women are usually discriminated against both with respect to level of occupation and salary. The current study explored the correlation between gender and employment among adults with mental retardation, specifically, whether gender discrimination in the work place is as prominent among people with mental retardation as in the general population. Level of occupation and salary earned were studied in 227 adults with mild and moderate mental retardation residing in institutions, hostels, and sheltered homes in Israel. The findings suggest a correlation between gender and employment similar to that in the general population. Women were found to be employed mainly in sheltered workshops and lower levels of occupation, and to earn significantly less than the men. However, closer examination of each work place revealed that within each level of occupation there were no significant gender differences in salary. The finding suggests that while women with mental retardation earn lower salaries than men, this is mainly the result of their lower level of occupation. Rehabilitation efforts should therefore be directed toward ensuring higher levels of occupation as well as community employment among women with mental retardation.

  11. Retardation effects on the dispersion and propagation of plasmons in metallic nanoparticle chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Charles A.; Mariani, Eros; Weick, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    We consider a chain of regularly-spaced spherical metallic nanoparticles, where each particle supports three degenerate localized surface plasmons. Due to the dipolar interaction between the nanoparticles, the localized plasmons couple to form extended collective modes. Using an open quantum system approach in which the collective plasmons are interacting with vacuum electromagnetic modes and which, importantly, readily incorporates retardation via the light-matter coupling, we analytically evaluate the resulting radiative frequency shifts of the plasmonic bandstructure. For subwavelength-sized nanoparticles, our analytical treatment provides an excellent quantitative agreement with the results stemming from laborious numerical calculations based on fully-retarded solutions to Maxwell’s equations. Indeed, the explicit expressions for the plasmonic spectrum which we provide showcase how including retardation gives rise to a logarithmic singularity in the bandstructure of transverse-polarized plasmons. We further study the impact of retardation effects on the propagation of plasmonic excitations along the chain. While for the longitudinal modes, retardation has a negligible effect, we find that the retarded dipolar interaction can significantly modify the plasmon propagation in the case of transverse-polarized modes. Moreover, our results elucidate the analogy between radiative effects in nanoplasmonic systems and the cooperative Lamb shift in atomic physics.

  12. Institutionalizing strategic communication in Europe - an ideal home or a mad house? Evidence from a survey in 37 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tench, R.; Verhoeven, P.; Zerfass, A.

    2009-01-01

    Is strategic communication becoming an established discipline of practice across Europe? Is it in turn becoming institutionalized? And do we mean establishing a renowned practice at the heart of organizational operation? This article aims to address these questions while paying attention to the

  13. Institutionalizing end-user demand steering in agricultural R&D: Farmer levy funding of R&D in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Leeuwis, C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the institutionalization of demand-driven modes of working in the R&D planning process and reveal possible weaknesses, through an analysis of a system of collective R&D funding by farmers. The findings indicate that, although end-users have

  14. Cadmium zinc telluride as a mid-infrared variable retarder

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, William; Taherion, Saeid; Kumar, F. Joseph; Giles, David; Hore, Dennis

    2018-04-01

    The electro-optic behavior of cadmium zinc telluride is examined in the mid-infrared region between 3 and 11 μm, for applied DC field strengths of up to 106 V/m. The measurements performed here include full characterization of the polarization state of the transmitted light by means of the Stokes vector. We demonstrate the suitability of this material for DC variable retarder applications such as those achieved by quarter- or half-wave retardation. A comparison of two different metallic coatings for electrodes, gold and indium, reveals important differences in performance that are attributed to the homogeneity of the field through the bulk of the crystal. We illustrate that, in the case of both metals, the same electro-optic coefficients are measured, but regions of higher and lower retardation result in significant depolarization in the case of gold. Such depolarization may adversely affect the contrast ratio in a light valve, or increase the voltage necessary for the operation of an arbitrary polarization state generator.

  15. Prediction of Risk of Falling among Institutionalized Elderly People in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Akbari Kamrani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging declines abilities and leads to increased risk of falling and subsequently poorer quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify a proper assessment for risk of falling among institutionalized elderly. In order to accomplish this aim, two functional assessment methods, Berg Scale and Tinetti Scale, were used and the validity indices of these methods were calculated. Prospective non-interventional methodological discriminative-validation study in order to make a comparative assessment of the discriminative validity of the two clinical assessment methods among the elderly people with/without history of falling. The frequency of falls within 6 months among institutionalized elderly individuals was prospectively studied. Finally, those having had two or more falls within 6 months were enrolled in the faller group and those having no falls within 6 months were enrolled in the non-faller group. Twenty-one women and 33 men (mean age: 75.79, standard deviation [SD]: 8.47, range: 61-98 independent in their daily activities and able to walk 10 meters using/without assistive devices volunteered to participate in the study with awareness. Background variables included age, gender, use/nonuse of assistive devices, height, weight, number of the drugs used, and number of the diseases; independent variable was history of falling; and dependent variables were the results of the two functional assessment methods. Independent t-test indicated a significant difference between the two groups of fallers and non-fallers in the mean scores on Berg Balance Scale (P=0.0001 and Tinetti Scale (P=0.0001. The results of logistic regression test indicated much more discriminative validity for Berg Balance Scale test than Tinetti Scale test. Studying the validity of Berg Balance Scale assessment method showed that all validity indices should be regarded as bases for clinical decision.

  16. Prediction of Risk of Falling Among Institutionalized Elderly People in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Akbari-Kamrani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aging decline abilities and leads to increased risk of falling and subsequently poorer quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify a proper assessment for risk of falling among institutionalized elderly people. Materials & Methods: Prospective non–interventional methodological discriminative–validation study in order to make a comparative assessment of the discriminative validity of the two clinical assessment methods among the elderly people with/ without history of falling. The frequency of falls within 6 months among institutionalized elderly individuals was prospectively studied. Finally, those having had two or more falls within 6 months were enrolled in the faller group and those having no falls within 6 months were enrolled in the non-faller group. Twenty-one women and 33 men (mean age: 75.79, standard deviation [SD]: 8.47, range: 61-98 independent in their daily activities and able to walk 10 meters using / without assistive devices volunteered to participate in the study with awareness. Background variables included age, gender, use / nonuse of assistive devices, height, weight, number of the drugs used, and number of the diseases independent variable was history of falling and dependent variables were the results of the two functional assessment methods. In order to accomplish the aim of study, two functional assessment methods, Berg scale and Tinetti scale, were used and the validity indices of these methods were calculated. Results: Independent t test indicated a significant difference between the two groups of fallers and non-fallers in the mean scores on Berg Balance Scale (p=0.00l and Tinetti Scale (p=0.00l. Conclusion: The results of logistic regression test indicated much more discriminative validity for Berg Balance Scale test than Tinetti Scale test. Studying the validity of Berg Balance Scale assessment method showed that all validity indices should be regarded as bases for clinical decision.

  17. Detection and Quantification of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein 1 (FMRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFauci, Giuseppe; Adayev, Tatyana; Kascsak, Richard; Brown, W Ted

    2016-12-09

    The final product of FMR1 gene transcription, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein 1 (FMRP), is an RNA binding protein that acts as a repressor of translation. FMRP is expressed in several tissues and plays important roles in neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and ovarian functions and has been implicated in a number of neuropsychological disorders. The loss of FMRP causes Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). In most cases, FXS is due to large expansions of a CGG repeat in FMR1 -normally containing 6-54 repeats-to over 200 CGGs and identified as full mutation (FM). Hypermethylation of the repeat induces FMR1 silencing and lack of FMRP expression in FM male. Mosaic FM males express low levels of FMRP and present a less severe phenotype that inversely correlates with FMRP levels. Carriers of pre-mutations (55-200 CGG) show increased mRNA, and normal to reduced FMRP levels. Alternative splicing of FMR1 mRNA results in 24 FMRP predicted isoforms whose expression are tissues and developmentally regulated. Here, we summarize the approaches used by several laboratories including our own to (a) detect and estimate the amount of FMRP in different tissues, developmental stages and various pathologies; and (b) to accurately quantifying FMRP for a direct diagnosis of FXS in adults and newborns.

  18. The Effect of Cognitive Remediation Therapy on Social Skills in Institutionalized Elderly Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Motallebi, Seyedeh Ameneh; Boosepasi, Shahnaz

    2017-01-01

    There are limited scientific investigations on cognitive remediation in elderly patients with schizophrenia. The present study was aimed to examine the efficacy of cognitive remediation therapy on social skills in institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia. The study employed a randomized clinical trial. A total of 60 institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia from Razi Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran were selected and randomly allocated into two equal groups (control and intervention). The intervention group attended to cognitive remediation therapy for 8 weeks. The Evaluation of Living Skills Scale for psychiatric patients was used for data collection. The Chi Square, independent and paired t-tests using SPSS, version 22, were employed to analyze the data. The mean age of 60 elderly patients participated in the study was 65.25 ± 4.19 years. No significant differences were found between two groups at baseline. However, independent t-tests showed significant differences between the intervention and the control group in social skills after implementation of intervention. Additionally, the results of paired t-tests revealed significant improvements in intervention group on communication skills (t=5.50, psocial skills of elderly patients with schizophrenia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Aluminum hypophosphite microencapsulated to improve its safety and application to flame retardant polyamide 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Hua; Tang, Gang; Hu, Wei-Zhao; Wang, Bi-Bo; Pan, Ying; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MCAHP was prepared and applied in polyamide 6. • MCA as the capsule material can improve the fire safety of AHP. • Flame retardant polyamide 6 composites with MCAHP show good flame retardancy. - Abstract: Aluminum hypophosphite (AHP) is an effective phosphorus-containing flame retardant. But AHP also has fire risk that it will decompose and release phosphine which is spontaneously flammable in air and even can form explosive mixtures with air in extreme cases. In this paper, AHP has been microencapsulated by melamine cyanurate (MCA) to prepare microencapsulated aluminum hypophosphite (MCAHP) with the aim of enhancing the fire safety in the procedure of production, storage and use. Meanwhile, MCA was a nitrogen-containing flame retardant that can work with AHP via the nitrogen-phosphorus synergistic effect to show improved flame-retardant property than other capsule materials. After microencapsulation, MCA presented as a protection layer inhibit the degradation of AHP and postpone the generation of phosphine. Furthermore, the phosphine concentration could be effectively diluted by inert decomposition products of MCA. These nonflammable decomposition products of MCA could separate phosphine from air delay the oxidizing reaction with oxygen and decrease the heat release rate, which imply that the fire safety of AHP has been improved. Furthermore, MCAHP was added into polyamide 6 to prepare flame retardant polyamide 6 composites (FR-PA6) which show good flame retardancy

