WorldWideScience

Sample records for institutional sector

  1. Institutional patterns in the Austrian space sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Annie; Burg, Elco van; Giannopapa, Christina

    2018-01-01

    This paper employs the institutional logics perspective to understand how space policies and regulations influences entrepreneurship and innovation. We conducted interviews with entrepreneurs, ESA policy makers and governmental representatives in Austria and identified six prevailing institutional practices: geographical return, the SME-initiatives, the national support pattern, the size pattern, the consortium pattern and the experience pattern. Together, these patterns make up the semi-governmental logic of the space sector. We find that space actors adhere to these patterns to earn legitimacy, which is a condition for support and access to resources. This study adds to our understanding in the consequences of policies and contributes to the design of new space policies and programmes.

  2. Institutional determinants of power sector reform in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Kafait; Arentsen, Maarten J.; Lovett, Jon C.

    2017-01-01

    The electricity supply sector in Pakistan has performed poorly in recent years. Reforms were introduced in the mid-1990s to improve the sector, but progressed slowly with no significant impacts on pre-reform performance. This study uses new institutional economics as a theoretical basis to elucidate reasons for the failure of power sector reforms in Pakistan to make improvements. Interviews with 23 experts using Q-methodology generated 215 statements that were used as a Q concourse. Of these, 51 statements were selected for the Q sample and ranked by 34 respondents depending on their importance. Analysis revealed four important discourses on the determinants of power sector reform failure in Pakistan. These included weak governance structure, country and sectoral endowments, inefficient regulator and unspecified political institutions or unfriendly political contexts. The study recommends establishment of institutions that support a market based power supply sector and improvements to the contractual arrangements between stakeholders to reduce opportunistic behaviour. - Highlights: • This study utilizes New Institutional Approach to study power sector reforms in Pakistan. • Work of Douglass North and Oliver Williamson help create analytical frame. • Q methodology helps overcome data limitations. • Results reveal institutional aspects as important for poor performance of reforms. • Study suggests policy recommendations to improve institutional environment and governance of power sector in Pakistan.

  3. Financial Analysis of the Financial Institutions Sector in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlora Prenaj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper work “Financial analysis of the financial institutions sector in Kosovo” treats financial sector in Kosovo. Paper work contains the current position of the economy, economic prospects and macroeconomic projections for the financial sector in Kosovo, future potential and possibilities of financial sector in Kosovo. The main goal of this research is financial analysis of Kosovo financial institutions sector - overview of key indicators. This research evaluates the performances of commercial bank’s profitability, which have operated in the market during the period 2006-2012. This research is conducted through financial analysis coefficients: Return on Equity, Return on assets and Cost to Income. Test t-Student is used to analyze the profitability for the period 2006/2007 before the financial crisis and the period 2011/2012 after financial crisis.

  4. Institutions in the Mexican coffee sector : changes and responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Padron, B.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: Cooperation, contract arrangements, traders´ performance, market uncertainty, diversification, coffee, Mexico.

    The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the institutional environment prevailing in the Mexican coffee sector and its effect on the producers, traders and

  5. Institution, Financial Sector, and Economic Growth: Use The Institutions As An Instrument Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus Girik Allo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Institution has been investigated having indirect role on economic growth. This paper aims to evaluate whether the quality of institution matters for economic growth. By applying institution as instrumental variable at Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, quality of institution significantly influence economic growth. This study applies two set of data period, namely 1985-2013 and 2000-2013, available online in the World Bank (WB. The first data set, 1985-2013 is used to estimate the role of financial sector on economic growth, focuses on 67 countries. The second data set, 2000-2013 determine the role of institution on financial sector and economic growth by applying 2SLS estimation method. We define institutional variables as set of indicators: Control of Corruption, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, and Voice and Accountability provide declining impact of FDI to economic growth.

  6. Institutional and Policy Assessment of Renewable Energy Sector in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Murtaza Ershad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources could play a vital role in the sustainable economic, social, and environmental development of Afghanistan. Heavy reliance of rural households on firewood, rising costs of fossil fuels, outdoor and indoor air pollution, and climate change are some of the challenges that can be addressed by diversifying our power production fuel inputs and adopting renewable energy technologies. In order to deploy and scale up renewable energy technologies and improve access to sustainable energy, clear policies and targets and dedicated institutions are crucial. Fortunately, Afghan government with the support of international community is setting ambitious targets for the renewable energy sector and is encouraging national and international investors to take part in the generation, transmission, and distribution of renewable energy especially electricity through Power Purchase Agreements or very cheap land leases. Thus, the objectives of this report are (I to review the existing institutions in the field of renewable energy, (II to review renewable energy policies and targets in Afghanistan, and (III to identify institutional and policy gaps and recommend solutions.

  7. Facilitating Corporate Entrepreneurship in Public Sector Higher Education Institutions: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Nayyar Malik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a conceptual model of public sector corporate entrepreneurship for the state government higher education institutions. The proposed model is intended to depict the main antecedents that relate to corporate entrepreneurship within the public sector higher education institution  and the impact of corporate entrepreneurship on public sector HEI’s performance, as well as factors influencing its continuous performance.

  8. Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Technical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Popelka, A. [Tysak Engineering, Acton, MA (United States); Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V. [Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to characterize the economic energy efficiency potential and investment requirements for space heating and hot water provided by district heat in the stock of state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The assessment involves three activities. The first is a survey of state and municipal institutions to characterize the stock of institutional buildings. The second is to develop an estimate of the cost-effective efficiency potential. The third is to estimate the investment requirements to acquire the efficiency resource. Institutional buildings are defined as nonresidential buildings owned and occupied by state and municipal organizations. General categories of institutional buildings are education, healthcare, and cultural. The characterization activity provides information about the number of buildings, building floorspace, and consumption of space heating and hot water energy provided by the district system.

  9. Factors Affecting Teachers' Motivation: An HRM Challenge for Public Sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan (HEIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Muhammad Imran; Humayon, Asad Afzal; Awan, Usama; Ahmed, Affan ud Din

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore/investigate various issues of teachers ' motivation in public sector Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This is an exploratory research where surveys have been conducted in the well known public sector Universities of Pakistan; primary data have been collected…

  10. Institutional quality and private sector participation: theory and empirical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Schomaker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through several conduits, sound institutional quality is pivotal for economic development, as there is evidence that stable democratic institutions, rule of law and sound governance structures in the administration are highly conducive to promote growth. Therefore, a high institutional quality is not only the end point, but also the starting point of a more sustainable development. In this paper we provide some theoretical considerations as well as empirical evidence, based on several regression analyses, that the quality of institutions in a wider sense, and governance, which includes not only the level of “politics” itself, but also the administrative level, is relevant not only for the macro-level of development (i.e. the increase of the national welfare and foreign investment, but also on a micro-level: A stronger participation of private enterprises in public service provision and the introduction of public-private part¬nerships depends to a high degree on the institutional quality. This is even more relevant as the improvement of public services and of core infrastructures can be seen as crucial multipliers for future growth.

  11. Institutional Diversity in Ontario's University Sector: A Policy Debate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piché, Pierre G.; Jones, Glen A.

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the demands in a cost-effective manner of an emerging knowledge society that is global in scope, structural higher education policy changes have been introduced in many countries with a focus on systemic and programmatic diversity. There has been an ongoing debate about institutional diversity in Ontario higher education,…

  12. Firms’ maneuvering between institutional logics in the public sector for commercializing welfare innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Helle Aarøe; Clarke, Ann Højbjerg; Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard

    The article aims to explore, through a micro level focus, how individual private firm actors maneuver between institutional logics embedded in different individual public actors operating at various levels in the public sector, when making efforts towards commercializing innovative welfare...... in commercializing interact with public actors operating at various levels in the public sector using a top-down, bottom-up or mixed approach. The top-down approach shows that private firms handle institutional logics embedded in political and managerial actors by creating legitimacy and accept from above concerning...... approach demonstrates that private firms handle institutional logics by combining interaction with actors across levels in the public sector, thereby mixing top-down and bottom-up approaches. As such, the three approaches point out that private firms, when handling institutional logics, can do...

  13. Institution, Financial Sector, and Economic Growth: Use The Institutions As An Instrument Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Albertus Girik Allo

    2016-01-01

    Institution has been investigated having indirect role on economic growth. This paper aims to evaluate whether the quality of institution matters for economic growth. By applying institution as instrumental variable at Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), quality of institution significantly influence economic growth. This study applies two set of data period, namely 1985-2013 and 2000-2013, available online in the World Bank (WB). The first data set, 1985-2013 is used to estimate the role of fin...

  14. Restructuring of the electric power sector in Brazil. Analysis of the new institutional structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Marcelo Jose C.; Oliveira, Humberto Renato de; Sampaio, Cristiane Collich

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the risks related to the State of not following its original principles and objectives regarding the energy sector. The challenges and risks of the State with its new function as regulator, through the regulation agencies, will be analysed. A comparison between the institutional structure of the Brazilian electrical sector and other countries will be accomplished, focusing on the following aspects: competition, regulation and commercial operation. (author)

  15. Institutional Design, Macroeconomic Policy Coordination and Implications for the Financial Sector in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Muhammad Ali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has analysed the implications of institutional design of macroeconomic policy making institutions for the macroeconomic policy interaction and financial sector in the United Kingdom. Employing a Vector Error Correction (VEC model and using monthly data from January 1985 to August 2008 we found that the changes in institutional arrangement and design of policy making authorities appeared to be a major contributing factor in dynamics of association between policy coordination/combination and financial sector. It was also found that the independence of the Bank of England (BoE and withdrawal from the Exchange Rate Mechanism led to the increase in macroeconomic policy maker’s ability to coordinate and restore financial stability. The results imply that although institutional autonomy in the form of instrument independence (monetary policy decisions could bring financial stability, there is a strong necessity for coordination, even in Post-MPC (Monetary Policy Committee and the BoE independence.

  16. Strategic Role of Financial Institutions in Sustainable Development of Indian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V K

    2007-07-01

    Paper focuses on appraisal of Indian power sector, its achievements and inadequacies, measures and initiatives taken by Government of India (GOI) and blueprint for the development of power sector in next five years i.e. XI Plan (2007-2012); the role played by various Financial Institutions, Banks, Bilateral/Multilateral agencies etc. with focus on role of Power Finance Corporation (PFC) in development and financing of Indian Power sector and in Institutional development of State power utilities by facilitating in their reform and restructuring process and improving their financial health; role played by PFC in implementation of various policies and programmes of GOI; its competitive edge in Indian financial sector and growth strategies for enriching the stakeholders' value and acting as a significant partner in the development of power sector and growth of the nation. The paper provides information on capacity addition planned along with matching transmission and distribution system in the next five years to achieve GOI's 'Mission 2012: Power for All'; estimated funds required; funds that can be generated both in the form of Debt and Equity; the funding gap; proposed measures to meet overall funding requirement for sustainable development of the power sector. (auth)

  17. Strategic Role of Financial Institutions in Sustainable Development of Indian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V.K.

    2007-07-01

    Paper focuses on appraisal of Indian power sector, its achievements and inadequacies, measures and initiatives taken by Government of India (GOI) and blueprint for the development of power sector in next five years i.e. XI Plan (2007-2012); the role played by various Financial Institutions, Banks, Bilateral/Multilateral agencies etc. with focus on role of Power Finance Corporation (PFC) in development and financing of Indian Power sector and in Institutional development of State power utilities by facilitating in their reform and restructuring process and improving their financial health; role played by PFC in implementation of various policies and programmes of GOI; its competitive edge in Indian financial sector and growth strategies for enriching the stakeholders' value and acting as a significant partner in the development of power sector and growth of the nation. The paper provides information on capacity addition planned along with matching transmission and distribution system in the next five years to achieve GOI's 'Mission 2012: Power for All'; estimated funds required; funds that can be generated both in the form of Debt and Equity; the funding gap; proposed measures to meet overall funding requirement for sustainable development of the power sector. (auth)

  18. WORK ACCIDENTS ANALYSIS, EMPHASIZING THE FOREST SECTORS, IN A FEDERAL HIGH EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héder Alencar Vianna

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the probable causes of accidents at work, of the forest sectors, of a Federal Institution of Higher education in Minas Gerais State looking for minimizing risks damages to worker’s health and safety. The analyses were accomplished by means of the Accidents Communications in Service data bank and the results showed that in the studied period, for the forest sector, 50.71% of the accidents were attributed to the insecure act, 16.98% to insecure condition and 17.94% to personal factor of insecurity. The functional evaluation indicated that in 7.14% of the accidents occurred with workers that were not in the function established by the employment respective contracts. The rates of gravity and frequency of accidents calculated for the forest sectors allowed to conclude that the indices were higher than the others sectors and much higher than the values published by the Brazilian Ministry of Social Service and Assistance.

  19. The informal sector in transition: Tax evasion in an institutional vacuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gërxhani, K.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis discusses the informal sector mainly focusing on the study of tax evasion. Individuals' decision whether or not to evade taxes is the core of the studies presented here. The role of institutions in this individual decision is considered to be of crucial importance. As a natural

  20. Mergers between Governmental Research Institutes and Universities in the Danish HE Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Kaare; Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the mergers in the Danish Higher Education (HE)-sector with a particular emphasis on the 2007 mergers involving universities and Government Research Institutes (GRIs). Furthermore, it follows the post-merger processes up to 2014/2015 at two Danish universities and examines the consequences of the changes seen…

  1. Mergers between governmental research institutes and Universities in the Danish HE sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Kaare; Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the mergers in the Danish Higher Education (HE)-sector with a particular emphasis on the 2007 mergers involving universities and Government Research Institutes (GRIs). Furthermore, it follows the post-merger processes up to 2014/2015 at two Danish universities...

  2. Organizational analysis of the seed sector of rice in Guinea: stakeholders, perception and institutional linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okry, F.; Mele, van P.; Nuijten, H.A.C.P.; Struik, P.C.; Mongbo, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the organization of the rice seed sector in Guinea with the overall objectives to assess how organizational settings affect seed supply to small-scale farmers and to suggest institutional changes that would favour seed service and uptake of varieties. Data were collected in

  3. Institutional conditions for sustainable private sector-led urban development projects : A conceptual model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heurkens, E.W.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Across the globe sustainable private sector-led urban development projects (SPUDPs) in the built environment rarely commence as real estate developers face several institutional barriers which limit their capacity to develop economic-viable, social-responsible, environmental-friendly urban places.

  4. Isomorphic pressures, institutional strategies, and knowledge creation in the health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen-Wei; Fang, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Wei-Min

    2007-01-01

    Health care organizations are facing surprisingly complex challenges, including new treatment and diagnostic technologies, ongoing pressures for health care institutional reform, the emergence of new organizational governance structures, and knowledge creation for the health care system. To maintain legitimacy in demanding environments, organizations tend to copy practices of similar organizations, which lead to isomorphism, and to use internal strategies to accommodate changes. A concern is that a poor fit between isomorphic pressures and internal strategies can interfere with developmental processes, such as knowledge creation. The purposes of this article are to, first, develop a set of propositions, based on institutional theory, as a theoretical framework that might explain the influence of isomorphic pressures on institutional processes through which knowledge is created within the health care sector and, second, propose that a good fit between isomorphic pressures factors and health care organizations' institutional strategic choices will enhance the health care organizations' ability to create knowledge. To develop a theoretical framework, we developed a set of propositions based on literature pertaining to the institutional theory perspective of isomorphic pressures and the response of health care organizations to isomorphic pressures. Institutional theory perspectives of isomorphic pressures and institutional strategies may provide a new understanding for health care organizations seeking effective knowledge creation strategies within institutional environment of health care sector. First, the ability to identify three forces for isomorphic change is critical for managers. Second, the importance of a contingency approach by health care managers can lead to strategies tailoring to cope with uncertainties facing their organizations.

  5. Getting reforms done in inhospitable institutional environments: untying a Gordian Knot in India's power distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankha, Sunil; Misal, Annasahed B.; Fuller, Boyd W.

    2010-01-01

    When grand institutional reforms based on idealized models are stalled by the poor institutional environments and difficult politics which often surround large infrastructure systems in developing countries, partial reforms whose design and implementation take into account the different interests of the key stakeholders can provide valuable and immediate benefits while moving these systems from low- towards higher-level equilibria. Strategically negotiated, experimentally partial and purposefully hybrid, these reforms are based on careful stakeholder analysis and strategic coalition building that avoid rigid positions based on idealized models. Our findings are based on a study of power sector reforms in India, where we performed a micro-level and in-depth analysis of a partial and innovative experiment which has allowed private sector participation in electricity distribution within a hostile institutional environment.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL CHANGES ON THE INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF UKRAINIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy ZHUK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Successful development of the Ukrainian economy, its agro-industrial segment requires a large-scale and efficient investment provision and favourable investment climate. In this regard, the actual task of the scientific community is the study of the influence of institutions on the development of investment policy, the formation of investment processes in the country. The purpose of this article is the study of institutional basis for further development of the investment processes in the agricultural sector of Ukrainian economy under conditions of integration into Europe. In the study process author used general scientific methods, in particular statistical method, method of extrapolation, analogy, institutional analysis, abstract-logical method, methods of descriptive simulation. Results of the study are as follows. The influence of formal institutions (legal regulations for the ‘rules of play’ was assessed on the investment efficiency. The ponderability of the formal institutions was identified in the investment success of the big agricultural business of Ukraine. The main causes of the low investment attractiveness of small and medium-sized business in the agrarian sector of the Ukrainian economy were defined. The ways were substantiated for development of the non-formal institutions. It was accentuated that asset capitalization of the small and medium-sized companies would be important for development of the investment processes in Ukraine.

  7. The Impact of Institutions on the Destandardization of Female Employment Patterns in the Services Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine

    Increasing female labour market participation is arguably one of the decisive factors in explaining a destandardisation of the European employment model. Due to a lack in institutions that allow combining wage and care work and in light of unequal gender distribution of care work women...... of women in specific occupations with the services sector. This paper makes use of the cross-country variation in terms of destandardisation of female employment as compared to male employment and tries to explain the country differences by way of institutions (particularly child- and elderly care but also...... at the country level the OECD family data base is used. Besides presenting descriptive statistics on the gender gaps in the services sector with regard to flexible forms of work, including their overlaps, the paper also makes use of multilevel analysis to explain the country differences in the gender gaps...

  8. The role of institutions on the effectiveness of malaria treatment in the Ghanaian health sector

    OpenAIRE

    Amporfu, Eugenia; Nonvignon, Justice

    2015-01-01

    Background The Ghanaian health sector has undertaken several policies to help improve the quality of care received by patients. This includes the construction of several health facilities, the increase in the training of health workers, especially nurses, and the introduction of incentive packages (such as salary increase) to motivate health workers. The important question is to what extent does the institutional arrangement between the health facilities and the government as well as between ...

  9. Institutional change to support regime transformation: Lessons from Australia's water sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbeloff, Lara; Brown, Rebekah; Cocklin, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Institutional change is fundamental to regime transformation, and a necessary part of moving toward integrated water management. However, insight into the role of institutional change processes in such transitions is currently limited. A more nuanced understanding of institutional frameworks is necessary, both to advance understanding of institutional change in the context of transitions toward improved water management and to inform strategies for guiding such processes. To this end, we examine two contemporary cases of transformative change in Australia's urban water sector, exploring the evolution of institutional change in each city. This paper offers insights into regime transformation, providing guidance on types of institutional structures and the ways structure-change initiatives can be sequenced to support a transition. The results reveal the importance of regulation in embedding regime change and suggest that engagement with structural frameworks should begin early in transition processes to ensure the timely introduction of supporting regulation. Our findings also highlight the inextricable link between culture-based and structure-based change initiatives, and the importance of using a diverse range of institutional change mechanisms in a mutually reinforcing way to provide a strong foundation for change. These findings provide a foundation for further scholarly examination of institutional change mechanisms, while also serving to inform the strategic activities of transition-oriented organizations and actors.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSTITUTIONAL BASIS FOR FINANCING THE PUBLIC SECTOR OF THE REGIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Sidorova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of financial support of the regional and municipal economy development. Formation of the institutional basis for the budgeting process and budgets interactions between the territories of different levels are shown on the base of retrospective analysis of foundation and development of budget federalism in Russia. Attraction of entrepreneurial sector resources on the conditions of public-private partnership is discussed as additional finance source and definite particularities of this process are described in line with the possibilities of their appliance.

  11. 2015 Plan. Project 9: the institutional base reformulation of electrical sector and the participation of private capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The structural changes in the electrical sector and the forecast for favoring the private participation in the investments of the sector are discussed, describing the main stages of the institutional evolution. Some economic markers as competitiveness, electric power prices, private capital and the regulations of electric power services are presented. (C.G.C)

  12. Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Lending and implementation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Popelka, A. [Tysak Engineering, Acton, MA (United States); Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V. [Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    1997-08-01

    The government of Ukraine, through the State Committee of Energy Conservation (State Committee), is considering the implementation of energy efficiency measures in state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The State Committee entered into a Memorandum of Cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct an assessment of the institutional buildings sector efficiency potential. This assessment will be used to support a potential loan by the World Bank for implementing a buildings efficiency improvement program in Kyiv. This report provides an assessment of the options for structuring the lending scenarios and the implementation of the program. Components to the lending structure are options for the disbursement of funds, options for the loan service, and other financial options and considerations. Program implementation includes management structures, reporting, installation activities, and post-installation activities such as training and verification.

  13. Proposal of an Institutional Structure for the Cooperative Sector in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriadna Marín de León

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Economic and Social Politics Guidelines of the CCP Congress, devoted to cooperative economic administration defined five specific guidelines that denote the intention and purpose of the country for recognizing the role of the cooperative as in the development way in the social Cuban socialist model and the necessity to extend to other economic sectors. There are different points of view about the function of the state in relation to cooperativism, which shows the necessity of a critical and realistic approaches about this topic that give the appropriate answer for contributing efficiently to the objectives and aspirations of the cooperative under new conditions.    In this article is presented the theoretical and methodological relationship bases between state and cooperatives, as well as the institutionalization process of this sector in different countries, including Cuba demonstrating the necessity and urgency of creating an institutional structure for the cooperative sector in Cuba that contributes to obtain a true autonomy and supervision, necessary administration support and advice. This proposal presupposes a series of premises, as well as strategic and administration elements such as: a logo, its mission, vision, structures, objectives and functions.

  14. The participation of public institutions and private sector stakeholders to Devrekani Watershed management planning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Öztürk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Watershed management is creating the ecological balance between human beings and habitats and natural resources especially water resources. In this study the nature and human beings and all of the components involving on human activities in nature were tried to be tackled and the strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities (SWOT analysis of the area were evaluated by prioritizing R’WOT (Ranking + SWOT analysis for ensuring the participation and evaluating the ideas and attitudes of public institutions and private sector which are interest groups of Devrekani Watershed. According to the analysis result, both of the participant groups stated that the planned Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP in the basin will negatively affect the natural resource value. The economical deficiency- for the local administration- and the lack of qualified labour force –for private sector- issues are determined as the most important issues. Having an environmental plan (EP, supporting the traditional animal husbandry were determined as the highest priority factors by the local administration group and the presence of forests and grasslands and the eco-tourism potential were determined as the highest priority factors for the private sector. Creating awareness to local administration group, who are one of the most important decision making mechanisms in the area and did not prefer threats in a high priority way, is foreseen according to the context of the study.

  15. Integrating competition and planning: A mixed institutional model of the Brazilian electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajay, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, the Brazilian electric power sector went through similar institutional changes taken place in both developing and developed countries. The main goals for such changes were to inject competition into the generation and supply links of the sector's production chain and to reduce public debt via privatization of state-owned utilities that dominated the pre-reform sector. This paper discusses why these changes took place in Brazil and explains why the results of the reform model implemented by the previous federal administration were unsatisfactory. The current federal administration has substantially altered the prior model, aiming to remedy insufficient private investment in new power stations that caused a serious power shortage in 2001. The paper addresses the main characteristics of the new model, which implements (a) public biddings of new power plants for all distribution utilities in the country, and (b) forward planning of optimal commissioning times and capacity of new plants. The paper ends with a discussion of the potential benefits and drawbacks of the new scheme and the role of the regulator in the early stage of the ongoing transition in the Brazilian electrical power industry. (author)

  16. Sectoral crediting mechanisms for greenhouse gas mitigation. Institutional and operational issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R. [International Energy Agency IEA, Paris (France); Ellis, J. [Environment Directorate, International Energy Agency IEA, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France)

    2006-05-15

    Guiding policy choices requires a systematic comparison of options. In the case of a hypothetical policy instrument, e.g. sectoral crediting, such systematic comparison is difficult as different options may not be strictly comparable. For instance, not all options may be easily applied to a given sector (e.g. an intensity-based crediting may hardly be implemented to a government policy seeking to substitute public transport for personal vehicles); the policy-based SCM may be the only practical option in this case and comparison is therefore moot. Also, not all countries may have the institutional capacity to implement all three options at the same scale. Last, the ability of each option to deliver real reductions hinges on the 'additionality' of the sector's efforts and on the stringency of the baseline. Unfortunately, there is no universally recognised method to define additionality and to determine a baseline. This paper nonetheless offers some insights on how each potential SCM option may fare with respect to the following criteria: Environmental effectiveness: can this option trigger real reductions where implemented?; Addressing competitiveness concerns; Administrative cost and feasibility: how demanding is the mechanism in terms of monitoring, review and, possibly enforcement policy?; Economic efficiency: to what extent does the mechanism lead to the adoption of the least-cost mitigation options in the sector? An initial assessment of each option along these criteria is provided in the conclusion section. This paper explores potential SCMs along several lines. Section 2 draws lessons from existing mechanisms; section 3 considers several dimensions to be considered for baselines; section 4 discusses how SCM could be implemented to provide effective incentives to mitigation; section 5 explores international governance issues. Concluding remarks are presented in section 6.

  17. Market development for active solar thermal systems (ASTS) in the institutional, commercial and industrial (ICI) sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The market potential for active solar thermal systems in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors of the Canadian economy was investigated, the objective being to identify markets and to prepare action plans as the foundation for developing these markets by Natural Resources Canada and the industry. In the process of researching the market, barriers to market development in these sectors of the economy were also identified as well as actions to overcome these barriers. Nine potential applications were modelled to determine their energy, economic and environmental performance. Of these four attractive applications have been selected for more detailed treatment. Separate action plans have been developed for Natural Resources Canada, the Canadian Solar Industries Association and the active solar thermal industry. The close cooperation of all three partners is considered essential for a successful marketing effort. A marketing plan which gives due consideration to the product, planning, packaging, price and promotion, is also considered to be a vital ingredient, as is a meticulous follow-up on 'leads' created by exposure to the target market. Solarwall'TM' for preheating of ventilation air to new school buildings and solar domestic hot water heating for camp grounds have been identified as the most attractive candidates for marketing at this time. Highlights of marketing plans for these two options are included for purposes of illustrating the essential ingredients of marketing plans. 1 fig

  18. Understanding organization and institutional changes for management of environmental affairs in the Brazilian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.A.P. de

    2003-01-01

    This article analyzes how governments and an oil company adapted their institutional and organization frameworks to manage actual and potential environmental impacts of oil-related activities in Brazil. Two major factors are important for understanding these changes. First, the monopoly of the state to explore and produce oil is over. Foreign companies have entered Brazil and increased the competitiveness of the oil sector. Second, major oil spills into waterways in recent years resulted in severe fines and an increasing outcry from government and civil society representatives for greater control over oil activities. These two factors raised a debate about what are, or should be, the roles of various stakeholders involved in controlling oil activities and their impacts on the environment. Legislative changes assigned different roles to the state oil company, to a newly created regulatory agency, to the Navy and to federal and state environmental agencies. Because many of the legal changes were not well defined, accountability among institutional actors remained unclear and institutional conflicts about who is accountable for what were likely to occur. As well, government organizations, public prosecutors, media and civil society increasingly influenced the regulation of both government agencies and companies. As a result, these responded to regulatory change and market forces by changing their relations with external stakeholders and their organizational arrangements for environmental management. This article identifies some of the institutional conflicts in selected case studies from the oil industry, the difficulties in clarifying regulatory roles within the industry, and responses in terms of the environmental strategies of regulatory bodies and oil companies, specifically the Brazilian state company, Petrobas. (author)

  19. Benchmarking, social partnership and higher remuneration : wage settling institutions and the public-private sector wage gap in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Elish; O'Connell, Philip J.; Mc Guinness, Seamus

    2008-01-01

    Policy paper This paper uses data from the 2003 and 2006 National Employment Surveys to analyse the public-private sector wage gap in Ireland. In particular, we investigate the impact of awards implemented under a number of wage setting institutions on the pay differential. These include the pay increases awarded by the Public Service Benchmarking Body in its first report and the increases given to higher-level posts in the public sector by the Review Body on Higher Remuneration in the ...

  20. Institutional delivery in India, 2004-14: unravelling the equity-enhancing contributions of the public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, William; Perkins, Jessica M; Kumar, Saroj; Rajpal, Sunil; Subramanian, S V

    2018-06-01

    To achieve faster and equitable improvements in maternal and child health outcomes, the government of India launched the National Rural Health Mission in 2005. This paper describes the equity-enhancing role of the public sector in increasing use of institutional delivery care services in India between 2004 and 2014. Information on 24 661 births from nationally representative survey data for 2004 and 2014 is analysed. Concentration index is computed to describe socioeconomic-rank-related relative inequalities in institutional delivery and decomposition is used to assess the contributions of public and private sectors in overall socioeconomic inequality. Multilevel logistic regression is applied to examine the changes in socioeconomic gradient between 2004 and 2014. The analysis finds that utilization of institutional delivery care in India increased from 43% in 2004 to 83% in 2014. The bulk of the increase was in public sector use (21% in 2004 to 53% in 2014) with a modest increase in private sector use (22% in 2004 to 30% in 2014). The shift from a pro-rich to pro-poor distribution of public sector use is confirmed. Decomposition analysis indicates that 51% of these reductions in socioeconomic inequality are associated with improved pro-poor distribution of public sector births. Multilevel logistic regressions confirm the disappearance of a wealth-based gradient in public sector births between 2004 and 2014. We conclude that public health investments in India have significantly contributed towards an equitable increase in the coverage of institutional delivery care. Sustained policy efforts are necessary, however, with an emphasis on education, sociocultural and geographical factors to ensure universal coverage of institutional delivery care services in India.

  1. Public Sector Education Institution's Analysis: A Way Forward to Curtail Rural-Regional Education Accessibility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Aftab Hussain Talpur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The availability of accessible educational facilities is essential for the better rural education. However, because of the huge population, lack of resources and absence of proper policy plans; the distance between educational facilities and rural communities is mounting as time progresses. These sorts of problematic circumstances put damaging effects on education standards and become responsible for the declining literacy rate. Hence, the goal of this research is to investigate the lack of educational institutions with respect to indigenous standards. Therefore, in this study, the dearth of education institutions was determined for the one of the most deprived sub-regions of Pakistan, i.e. Badin. The data were collected through observations, questionnaire survey, and from secondary sources, like census report and other pertinent public sector documents. The outcome of this study can be taken as an input to develop policy plans, targeting the education accessibility issues of backward communities. This research could show a guiding-path to local planning agencies, as these can come-up with the policy plans to trounce the education accessibility issues from the bucolic sub-regions of developing countries

  2. Institutional framework of the Chinese power sector. Background and overview paper on the status quo and reforms of the Chinese power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, E.J.W.

    2001-10-01

    The Chinese power sector is currently undergoing significant structural changes. This report describes the current developments of the institutional framework of the Chinese power sector and the emerging Chinese electricity market. It is intended as a background information paper for foreign consultants and others that grapple with the complicated and fast changing structure of the Chinese power sector. The scope of this report is limited to grid-connected power. The paper starts with a brief introduction to the structure of the Chinese Government and then describes the main changes that have occurred in the Chinese power sector since 1978. Early power sector reforms consisted of decentralisation of decision making power to lower government levels, deregulation of investment and price control, and corporatization of the operational and business parts of the state electricity activities. The increasing inefficiencies of an ever more complicated and bureaucratic government, the non-transparency of policies, regulations and pricing, and the confused ownership and management structure of utility assets called for further reforms. In 1997 an episode of further institutional and market reforms was initiated aiming to achieve a fully competitive wholesale power market by 2010. The reforms started with the further separation of government and business functions that were previously combined in the same government units. Most notably the State Power Corporation (SP) was established while the former Ministry Of Electric Power (MOEP) was dissolved. The government responsibilities of MOEP were turned over to the State Economic and Trade Commission (SETC). Near-term power sector reforms will concentrate on consolidating network functions in State Power Corporation or its branches and subsidiary corporations, while separating generation from transmission and distribution activities. A competitive power generation market will be established based on the single buyer concept. The

  3. Ideas, actors and institutions: lessons from South Australian Health in All Policies on what encourages other sectors' involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Delany-Crowe, Toni; MacDougall, Colin; Lawless, Angela; van Eyk, Helen; Williams, Carmel

    2017-10-16

    This paper examines the extent to which actors from sectors other than health engaged with the South Australian Health in All Policies (HiAP) initiative, determines why they were prepared to do so and explains the mechanisms by which successful engagement happened. This examination applies theories of policy development and implementation. The paper draws on a five year study of the implementation of HiAP comprising document analysis, a log of key events, detailed interviews with 64 policy actors and two surveys of public servants. The findings are analysed within an institutional policy analysis framework and examine the extent to which ideas, institutional factors and actor agency influenced the willingness of actors from other sectors to work with Health sector staff under the HiAP initiative. In terms of ideas, there was wide acceptance of the role of social determinants in shaping health and the importance of action to promote health in all government agencies. The institutional environment was initially supportive, but support waned over the course of the study when the economy in South Australia became less buoyant and a health minister less supportive of health promotion took office. The existence of a HiAP Unit was very helpful for gaining support from other sectors. A new Public Health Act offered some promise of institutionalising the HiAP approach and ideas. The analysis concludes that a key factor was the operation of a supportive network of public servants who promoted HiAP, including some who were senior and influential. The South Australian case study demonstrates that despite institutional constraints and shifting political support within the health sector, HiAP gained traction in other sectors. The key factors that encouraged the commitment of others sectors to HiAP were the existence of a supportive, knowledgeable policy network, political support, institutionalisation of the ideas and approach, and balancing of the economic and social goals of

  4. Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES Exploratory Data & Analytic Services Private Sector Pilot Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schull

    2017-04-01

    ICES was able to work with private sector organizations without compromising the three principles. Based on the evaluation of the private sector pilot, and the findings from the focus groups, ICES will begin offering limited analytic services to private sector researchers beginning June 2016 under ICES’ existing corporate structure, and bring recommendations regarding ongoing operations to the ICES Board in June 2017.