  20. Aluminum hypophosphite microencapsulated to improve its safety and application to flame retardant polyamide 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Hua [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Tang, Gang [School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, 59 Hudong Road, Ma’anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Hu, Wei-Zhao; Wang, Bi-Bo; Pan, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Song, Lei, E-mail: leisong@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • MCAHP was prepared and applied in polyamide 6. • MCA as the capsule material can improve the fire safety of AHP. • Flame retardant polyamide 6 composites with MCAHP show good flame retardancy. - Abstract: Aluminum hypophosphite (AHP) is an effective phosphorus-containing flame retardant. But AHP also has fire risk that it will decompose and release phosphine which is spontaneously flammable in air and even can form explosive mixtures with air in extreme cases. In this paper, AHP has been microencapsulated by melamine cyanurate (MCA) to prepare microencapsulated aluminum hypophosphite (MCAHP) with the aim of enhancing the fire safety in the procedure of production, storage and use. Meanwhile, MCA was a nitrogen-containing flame retardant that can work with AHP via the nitrogen-phosphorus synergistic effect to show improved flame-retardant property than other capsule materials. After microencapsulation, MCA presented as a protection layer inhibit the degradation of AHP and postpone the generation of phosphine. Furthermore, the phosphine concentration could be effectively diluted by inert decomposition products of MCA. These nonflammable decomposition products of MCA could separate phosphine from air delay the oxidizing reaction with oxygen and decrease the heat release rate, which imply that the fire safety of AHP has been improved. Furthermore, MCAHP was added into polyamide 6 to prepare flame retardant polyamide 6 composites (FR-PA6) which show good flame retardancy.

  1. Institutionalizing social impact assessment in Bangladesh resource management: limitations and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momtaz, Salim

    2005-01-01

    Consideration of social issues in environmental impact assessment (EIA) of development projects has been an integral part of project cycle since the inception of EIA in Bangladesh in the early 1990s. This paper examines the emergence of social impact assessment (SIA) in Bangladesh environmental management and its institutionalization. It reveals that although SIA does not have a statutory status like EIA, social dimensions are firmly established in donor funded poverty alleviation projects. It is proposed that SIA is given a clear legislative mandate. The Department of Environment (DOE) - the agency that looks after the implementation of EIA on behalf of the government--needs to be strengthened and transparent in order to play a more effective role

  2. Expo Milano 2015: The Institutionalization of Working for Free in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ciccarelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay reports on the temporary and unpaid forms of labour around which the 2015 World’s Fair (Expo 2015 in Milan is organized and upon which it depends. The collective agreement supporting Expo 2015 is especially significant, the paper contends, in that it has been seized upon by the government of Matteo Renzi as a blueprint for the future of labour relations in Italy. Expo 2015 ushers in the institutionalization of unpaid work in the crisis-stricken Italian economy—a transformation approved by the major Italian trade unions that signed off on the collective agreement, but forcefully opposed by social movements who have decried the expansion of unpaid work permitted by the contract.

  3. Development of new radiation resistant, fire-retardant cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Ko; Morita, Yosuke; Udagawa, Takashi; Fujimura, Shun-ichi; Oda, Eisuke.

    1982-01-01

    For the cables for nuclear facilities, radiation resistance and fire-retardation are severely required. The authors took note of the fact that even in the existing cables for nuclear power plants, their mechanical properties are greatly degraded by the exposure to large dose (for example, 200 Mrad in PWR testing conditions), and attempted the improvement. They employed a new additive, bromated acenaphthylene condensate (con-BACN), which effectively gives radiation resistance and also is a good flame retarder, to be compounded to an insulation material, and examined the characteristics. In this paper, the features of con-BACN and the investigation of fire-retardant EPDM composition are described. As an initial composition, a small amount of zinc white, sulphur, stearic acid, noclac 224 (Ouchi-Shinko Chemicals, Co.), and antimony trioxide, 100 parts of tale and 45 parts of con-BACN were added to 100 parts of EPDM (propylene content 34 %, Japan Synthetic Rubber Co.). As the antiaging agent, it was decided to use phenol series No. 3 as a result of test. The fire-retardant EP rubber-composed cable was produced for trial, its insulation being fabricated, using a Furukawa's pressurized salt bath continuous vulcanizer. The tests of γ-irradiation, simulated LOCA and combustion were carried out, and the test results are reported. It was indicated that the cable resisted against high dose several times as much as 200 Mrad, and was suitable for the applications, in which the mechanical properties such as bending are required to be maintained after radiation exposure. It was also found that con-BACN was safe, and its properties of decomposition, concentration and acute toxicity were all very low. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified

  5. Low Bone Mineral Density Risk Factors and Testing Patterns in Institutionalized Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mailee; Campagna, Elizabeth J.; Jensen, Kristin M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Adults with intellectual or developmental disability (ID/DD) have multiple risks for low bone mineral density (BMD) without formal guidelines to guide testing. We sought to identify risk factors and patterns of BMD testing among institutionalized adults with ID/DD. Methods: We evaluated risk factors for low BMD (Z-/T-score < -1) and…

  6. EVALUASI RENCANA KINERJA KOLAM RETENSI (RETARDING BASIN DALAM UPAYA PENGENDALIAN BANJIR TUKAD MATI DI KOTA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G. Suryadinata P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tukad Mati is one of the rivers in the province of Bali that unfolds and flows in Badung regency and Denpasar. Inundation due to flooding is a problem that often occurs in this region during the rainy season. In an effort to overcome problems of flooding have been many studies carried out so as to produce flood control alternatives such as normalization, diversion channels and retarding basins. Retarding basin is one of flood control alternative that has not been much studied. In this study conducted a simulation of flood prevention alternative with retarding basin at Tukad Mati, by the hydrology approach method and hydraulics using HEC-RAS 4.0 program applications. Simulations performed on the current river flow conditions (existing condition and to the existing conditions with the retarding basin, according to the detail design of retarding basin in the city of Denpasar and evaluate the effectiveness of the retarding basin in the river basin flood control of Tukad Mati. Flood control by retarding basin based on simulations with the 2 (two years flood return period, resulting in a reduction of water level by an average of 0.42 meters or an average of 12% of the maximum water level in the conditions without retarding basin, which occurred in along the grooves on the lower reaches of the retarding basin and inundation waters still occur in some places, particularly in the downstream of Umadui Dam. Economic analysis of both the analysis of Benefits/Cost produces a parameter of BCR, NPV and IRR are not meet the feasibility requirements. The effective retention of retarding basin based on simulation results are 282,630.00 m3 with the ability to flood accommodate for 3-4 hours. In terms of economic development retarding basin is not feasible in terms of comparative costs and benefits

  7. EVALUASI RENCANA KINERJA KOLAM RETENSI (RETARDING BASIN DALAM UPAYA PENGENDALIAN BANJIR TUKAD MATI DI KOTA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G. Suryadinata P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tukad Mati is one of the rivers in the province of Bali that unfolds and flows in Badung regency and Denpasar. Inundation due to flooding is a problem that often occurs in this region during the rainy season. In an effort to overcome problems of flooding have been many studies carried out so as to produce flood control alternatives such as normalization, diversion channels and retarding basins. Retarding basin is one of flood control alternative that has not been much studied. In this study conducted a simulation of flood prevention alternative with retarding basin at Tukad Mati, by the hydrology approach method and hydraulics using HEC-RAS 4.0 program applications. Simulations performed on the current river flow conditions (existing condition and to the existing conditions with the retarding basin, according to the detail design of retarding basin in the city of Denpasar and evaluate the effectiveness of the retarding basin in the river basin flood control of Tukad Mati. Flood control by retarding basin based on simulations with the 2 (two years flood return period, resulting in a reduction of water level by an average of 0.42 meters or an average of 12% of the maximum water level in the conditions without retarding basin, which occurred in along the grooves on the lower reaches of the retarding basin and inundation waters still occur in some places, particularly in the downstream of Umadui Dam. Economic analysis of both the analysis of Benefits/Cost produces a parameter of BCR, NPV and IRR are not meet the feasibility requirements. The effective retention of retarding basin based on simulation results are 282,630.00 m3 with the ability to flood accommodate for 3-4 hours. In terms of economic development retarding basin is not feasible in terms of comparative costs and benefits

  8. An Even Distribution of Protein Intake Daily Promotes Protein Adequacy but Does Not Influence Nutritional Status in Institutionalized Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, Michael; Beelen, Janne; Laan, Anna C.M.; Poon, Shirley; Groot, de Lisette C.P.G.M.; Seeman, Ego; Wang, Xiaofang; Iuliano, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Although it has been established that sufficient protein is required to maintain good nutritional status and support healthy aging, it is not clear if the pattern of protein consumption may also influence nutritional status, especially in institutionalized elderly who are at risk of