  5. 76 FR 64250 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification and Private Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Simplification and Private Sector Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System... comment on several issues related to the methodology used for the Private Sector Adjustment Factor that is... Analyst (202) 452- 3674, Division of Monetary Affairs, or, for questions regarding the Private Sector...

  6. The Role of Trust as an Informal Institution in the Informal Sector in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-21

    Nov 21, 2014 ... on the informal sector focused on the towns and cities of Africa. Later, the ... The methodology used for this analysis follows a small-N case study .... informal sector plays a significant role in economic development by providing .... a requirement for collaboration and networking in the sector (Pedersen 2001).

  7. The role of institutions on the effectiveness of malaria treatment in the Ghanaian health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amporfu, Eugenia; Nonvignon, Justice

    2015-04-19

    The Ghanaian health sector has undertaken several policies to help improve the quality of care received by patients. This includes the construction of several health facilities, the increase in the training of health workers, especially nurses, and the introduction of incentive packages (such as salary increase) to motivate health workers. The important question is to what extent does the institutional arrangement between the health facilities and the government as well as between health workers and public health facility administration affect the quality of care? The objective of this study is to find the effect of institutional factors on the quality of care. The institutional factors examined were mainly the extent of decentralization between government and health facilities, as well as between health workers and facility administration, the hiring procedure, and job satisfaction. The study used primary data on former patients from sixty six health facilities in three administrative regions of Ghana: the Northern, the Ashanti and the Greater Accra regions. The quality indicator used was effectiveness of treatment as determined by the patient. Ordered logit regression was run for the indicator with patient and health facility characteristics as well as institutional factors as independent variables. The sample size was 2248. The results showed that the patient's level of formal education had a strong influence on the effectiveness of treatment. In addition, effectiveness of treatment differed according to the administrative region in which the facility was located, and according to the extent of decentralization between health facility and government. The quality of instruments used for treatment, the working conditions for health workers, and job satisfaction had no effect on the effectiveness of treatment. Decentralization, the flow of information from government to health facilities and from health facility administrators to health workers are important in

  8. [Job satisfaction vs. occupational stress - Quantitative analysis of 3 organizational units of a public sector institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozińska-Pawełczyk, Anna

    2018-05-22

    The influence of subjective perception of occupational stress and its individual factors on the overall level of job satisfaction was analyzed. The respondents were also asked to answer the question of the potential differences in terms of variables in managers and non-managers, and in various demographic factors. This article presents the results of a study conducted among 5930 people employed in 3 units of the examined public sector institution. The research was conducted using computer-assisted web interview method. The parameters of the polynomial model of ordered categories were estimated. The results showed a statistically significant effect between the variables and the differences between the groups of subjects. Analyzes showed slight differences between men and women. Employees with a low level of stress and high job satisfaction were noted in the oldest group, aged over 55 years, and in managers. Low levels of stress and job satisfaction were observed in young employees with the shortest period of employment. Among those least satisfied with the work and experiencing high levels of stress there were respondents with 6-15 years of employment in non-managerial positions. While the highest levels of stress and high satisfaction were found in people aged 46-55 years, with more than 20 years of work experience. The results of the estimation of the polynomial model parameters of ordered categories indicate that the level of perceived stress is related to the level of job satisfaction. The lower the level of stress and stressors in the workplace, the greater the job satisfaction in the surveyed unit. Med Pr 2018;69(3):301-315. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. Policies, Programmes and Institutions of Water Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krhoda, G.O

    2001-01-01

    Meaningful investment in the water sector can easily increase food production and productivity of human resources and thus stimulate economic growth, human and environmental health. The author indicates that, the Mar del Plata Action Plan (1977), the New Delhi Statement (1990), Dublin Statement (1991)and the Agenda 21 Chapter 18 of UNCED (1992) emphasise the urgent need for integrated, sustainable water resources management. The publication looks at the policy development in the water sector, the disparities in the allocation of water supplies in the urban and the rural areas, the importance of water in the development of the industrial sector and how to manage the demand for water in sub-Saharan Africa

  10. INSTITUTIONAL APPROACHES OF MODERN SOCIO-ECOLOGO-ECONOMIC FORMS OF ECONOMY IN AGRARIAN SECTOR OF ECONOMY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pimenova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Main problems of agrarian sector of economy of Ukraine are revealed. Main directions of development of agriculture of Ukraine are determined. The necessity of socio-ecologo-economic agrarian sector is proved. Tendencies of institutionalization of forms of economy in a system of agrarian relationship were investigated. The necessity of creation of effective system of institutions with an aim of functioning effective and rational forms of economy in agrarian sector of Ukraine, which could provide a balancing of economic, social and ecologic spheres, is confirmed. In the paper is proved the necessity of creation and function of social-ecologo-economic model of agriculture development, where a social-ecologo-economic development is characterized like economic development of rural territories, rural employment in agriculture, the efficiency of employment, ecologo-safe production focused on human needs and etc., on the one side and on the other side is a significant role of rural social capital. Based on the analysis of scientific literature, it's confirmed that development socio-ecologo-economical forms of economy are accompanied with modification of the institutional structure of regulation of agriculture. It's proved that the functioning of effective forms of economy promotes the competitiveness of the agricultural sector of the national economy.

  11. Private Sector Investments from Small States in Emerging Markets: Can International Financial Institutions Help Handle the Risks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Þór Hilmarsson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The private sector plays an important role in the economic reconstruction of emerging market economies, and international financial institutions (IFIs increasingly work in partnership with the private sector to increase economic growth and reduce poverty in those economies. IFIs, for example, offer: (i equity financing and/or loans for private sector projects, (ii investment guarantees against political risks (or non-commercial risks, (iii technical assistance, and (iv advisory services, etc. This article will briefly discuss the services that IFIs offer the private sector in emerging markets and cases in which these services could be useful for Icelandic companies. The institutions discussed are (i the World Bank Group, (ii the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD, (iii the Asian Development Bank (AsDB, (iv the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB, and (v the African Development Bank (AfDB. A few Icelandic firms already have plans for relatively large projects in emerging market economies, especially in the energy sector, some of them in countries that could be classified as being risky. The ongoing economic crisis in Iceland will make project financing in emerging markets more problematic than before and therefore investments in partnership with international financial institutions could be an option that Icelandic firms will increasingly need to consider if they intend to invest abroad. However, increased private sector and IFI partnerships will not happen without government action. Iceland is a member of only two of the above-mentioned IFIs: the World Bank Group and the EBRD. The decision for Iceland to become member of the AsDB, IDB and AfDB rests solely with the government. Further government inaction in this area could become an impediment for foreign direct investment from Iceland to emerging markets and increase risks when the Icelandic private sector invests in those economies. Unnecessary risks might not only hurt

  12. Analyzing Public Sector Education Facilities: A Step Further towards Accessible Basic Education Institutions in Destitute Subregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, Mir Aftab Hussain; Napiah, Madzlan; Chandio, Imtiaz Ahmed; Memon, Irfan Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Rural subregions of the developing countries are suffering from many physical and socioeconomic problems, including scarcity of basic education institutions. The shortage of education institutions extended distance between rural localities and education institutions. Hence, to curb this problem, this research is aimed to deal with the basic…

  13. Limits to the introduction of market institutions in a sector of income

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.; Finon, D.

    2003-01-01

    This article uses an empirical study to test the validity of the liberal approach of market transition. The example chosen is the reform (privatization) of the Russian hydrocarbons industry. This case has been chosen because it represents an extreme case of inadequateness of the measures preconized by the Washington consensus with respect to the institutional environment. It represents also a typical case of opportunistic adaptation of the behaviour of private and government actors to the rough enforcement of market institutions to a very specific institutional environment. The inadequateness of these institutions with the initial informal institutions has led to adaptations totally dependent of the institutional path with the necessity of preserving a minimum inter-industrial consistency. On the other hand, it seems that the uncertainty about the property rights in general is tightly correlated with the abundance of exploitable and exportable natural resources. (J.S.)

  14. Benchmark Analysis of Institutional University Autonomy Higher Education Sectors in Denmark, Lithuania, Romania, Scotland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Gulieva, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    This chapter consolidates the process and the findings from the four benchmark reports. It presents (i) the methodology and methods employed for data collection and data analysis; (ii) the comparative analysis of HE sectors and respective education systems in these countries; (iii) the executive ...

  15. Informational institutions in the agrifood sector: meta-information and meta-governance of environmental sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, L.; Brewster, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In the agrifood sector, the explosive increase in information about environmental sustainability, often in uncoordinated information systems, has created a new form of ignorance (‘meta-ignorance’) that diminishes the effectiveness of information on decision-makers. Flows of information are governed

  16. Expansion in the private sector provision of institutional delivery services and horizontal equity: evidence from Nepal and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, David R; Godha, Deepali; Do, Mai

    2014-07-01

    Wealth-related inequity in the use of maternal healthcare services continues to be a substantial problem in most low- and middle-income countries. One strategic approach to increase the use of appropriate maternal healthcare services is to encourage the expansion of the role of the private sector. However, critics of such an approach argue that increasing the role of the private sector will lead to increased inequity in the use of maternal healthcare services. This article explores this issue in two South Asian countries that have traditionally had high rates of maternal mortality-Nepal and Bangladesh. The study is based on multiple rounds of nationally representative household survey data collected in Nepal and Bangladesh from 1996 to 2011. The methodology involves estimating a concentration index for each survey to assess changes in wealth-related inequity in the use of institutional delivery assistance over time. The results of the study suggest that the expansion of private sector supply of institutional-based delivery services in Nepal and Bangladesh has not led to increased horizontal inequity. In fact, in both countries, inequity was shown to have decreased over the study period. The study findings also suggest that the provision of government delivery services to the poor protects against increased wealth-related inequity in service use. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  17. The role of the State Audit Institution in prevention of white-collar crime in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author points out to the important role of the Serbian State Audit Institution in prevention of corruptive practices, felonies and white-collar crime in the public sector in the Republic of Serbia. Although the activity of supreme state auditors is not primarily aimed at detecting criminal offences in the public sector, their efforts and results in this area are by no means insignificant. This is due to the fact that state auditors are well-trained to interpret and apply the legal provisions from the area of public finance, public procurements and accountancy, regulating the budget system of revenues and expenditures whose violation may constitute a criminal offence within the scope of white-collar crime. Considering the fact that it is an independent and autonomous state authority, the Serbian Supreme Audit Institution should play a very important role in reducing 'the dark figures of white-collar crime'. In many cases, the fear of crime detection as well as the fear of being punished are sufficient to exert the preventive effect on the potential perpetrators of white-collar crimes. However, we have to bear in mind that the prevention of corruption and other felonies which are qualified as white-collar crime calls for a joint effort of all state institutions and citizens alike. Another fact which is very important for improving the operative quality of the Supreme Audit Institution is its membership in the International Organisation of Supreme Audit Institutions and cooperation with the Supreme Audit Institutions in other countries.

  18. Industrial and institutional restructuring of the Russian electricity sector: Status and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engoian, Alda

    2006-01-01

    The reform of the Russian electricity industry represents one of the largest and most technically complex post-Soviet era industrial restructurings. This paper presents the framework, status, and perspectives for the Russian electricity sector liberalisation. Uncertainties regarding the effective implementation of the reform are specifically examined. Ultimately the critical analysis of the reform questions the feasibility and adequacy of the recommended measures in the specific Russian context. Current theories fail to answer a fundamental issue, namely how to promote investment in an obsolete electrical infrastructure and, more generally, whether a pure free market model is compatible with physical constraints posed by the electricity sector. A careless deregulation of the Russian electricity system could hinder the country's stable and sustainable development, as its economy and the population's service have traditionally been closely linked to the electricity industry

  19. Industrial and institutional restructuring of the Russian electricity sector: status and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engoian, A.

    2006-01-01

    The reform of the Russian electricity industry represents one of the largest and most technically complex post-Soviet era industrial restructurings. This paper presents the framework, status, and perspectives for the Russian electricity sector liberalisation. Uncertainties regarding the effective implementation of the reform are specifically examined. Ultimately the critical analysis of the reform questions the feasibility and adequacy of the recommended measures in the specific Russian context. Current theories fail to answer a fundamental issue, namely how to promote investment in an obsolete electrical infrastructure and, more generally, whether a pure free market model is compatible with physical constraints posed by the electricity sector. A careless deregulation of the Russian electricity system could hinder the country's stable and sustainable development, as its economy and the population's service have traditionally been closely linked to the electricity industry. (author)

  20. Mitigating high ‘equity capital’ risk exposure to ‘small cap’ sector in India: analysing ‘key factors of success’ for ‘Institutional Investors’ whilst Investing in small cap sector in India

    OpenAIRE

    Narang, Anish

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the subject of mitigating high ‘Equity Capital’ Risk Exposure to ‘Small Cap’ Sector in India. Institutional investors in India are prone to be risk averse when it comes to investing in the small cap sector in India as they find the companies risky and volatile. This paper will help analyse ‘Key Factors of success’ for ‘Institutional Investors’ whilst investing in Small Cap sector in India as some of these Indian small cap stocks offer handsome returns despite economic do...

  1. The failure of introducing market institution in a rent sector into an economy in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.; Finon, D.

    2003-07-01

    Privatisation is at the heart of the structural reforms for economies in transition. In theory, the main aim of privatisation is to change the structures of corporate governance in order to improve the efficiency of the enterprises and to assure their long-term future in a competitive environment. The adoption of formal market institutions would be sufficient to secure the new property rights, in particular because the new holders of the rights to control assets would have a great incentive to encourage the definition of new judicial rules that would guarantee their rights of ownership. In Russia that did not happen. The paper discusses the narrowed vision of institutional change, without consideration of the previous environment of formal and informal institutions, and the need to put together the institutional infrastructure that is needed for the market institutions to function. It offers explanations of the 'unexpected' results of the reforms in a capital-intensive natural resource industry, namely the hydrocarbons industry characterized by the opportunity of rent extraction by the exportation. It demonstrates right holders' interest for the weakness of the 'rule of law'. It demonstrates that the incompatibility of these institutions with the initial informal and formal institutions has led to adaptations that are strongly path-dependent, under the need to preserve a minimum of inter-industrial coherence. (authors)

  2. The role of institutions as actors influencing Uganda’s cassava sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Mutyaba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We aim at mapping out a detailed framework that reveals the proportionate flow of cassava and its products along the value chain (VC. Furthermore, we aim at establishing the role of institutions and the linkages between institutions and other VC actors that influence the cassava VC in Uganda. We use both primary and secondary data obtained from four regions in Uganda. Results show that farmers, processors, transporters, traders, consumers and institutions are the major actors. There are four categories of institutions, viz, government, non-government, community based organisations and international agencies. Roles performed by institutions include: development and enforcement of policies, Research and Development (R&D, capacity building, and creation of market access linkages for cassava and its products. Findings reveal that there is no clear nexus and no coordination among farmers/producers, processors, traders, transporters and consumers. However, institutions are well coordinated and play various roles along the VC to influence the dynamics of actors. Policy-wise it is important to establish strong private-public partnerships to bridge the impaired linkages between the actors (farmers/producers, processors, traders, transporters, and consumers and institutions. Strong partnerships are envisaged to reduce the associated transaction costs amongst the actors.

  3. The failure of introducing market institution in a rent sector into an economy in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C.; Finon, D

    2003-07-01

    Privatisation is at the heart of the structural reforms for economies in transition. In theory, the main aim of privatisation is to change the structures of corporate governance in order to improve the efficiency of the enterprises and to assure their long-term future in a competitive environment. The adoption of formal market institutions would be sufficient to secure the new property rights, in particular because the new holders of the rights to control assets would have a great incentive to encourage the definition of new judicial rules that would guarantee their rights of ownership. In Russia that did not happen. The paper discusses the narrowed vision of institutional change, without consideration of the previous environment of formal and informal institutions, and the need to put together the institutional infrastructure that is needed for the market institutions to function. It offers explanations of the 'unexpected' results of the reforms in a capital-intensive natural resource industry, namely the hydrocarbons industry characterized by the opportunity of rent extraction by the exportation. It demonstrates right holders' interest for the weakness of the 'rule of law'. It demonstrates that the incompatibility of these institutions with the initial informal and formal institutions has led to adaptations that are strongly path-dependent, under the need to preserve a minimum of inter-industrial coherence. (authors)

  4. Towards an analytical framework linking institutions and quality: theory and evidence from the Beninese Pineapple Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royer, A.; Bijman, J.

    2012-01-01

    Improving non-traditional agricultural product quality is challenging for smallholder farmers in developing countries since they often lack the resources and an adequate enabling institutional environment. Based on an extensive literature review, this paper develops an analytical framework

  5. Institutional Interplay in Natural Resources Governance: Toward a Sub-Sectoral Approach for Medicinal Plants Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Shahidullah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the significance of medicinal plants for rural livelihoods and primary healthcare, this paper attempted to analyze institutional interplays in medicinal plants management in Bangladesh. It assessed the governing process of natural resources by identifying cross-scale linkages of the institutions involved with managing medicinal plants. The study intended to delineate the interactional patterns and dynamics between existing formal and informal organizations toward exploring prospects of new medicinal plants governance institutions. Employing case study and participatory approaches to empirical field investigation, two intervention cases of the Livelihood and Agro-Forestry (LEAF and Sustainable Environmental Management Program (SEMP were assessed in two different social-ecological settings of the country. Involving 45 respondents in each site, Focus Group Discussions were carried out, and a total of 26 Key Informants were interviewed. The findings have revealed that undefined roles and responsibilities, inadequate coordination, and weak linkages among the cross-scale institutions resulted in ineffective management and relatively poor performance. Institutions with direct or indirect involvement in the process of managing medicinal plants interacted haphazardly, without much focus on the subsector and its local producers. Addressing the weaknesses, this study calls for formulating a national sub-sectoral approach focusing on strengthening and sustaining local producers and value addition to producer levels. Finally, this research offers a framework for developing a multi-stakeholder forum to govern medicinal plant resources coherently and effectively in Bangladesh.

  6. Subsidized health insurance coverage of people in the informal sector and vulnerable population groups: trends in institutional design in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcu, Ileana; Probst, Lilli; Dorjsuren, Bayarsaikhan; Mathauer, Inke

    2016-10-04

    Many low- and middle-income countries with a social health insurance system face challenges on their road towards universal health coverage (UHC), especially for people in the informal sector and vulnerable population groups or the informally employed. One way to address this is to subsidize their contributions through general government revenue transfers to the health insurance fund. This paper provides an overview of such health financing arrangements in Asian low- and middle-income countries. The purpose is to assess the institutional design features of government subsidized health insurance type arrangements for vulnerable and informally employed population groups and to explore how these features contribute to UHC progress. This regional study is based on a literature search to collect country information on the specific institutional design features of such subsidization arrangements and data related to UHC progress indicators, i.e. population coverage, financial protection and access to care. The institutional design analysis focuses on eligibility rules, targeting and enrolment procedures; financing arrangements; the pooling architecture; and benefit entitlements. Such financing arrangements currently exist in 8 countries with a total of 14 subsidization schemes. The most frequent groups covered are the poor, older persons and children. Membership in these arrangements is mostly mandatory as is full subsidization. An integrated pool for both the subsidized and the contributors exists in half of the countries, which is one of the most decisive features for equitable access and financial protection. Nonetheless, in most schemes, utilization rates of the subsidized are higher compared to the uninsured, but still lower compared to insured formal sector employees. Total population coverage rates, as well as a higher share of the subsidized in the total insured population are related with broader eligibility criteria. Overall, government subsidized health

  7. Expansion planning of brazilian electric sector: institutional changes, new policies and new instruments for planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajay, S.V.; Silva, W.A. da; Ricciulli, D.L.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Brazilian power supply industry has been in crisis for many years, particularly due to financial and institutional problems. There are many reasons for that, several of them from outside the industry. In this paper a diagnosis of the main elements of this crisis is worked out, in the context of the industry's expansion planning. Following, institutional changes, new policies and new instruments are proposed for this planning. The institutional setting, the demand studies, the demand side management, the supply optimisation, the rural electrification, the decentralized generation of electricity, the tariff structure, the ways of financing the industry, the technological advances, the social and environmental impacts and the integrated planning of the industry are discussed, together with the planning of the power supply industry interactions with the other energy supply industries and the rest of the economy. (author)

  8. The Institutions of «Green Economy» for Sustainable Development of Agrarian Sector: Theoretical Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodakivska Olga V.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the conceptual foundations and theoretical positions of the place and role of institutions in formation of the «green economy» in the context of implementation of the principles for sustainable development of agrarian sector. The article reflects the main scientific concepts that are directed to address the problems of environmentally oriented development, in particular the concepts of ecotopia, anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, biocentrism, and the concept of sustainable development. It has been found that the conceptual foundations for sustainable development include ecologization of economy, humanization of production, introducing a system of principled approaches to public affairs. The general provisions of formation of «green economy» have been characterized and its key principles have been provided. The role and value of institutions in the organizational provision of the sustainable development of agrarian sector, which, in the organizational-economic, coordinating and enabling aspects are the key driver for harmonization of the interaction of all participants in economic relations, have been substantiated.

  9. Nigeria : Financial Sector Review, Volume 3. Non-Bank Financial Institutions and Markets

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    This report is a comprehensive review of the Nigerian financial system, covering the following areas: i) macro-financial environment; ii) safety and soundness of the banking system; iii) banking supervision; iv) development finance institutions; v) community banks and commercial banks' rural operations; vi) insurance and pensions; vii) housing finance; viii) money and capital markets; and ...

  10. Institutional Quality, Trade Openness, and Financial Sector Development in Asia: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thai-ha; Kim, Jungsuk; Lee, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    We examine the determinants of financial development in Asia and the Pacific from 1995 to 2011. To do so, we apply the dynamic generalized method of moments to a panel data set of 26 economies in the region. We find that better governance and institutional quality foster financial development in developing economies while economic growth and trade openness are key determinants of financial depth in developed economies.

  11. Political Environments, Sector-Specific Configurations, and Strategic Devices: Understanding Institutional Reform in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Filgueira; Juan Andrés Moraes

    1999-01-01

    This paper argues for a multi-level explanatory model for understanding institutional reform. The expanding but still modest accumulation in the field tends to clump together different levels of efficient causes. Statements like “reform will be more likely in countries that have swiftly proceeded with macroeconomic reform and stabilization and have the legitimacy and power to push further reform” refer to general political conditions. The notion that reforms will be harder where costs are con...

  12. Market development study for active solar thermal systems in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Promising market opportunities for the sale of Active Solar Thermal Systems (ASTS) in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors of the Canadian economy were examined in an effort to identify the main factors for success and the barriers to development of the ASTS market. This report described some of the action plans which could help Natural Resources Canada and the industry to develop these markets. It was noted that a promising ASTS application should have a substantial market. Some of the promising applications for ASTS include air heating applications such as: (1) make-up air to an industrial facility, particularly one that requires a high rate of air flow or air layer destratification, such as in welding operations, paint shops or vehicle maintenance facilities, (2) ventilation to a high-walled commercial or institutional building that requires high air flow such as in schools, recreational facilities, multi-residential or retail buildings, and (3) slow drying applications for crops, lumber or other materials. Promising water heating applications include: (1) high volume low temperature rise applications such as in swimming pools, (2) domestic hot water to high density accommodations such as in hotels, multi-unit dwellings, college residences and military barracks, (3) domestic hot water to an isolated location such as campgrounds or lodges, and (4) process hot water used for water washing in industry, restaurants, farms and car washes. This study concluded that there are many opportunities for sales of ASTS to the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors, but combined efforts are needed by committed members of the community to take advantage of these opportunities. 15 refs., 11 tabs., 2 figs., 4 append.

  13. Economic and institutional dynamics of electricity markets deregulation: the interaction between sectoral regulation and antitrust policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanel, B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define regulatory intervention as a part of a global monitoring procedure allowing the definition and adaptation of market structures and rules, given the observed behavior of market participants. Nevertheless, the possible inefficiency in its (decisional) coordination with competition authorities implies further analysis. We thus adopt a comparative methodology based on the studying PJM and NETA wholesale markets. This analysis enables us to stress two possible 'models' in the distribution and coordination of monitoring powers. The first one privileges a strong 'informational coordination' between the sectoral regulator and the Transmission System Operator. By contrast, the second model is characterized by a constrained informational coordination, leading to a greater 'decisional convergence' between regulatory intervention and antitrust policy. Lastly, we put these conclusions into perspective with the specific issue of the achievement of an efficient and integrated European market for electricity. In particular, we stress the need for a single regulatory agency, which should be given autonomous decisional powers in the adoption of regional markets reform initiatives (author)

  14. Are new institutional economics enough? Promoting photovoltaics in India's agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulovic, Verena

    2005-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology can bring emissions-free electricity to rural areas without access to the grid. Currently, policymakers are seeking ways to expand markets for off-grid PV from solar home systems to productive uses in order to enhance income generation and contribute to social development. This paper explores the role of the state in promoting such market growth. As a start, the state must improve institutions, thus echoing popular recommendations based in new institutional economic theory (NIE) that are currently touted by the World Bank and other large development agencies. Yet, NIE's framework may be insufficient because it fails to offer viable solutions to overcoming political barriers that contribute to technological path dependency. A case study in Punjab, India, where an agricultural PV water pumping program showed promising signs of successful market penetration in its first 3 years of operation, illustrates how the NIE's shortcomings manifest themselves in practice. The program was beginning to penetrate market entry for PV pumps via competition between PV providers. However, the government of India achieved this feat by providing subsidies to wealthy farmers, a move that is frowned upon by the NIE school. Based on findings from the case study, states should look beyond NIE's framework to expand and improve PV markets in productive uses by accounting for political constraints, assessing how PV technology can improve development goals, and cultivating locally appropriate service delivery models

  15. The Institutional Arrangements in the Palm Oil Sector: Effort to Spur Economic Growth in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasdi Syahza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm Oil is a fantastic plant for the people of Riau Province. It can be seen from the rapid development of plantations, in 2001 palm oil plantations covered an area of 1,119,798 ha and in 2010 it increased to 1,925,341 ha with a growth of 36.02%. Palm oil plantation activities brought economic impact on society, both for the people who are directly involved with the activities of plantations and for their surrounding community. To anticipate the rapid development, a model avoiding inequality of income among farmers needs to be designed, especially for self-supporting farmers in a partnership pattern. Institutional model aims to increase the welfare of rural farmers in the form of Palm Oil Based Agroestate (ABK. The concept of Palm oil Based Agroestate collaborates between farmers, cooperatives, and business enterprises. Through the ABK program, farmers will have an opportunity to buy/have shares of the Palm oil Factory (PKS. There are two main business activities of ABK model; first, business activities that build palm oil plantations and factories of the derivative industry; if necessary the settlement of participaing farmers will be established by the developers; second, managing plantations and participating farmers-owned factories as well as market the products carried out by a business enterprise or a cooperative formed by the participant farmers.

  16. INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO EFFICIENT POLICY INTERVENTION IN THE EUROPEAN PORT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry UBBELS

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing role of private involvement in recent port developments, most maritime trade is still largely handled in ports where investments, pricing and other managerial decisions are, to a varying extent, dependent, or at least influenced by public bodies. This paper shows that the extent and type of public intervention differs considerably between ports in the Hamburg-Le Havre range. The wide variety in ownership, financing and management of ports throughout Europe indicates that there is no level playing field at present. Because ports operate in an increasingly competitive environment (intensified by globalisation trends and the completion of the internal market, this may lead to situations of unfair competition. The European Union emphasises the importance of a more harmonised approach of port regulation by national governments (in terms of financing and pricing of infrastructure. Given the differences in (national port management styles and the low levels of transparency, the creation of a level playing field in the European port industry seems far away. This suggests the presence of a major institutional difference in European transport policy that hampers efficient policy intervention.

  17. Private-sector Support of Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, M. T.; Christy, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    In fiscal year 2016, 66% of MIT's external research support came from federal sources. This percentage is the lowest since federal funding of university research initiated circa World War II. The percentage has dropped precipitously since the financial crisis of 2008 and the advent of sequestration, and the most optimistic scenario in the near future is flat to mildly increasing federal investments in research. Of the one-third of MIT's research supported by non-federal sources, 18% comes from industry, and the remainder comes from foundations, non-profits, and state and foreign governments. The overwhelming majority of non-federal support is for applied rather than basic research. Non-federal support of research in the geosciences comes from all these sources. In accepting research support from industry MIT must balance the desires of faculty and research staff to work in collaboration with companies of their choosing, with the essential need to set conditions that ensure independent scholarship. Participation in research projects is at the discretion of the Principal Investigator, and must be fully consistent with MIT's non-discrimination and open access policies. In all research agreements, MIT requires that faculty, students and research staff are able to freely present and publish results. While MIT's research partners help to identify research areas of mutual interest and may consult on research as it moves forward, MIT faculty members, researchers, post-doctoral scholars and students retain control over the design and management of their research projects at all times. The Institute also requires the identification and management of any conflicts of interest.

  18. A guide to the sources of energy use statistics for the industrial, commercial, agricultural and institutional sectors of the Canadian economy. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The intent of this report is to provide a detailed and comprehensive description of the current data available on energy consumption in selected sectors in Canada. These sectors are the industrial sector--mainly fishing/trapping, logging/forestry, mining, manufacturing, and construction--agriculture (including all types of farm operations and agricultural service industries) and the commerical/institutional sector (excluding government or public administration). Summaries of the sources of energy use information are presented according to source agency and individual energy commodity. Data bases are assessed according to the kinds of data collected, collection methods, availability, quality, coverage, format of presentation and units used, timeliness, and usefulness for analysis and forecasting. A separate section of the report discusses some of the problems with the data available, such as standardization of data codes, data gaps, lack of detail, and reconciliation of different data sources. 36 tabs.

  19. Institutional delivery in public and private sectors in South Asia: A comparative analysis of prospective data from four demographic surveillance sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Das (Sushmita); G. Alcock (Glyn); K. Azad (Kishwar); A. Kuddus (Abdul); A. Manandhar; B. Shrestha (Bhim); N. Nair (Nirmala); S. Rath (Santosh); N.S. More (Neena Shah); N. Saville (Naomi); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); D. Osrin (David)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Maternity care in South Asia is available in both public and private sectors. Using data from demographic surveillance sites in Bangladesh, Nepal and rural and urban India, we aimed to compare institutional delivery rates and public-private share. __Methods:__ We

  20. Fragmentation in the Public Administration for Climate Change Mitigation: A Major Institutional Constraint for Energy Policy in the Transportation Sector of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchaphong Klinsrisuk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how fragmentation in public administration has become a major institutional constraint on CO2 emission mitigation policies in Thailand, particularly for energy policy in the transportation sector. Most of our data are narratives and descriptions derived from in-depth interviews with various governmental agencies and academics. It was found that in practice, the environmental policy link between separated sectors continues to be weak because of the lack of appropriate institutional structure for integration. We conclude that the institutions tend to be independent, fragmented, and working on relatively narrow mandates. The closed decision-making processes and the organizational structures strongly bias the different administrative units towards their respective interests.

  1. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The policy paper is based on the World Bank Industry and Energy Department's ongoing policy and research work, which (1) examines experiences of industrial countries and the Bank's borrowers in developing their power sectors, (2) analyzes issues facing these sectors, and (3) describes options for dealing with these issues in developing countries. The paper is supported by a large body of research

  2. Employees' perceptions of the effectiveness and fairness of performance management in a South African public sector institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Makhubela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The implementation of performance management systems (PMSs and performance appraisals (PAs by public managers remains a challenge and necessitates an investigation into employees’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the PMS and the fairness of PA. Research purpose: This study investigated the association between employee involvement, performance-oriented culture, management commitment and the effectiveness of a PMS. Six factors that determine and influence employees’ perceptions of PA fairness were also investigated. Motivation for the study: Employees’ experiences of the implementation and practice of PMSs and PAs by public managers may differ from what is intended. The motivation for this study was to quantify employee perceptions of the effectiveness of a PMS and the fairness of PA to establish if there is a discrepancy between what is intended and how they are implemented and practiced. Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study conducted a census on a total population of 140 employees in a public sector institution. A questionnaire comprising three sections was used to collect data: Section A contained biographical questions, Section B comprised questions on the contextual factors that measure the perceived effectiveness of the PMS while Section C comprised questions related to the perceived fairness of PA. Main findings: The results show that employees perceive their PMS to be ineffective and their PAs to be unfair. The mean perception scores for PA fairness for the Assets and Facilities Department were significantly lower than those of the Human Resources Department. This is indicative of some deficiencies in the appraisal process in the Assets and Facilities Department. Respondents occupying general positions returned significantly lower mean scores for PA fairness compared to those in managerial and professional positions, which indicates serious shortcomings in their appraisal process. Practical

  3. An Investigation into Learning Organisation Maturity & The Integration of ICT into Teaching, Learning & Assessing In The Institute of Technology Sector In The Republic of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Pearse

    2008-01-01

    This study is set in an era of changing management styles, shifts in the role of the educator, increasing competition, evolving student cohorts and rapidly changing modes of delivery, in the presence of change drivers such as the ubiquity of computing systems, in higher education in the Institute of Technology (IOT) sector in Ireland. The study may be described as deductive (Bryman & Bell 2007) in its approach to the examination of the alignment of practice in integrating information and ...