  9. Role of microRNA Pathway in Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurashi, Abrar; Chang, Shuang; Jin, Peng

    2007-01-01

    Deficits in cognitive functions lead to mental retardation (MR). Understanding the genetic basis of inherited MR has provided insights into the pathogenesis of MR. Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited MR, caused by the loss of functional Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, single-stranded RNAs between 18 and 25 nucleotides in length, which have been implicated in diversified biological pathways. Recent studies have linked the miRNA pathway to fragile X syndrome. Here we review the role of the miRNA pathway in fragile X syndrome and discuss its implication in MR in general. PMID:17982588

  10. Xq28 duplications including MECP2 in five females: Expanding the phenotype to severe mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlsma, E K; Collins, A; Papa, F T; Tejada, M I; Wheeler, P; Peeters, E A J; Gijsbers, A C J; van de Kamp, J M; Kriek, M; Losekoot, M; Broekma, A J; Crolla, J A; Pollazzon, M; Mucciolo, M; Katzaki, E; Disciglio, V; Ferreri, M I; Marozza, A; Mencarelli, M A; Castagnini, C; Dosa, L; Ariani, F; Mari, F; Canitano, R; Hayek, G; Botella, M P; Gener, B; Mínguez, M; Renieri, A; Ruivenkamp, C A L

    2012-06-01

    Duplications leading to functional disomy of chromosome Xq28, including MECP2 as the critical dosage-sensitive gene, are associated with a distinct clinical phenotype in males, characterized by severe mental retardation, infantile hypotonia, progressive neurologic impairment, recurrent infections, bladder dysfunction, and absent speech. Female patients with Xq duplications including MECP2 are rare. Only recently submicroscopic duplications of this region on Xq28 have been recognized in four females, and a triplication in a fifth, all in combination with random X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). Based on this small series, it was concluded that in females with MECP2 duplication and random XCI, the typical symptoms of affected boys are not present. We present clinical and molecular data on a series of five females with an Xq28 duplication including the MECP2 gene, both isolated and as the result of a translocation, and compare them with the previously reported cases of small duplications in females. The collected data indicate that the associated phenotype in females is distinct from males with similar duplications, but the clinical effects may be as severe as seen in males. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Flame retardation of cellulose-rich fabrics via a simplified layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Chi; Liao, Wang; Deng, Shi-Bi; Cao, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2016-10-20

    Due to the high cellulose content of cotton (88.0-96.5%), the flame retardation of cotton fabrics can be achieved via an approach for the flame retardation of cellulose. In this work, a facile water-based flame retardant coating was deposited on cotton fabrics by a 'simplified' layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. The novel coating solution was based on a mild reaction between ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI), and the reaction mechanism was studied. TGA results showed that the char residues of coated fabrics were remarkably increased. The fabric with only 5wt% coating showed self-extinguishing in the horizontal flame test, and the peak heat release rate (pHRR) in cone calorimeter test decreased by 51%. Furthermore, this coating overcame a general drawback of flame-retardant LbL assembly which was easily washed away. Therefore, the simplified LbL method provides a fast, low-cost, eco-friendly and wash-durable flame-retardant finishing for the cellulose-rich cotton fabrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Osteochondromas and growth retardation secondary to externally or internally administered radiation in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcovici, Peter A. [UCSD Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Berdon, Walter E. [Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital of New York, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Liebling, Melissa S. [Hackensack University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hackensack, NJ (United States)

    2007-03-15

    For over five decades, osteochondromas (exostoses) and associated growth retardation have been known to be caused by radiation damage to the growing skeleton.Patients can be divided into three exposure groups. Group I received external beam radiation therapy primarily for the treatment of childhood cancers (typical dose 3,500 cGy), and 6-20% developed osteochondromas and growth retardation within the radiation portal. Group II consists of recently described patients who received total body irradiation in preparation for bone marrow transplant (typical dose: 800-1,200 cGy), and about 20% developed osteochondromas and growth retardation. Group III consists of 206 German children who in the 1940s and early 1950s received intravenous radioactive Peteosthor (Ra-224) to treat bone tuberculosis (estimated typical dose: 1,000-2,000 cGy), and 14% developed osteochondromas and growth retardation, among other benign and malignant sequelae. Combining these three exposure groups, osteochondromas and growth retardation develop in at least 6-20% of children who receive therapeutic radiation to their growing skeletons. (orig.)

  13. Obstetric interventions and perinatal asphyxia in growth retarded term infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Lindmark, G

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The monitoring of fetal growth during pregnancy is usually justified because of the increased perinatal risk of these babies. METHODS: In 1552 infants from the Scandinavian Small for Gestational Age Study the need for obstetric interventions, risk of fetal asphyxia and immediate...... neonatal outcome at term have been studied in relation to different types of fetal growth retardation, including sub-groups with low ponderal index or low amount of subcutaneous fat. RESULTS: The need for obstetric intervention indicated by suspected fetal asphyxia before or during labor was increased 3......-fold (6-8%) for growth retarded infants both in SGA infants in general and infants with asymmetric body proportions. The immediate perinatal outcome, however, was favorable with Apgar below 8 at 5 min in only 2% irrespective of the type of growth retardation, in spite of the fact that less than 25...

  14. Exploring the Modes of Action of Phosphorus-Based Flame Retardants in Polymeric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Rabe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus-based flame retardants were incorporated into different, easily preparable matrices, such as polymeric thermoset resins and paraffin as a proposed model for polyolefins and investigated for their flame retardancy performance. The favored mode of action of each flame retardant was identified in each respective system and at each respective concentration. Thermogravimetric analysis was used in combination with infrared spectroscopy of the evolved gas to determine the pyrolysis behavior, residue formation and the release of phosphorus species. Forced flaming tests in the cone calorimeter provided insight into burning behavior and macroscopic residue effects. The results were put into relation to the phosphorus content to reveal correlations between phosphorus concentration in the gas phase and flame inhibition performance, as well as phosphorus concentration in the residue and condensed phase activity. Total heat evolved (fire load and peak heat release rate were calculated based on changes in the effective heat of combustion and residue, and then compared with the measured values to address the modes of action of the flame retardants quantitatively. The quantification of flame inhibition, charring, and the protective layer effect measure the non-linear flame retardancy effects as functions of the phosphorus concentration. Overall, this screening approach using easily preparable polymer systems provides great insight into the effect of phosphorus in different flame retarded polymers, with regard to polymer structure, phosphorus concentration, and phosphorus species.

  15. Influence of Flame Retardants on the Melt Dripping Behaviour of Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Matzen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Melt flow and dripping of the pyrolysing polymer melt can be both a benefit and a detriment during a fire. In several small-scale fire tests addressing the ignition of a defined specimen with a small ignition source, well-adjusted melt flow and dripping are usually beneficial to pass the test. The presence of flame retardants often changes the melt viscosity crucially. The influence of certain flame retardants on the dripping behaviour of four commercial polymers, poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT, polypropylene (PP, polypropylene modified with ethylene-propylene rubber (PP-EP and polyamide 6 (PA 6, is analysed based on an experimental monitoring of the mass loss due to melt dripping, drop size and drop temperature as a function of the furnace temperature applied to a rod-shaped specimen. Investigating the thermal transition (DSC, thermal and thermo-oxidative decomposition, as well as the viscosity of the polymer and collected drops completes the investigation. Different mechanisms of the flame retardants are associated with their influence on the dripping behaviour in the UL 94 test. Reduction in decomposition temperature and changed viscosity play a major role. A flow limit in flame-retarded PBT, enhanced decomposition of flame-retarded PP and PP-EP and the promotion of dripping in PA 6 are the salient features discussed.

  16. Determining trace element in hair of children with mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhilan; Gu Bomei; Jia Meixiang

    1992-01-01

    Seven trace elements in the hair come from 29 mental retardation children and 29 normal children have been analysed by INAA and XRF. There are significant differences for Fe and Sc between the two groups. The average value of Pb in the hair of the mental retardation children is higher than that of the normal children. Although Zn is very important for children growing, there is no significant difference between two children groups

  17. What's gender got to do with it? Examining masculinities, health and safety and return to work in male dominated skilled trades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Colantonio, Angela; Moody, Joel; Mantis, Steve

    2016-06-16

    Electrical injuries are a common cause of work-related injury in male dominated skilled trades. In this study we explored how issues of gender, masculinities and institutional workplace practices shape expectations of men and their choices when returning to work following a workplace electrical injury. Twelve workers, who suffered an electrical injury, and twelve employer representatives, completed semi-structured interviews. Using thematic analysis we identified key themes related to how masculinities influenced men's health and safety during the return to work process. Strong identification with worker roles can influence injured workers decisions to return to work 'too early'. A desire to be viewed as a strong, responsible, resilient worker may intersect with concerns about job loss, to influence participants' decisions to not report safety issues and workplace accidents, to not disclose post-injury work challenges, and to not request workplace supports. Institutionalized workplace beliefs regarding risk, de-legitimization of the severity of injuries, and the valorization of the "tough" worker can further re-enforce dominant masculine norms and influence return to work processes and health and safety practices. Workplaces are key sites where gender identities are constructed, affirmed and institutionalized. Further research is warranted to examine how established masculine norms and gendered workplace expectations can influence workplace health and safety in male dominated high risk occupations. Future research should also evaluate strategies that encourage men to discuss post-injury work challenges and request supports when work performance or health and safety issues arise during the return to work process.

  18. Classical many-body theory with retarded interactions: Dynamical irreversibility and determinism without probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, A.Yu., E-mail: Anatoly.Zakharov@novsu.ru; Zakharov, M.A., E-mail: ma_zakharov@list.ru

    2016-01-28

    The exact equations of motion for microscopic density of classical many-body system with account of inter-particle retarded interactions is derived. It is shown that interactions retardation leads to irreversible behavior of many-body systems. - Highlights: • A new form of equation of motion of classical many-body system is proposed. • Interactions retardation as one of the mechanisms of many-body system irreversibility. • Irreversibility and determinism without probabilities. • The possible way to microscopic foundation of thermodynamics.

  19. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF NOVOLAC-BASED CHAR FORMER WITH A PHOSPHORUS/NITROGEN-CONTAINING FLAME RETARDANT IN POLYAMIDE 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-cheng Xiong; Li Chen; De-yi Wang; Fei Song; Yu-zhong Wang

    2012-01-01

    The synergistic effect of phosphorus oxynitride (PON) with a novolac-based char former modified by salification (NA-metal salt) on the flame retardance of polyamide 6 (PA6) was investigated.For this purpose,various flame-retardant PA6 systems were melt-compounded with PON,PON/NA,PON/NA-V2O5 and PON/NA-Fe2O3,and their flame retardance was evaluated by measuring the limiting oxygen index (LOI) values and UL-94 vertical burning ratings.The results showed that,compared with the PA6/PON/NA system,the combination of two char formers (NA-V2O5,NA-Fe2O3) with PON could obviously improve the char formation and flame retardance of PA6.The flame retardance and cone calorimetric analyses showed the stronger synergism as well as the better flame retardant performance of PON/NA-Fe2O3 flame retardant system.The effects of different char formers on the flame retardance and thermal stability of this system were also discussed.

  20. Understanding the interactions of phosphonate-based flame-retarding additives with graphitic anode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jinkui; Ma, Peng; Yang, Hanxi; Lu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Diethyl ethylphosphonate (DEEP) and dimethyl methylphosphonate are tested as flame retardants for lithium ion batteries. •The DMMP shows a destructive reaction with graphitic anode while DEEP shows a self-reduction mechanism. •DEEP is reported for the first time as flame-retardant additive for lithium ion batteries and demonstrates a much better compatibility with graphitic anode. -- Abstract: The compatibility with graphitic anode has been one key problem in developing flame-retarding additives for lithium ion batteries. To understand the interactions between flame-retarding additives and graphitic anode, two phosphonate esters (dimethyl methylphosphonate DMMP and diethyl ethylphosphonate DEEP) are selected and characterized as flame retardant addtives. DEEP is reported as a flame-retarding additive for the first time. Their interactions with graphite anode are characterized via current-static charge–discharge, ex-situ XRD, FE-SEM and AC impedance. The results reveal that the two phosphonate esters demonstrate different reaction mechanisms with graphitic anode, which result in different anode compatibility. These findings may be useful for designing better flame-retarding additives for lithium ion batteries

  1. Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Dose Accumulation on the Histology of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Male Testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; El-Naggar, S.E.M.; Shibel, M.M.; El-Dossouki, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full-grown male pupae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with low doses of 25, 50, 75 or 100 Gy. The effects of accumulating doses applied to these pupae through three consequent filial generations and the retarded influence on their F 1 , F 2 and F 3 generations progeny were examined. The histological observations showed that the damage in the testes was correlated with increasing the dose applied to the male parents and was the highest among the adults of F 1 . Also, the damage at any acute dose was less than the damage occurred in the same accumulated dose. The deteriorations on the testes were more evident in case of F 1 males resulting from parental males irradiated through two or three successive generations or three accumulated doses of 25 or 50 Gy

  2. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair of mentally retarded children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, C.K.; Zheng, Y.H.

    2002-01-01

    Hair samples of mildly mentally retarded (LR), moderately mentally retarded (MR), severely mentally retarded (SR) and normal children were collected and measured, using neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence to determine the concentrations of Al, Sb, As, Ca, Cu, I, Fe Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, K, Sr, S, V and Zn. The groups of children were of ages between 5 and 13. Difference in the mean concentration of each element between groups was tested by Student's t-test. No trend, either decreasing or increasing, has been established as the degree of severity increased from normal to SR children, except for the case of Cu. The present work may shed some light in the interpretation of findings on the effects of trace elements on neurobehavioral functions. (author)

  3. Electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold with allowance for meson exchange currents. Retardation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burov, V.V.; Sus'kov, S.Eh.

    1992-01-01

    The electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold with allowance for retardation effects in meson exchange currents (MEC) has been investigated depending on vertex form factors and cut-off parameters. It is shown that the retardation effects should be taken into account in MEC at large transfer momenta (t>12 fm -2 ). It is found for the differential cross section that the contribution of MEC is strongly dependent on the vertex form factors and cut-off parameters. The role of p-meson contribution in MEC with allowance for retardation effects has been investigated. It is shown that the inclusion of retardation effects leads to the decrease of the p-meson influence at large transfer momenta. The radial dependence of the matrix elements with allowance for retardation effects has been studied. It was shown that the inclusion of meson exchange currents is essentially important in the range of r=1-1.5 fm when t -2 . 34 refs.; 12 figs

  4. Malnutrition as a cause of mental retardation: A population-based study from Sub-Himalayan India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental retardation is one of the most common disabilities of childhood. The research on childhood malnutrition and its relationship with cognitive functioning suggests that malnutrition alone does not cause mental retardation. Objective: To identify the relation between malnutrition and cognition among children from a Sub-Himalayan state in North India. Materials and Methods: A two-phase cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural, urban, and slum area of district Kangra. A 30-cluster sampling technique was used to screen a population of children 1–10 years of age from five randomly selected panchayats (village government units of district Kangra. The screening was based on a modified version of the ten questions screen, adapted to the local population. In the first phase, a door-to-door survey was done to identify suspects of mental retardation. In the second phase, the children found positive in the first phase were called for clinical examination to confirm mental retardation. Anthropometric assessment of all study children was done by measuring weight and height. The nutritional assessment was done by categorizing them according to Waterlow classification for malnutrition. Results: Out of the total 5300 children, 1.7% were diagnosed as mentally retarded. No positive association was reported with different types of malnutrition and mental retardation. A weakly positive association existed between nutritional status and mental retardation (correlation coefficient-0.04. Children who were both wasted and stunted had the highest risk (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval - 5.57, 2.29–10.36 of mental retardation as compared to normal. Conclusion: Malnutrition may be one of the causes but certainly not the only cause of mental retardation. Other causes may be contributing more significantly toward it.

  5. Institutionalizing provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for children: an observational case study from Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane N Mutanga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC is a priority strategy for increasing access for HIV-exposed children to prevention measures, and infected children to treatment and care interventions. This article examines efforts to scale-up paediatric PITC at a second-level hospital located in Zambia's Southern Province, and serving a catchment area of 1.2 million people. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors for rapid institutionalization of PITC in Livingstone General Hospital. Methods included clinical observations, key informant interviews with programme management, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS uptake data following the introduction of PITC. After PITC roll-out, the hospital experienced considerably higher testing uptake. In a 36-month period following PITC institutionalization, of total inpatient children eligible for PITC (n = 5074, 98.5% of children were counselled, and 98.2% were tested. Of children tested (n = 4983, 15.5% were determined HIV-infected; 77.6% of these results were determined by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing in children under the age of 18 months. Of children identified as HIV-infected in the hospital's inpatient and outpatient departments (n = 1342, 99.3% were enrolled in HIV care, including initiation on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. A number of good operational practices and enabling factors in the Livingstone General Hospital experience can inform rapid PITC institutionalization for inpatient and outpatient children. These include the placement of full-time nurse counsellors at key areas of paediatric intake, who interface with patients immediately and conduct testing and counselling. They are reinforced through task-shifting to peer counsellors in the wards. Nurse counsellor capacity to draw specimen for DNA PCR for children under 18 months has significantly enhanced early

  6. Phosphorylated lignin as a halogen-free flame retardant additive for epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamini P. Mendis; Sydney G. Weiss; Matthew Korey; Charles R. Boardman; Mark Dietenberger; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; John A. Howarter

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable, non-halogenated flame retardants are desired for a variety of industry applications. Lignin, as an industrially processed wood derivative, has been examined as a potential sustainable flame retardant additive to polymer systems. Here, the lignin is phosphorylated using a pyridine-catalysed esterification reaction with diphenyl phosphoryl chloride to...

  7. Trial manufacture of flame retardant and radiation resistant cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Yunosuke; Hagiwara, Miyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Oda, Eisuke

    1983-04-01

    High radiation resistance as well as incombustibility is required for the wires and cables used for nuclear facilities such as nuclear power stations. In order to give such performance to general purpose insulation materials such as ethylene-propylene copolymerized rubber, acenaphthylene bromide condensation product was developed anew. Moreover, by the use of this agent, the new flame retardant and radiation resistant cables were manufactured for trial, which are not different from ordinary plastic rubber cables in the handling such as flexibility, and withstand the radiation nearly up to 1000 Mrad. The requirement for the agent giving flame retardant and radiation resistant properties is explained. The synthesis of acenaphthylene bromide and its condensation product and the effect of giving flame retardant and radiation resistant properties are described. The test resultd of the prevention of spread of flame, the endurance in LOCA-simulating environment, and radiation resistance for the cables manufactured for trial are reported. It was confirmed that the cables of this type are suitable to the use in which the maintenance of mechanical properties after radiation exposure is required.

  8. The Political Values of Mentally Retarded Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barbara B.; Klein, Nancy K.