  4. Limits to the introduction of market institutions in a sector of income; Les limites a l'introduction des institutions de marche dans un secteur de rente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C.; Finon, D. [Laboratoire d' Economie de la Production et de l' Integration Internationale, Departement Energie et Politiques de l' Environnement (LEPII/EPE), UPMF, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2003-07-01

    This article uses an empirical study to test the validity of the liberal approach of market transition. The example chosen is the reform (privatization) of the Russian hydrocarbons industry. This case has been chosen because it represents an extreme case of inadequateness of the measures preconized by the Washington consensus with respect to the institutional environment. It represents also a typical case of opportunistic adaptation of the behaviour of private and government actors to the rough enforcement of market institutions to a very specific institutional environment. The inadequateness of these institutions with the initial informal institutions has led to adaptations totally dependent of the institutional path with the necessity of preserving a minimum inter-industrial consistency. On the other hand, it seems that the uncertainty about the property rights in general is tightly correlated with the abundance of exploitable and exportable natural resources. (J.S.)

  5. Bank foundation – a symbiotic legal institution at the crossroad of banking system and non-profit sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena CATARGIU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the development and omnipresence, in Europe, of the non-profit sector and due to the diversification of the legal entities that are involved in the configuration of the third sector, an legal analysis of the foundation of banking origins, is very appealing. Throughout this study we aim to point out key moments in the evolution of this particular figure, mainly in the Italian legislation. Nevertheless, we intend to identify the legal nature of the foundation of banking origins in order to draw a line between banking and philanthropic activities.

  6. Managing the Tensions between Maintaining Academic Standards and the Commercial Imperative in a UK Private Sector Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Graham Simons

    2013-01-01

    In a changing landscape of higher education, universities have been moving towards a market-led approach to strategic management. This paper examines the case of a UK private sector education provider that gained degree-awarding powers following changes made in 2004 by the UK Government to the accreditation criteria for recognised degree-awarding…

  7. From sectoral systems of innovation to socio-technical systems: Insights about dynamics and change from sociology and institutional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, F.W.

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade ‘sectoral systems of innovation’ have emerged as a new approach in innovation studies. This article makes four contributions to the approach by addressing some open issues. The first contribution is to explicitly incorporate the user side in the analysis. Hence, the unit of

  8. The distributed generation in Mexico: Which are the new perspectives associated to the institutional reforms of the electrical sector?; La generacion distribuida en Mexico: Cuales son las nuevas perspectivas asociadas a las reformas institucionales del sector electrico?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas Samperio, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Menanteau, Philippe [Departamento de Economia y Politica de la Energia, Universidad Pierre Mendes France (France)

    2004-06-15

    Historically, the electrical systems were constituted from local networks of small scale that were added together progressively to benefit from the effects of a more abundant demand and of the economies of scale in generation, that authorize the large interconnected systems. This logic at the moment seems to show certain limits, the factors that influence these technologies can vary greatly from one country to another, but nevertheless it is found in different degrees certain constants such as the search for a greater reliability in the electrical supply, the putting into work prevention policies of climatic change or the reforms of the electrical sector. In this work the influence of these factors was examined insisting particularly on the consequences of the opening of the electrical sector, departing from an analysis of the international experience in a first time and later examining the case of Mexico in the context of the present energy situation and the debate of the energy reform. The distributed generation: a new vector of technological opportunities in the electrical sector, the barriers for the diffusion of the distributed generation: the lessons of the international experience, the institutional problematic of the distributed generation within the effective legal framework of Mexico. [Spanish] Historicamente, los sistemas electricos se constituyeron a partir de redes locales de pequena escala que se fueron agregando progresivamente para beneficiarse de los efectos de una demanda mas abundante y de las economias de escala en generacion que autorizan los grandes sistemas interconectados. Esta logica parece actualmente mostrar ciertos limites, los factores que influyen sobre estas tecnologias pueden variar grandemente de un pais al otro, pero se encuentra, sin embargo, a grados diferentes ciertas constantes tales como la busqueda de una confiabilidad mas grande en el aprovisionamiento electrico, la puesta en obra de politicas de prevencion de cambio

  9. Perceptions of climate change across the Canadian forest sector: The key factors of institutional and geographical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, John R.; Houle, Daniel; Messier, Christian; Gravel, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    Assessing the perception of key stakeholders within the forest sector is critical to evaluating their readiness to engage in adapting to climate change. Here, we report the results of the most comprehensive survey carried out in the Canadian forestry sector to date regarding perceptions of climate change. A total of 1158 individuals, representing a wide range of stakeholders across the five most important forestry provinces in Canada, were asked about climate change, its impact on forest ecosystems, and the suitability of current forest management for addressing future impacts. Overall, we found that respondents were more concerned about climate change than the general population. More than 90% of respondents agreed with the anthropogenic origins of climate change, and > 50% considered it a direct threat to their welfare. Political view was the main driver of general beliefs about the causes of climate change and its future consequences, while the province of origin proved to be the best predictor of perceived current impacts on forest ecosystems and its associated risks; and type of stakeholder was the main driver of perceived need for adaptation. Industrial stakeholders were the most skeptical about the anthropogenic cause(s) of climate change (18% disagreed with this statement, compared to an average of 8% in the other stakeholders), its impacts on forest ecosystems (28% for industry vs. 10% for other respondents), and the need for new management practices (18% vs. 7%). Although the degree of awareness and the willingness to implement adaptive practices were high even for the most skeptical groups, our study identified priority sectors or areas for action when designing awareness campaigns. We suggest that the design of a strategic framework for implementing climate adaptation within the Canadian forest sector should focus on the relationship between climate change and changes in disturbance regimes, and above all on the economic consequences of these changes

  10. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's Power On conference : the latest strategies to maximize opportunities in Ontario's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for reviewing strategies for Ontario's electricity sector with particular reference to electricity sector reform strategies and coal phase-out commitments. A supply adequacy outlook in terms of projected demand growth and generation mix and capacity was presented by the Independent Market Operator (IMO) along with issues concerning rising energy costs in various jurisdictions. Consumer adaptation to new pricing structures was discussed as well as generation investment needs to the year 2020. Government policies and commitments in the electricity sector were reviewed, as well as issues related to emissions and the impacts of air pollution. Renewable energy portfolios were also discussed along with issues concerning infrastructure adequacy. Imports of power and the expansion of transmission capabilities between Ontario and surrounding jurisdictions were reviewed and various opportunities from Manitoba were explored. Other topics of discussion included issues concerning pricing mechanisms; cost recovery; the development of effective buying strategies; and electricity purchasing for large energy consumers. The conference featured 23 presentations, of which 8 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  11. Institutional Interplay in Natural Resources Governance: Toward a Sub-Sectoral Approach for Medicinal Plants Management in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidullah, A.; Mohiuddin, Helal; Haque, C.

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the significance of medicinal plants for rural livelihoods and primary healthcare, this paper attempted to analyze institutional interplays in medicinal plants management in Bangladesh. It assessed the governing process of natural resources by identifying cross-scale linkages of the institutions involved with managing medicinal plants. The study intended to delineate the interactional patterns and dynamics between existing formal and informal organizations toward exploring prospec...

  12. Design of injection system for separated sector cyclotron proposed at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yasushige

    1980-01-01

    A beam injection system has been proposed for the separated-sector cyclotron (SSC) planned at the IPCR. In the central region of the SSC, a beam transported from a variable frequency linac or an AVF cyclotron is guided onto the first equilibrium orbit by means of three types of inflecting elements. These equipments consist of three bending magnets, a magnetic inflection channel and an electrostatic inflection channel. The latter two elements are placed between the magnetic poles of the sector magnets. The bending magnets are of a modified window-frame design with a pure iron yoke. The magnetic field distribution generated by these magnets was calculated and ascertained to have the satisfactory homogeniety. The magnetic inflection channel is composed of two sets of coils. One is used to accomplish an adequate field rise and the other to compensate for the main field fall which is brought about in the accelerating area by the former set of coils. With the aid of a computer code solving the Laplace equation, shapes of the anode and the cathode of the electrostatic inflector have been determined to produce a sufficiently uniform electric field. Finally, the present method of injection is concluded to be feasible for our SSC. (author)

  13. Danish and Norwegian hospital social workers’ cross-institutional work amidst inter-sectoral restructuring of health and social welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg Nielsen, Ulla; Harsløf, Ivan; Feiring, Marte

    2017-01-01

    , they report increasing difficulties in ‘making their way through’ the state-municipal bureaucracy. However, by drawing on the formal health knowledge derived from medical settings and the symbolic capital it bestows on them, they often manage to negotiate the work-and-welfare services, thereby transforming......-makers have instituted economic incentives to both individuals and the health and welfare organisations who handle them. Through an institutional logics approach, this paper explores how hospital social workers in these countries are experiencing these changes. The ‘social’ part of post-treatment care...

  14. The transboundary EIA convention in the context of private sector operations co-financed by an International Financial Institution: two case studies from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, Mehrdad M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies involving private sector, offshore, oil field developments in the Caspian Sea. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) of these operations indicated that major and unmitigated oil spills could potentially result in transboundary impacts. Both projects were co-financed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), an International Financial Institution (IFI). Project review and financing decision by the EBRD occurred when neither country hosting the projects was a Party to the 1991 Convention on EIA in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention). Discussions with government agencies during project review highlighted their limited institutional capacity to pursue transboundary notification and consultation activities. However, without being formal Parties or having clearly defined roles under the Convention, the combined presence of the EBRD, the private sector developer and its project needing financing became important drivers to promote the Espoo Convention. Surveying for similar IFI-project combinations in developing and transition economies could provide a 'bottom up' input to further optimise the Convention Secretariat's awareness raising, intervention design, and alliance-building strategies. The knowledge management model and user-friendly Web site of the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity highlight approaches that may also prove effective for the Espoo Convention

  15. The Worldwide Growth of Private Higher Education: Cross-National Patterns of Higher Education Institution Foundings by Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates cross-national patterns of public and private higher education institution (HEI) foundings from 1960 to 2006. It argues that in addition to national demographic and economic factors, patterns of HEI foundings also reflect world-level models about how nations should structure their higher education systems. Findings…

  16. Institutional Conflict of Interest: The Role of Interlocking Directorates in the Scientific Relationships between Universities and the Corporate Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Sheila; Thomas, Scott L.; Johnson, David R.; Barringer, Sondra N.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential for institutional conflict of interest between the 26 private universities belonging to the Association of American Universities and the corporations to which they are tied through their boards of trustees. We were interested in the degree to which interlocks may have tightened over three points across an 11-year period…

  17. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Clemson University. Sector: Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  18. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Medical University of South Carolina. Sector: Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  19. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Columbia. Sector: Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  20. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL ORDER’S EFFECT ON ECONOMIC SITUATION OF THE GERMAN SECTOR OF SPORTS ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur GRABOWSKI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article  shows legal order in which German sports (football enterprises exist. Due to the fact that German is the homeland of ordoliberalism and Walter Eucken was its leading representative we compare the principles of this legal order with the current situation in the sector of sports organization. Legal solutions that are applied, encourage the development of both professional football leagues where licensing procedure corresponds to the assumed objectives set out by the League Association. The following research methods were applied: a descriptive, historical and comparison analysis. Literature studies on the law relating to the operation of professional football leagues in Germany and the history of economic thought (in particular ordoliberalism were performed on German sources and legislation.

  1. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's 8. annual midstream 2005 conference : capitalize on change and opportunity in Canada's evolving midstream sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference provided a venue for Canada's midstream oil and gas sector to discuss strategies and options for capitalizing on changes within the industry. Members presented papers related to upcoming federal government climate change regulations and discussed methods of capitalizing on new processing fee guidelines. Strategies for managing market volatility were examined, and issues related to liquefied natural gas (LNG) were reviewed along with methods of optimizing gas processing capacity and negotiating processing fees. A natural gas liquids (NGL) pricing outlook was provided and risk management strategies for royalty and income trusts were discussed. Issues related to the safe and cost-effective abandonment of wells were also examined. The conference featured 17 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  2. Perceived needs of health tutors in rural and urban health training institutions in Ghana: Implications for health sector staff internal migration control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Beyere, Christopher B; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Mwini-Nyaledzigbor, Prudence P

    2017-01-01

    The population of Ghana is increasingly becoming urbanized with about 70% of the estimated 27 million people living in urban and peri-urban areas. Nonetheless, eight out of the ten regions in Ghana remain predominantly rural where only 32% of the national health sector workforce works. Moreover, the rural-urban disparities in the density of health tutors (staff responsible for pre-service training of health professionals) are enormous. This paper explores perceived needs of health tutors in rural and urban health training institutions in Ghana. This is a descriptive qualitative study conducted in the Greater Accra and Northern regions of Ghana. The Study used the deductive thematic and sub-thematic analysis approaches. Five health training institutions were randomly sampled, and 72 tutors engaged in separate focus group discussions with an average size of 14 participants per group in each training institution. Perceived rural-urban disparities among health tutors were found in the payment of extra duty allowances; school infrastructure including libraries and internet connectivity; staff accommodation; and opportunities for scholarships and higher education. Health tutors in rural areas generally expressed more frustration with these work conditions than those in urban areas. There is the need to initiate and sustain work incentives that promote motivation of rural health tutors to control ongoing rural-urban migration of qualified staff. It is recommended the following incentives be prioritized to promote retention of qualified health tutors in rural health training schools: payment of research, book and rural allowances; early promotion of rural staff; prioritizing rural tutors for scholarships, and introduction of national best health tutor awards.

  3. Historical overview of development policies and institutions in the Netherlands, in the context of private sector development and (productive) employment creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazimierczuk, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the Dutch development cooperation policies for the years 1949-2015 with particular attention for private sector development (PSD). Over the years, poverty alleviation, private sector development and security have been dominant focus areas of Dutch development cooperation, with PSD

  4. Sustainability in the Food Sector: Rethinking the Relationship between the Agro‐Food System and the Natural, Social, Economic and Institutional Environments - Selected papers, 119th Seminar of the EAAE ‐

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Cicia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in the Food Sector: Rethinking the Relationship between the Agro‐Food System and the Natural, Social, Economic and Institutional EnvironmentsSpecial issue with a selection of papers presented at the 119th Seminar of the European Association for Agricultural Economics (EAAE, Capri, Italy, June 30 - July 2, 2010Editors of the special issue:Gianni Cicia, University of Naples, ItalyMelanie Fritz, University of Bonn, Germany 

  5. How Should Public Administration Education Curriculum Within Indiana Higher Education Institutions Evolve to Reflect the Complex Homeland Security Issues Faced by Future Public Sector Employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Administration Research and Theory, 25–57. O’Leary, R. (2010). Traditions, ideas, spirits, event, challenge. Journal of Public Adminstration , 1–36. Purdue...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited HOW SHOULD PUBLIC ... PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYEES? by Bryant S. Lucas March 2012 Thesis Advisor: Christopher Bellavita Second Reader: Lauren Wollman THIS PAGE

  6. The interplay of institutions, actors and technologies in socio-technical systems - An analysis of transformations in the Australian urban water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuenfschilling, Lea; Truffer, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Literature on socio-technical transitions has primarily emphasized the co-determination of institutions and technologies. In this paper, we want to focus on how actors play a mediating role between these two pillars of a socio-technical system. By introducing the theoretical concept of institutional

  7. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  8. Analysis of institutional evolution of regulatory activity in the Brazilian electric sector: 1920-1997; Analise da evolucao institucional da atividade de regulacao no setor eletrico brasileiro: 1920-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Mauricio Lopes; Ferreira, Elnatan Chagas; Dias, Jose Antonio Siqueira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEMIC/FEEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Eletronica e Microeletronica], Email: siqueira@demic.fee.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    An analysis of the institutional evolution of the governmental organizations which were responsible for the regulation of the electrical energy sector in Brazil (before the establishment of the ANEEL) is presented . Taking into account the various levels of subordination and independence in their actuation, the different missions and powers given to these agencies regarding the inspection, controlling, planning and regulating the industry, are compared and discussed. The conducted analysis is essentially formal, based on the legal instruments which defined and established the creation of those agencies. (author)

  9. Perspectives for rural electrification in the new economic and institutional scenario of the brazilian electric sector; Perspectivas para a eletrificacao rural no novo cenario economico-institucional do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciana Correa de

    2001-03-15

    This thesis discusses the energy deficit in Brazilian rural areas, from the viewpoint of the ongoing reform, which is establishing a new economic and institutional model for the electric sector. The main objective of this inquiry is to reveal the perspectives for the solution of the rural energy problem, by means of a critical examination of the legal and executive initiatives related to the expansion of electric coverage, indicating the priority level of rural electrification within the reform. This analysis infers the need of an innovative reform approach, different from the solutions employed by developed countries, due to peculiar characteristics of the Brazilian case. (author)

  10. Distributed power production in Mexico and Argentina: what are the new perspectives linked with the institutional reforms of the electric power sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islas, J.; Menanteau, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the power systems are made from the progressive aggregation of small size local networks. Todays, this structure shows its limitations with an apparent exhausting of the gains linked with the size of production units, with the increasing difficulties to develop new transportation infrastructures, and with a fast performance improvement of the modular production technologies under the effect of the deregulation of the electric sector and of the policies of greenhouse gases abatement. Thus, it is not excluded that the distributed power production systems (i.e. gas and diesel engines, micro-turbines, small gas turbines and combined cycles, fuel cells, technologies using renewable energy sources) will play a more and more important role in the power supply, beside big production facilities. The factors influencing the development of these technologies can greatly change from one country to the other but some common established factors remain such as the search for a better reliability of supplies, the implementation of policies against climatic change or the deregulation of the electrical sector. The influence of these different factors are examined in this document which stresses more particularly on the consequences of the liberalization of network industries by using first, an analysis of the international experience, and then by examining the particular cases of Mexico and Argentina. (J.S.)

  11. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: The Institute of Economic Affairs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: The Institute of Economic Affairs, Ghana ... the Institute of Economic Affairs' (IEA-Ghana) role as a credible public policy ... public policy, facilitate private sector-led economic growth, and strengthen democracy.

  12. Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development Program (Namibia) ... (NEPRU's other clients include regional and private sector institutions.) ... New Dutch-Canadian funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network.

  13. Private sector data for performance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report examines and analyzes technical and institutional issues associated with the use of private sector travel time and speed data for public sector performance management. The primary data needs for congestion performance measures are outline...

  14. Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes, Accounting and Auditing : Module B - Institutional Framework for Corporate Financial Reporting, B.3 Financial Sector - Banking

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to gain an understanding of the financial reporting requirements for the banks in a jurisdiction in addition to or instead of the requirements for commercial enterprises in general. The term bank in this assessment is used to refer to institutions authorized to receive deposits and to lend money as defined by the legal framework in the jurisdiction. There are also ...

  15. The Capacity and Institution Building (CIB Working Group of United Cities and Local Governments: Towards Improving Aid Effectiveness in the Local Government Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kehoe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG Capacity and Institution Building (CIB Working Group gather together professional practitioners of local government associations (LGAs and individual local governments active in international cooperation, with the overall objective to improve the quality, coordination and alignment of their development cooperation interventions. The Working Group is the successor of the CIB Platform, which existed for many years within the former International Union of Local Authorities (IULA as an informal gathering of staff members of local government associations (LGAs involved in the field of municipal international cooperation (MIC and association capacity building (ACB. In addition to information exchange, the CIB Platform undertook specific initiatives such as a World Bank-funded program supporting ACB in several countries. In May 2004, the CIB was integrated into the structures of the newly-founded UCLG organisation, and its membership was expanded to also include staff members of international departments of cities active in international cooperation.

  16. Private Sector Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitonáková Renáta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.

  17. Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The industrial sector is categorized as related to among others, the provision of technical and engineering services, supply of products, testing and troubleshooting of parts, systems and industrial plants, quality control and assurance as well as manufacturing and processing. A total of 161 entities comprising 47 public agencies and 114 private companies were selected for the study in this sector. The majority of the public agencies, 87 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders were located in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  18. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  19. Changing Sucess Criteria for Public Sector Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm

    2008-01-01

    På grundlag af en national repræsentativ spørgeskemaundersøgelse vedrørende succeskriterierne for velfærdsstatens institutioner analyseres udviklingen i og indfrielsen af succeskriterierne. Der er tale om de succeskriterier, som det politisk-administrative system sætter op for velfærdsstatens ins...

  20. Energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of assessing the state of the environment in Lebanon, this chapter describes primary energy demand, the electricity generating sector and environmental impacts arising from the energy sector.Apart from hydropower and traditional energy sources, which together represent 1.7% of energy consumption, all energy in Lebanon derives from imported petroleum products and some coal.Tables present the imports of different petroleum products (Gasoil, Kerosene, fuel oil, coal etc...), their use, the energy balance and demand.Energy pricing and pricing policies, formal and informal electricity generations in Lebanon are described emphasized by tables. The main environmental impacts are briefly summarized. Thermal power stations give rise to emissions of Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), particulates, oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and CO/CO 2 from combustion of primary fuel informally generated power from both industry and domestic consumption produce particulate materials and emissions of NO x and SO 2 projected emissions of SO 2 from the power sector with the present generating capacity and with the new combined cycle power plants in operation are shown. Other environmental impacts are described. Recommendations for supply and environment policy are presented

  1. Energy. Sector 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report the results of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory for the year 1994. The following GHG are of interest in the energy sector: Carbon dioxide CO 2 , methane CH 4 , nitrous oxide N 2 O, oxides of nitrogen NO x , carbon monoxide CO, sulphur dioxide SO 2 and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The inventory has focused on the following GHG related sources: -Electricity generation through the electric utility. -Private generation of electricity -Manufacturing industries and construction -Transport: road, domestic aviation and national navigation -Energy use in the residential sector -Energy use in the commercial/institutional sector -Energy use in the agriculture/forestry/fishing sector The fuel types taken into consideration are:Gasoline, jet Kerosene, Kerosene for household use, gas oil, diesel oil, fuel oil, LPG, lubricating oil, coal, wood and charcoal (solid biomass). Care has been taken to eliminate the fuel used by international marine and aviation bunkers from the national inventory. The amount of GHG released to the atmosphere has been estimated using the IPCC methodology and emission factors .Where national emission factors differed from those of IPCC, the factors are discussed. Complete documentation of compiled information and data sources are attached to this article.Finally both the reference approach and analysis by source categories have been carried out and are reported in this inventory

  2. Synergies between veterinarians and para-professionals in the public and private sectors: organisational and institutional relationships that facilitate the process of privatising animal health services in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, J D

    2004-04-01

    and livestock products. An informal delivery system has gained a foothold in many developing countries in the absence of a well-planned strategy for the privatisation of animal health services. Most governments would now acknowledge that this presents a greater risk than the deployment of well-regulated and effectively supervised para-professionals. This paper explores some of the principal challenges facing policy-makers in their efforts to bridge the transition from full state provision of animal health services to the formation of a partnership with the private sector. Governments and donors need to take active steps to facilitate the process of privatisation of animal health services, especially those targeting the poorer rural subsistence and pastoralist farming systems. This would entail an initial investment in developing the necessary management skills at all levels in the delivery system. Thereafter, further investment would be required to allow the changes to be managed using tools such as the strategic planning cycle. Should sufficient resources be made available to allow the full participation of all stakeholders in the delivery of animal health services, appropriate institutions and effective organisational relationships addressing all the more important issues will have to be identified. The paper then proceeds to describe how different livestock production systems determine the level of demand for animal health services. If these services are to be provided on a financially sustainable basis, they must be tailored to meet actual rather than perceived demand. Identifying an appropriate model for animal health service delivery thus requires careful analysis of the production system to be targeted. Governments and donors can play a useful role in providing resources for this type of study as well as for appropriate market studies, business planning, training and access to soft loans. Finally, as regards regulation, as the law stands today, many activities

  3. Sectoral assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J M; Fenhann, J; Gorham, R; Makundi, W; Sathaye, J

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains five papers that were written as a part of the GEF project, The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations. The main goal of the project was to assess the greenhouse gas reductions and incremental costs of mitigation option sin Ecuador, Argentina, Senegal, Mauritius, Vietnam, Indonesia, Estonia and Hungary. In addition, regional studies were conducted for the Andean Pact nations and Southern Africa to assess various aspects of regional co-operation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The GEF study also involved the development of a methodological framework for climate change assessment, with a special emphasis on developing countries. These guidelines have been published in a separate document, Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations: Methodological Guidelines. The papers in this publication focus on various methodological and policy aspects of greenhouse gas mitigation at the sectoral level, and are outgrowth of work performed on other parts of the GEF project. (au)

  4. Scenarios for the South African Water Sector in 2025; Presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Water Sector by 2025: Results Water Sector by 2025: Stories Methodical approach Harmonisation of legislation Shared vision Institutional maturity Strong citizens’ voice Happy & prosperous people Noble intentions Out of touch with reality Can...

  5. Sectoral variation in consequences of intra-European labour migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    Intra-European labour migration has divergent labour market consequences across institutional settings and economic sectors. Some sectors experience increasing pressure on industrial relations and labour market segmentation while others do not experience such effects, and it remains unclear how...

  6. Institutional support for projects development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobar, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the institutional support to develop projects on renewable energy, also describes the different ways to obtain financial support from the public sector and the interaction among private sector, universities and non governmental agencies in training, research and generation of energy

  7. “Crossing over”: appropriate private sector principles, to operate more reliable public sector water services

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Wall

    2008-01-01

    Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC) of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), finds that the concept of franch...

  8. Higher Education--The Flexible Employment Sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill; Ridgley, Clare; Spurgeon, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Explored the extent to which policies and practices promoting work-life balance (family friendly policies) have been taken up within the English higher education sector. Responses from 50 higher education institutions show that flexible working practices are more widespread than the formal policies of institutions would suggest. (SLD)

  9. Regional Integration, Trade and Private Sector Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dr. Dirk Hansohm. Institution. Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit. Pays d' institution. Namibia. Site internet. http://www.nepru.org.na. Extrants. Rapports. Regional integration, trade and private sector development : final report. Contenus connexes. L'Initiative des conseils subventionnaires de la recherche scientifique ...

  10. THE FINANCIAL SECTOR IN THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM ECONOMY: THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Kovalenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad and narrow approaches of the financial system are obtained. The difference between the financial system and the financial sector (the fi-nancial corporations sector is shown. Organizational and institutional matrix of the financial system of the economy is proposed. Key positions of institutional sectors classification of Ukraine’s economy are analyzed, as well as the System of National Accounts with respect to the financial sec-tor of corporations. The structure of the sector of financial corporations in Ukraine is defined.

  11. Nigeria; Financial Sector Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Financial Sector Stability Assessment on Nigeria discusses the macroeconomic performance and structure of the financial system. Although Nigerian economy experienced both domestic and external shocks in recent years, the economy continued to grow rapidly, achieving more than 7 percent growth each year since 2009. The performance of financial institutions has begun to improve, though some of the emergency anti-crisis measures continue to be in place. However, the regulatory and supervisor...

  12. Canada; Financial Sector Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This report discusses key findings of the Financial Sector Stability Assessment on Canada. Canada’s financial system successfully navigated the global financial crisis, and stress tests suggest that major financial institutions would continue to be resilient to credit, liquidity, and contagion risks arising from a severe stress scenario. Elevated housing prices and high household debt remain an area of concern, though targeted prudential and macroprudential measures are proving to be effectiv...

  13. Iran’s Pharmaceutical Sectoral Innovation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Kargar Shahamat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By reviewing economic performance, two main phenomena could be identified: The first phenomenon is prior to the third wave of the Industrial Revolution in which limited resources are the predominant input; in other words, physical and natural resources are much more credited than human resources. The second phenomenon resonates with the third wave of industrial revolution to the present time, suggesting the pivotal role of humans in production and accumulation of wealth, in which limited resources are no longer considered as predominant input. The present research seeks to understand the behavioral logic of the players of Iran's pharmaceutical sector so as to infer the innovative treatment of the firms in this sector. The concept of innovative system is indebted to the efforts economists and other scientists have made by analyzing economic development based upon technological development. Meanwhile, sectoral innovation system (SIS is a tool for analyzing a technological sector in the context of evolutionary economics with an emphasis on institutional capabilities. The structure of such an approach is composed of some components through which performance analysis of certain technological sector could be made possible. In research, we use expert panel with 12 experts from Universities, Companies, Governmental institutes. The current study wishes to explain structural model of institutional elements in this technological sector. Subsequently, in light of such an explanation, structural elements of this sector would be analyzed through identification of legal and regulatory framework, innovative culture, innovative infrastructure, financial resources, information resources, technology transfer mechanisms, commercialization support and marketing.

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Institutional Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    GPOUP SUBGROUP Institutional Theory , Isomorphism, Administrative Difterpntiation, Diffusion of Change, Rational, Unit Of Analysis 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on... institutional theory may lead to better decision making and evaluation criteria on the part of managers in the non-profit sector. C. SCOPE This paper... institutional theory : I) Organizations evolving in environments with elabora- ted institutional rules create structure that conform to those rules. 2

  15. Indian power sector: achievements and failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen Gupta, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the growth of India's power sector over the last 50 years since independence, touching upon some developments that followed. It also highlights the power crisis that presently faces the nation, projecting into the next decade. The role played by the Indian Institute of Science in the development of India's power sector and is now playing to help mitigate the present and future shortages is briefly described. (author)

  16. Development of Agrotouristical Sector in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Elena CHIRTOC; Gabriela BUSAN

    2016-01-01

    The agrotouristical sector allows demand to space by engaging in recreational activities, sports and cultural entertainment, respond to the urban population growing interest towards the natural heritage and rural culture, having important implications in terms of economic and socio-political life of the Romanian village. The paper provides a brief analysis of the sector of agro-tourism in our country during 2000-2015, using the statistics presented by the National Institute of Statistics, to ...

  17. Financial sector support for small business development

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the relationships between the financial sector and small businesses, and the small business policy framework in South Africa. The study also measures the perception of the Business Chambers and Commercial Banks on the effectiveness of financial sector support to small businesses in the Gauteng area through a questionnaire. The Small Business Development Policy of 1996 outlines the functions of various small business support institutions such as Ntsika Enterprise Promotion A...

  18. INDIA: Gender Equality Diagnostic of Selected Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about persisting gender-based exclusion from the benefits of development have encouraged the Government of India and its partner institutions and donor agencies to mainstream gender in its policies, programs, and projects. This publication provides a gender analysis of six priority sectors—agriculture, energy, education, finance and public sector management, transport, and urban development—and suggests possible further actions to strengthen ADB approaches in these sectors. It is exp...

  19. Electricity sector integration in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Regional and global integration initiatives push for more electricity sector integration everywhere in the world, including West Africa. The creation of the West African Power Pool (WAPP) in 2000 and important investments under this new structure in 2006 are concrete actions that will result in a more integrated West African electricity sector. But will this integrated sector be more functional than the previous ones? Will the identified electricity sector problems be solved with the new power pool? This paper analyzes how power sector integration is presented by international institutions (the UN Economic Commission for Africa, World Energy Council and World Bank) and identifies three problematic issues with the current integration approach: lack of African ownership, unclear and conflicting reform objectives and uncertainty of integration outcomes

  20. Sector Information Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishing sectors were established in the Greater Atlantic region in 2010 under catch share management initiatives. Sector data kept at GARFO is mostly a collection of...

  1. Mobilizing the private sector. Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-tabor, L

    1993-12-01

    The national diarrheal disease control program has made progress against diarrheal illness in Indonesia, but diarrhea still accounts for 130,000 deaths of under-5 year olds annually. The potential of the private sector had been virtually untapped until the PRITECH Project designed and implemented a private sector based program to complement government efforts to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea. PRITECH wanted to motivate commercial firms to invest the capital necessary to commercialize oral rehydration salts (ORS) so that program self-sufficiency would be maximized over the long term without depending upon donor support. Sections describe the lack of commercial sector ORS promotion, supply and demand factors, raising interest in ORS, conditions for change, the potential market for ORS, demand, production capacity, previous collaborative efforts, areas for improvement, PRITECH's role as catalyst, coordination with commercial companies, marketing workshops, collaboration with the Indonesian Medical Association, the handwashing campaign, and program impact. Although the program has been in place for just 1 year, sales of ORS have increased along with the degree of sustainable collaboration among local institutions. The author stresses that for the model to be successfully replicated elsewhere, the government, medical and pediatric associations, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, groups which can promote oral rehydration therapy, and opinion leaders in the medical community must be involved. Finally, note is made that the image of ORS must be improved and that the work of the public and commercial sectors can be complementary.

  2. Communication in third sector organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Durán-Bravo, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Third sector organisations favour the social development due to their capacity to produce human and social capital in society (Putman, 2001. In order to achieve social welfare third sector organisations need to produce a positive change in the relations among individuals, groups and institutions in a society. The expectations about the third sector organisations’ transparency and capacity to tackle social problems are increasing worldwide. In Mexico, this problematic is more complex because there is a low level of professionalism, transparency, accountability and participation culture in the organized civil society (ITAM, 2010. The development of the organized civil society in Mexico will depend to a great extent on its capacity to communicate its values to society and achieve a cultural and social change. Therefore, the third sector organisations must adopt strategic initiatives to reinforce their credibility and reputation, because the public and private donors are increasingly more demanding in their criteria to grant resources to social projects; and because the Mexican society has a low participation level and faces increasingly more complex social problems.

  3. Corporate social responsibility in the context of institutional and organizational change in the Colombian financial sector Responsabilidad social corporativa en el contexto del cambio institucional y organizacional de la industria financiera en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Murillo Vargas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims first to review literature of different papers and authors about Corporate Social Responsibility in order to integrate the most representative viewpoints from the analysis’ diverse perspectives; second, to characterize how banking organizations in understand; and third, to describe the role that banks have in the Colombian society which is characterized by multiple social problems and where the financial sector, particularly the banking system, has been obtaining the most profits for several consecutive years.Una revisión bibliográfica de diferentes trabajos y autores sobre la responsabilidad socialcorporativa presenta las miradas más representativas desde las diferentes perspectivasde análisis. El artículo intenta determinar también lo que entienden por responsabilidadsocial las organizaciones bancarias en Colombia. Además, se describe el papel quecumplen los bancos en una sociedad como la colombiana, caracterizada por múltiplesproblemas sociales y donde el sector financiero, en particular el subsector bancario, hasido, durante varios años consecutivos, el exponente de las mayores utilidades en el país.