    1980-01-01

    The findings indicated that the retarded are affected by the process of political socialization much like their nonretarded peers. In forming a ranking of goal-values, age and socioeconomic status outweighed differences in cognitive ability. (Author/DLS)

  9. Flame Retardant and Antimicrobial Jute Textile Using Sodium Metasilicate Nonahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Flame retardant and antimicrobial functionalities were imparted in jute textile using sodium metasilicate nonahydrate (SMSN, commonly known as “water glass”. Sodium metasilicate nonahydrate (SMSN was applied in jute fabric in different concentration by padding method followed by drying. Flame retardancy of the fabric was evaluated by Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI and burning behaviour under vertical flammability tester including the char length. Burning rate was found to decrease by almost 10 times after an application of 2% SMSN compared to the control sample. Thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis of both the control and treated jute fabrics were utilized to understand the mechanism of developed flame retardance in jute fabric. It was observed that the SMSN treated samples showed excellent antimicrobial property against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Antimicrobial properties of both the control and treated jute fabrics were also measured quantitatively.

  10. Mental retardation in children exposed in utero to the atomic bomb - Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J W; Johnson, K G; Omori, Yoshiaki; Kawamoto, Sadahisa; Keehn, R J

    1966-05-19

    Subjects who were exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, along with suitable controls, are examined annually at ABCC. Of the 1613 subjects in the study sample, 30 have gross mental retardation. Within 1500 m from the hypocenter the prevalence of mental retardation is 5 times as high as for the more distal subjects, and 6 to 15 weeks gestation was the most sensitive period. Even when subjects with possible explanations for their retardation are excluded the pattern of differences remains the same. All but two of the retarded subjects had a smaller than average head and for those who were within 1500 m this effect is accentuated. 17 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  11. International Directory of Mental Retardation Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybwad, Rosemary F., Ed.

    The directory lists and describes governmental and voluntary agencies, research, and other resources in the field of mental retardation in foreign countries. The first section, on international organizations, gives names, addresses, names of directors, and one or more paragraphs of description for the United Nations and its specialized agencies,…

  12. Efficient composite broadband polarization retarders and polarization filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, E.; Ivanov, S. S.; Popkirov, G.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    A new type of broadband polarization half-wave retarder and narrowband polarization filters are described and experimentally tested. Both, the retarders and the filters are designed as composite stacks of standard optical half-wave plates, each of them twisted at specific angles. The theoretical background of the proposed optical devices was obtained by analogy with the method of composite pulses, known from the nuclear and quantum physics. We show that combining two composite filters built from different numbers and types of waveplates, the transmission spectrum is reduced from about 700 nm to about 10 nm width.We experimentally demonstrate that this method can be applied to different types of waveplates (broadband, zero-order, multiple order, etc.).

  13. Environmental Impact of Flame Retardants (Persistence and Biodegradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Brenner

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Flame-retardants (FR are a group of anthropogenic environmental contaminants used at relatively high concentrations in many applications. Currently, the largest market group of FRs is the brominated flame retardants (BFRs. Many of the BFRs are considered toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative. Bioremediation of contaminated water, soil and sediments is a possible solution for the problem. However, the main problem with this approach is the lack of knowledge concerning appropriate microorganisms, biochemical pathways and operational conditions facilitating degradation of these chemicals at an acceptable rate. This paper reviews and discusses current knowledge and recent developments related to the environmental fate and impact of FRs in natural systems and in engineered treatment processes.

  14. Understanding risk appetite : what is it, what pressures shape it and how is it institutionalized

    OpenAIRE

    Baunan, Håvard; Berge, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to understand the concept of risk appetite in terms of what it is, what institutional pressures influence it, and how it is institutionalized in an organization. We try to understand what risk appetite is by examining the most influential enterprise risk management frameworks, reports from practitioners, and scholarly research on the topic. Through a case study of a large and complex Norwegian organization, we seek to explain what influences and in...

  15. [Clinical genealogical and molecular genetic study of patients with mental retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryshchenko, N V; B'ichkova, A M; Lyvshyts, A B; Kravchenko, S A; Pampukha, V N; Solov'ev, A A; Kucherenko, A M; Tatarskiĭ, P F; Afanas'eva, N A; Dubrovskaia, E V; Patskun, Ie Y; Zymak-Zakutnaia, N O; Nykytchina, T V; Lohysh, S Iu; Lyvshyts, L A

    2012-01-01

    The results of clinical, genealogical, cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies of 113 patients from 96 families with different forms of mental retardation from Ukraine are presented. This study was held as part of the CHERISH project of the 7-th Framework Program. The aim of the project is to improve diagnostics of mental retardation in children in Eastern Europe and Central Asia through detailed analysis of known chromosomal and gene's aberrations and to find the new gene-candidates that cause mental retardation. All patients have normal chromosome number (46XY or 46XX). The cases with fragile-X syndrome were eliminated using molecular genetic methods. Genome rearrangements were found among 28 patients using cytogenetic analysis, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA analysis) ofsubtelomeric regions and array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH screening). In 10 cases known pathogenic CNV's were identified, 11 cases are unknown aberrations; their pathogenicity is being determined. The rest cases are known nonpathogenic gene rearrangements. Obtained results show the strong genetic heterogeneity of hereditary forms of mental retardation. The further studies will allow to identificate genes candidates and certain mutations in these genes that may be associated with this pathology.

  16. Design, synthesis, and application of novel flame retardants derived from biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomass represents an abundant and relatively low cost carbon resource that can be utilized to produce platform chemicals such as levulinic acid. Novel oligomeric flame retardants, the poly(MDP-PDCP-MAs (PMPMs, were designed and synthesized using diphenolic acid as one of the raw materials, which is derived from levulinic acid. To change the molar ratio of reactants, a series of PMPM samples with different nitrogen contents were obtained and characterized by FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. The solubility test and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA indicated a good solvent-resistant property and thermal stability. The flame retardancy and thermal behavior of ABS with 30% loading of different PMPM samples were investigated by limiting oxygen index test (LOI, TGA, and microscale combustion colorimeter (MCC. The results showed that PMPMs are effective charring agents that can increase the thermal stability and flame retardancy of ABS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM observations of the residue of ABS/PMPM blends indicated the compact charred layer formed was responsible for improving the thermal stability and char yield of ABS with low nitrogen content in PMPM-1 flame retardant.

  17. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Desmond J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  18. Retroreflective Phase Retardation Prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    resonant cavity of a 1.064 Mm laser. This report shows that it is possible to coat the reflecting surfaces of a porro prism so that incident plane...with controlled phase retardation can be made by coating each reflecting surface of a porro prism with a single dielectric film. The amount of phase...of angle of incidence (n, < n2) S. Phase change on reflection as a function of angle of incidence (n" n ) [RL-0202-’R 6. Porro prism 7. Phase change

  19. Do positive psychological characteristics modify associations of physical performance with functional decline and institutionalization? Findings from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, R.; Huisman, M.; Kuh, D; Deeg, D.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether 3 positive psychological characteristics, related to sense of control, modify the associations of physical performance levels with subsequent functional decline and institutionalization. Method. One thousand five hundred and thirty-two men and women participating

  20. Preparation, characterization of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate and its flame retardancy in polyurethane composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ming-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Jen [Department of Aviation Mechanical Engineering, China University of Science and Technology, Hsinchu County, 303, Taiwan (China); Kuan, Chen-Feng; Kuan, Hsu-Chiang [Department of Computer Application Engineering, Far East University, Tainan, 744, Taiwan (China); Yang, Jia-Ming [Green Flame Retardant Material Research Laboratory, Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung, 433, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Chin-Lung, E-mail: dragon@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Green Flame Retardant Material Research Laboratory, Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung, 433, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-15

    In this study, a novel microencapsulated flame retardant containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and an 4,4′-oxydianiline-formaldehyde (OF) resin as the core and shell material was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. The structure and performance of OF microencapsulated APP (OFAPP) were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal properties of OFAPP were systematically analyzed through thermogravimetric analysis. Flame retardancy tests, such as limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94, were conducted to evaluate the effect of varying the composition of APP and OFAPP in silanol-terminated polyurethane (Si-PU) composites. The results indicated that the microencapsulation of APP with the OF resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. The results also revealed that the flame retardancy of the Si-PU/OFAPP composite (LOI = 37%) was higher than that of the Si-PU/APP composite (LOI = 23%) at the same additive loading. - Highlights: • A novel microencapsulated flame retardant was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. • The microencapsulation of ammonium polyphosphate with the polymer resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. • Polyurethane composites have excellent thermal stability and flame retardance.

  1. Preparation, characterization of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate and its flame retardancy in polyurethane composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Ming-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Jen; Kuan, Chen-Feng; Kuan, Hsu-Chiang; Yang, Jia-Ming; Chiang, Chin-Lung

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel microencapsulated flame retardant containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and an 4,4′-oxydianiline-formaldehyde (OF) resin as the core and shell material was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. The structure and performance of OF microencapsulated APP (OFAPP) were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal properties of OFAPP were systematically analyzed through thermogravimetric analysis. Flame retardancy tests, such as limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94, were conducted to evaluate the effect of varying the composition of APP and OFAPP in silanol-terminated polyurethane (Si-PU) composites. The results indicated that the microencapsulation of APP with the OF resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. The results also revealed that the flame retardancy of the Si-PU/OFAPP composite (LOI = 37%) was higher than that of the Si-PU/APP composite (LOI = 23%) at the same additive loading. - Highlights: • A novel microencapsulated flame retardant was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. • The microencapsulation of ammonium polyphosphate with the polymer resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. • Polyurethane composites have excellent thermal stability and flame retardance.