  4. Public Sector Expatriate Managers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenner, Charles, R., Jr.; Selmer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Although public sector expatriates are becoming increasingly common, research on them is very limited. There is reason to believe that the situation for expatriates from the public sector may be different than for those from the private sector. This study investigated U.S. Department of Defense a...

  5. Marketing activities of higher education institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Varađanin Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Public sector marketing is a modern-day scientific discipline which is getting more and more attention. Institutions of higher education provide a specific kind of services to their users, which makes these institutions a part of the public sector. Due to dynamic changes in the environment, the demands and needs of higher education institution's users change, which makes it necessary to monitor these changes through certain marketing activities and adjust to them in order to satisfy the users...

  6. Digitalization and Public Sector Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jannick; Hjelholt, Morten

    This book provides a study of governmental digitalization, an increasingly important area of policymaking within advanced capitalist states. It dives into a case study of digitalization efforts in Denmark, fusing a national policy study with local institutional analysis. Denmark is often framed....... Digitalization and Public Sector Transformations pushes for a renewed approach to governmental digitalization and will be of interest to scholars working in the intersections of critical political economy, state theory and policy studies....... as an international forerunner in terms of digitalizing its public sector and thus provides a particularly instructive setting for understanding this new political instrument. Advancing a cultural political economic approach, Schou and Hjelholt argue that digitalization is far from a quick technological fix. Instead...

  7. Medical and health care sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The medical and health care sector in general supplies products and provides services that can be categorized as diagnostic radiology, therapeutic application and nuclear medicine (both, diagnostic and/ or therapeutic). The institutions offer different categories of services. Some provide only one category of service, for example, diagnostic radiology. Others may provide more than one categories, for example, diagnostic nuclear medicine and therapeutic nuclear medicine services. A total of 90 entities comprising 65 public agencies and 34 private companies were selected in this study for this sector. The majority of the entities, 75.6 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders operate in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  8. Sectoral Innovation Watch Biotechnology Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzing, C.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology has evolved from a single set of technologies in the mid 1970s into a full grown technological field that is the driving force in innovation processes in many industrial sectors (pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture, food, chemical, environment, instruments). Nowadays, biotechnology is

  9. Sectoral Innovation Watch Food and Drinks Sector. Final Sector Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leis, M.; Gijsbers, G.; Zee, F. van der

    2011-01-01

    The food and drinks manufacturing industry is a diverse and complex sector. There are ample possibilities for performance improvement and innovation in the food and drinks industry as well as a variety of challenges ranging from a lack of financial and human resources, fragmented consumer interests

  10. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  11. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  12. The emerging fourth sector

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Sector is a new phenomenon related to dual social and financial value creation, until now not clearly defined with crisp sectoral boundaries and an operationalized definition. The phenomenon is getting increased attention in media, conferences, business schools and by organizations all over the world, and this study intends to explain the macroenvironmental changes that led to the rise of the fourth sector, describe new trends of social value creation in the private ...

  13. Practice Variation in Public Sector Internal Auditing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arena, Marika; Jeppesen, Kim Klarskov

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the rise of practice variations in public sector internal auditing (IA), giving special attention to the role of agents’ embeddedness in multiple institutional arrangements. IA's trends of development and the characteristics of the public sector context, in fact, make...... types of IA developed in three case settings, shaped by the agents’ embeddedness in different institutional fields. This article provides a more comprehensive approach to the study of IA adoption and development in public sector organizations than previous literature, and it highlights the relevance...... of the interplay between actors’ contemporary embeddedness in professional systems and the focal social system as a relevant source of practice variation. In this respect, the case of IA can contribute to previous studies of practice variation in the field of management accounting, shedding some light on the types...

  14. Croatian Energy Sector Reform - Results Achieved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nota, R.

    2001-01-01

    During the past ten years, the energy sector has passed through significant changes including fundamental market, economic, legislative and institutional aspects of sector operation. As the main goal of the Republic of Croatia is the integration into the European Union, the energy sector reform ought to be conducted in keeping with the present market development processes of the EU in such a way as to fulfil all safety criteria. In view of the above mentioned, the Croatian Parliament brought a number of laws during its session in July 2001 (''Official Gazette'' 68/01): 1. Energy Law 2. Energy Activities Regulation Law 3. Electricity Market Law 4. Gas Market Law 5. Oil and Oil Derivatives Market Law, which present the commencement of the energy sector reform (www.mingo.hr).(author)

  15. State budget transfers to Health Insurance Funds for universal health coverage: institutional design patterns and challenges of covering those outside the formal sector in Eastern European high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcu, Ileana; Mathauer, Inke

    2016-01-15

    Many countries from the European region, which moved from a government financed and provided health system to social health insurance, would have had the risk of moving away from universal health coverage if they had followed a "traditional" approach. The Eastern European high-income countries studied in this paper managed to avoid this potential pitfall by using state budget revenues to explicitly pay health insurance contributions on behalf of certain (vulnerable) population groups who have difficulties to pay these contributions themselves. The institutional design aspects of their government revenue transfer arrangements are analysed, as well as their impact on universal health coverage progress. This regional study is based on literature review and review of databases for the performance assessment. The analytical framework focuses on the following institutional design features: rules on eligibility for contribution exemption, financing and pooling arrangements, and purchasing arrangements and benefit package design. More commonalities than differences can be identified across countries: a broad range of groups eligible for exemption from payment of health insurance contributions, full state contributions on behalf of the exempted groups, mostly mandatory participation, integrated pools for both the exempted and contributors, and relatively comprehensive benefit packages. In terms of performance, all countries have high total population coverage rates, but there are still challenges regarding financial protection and access to and utilization of health care services, especially for low income people. Overall, government revenue transfer arrangements to exempt vulnerable groups from contributions are one option to progress towards universal health coverage.

  16. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  17. Behavioral economics and the public sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of four essays dealing with topics that are relevant for the public sector. The essays cover diverse issues of economics partly overlapping with political science. The topics reach from the taxation of labor over monetary policy to preferences over voting institutions.

  18. Construction sector development: frames and governance responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Gottlieb, Stefan C.; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2011-01-01

    institutional theory it is suggested that strategic framing activities aiming to conceptualize an industry as a sectoral object of development are likely to generate multiple and incommensurable representations with different and conflicting strategic implications. Second, if faced with a development agenda...

  19. Metrology considerations in a fast emerging new energy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2013-01-01

    The wind energy sector is emerging on the global energy scene as a fast new energy sector. In 2002 the globally installed wind energy capacity passed 32GW, corresponding to 0,4% of worlds electricity supply. The last five years the sector increased in installed capacity by 33% per year. A leading...... and loads, and measurements. Measurement institutes are organized in the MEASNET network and arrange regular conformity testing....

  20. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  1. Energy sector alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, Owen

    1998-09-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: A changing energy sector; Rationale for the joint venture, merger or acquisition; Mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures by sector; The joint venture process; Key factors for success; Financing the venture; Case studies; The future outlook. (Author)

  2. Bioindication in the limnological sector - the Austrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives a summary of activities in the field of biological indication on the limnological sector in Austria. For the different activity sectors which handle different questions, institutions and teams are introduced. Characteristic results are introduced exemplarily. During the establishment of an integrated system of moist areas on the Danube river island in Vienna, the 'Tritonwasser' was set up in 1989. (orig.) [de

  3. Is free knowledge transfer history in the energy sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zewald, H.

    2000-01-01

    The European power industry is gradually changing from a government-controlled sector of monopolists to an internationally privatized free sector. Companies that used to cooperate are now competing with one another. The question is: can the international knowledge transfer institutes escape from this competitive climate or will they fall victim to it?

  4. Involvement of the Private Security Sector in African Conflicts ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2006, the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) undertook a project entitled Regulation of the Private Security Sector in Africa that was supported by IDRC under project 103396. The project focused on the private security sector in South Africa, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda. The research reports were ...

  5. Modes of Governance in the Dutch Social Housing Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, P.H.M.; Bruil, J.; Dix, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: We describe and analyze five consecutive modes of governance in the Dutch social housing sector. We compare these institutional forms with the five policy values that the sector was assumed to realize. For that purpose we propose and use a new, analytical framework based on a separation

  6. Alternative Evaluation of the Agrarian Sector in Guatemala 10 Years ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alternative Evaluation of the Agrarian Sector in Guatemala 10 Years after the ... in research and advocacy for agrarian legislation ever since the adoption of the ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development.

  7. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  8. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  9. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  10. HSIP Correctional Institutions in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Jails and Prisons (Correctional Institutions). The Jails and Prisons sub-layer is part of the Emergency Law Enforcement Sector and the Critical Infrastructure...

  11. Reconfigurando as redes institucionais: relações interfirmas, trabalho e educação na industria de linha branca Redesigning Institutional Networks: Inter-Firm Relationship, Work and Education in the White Goods Industrial Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Gitahy

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a difusão de inovações tecnológicas e organizacionais na cadeia produtiva de linha branca a partir de pesquisa realizada em empresas localizadas na região de Campinas/SP no período 1996-1997. Discute-se como o processo de reestruturação produtiva provoca a reconfiguração das relações interfirmas e das relações entre empresas e diferentes instituições, especialmente do sistema educacional.This study analyses the diffusion of technological and organizational innovations within the white goods commodity chain based on a survey of firms close to around the city of Campinas/SP during the period 1996-1997. It attempts to verify whether the reestructuring process affects inter-firm relations and the relations between the firms and different institutions, specially those related to the educational system.

  12. Torus sector handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A remote handling system is proposed for moving a torus sector of the accelerator from under the cryostat to a point where it can be handled by a crane and for the reverse process for a new sector. Equipment recommendations are presented, as well as possible alignment schemes. Some general comments about future remote-handling methods and the present capabilities of existing systems will also be included. The specific task to be addressed is the removal and replacement of a 425 to 450 ton torus sector. This requires a horizontal movement of approx. 10 m from a normal operating position to a point where its further transport can be accomplished by more conventional means (crane or floor transporter). The same horizontal movement is required for reinstallation, but a positional tolerance of 2 cm is required to allow reasonable fit-up for the vacuum seal from the radial frames to the torus sector. Since the sectors are not only heavy but rather tall and narrow, the transport system must provide a safe, stable, and repeatable method fo sector movement. This limited study indicates that the LAMPF-based method of transporting torus sectors offers a proven method of moving heavy items. In addition, the present state of the art in remote equipment is adequate for FED maintenance

  13. Institutional entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Institutional entrepreneurship pays specific attention to the process and outcomes of agents who are willing and capable of changing institutions. It has some common ground with the political entrepreneur, a concept that proposes change in norms and institutions because of commitment and activities...... of agents or organisations in the policy arena. The present chapter understands institutional entrepreneurship as the process of changing institutionalised practices. Based on a literature review, it describes the triggers, activities and potential effects of institutional entrepreneurs. The chapter...... concludes by tentatively arguing that political entrepreneurs can be institutional entrepreneurs, but institutional entrepreneurship can be considered as the broader concept that incorporates strategies and visions as well as interpretative-discursive power into the conceptual framework....

  14. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i......) significant and positive in the tradable and the nontradable sectors, and (ii) equally strong in both sectors. The article thus provides no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in developing countries. A possible reason for this finding is the existence of large idle...

  15. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  16. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  17. Bioresource Sector of the Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Evgenyevna Antonova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the development of the Far Eastern bioresource sector in 2006–2015 and its components: fishing industry, forestry and agriculture. It is shown that renewable bioresources, which form the foundation of the bioresource sector, are now becoming the limiting factor of that sector’s further extensive development which necessitates a transition to new ways and technologies of extracting and processing resources. The article attempts to identify and estimate the bioresource sector’s contribution to the economy of the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD as a statistical unit through aggregating main macroeconomic indicators (gross added value, monetary value of exports, investments, number of employed, and tax revenue of its three components. The conclusion is that during the studied period the bioresource sector’s contribution to the economy of the FEFD has decreased mainly due to the factors of tax revenues and gross added value. The sector’s importance as source of employment in remote areas had also declined. At the same time the bioresource sector continues to significantly contribute to exports, mainly thanks to the fishing industry and agriculture. It is shown that the dominant role in the bioresource sector belongs to the fishing industry which increased its contribution to the bioresource sector and showed the most stable development compared to other components. The article studies changes in institutional conditions in all three components, their influence on the development of investments of the bioresource sector

  18. Development of Agrotouristical Sector in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Elena CHIRTOC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The agrotouristical sector allows demand to space by engaging in recreational activities, sports and cultural entertainment, respond to the urban population growing interest towards the natural heritage and rural culture, having important implications in terms of economic and socio-political life of the Romanian village. The paper provides a brief analysis of the sector of agro-tourism in our country during 2000-2015, using the statistics presented by the National Institute of Statistics, to the eight regions level, namely: North West, Central, North East, South East, South-Muntenia, Bucharest-Ilfov, South West and West Oltenia.

  19. Corruption, Trust and their Public Sector Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Scott A.; Serritzlew, Søren; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Corruption and trust are two important determinants of the quality of public sectors. Empirical studies in different literatures suggest that corruption and trust have effects on factors such as economic growth, the quality of democratic institutions, life quality, the size and effectiveness....... The aim is to show that these two concepts are highly relevant to each other, and that their interconnections are important to understand the public sector consequences of corruption and trust. By focusing on these concepts, we hope that this special issue can pave the road for further comparative...

  20. El sector productivo The productive sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarna Santolaria

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento del sector servicios en detrimento del sector primario, la flexibilidad del mercado laboral y la progresiva incorporación de la mujer a dicho mercado son los cambios más destacados del sector productivo español en los últimos 25 años. Las mujeres en España presentan tasas de desempleo, trabajo temporal y a tiempo parcial mucho mayores que los hombres. Además, las condiciones de acceso al mercado de trabajo y las condiciones en las que éste se desempeña están también muy relacionadas con la clase social. Las mujeres cubren la escasez de servicios públicos destinados al cuidado de las criaturas pequeñas y de las personas mayores o dependientes, y realizan una labor de cuidadoras informales sin reconocimiento social, lo cual les impide el acceso a un puesto de trabajo o su mantenimiento y limita de forma decisiva las posibilidades de desarrollo y progreso profesional. Todo ello indica una clara diferencia con respecto a los hombres en cuanto a la frecuencia de contratos temporales y de tiempo parcial, así como en la segregación laboral, tanto horizontal como vertical. Estos aspectos de segregación son más evidentes en las mujeres de clases sociales menos privilegiadas, en las que se concentran las peores condiciones de acceso al mercado laboral y de trabajo. En España es imprescindible llevar a cabo políticas que ofrezcan servicios que permitan compatibilizar la vida laboral y familiar en condiciones de mayor equidad, tanto en razón de género como de clase social.In the last 25 years, the production sector in Spain has undergone important changes. Among these changes, the important growth of the services sector at the expense of the primary sector, the increasing flexibility of the labour market, and the rise in the female workforce could be considered as the most relevant ones. Spanish women have higher rates of unemployment, temporary jobs and part time contracts than Spanish men. Moreover, job access and work

  1. Sectoral Innovation Watch electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors

  2. The Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The energy sector in Italy, as in Europe and in many other areas of the world, is undergoing rapid and profound changes. The 1986 ratification of the European Single Act was intended to create a European internal market, where circulation of people, capital, goods, and services would reach the highest possible liberalization. In 1988, in the document The Energy Internal Market, the European Union (EU) commission stressed the need for creation of an internal energy market--free of obstacles--to increase security of supply, to reduce costs, and to strengthen the competitiveness of the European economic system. In 1990, the Community Council adopted directives to implement the EU energy sector. This article describes Italy's role as part of the EU energy sector. It covers the following topics: the Italian energy sector; electricity vs gas transportation; project finance; recent developments advance Italian power industry; specifying powerplant components -- Italian stype; buyers' guide to Italian equipment, services

  3. Cross-sector Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz Jessen, Søren; Linnet, Andreas; Tscherning, Rasmus Wiinstedt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this handbook is to help improve your opportunities for getting started on innovative and business development projects that reach beyond your own sector, commonly known as ’Cross-sector innovation’, or ’Cross innovation’ for short. We believe that there is a need for an easily read...... innovation handbook that can reach out to all sectors and potential partners whose point of departure, language use and understanding of customers is often very different to that of businesses. These differences constitute a resource for business development. If exploited they can lead to new ways of doing...... things and help us breakaway from the lull of the modes of expression and methods ‘customarily’ employed in business development. The handbook focuses on the interaction of “traditional’ businesses and sectors that belong to those known as the creative and the experience industries, i.e. designers...

  4. and the Energy Sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's harsh economic situation in 2016 has led major industries to look inwards to resolve supply deficits occasioned ... In the electricity sector, however, the influx of imported electrical .... Engineering Infrastructure in a 2014 address.

  5. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  6. Public Sector Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Leixnering, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    New public management-inspired reforms created numerous autonomous units with many different faces and labels. This variety of organizations and organizational forms precludes a straightforward definition of what constitutes a public sector organization and blurs the boundaries between the public...... and private sectors as well as the boundaries of single organizations. In addition, the complexity of the interlocking arrangements and relationships in this public organizational landscape has resulted in considerable governance problems with serious implications for coordination and policy coherence....

  7. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  8. Performance measurement in transport sector analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Išoraitė

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the following issues: 1. Performance measurement in literature. The performance measurement has an important role to play in the efficient and effective management of organizations. Kaplan and Johnson highlighted the failure of the financial measures to reflect changes in the competitive circumstances and strategies of modern organizations. Many authors have focused attention on how organizations can design more appropriate measurement systems. Based on literature, consultancy experience and action research, numerous processes have been developed that organizations can follow in order to design and implement systems. Many frameworks have been proposed that support these processes. The objective of such frameworks is to help organizations define a set of measures that reflect their objectives and assess their performance appropriately. 2. Transport sector performance and its impacts measuring. The purpose of transport measurement is to identify opportunities enhancing transport performance. Successful transport sector management requires a system to analyze its efficiency and effectiveness as well as plan interventions if transport sector performance needs improvement. Transport impacts must be measurable and monitorable so that the person responsible for the project intervention can decide when and how to influence them. Performance indicators provide a means to measure and monitor impacts. These indicators essentially reflect quantitative and qualitative aspects of impacts at given time and places. 3. Transport sector output and input. Transport sector inputs are the resources required to deliver transport sector outputs. Transport sector inputs are typically: human resources, particularly skilled resources (including specialists consulting inputs; technology processes such as equipment and work; and finance, both public and private. 4. Transport sector policy and institutional framework; 5. Cause – effect linkages; 6

  9. Assessing the impact of structural changes in the financial sector on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    institution relationship by means of a Financial Social Accounting Matrix multipliers model for the case of Algeria. Our purpose is to understand the role of structural institutional changes implemented in the financial sector and their contribution to ...

  10. 'Where is the public health sector?' Public and private sector healthcare provision in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Ayesha; Diwan, Vinod

    2007-12-01

    This paper aims to empirically demonstrate the size and composition of the private health care sector in one of India's largest provinces, Madhya Pradesh. It is based on a field survey of all health care providers in Madhya Pradesh (60.4 million in 52,117 villages and 394 towns). Seventy-five percent of the population is rural and 37% live below poverty line. This survey was done as part of the development of a health management information system. The distribution of health care providers in the province with regard to sector of work (public/private), rural-urban location, qualification, commercial orientation and institutional set-up are described. Of the 24,807 qualified doctors mapped in the survey, 18,757 (75.6%) work in the private sector. Fifteen thousand one hundred forty-two (80%) of these private physicians work in urban areas. The 72.1% (67793) of all qualified paramedical staff work in the private sector, mostly in rural areas. The paper empirically demonstrates the dominant heterogeneous private health sector and the overall the disparity in healthcare provision in rural and urban areas. It argues for a new role for the public health sector, one of constructive oversight over the entire health sector (public and private) balanced with direct provision of services where necessary. It emphasizes the need to build strong public private partnerships to ensure equitable access to healthcare for all.

  11. Trust and Control in Public Sector Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallentin, Steen; Thygesen, Niels Thyge

    2017-01-01

    to a substitution view when it comes to accounting for public sector reform as structure and process. Also, we propose a widening of the theoretical lens in the form of an emergent view of how trust and control, instead of being beforehand determinable and more or less stable identities, emerge in multiple......This paper provides an analysis of trust-based management reform in the Danish public sector from the point of view of the trust–control nexus. Based on a qualitative case study of home care in the municipality of Copenhagen we argue that a complementary view of trust and control is superior...... and singular ways from multiple events in the organisation. Noticing a dearth of research that explicitly addresses trust issues with regard to public sector management and organisation, the paper is a response to the call for more studies of trust as an institutionally embedded phenomenon....

  12. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  13. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....

  14. Marketization trajectories in the Danish road and park sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Hansen, Morten Balle; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2016-01-01

    sector involvement, the purpose of using private contractors, the extent of competition and the design of contractual arrangements. The road sector has been a frontrunner in this marketization process, while the park sector increasingly has been “catching up.” Originality/value – The paper contributes......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of the evolution of marketization in the public sector as a process of institutional change. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a study of marketization and gradual changes in the involvement of private contractors...... as new survey data. Findings – Marketization within the road and park sectors has historically taken place through gradual changes, in particular by processes of layering and displacement, which has added up to substantial transformations in both sectors. Transformations relate to the levels of private...

  15. Marketization trajectories in the Danish road and park sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Hansen, Morten Balle; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2016-01-01

    (as providers of maintenance services) in the municipal road and park sectors in Denmark over the past 30 years. The study draws theoretically on historical institutionalism as an interpretive framework and empirically on findings from earlier research, register data from municipal accounts as well...... as new survey data. Findings – Marketization within the road and park sectors has historically taken place through gradual changes, in particular by processes of layering and displacement, which has added up to substantial transformations in both sectors. Transformations relate to the levels of private...... sector involvement, the purpose of using private contractors, the extent of competition and the design of contractual arrangements. The road sector has been a frontrunner in this marketization process, while the park sector increasingly has been “catching up.” Originality/value – The paper contributes...

  16. Waste management. Sector 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The waste management section of this report deals with two sectors: land disposal of solid waste and wastewater treatment. It provides background information on the type of emissions that contribute to the greenhouse gases from these two sectors, presents both sector current status in Lebanon, describes the methodology followed to estimate the corresponding emissions, and presents the results obtained regarding greenhouse emissions. The total methane emissions from solid waste disposal on land are 42.804 Gg approximately. There are no emissions from wastewater and industrial handling systems because, for the target year 1994, there was no treatment facilities in Lebanon. The wastewater (municipal, commercial and industrial) was directly discharged into the sea, rivers, ravines or septic tanks which indicate that methane or nitrous oxide emissions are significant if not nonexistent. Note that this situation will change in the future as treatment plants are being constructed around the country and are expected to come into operation by the year 2000

  17. AGENCY PROBLEMS IN PUBLIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Attila

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Agency theory analyses the effects of contractual behaviour between two parties: principal(s and agent(s. This relation is inevitably characterized by information asymmetry because agent holds a substantially larger volume of information than the principal. Due the negative effects of information asymmetry for the principal, this should cover supplementary costs with monitoring agents and/or grant incentives. The first objective of this paper is to emphasize the effects of information asymmetry, particularly on adverse selection and moral hazard. The second objective is to evaluate the negative effects of information asymmetry and to assess the viability of solutions proposed by scholars for mitigation. The third objective is linked with personal contribution, respectively to highlight specificity of agency theory in public sector and the mechanisms of action in this particular field. In this paper, literature is mainly based on scholars’ contribution to the proposed theme. Little literature approaches agency theory in public sector, in most cases the analysis being restricted to general issues. Research methodology is based on synthesizing relevant information from literature and adapting them to public sector particularities. The results reflect some threats for public bodies in their contracting activity. Conclusions present also a set of solutions which could be used by public institutions to optimize their activity of mitigating information asymmetry’s effects. These solution guidelines could represent a useful instrument for make more efficient public money spending. Personal contribution and the novelty of this paper consist in presenting a new approach regarding mechanisms of managing information by agents. In case of public institutions, principals have more opportunities the take possession over the information managed by the agent. Nevertheless, agents can limit the principal’s access

  18. Institutional actorhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt

    In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts...... to comply with the Danish work environment regulation. And by doing so I also describe how institutional complexity and organizational responses to this complexity are particular important for the changing modes of governance that characterizes contemporary welfare states....

  19. Strategic Planning in Ireland's Institutes of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Larry; Rainnie, Al

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses upon Ireland's institute of technology sector, which has been transformed from a 1970s technical orientation to its broader current role of research and higher education provision. The transformational shifts experienced by institutes over the previous three decades have been profound: increased autonomy, new managerial and…

  20. Sectoral Systems and Innovation and Technology Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Malerba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo usa o conceito de sistema setorial de inovações que permite a utilização de uma visão multidimensional integrada e dinâmica da inovação em seus setores. Sistemas setoriais apresentam três dimensões que afetam tanto a geração e adoção de novas tecnologias quanto a organização da inovação e produção nos seguintes níveis setoriais: conhecimento, atores e redes e instituições. O artigo discute o escopo conceitual dos sistemas setoriais, apresenta cinco análises de setores principais e examina suas tendências principais, seus desafios e suas transformações. O artigo também oferece uma análise sobre implicações políticas públicas e sugestões do ponto de vista do sistema setorial de inovações.This paper uses the concept of sectoral system of innovation which aims to provide a multidimensional, integrated and dynamic view of innovation in sectors. Sectoral systems have three dimensions that affect the generation and adoption of new technologies and the organization of innovation and production at the sectoral level: knowledge (and the related boundaries, actors and networks, and institutions. The paper discusses the conceptual framework of sectoral systems, presents five main sectoral systems and examines their major trends, challenges and transformation. The paper then examines which are the main policy implications and indications in a sectoral system perspective.

  1. Trade and Sectoral Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Fadinger, Harald; Fleiss, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Even though differences in sectoral total factor productivity are at the heart of Ricardian trade theory and many models of growth and development, very little is known about their size and their form. In this paper we try to fill this gap by using a Hybrid-Ricardo-Heckscher-Ohlin trade model and bilateral sectoral trade data to overcome the data problem that has limited previous studies, which have used input and output data to back out productivities, to a small number of OECD economies. We...

  2. Sectoral Market Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper first reviews proposals for the design of sectoral and related market mechanisms currently debated, both in the UNFCCC negotiations, and in different domestic legislative contexts. Secondly, it addresses the possible principles and technical requirements that Parties may wish to consider as the foundations for further elaboration of the mechanisms. The third issue explored herein is domestic implementation of sectoral market mechanisms by host countries, incentives to move to new market mechanisms, as well as how the transition between current and future mechanisms could be managed.

  3. Experimental Spaces and Institutional Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartel, Melodie; Boxenbaum, Eva

    and procedures that connect the prototype to the organizational field, hence increasing the likelihood of institutional innovation. We develop a process model of institutional institutionalization that, through temporal interactions between distancing work and anchoring work, enables the generation......This paper examines processes involved in designing experimental spaces for institutional innovation. Through a qualitative, process-oriented analysis of an experimental space related to the institutional innovation of carbon markets in Europe, we show how key actors in the European electricity...... sector deliberately designed an experimental space and engaged a range of stakeholders in experimenting incognito with a carbon market model. A mirror image of their prototype later appeared as European policy. Our findings show that the key actors engaged in two forms of institutional work, distancing...

  4. Institutional Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among...... institutional investors in two Scandinavian countries with diminutive legal and cultural distance in general. Research Findings/Insights: Using data on shareholder proposals from Danish and Swedish annual general meetings from 2006 throughout 2010, we find that institutional investors are approximately....../Policy Implications: Regulators should be aware of the impact by local governance mechanisms, and how shareholders react under different legal and practical prerequisites. The paper also highlights legal elements that differ between Denmark and Sweden, and which might affect institutional activism....

  5. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  6. Institutional Assessment

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many approaches can and have helped research institutions in the developing .... There are many good texts on project and program evaluation, not to ...... has challenged managers and students of organizational development for decades.

  7. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of...) instituted investigation No. 332-523, U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update. DATES... concluded negotiations to modify the FTA, including certain provisions relating to the passenger vehicle...

  8. Stereosat: A proposed private sector/government joint venture in remote sensing from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Stereosat, a free flying Sun synchronous satellite whose purpose is to obtain worldwide cloud-free stereoscopic images of the Earth's land masses, is proposed as a joint private sector/government venture. A number of potential organization models are identified. The legal, economic, and institutional issues which could impact the continuum of potential joint private sector/government institutional structures are examined.

  9. Sector ring accelerator ''RESATRON''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, E.

    1980-01-01

    Project of sector ring accelerator RESATRON is described. The curiosity of this accelerator is the second cycle of acceleration of the beam after stripping it on the foil. In such an accelerator heavy ions with a different ratio Z to A can be accelerated. (S.B.)

  10. [The productive sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, Encarna; Fernández, Alberto; Daponte, Antonio; Aguilera, I

    2004-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the production sector in Spain has undergone important changes. Among these changes, the important growth of the services sector at the expense of the primary sector, the increasing flexibility of the labour market, and the rise in the female workforce could be considered as the most relevant ones. Spanish women have higher rates of unemployment, temporary jobs and part time contracts than Spanish men. Moreover, job access and work conditions are highly related to gender and social class. Because women are forced to compensate for the scarcity of social services for caring for young children and for dependent elderly, they become informal and socially unrecognised caregivers, preventing them from getting or holding a job, and significantly limiting their opportunities for professional development. These social conditions are closely related with the fact that work conditions for women involve higher temporality rates and shorter contracts than those of men, given the sectors and jobs in which they tend to work (due to segregation). Similarly, workers of the less privileged social classes have poorer work conditions. Thus, women of the lower income class are mainly suffering the worst job contracts and the poorest work conditions. More social services are needed to make it possible to attend to family needs and still be able to access and maintain a job contract. Policies tending to conciliate labour and family life are indispensable and should incorporate measures to equally distribute the house keeping activities between women and men.

  11. Ingerop - Nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As regards the nuclear sector, Ingerop has acquired along the decades extensive experience in designing and calculating complex structures for nuclear facilities. Since 2002, Ingerop focused on more system- and process-oriented projects in this field. Nowadays, Ingerop offers integrated services based on its sound know-how, top-notch expertise and insight into the management of nuclear projects, for both revamping and new build activities. Ingerop has made the development of the energy sector one of its top priorities in particular for the nuclear sector along with NucAdvisor, the first French engineering practice specialising in civil nuclear power. NucAdvisor's main mission is to assist governments or their representatives in developing their nuclear programs offering expertise and consulting services on specific topics like siting, licensing and operation of nuclear power plants, as well as decommissioning and dismantling and radioactive waste management. In January 2016, a new subsidiary has been created - INGEROP Contracting - which provides a global EPC/turnkey offer covering all fields of energy and industry. Its goal is to deliver projects from the design up to the commissioning, while taking a clear commitment on the overall cost and schedule. This brochure presents the Ingerop Company, its offer of services and main fields of intervention, its IT tools for 3D modeling and design, its activities and main references in the nuclear sector

  12. Financial Sector Assessment : Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) provides a summary of the policy priorities, and main findings intended to assist the Moroccan authorities in evaluating the country's financial system. It reviews the uneasy trade-off between concerns for stability, and development, suggesting Morocco's macroeconomic policies and practices as a whole tend to err more on the side of the concerns of pr...

  13. Financial Sector Assessment : Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Monetary Fund

    2017-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank mission visited Rabat and Casablanca in 2015, to assess the soundness and resilience of the banking system, the state of play in financial inclusion and infrastructure, the oversight frameworks for banking, capital markets and financial market infrastructures, crisis preparedness, and update the findings of the Financial Sector Assessme...

  14. Financial Sector Assessment : Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank team conducted an assessment of Turkey's financial system in connection with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) through missions in April, August-September 2006 and March, 2007. This report provides a summary of the main findings of the assessment and the policy priorities identified. The main objective of the FSAP is to assist the...

  15. Sector profile: Petroleum sector in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The Cuban oil industry started in 1860 when an oil well was drilled in Matanzas province. About 200 wells were drilled up until 1959. In the past 30 years, the oil industry has become a priority sector; in 1985-1990, about US$500 million were invested in the industry, with increases in exploration and well drilling activity. Recently completed works include pipelines and a supertanker terminal. About 10 million tons of oil are imported annually and local production averages about 800,000 metric tons per year. Most of the oil found in Cuba so far is of the heavy type, as found in western Canada. There are about 10 small and medium-sized oil deposits, mainly located in the north. The most promising oil field is at Varadero, whose characteristics are similar to the Cold Lake field in Alberta. Cuban oil refining capacity is over 7.6 million metric tons per year, and additional capacity is being constructed. All imports of oil industry equipment are conducted via state trading agencies. Export opportunities of interest to Canadian companies are outlined, along with monetary constraints affecting imports to Cuba, financing and export insurance programs available to Canadian companies, and recommendations to Canadian exporters. A list of industry/government contacts is included

  16. Institutional Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva

    Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified...... in consciousness to emerge and argue for how the varying levels of mindfulness in the form of internal and external awareness may manifest as distinct responses to the institutional environment the actor is embedded in....

  17. Commercial and institutional consumption of energy survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This paper presented the results of a survey on 2004 energy consumption data for commercial and institutional establishments in Canada. The objective of the survey was to enable Natural Resources Canada to develop programs to support institutions seeking to gain greater energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Data were published by energy source and region. Energy intensity data were presented by region amongst the following commercial and institutional sectors: retail trade including food and non-food; education including colleges and universities; health care including non-hospital health care and hospitals; and accommodation and food services. Data obtained on each establishment's energy consumption and floor area were used to calculate their energy intensity ratio which included accounting for weather conditions, age of buildings and energy sources. It was observed that commercial and institutional establishments consumed nearly 945 million gigajoules in 2004. The wholesale trade and warehousing sector used the highest amount of energy, accounting for 17 per cent of all commercial and institutional energy use. The education sector accounted for 16 per cent of energy use, while the office sector accounted for 14 per cent. The energy intensity rate of hospitals in Canada was the highest of all sectors and subsectors, due to their nearly constant use of lighting and medical equipment. Retail trade accounted for the largest share of establishments at 26 per cent of all establishments, followed by offices with 22 per cent. Education accounted for the largest percentage of floor area. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  18. Public sector innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the value dimension of public innovation in the light of practitioners’ values and asks why there seems to be a clash between innovation imperatives and workplace practices in the public sector. The paper contributes to the research on public innovation from a practice...... perspective by providing evidence from an ethnographic field study on innovation in social and health care studies in Denmark. These studies are part of the vocational education and training (VET) system, which combines coursework at a college and internship in the elder care sector. The study is thus cross...... initiate innovations grounded in their values. The main point put forward is that the value dimension of public innovation must be understood not only in terms of value creation (economic or non-economic), which frontline practitioners are required to contribute to, but also as value-based practices...

  19. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  20. Institution Morphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  1. Modes of Governance in the Dutch Social Housing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ruys, P.H.M.; Bruil, J.; Dix, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: We describe and analyze five consecutive modes of governance in the Dutch social housing sector. We compare these institutional forms with the five policy values that the sector was assumed to realize. For that purpose we propose and use a new, analytical framework based on a separation principle that is applied to the coercion domain (the governance of transactions) as well as to the interaction domain (the welfare values). The consecutive modes of governance were introduced to cop...

  2. Effectiveness of Regulatory Structure in the Power Sector of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Afia Malik

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to study the regulatory environment in the electricity sector of Pakistan. NEPRA, a regulatory authority was formed in 1997 to protect consumer interests in the area of electricity provision, and to ensure an efficient and competitive environment for the electricity generators and distributors, but it has so far not been able to achieve anything. The power sector (dominated by WAPDA and KESC) is still affected by institutional and organisational weaknesses, with ineff...

  3. ICT AND WEB TECHNOLOGY BASED INNOVATIONS IN EDUCATION SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamdhere SANGEETA NAMDEV,

    2012-01-01

    ICT made real magic and drastic changes in all service sectors along with higher education and library practices and services. The academic environment is changing from formal education to distance and online learning mode because of ICT. Web technology and mobile technology has made great impact on education sector. The role of Open Access, institutional repositories, opens archives and e-publishing trends indicates the shift towards new way of communication on an increasing scale in the stu...

  4. Sector retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Woerkom, Craig; Ferrucci, Steven

    2005-05-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is one of the most common hereditary retinal dystrophies and causes of visual impairment affecting all age groups. The reported incidence varies, but is considered to be between 1 in 3,000 to 1 in 7,000. Sector retinitis pigmentosa is an atypical form of RP that is characterized by regionalized areas of bone spicule pigmentation, usually in the inferior quadrants of the retina. A 57-year-old Hispanic man with a history of previously diagnosed retinitis pigmentosa came to the clinic with a longstanding symptom of decreased vision at night. Bone spicule pigmentation was found in the nasal and inferior quadrants in each eye. He demonstrated superior and temporal visual-field loss corresponding to the areas of the affected retina. Clinical measurements of visual-field loss, best-corrected visual acuity, and ophthalmoscopic appearance have remained stable during the five years the patient has been followed. Sector retinitis pigmentosa is an atypical form of RP that is characterized by bilateral pigmentary retinopathy, usually isolated to the inferior quadrants. The remainder of the retina appears clinically normal, although studies have found functional abnormalities in these areas as well. Sector RP is generally considered a stationary to slowly progressive disease, with subnormal electro-retinogram findings and visual-field defects corresponding to the involved retinal sectors. Management of RP is very difficult because there are no proven methods of treatment. Studies have shown 15,000 IU of vitamin A palmitate per day may slow the progression, though this result is controversial. Low vision rehabilitation, long wavelength pass filters, and pedigree counseling remain the mainstay of management.

  5. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  6. Coupling of Hidden Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Królikowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A hypothetic Hidden Sector of the Universe, consisting of sterile fer\\-mions (``sterinos'') and sterile mediating bosons (``sterons'') of mass dimension 1 (not 2!) --- the last described by an antisymmetric tensor field --- requires to exist also a scalar isovector and scalar isoscalar in order to be able to construct electroweak invariant coupling (before spontaneously breaking its symmetry). The introduced scalar isoscalar might be a resonant source for the diphoton excess of 750 GeV, sugge...

  7. Single sector supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1999-01-01

    We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses

  8. Overview of contractual savings institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Vittas, Dimitri; Skully, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Contractual savings institutions include national provident funds, life insurance companies, private pension funds, and funded social pension insurance systems. They have long-term liabilities and stable cash flows and are therefore ideal providers of term finance, not only to government and industry, but also to municipal authorities and the housing sector. Except for Singapore, Malaysia, and a few other countries, most developing countries have small and insignificant contractual savings in...

  9. Composite Dark Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a new paradigm in Composite Dark Sectors, where the full Standard Model (including the Higgs boson) is extended with a strongly-interacting composite sector with global symmetry group G spontaneously broken to H is contained in G. We show that, under well-motivated conditions, the lightest neutral pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons are natural dark matter candidates for they are protected by a parity symmetry not even broken in the electroweak phase. These models are characterized by only two free parameters, namely the typical coupling g D and the scale f D of the composite sector, and are therefore very predictive. We consider in detail two minimal scenarios, SU(3)/[SU(2) x U(1)] and [SU(2) 2 x U(1)]/[SU(2) x U(1)], which provide a dynamical realization of the Inert Doublet and Triplet models, respectively. We show that the radiatively-induced potential can be computed in a five-dimensional description with modified boundary conditions with respect to Composite Higgs models. Finally, the dark matter candidates are shown to be compatible, in a large region of the parameter space, with current bounds from dark matter searches as well as electroweak and collider constraints on new resonances.

  10. Textile sector:a study of the effects of the commercial openingon the Brazilian textile sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vilela Marquezini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of commercial opening occurred in 1990 during the Collor’s govern­ment made the transformation industry get into a restructuring process. The ob­jective of this paper is to present the effects of the commercial opening of the textile sector during the period of 1993-2004 and main strategies adopted for the enterprises. The study was based on interview of the executives and institutions related to the textile sector. After ten years, the commercial opening is considered positive to the improvement of the productive structure of the sector. Besides the reduction on tariffs and the devaluation of the exchange rate in 1999, was pointed of the responsible factors of the adjusting process.

  11. [Managment in nursing and the administration of third sector organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthes, Rosa Maria; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm

    2006-01-01

    In this article of bibliographical revision it was aimed at verifying the evolution of the third sector and the relations between nursing management in that organizations. It is observed a growing of this sector in health area, bringing a market anplification in the work of the nurse. Thus, it is considered the need for warning the nurses to be prepared for the management in these organizations, seeking for development in hospital management. Third sector is being valued as a form of social promotion in the health, education, social assistance and others segments, congregating individuals and institutions in a participative form.

  12. Institutional barriers for building integrated PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierlo, B. van

    2000-01-01

    Being an alternative for fossil fuels photovoltaics have to overcome traditional structures, procedures, cultures and values. As a new building material photovoltaics also have to deal with the structure and culture of the building sector. In this paper the institutional bottlenecks for the introduction of PV on a large scale are explored in five areas: financing, administration, structure of energy sector, architecture, communication and marketing. Nevertheless, on the whole the developments are encouraging. (author)

  13. Private sector participation in power sector in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, V.

    1992-01-01

    The Indian Government is currently thinking of allowing private sector to participate in power sector inviting private sector to generate electricity mainly from coal. The main motivation is resource mobilization from private sector, since the Plan funds are diverted to rural development away from power sector; and yet the massive expansion has to be financed. The paper analyzes the inherent difficulties and contradictions in the Government's proposal, such as co-existence of high cost private power and low cost public power, the potential goal-conflicts of private and public utilities and the constraints in raising finance. It suggests a different model in order to make the privatization proposition feasible. 12 refs

  14. [Organization and technology in the catering sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinarelli, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The catering industry is a service characterized by a contract between customer and supplier. In institutional catering industry, the customer is represented by public administration; in private catering industry, the customer is represented by privates. The annual catering trades size is about 6.74 billions of euros, equally distributed between health sector (hospitals, nursing homes), school sector and business sector (ivorkplace food service), with the participation of nearly 1.200 firms and 70.000 workers. Major services include off-premises catering (food prepared away from the location where it's served) and on-premises catering (meals prepared and served at the same place). Several tools and machineries are used during both warehousing and food refrigerating operations, and during preparation, cooking, packaging and transport of meals. In this sector, injuries, rarely resulting serious or deadly, show a downward trend in the last years. On the contrary, the number of occupational diseases shows an upward trend. About the near future, the firms should become global outsourcer, able to provide other services as cleaning, transport and maintenance. In addition, they should invest in innovation: from tools and machineries technology to work organization; from factory lay-out to safely and health in the workplaces.

  15. PUBLIC SECTOR CONCEPTUALIZATION OF ECONOMY IN SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC AND THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hirnyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines trends shaping the problem of "public sector". The research shows the history of the formation of the concept of "social economy", its relationship with the basic principles of theoretical economic analysis and development. The paper investigates process of establishing the structure of the phenomenon of the public sector and its interaction with the challenges of the modern world and the global economy. The article deals with the role of the public sector in the production of public goods. The researchers evaluated the effect of its scale in indicators of social, economic and i institutional development. The study singled out performance criteria for public sector institutions and analyzed changes of vectors public choice in terms of globalization changes. It was revealed the impact of global institutional transformation and structural reforms in the public sector, in-depth conceptual basis of improving the efficiency of public sector functions.

  16. Higgs Portal into Hidden Sectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Several attractive theoretical ideas suggest the existence of one or more 'hidden sectors' consisting of standard model singlet fields, some of which may not be too heavy. There is a profound reason to think that the Higgs sector might provide the first access to these hidden sectors. This scenario could affect Higgs phenomenology in drastic ways.

  17. Perceptions of the Third Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Brink Lund, A.

    2014-01-01

    How do citizens in Europe view third sector organizations? How can differences in perceptions of the third sector among citizens in Europe be explained? And how is the third sector assessed therein with regard to its contribution to social innovation? Based on the limited scope of the evidence

  18. Institutional obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, S.S.; Berwager, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The institutional obligation is to act to meet primary responsibilities in the face of risks. There are risks involved in taking action, both of a quantifiable and unquantifiable nature. This paper explores weighing the risks, choosing approaches that balance primary obligations with broader ones, and presenting ethical philosophies upon which policies and strategies are based. Federal government organizations and utilities--and Bonneville Power Administration qualifies as both--have a variety of responsibilities to the public they serve. The common responsibility is that of service; for Bonneville the primary responsibility is to serve the energy related needs. It is this primary institutional obligation, as it relates to other responsibilities--and the resulting strategy for handling indoor air quality in Bonneville's new homes program--that this paper examines

  19. Institutional framework changes in Brazil's energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Almeida, E.; Queiroz Pinto JR, H.

    2009-01-01

    The liberalization of the Brazilian energy sector in the 1990's was meant to drastically reduce the role of the State in the sector. This reform has not had the desired results. Private investment could not guarantee the expansion of the Brazilian energy sector at the necessary speed. The first half of this decade has been marked by problems of electricity supply and a rather timid role of private investment in boosting energy supply. During the second half of the decade, liberal reform of the energy sector in Brazil has gone through major adjustments, marked by the search for a new compromise between the role of the State and the private sector. This paper highlights the institutional evolution of Brazil's energy or industries and tries to show how risk for public and private investment has been reduced by the adoption of new institutional and economic mechanisms of coordination. In the current institutional framework, the State plays an important role in coordinating the investment process for the expansion of supply. The pace of investment in Brazil in the energy sector has accelerated significantly after the adoption of the new coordination mechanisms. (authors)

  20. Medios y sectores populares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasco Fernando Checa Montúfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El CIESPAL desarrolló un estudio sobre los usos y preferencias de los medios de información y de los mensajes en algunos sectores populares del Ecuador. La mayoría de los campesinos escuchan la radio pero aman la televisión. El Comercio de Quito y el Universo de Guayaquil son los diarios preferidos. En Quito se leen menos periódicos que en Guayaquil y las redes comunitarias funcionan muy bien en la costa del país.

  1. The Informal Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Áureo de Paula; José A. Scheinkman

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of informal economic activity. We present two equilibrium models of informality and test their implications using a survey of 48,000+ small firms in Brazil. We define informality as tax avoidance; firms in the informal sector avoid tax payments but suffer other limitations. In the first model there is a single industry and informal firms face a higher cost of capital and a limitation on size. As a result informal firms are smaller and have a lower capi...

  2. Private Sector Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    New and independent donors are adding their own twist to the experiences of receiving ODA and their examples are already inspiring the DAC, UN, and other multiple- and bilateral aid relationships. Rather than competition among development paradigms, I see negotiations of ideas of development and ...... and a co-existence of a multiplicity of approaches. I will argue that a trend of new and old actors inspiring each other will continue and the explicit focus on private sector development is just a first outcome....

  3. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been...... shaped by the development, research, and teaching that we have carried out at the Wave Energy Research Group at Aalborg University over the past decades. It is our belief and experience that it would be useful writing and compiling such a handbook in order to enhance the understanding of the sector...

  4. [Materials for construction sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, C

    2012-01-01

    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  5. Optimization in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the energy transition and the developments in the national and international Energy markets constantly require sound analysis and new answers. The symposium ''optimization in the energy sector'' gives an overview of methods and models that can be practically used for decision support. Storage and electromobility as demand flexibility are important factors for the long-term design of the German and European energy system. But methodological aspects such as the consideration of uncertainties at the conference an important place is given. A key issue is also the short and medium term further development of the electricity market design. Not only broadly but also in detail e.g. the standard benefit and intraday markets there is considerable potential for optimization, which will be discussed in the context of technical presentations. And in view of challenging market environment is also new approaches to portfolio management a great importance for the practice. Therefore we are convinced that the Conference and its results for energy companies, public services and new entrants in the energy industry as well are of interest as for consultants, authorities, associations and energy economic research institutes. [de

  6. Institutional ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    The study of M&As is dominated by positivist and functionalist world views and the use of quantitative methods. Although extant research also uses qualitative and mixed methods, it can be criticized for viewing its subject matter through an abstract and external lens. The researcher is placed in ......, and point to some of the problems in M&A studies identified through this lens. Finally, we argue why institutional ethnography, in comparison with other methods of inquiry, is particularly fruitful in the study of mergers and acquisitions....

  7. Cross-sectoral Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Ekholm

    2016-01-01

    that the market is mainly composed of public institutions and consumers. Even though it is the citizen, patient or welfare worker that will use the device it is the institution that is the customer in terms of financing the welfare technology. Firms producing healthcare and welfare products mainly deliver to...... and Duguid, 2001 and Ellström, 2008) along with authors from evolutionary economic geography (Amin and Cohendet, 2009, Cooke et al., 2007, Creviosier and Jeannerat, 2009 and David and Foray, 2002). The paper will unpack the question of how cluster development can be seen taking an ANT approach when knowledge....... In Denmark the economic system or the nation’s type of capitalism would fall under the category of coordinated market economy (Hall and Soskice, 2001) contrary to a liberal market economy as is found in Britain. This means that public institutions and organizations play a central role in the economy. Hansen...

  8. GLOBALIZATION IN TOURISM SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana LUPAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper points to recent developments in the tourism sector and highlights the leading factors of the internationalization of tourists travel and of tourism services, including information technologies, as well as the internationalization of hotel and tourism enterprises. Without neglecting the huge subsector of small and medium-sized enterprises, it describes typical features related to the composition of the labour force and to working conditions. It raises questions concerning the difficulties faced by the sector in attracting and retaining skilled workers in enhancing the skills of newcomers to the labour market in order to stabilize the sector’s labour force, while increasing the productivity of enterprises and the quality of services. Particular emphasis is put on new forms of management entailing new skills requirements, with a general tendency towards increased worker responsibility in an environment of flat hierarchies, multiskilling and teamwork.

  9. The State Institute of Radiation Hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The history and organisation of Statens Institutt for Straalehygiene (State Institute for Radiation Hygiene) are briefly described. The main tasks in the medical and industrial sectors are outlined, and the laboratory facilities at the Institute are described. The Institute's work load in personnel dosimetry and monitoring, both medical and industrial is presented and the dosimetry methods used are outlined. Finally the textbook published by the Institute (INIS RN 116369,117419, 117829,124801,117418,118223,117385,117389,117387,117388,117386,117391, 117201,117197,117198,117199,117200) is mentioned. (JIW)

  10. Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Joining the team A new member of staff has recently joined the Institute of Physics Education Department (Schools and Colleges) team. (Dr) Steven Chapman will have managerial responsibility for physics education issues in the 11 - 16 age range, particularly on the policy side. He will work closely with Mary Wood, who spends much of her time out and about doing the practical things to support physics education pre-16. Catherine Wilson will be spending more of her time working to support the Post-16 Physics Initiative but retains overall responsibility for the department. Steven graduated in Physics and Astronomy and then went on to do his doctorate at Sussex University. He stayed in the research field for a while, including a period at NPL. Then, having decided to train as a teacher, he taught for the last five years, most recently at a brand new school in Sutton where he was Head of Physics. Physics update Dates for `Physics Update' courses in 2000, intended for practising science teachers, are as follows: 1 - 3 April: Malvern College 9 - 10 June: Stirling University 8 - 10 July: York University 8 - 10 December: Oxford University The deadline for applications for the course to be held on 11 - 13 December 1999 at the School of Physics, Exeter University, is 12 November, so any late enquiries should be sent to Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH (tel: 020 7470 4821) right away. Name that teacher! Late nominations are still welcome for the Teachers of Physics/Teachers of Primary Science awards for the year 2000. Closing date for nominations is `the last week in November'. Further details can be obtained from Catherine Wilson or Barbara Hill in the Institute's Education Department. Forward and back! The Education Group's one-day meeting on 13 November is accepting bookings until almost the last minute, so don't delay your application! The day is entitled `Post-16 physics: Looking forward, learning from the past' and it aims to

  11. ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia PUIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers an insight on the ethical dilemmas specific to a public sector and brings some suggestions for coping with these. Ethics management is a complex system that deals also with ethical dilemmas. The instruments and tools of ethics management are helpful in dealing with these issues. There are a lot of cases in which public employees do not know what to do or how to react in a certain situation, so, a debate on this subject is very useful for people working in public institutions.

  12. [University-external sector linkage: a managerial strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Gilberto

    2004-06-01

    The University-External Sector vinculation is an increasing phenomenon in Latin America as in the rest of the world. The universities through its investigation processes actively participate in the creation and incorporation of science and technology to produce technological processes, to bring foreign technology into national reality, and also to create and transmit innovation for the productive sector. In those ways these institutions achieve bonds with the external sector which provide them with additional income and allows them to have certain relief for their tight teaching and investigation budgets. Several studies in university organizations have been made to identify the motivations and barriers for de adequate development of the interaction between the university and the external sector. The lack of vinculation between these institutions could be due in part to the lack of knowledge that the external sector has of the possibility to obtain services from the university, and also the lack of knowledge that the university has about the needs of potential users of their services. The goals achieved by public Venezuelan universities, in the last years, in their search of a vinculation with the external sector could grow and consolidate through an adequate strategic management plan that allows a mayor diffusion and promotion of the results of their investigations and services, to reach in a wider and more direct way, and to a greater number of potential clients.

  13. Knowledge management in Portuguese healthcare institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sofia Gaspar; Ferreira, Maria Manuela Frederico

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge management imposes itself as a pressing need for the organizations of several sectors of the economy, including healthcare. to evaluate the perception of healthcare institution collaborators in relation to knowledge management in the institution where they operate and analyze the existence of differences in this perception, based on the institution's management model. a study conducted in a sample consisting of 671 collaborators from 10 Portuguese healthcare institutions with different models of management. In order to assess the knowledge management perception, we used a score designed from and based on items from the scores available in the literature. the perception of moderate knowledge management on the healthcare institutions and the statistically significant differences in knowledge management perception were evidenced in each management model. management knowledge takes place in healthcare institutions, and the current management model determines the way staff at these institutions manage their knowledge.

  14. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  15. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  16. SECTORAL SHARES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Naveed, Amjad; Naz, Amber

    2013-01-01

    believe that structural change is an unimportant side effect of the economic development. On the contrary, economists associated with the World Bank and some others posit that growth is brought about by the changes in sectoral composition. The objective of this study is to empirically test...... the relationship between sectoral shares and economic growth by using the panel data for 20 developed countries. The results of the granger causality suggest that both services and agriculture sectors do granger cause economic growth, whereas industrial sector does not granger cause growth. Reverse causality does...... not hold for any of the three sectors. The results of Barro and Non-Barro regressions along with the set of control variables have suggested that services sector is negatively affecting growth, whereas both industrial and agriculture shares are positively affect economic growth....

  17. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  18. Stratification and the Emergence of the Postsecondary Private Education Sector in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam has a strong public postsecondary education sector that has only recently begun to experience growth in nonpublic institutions. I investigate how the growth of nonpublic institutions may be related to stratification in Vietnam. I find that these institutions are more likely to serve more advantaged students from South Vietnam. Students pay…

  19. Transforming Higher educational institution administration through ICT

    OpenAIRE

    J. Meenakumari; Dr. R. Krishnaveni

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Indian higher education sector has increased the focus on reforms in higher educational institution administration. Efficiency and accountability have become important elements, and the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into the educational administration process has become a necessity. The objective of this study is to know the current extent of ICT integration in Indian higher education institutions. The factors contributing to the succes...

  20. Restructuring of the power sector in Romania - options and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leca, A. [University Politechnica, Bucharest (Romania)

    1999-07-01

    Discusses the Romanian energy sector covering the situation under the Communist government and attempts at restructuring since the fall of Communism. Following the fall of Communism 1989, the power sector remained in State ownership and suffered problems such as a lack of a national energy strategy, a weak institutional framework, and the persistence of monopolistic relationships between suppliers and consumers. In 1997 a new government began a programme of energy reform aiming to, for example, improve energy efficiency, set up an institutional framework, reduce environmental impacts and re-evaluate generation capacities of existing plants and those under construction but political problems have slowed the process down. The paper suggests that privatisation is becoming the only solution to problems in the power sector caused by the deterioration of the economic and social situation in Romania. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Paradox place by nuclear sector discourse line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Iona Ponce

    2002-01-01

    This article, taking into consideration the Critical Discourse Analysis and the French Discourse Analysis, examines the relationship between the public image and the acceptance of nuclear energy and the discourse and arguments commonly employed by the nuclear institutions, in Brazil, in favor of a widespread use of nuclear energy by the society. In doing so, the article discusses aspects such as the social memory, intertextuality and image construction and shows that the pro-nuclear arguments and the discourse produced by the institutions of the nuclear sector, in its essence, carries much of the ideas and concepts frequently utilized by the anti-nuclear entities. This fact, instead of providing a positive view, or even a correct understanding of the nuclear area, reinforces the negative image of nuclear energy witch is reflected in its public acceptance by the society. (author)

  2. The ECVET toolkit customization for the nuclear energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, Mihail; Ramos, Cesar Chenel; Estorff, Ulrike von

    2015-01-01

    As part of its support to the introduction of ECVET in the nuclear energy sector, the Institute for Energy and Transport (IET) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission (EC), through the ECVET Team of the European Human Resources Observatory for the Nuclear energy sector (EHRO-N), developed in the last six years (2009-2014) a sectorial approach and a road map for ECVET implementation in the nuclear energy sector. In order to observe the road map for the ECVET implementation, the toolkit customization for nuclear energy sector is required. This article describes the outcomes of the toolkit customization, based on ECVET approach, for nuclear qualifications design. The process of the toolkit customization took into account the fact that nuclear qualifications are mostly of higher levels (five and above) of the European Qualifications Framework.

  3. The ECVET toolkit customization for the nuclear energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceclan, Mihail; Ramos, Cesar Chenel; Estorff, Ulrike von [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport

    2015-04-15

    As part of its support to the introduction of ECVET in the nuclear energy sector, the Institute for Energy and Transport (IET) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission (EC), through the ECVET Team of the European Human Resources Observatory for the Nuclear energy sector (EHRO-N), developed in the last six years (2009-2014) a sectorial approach and a road map for ECVET implementation in the nuclear energy sector. In order to observe the road map for the ECVET implementation, the toolkit customization for nuclear energy sector is required. This article describes the outcomes of the toolkit customization, based on ECVET approach, for nuclear qualifications design. The process of the toolkit customization took into account the fact that nuclear qualifications are mostly of higher levels (five and above) of the European Qualifications Framework.

  4. COMPETITION IN ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capraru Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent turmoil in the global financial system has impacted severely on the banking sector with many banks suffering large losses and necessitating the need to raise additional capital privately or through their respective national governments. In our study we investigate the impact of structural reforms performed throughout the European Union (EU accession process on competition and contestability of banking systems in Romania. The literature of the measurement of competition can be divided into two major approaches: structural and non-structural. The structural approach to the assessment of competition embraces the Structure-Conduct-Performance Hypothesis (SCP and the Efficient Structure Hypothesis (ESH. The structural approach, as the name suggests, assesses bank competition by examining measures of market structure such as concentration ratios (the share of assets held by the top 3 or 5 institutions or indices (e.g., the Herfindhal-Hirschman index and supposes that higher concentration in the banking market causes less competitive bank conduct and leads to higher bank profitability. The SCP model is originally developed by Bain (1956. The second approach, ESH, developed by Demsetz (1973 and Peltzmann (1977 suggests that the superior performance of the market leaders determines the market structure, implying that higher efficiency produces both higher concentration and greater profitability. The non-structural indicators of competition are mainly based on the measures of monopoly power developed by Lerner (1934. The Lerner Index suggests the mark-up of price over marginal cost. An alternative non-structural indicator of the degree of market competition is the Panzar and Rosse (1987 H-statistic. The H-statistic measures the extent to which changes in banking costs are reflected in changes in banking revenues. In order to examine the level of competition and market power of banks in Romania for period 2003 - 2009, we estimate the non

  5. Predicting public sector accountability : From agency drift to forum drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillemans, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229913881; Busuioc, Madalina

    2015-01-01

    Principal-agent theory has been the dominant theory at the heart of public sector accountability research. The notion of the potentially drifting agent-such as independent public agencies, opaque transnational institutions, or recalcitrant street-level bureaucrats-has been the guiding paradigm in

  6. The Practice of Evaluation in Public Sector Contexts: A Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Jill Anne

    2013-01-01

    In the original paper, it was argued that while there is an array of methods and methodologies available, their use is delimited by the culture of accountability that prevails in public sector institutions, a fact that is particularly problematic given the complexity and diversity of evaluation contexts today. This short rejoinder, to responses…

  7. THE NON-FARM SECTOR AS A CATALYST FOR POVERTY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). Social ... International Journal of Development and Management Review (INJODEMAR) Vol. 9, No 1 .... What are the roles of the non-farm sector in employment generation and .... relationship between non-farm income share and total household income and/or.

  8. Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis in the Private Sector, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoa, Nguyen B.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Sy, Dinh N.; Nhung, Nguyen V.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2011-01-01

    To the Editor: In many countries, the private sector (practitioners not employed by government and nongovernment institutions, e.g., hospitals, pharmacies) is a major source of care, even for poor persons, and the area where services for the public are widely available (1,2). However, little

  9. Online Learning Trends in Private-Sector Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    For the past eight years, the Babson Survey Research Group has conducted surveys of higher education institutions on their attitudes, beliefs, and practices concerning online education. This current report is a new analysis of this collection of data, focusing on the role of online education among private-sector colleges and universities. For the…

  10. Evaluation of Large-scale Public Sector Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Hanne Foss

    2017-01-01

    and more delimited policy areas take place. In our analysis we apply four governance perspectives (rational-instrumental, rational-interest based, institutional-cultural and a chaos perspective) in a comparative analysis of the evaluations of two large-scale public sector reforms in Denmark and Norway. We...

  11. Sustainable Risk Management in the Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Županović Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of financial markets and negative consequences of the financial crisis resulted in negative connotations in the operation of many financial institutions, businesses and citizens and imposed the need to implement appropriate risk management measures in the banking sector. Evolution of the financial sector makes a lot of news in the field of risk management and particularly the modelling of market, credit and operational risk. The main methodology for risk management is the value-at-risk, which is used in practice with other techniques such as the capital- at-risk method in order to minimize business risks and achieve optimal results in the banking and, generally, financial operations. Accordingly, at all levels of governance in the banking sector, there are prudential policies in place governing the management of all types of financial and operational risks. Based on the abovementioned, the focus of the examination was on the above postulate, and prompt recognition, control and proper management of banking risks.

  12. Materiality in Public Sector Financial Audit: International Practice and the Opinion of Brazilian Experts

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Madeira Leitão; José Alves Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Materiality in private sector financial audit is a topic that has been relatively well developed in the literature. Specific research in this regard in public sector auditing, on the other hand, is scarce at the international level and absent in Brazil. In view of this, the purpose of this study was to identify the parameters used to determine materiality in public sector financial audit. To this end, we sent questionnaires to the 192 Supreme Audit Institutions that are members of INTOSAI and...

  13. The Legislative and Institutional Framework of Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article shall present a detailed and critical review of the legislative and institutional framework of environmental protection and pollution control in the oil and gas sector in Nigeria; it shall conclude with some recommendations for a better, more efficient and effective environmental protection and pollution control regime ...

  14. [Harassment in the public sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The French Labour Code, which provides full protection against moral and sexual harassment, is not applicable to public sector workers. The public hospital is however not exempt from such behaviour, which could go unpunished. Public sector workers are therefore protected by the French General Civil Service Regulations and the penal code.

  15. Private Sector and Enterprise Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training ..... and ..structures that offer services to private sector enterprises and represent .... investment climate reform and the adoption of good governance practices. ..... Over two-thirds of the labour force in Jordan, the West Bank & Gaza, Iraq and Syria is in the service sector.

  16. Two-sector disequilibrium growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles); J.B.L.M. Verbeek (Jos)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the effects of (i) profit distribution to either laborers or capital-owners, (ii) sector-specific or efficient rationing schemes, and (iii) government consumption in a two-sector disequilibrium growth model with sluggish real wage rate adjustment (which affects capital

  17. The Danish Social Housing Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard; Haagerup, Christian Deichmann

    2017-01-01

    With Denmark faring reasonably well through the global financial crisis, the policy changes to the social housing sector caused by the crisis have been limited. Nevertheless, changes have taken place nonetheless both in terms of policy and in the residential composition of the sector which polici...

  18. Sectoral profiles of working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Andries, F.; Berg, R. van den; Dhondt, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report looks at trends in working conditions across different sectors Over the period 1995-2000. Basing its findings on the Third European Survey on Working Conditions (2000) in the 15 EU Member States and Norway, it examines the quality of working life in eighteen different sectors. It

  19. EDI in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1998-01-01

    Introduction of EDI in the public administration is apriority for the Danish Government. EDI is both seen as a catlyst for development towards an information society ans as a means for more efficient use of scarce resources. EDI in the banking sector and the retail sector is reviewed, drivers...

  20. Benin - Transport Sector Investment Program

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this project (1997-2001) using $40 million of IDA funds were to: (i) safeguard the competitiveness of Benin's transport sector and of its transit corridor through open modal competition; (ii) improve government's capacity for planning, programming and managing transport sector investments; (iii) boost the allocation of resources to infrastructure maintenance; (iv) boost t...

  1. Cross-Sector Partnership Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Stöteler (Ismaela); S. Reeder (Sabine); R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA cross-sector partnership is a collaborative effort in which parties from different societal sectors pool resources to provide solutions to (perceived) common problems. These partnerships are often rather complex because of a number of reasons: (1) they address complex issues, (2) they

  2. Technologies for climate change adaptation. Agriculture sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X [ed.; UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark); Clements, R; Quezada, A; Torres, J [Practical Action Latin America, Lima (Peru); Haggar, J [Univ. of Greenwich, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    This guidebook presents a selection of technologies for climate change adaptation in the agriculture sector. A set of 22 adaptation technologies are showcased. These are based primarily on the principles of agroecology, but also include scientific technologies of climate and biological sciences complemented by important sociological and institutional capacity building processes that are required for climate change to function. The technologies cover: 1) Planning for climate change and variability. 2) Sustainable water use and management. 3) Soil management. 4) Sustainable crop management. 5) Sustainable livestock management. 6) Sustainable farming systems. 7) Capacity building and stakeholder organisation. Technologies that tend to homogenise the natural environment and agricultural production have low possibilities of success in environmental stress conditions that are likely to result from climate change. On the other hand, technologies that allow for, and promote diversity are more likely to provide a strategy which strengthens agricultural production in the face of uncertain future climate change scenarios. The 22 technologies showcased in this guidebook have been selected because they facilitate the conservation and restoration of diversity while also providing opportunities for increasing agricultural productivity. Many of these technologies are not new to agricultural production practices, but they are implemented based on the assessment of current and possible future impacts of climate change in a particular location. agroecology is an approach that encompasses concepts of sustainable production and biodiversity promotion and therefore provides a useful framework for identifying and selecting appropriate adaptation technologies for the agriculture sector. The guidebook provides a systematic analysis of the most relevant information available on climate change adaptation technologies in the agriculture sector. It has been compiled based on a literature

  3. Radical innovation in the energy sector and the impact on regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijssen, Saskia; Carrillo, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    The electricity sector is in a transition towards a Smart Energy System where the roles of private and institutional actors are evolving. This work deals with the influence of some technological innovations on the regulation of the energy sector. It identifies the main radical innovations in the

  4. Production and cost functions and their application to the port sector : a literature survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-25

    Seaports provide multiple services to ships, cargo, and passengers. These services can be performed by a combination of public and private initiatives. Usually, the role of public sector institutions is to regulate and supervise private firms. In per...