  2. Haloperidol Treatment of Trichotillomania in a Boy with Autism and Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaziuddin, M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The report describes the successful treatment of trichotillomania (compulsive hair pulling) in a mentally retarded 11-year-old boy with autism and severe mental retardation. Administration of haloperidol resulted in complete cessation of hair pulling which reappeared when the dosage was decreased and ceased again when dosage was reestablished. (DB)

  3. Nurses as Antibiotic Brokers: Institutionalized Praxis in the Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Alex; Broom, Jennifer; Kirby, Emma; Scambler, Graham

    2017-11-01

    We are likely moving rapidly toward a post-antibiotic era, as a result of escalating antimicrobial resistance, rapidly declining antibiotic production and profligate overuse. Hitherto research has almost exclusively focused on doctors' prescribing, with nurses' roles in antibiotic use remaining virtually invisible. Drawing on interviews with 30 nurses, we focus on nurses as brokers of doctors' antibiotic decisions, nursing capacity to challenge doctors' decisions, and, "back stage" strategies for circumnavigating organizational constraints. We argue that nurses occupy an essential and conscious position as brokers within the hospital; a subject position that is not neutral, facilitates (short-term) cohesion, and involves the pursuit of particular (preferred) nursing outcomes. Illustrating how authority can be diffuse, mediated by institutionalized praxis, and how professionals evade attempts to govern their practice, we challenge the reification of physician prescribing power, arguing that it may work against the utilization of nurses as important stakeholders in the future of antibiotics.

  4. In-line phase retarder and polarimeter for conversion of linear to circular polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Smith, N.V.; Denlinger, J.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    An in-line polarimeter including phase retarder and linear polarizer was designed and commissioned on undulator beamline 7.0 for the purpose of converting linear to circular polarization for experiments downstream. In commissioning studies, Mo/Si multilayers at 95 eV were used both as the upstream, freestanding phase retarder and the downstream linear polarized. The polarization properties of the phase retarder were characterized by direct polarimetry and by collecting MCD spectra in photoemission from Gd and other magnetic surfaces. The resonant birefringence of transmission multilayers results from differing distributions of s- and p-component wave fields in the multilayer when operating near a structural (Bragg) interference condition. The resulting phase retardation is especially strong when the interference is at or near the Brewster angle, which is roughly 45{degrees} in the EUV and soft x-ray ranges.

  5. PROBLEM OF RESEARCH OF EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IN FOREIGN PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Valentinovna Shipova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The review of psychology and pedagogical researches of the mentally retarded children devoted to studying of a problem of emotional development in foreign science and practice is presented in article. Various approaches to an assessment of the importance of violations of the emotional sphere of the personality at mentally retarded children for all mental development of the child are considered, need of the accounting of emotional frustration of mentally retarded children for their education and education, and also social adaptation and integration into sociocultural and educational space is discussed. Research of emotional development of mentally retarded children in the course of training is important for development of programs of psychology and pedagogical diagnostics and correction of emotional violations at this category of school students, formation of their self-control, development of the emotional relations.

  6. Institutionalizing the evaluation of health programs and policies in France: "cuisine internationale" over fast food and "sur mesure" over ready-made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Z M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe several chronological milestones in institutionalizing the evaluation of public programs and policies in France from a governmental perspective and in the health sector, situating such references in the international context. The institutional nature of evaluation implies integrating it into an action-oriented model, linking analytical activities to management, thus constituting the formulation of an evaluation policy for policy evaluation. The study focuses on issues related to the structure, practice, and utilization of evaluation results as well as other characteristics providing the French model with a certain resistance to traditional "fast-food" or "ready-made" methodological approaches. The institutionalization of sectorial evaluation appears more promising than that of the government's centralized channel, despite the work developed by a Scientific Evaluation Council, and suggests avenues for reflection and debate pertaining to the Brazilian Unified Health System.

  7. Neurological impairments and sleep-wake behaviour among the mentally retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, N; Heiskala, H; Kaski, M; Leinonen, L; Nevanlinna, A; Iivanainen, M; Laakso, M L

    2001-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the sleep-wake behaviour and neurological impairments among mentally retarded people. The sleep-wake behaviour of 293 mentally retarded subjects living in a rehabilitation center was studied by a standardized observation protocol carried out by trained staff members. The protocol consisted of brief check-ups of the subjects' sleep-wake status at 20-min intervals for five randomly chosen 24-h periods during 4 months. From the raw data five sleep-wake behaviour variables were formed. The data concerning the subject characteristics (age, body mass index (BMI), gender, degree of mental retardation, presence of locomotor disability, that of epilepsy, blindness or deafness and the usage of psychotropic medications) were collected from the medical records. Two main findings emerged: (1) severe locomotor disability, blindness and active epilepsy were found to be independent predictors of increased daytime sleep and increased number of wake-sleep transitions and (2) the subjects with a combination of two or all three of these impairments had a significantly more fragmented and abnormally distributed sleep than those with none or milder forms of these impairments. Age, BMI, degree of mental retardation and the studied medications played a minor role in the sleep disturbances of the study population. Finally, deafness was not found to be associated with any of the measured sleep-wake variables.

  8. Mosaicism for the FMR1 gene influences adaptive skills development in fragile X-affected males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  9. the use of castor oil as a flame retardant in polyurethane foam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Abdusalam

    Flame retardant help to suppress the combustion process depending on the polymer and the fire safety test. (Desch, 1973) . Flame retarding agent either cooled, the burning material below its ignition point or exclude air by forming a blanket of inert gas. It also interferes with one or several stages of the combustion process.

  10. Relations between institutionalization and organizational decision making: a case study - Companhia Paranaense de Energia - COPEL; As relacoes da institucionalizacao com a tomada de decisao organizacional: um estudo de caso - Companhia Paranaense de Energia - COPEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marcos de [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: marcos.freitas@copel.com; Campos, Luciana Vital de; Machtura, Angela Cristina Pachu [Faculdades Integradas do Brasil (UniBrasil), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    This article identifies the institutionalization of relations with the decision making in an organization. The varied reactions from individuals to institutional procedures have led to this study. The research has the basic assumption that the information from pre established procedures may compromise the decision and critical analysis on the part of individuals. The variability is a human factor to be considered in the process of institutionalization, standardization and the addition of bureaucratization. As for methodology, a study was conducted in the case of Companhia Paranaense de Energia - COPEL from the reference of the principal characteristics of institutionalization and decision-making by looking at the coincidences. The analysis of content occurred from structured interviews conducted with 10 managers and bibliographic documentary. The report described gives evidence of reflections on the action and participation of people in the use of standards that guide the conduct organizational. The institutionalization and decision-making relate to each other, and are interdependent concepts such as bureaucracy and organizational culture, contributing to the perception of individuals in their relations within organizations. (author)

  11. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Flame Retardant Additives for Increased Safety Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Smith, Kiah A. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick Charles (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of Li-ion electrolytes containing flame retardant additives that have delivered good performance over a wide temperature range, good cycle life characteristics, and improved safety characteristics, namely, reduced flammability. In one embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a fluorinated co-solvent, a flame retardant additive, and a lithium salt. In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film forming agent, and a lithium salt.

  12. Socio-demographic, behavioral and functional characteristics of groups of community and institutionalized elderly Quechua Indians of Peru, and their association with nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Laura; Drusini, Andrea G

    2005-06-01

    Socio-demographic, behavioral, functional and anthropometric data for groups of elderly Quechua Indians of Peru were used to investigate the effects of gender and lifestyle patterns on nutritional status. Two community-dwelling samples were selected for study, representative of divergent lifestyles in terms of their combination of socio-economic, demographic and cultural contexts, plus an ad-hoc sample of institutionalized individuals with controlled food intake and reduced physical activity. Results suggest that differences in socio-demographic, behavioral and functional characteristics exist between the sexes and across settings (low- vs. highland) and lifestyles (institutionalized vs. community-dwelling; semi-urban vs. rural). These factors are likely to be related to diverging dietary and physical activity patterns, and have considerable effects on the nutritional status of the respondents.

  13. Synergistic effect of iron and intumescent flame retardant on shape-stabilized phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ping; Hu Yuan; Song Lei; Lu Hongdian; Wang Jian; Liu Qingqing

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the preparation of paraffin/high density polyethylene (HDPE)/intumescent flame retardant (IFR)/iron as flame retardant shape-stabilized phase change material (FSPCM). The influences of iron for FSPCM on morphology, flammability property, latent heat and thermal conductive property were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cone calorimeter, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hot disk thermal constants analyser. It was found that iron could be well dispersed into the composite formed by HDPE and paraffin; the flame retardant efficiency of IFR could be improved by adding iron; the thermal conductivity of FSPCM could be increased due to the high thermal conductivity of iron. At the same time, the possible flame retardant mechanism for paraffin/HDPE/IFR with iron as a FSPCM was proposed

  14. Institutionalizing Safeguards By Design for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, James B.; Kovacic, Donald N.; Whitaker, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Safeguards for nuclear facilities can be significantly improved by developing and implementing methodologies for integrating proliferation resistance into the design of new facilities. This paper proposes a method to systematically analyze a facility's processes, systems, equipment, structures and management controls to ensure that all relevant proliferation scenarios that could potentially result in unacceptable consequences have been identified, evaluated and mitigated. This approach could be institutionalized into a country's regulatory structure similar to the way facilities are licensed to operate safely and are monitored through inspections and incident reporting to ensure compliance with domestic and international safeguards. Furthermore, taking credit for existing systems and equipment that have been analyzed and approved to assure a facility's reliable and safe operations will reduce the overall cost of implementing intrinsic and extrinsic proliferation-resistant features. The ultimate goal is to integrate safety, reliability, security and safeguards operations into the design of new facilities to effectively and efficiently prevent diversion, theft and misuse of nuclear material and sensitive technologies at both the facility and state level. To facilitate this approach at the facility level, this paper discusses an integrated proliferation resistance analysis (IPRA) process. If effectively implemented, this integrated approach will also facilitate the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards

  15. Mentally-Retarded Children of a Pre-School Age and the Development of Movement Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, Šárka

    2006-01-01

    The diploma work covers the issues of children with mental retardation in pre-school age aimed to the development of the movement abilities. It focuses on the relationships between the pre-school child with mental retardation and possibilities of developing its motor skills in context of an organized pre-school education. Theoretical part of the Diploma work indicates the development specifics of the indi- vidual due to mental retardation, describes mainly the movement development of the chil...