  5. Russian financial sector: adjustment and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly J. Ozira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews general issues relate to Russian financial system and policies in the context of economies relying to a significan extent on market mechanisms to allocate resources. After a brief introduction describing the functions of the financial sector in a marke economy, the paper presents an inventory o the most common problems hindering the effective performance of the financial system as a development tool, and some policy guideline based on the analysis. The text aims a presenting a brief exposition of the basic principles that provide a conceptual framework to review the issues.Finance, like money, is not a realit which exists independently from the specific cultural, political and legal features of a given society. The reason is that finance is ai institution, which organizes relevant modes o interaction among various groups or individual economic units claims on the social resources, the functions fulfilled by the financial sector need not be the universal.The views expressed in the paper are the author's own responsibility and should not be interpreted as presenting the official position paper on financial sector management.El presente artículo examina problemas generales concernientes al sector financiero de Rusia a la luz del sistema económico apoyado en los mecanismos de mercado de la distribución de los recursos. Después de la introducción que describe las funciones de dicho sector en las condiciones de mercado, el artículo representa un cuadro típico de problemas que frenan el funcionamiento eficaz del sistema financiero como instrumento de desarrollo. Asimismo el autor ofrece recomendaciones prácticas basadas en el resultado del análisis llevado a cabo por él. El texto del artículo contiene los principios fundamentales que son, propiamente dicho, los marcos conceptuales del presente trabajo.Las finanzas, como es sabido, están estrechamente vinculadas a las peculiaridades jurídicas, políticas y culturales de

  6. Public Sector Employment Inequality in the United States and the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    Historically in the United States, the public sector has served as an equalizing institution through the expansion of job opportunities for minority workers. This study examines whether the public sector continues to serve as an equalizing institution in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Using data from the Current Population Survey, I investigate changes in public sector employment between 2003 and 2013. My results point to a post-recession double disadvantage for black public sector workers: they are concentrated in a shrinking sector of the economy, and they are more likely than white and Hispanic public sector workers to experience job loss. These two trends are a historical break for the public sector labor market. I find that race and ethnicity gaps in public sector employment cannot be explained by differences in education, occupation, or any of the other measurable factors that are typically associated with employment. Among unemployed workers who most recently worked for the public sector, black women are the least likely to transition into private sector employment.

  7. The Free Trade Agreement and the Mexican health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, A C; Ortega, M E

    1992-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the probable implications for the Mexican health sector of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The authors argue that the FTA should be seen as part of neoliberal policies adopted by the Mexican government in 1983 that are based on large-scale privatization and deregulation of labor relations. In this general context the health sector, which traditionally has been dominated by public institutions, is undergoing a deep restructuring. The main trends are the decapitalization of the public sector and a selective process of privatization that tends to constitute the private health sector in a field of capital accumulation. The FTA is likely to force a change in Mexican health legislation, which includes health services in the public social security system and recognizes the right to health, and to accelerate selective privatization. The U.S. insurance industry and hospital corporations are interested in promoting these changes in order to gain access to the Mexican market, estimated at 20 to 25 million persons. This would lead to further deterioration of the public institutions, increasing inequalities in health and strengthening the private sector. The historical trend toward the integration of a National Health Service in Mexico would be interrupted in favor of formation of a dual private-public system.

  8. Legal significance of the private security sector in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidair Berisha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Privatization of the security sector is considered a new phenomenon in the post communist society. The security system has been under a total monopol of the state institutions. Therefore, even the legal adjustment of this system is considered that only state institutions are entitled for provision of the security services, by excluding participation of civic organizations from this activity. Beside this, state enterprises have been obliged to establish its safet structures for property protection and involved employers in enterprises. Immediately after the conflictual period the privatization of the security sector was rapidly increased, including various parts of society. In Kosovo immediately after the conflictual period there was legal gaps, which means that the private security sector has not been adjusted and as a result of this has been uncontrolled and without supervision. Therefore in 2000 the UNMIK administration has undertaken measures and has carried out the first act which has regulated this sector in Kosova. The draft law has undergone significant changes starting from the title. Saying in more common manner, “Draft law for private security” is amended in the LAW no. 04/L-004.2001 for private security services, and this amendment of the private security sector is based in the above mentioned law.

  9. Health-care sector and complementary medicine: practitioners' experiences of delivering acupuncture in the public and private sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Felicity L; Amos, Nicola; Yu, He; Lewith, George T

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to identify similarities and differences between private practice and the National Health Service (NHS) in practitioners' experiences of delivering acupuncture to treat pain. We wished to identify differences that could affect patients' experiences and inform our understanding of how trials conducted in private clinics relate to NHS clinical practice. Acupuncture is commonly used in primary care for lower back pain and is recommended in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's guidelines. Previous studies have identified differences in patients' accounts of receiving acupuncture in the NHS and in the private sector. The major recent UK trial of acupuncture for back pain was conducted in the private sector. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 acupuncturists who had experience of working in the private sector (n = 7), in the NHS (n =3), and in both the sectors (n = 6). The interviews lasted between 24 and 77 min (median=49 min) and explored acupuncturists' experiences of treating patients in pain. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences across private practice and the NHS. The perceived effectiveness of acupuncture was described consistently and participants felt they did (or would) deliver acupuncture similarly in NHS and in private practice. In both the sectors, patients sought acupuncture as a last resort and acupuncturist-patient relationships were deemed important. Acupuncture availability differed across sectors: in the NHS it was constrained by Trust policies and in the private sector by patients' financial resources. There were greater opportunities for autonomous practice in the private sector and regulation was important for different reasons in each sector. In general, NHS practitioners had Western-focussed training and also used conventional medical techniques, whereas private practitioners were more likely to have Traditional Chinese training and to practise

  10. Concessions in energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livada, T.

    1999-01-01

    Commercial use of natural resources is of essential importance for electricity, oil and gas networks and systems. The paper analyses the existing legal framework, i.e. relevant legislation and special regulations, which define requirements and procedures necessary for obtaining concessions in the field of energy, i.e. use of water power, maritime resources (marine area and ports), as well as exploitation of oil, gas and other fossil sources. In order to protect state interests, decisions related to the concessions for commercial use of natural resources, legally defined as of interest for the Republic of Croatia, are made by the highest state institutions. It is stipulated that concessions may generally be granted both to domestic or foreign physical as well as legal entities for a period not exceeding 99 years. Concessions for gas and thermal energy supply and utilities are granted by institutions of local self-government for a maximum period of 30 years. Public bidding usually precedes the granting of concessions. In order to implement the rights defined by the concession agreement, concession owners are obliged to pay the concession fee. The exact amount, stipulated by law, varies according to the type of the natural resource for which the concession is to be granted, the purpose of concession, the scope of activities, the size of the surface involved, the estimated profitability and the assessment of the project's environmental impact. All concession fees are fiscal categories and the major part of these funds contributes towards the state budget revenues. Utility concession fees providing income for cities and municipalities, as designated funds, represent an exception in this respect. The paper does not provide answers to the amount of the annual state budget revenues from concession fees for specific natural resources, and the issue of whether the present concessionaires meet their financial obligations as defined by the concession agreement also remains

  11. Sector review of UK higher education energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Ian; Ogbonna, Anthony; Altan, Hasim

    2008-01-01

    The UK education and education-related services are said to be one of the fastest-growing export earners in recent years and are known to have had significant impacts at the micro- and macro-levels of the UK. This review looks at energy consumption of this fast growing sector. It concentrates on the energy consumption patterns of the funded higher education institutions in the UK. The findings indicate energy consumption in the sector has been on the increase in the 6 years up to 2006; rising by about 2.7% above the 2001 consumption levels. This increase is, however, not evenly spread across the entire sector. The high energy-consuming institutions appear to be increasing their net consumption, relative to other institutions. Gross internal area, staff and research student full-time equivalent were found to have highest correlation with energy consumption across the sector and may be used as proxy indicators for energy consumption as well as the targets of interventions

  12. Indicadores : El sector financiero colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Giraldo Rendón

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza datos estadísticos que pueden revelar la situación actual -2002- del sector financiero en Colombia. Luego de mostrar algunas series temporales como los depósitos en cuenta corriente y las utilidades del sector se llega a la conclusión de que el sector se ha recuperado pero aún existen preocupaciones por causa de la evolución de la cartera hipotecaria y la difícil situación económica internacional que no permite una recuperación sostenible.

  13. Harmonisation efforts in the field of accounting of public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing requirements for financial reporting of public sector led to a need to create a system that would provide relevant and reliable information for management of accounting entities of public sector and also to increase the quality of accounting and financial statements of public institutions. The International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board (IPSASB is therefore creating high-quality financial reporting standards for public sector (IPSAS. Paper points out the ongoing reform of accounting in the field of public finances in the Czech Republic, where there are substantial changes in accounting rules and it also introduces new accounting methods. Regarding the fact that accounting of public sector is nowadays accounting system perhaps with the greatest potential of development, paper highlights the differences in financial reporting in accordance with Czech legislation and IPSAS system. It tries to catch the essential differences that arise from the financial legislation, the accounting basis and also from the content of financial statements. The paper also indicates the difference between Czech Accounting Standards for selected accounting entities that maintain accounts in accordance with Decree No. 410/2009 Coll. and International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS. There is also recommended approach to the creation of national standards with regard to international harmonization.

  14. Environmental Aspects of Social Responsibility of Public Sector Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Hawrysz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to determining social responsibility policies that affect the market and social actors, certain governments also set objectives related to their internal activity. For example, one of the activities of the German government is to implement the concept of social responsibility into public institutions. In the Netherlands, one of the government tasks is to set an example for responsible practices (government as a role model. The aim of this paper is to examine firstly whether public sector entities set an example for responsible practices, especially with regard to respect for the environment, and secondly, whether public sector organizations in Poland significantly differ from organizations abroad in terms of their practices in the field of environmental protection. A questionnaire was a basis for data collection. The questionnaires were distributed to representatives of deliberately selected public sector organizations located primarily in Europe. The study was conducted in 2012–2013 on a group of 220 public sector organizations (102 Polish and 118 other European. The paper presents only the selected part of research. Public sector organizations in Poland do not have internal mechanisms of environmental responsibility. There is a significant discrepancy between the state of the environmental responsibility of organizations located in Poland and abroad. Obtained results show that public sector organizations, those in Poland in particular, are making their first steps in developing internal environmental responsibility.

  15. Parliamentary control of the security sector of the Republic of Macedonia as a precondition for the development of democratic society

    OpenAIRE

    Muaremoska Abduli, Sevilj; Racaj, Muhamet

    2017-01-01

    The efforts to establish a democratic legal order in the period immediately after the Republic of Macedonia gained its independence in the area of the security sector institutions were carried out with more or less pronounced difficulties. That, more than ever, imposed the need for establishment of parliamentary and other forms of democratic control and monitoring of the work of the security sector institutions, as these institutions are essentially considered as the most conservative and tou...

  16. Safety in the Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    In EU the transport sector has an incident rate of accidents at work at 40 pr 1000 employees. The Danish insurance company CODAN has insured a big part of this sector concerning transport of gods on shore. The purpose of the project is to document the safety problems in the sector and to develop...... a strategy for a preventive intervention in transport enterprises. The results will in the end be included in a new strategy for the insurance company and the transport sectores organization towards a better safety performance. The safety problems for the employees are the activities carried out by loading......, unloading or work with transport equipment carried out at many different work places. The main safety problems are falls, heavy lifting, poor ergonomic working conditions, hits or collisions with gods, equipments or falling objects, the traffic risk situations, work with animals and finally the risk...

  17. Key economic sectors and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Tol, Richard S.J.; Faust, Eberhard; Hella, Joseph P.; Kumar, Surender; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Tóth, Ferenc L.; Yan, Denghua; Abdulla, Amjad; Kheshgi, Haroon; Xu, He; Ngeh, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Context This chapter discusses the implications of climate change on key economic sectors and services, for example, economic activity. Other chapters discuss impacts from a physical, chemical, biological, or social perspective. Economic impacts cannot be isolated; therefore, there

  18. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  19. Cabo Verde - Private Sector Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The objective of the Private Sector Development Project activities of the 2005-2010 Cabo Verde Compact was to support Cabo Verde's long-term economic transformation...

  20. Open Data Strategies and Experiences to Improve Sharing and Publication of Public Sector Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura María Gutiérrez Medina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Canary Islands receive 10 million tourists every year. Tourism represents a key sector for economic development in the Canaries. This work presents the benefits of open data usages in the tourism sector both in municipalities and in the island government. These public institutions have valuable information that should be shared with other institutions: 600 hotels and apartments, 10,000 bars and restaurants, and more than 15,000 retail businesses. This article describes an open data project to validate and to publish such data across multiple administrations. The main benefits for the public sector are the improvement of the data quality and the interoperability between different administrations.

  1. Myanmar Transport Sector Initial Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is preparing sector assessments to help align future ADB support with the needs and strategies of developing member countries and other development partners. The assessment is a working document that helps inform the development of country partnership strategies. This transport sector assessment highlights development issues, needs, and strategic assistance priorities of the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and ADB, with a focus on rail, road...

  2. Security Sector Reform in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Abazi, Enika; Bumci, Aldo; Hide, Enri; Rakipi, Albert

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper analyses security sector reform (SSR) in Albania. In all its enterprises in reforming the security sector,Albania is assisted by different initiatives and projects that provide expertise and financial support. To assesswhether reforms improved the overall security environment (national and human) of the country, it is necessaryto measure the effectiveness of the various initiatives and projects. This is gauged by how well the initiatives andprojects achieved...

  3. Small States, Nationalism and Institutional Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses theories of small states (e.g. Katzenstein) and nationalism (e.g. Gellner) to explain why Denmark and Ireland responded to the 2008 financial crisis in different ways. In Denmark, a coordinated market economy with considerable corporatism and state intervention, the private sector...... shouldered much of the financial burden for rescuing the banking sector. In Ireland, a liberal market economy without much corporatism or state intervention, the state shouldered the burden. The difference stems in large part from the fact that Denmark had comparatively thick institutions and a strong sense...

  4. IPSAS versus National Norms on Public Institutions' Own Capitals

    OpenAIRE

    Ecobici, Nicolae

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I have compared international standards on accounting for the public sector and those required by national norms on public institutions' own capitals, pointing out both convergences and divergences. Last, but not the least, I have compared IPSAS 1 (applied by public institutions) with IAS 1 (applied by commercial companies).

  5. Construction of an institutional network for homeless support: weaving networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma Giraldo Rátiva

    2007-04-01

    Conclusion. Within the detected institutions different levels from attention for the population exist inhabitant and ex-inhabitant of infantile and adult street (prevention, promotion, rehabilitation in addition to support and pursuit by these institutions within the Public and Deprived sector.

  6. Does the energy sector call for reform?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granic, Goran; Pesut, Damir; Jandrilovic, Nada; Jelavic, Branka; Zeljko, Mladen

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the course of the energy sector reforms in Europe so far, its objectives, achievements, issues, and dilemmas. In particular, long term and security aspects of energy supply of Europe are analyzed. In addition to the legislative changes regarding the open energy market regulation, and primarily the changes concerning electricity and natural gas markets, the past period saw dynamic changes of institutional framework, such as: increasing members of the european Union, increased number of countries aspiring to the EU (candidate countries or potential candidates), and changes in other European countries out of which Russia is the most significant energy producer. The paper analyzes the issue of responsibility between state - regulator - system operator - trader - energy buyer. In Europe, it is more a complex question because the system of responsibility includes the institution of the European Union. Therefore, the relations between EU - state - regulator - system operator - trader - energy buyer are especially important. The paper looks in to the issue of energy company integrations, creation of energy mega-undertakings and their influence on further market development. The question of monopolies now appears in a new form. The conclusions suggest possible measures for institutional influence on energy market development, especially in the network energy systems, which may have a positive impact on system security and stability and markets development and their long term sustainability. (auth)

  7. PUBLIC SECTOR OF CANADA: RATING RESEARCH OF LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Leontiivna TOTSKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available n this article an author conducted the analysis of labour in the public sector of Canada after such nine subgroups of establishments: 1 federal general government; 2 provincial and territorial general government; 3 health and social service institutions (provincial and territorial; 4 universities, colleges, vocational and trade institutes (provincial and territorial; 5 local general government; 6 local school boards; 7 federal government business enterprises; 8 provincial and territorial government business enterprises; 9 local government business enterprises. On the basis of statistical information about these sub-groups for 2007-2011 from a web-site «Statistics Canada» the maximal and minimum values of such three indexes are found: amount of employees, general annual sums of wages and annual sums of wages per employee. Rating for nine sub-groups of establishments of public sector of Canada on these indexes is certain. The got results testify, that during an analysable period most of the employees of public sector was concentrated in health and social service institutions, the least – in local government business enterprises. In 2007– 2011 a most general sum was earned also by the employees of health and social service institutions, the least – by the employees of local government business enterprises. At the same time in an analysable period among the state employees of Canada a most wage in a calculation on one person was got by the employees of federal general government, the least – by the employees of local general government.

  8. Diagnosing institutional logics in partnerships and how they evolve through institutional bricolage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osei-Amponsah, Charity; Paassen, van Annemarie; Klerkx, Laurens

    2018-01-01

    Trade globalisation and climate change pose new challenges for food security in Africa. To unlock smallholder productivity, more understanding is needed of the institutional context and the role of development interventions, such as partnerships, in the food sector. This article proposes

  9. Electricity sector restructuring in India: an environmentally beneficial policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Richard

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that reforms to the electricity sector in developing countries encouraging the entry of independent power producers (IPPs) are likely to result in environmental improvements similar to those recently made in a number of developed economies. The present paper evaluates this claim by examining the experience of the Indian power sector. It finds that recent investments by IPPs have reduced the pollution-intensity of electricity generation in the country. Yet they have not brought the significant gains seen in countries such as the UK, nor are they likely to in the foreseeable future. This is largely a product of the nature and context of electricity sector reform in India which is less favourable to environmentally beneficial outcomes. Accordingly, the paper concludes by suggesting that the environmental benefits of restructuring are not automatic, but depend on the existence of an enabling structural, institutional and regulatory framework

  10. Housing sector in emerging countries and international climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, C.

    2006-01-01

    After a first part on the relationship between housing and greenhouse effect in developing countries (assessment of the share of the housing-tertiary sector in CO 2 emissions in the world, housing stock growth and livelihood improvement, trend towards a sustainable city), this report proposes an overview of the Chinese situation in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption in the housing sector, fossil energy production, energy prices, urban demographic dynamics and its impact on the housing stock. It describes the Chinese institutional frame (housing policy reform, energy mastering policy, actors of the housing sector), discusses some perspective aspects of housing energy consumption and CO 2 emissions: energy consumption by 2020, regional approach, usages of electricity, evolution of the housing stock by 2020, potential gains in CO 2 emissions, methodological framework for the assessment of the evolution of housing energy consumptions, simulation tool

  11. Cooperative relationships and competitiveness in supermarket sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Centenaro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article aims to investigate the influence of cooperative relations in the performance of companies in the supermarket sector, comparing the companies associated networks with companies not associated. Design/methodology/approach – The research method employed was a survey research with 31 companies. Findings – The results indicate that the cooperative relationships with suppliers have a positive impact on companies of performance, while the cooperative relationships with competitors and local institutions do not influence the performance. Moreover, it appears that there is no relationship between participation in a network of cooperation and achieving superior performance. However, companies linked to the network present better cooperative relationships with suppliers, which positively impacts the performance and therefore have competitive advantages over companies not associated to networks. Originality/value – The cooperative relationships with suppliers can provide benefits such as reducing logistics costs, improved product portfolio, better negotiating prices and terms, partnership for conducting marketing strategies among others, thus increasing the competitiveness of companies in the supermarket sector.

  12. PUBLIC SECTOR TRANSPARENCY:A CONCEPTUAL DISSECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Andreea SÎNTEJUDEANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of transparency has increasingly attracted the attention of academic, political and business areas. Many studies have demonstrated the need for adopting this corporate governance principle also in the public sector, a phenomenon that has become widespread at international level. The academic study field defines transparency as the ability to look clearly through the window of an institution. Starting from this statement, the research focuses on the importance of transparency in public governance and on the framework for identifying and assessing this concept. Furthermore, this paper also analysis the limits of this notion in order to maintain its significance and effectiveness. Thus, based on the literature review, this study summarizes the opinions and arguments of various authors in the field regarding the notion of transparency in the public sector. At the same time, it analysis the conclusions of empirical studies on this topic. The results of the study reveal the importance and necessity of information disclosure among different users for increasing citizens' trust in government and achieving good governance. However, the positive aspects of transparency tend to be overestimated and considering the ambiguity of this concept it should be carefully handled.

  13. TOURISM AN IMPORTANT SECTOR OF ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhiliola Agaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has become an important sector that has an impact on development of country economy. The main benefits of tourism are income creation and generation of jobs. For many regions and countries it is the most important source of welfare. The ability of the national economy to benefit from tourism depends on the availability of investment to develop the necessary infrastructure and on its ability to supply the needs of tourists. Albania has a touristic potential for development of seaside tourism and other alternative forms of tourism. The scope of the paper is to present the impact of tourism on economy and especially on income. paper treats why Albania is an attractive country for investors, and which are the possibilities to invest. Through a questioner scattered in different publics and private institution of Albania are presented major problematical of tourism in Albania

  14. Actors of the hydrogen sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document proposes brief presentations (web site address, activities) of actors operating in the hydrogen sector in France. These actors are public actors who can be incentive or financing actors (ADEME, ANR) or research institutions (CNRS, CEA, university and engineering schools, IFP, INERIS, INRETS), private actors like industrial groups (Air Liquide, AREVA, GDF Suez, Total, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Saint-Gobain, SNECMA, ST Microelectronics, 3M, Veolia Environnement) or small companies (Alca Torda Applications, Axane, CETH2, Helion, MaHytec, N-GHY, PaxiTech, Sertronic, ULLIT). It also presents the HyPAC platform created by the AFH2 and ADEME), the AFH2 (the French Association for Hydrogen), and regional initiatives

  15. Economic issues relating to power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.N.; Mohan, Rakesh

    1998-01-01

    Financial distress alongside high rates of growth, stagnant organizations coexistent with upgraded technologies, richly endowed regions marked by low levels of electricity consumption and the long wait for private power in face of mounting shortfalls are among the contradictions marking the power sector. Decades of public financing support could shore up the rates of growth but forms of past intervention failed to address critical institutional and regulatory issues. Key areas that need intervention have now been identified, although several are yet to be tackled. This paper discusses the more important of the problem areas holding up significant economic gains that could be realized through cost reductions, the needed levels of investments, operation of market forces and targeting of resources to promote equitable growth. The slow pace of progress is a matter for concern. Effectiveness of many of the policy initiatives of government is also dependent on providing well thought out policy supports. (author)

  16. Sectoral panorama: the electric power sector in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2003-10-01

    This study takes stock on the main european markets to help the electric power companies in their decisions and investments. The first part presents the electric power sector structure in Europe. The second part is devoted to the market evolution for the different european markets (german, french, british, italian and spanish) with an analysis of the retail prices, the competition and the evolution perspectives. The third part presents the highlights in the electric power sector between 2001 and the middle of 2003. The enterprises management and strategies are presented in the fourth part. In the last part the document analyzes the financial performances of the sector and the electric power companies. (A.L.B.)

  17. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the…

  18. Study of Investments in Irrigation Water Sector in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation water sector is playing pivotal role in agricultural production and have prominent contribution to GDP (Gross Domestic Product both at provincial and country level. Many of the stakeholders including different ministries/department of Federal and Provincial governments, private sectors, farmers, and NGOs (Non-Government Organizations are investing in this sector. Although that the data and data analysis tools are present in most of the countries, yet a comprehensive information base on investments in irrigation water sector is missing. This has led to duplication at resources and beneficiaries? level on one side, as well as gaps in technical, infrastructural, institutional and managerial strategies of the irrigation water sector projects on the other. This paper analyzes investments in irrigation water sector made by government of KPK (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the last 10 fiscal years? time period (2003-2013 and identifies gaps. Besides recommendations are also made in order to overcome the identified gaps/issues.

  19. The institutions of energy governance in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews-Speed, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    . Indeed it might be argued that there is too much information on China's energy sector: too much information and not enough understanding. The premise of this chapter is that an improved understanding of the institutions of governance of China's energy sector will allow us to better appreciate current structures and policies, past policy decisions and outcomes, and the possible trajectories for future policies and policy outcomes. In short, it should provide us with valuable insights into events, trends and behaviors. To address this apparently simple objective requires an examination of a wide range of issues, including the origins and nature of China's institutions of governance, the processes of policy-making and policy implementation, and the priorities and behaviors of actors in the energy sector. This would allow an assessment of how well suited the institutions of governance are to addressing China's current and emerging energy challenges, especially in respect of the formulation and implementation of new policies to address these new challenges in a sustained manner. Attempts to understand the political economy and governance of China's energy sector were first stimulated by the energy crisis of the 1970's. But it was the opening of the energy sector to foreign involvement that brought the first systematic attempt to analyze policy making and implementation, reflected in the classic works of Lieberthal and Oksenberg. The growing global importance of China's energy sector in the first years of the twenty-first century has seen a wave of publications seeking to throw light on the governance of this sector.3 A number of these accounts have explicitly or implicitly drawn on the vocabulary and concepts of new institutional economics, an interdisciplinary field of the social sciences which provides a useful way to analyze institutions of governance. When integrated with an appreciation of the role of ideas on policy, new institutional economics provides a powerful

  20. Working in the Public Sector. Introduction to the Thematic Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Work in the public sector has been changing dramatically in recent decades. Reforms aimed at increasing the efficiency of public services have been extensive in the Nordic countries and elsewhere since the 1980s. The reforms and changes have to a large extent been associated with so-called New Public Management (NPM principles, emphasizing the market as a central coordination mechanism. Consequently, public institutions have been restructured, their services are standardized and commodified, and market-like relationships between them have been created. In order to create markets and transform citizens into customers on a market, outsourcing and privatization have been stimulated (Blomqvist & Rothstein 2000, Busch et al 2005, Christensen & Lægreid 2007, Greve 2003. At the same time, traditional Weberian bureaucratic principles are still viable and even enhanced within the sector, for instance, as a consequence of the use of contracts as a means of managing public organizations (Greve 2008. Lately, large reforms aimed at centralized coordination of different service providers, such as the integration of the Norwegian welfare administration, have been labeled post-NPM reforms by some researchers. The implication of all these parallel tendencies is that the institutional and organizational landscape surrounding the work situations of employees in the public sector have become increasingly complex, some call them hybrid,  putting a variety of conflicting pressures on the performance of work within the sector (Christensen & Lægreid 2011, Hasselbladh et al. 2008. In this special issue, we explore some of the consequences of these structural and normative changes on the work of public sector employees in different sectors and contexts (...

  1. Speedy changes in energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazlauskas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Status of the reforms in Lithuania's energy sector and preparation of updated Energy Strategy is presented in this article. The new Strategy has been worked out considering the conclusions of different studies as well as the changes that have taken place in Lithuania and restructuring of its energy sector, the guidelines of the European Union. The principal objectives of the country's energy sector consists in reliable and safe energy supply with minimum expenses, increasing efficiency of energy utilisation, introducing principles of market economy within the sector, reducing environmental impacts, preparing Lithuania's energy sector for integration into the EU. In the field of nuclear energy the top priority is to ensure the safety of Ignalina NPP. Ignalina NPP will only be operated if and as long as it is safe. Two most likely scenarios for the future operation of Ignalina NPP are analysed in the draft Strategy. According to scenario 1, reactor 1 and 2 are to be operated half of the design service life, until 2005 and 2010 respectively, i.e. until the gap between the graphite and fuel channels reaches the critical margin. In accordance with the second scenario, the fuel channels are to be replaced as envisaged in the design, after which the reactors may be operated for another 10 - 15 years

  2. FINANCING CULTURE INSTITUTIONS IN EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar Corneliu MANDA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper, on the coordinates of the analysis of the problematic of financing culture institutions within the European Union member states, performs a comparative analysis focused on the financing mechanism available to the cultural sector, created both at the level of the public, and of the private sector. For the comparative analysis, the paper selected several EU member states, grouped on four geographical areas (North, South, East and Center. The analysis performed in the paper emphasized that most EU member states make significant efforts to finance the cultural sector, but the effects of the economic crisis have had a negative impact on this financing, causing, from this perspective, a gap between the states in the north and center of the EU, on the one hand, and the states in the south and east of the EU, on the other hand and outlining a cultural Europe with two peripheries.

  3. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector : International comparison base year 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this report the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI), an independent research institute of Wageningen UR (University and Research) in the Netherlands, presents the results of a study on the competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector. The production costs for poultry meat are

  4. “Crossing over”: appropriate private sector principles, to operate more reliable public sector water services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Wall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, finds that the concept of franchising, so successfully used by the private sector to deliver many goods and services, if applied to water services operation and maintenance, could alleviate and address many challenges in the management of water services. At the same time, franchising could provide an ideal stimulus to support the development of local enterprises, all within the municipal service delivery environment. Franchisee water service providers, dependent for their livelihood on the success of their business, would have a strong incentive to perform, and would also enjoy the benefit of the franchisor’s expert guidance and quality assurance. Some areas for potential franchising include meter management, billing, plumbing, pressure management, sewer maintenance, and wastewater treatment processes. The help from the franchisor would be of particular value to water services authorities at a distance from the major urban centres. Few of these authorities can afford to employ competent qualified staff, and often non-compliance with the laid down performance standards is a direct consequence of this lack. Significant improvements would soon be seen if the generally under-qualified and under-resourced water services staff could have this ongoing support, mentoring and quality control — or if the authority could enter into partnerships with small local enterprises or NGOs which would, through franchising, enjoy the necessary ongoing support, mentoring and quality control, and would have

  5. Introduction of EDI in the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the status of EDI in the sectors of health, public transport and taxation and public administration. The impact of this on the diffusion of EDI in other sectors is analysed.......Reviews the status of EDI in the sectors of health, public transport and taxation and public administration. The impact of this on the diffusion of EDI in other sectors is analysed....

  6. On value differences experienced by sector switchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; van der Wal, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines experienced differences in values between employees in the public and private sector. To elucidate them, the authors interviewed 30 employees of the public sector previously employed in the private sector and 30 employees of the private sector previously employed in the public

  7. Regulation of the power sector

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of the Power Sector is a unified, consistent and comprehensive treatment of the theories and practicalities of regulation in modern power-supply systems. The need for generation to occur at the time of use occasioned by the impracticality of large-scale electricity storage coupled with constant and often unpredictable changes in demand make electricity-supply systems large, dynamic and complex and their regulation a daunting task. Conceptually arranged in four parts, this book addresses both traditional regulatory frameworks and also liberalized and re-regulated environments. First, an introduction gives a full characterization of power supply including engineering, economic and regulatory viewpoints. The second part presents the fundamentals of regulation and the third looks at the regulation of particular components of the power sector in detail. Advanced topics and subjects still open or subject to dispute form the content of the fourth part. In a sector where regulatory design is the key driver...

  8. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed to policy areas with continuous online...... citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...... compared to the high ranking it has received in the international benchmark studies. This paper aims at closing the gap between the predominant scope of maturity models and the frequency of citizen-public sector interaction, and calls for increased attention to the activities of government where the scale...

  9. The gas sector in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, G.

    2000-05-01

    Natural gas in Canada represents 29% of the primary energy and 42% of the energy used in the industrial sector. The biggest users are the manufacturing industries for which the low cost of natural gas and the quality of products resulting from its use represent a serious advantage in a more and more competitive market. This document takes stock of the situation of natural gas and gas-related technologies in Quebec. The first part recalls the historical evolution of the gas distribution network in Quebec and its present day situation. Then, some technical-economical data about the consumption of natural gas in Quebec are presented according to the sectors of use. The third part treats of the R and D activities linked with the gas sector, in particular the activities of the two main research organizations: the technical centre of natural gas and the research group in gas technologies of the Polytechnique school of Montreal. (J.S.)

  10. Public Sector and Europeanization Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasises the role of the market-type mechanisms within the activity of the organisations from the public sector. The end of the 20th century was defined by the effects of the public sector reform. The public sector is placed within the cultural and political environment of each country and the reforms have aimed to redefine the structures of the state organisations in the economy and the relationships such as market-government, government-bureaucracy, government- citizens, bureaucracy-citizens, civil servants-politicians-citizens. The public sector reform, achieved at the managerial systems, organisational structures and regulations levels is accompanied by specific and structural reforms. Accepting the market-type mechanisms instead of bureaucratic mechanisms, meaning not the simple provision of public services but the creation of some governmental “actors”, functioning completely on commercial bases, supporting the development of the partnerships between the public and private sector, introducing privatisation is achieved in view of creating “the facilitating state”. We discuss about “facilities” such as citizens and society involvement in public businesses, making public administration more citizen-friendly and the state closer to the public need. The citizens’ involvement, as customers in the flow of the public service contributes to creating an organic ensemble characterised by two fundamental dimensions: level and type of influence of the customers and the private-public dichotomy. Synthesising, the relationships and market mechanisms enable to the public sector to get closer to the public needs and to create a modern administration based on efficiency, effectiveness and openness towards change.

  11. The public healthcare sector and governance in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Melody Brauns

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews literature on governance in order to facilitate an analysis of the governance of the South African public healthcare sector. Some of the key theoretical perspectives have been presented on how best to organise the state and its bureaucracy. Theorists have long interrogated in what way public institutions foster or impede economic growth. Evans and Rauch point out for example, that the role of bureaucratic authority structures in facilitating economic growth has been a soc...

  12. XBRL LANGUAGE: SUPPORT TO CONSOLIDATE ACCOUNTS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Augusta; Santos, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    In the “New Public Management” context , in which  public organisations and institutions are required to adopt management model practices, based on economy, efficiency and efficacy criteria, it is important to obtain information, prepared so as to allow  for the decision-makers to have a global point of view of the public sector. Thus, the accounting information system shall allow the receipt of consolidated information in order to meet the growing needs of information w...

  13. DEVELOPMEMT OF LIQUIDITY REGULATION INSTRUMENTS OF REGIONAL BANK SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Roussavskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussed in the article is a model of an improved regulatory framework for credit institutions dealing with investment projects implementation of which will make it possible for business enterprises of various economy sectors whose activities are dependent on investment resources, such as small-scale and medium-scale as well as innovation business enterprises, to reach in the coming years an entirely different level of development.

  14. Brexit: What's at Stake for the Financial Sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Miethe, Jakob; Pothier, David

    2016-01-01

    The United Kingdom's exit from the European Union will have far- reaching implications for the British financial sector. London is currently the financial capital of Europe, and the UK's financial institutions benefit from passport rights that allow them to provide their services throughout the Single Market. The UK plays two key roles in the European financial system: the first as a major hub for wholesale banking activities conducted by large European banks, and the second as a major entry ...

  15. Information systems outsourcing issues in the communication technology sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smuts, H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available in the IS industry, the limited availability of human resources at the appropriate experience level, maintaining and improving quality, lack of effective communication in the offshore context and concerns around data privacy with outsourcing to India or other... IN THE COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SECTOR Hanlie Smuts School of Computing, University of South Africa, and Telephone Networks (Pty) Ltd, Private Bag 9955, Cresta, 2118, South Africa Paula Kotzé and Alta van der Merwe Meraka Institute of the CSIR, and School...

  16. The Impact of Tourism Sector Development in the Albanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba KRUJA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today tourism is viewed as one of the largest and dynamically developing sectors of external economic activities in the world. The development of tourism sector is associated with considerable volumes of foreign currency inflows, new employment opportunities, infrastructure development, and new management experiences. All of these together positively contribute to the social and economic development of the countries. Beside these there are also other effects of tourism which will be considered in this paper. The aim of the research is to examine the impact of tourism sector development on the country economy. The methods of research are: analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature discussing the positive and negative impacts of tourism sector on the social and economic development of the countries; the systematic statistical data analysis of the direct contribution of the sector on the GDP and employment of Albania as a country in its infancy of development, compared to other European countries in maturity. The statistical data used in this research is provided by INSTAT (Albanian Institute of Statistics, AKT (National Tourism Agency and TSA (Tourism Satellite Account, a methodology quantified by the UN Statistics Division for the statistical data provided for the direct contribution of Travel & Tourism.

  17. Power sector restructuring in West Africa. The issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkson, J.

    1997-01-01

    At independence, most countries in the West Africa sub-region adopted a development strategy which was spearheaded by the public sector. The aims at presenting discussions on some of the major issues on initiating the reform process and issues associated with the transition period. Section 2 looks at the energy resources for power development in the region and section 3 discusses some unsustainable trends in the sector. Section 4 presents the issues and discusses them, and finally, section 5 presents the conclusion and some policy implications. The discussions in the paper stress the point that reforming the power sector in the countries in the region is not simply a question of implementing consultants' recommendations, but rather a process that must be thought through, and also involves bringing all the shareholders along and putting the regulatory system and institution in place to ensure acceptability and implementatibility of the proposed changes. Governments in the region have a responsibility to build the capacity necessary to initiate and manage the reform process in the power sector, and understanding the issues involved will help to adopt the right approach to reforming the sector. (ARW) 11 refs

  18. Financial Reporting: Reflection On Transparency In The Third Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moreira Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the accountability of Brazilian Third Sector Organizations to their stakeholders, since these organizations are not an end in themselves, and they play an important role in solving problems that affect all Brazilians, especially social inequality, violence, hunger and degradation of natural resources. The interaction between the Third Sector Organizations and external users of the accounting information generated by them, allows them to have a feedback on the impacts of the decisions taken by them and the operations they perform daily. In this study the Third Sector Organizations are considered providers of accounting information for the stakeholders. Thus, by means of an explanatory study with analytical and reflective approach, this research seeks to explain the use of Financial Statements and complementary Accounting Reports in the practice of accountability by Brazilian Third Sector Organizations to the external user. In this perspective, as contributions of this study is expected to: (i identification of the financial statements and supplementary reports published by Third Sector Organizations affiliated with the Group of Institutes, Foundations and Enterprises – GIFE, and (ii demonstrate the relationship between the degree of disclosure of these Organizations and the amount of funds raised by them during the period of the research.

  19. Sectoral crediting mechanism: How far China has to go

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Wenjia; Wang Can; Chen Jining; Wang Siqiang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the review of the basic design of the sectoral crediting mechanism (SCM) – a promising option for developing countries’ emission reduction commitments – this paper analyzes five important practical issues for China to solve before participating in SCM, which include (1) difficulties in determining a crediting baseline (2) the unsolved over-supply problem in the carbon market (3) the very likely “carbon credits falling short of mitigation costs” problem (4) the immature market-oriented price system jeopardizing the success of motivation incentives and (5) inadequate capacity building. Corresponding suggestions or compromise solutions are given after a discussion of each issue. It is also recommended that in order to witness SCM come into being, researchers and negotiators should endeavor to solve the practical issues that SCM meets now, bearing in mind the balance of interests of both developing and developed countries. Finally we believe that SCM’s political barriers can be overcome when technical, economic institutional and capacity problems are solved. - Highlights: ► Latest developments in Sectoral Crediting Mechanism design have been reviewed. ► Ten years would be an ideal duration to adjust sectoral crediting baseline in China. ► Specific sectors could be selected to solve the carbon credits over-supply problem. ► SCM credits may come short of the mitigation costs, claiming a rising carbon price. ► Pricing system in China’s electricity sector makes it not a good candidate for SCM.

  20. Financing the UK power sector: Is the money available?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, William; McCarthy, Rory; Gross, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The UK power generation sector faces a major new round of investment: the coincidence of asset retiring and ambitious goals for decarbonisation is not unique, but is particularly acute in the UK. The UK government has put in place a raft of new policies that seek to promote new, low carbon investment and ensure security of supply. The traditional channel for financing the sector has been through large utility companies, but this now looks challenging for various reasons. The UK therefore offers an interesting case study on several counts; the scale of the challenge, effectiveness of new policies, and the availability of alternative finance. We find that the link between the finance sector and the electricity sector is not ‘broken’, but the flow of money to the sector is threatened by the current weakness of the utilities’ business model. This paper compares estimates of the scale of investment required in the UK with historical investment rates. It summarises contemporary finance industry views of conditions and trends, and potential policy interventions that might be needed to bridge the investment gap. The potential for channelling institutional investor funds directly into energy assets is reviewed. - Highlights: • Power investment need to scale up compared to historical trends, but is achievable. • Traditionally, low-cost finance has been through bonds and shares of large utilities. • Utilities are suffering high debt, reduced demand, and suppressed prices. • Policy interventions to scale-up investment are reviewed.

  1. Sectoral innovation foresight. Biotechnology sector. Final Reeport. Task 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, T. van der; Gijsbers, G.W.; Meis, M.

    2010-01-01

    Biotechnology has evolved from a single set of technologies in the mid 1970s (e.g. recombinant DNA technology) into the full grown economic activity of today. The set of technologies that constitute the field of biotechnology thus find their applications in different sectors, most notably in

  2. Risk Management in the Agri-food Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabrin Bachev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates the interdisciplinary New Institutional Economics in a comprehensive framework for analyzing risk management in the agri-food sector. First, it specifies the diverse types of agri-food risks (natural, technical, behavioral, economic, policy, etc. and the modes of their management (market, private, public, and hybrid. Second, it defines the efficiency of risk management and identifies the factors (personal, institutional, dimensional, technological, and natural of governance choice. Next, it presents stages in the analysis of risk management and the improvement of public intervention in the governance of risk. Finally, it identifies the contemporary opportunities and challenges for risk governance in the agri-food chain.

  3. Overturning to the oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Luis Carlos

    1999-01-01

    In only 11 months, the Mines and Energy Sector, especially with concerning to oil politics and to Ecopetrol it has given a total overturn, not only new economic conditions settled down to attract investment in the sector, the politics advanced in the activation of the environmental licenses and the consultations with the community. As for Ecopetrol bottom changes were made that guarantee their passive of pensions, disabling this way a fiscal bomb and the countable system was changed that will make that Ecopetrol counts the raw as a capitalization on the part of the Colombians guaranteeing an appropriate return to the petroleum that is given in administration

  4. Engaging in Productive Sector Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Buur, Lars

    Through a comparison of sector cases in Mozambique and Ghana, the paper analyzes why and how African states engage in developing productive sectors and with what success. It argues that successful state interventions depend on four factors: (1) sustained political support by the government...... in the four factors and thus different economic outcomes. Specifically, cocoa, export is a case of sustained political support, palm oil is a case of poorly implemented industrial policy, and horticulture export is a case of political neglect of an industry. In concluding, the paper emphasizes the political...

  5. Engaging in productive sector development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Whitfield, Lindsay

    Through a comparison of sector cases in Mozambique and Ghana, the paper analyzes why and how African states engage in developing productive sectors and with what success. It argues that successful state interventions depend on four factors: (1) sustained political support by the government...... in the four factors and thus different economic outcomes. Specifically, cocoa, export is a case of sustained political support, palm oil is a case of poorly implemented industrial policy, and horticulture export is a case of political neglect of an industry. In concluding, the paper emphasizes the political...

  6. Public sector pay in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Cribb, Jonathan; Emmerson, Carl; Sibieta, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This report looks at trends in public sector pay and compares these with what has been happening in the private sector. We start by analysing the overall levels of public and private sector pay, including how they have evolved over recent years and the differences after accounting for the different composition of the public and private sector workforces. We then examine how the difference between pay in the public and private sector varies across different groups of workers and areas of the c...

  7. Bureaucratic reform, informal sector and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Sarbajit; Mandal, Biswajit

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we formulate a three-sector general equilibrium model where one sector produces a service or good used as an intermediate input in two other sectors. Intermediate input here resembles bureaucratic (in)efficiency/control, red-tapism etc. in light of these concerns we introduce informal sector where wage is determined through competitive mechanism. We show that informal wage must go up if bureaucratic efficiency increases in general or if informal sector becomes less prone to bure...

  8. Legitimacy Building under Weak Institutional Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejs, Anja; Harvold, Kjell; Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2014-01-01

    level are illuminated. Using decision-making and learning theory, we present an analytical framework to examine four cases, two in Norway and two in Denmark, which represent two different responses, i.e. anticipatory actions and obligatory actions. We find that, by bringing in knowledge and resources...... and engaging in persuasive communication across sectors, the presence of institutional entrepreneurs in the adaptation process plays a key role in building legitimacy for anticipatory action in the municipal organisation....

  9. CONTROL ENVIRONMENT IN KOSOVO PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaqir M. REXHEPI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study on how is Internal Control System developed in public institutions is of a special importance for modalities, forms and the manner of the application of relevant strategies for the functioning of internal control environment in public institutions. In this paper, there is treated the existing situation of internal control system environment of public finances and its implementation in public sector. For internal control system environment in public finances to function effectively, there should exist a coherent control environment which includes responsibilities for financial management from managers of Publicly Owned Enterprises and with complete functioning of internal audit, which exists in the function of development to add value. In Kosovo public institutions, this framework is offered by legislation and by institutional mechanism for the implementation of legislation according to these parameters.

  10. INTERNAL CONTROL IN PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila FRUMUSACHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control has a special role in the efficient organization of the entity’s management. The components of this control in the institutions of public health service are determined by the specific character of these institutions and National Standards of Internal Control in the Public Sector. The system of internal control in the institutions of public health service has the capacity to canalize the effort of the whole institution for the achievement of proposed objectives, to signalize permanently the dysfunctionalities about the quality of medical services and the deviations and to operate timely corrective measures for eliminating the noticed problems. In this regard the managers are obliged to analyse and to resize the system of internal control when in the organizational structure appear substantial changes.

  11. Universal service in Vietnam: An institutional approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Applying institutional theory to look at the Program 74 (a universal service policy) in Vietnam, this paper concludes that the Vietnamese universal service policy was strongly affected by formal institutional factors (the international agreements and the directives of the Communist Party of Vietnam...... - CPV), in which the international agreements played a leading role and the CPV’s directives played a guarantee role. The formulation and implementation of the universal service policy in Vietnam were mainly concentrated on action at levels 2 and 3 (formal and informal institutional arrangement......, and formal institutional environment). The paper recommends that nations favouring a top-down approach not based on a market-oriented regime should deregulate and emphasize the role of provincial governments as well as encourage private sectors/social organizations and rural users to be more involved...

  12. Competitiveness of the mining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Arango, Jairo; Gamba Saavedra, Gloria Patricia

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on the upgraded study of the evaluation of competitiveness of the Colombian mining sector, carried out for the UPME, in the year 2005, with base in this study, the conditions were examined offered for Colombia for the mining industry

  13. Aid and Sectoral Labour Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth of labour productivity. A sectoral decomposition shows...

  14. Sustainability in the Agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Forgács

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study will examine the possible ways of integrating sustainability indicators in assessing the performance of agriculture. We are examining the appropriate ways of calculating the output of the sector including the damages caused by and the benefits of agricultural production. The involvment of environmental pressure into the assessment of agricultural performance does not show significant changes in values.

  15. Financial Sector Assessment Update : Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank team conducted an assessment update of Uganda's financial system in connection with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) in November, 2004. The purpose of the mission was to help the Ugandan authorities identify financial system strengths and weaknesses with a view to implementing an action plan to increase the system's contribution ...

  16. Sectoral profiles of working conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Parent-Thirion, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report looks at trends in working conditions across different sectors over a five-year period 1995-2000. Basing its findings on the Third European Survey on Working Conditions carried out by the Foundation in 2000 in the 15 EU Member States and Norway, it examines the quality of working life in

  17. Public Sector Employee Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Donna R.; Verlinde, Beverly

    This document discusses employee assistance programs (EAPs), programs which have been developed to help employees deal with personal problems that seriously affect job performance. It reviews literature which specifically addresses EAPs in the public sector, noting that there are no exact figures on how many public entities have EAPs. Previous…

  18. Rural electrification policy and institutional linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haanyika, Charles Moonga

    2006-01-01

    Some of the problems that have besieged rural electrification in most developing countries include inadequate policies, weak institutional frameworks and limited financing. In the last two decades, governments in developing countries have been making various efforts both at the policy level and in financing to facilitate increased levels of rural electrification. However, the introduction of market-based reforms in the power sector in the last decade has affected the institutional and financing arrangements for rural electrification. The reforms have also affected the rate of electrification and affordability of electricity. There is need therefore to establish the extent to which the reforms have affected access and affordability of electricity in rural areas and to develop appropriate policy and the supporting institutional structures to align rural electrification with reformed power sectors. It is cardinal to establish how privatised and commercialised power companies in a reformed power sector could contribute to rural electrification and the role of governments and government agents in facilitating expanded access to electricity in rural areas

  19. Rural electrification policy and institutional linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haanyika, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the problems that have besieged rural electrification in most developing countries include inadequate policies, weak institutional frameworks and limited financing. In the last two decades, governments in developing countries have been making various efforts both at the policy level and in financing to facilitate increased levels of rural electrification. However, the introduction of market-based reforms in the power sector in the last decade has affected the institutional and financing arrangements for rural electrification. The reforms have also affected the rate of electrification and affordability of electricity. There is need therefore to establish the extent to which the reforms have affected access and affordability of electricity in rural areas and to develop appropriate policy and the supporting institutional structures to align rural electrification with reformed power sectors. It is cardinal to establish how privatised and commercialised power companies in a reformed power sector could contribute to rural electrification and the role of governments and government agents in facilitating expanded access to electricity in rural areas. (author)

  20. Public sector reform and demand for human resources for health (HRH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lethbridge Jane

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article considers some of the effects of health sector reform on human resources for health (HRH in developing countries and countries in transition by examining the effect of fiscal reform and the introduction of decentralisation and market mechanisms to the health sector. Fiscal reform results in pressure to measure the staff outputs of the health sector. Financial decentralisation often leads to hospitals becoming "corporatised" institutions, operating with business principles but remaining in the public sector. The introduction of market mechanisms often involves the formation of an internal market within the health sector and market testing of different functions with the private sector. This has immediate implications for the employment of health workers in the public sector, because the public sector may reduce its workforce if services are purchased from other sectors or may introduce more short-term and temporary employment contracts. Decentralisation of budgets and administrative functions can affect the health sector, often in negative ways, by reducing resources available and confusing lines of accountability for health workers. Governance and regulation of health care, when delivered by both public and private providers, require new systems of regulation. The increase in private sector provision has led health workers to move to the private sector. For those remaining in the public sector, there are often worsening working conditions, a lack of employment security and dismantling of collective bargaining agreements. Human resource development is gradually being recognised as crucial to future reforms and the formulation of health policy. New information systems at local and regional level will be needed to collect data on human resources. New employment arrangements, strengthening organisational culture, training and continuing education will also be needed.

  1. Marketing activities of higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varađanin Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public sector marketing is a modern-day scientific discipline which is getting more and more attention. Institutions of higher education provide a specific kind of services to their users, which makes these institutions a part of the public sector. Due to dynamic changes in the environment, the demands and needs of higher education institution's users change, which makes it necessary to monitor these changes through certain marketing activities and adjust to them in order to satisfy the users' needs. Each higher education institution sets its own goals which, broadly speaking, are to meet their own needs, the needs of students and the society as a whole. Therefore, when formulating a strategy for achieving the objectives of higher education institutions, it is necessary to have timely information from the environment. The modern approach to business puts forward the service users' needs. When it comes to institutions of higher education, the users are primarily students, who thus get the most attention. Keeping this in mind, we have conducted a research among students in order to identify the choice factors influencing their higher education institution selection process. The results obtained should provide guidelines for creating an adequate marketing mix in order to gain competitive advantage on the market for higher education. In the research descriptive and comparative methods were used. In the practical part of the research, survey technique was applied by means of a non-standardized questionnaire. The research results imply that the analysis of the factors influencing the process of selecting the higher education institution enables the creation of an adequate combination of instruments in a marketing mix which can then be used as an instrument for gaining competitive advantage.

  2. Dynamic analysis of natural gas distribution sector in Bahia: case study of the Gas State Company entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    For the Natural Gas Distribution Sector in Bahia, some preliminary scenarios and theoretical concerns are presented under the perspectives of the Gas State Company entry. These scenarios are derived from the going institutional changes and physical expansion of the Sector with the increasing natural gas usage. The study has the objective of anticipating, for the State Government and its partners in the Company, the strategies and relevant problems for a successful entrance into this Sector. (author)

  3. Current Transformations of the Eurozone Financial and Institutional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornіvska Valerіa O.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the processes of reforming the financial and institutional space of the eurozone, which in the long run creates the foundation for basic changes, which will result in not just a postcrisis “restart” of the system of financial institutions, but the creation of new mechanisms of liquidity circulation and in view of this the restructuring of the current model of investment process from mainly the banking into the market (stock one. On the basis of the analysis of the credit cooperation between banking institutions of the eurozone and the real sector there made conclusions about the limited effectiveness of the current model of investment support due to the inability of the dominant financial institutions (banks to enable economic recovery under conditions of the gap between the complementary interaction of banking institutions and the real sector of the economy. The paper justifies that the gap between the complementarity of the banking system and the real sector emerged also in connection with the formation of the negative in the general economic context complementarity of the state and the banking sector, which greatly distorts the competitive foundations of the European financial and institutional space, contributes to the banking lobby, hinders the process of reforming the banking space, which will be of limited effectiveness in the future

  4. State, Institutions and Industrial Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    perspectives on the state and the economy (Chapter 5), from the perspective of policy networks and collaborative advantages between the private and public sectors, and from a politico-institutional and politics perspective (Chapter 8). Chapter 6 develops the notion of strategic industrial policy, while Chapter......      What happens when developing countries can no longer grow by simply exploiting their existing comparative advantages in natural resources or cheap labour? Many middle income countries are situated in a sandwiched position between on the one hand competitive pressure from lower-wage countries...... and on the other hand competition from innovators in the advanced capitalist countries. To climb onwards to higher income levels they must deepen and upgrade their industries. The dissertation is based on the assumption that this transition from low to high value-added activities does not take place ‘automatically...

  5. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in Germany. Report of the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichte, Rainer; And Others

    Training in the motor vehicle repair and sales sector in Germany was examined in a study that included the following approaches: review of the sector's structure/characteristics, institutional and social context, employment practices/trends, changes in the type of work and employment/training requirements, and available initial and continuing…

  6. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in Denmark. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, Jan; And Others

    Training in Denmark's motor vehicle repair and sales sector was examined in a study that included the following approaches: review of the sector's structure/characteristics, institutional/social context, changing conditions and their implications for skill requirements and training, and available initial and continuing vocational education and…

  7. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in the Netherlands. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, John; And Others

    Training in the motor vehicle repair and sales sector in the Netherlands was examined in a study that included the following approaches: review of the sector's structure/characteristics, institutional and social context, employment practices, changing conditions, and available education and training; in-depth case studies of four auto repair shops…

  8. Sectoral Innovation Watch Retail and Wholesale Trade Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaffers, H.; Rubalcaba, L.; Merino, F.; Giesecke, S.; Schaper-Rinkel, P.; Velsing, E.J.; Montalvo, C.

    2011-01-01

    The retail and wholesale trade sector traditionally is considered as a poor innovator. Innovation is seen as driven mostly by applications of information and communication technology (ICT). This report adopts a more comprehensive definition of innovation than the traditional one, taking into account

  9. Institutions as Knowledge Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Garzarelli, Giampaolo

    The paper revisits the socioeconomic theory of the Austrian School economist Ludwig M. Lachmann. By showing that the common claim that Lachmann's idiosyncratic (read: eclectic and multidisciplinary) approach to economics entails nihilism is unfounded, it reaches the following conclusions. (1......) Lachmann held a sophisticated institutional position to economics that anticipated developments in contemporary new institutional economics. (2) Lachmann's sociological and economic reading of institutions offers insights for the problem of coordination. (3) Lachmann extends contemporary new institutional...... theory without simultaneously denying the policy approach of comparative institutional analysis. (90 words.)KeywordsComparative institutional analysis, coordination, expectations, institutionalevolution, interpretative institutionalism.JEL CodesB31, B52, B53, D80....

  10. What are Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...... as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore...

  11. Reflections on science and the communication sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Reflections on science and the communication sector. In this contribution I will reflect about successes and failures in communicating climate change and air pollution sciences to the general public. These communication efforts included writing popular articles, giving public presentations, working with people from the social scientists and artists. Giving the fact that communication is a very important (economic) sector on its own, the question is to what extent scientists should enter that sector, whether scientists are at all accepted in that sector, whether they should use the expertise in that sector, or whether they should merely provide the knowledge to be used by that sector.

  12. Unionism Comes to the Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Richard B. Freeman

    1984-01-01

    This paper argues that public sector labor relations is best understood in a framework that focuses on unions' ability to shift demand curves rather than to raise wages, as is the case in the private sector. It reviews the public sector labor relations literature and finds that: (i) public sector unionism has flourished as a result of changes in laws; (2) the effects of public sector unions on wages are likely to have been underestimated; (3) public sector unions have a somewhat different eff...

  13. Comparing public and private sector switchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Bozeman, Barry

    are related to sector switching and the pattern of sector switch, public to private versus private to public. We propose a life stage model arguing that people's needs change in different life stages of their lives. We further suggest that this can help explain why they switch sector. We use unique Danish...... labor market data that include information on all employees in Denmark (both private and public sector). The data are for the period 1980 to 2006, and this longitudinal database includes abundant information about job changes, including sector switching. Our findings indicate mixed support....... Finally, we find that people with more education are likely to switch from private to public sector....

  14. Foreign Aid to Nigeria and Domestic Obstacles: A Review of Anambra State Education Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E.O Chukwuemeka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of foreign aid on the development of different sectors of the Nigerian economy. Particular emphasis was laid on the educational sector of Anambra State. Survey research method was adopted. Data collected were analyzed using Chi-square parametric statistics. Many factors were found to militate against the effectiveness of foreign aid in achieving development. Among the factors were corruption, poor policies and institutional framework as well as poor utilization of development fund. Based on the findings, recommendations were made. These include the need for the establishment of a sound institutional framework and infrastructural facilities; also there is the need for a reform of the educational sector of Anambra state as well as all sectors of the Nigerian economy.

  15. Evaluating research for disruptive innovation in the space sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerer, L.

    2012-12-01

    Many governmental space activities need to be planned with a time horizon that extends beyond the comfort zone of reliable technology development assessments and predictions. In an environment of accelerating technological change, a methodological approach to addressing non-core technology trends and potentially disruptive, game-changing developments not yet linked to the space sector is increasingly important to complement efforts in core technology R&D planning. Various models and organisational setups aimed at fulfilling this purpose are in existence. These include, with varying levels of relevance to space, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC, operational form 1998 to 2007 and recently re-established), the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency of the US Department of Defence, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Medialab, the early versions of Starlab, the Lockheed Skunk Works and the European Space Agency's Advanced Concepts Team. Some of these organisations have been reviewed and assessed individually, though systematic comparison of their methods, approaches and results have not been published. This may be due in part to the relatively sparse scientific literature on organisational parameters for enabling disruptive innovation as well as to the lack of commonly agreed indicators for the evaluation of their performance. Furthermore, innovation support systems in the space sector are organised differently than in traditional, open competitive markets, which serve as the basis for most scholarly literature on the organisation of innovation. The present paper is intended to advance and stimulate discussion on the organisation of disruptive innovation mechanisms specifically for the space sector. It uses the examples of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts and the ESA Advanced Concepts Team, analyses their respective approaches and compares their results, leading to the proposal of

  16. What are Institutional Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Bock Waldorff, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guided by institutional logics, as well as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to...

  17. Assessment of annual whole-body occupational radiation exposure in education, research and industrial sectors in Ghana (2000-09)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasford, F.; Owusu-banahene, J.; Otoo, F.; Adu, S.; Sosu, E. K.; Amoako, J. K.; Darko, E. O.; Emi-reynolds, G.; Nani, E. K.; Boadu, M.; Arwui, C. C.; Yeboah, J.

    2008-01-01

    Institutions in the education, research and industrial sectors in Ghana are quite few in comparison to the medical sector. Occupational exposure to radiation in the education, research and industrial sectors in Ghana have been analysed for a 10 y period between 2000 and 2009, by extracting dose data from the database of the Radiation Protection Inst. (Ghana)) Atomic Energy Commission. Thirty-four institutions belonging to the three sectors were monitored out of which ∼65 % were in the industrial sector. During the 10 y study period, monitored institutions ranged from 18 to 23 while the exposed workers ranged from 246 to 156 between 2000 and 2009. Annual collective doses received by all the exposed workers reduced by a factor of 2 between 2000 and 2009. This is seen as a reduction in annual collective doses in education/research and industrial sectors by ∼39 and ∼62 %, respectively, for the 10 y period. Highest and least annual collective doses of 182.0 man mSv and 68.5 man mSv were all recorded in the industrial sector in 2000 and 2009, respectively. Annual average values for dose per institution and dose per exposed worker decreased by 49 and 42.9 %, respectively, between 2000 and 2009. Average dose per exposed worker for the 10 y period was least in the industrial sector and highest in the education/research sector with values 0.6 and 3.7 mSv, respectively. The mean of the ratio of annual occupationally exposed worker (OEW) doses for the industrial sector to the annual OEW doses for the education/research sector was 0.67, a suggestion that radiation protection practices are better in the industrial sector than they are in the education/research sector. Range of institutional average effective doses within the education/research and industrial sectors were 0.059-6.029, and 0.110-2.945 mSv, respectively. An average dose per all three sectors of 11.87 mSv and an average dose per exposed worker of 1.12 mSv were realised for the entire study period. The entire

  18. Institutional trust, education, and corruption: a micro-macro interactive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakhverdian, A.; Mayne, Q.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how the effect of education on institutional trust varies cross-nationally as a function of the pervasiveness of public-sector corruption. We approach institutional trust as a performance-based evaluation of political institutions. Given their greater capacity to accurately

  19. Institutional Reorganisation Can Be Inspired by Forward-Looking Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert; Mayer, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is the continuation of an earlier paper in this journal on global megatrends provoking institutional changes. It contains sectoral analyses with relevance to environmental protection. Conclusions for suitable institutional reorganisation of (environmental or other) institutions are presented. The paper aims to discuss these…

  20. Evaluation of Existing Situation of University Institutional Autonomy in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Gulieva, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces four studies in which the current status of university institutional autonomy in Moldova is evaluated. At the same time it discusses the methodology employed in the study, provide a brief introduction to the higher education sector in Moldova and summaries key findings fro...... the evaluation of organizational, financial, HR and academic autonomy in Moldova.......This chapter introduces four studies in which the current status of university institutional autonomy in Moldova is evaluated. At the same time it discusses the methodology employed in the study, provide a brief introduction to the higher education sector in Moldova and summaries key findings from...

  1. Public Sector and Europeanization Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei

    2006-02-01

    Accepting the market-type mechanisms instead of bureaucratic mechanisms, meaning not the simple provision of public services but the creation of some governmental “actors”, functioning completely on commercial bases, supporting the development of the partnerships between the public and private sector, introducing privatisation is achieved in view of creating “the facilitating state”. We discuss about “facilities” such as citizens and society involvement in public businesses, making public administration more citizen-friendly and the state closer to the public need. The citizens’ involvement, as customers in the flow of the public service contributes to creating an organic ensemble characterised by two fundamental dimensions: level and type of influence of the customers and the private-public dichotomy. Synthesising, the relationships and market mechanisms enable to the public sector to get closer to the public needs and to create a modern administration based on efficiency, effectiveness and openness towards change.

  2. CASE in CERN's accelerator sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Cabas-Alonso, A.; Chevrier, F.

    1992-01-01

    As in the software industry where computer aided software engineering (CASE) methodologies and tools are commonly used, CERN endeavours to introduce this technology to improve the efficiency of designing, producing and maintaining software. A large project is currently under development in the administrative area whereas a dedicated group had been set up to evaluate state of the art techniques for software development relating to physics experiments. A similar activity, though on a smaller scale, has been initiated in the accelerator sector also in view of the large amount of software that will be required by the LEP200 and the LHC projects. This paper briefly describes this technology and gives an account of current experience with the use of CASE methods and tools for technical projects in the accelerator sector at CERN. (author)

  3. Electricity sector human resources review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facette, J. [Canadian Association of Technicians and Technologists (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The electricity industry is expanding, with new supply and infrastructure development equivalent to 35 per cent of existing capacity over the next 20 years. This paper examines the preliminary results of a human resources sector review providing industry specific labor force data. The key objectives of the review were to develop detailed industry profiles, identify root causes of human resources issues, identify industry best practices and develop a human resources strategy for the Canadian electricity sector. Estimates of current employment were provided, with age of employees, retirement projections, regional projections and estimated supply/demand gaps. Current shortages were identified, including wind energy technicians. The paper also identified a declining Canadian born labor force and a concurrent dependence on immigrants. A project research methodology was provided with a list of participating major employers. tabs., figs.

  4. sector turístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida Lillo Bañuls

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los importantes cambios acaecidos en los últimos años, han modificado el panorama del mercado turístico mundial y le han enfrentado a nuevos retos y oportunidades. Ello ha supuesto la necesidad de estudiar qué nuevos factores y estrategias garantizan la competitividad de las empresas del sector. Entre otros, es sin duda indispensable analizar el papel clave del capital humano turístico como estrategia competitiva en un nuevo contexto internacional. En este trabajo se estudia la importancia creciente del factor humano en los servicios turísticos, como elemento básico y diferenciador, capaz de aportar ventajas competitivas, destacando la importancia del valor de los intangibles en este sector. Asimismo, se analiza el papel clave de la educación y formación turísticas en el desarrollo de estrategias de competitividad en las actividades vinculadas al turismo.

  5. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The soaps, detergents and related products sector is an important component of the chemical industry within Ontario, as these products are used for cleaning purposes in industrial, institutional and domestic consumer applications. This guide was prepared to assist the sector with cost savings and resource conservation. The guide highlights opportunities for resource conservation through energy and water efficiency improvements, more efficient utilisation of raw materials, and reduction of environmental releases at source. 54 figs.

  6. DTN and international cooperation of the Spanish Nuclear Sector in nuclear technology development processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Spanish electrical utilities with interests in the Nuclear Sector-IBERDROLA, ENDESA,FUERZAS ELECTRICAS DE CATALU=A5A (FECSA), UNION ELECTRICA FENOSA S.A., COMPA=A5IA SEVILLANA DE ELECTRICIDAD S.A., AND HIDROELECTRICA DEL CANTABRICO S.A.-created on September 26, 1994 the ''Agrupacion Electrica para el Desarrollo Tecnologico Nuclear, A.I.E. (DTN)'' (Electrical Society for Nuclear technology Development A.I.E.) for the purpose of promoting and managing Nuclear Nechnology Development, and integrating and coordinating the efforts of the Nuclear Electrical Sector with industrial companies and other related institutions in spain and abroad. This mission is primarily accomplished by establinhing a common strategy for the Nuclear Electrical Sector in the different areas of responsibility of DTN, centralizing actions by implementing a clear and coherent policy, and ensuring the presence of the entire Electrical Sector in all those fora deemed to be strategic to the Nuclear Sector

  7. Engagement of Sectors Other than Health in Integrated Health Governance, Policy, and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne

    2017-03-20

    Health is created largely outside the health sector. Engagement in health governance, policy, and intervention development and implementation by sectors other than health is therefore important. Recent calls for building and implementing Health in All Policies, and continued arguments for intersectoral action, may strengthen the potential that other sectors have for health. This review clarifies the conceptual foundations for integral health governance, policy, and action, delineates the different sectors and their possible engagement, and provides an overview of a continuum of methods of engagement with other sectors to secure integration. This continuum ranges from institutional (re)design to value-based narratives. Depending on the lens applied, different elements can be identified within the continuum. This review is built on insights from political science, leadership studies, public health, empirical Health in All Policy research, knowledge and evidence nexus approaches, and community perspectives. Successful integration of health governance, policy, and action depends on integration of the elements on the continuum.

  8. Malaysia; Financial Sector Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This assessment is a review of the financial environment of Malaysia. Like many other Asian countries, Malaysia experienced financial distress in the late 1990s, but the country’s policy reforms have moved it to a successful economy. A ten-year financial plan (2001–10) by Bank Negara Malaysia restructured the financial sector. Banks were well capitalized, household debts were strengthened, and securities and insurances were developed. Malaysia thus became the global center for Islamic finance...