  16. Sex-dependent accumulation and maternal transfer of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in fish from an electronic waste recycling site in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; She, Ya-Zhe; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Ying; Mo, Ling; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is limited on sex-related accumulation and maternal transfer of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife. In the present study, DP isomers were examined in liver and eggs of two fish species, northern snakehead and crucian carp, from an electronic waste recycling site in China. Hepatic ∑DP (sum of syn- and anti-DP) concentrations ranged 260–1920 ng/g lipid in northern snakehead and 340–1670 ng/g in crucian carp, with significantly higher levels in males relative to females. ∑DP concentrations ranged 4.6–310 ng/g lipid in the eggs, demonstrating their maternal transfer in the female fish. The mean eggs to liver concentration ratios (E/L ratios) were 0.03 and 0.03 in northern snakehead, and 0.26 and 0.25 in crucian carp, for syn- and anti-DP, respectively. A significantly negative correlation between the E/L ratios and the hepatic DP concentrations was observed, indicating a dose-dependent maternal transfer of DP isomers in the fish. -- Highlights: ► Male fish contained significantly higher DP residues than females. ► DP isomers can be maternally transferred to eggs in female fish. ► A dose-dependent maternal transfer of DP isomers was observed. ► First report on sex-related bioaccumulation of DP isomers in wildlife. -- Sex-dependent accumulation and species-specific maternal transfer of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant was observed in two highly contaminated fish species

  17. Veridical and False Pictorial Memory in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Michael T.; Toglia, Michael P.; Wakeford, Yvonne; Jakway, Allison; Sullivan, Kate; Hasel, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Veridical and false pictorial recognition were assessed in individuals with mental retardation; groups were matched for MA and CA. Pictures were viewed in either a generative or static format at acquisition. The individuals with mental retardation and those in the MA-matched group had higher rates of false memories for critical items and lower hit…

  18. Effect of Retarding Force on Mass Flow Rates of Fluid at Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mathematical model and software visualization to view the effect of retarding forces on the mass flow rate in term of visualization. C-sharp (C#) is the chosen program and this enable compares and us to determine the mass flow rates patterns in relation to retarding force in form of graphical tables at different temperature.

  19. In utero exposure to A-bomb radiation and mental retardation; a reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, M.; Schull, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of mental retardation in children exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been re-evaluated in reference to gestational age and tissue dose in the fetus. There was no risk at 0-8 weeks post-conception. The highest risk of forebrain damage occurred at 8-15 weeks of gestational age, the time when the most rapid proliferation of neuronal elements and when most, if not all, neuroblast migration to the cerebral cortex from the proliferative zones is occurring. Overall, the risk is five or more times greater in these weeks than in subsequent ones. In the critical period, damage expressed as the frequency of subsequent mental retardation appears to be linearly related to the dose received by the fetus. A linear model is not equally applicable to radiation-related mental retardation after the 15th week, the observed values suggesting that there a threshold may exist. The data are consistent with a probability of occurrence of mental retardation of 0.40% per cGy or 40% per gray. (author)

  20. Social support of mentally retarded persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zwolinska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to assess the relationship between the environment and mentally retarded persons. Material and methods: Information referring to social support of mentally retarded persons is a source material collected on the base of the data included in the Polish and foreign literature. The issues under discussion related to the following problems: social integration of persons with intellectual disabilities in a family and local environment, social functioning of people with mild intellectual disability, social rehabilitation of people with moderate, severe and profound intellectual disability and specific contact with people with disabilities. Results: For a person with an intellectual disability, the family is the source of acquisition of basic social skills that give him the opportunity for further development and performing certain social roles in a sense of safety. Full acceptance of the intellectually disabled, may dismiss their sense of shame and fear, and instill the satisfaction of belonging to a social community. Conclusions: Full social acceptance of people with intellectual disabilities is the basis for their assimilation and social functioning.

  1. Preventive home visits for mortality, morbidity, and institutionalization in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Mayo-Wilson

    Full Text Available Home visits for older adults aim to prevent cognitive and functional impairment, thus reducing institutionalization and mortality. Visitors may provide information, investigate untreated problems, encourage medication compliance, and provide referrals to services.Ten databases including CENTRAL and Medline searched through December 2012.Randomized controlled trials enrolling community-dwelling persons without dementia aged over 65 years. Interventions included visits at home by a health or social care professional that were not related to hospital discharge.Two authors independently extracted data. Outcomes were pooled using random effects.Mortality, institutionalization, hospitalization, falls, injuries, physical functioning, cognitive functioning, quality of life, and psychiatric illness.Sixty-four studies with 28642 participants were included. Home visits were not associated with absolute reductions in mortality at longest follow-up, but some programs may have small relative effects (relative risk = 0.93 [0.87 to 0.99]; absolute risk = 0.00 [-0.01 to 0.00]. There was moderate quality evidence of no overall effect on the number of people institutionalized (RR = 1.02 [0.88 to 1.18] or hospitalized (RR = 0.96 [0.91 to 1.01]. There was high quality evidence for number of people who fell, which is consistent with no effect or a small effect (odds ratio = 0.86 [0.73 to 1.01], but there was no evidence that these interventions increased independent living. There was low and very low quality evidence of effects for quality of life (standardised mean difference = -0.06 [-0.11 to -0.01] and physical functioning (SMD = -0.10 [-0.17 to -0.03] respectively, but these may not be clinically important.Home visiting is not consistently associated with differences in mortality or independent living, and investigations of heterogeneity did not identify any programs that are associated with consistent benefits. Due to poor reporting

  2. Power-spectral-density relationship for retarded differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. K.

    1974-01-01

    The power spectral density (PSD) relationship between input and output of a set of linear differential-difference equations of the retarded type with real constant coefficients and delays is discussed. The form of the PSD relationship is identical with that applicable to unretarded equations. Since the PSD relationship is useful if and only if the system described by the equations is stable, the stability must be determined before applying the PSD relationship. Since it is sometimes difficult to determine the stability of retarded equations, such equations are often approximated by simpler forms. It is pointed out that some common approximations can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the stability of a system and, therefore, to the possibility of obtaining PSD results which are not valid.

  3. Detection and Quantification of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein 1 (FMRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe LaFauci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The final product of FMR1 gene transcription, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein 1 (FMRP, is an RNA binding protein that acts as a repressor of translation. FMRP is expressed in several tissues and plays important roles in neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and ovarian functions and has been implicated in a number of neuropsychological disorders. The loss of FMRP causes Fragile X Syndrome (FXS. In most cases, FXS is due to large expansions of a CGG repeat in FMR1—normally containing 6–54 repeats—to over 200 CGGs and identified as full mutation (FM. Hypermethylation of the repeat induces FMR1 silencing and lack of FMRP expression in FM male. Mosaic FM males express low levels of FMRP and present a less severe phenotype that inversely correlates with FMRP levels. Carriers of pre-mutations (55–200 CGG show increased mRNA, and normal to reduced FMRP levels. Alternative splicing of FMR1 mRNA results in 24 FMRP predicted isoforms whose expression are tissues and developmentally regulated. Here, we summarize the approaches used by several laboratories including our own to (a detect and estimate the amount of FMRP in different tissues, developmental stages and various pathologies; and (b to accurately quantifying FMRP for a direct diagnosis of FXS in adults and newborns.

  4. The Instructional Use of CAI in the Education of the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John J., Jr.; And Others

    Computer assisted instruction (CAI) studies with the mentally retarded in the United States and Canada reveal that the retarded benefit from CAI in academic and social skills. Their learning is enhanced to the same extent as that of the nonretarded. CAI can be cost-effective, especially with the reduced costs of mini and micro-computers; however,…

  5. Flame Retardancy of Chemically Modified Lignin as Functional Additive to Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Howarter; Gamini P. Mendis; Alex N. Bruce; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; Mark A. Dietenberger; Laura Hasburgh

    2015-01-01

    Epoxy printed circuit boards are used in a variety of electronics applications as rigid, thermally stable substrates. Due to the propensity of components on the boards, such as batteries and interconnects, to fail and ignite the epoxy, flame retardant additives are required to minimize fire risk. Currently, industry uses brominated flame retardants, such as TBBPA, to...

  6. Tracing organophosphorus and brominated flame retardants and plasticizers in an estuarine food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, S.H.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Leslie, H.A.; de Boer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Nine organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) were detected in a pelagic and benthic food web of the Western Scheldt estuary, The Netherlands. Concentrations of several PFRs were an order of magnitude higher than those of the brominated flame retardants (BFRs). However, the detection frequency of

  7. Interpersonal Communication of Children with Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyah Nur'aini Hanun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tunagrahita were a terminology to called the children with mentally retarded conditions. This conditions caused these children having difficulties at least on four areas, related with attention, memory, language, and academics. The research problem is how interpersonal communication tunagrahita in Dormitory Extraordinary Education Foundation (YPLB Cipaganti Bandung. This research’s aim is to seek the interpersonal communication phenomenon of children with mentally retarded in YPLB Cipaganti Dormitory. The research method which were used is the qualitative method with communication Ethnography approach and Symbolic Interactionism theory to have comprehensive descriptions about life reality of mentally retarded’s children in YPLB Cipaganti Dormitory. Data obtained by participation observer, unstructured interviews, and documentary study. The result showed that interpersonal interactions are done with each child boarding and with the management of the hostel, is a series of unique events and interpersonal communication with a distinctive circular process that takes place continuously.

  8. SELF-HELP GROUPS FOR PARENTS WITH MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaska STANCHEVA-POPKOSTADINOVA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available This presentation concerns a group for parents of mentally retarded children.A group of these parents receives professional help and environmental support. The parents are encouraged to assume responsibility in the everyday life educational process of their children.As Baker / 1980 / states: “ If parents cope better on daily basis with the child who has mental retardation, not only the child but also the parents would benefit”.Taking part in the group gave the parents:· the opportunity to meet other parents with the same children;· to talk to other parents and feel less isolated;· to share information and experiences, skills and ideas;· the opportunity to listen to the needs and problems of other parents;· to change the ways of working to meet the child’s needs;· share information about the possibilities of education and services;· parents are encouraged to meet together to support one another;· parents need a special approach to many problems existing in their families.· the education in the group puts the beginning of the work with the parents.The idea is to gather the efforts of specialists from different fields and to establish multi-disciplinary group aiming to work with the parents and create a good collaboration and partnership between them in order to improve the living conditions and services to the retarded persons.This paper reports on the development, evaluation and dissemination of the program for education of parents with mentally retarded children. At the Symposium we will be able to present the results of the effectiveness of the education.

  9. Probably Norrie's disease due to mutation. Two sporadic sibships of two males each, a necropsy of one case, and, given Norrie's disease, a calculation of the gene mutation frequency.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, C I; Newton, M; Duvall, J; Holloway, S; Levy, A M

    1986-01-01

    Two sibships, each with two affected males but no other affected family members, are described. All four patients at birth had small eyes with white masses visible behind clear lenses. Support for a diagnosis of Norrie's disease lies in the probable mental retardation and sudden death of one child and mental retardation in the other in one of the families, and strong support in the sensorineural deafness in one child in the other family. A necropsy was performed on the dead child. Both eyes s...

  10. Fatigue crack retardation of high strength steel in saltwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokaji, K.; Ando, Z.; Imai, T.; Kojima, T.

    1983-01-01

    A high strength steel was studied in 3 percent saltwater to investigate the effects of a corrosive environment and sheer thickness on fatigue crack propagation behavior following the application of a single tensile overload. Experiments were carried out under sinusoidally varying loads at a load ratio of 0 and frequency of 10 H /SUB z/ . A single tensile overload was found to cause delayed retardation, and the crack propagation rate at first increased, followed by fairly rapid decrease to a minimum value and then increased gradually to its steady-state value, just as it did in air. The overload affected zone size and the retardation cycles increased with decreasing sheet thickness, just as they did in air. However, the zone size and the cycles were larger in 3 percent saltwater than in air. Since the crack propagation rates through the overload affected zone were not affected by the test environment, the longer retardation cycles in 3 percent saltwater were attributed to an enlargement of the overload affected zone size. The crack propagation behavior following the application of a single tensile overload in 3 percent saltwater was well explained by the crack closure concept

  11. Retardo del crecimiento intrauterino Intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cuartas Calle

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available

    El crecimiento fetal anormal es un aspecto de gran interés en la obstetricia actual y un dilema clínico relativamente frecuente. La falla del crecimiento sigue siendo un enigma a pesar de los adelantos que ha habido en su conocimiento: el diagnóstico temprano y preciso del retardo del crecimiento puede aminorar la incidencia de complicaciones y muerte en fetos con este problema. Por ello es necesario mejorar las técnicas para identificar esta entidad y asegurar una atención apropiada durante el embarazo y el parto. En este artículo se resumen datos acerca de la definición del retardo del crecimiento fetal, su fisiopatología, clasificación, etiología, diagnóstico y manejo.

    Abnormal fetal growth is a very important aspect In present-day obstetrics and a frequent clinical dilemma. Fetal failure to grow continues to be puzzling, despite advances in its knowledge; early and precise diagnosis of growth retardation can diminish the incidence of complications and death of fetuses with this problem. It becomes therefore necessary, in the presence of growth retardation, to improve diagnostic techniques and assure proper attention during pregnancy and delivery. Information is summarized in this review on the definition, pathophysiology, classification, etiology, diagnosis and handling of fetal growth retardation.

  12. Detection of halogenated flame retardants in polyurethane foam by particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maley, Adam M.; Falk, Kyle A.; Hoover, Luke; Earlywine, Elly B.; Seymour, Michael D.; DeYoung, Paul A.; Blum, Arlene; Stapleton, Heather M.; Peaslee, Graham F.

    2015-01-01

    A novel application of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been developed to detect the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardant chemicals in polyurethane foams. Traditional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) methods for the detection and identification of halogenated flame retardants in foams require extensive sample preparation and data acquisition time. The elemental analysis of the halogens in polyurethane foam performed by PIXE offers the opportunity to identify the presence of halogenated flame retardants in a fraction of the time and sample preparation cost. Through comparative GC–MS and PIXE analysis of 215 foam samples, excellent agreement between the two methods was obtained. These results suggest that PIXE could be an ideal rapid screening method for the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardants in polyurethane foams

  13. Detection of halogenated flame retardants in polyurethane foam by particle induced X-ray emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maley, Adam M.; Falk, Kyle A.; Hoover, Luke; Earlywine, Elly B.; Seymour, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, Hope College, 35 E. 12th Street, Holland, MI 49423 (United States); DeYoung, Paul A. [Department of Physics, Hope College, 27 Graves Place, Holland, MI 49423 (United States); Blum, Arlene [Green Science Policy Institute, Box 5455, Berkeley, CA 94705 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, LSRC Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Peaslee, Graham F., E-mail: peaslee@hope.edu [Department of Chemistry, Hope College, 35 E. 12th Street, Holland, MI 49423 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A novel application of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been developed to detect the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardant chemicals in polyurethane foams. Traditional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) methods for the detection and identification of halogenated flame retardants in foams require extensive sample preparation and data acquisition time. The elemental analysis of the halogens in polyurethane foam performed by PIXE offers the opportunity to identify the presence of halogenated flame retardants in a fraction of the time and sample preparation cost. Through comparative GC–MS and PIXE analysis of 215 foam samples, excellent agreement between the two methods was obtained. These results suggest that PIXE could be an ideal rapid screening method for the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardants in polyurethane foams.

  14. Institutionalizing the evaluation of health programs and policies in France: cuisine internationale over fast food and sur mesure over ready-made

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartz Zulmira M. A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe several chronological milestones in institutionalizing the evaluation of public programs and policies in France from a governmental perspective and in the health sector, situating such references in the international context. The institutional nature of evaluation implies integrating it into an action-oriented model, linking analytical activities to management, thus constituting the formulation of an evaluation policy for policy evaluation. The study focuses on issues related to the structure, practice, and utilization of evaluation results as well as other characteristics providing the French model with a certain resistance to traditional "fast-food" or "ready-made" methodological approaches. The institutionalization of sectorial evaluation appears more promising than that of the government's centralized channel, despite the work developed by a Scientific Evaluation Council, and suggests avenues for reflection and debate pertaining to the Brazilian Unified Health System.

  15. Institutionalizing the evaluation of health programs and policies in France: cuisine internationale over fast food and sur mesure over ready-made

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulmira M. A. Hartz

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe several chronological milestones in institutionalizing the evaluation of public programs and policies in France from a governmental perspective and in the health sector, situating such references in the international context. The institutional nature of evaluation implies integrating it into an action-oriented model, linking analytical activities to management, thus constituting the formulation of an evaluation policy for policy evaluation. The study focuses on issues related to the structure, practice, and utilization of evaluation results as well as other characteristics providing the French model with a certain resistance to traditional "fast-food" or "ready-made" methodological approaches. The institutionalization of sectorial evaluation appears more promising than that of the government's centralized channel, despite the work developed by a Scientific Evaluation Council, and suggests avenues for reflection and debate pertaining to the Brazilian Unified Health System.

  16. Psychometric Properties of ADHD Rating Scales among Children with Mental Retardation I: Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael L.; Fee, Virginia E.; Netterville, Amanda K.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) rating scales in children with mental retardation was assessed. Parents, teachers, and teaching assistants completed ADHD rating scales on 48 children aged 5-12 diagnosed with mental retardation. Measures included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Conners Rating Scales, the…

  17. Opitz C syndrome: Trigonocephaly, mental retardation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a 4-year-old female child with a dysmorphic and neurological syndrome of trigonocephaly, mental and psychomotor retardation and dysmorphic facial ... The patient had important cerebral anomalies with diffuse alterations in white matter that caused developmental delay with verbal and nonverbal disabilities ...

  18. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  19. Frail Institutionalized Older Persons A Comprehensive Review on Physical Exercise, Physical Fitness, Activities of Daily Living, and Quality-of-Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weening-Dijksterhuis, Elizabeth; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    Weening-Dijksterhuis E, de Greef MHG, Scherder EJA, Slaets JPJ, van der Schans CP: Frail institutionalized older persons: A comprehensive review on physical exercise, physical fitness, activities of daily living, and quality-of-life. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2011;90:156Y168. The objective of this study

  20. Effect of retardation coefficient for radionuclide migration on assessment results of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming

    2004-01-01

    Environmental impact report is an important content in enforcing environmental impact assessment system. Effect of retardation coefficient used in models of radionuclide migration in geological media on the calculated results of maximum concentration of calculated points at the lower reaches is discussed in this paper. It is shown from experimental results that the retardation coefficient is not a constant. And it is shown from calculated results that retardation coefficient obviously affect the calculated results of maximum concentration of calculated point at the lower reaches. Conservation level of the assessment results would considerably be affected, and hence confidence level of results would be affected if the aspects are not paid enough attention and solved. The paper suggests that retardation coefficient used in migration models should directly be obtained by measurement in the field or in column, rather than using the result derived from distribution coefficients according to some formula in order to prevent the nonconservative results