  9. Ukrain’s Technology Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    scandium alloys, based on aluminum; • organic luminescent materials with new properties; • basaltic fibers , fabrics, and composites; and • high...16 percent of its caustic soda, and 13 percent of its chemical fibers .161 Today Ukraine’s chemical sector produces mineral fertilizers, nonorganic...acids, and soda, as well as synthetic resins, plastics, chemical fibers , caoutchouc (an elastic material obtained from the latex sap of trees), and

  10. The role of multilateral institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Agi; Castro, Gonzalo; Newcombe, Kenneth

    2002-08-15

    with a marginal abatement cost of $10-$15 per ton of CO(2) equivalent in most countries within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. However, realizing this economic potential over the next decade, and targeting the market to the rural poor, will require substantial assistance with project development and government legal and institutional capacity building. Specific needs include raising awareness of the potential of carbon markets at all levels (particularly in energy and land-use sectors), clarifying property rights, particularly in the case of communally held land and resources, ensuring the existence of an attractive investment climate, eliminating policies that create perverse incentives and constraints, and mitigating logistical, political and 'reputational' risks that could deter private-sector investors. It will also be necessary to find ways to reconcile the short-term needs of the rural poor and the typically long-term revenue stream associated with carbon sequestration.

  11. The structure and institutions: a regional aspect of interaction in the economic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Stepanovich Tarasevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article with the help of two-sector model of the economic system, the interaction of national and regional economy is investigated. This interaction is observed from the position of development of material structure and institutions. As the key structural parameter of an economy, the proportion between sector of excess resources and sector of scarce resources is taken. The situation when sector of excess resources prevails over sector of scarce resources forms structural conditions for the creation of the market institutions. If a sector of excess resources is smaller than a sector of scarce resources, the conditions for the emergence of institutions of government regulation are formed. Two cases are analyzed: the first one concerns the situation of a simple national economy consisting of 2 provisory regions. The second is the case of the national economy consisting of many regions. The authors show that material structure of a total combination of regions defines institutions of the market or state regulation for the national economy as a whole. The institutions formed at the level of the national economy, can support or resist the development of structure of the region. The conditions are observed under which united institutions of the national economy contradict a development of structure of the individual region.

  12. INFRASTRUCTURE ACTIVATION OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINIAN AGRARIAN SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Syrtseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is a justification of roles and identifying areas of improving the functioning of innovation infrastructure that will boost innovation in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. Methodology. The methodical basis of the study consists of general scientific cognition methods of economic phenomena and processes. Realization of the work tasks required such methods: theoretical generalization method – during study of scientific papers, legislative and regulatory acts; abstract logical method – to summarize theoretical and methodological provisions, as well as define the research goal; system approach method – identifying areas for improving the functioning of the innovation infrastructure of Ukrainian agrarian sector. Results. Found that in modern development conditions, a network of innovative structures that would provide infrastructure support for innovation development in the agricultural sector should be represented by such institutions as: agricultural innovation clusters, science parks, business incubators, venture funds, advisory services. Taking into account the international experience of the main institutions of infrastructural maintenance of innovative development, suggested areas of improvement and optimization of their formation and functioning to ensure innovation in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. Proved that the formation of agricultural innovation regional clusters should be represented by the following stages: a preliminary analysis and identifying promising areas and productions; selection of the cluster members; the strategic planning stage; setting goals and objectives; work scheduling of the cluster members in order to implement strategies; control over the execution of the approved programs and projects. Taking into account the global model of organization of advisory services, determined that the development of agricultural advisory system should be implemented through extension services

  13. Return on Investment in the Public Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bigham, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    .... This demand has created a trend in the public sector, not only in the United States, but worldwide as well, towards the importation of private sector business practices to improve accountability-oriented analysis...

  14. Interest Organizations across Economic Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta

    2015-01-01

    of collective action of businesses. In contrast, we do not find consistent evidence that political institutions produce ‘demand’ for interest organizations by making laws, developing public policy or spending money. This is in contrast to the extensive evidence that such factors affect lobbying practices...... on the basis of political and economic institutional factors. Focusing on business interest representation, we show that economic institutions structure the ‘supply’ of interest organizations by affecting the number of potential constituents, the resources available for lobbying and the geographical level...

  15. Security Sector Reform, Local Ownership and Community Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Gordon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Local ownership is widely considered to be one of the core principles of successful Security Sector Reform (SSR programmes. Nonetheless, there remains a gap between policy and practice. This article examines reasons for this gap, including concerns regarding limited capacity and lack of expertise, time and cost constraints, the allure of quantifiable results and quick wins, and the need to ensure that other principles inherent to SSR are not disregarded. In analysing what is meant by local ownership, this article will also argue that, in practice, the concept is narrowly interpreted both in terms of how SSR programmes are controlled and the extent to which those at the level of the community are actively engaged. This is despite policy guidance underscoring the importance of SSR programmes being inclusive and local ownership being meaningful. It will be argued that without ensuring meaningful and inclusive local ownership of SSR programmes, state security and justice sector institutions will not be accountable or responsive to the needs of the people and will, therefore, lack public trust and confidence. The relationship between the state and its people will be weak and people will feel divorced from the decisions that affect their security and their futures. All this will leave the state prone to further outbreaks of conflict. This article will suggest that the requisite public confidence and trust in state security and justice sector institutions, and ultimately, the state itself, could be promoted by SSR programmes incorporating community safety structures.

  16. CROATIAN WINE SECTOR IN THE LIGHT OF THE EU ACCESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Čačić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The accession process of The Republic of Croatia towards the membership in the European Union demands preparation and adjustment of the whole economy including agriculture. Wine sector, as one of the most complex agriculture sectors regarding European legislation framework, is finding itself on the point of rapid changes. The wine producers as well as the state have to adjust themselves to the new rules and to the new legal framework. The paper has analysed the current situation in the Croatian wine sector, explored the need for establishment of an institution that could help producers in wine marketing as well as the role of the government. According to the survey 73.6% wine producers sell their wine exclusively on the domestic market and 26.4% producers sell it on both domestic and international market. The results have indicated that 53.6% of the producers expect wine sale difficulties after Croatia enters the EU. According to the producers’ opinion the government should establish the institution that could help producers in marketing and consulting activities.

  17. Reorganization of the power distribution sector in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossani, Rafiq

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the central issues for electricity-sector reform in India, as they grew out of the reform process that began in 1991, and within the context of the sector's organization, regulatory structure, and other institutional characteristics. The paper argues that India's current reform policies will not be sufficient to achieve reliable, efficient power because distribution reform has not been done. Undertaking distribution reform is a difficult path to tread because of the absence of global consensus on best practices and conflicting forces, both economic and political. The paper analyzes alternative institutional structures for reform in the distribution sector. The findings include that the objectives of coverage and efficiency may conflict, that economically efficient reorganization may be politically unachievable and that the small, municipally owned firm may be the best compromise. Since many Indian states are economically and politically diverse from each other, and include both large served and unserved areas, there is scope to vary the organizational structure depending on the state's situation. This paper provides a means to do so. The agenda for policymakers is to identify the situation in their respective states and choose a reorganization path that is the best compromise

  18. The role of the European Bank in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.

    1993-01-01

    The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was established in 1991 to assist central and eastern European countries in making the transition from command economies to market economies. The Bank provides loans, equity investments, guarantees, advice, and technical cooperation to qualified applicants through its merchant banking and development banking operations. In the energy sector, the Bank recognizes that the energy resources of eastern Europe are enormous but so are the problems associated with their development. Since its foundation, most of the Bank's energy-related lending has been in the oil and gas sector in Russia and the Baltic countries. The Bank has approved eight projects in that sector with total capital costs of ca US$1.7 billion. Major problem areas to be overcome include uneconomic domestic pricing, high energy intensity and pollution, inadequate legal frameworks, inappropriate tax structures, and institutional complexity. Canadian firms have been actively involed in Bank-financed projects in the Russian oil and gas sector, and two such projects are briefly described. They comprise joint ventures with Russian enterprises or associations and include rehabilitation of Siberian oil fields and drilling new wells in the Komi (Arctic) region. A common feature of these projects is that they were well under way before the Bank got involved, but the Bank brings the benefits of additional financing and providing moral support and expertise which can be useful in overcoming administrative and regulatory difficulties

  19. CO2 mitigation scenarios in China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Can; Cai, Wenjia; Lu, Xuedu; Chen, Jining

    2007-01-01

    China is the world's second largest greenhouse gas emitter, and emissions from the road transport sector represent one of the fastest growing GHG sources in China. Taking previous research on China's projected future vehicle ownership and future CO 2 emissions in the transport sector as a starting point, this paper reviews all recent environmental policies relating to the automobile industry and employs a scenario analysis to estimate different emissions inventories for different development strategies. The new policy scenario considers all possible mitigation options available to the road transport sector from a bottom up perspective and examines the effects for fuel efficiency improvement and the cost of these mitigation options - vehicle technology improvement, bus rapid transit system and fuel switching, through which the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential is estimated. Not only does this paper indicate that a large emissions reduction potential exists in China's road transport sector, but it implies that vehicle technology improvement, especially engine technology is likely to be the most effective means to meet emissions reduction targets. This paper concludes by identifying key barriers to implementing those options in China and deduces the technical, financial and institutional aspects of the demand in China for national capacity building and international aid in order to achieve the emissions reduction goals

  20. Public-Private Partnership in Cultural Heritage Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Angelina JELINČIĆ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades public-private partnership or PPP has become a new way for delivering and fi nancing public sector projects. It may involve investment in fully economic infrastructure such as highways, railways, airports, seaports, etc. up to the investments in social infrastructure projects, such as schools, hospitals, museums and other signifi cant and historic buildings of public interest. The main objective of this article is to analyze the situation in Croatia, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia concerning the topic of public- private partnership (PPP in order to provide grounds for possible future investments in cultural heritage in these countries. For this purpose, a comparative analysis of legal and institutional frameworks was carried out as well as structured interviews with key stakeholders (public and private sector representatives. Special attention has been paid to the use of PPP projects in the revitalization of cultural heritage. The results of the analysis showed the lack of PPP investments in the cultural sector, and also identifi ed possible obstacles in public sector administrative procedures. The results of the analysis may be further used to stimulate both public authorities to set strategic directions for heritage revitalization plans based on PPP schemes as well as private investors who may seek feasible business models complemented with social responsibility benefits.

  1. Renewing the Future: Social Innovation Systems, Sector Shift, and Innoweave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Huddart

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Against a backdrop of various “occupy” movements signifying civic dissatisfaction with the social contract, and in an era of fiscal restraint affecting governments and communities in many parts of the world, we need new and more effective ways to address complex social challenges. While continuous innovation is commonly understood to be a source of growth, productivity improvement, and competitive advantage in the technology and manufacturing sectors, the author’s focus is on social innovation systems, designed to replace maladaptive institutions and obsolete policy frameworks with novel and disruptive means for improving outcomes on issues such as population health and climate change. This article proposes a definition of such systems, and examines how system-level tools including impact investing, open data platforms, and “change labs” are fostering collaboration among the private, public, and community sectors. We argue that a key priority at this time is to make these and other tools and processes for social innovation available to community organizations and their government and business partners everywhere, in a manner that allows for continuous cycles of implementation and learning. The author describes one such project currently being developed in Canada by Social Innovation Generation and other partners, called Innoweave. Innoweave is a technology-enabled social innovation system for sharing the tools and processes of social innovation with the community sector. The article concludes with a call for multi-sectoral participation in social innovation systems as an investment in society’s adaptive capacity and future wellbeing.

  2. [Central purchasing bodies and spending review in health sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the new model of centralization of purchases in Italy after the approval of the 2016 Stability Law, with particular reference to the health sector. In fact, the spending review process in Italy in the health sector has had a strong evolution with the 2016 Stability Law, which has introduced the obligation for the institutions of the National Health Service to obtain supplies, exclusively, from aggregators subjects, for certain product categories of the health sector. The legislature, over the years, was mainly characterized by measures to reduce the spending limits for purchases of goods and services or by resetting the fees, including the provision of an obligation for the renegotiation of health goods and services contracts, in order to ensure the effective implementation of the expenditure rationalization by aggregation of goods and services. From 2016, the legislature has provided an innovative model of centralization of purchases based on a new network governance model on several levels, national and regional, which should ensure an efficiency of procurement processes. The proper functioning of the governance model adopted can be an important driver of economic policy in order to understand that it is important not only to spend less, but to spend better. This can be realized in the public administration with a strong innovation process in this administration and also with a strong investment in skills, in order to ensure the same service quality throughout the national territory to the health sector.

  3. Sectoral approaches to improve regional carbon budgets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, P.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Janssens, I.A.; Reis, S.; Marland, G.; Soussana, J.F.; Christensen, T.R.; Heath, L.; Apps, M.; Alexeyev, V.; Fang, J.; Gattuso, J.P.; Guerschman, J.P.; Huang, Y.; Jobbagy, E.; Murdiyarso, D.; Ni, J.; Nobre, A.; Peng, C.; Walcroft, A.; Wang, S.Q.; Pan, Y.; Zhou, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Humans utilise about 40% of the earth¿s net primary production (NPP) but the products of this NPP are often managed by different sectors, with timber and forest products managed by the forestry sector and food and fibre products from croplands and grasslands managed by the agricultural sector. Other

  4. Monetary Policy with Sectoral Trade-offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrella, Ivan; Rossi, Raffaele; Santoro, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    properties of simple rules that react to alternative measures of final goods price inflation. Due to factor demand linkages, the cost of production in one sector is influenced by price-setting in the other sector. Therefore, measures of aggregate inflation weighing sectoral prices based on their relative...

  5. Sectoral energy demand data: Sources and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounali, A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Sectoral Energy Demand Data giving details about the Sources and Issues. Some comments are presented on rural energy surveys. Guidelines for the Definition and Desegregation of Sectoral Energy Consumption is given and Data Necessary for Sectoral Energy Demand Analysis is discussed

  6. Public sector achievement in 36 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedikt Goderis

    2015-01-01

    This report examines the inputs, outputs and outcomes of the public sector in 36 countries (including the EU-28) over the period 1995-2012. We study two sectors – education and health – in some detail, while taking a more general look at the sectors social safety, housing, social security and

  7. Lessons Learned from the Private Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, Robert J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This session is focused on lessons learned from private sector energy projects that could be applied to the federal sector. This presentation tees up the subsequent presentations by outlining the differences between private and federal sectors in objectives, metrics for determining success, funding resources/mechanisms, payback and ROI evaluation, risk tolerance/aversion, new technology adoption perspectives, and contracting mechanisms.

  8. Government services: sector skills assessment 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Jon; Ojo, Adegbola

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide authoritative labour market intelligence (LMI) for the Government Services sector to inform the strategic decision making of national governments in the development of employment and skills policy. It is one of 15 UK Sector Skills Assessment (SSA) reports produced by Sector Skills Councils and the UK Commission for Employment and Skills.

  9. Leading sector development in Muaro Jambi District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Safri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to improve economic development and economic growth of Muaro Jambi Regency is a must. Efforts to increase economic development and economic growth can occur, if local governments are able to determine or identify priority sectors or become a base sector. Given the importance of determining and defining the right and correct strategy in the development of leading economic sectors/bases, it is necessary to conduct further study related to the development of leading sector policy in Muaro Jambi Regency. Analysis tools that are used are LQ (Location Quotient and SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis found that of there are three sectors that are the main sector or base in Muaro Jambi Regency, namely agriculture, livestock, plantation, fishery and forestry sector, mining and quarrying sector and manufacturing industry sector. Strategies that can be done in order to maintain and develop the sector and sub-sectors/recommended base there are several alternative strategies that combine internal environmental conditions and external environment Muaro Jambi Regency is S - O (power against opportunities, S - T (power against threats W - O (weakness to opportunity and W - T (weakness to threat. Keywords: Location Quotient, SWOT Analysis, Base Sector

  10. East Midlands healthcare and bioscience sector strategy

    OpenAIRE

    East Midlands Development Agency

    2007-01-01

    The healthcare and bioscience sector is one of four priority sectors identified in the regional economic strategy, A Flourishing Region. This document sets out a strategy for maximising the contribution of the healthcare and biosciences sector to the economic development of the East Midlands.

  11. Changes in the Danish construction sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian; Emmitt, Stephen; Bonke, Sten

    2005-01-01

    Like the building sector in many other countries the Danish construction sector was criticised heavily in a number of government sponsored reports in the 1990s. The sector was seen to be unresponsive to change and ‘locked-in’ to familiar working practices, and so development was needed. And, like...

  12. Extended Producer Responsibility in the Aviation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa; Laan, Erwin; Irion, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate recent initiatives with respect to extended producer responsibility in the aviation sector. We compare those with the existing practices in the automobile sector and the emerging regulations in the shipping sector. We describe the challenges and the lessons to be learned from the evolution and state of extended producer responsibility in these two industries.

  13. The Information Sector: Definition and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Marc U.

    In the last 20 years the U.S. economy had changed as a result of the increase in production, processing, and distribution of information goods and services. Three information sectors--the primary sector producing information goods and services, the private bureaucracy, and the public bureaucracy--are part of a six-sector economy. Today,…

  14. Developing an integrated management model for Private Higher Educational Institutions in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D. Ed. (Educational Management) The cornerstone of this research is to understand the role of the Private Higher Education (PHE) sector in South Africa, including the challenges and problems encountered by the Private Higher Education Institutions (PHEIs) in competing in the public HE sector that is legally accountable to and funded by government. The country’s HE sector is deeply fragmented owing to the past racial divisions and inequalities, and the research thus intends to contribute to...

  15. Reshaping the DCC Institutional Engagement Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jones

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shares results from the Digital Curation Centre’s programme of Institutional Engagements (IEs, and describes how we continue to provide tailored support on Research Data Management (RDM to the UK higher education sector.Between Spring 2011 and Spring 2013, the DCC ran a series of 21 Institutional Engagements. The engagement programme involved helping institutions to assess their needs, develop policy and strategy, and begin to implement a range of RDM services.We have conducted a synthesis and evaluation of the programme, analysing the types of assistance requested and the impact of our support. The findings and lessons to emerge from these exercises have informed our future strategy and helped reshape the programme.

  16. Institutional Logics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage...... institutional logics in the course of their organizational practice. We introduce an exciting line of new works on the meta-theoretical foundations of logics, institutional logic processes, and institutional complexity and organizational responses. Collectively, the papers in this volume advance the very...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....

  17. Technologies for climate change adaptation. The water sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, T De [ed.; UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark); Elliott, M; Armstrong, A; Lobuglio, J; Bartram, J [The Water Institute at the Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This guidebook aims to provide expert information on the technologies most relevant for climate change adaptation in the water sector in developing countries. It is meant to be a practical tool for use by a broad range of stakeholders, including those in governmental agencies, water utilities, community water boards, non-governmental organizations, and private sector companies. Adaptation is an essential element of human response to climate change. The adverse impacts of climate change on the water sector will be experienced worldwide and are often projected to be most severe in resource-poor countries. Therefore, it is necessary to have access to a diverse array of adaptation technologies and practices that are appropriate and affordable in various contexts. The scale of these adaptation technologies/practices should range from the individual household level (e.g. household water treatment), to the community scale (e.g. rainwater collection in small reservoirs), to large facilities that can benefit a city or region (e.g. a desalination plant). The guidebook first reviews the projected impacts of climate change on the water sector. It then addresses the role of adaptation in the water sector and six typologies under which available strategies are categorized. Eleven technologies and practices are given detailed treatment in this guidebook and four others are covered briefly. While these do not constitute all of the adaptation technologies available in the water sector, they do represent many of the most important adaptation technologies for developing countries. For each of the 11 adaptation technologies and practices, the following are addressed: basic description, contribution to climate change and development, institutional and capacity building requirements, costs, barriers and opportunities for implementation, and extensive reference to external resources and case studies. The practical steps and appropriate contexts for implementation are covered in the

  18. Canadian institute honours Hawking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-11-01

    The Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada, has announced that a major new extension to its campus will be known as the Stephen Hawking Centre. The extension, which is currently being built, is due to open in 2011 and will double the size of the institute. It will also provide a home for the institute's Masters students, the first of whom joined the Perimeter Institute this autumn as part of its Perimeter Scholars international programme.

  19. NEWS: Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Recognition for teachers The Institute of Physics has continued its programme of recognition for inspiring teachers with nine Teachers Awards in 2000, one at primary level and eight at secondary. The quality and quantity of nominations for secondary awards was very encouraging, especially those nominations made by students, but the number of nominations for teachers in the primary sector was disappointing. The award winners are: Teacher of Primary Science Graham Tomlinson, Cockermouth School, Cumbria Gill Stafford, Greens Norton Church of England Primary School, Towcester, Northants Teachers of Physics (Secondary) John Allen, All Hallows High School, Penwortham, Preston Tim Gamble, Lings Upper School, Northampton Denise Gault, Dalriada School, Ballymoney, Co Antrim Ian Lovat, Ampleforth College, North Yorkshire David Smith, Highgate School, North London Clive Thomas, Newcastle Emlyn Comprehensive School Graham Tomlinson, Cockermouth School, Cumbria Mark Travis, Cape Cornwall School, St Just, Cornwall If you know a teacher in a local primary school who is doing an exceptional job in motivating youngsters and colleagues in the teaching and learning of science, why not consider nominating them for an award? Further details can be obtained from the Institute's Education Department (Steven Chapman) by post or e-mail (schools.education@iop.org .) Annual Congress More details are now available on the various activities at this event taking place on 27 - 30 March 2000 at the Brighton Conference Centre. Among those organized by the Education Department are general science and technology hands-on activities for pupils aged 10 to 12 and more specific physics activities on Static Electricity for older students: * A series of short talks with hands-on demonstrations of music and musical instruments given by musicians, manufacturers and physicists. * A chance for students in years 9 to 13 to experience music making from the professionals' perspective. Mornings, 28 to 30 March

  20. Between the state and market: Electricity sector reform in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamasb, Tooraj

    2006-01-01

    Developing countries have had to reform technically and financially less efficient electricity sectors than developed countries with less resources and weaker institutions. This paper examines the reform experience and lessons in these countries. The paper reviews private participation and key reform steps such as restructuring, competition, and regulation. The role of contextual factors such as system size, institutional endowment, and international organizations are then discussed. It then argues that there is a need for redefining the role of the state rather than a full withdrawal from the sector and that many countries should adopt simpler reform models and gradual implementation. (author)

  1. TRADEMARK APPLICATIONS IN A SECTORAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATE Domician

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic roles of the Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs are one of the key mysteries of the economic theories. At the beginning of the 1760s a sustained and rapid growth in per capita income occurred all over the word and since then the broad history of economic institutions has still quite important. This research paper relies on the conceptual framework of IPRs. However, the academic literature has claimed that the presences of these institutions are essential elements of a well-functioning economy, but intellectual property has come to mean not only the right to own and sell, but also the right to regulate its use. Moreover several unexploited dilemmas have still remained in practice. In order to support the theoretical insights we inspect to overview the trademarks growth tendencies in various OECD countries. In this perspective we followed a specific taxonomy of the traditional Nice Classes (NCL to identify the distribution and the growth changes of these property right applications in a specific sectoral approach. Besides determining the differences with some comparative statistics in the branches, we could also demonstrate the economic importance of trademark applicants that place on the protection of brands in the service-oriented industries. However, there was falls in due to the last economic crisis; it seemed to follow a persistent and substantial growth path again. In this sense, we could also suggest the better valorization of IPRs that must be considered in a context to facilitate SMEs’ access to the benefits of globalised markets in these industries.

  2. Investment Process in Romania and Institutional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Marius VOICILAŞ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concepts set out and the macroeconomic policies implemented during the past twenty years have been different and controversial. They have aimed at creating an economic environment conducive to the infusion of foreign capital and development of sectors considered as a priority at that time, which can ensure a sound macro-economic stability, taking into account the fact that there is not enough domestic capital to participate in achieving these objectives. In this paper we will focus on foreign direct investment (FDI policies designed to promote them, their effects on national economy in general terms and features of investment in rural and agricultural sector, which we consider key elements of success in economic growth. Also, the institutional framework in which the investment process took place is thoroughly addressed given that most times the general investment climate of a certain market is influenced both by legislation and the institutions involved in economic life. The experience of transition and the experiences of other countries have shown how important are institutions created to coordinate, support and control of investment activity. We included in this analysis institutions and organizations in Romania with responsibilities in the investment field. Based on this analysis, and on the contributions of institutions to create the proper economic development, but also by investors' direct contribution to the creation of this framework by policy makers recommendations, it is obtained a profile of the business environment in Romania, including what is best but what is missing and it needs to be implemented. We consider that this approach is an important step in addressing the institutional investment process and it creates prerequisites of disseminating essential information and remedial implications to stakeholders.

  3. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  4. The Economic Impact of Higher Education Institutions in Ireland: Evidence from Disaggregated Input-Output Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiantao; Larkin, Charles; Lucey, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    While there has been a long history of modelling the economic impact of higher education institutions (HEIs), little research has been undertaken in the context of Ireland. This paper provides, for the first time, a disaggregated input-output table for Ireland's higher education sector. The picture painted overall is a higher education sector that…

  5. Utilising Six Sigma for Improving Pass Percentage of Students: A Technical Institute Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Prabhakar; Khanduja, Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    Service sector accounts for a substantial share in Indian economy and among the service industries, education sector is emerging as a major commercial activity in the nation. Globalization, growing competition among institutions, emergence of new technologies, changing socio-economic profiles of nations and knowledge driven economies have created…

  6. The Development of Non-bank Financial Institutions in Ukraine : Policy Reform Strategy and Action Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Michel; Kantur, Zeynep; Prigozhina, Angela; Rutledge, Sue; Fursova, Olena

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of European integration presents huge opportunities and challenges for the development of non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) in Ukraine. By most measures, the development of the NBFI sector in Ukraine lags far behind that of recent accession countries in Central Europe. To address the main impediments facing the development of the sector, the Ukrainian authorities need to...

  7. Downsizing in the public sector: Metro-Toronto's hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Douglas H

    2003-01-01

    This study has two objectives. First, to predict the outcomes of a public sector downsizing; second to measure effects of downsizing at organizational and inter-organizational levels. Primary data to assess the organizational level effects was collected through interviews with senior executives at two of Metro-Toronto's hospitals. Secondary data, to assess the inter-organizational effects, was collected from government documents and media reports. Due to the exploratory nature of the study's objectives a case study method was employed. Most institutional downsizing practices aligned with successful outcomes. Procedures involved at the inter-organizational level aligned with unsuccessful outcomes and negated organizational initiatives. This resulted in an overall alignment with unsuccessful procedures. The implication, based on private sector downsizings, is that the post-downsized hospital system was more costly and less effective.

  8. China's power sector reforms - where to next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    With the fastest growing energy demand in the world, China is now the largest electricity consumer after the United States. How can the government best assure affordable and environmentally sustainable electricity supply in the future? The Chinese government has initiated electricity sector reforms to overhaul an antiquated system and attain new energy security and environmental objectives. How China proceeds with these reforms will have lasting consequences, both locally and globally. Assessing the current state of electricity regulation in China, this report draws on experience elsewhere to explore how better to develop and communicate strategy, how to moderate growth in demand through increased efficiency, how to integrate environmental goals into planning and operation, how to ensure sufficient supply when and where it is needed, and how to handle institutional and governance challenges. In this respect, electricity sector reform in other countries offers valuable lessons as to how China might proceed.

  9. Analysis on Investment Behavior of Agricultural Sector in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    In the process of industrialization, China has been a big agricultural country, and the agricultural sector's economic activities have been playing important role in economic growth. This paper established the investment behavior model of agricultural enterprises on the basis of Chinese practice. And then, the model presented the important factors impacting on investment, such as financing cost, wage, and policy factors,etc. Thirdly, this paper in particular usedR-studio to estimate the impact of financing cost and policy factor on investment and capital accumulation of primary industry sector by gathering the data from 2003 to 2013. The results showed that the official interest rate of loans of financial institutions could be the proxy variable as the financing cost of agricultural enterprises, and the employment level of agricultural enterprises had negative impact on investment. Finally, this paper provided some explanations and suggestions on the basis of above results.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR FROM MOLDOVA THROUGH AGRICULTURE LOANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona SARGO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial institutions present on the market become more attentive when they have to give loans to the agriculture sector. The lack of necessary guarantees the low profit registered in agricultural district, economy instability and other things had and continue to have a negative impact on the evolution of agricultural sector, this being seen as one with a high level of risk. Commercial banks use less own funds for lending to agriculture and especially when the loans are guaranteed from various funds, programs or foreign donor agencies. Farmers find it difficult to bank loans because of collateral amount required is too high. However, commercial banks in Moldova provide agricultural loans, thus increasing the economic efficiency of agriculture.

  11. 77 FR 17462 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Quick Response Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... surveys of the elementary/secondary sector (districts, schools) and public libraries. PEQIS conducts... for surveys of state education agencies, school districts, schools, postsecondary institutions, and libraries. Surveys of teachers, students, commercial establishments, and households are not included in this...

  12. Dissipative hidden sector dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.; Vagnozzi, S.

    2015-01-01

    A simple way of explaining dark matter without modifying known Standard Model physics is to require the existence of a hidden (dark) sector, which interacts with the visible one predominantly via gravity. We consider a hidden sector containing two stable particles charged under an unbroken U (1 )' gauge symmetry, hence featuring dissipative interactions. The massless gauge field associated with this symmetry, the dark photon, can interact via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. In fact, such an interaction of strength ε ˜10-9 appears to be necessary in order to explain galactic structure. We calculate the effect of this new physics on big bang nucleosynthesis and its contribution to the relativistic energy density at hydrogen recombination. We then examine the process of dark recombination, during which neutral dark states are formed, which is important for large-scale structure formation. Galactic structure is considered next, focusing on spiral and irregular galaxies. For these galaxies we modeled the dark matter halo (at the current epoch) as a dissipative plasma of dark matter particles, where the energy lost due to dissipation is compensated by the energy produced from ordinary supernovae (the core-collapse energy is transferred to the hidden sector via kinetic mixing induced processes in the supernova core). We find that such a dynamical halo model can reproduce several observed features of disk galaxies, including the cored density profile and the Tully-Fisher relation. We also discuss how elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies could fit into this picture. Finally, these analyses are combined to set bounds on the parameter space of our model, which can serve as a guideline for future experimental searches.

  13. Development of independent production in Europe: institutional diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The industrial model of the power sector is being challenged in all but a few countries. Being stable for many years, the power sector is now constrained to evolve to more flexible structures, pushed by financing, political and environmental issues. More so, recent innovations within the financing or entrepreneurial background, as well as in the main equipment suppliers' strategies, have attracted new actors to a formerly closed sector. The independent power production could be seen as a vector leading sector's reforms in several countries, being recognized an a careful path, a way to gradually opening the sector. The analysis of the institutional structures within which the independent production evolves can point out relevant elements and directions of sector's changes. One can find, for instances, within a relatively restraint universe, i.e. that one of the European countries, a variety of situations putting light on the complexity of the debate. This paper aims at discussing the role of the independent power production through such a diversity of institutional structures, avoiding any polarization around themes like privatization or deregulation. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 13 refs

  14. The Informal Sector, Third Version

    OpenAIRE

    Aureo de Paula; Jose A. Scheinkman

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of informal economic activity. We present two equilibrium models of informality and test their implications using a survey of 48,000+ small firms in Brazil. We define informality as tax avoidance; firms in the informal sector avoid tax payments but suffer other limitations. In the first model there is a single industry and informal firms face a higher cost of capital and a limitation on size. As a result informal firms are smaller and have a lower capi...

  15. The Informal Sector, Second Version

    OpenAIRE

    Aureo de Paula; Jose A. Scheinkman

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of informal economic activity. We present two equilibrium models of informality and test their implications using a survey of 48,000+ small firms in Brazil. We define informality as tax avoidance; firms in the informal sector avoid tax payments but suffer other limitations. In the first model there is a single industry and informal firms face a higher cost of capital and a limitation on size. As a result informal firms are smaller and have a lower capi...

  16. Inviting In the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    private sector . After all, corruption does not just involve government. Business people and lawyers and citizens pay the bribes, even as they condemn bribery. They should be invited to become part of the solution. But how? The first point to note is that business people and citizens know where corruption exists and how corrupt systems work. Citizens understand how bribery shapes the services they receive or don’t receive. Accountants know the illicit games played with audits and taxes. Lawyers understand corrupt legal practices. Business people know all about corrupt

  17. Services trade restrictiveness and manufacturing productivity : the role of institutions

    OpenAIRE

    BEVERELLI, Cosimo; FIORINI, Matteo; HOEKMAN, Bernard M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of services trade restrictiveness on manufacturing productivity for a broad cross-section of countries at different stages of economic development. Decreasing services trade restrictiveness has a positive indirect impact on the manufacturing sectors that use services as intermediate inputs in production. We identify a critical role of local institutions in shaping this effect: countries with high institutional capacity benefit the most from services trade policy reforms in...

  18. The Rural Institutions in Colombia: Reflections for Analysis and Strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Ropero Beltran

    2016-01-01

    The rural question is one of the great challenges for institutions in Colombia. The discussion regarding institutional efficiency and effectiveness for the rural sector should be brought forward based on circumstantial aspects that in turn mediate social the social, political, cultural, environmental, economic and productive in the Colombian agriculture, including trade agreements and post-conflict eventually included. The new rurality as an approach to rural development poses a different vie...

  19. Saudi Arabia: the French nuclear sector mobilized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheikh-Ali, A.

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is preparing itself to replace half fossil energies by a mix of nuclear and renewable energies. Although the nuclear program is not yet well implemented, Saudi Arabia and France have signed an agreement to develop cooperation in the nuclear sector. A joint committee was created to give a frame to assess the best practices in terms of nuclear regulations, waste management, scientific cooperation and training. Concerning nuclear regulations, waste management and scientific cooperation the French contacts of KACARE (King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy) are respectively IRSN, ANDRA and CEA. Concerning scholar and professional training, a cooperation involving I2EN (International Institute for Nuclear Energy), EDF and AREVA on one side and the King Saud University, the Prince Mohammad University, the EFFAT University and the Dar Al Hekma College on the other side, has been set to develop training in nuclear engineering in Saudi Arabia. In parallel, AREVA and EDF have developed a program to find and qualify local subcontractors. (A.C.)

  20. Public sector energy management: A strategy for catalyzing energy efficiency in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anish Kumar

    To date the public sector role in facilitating the transition to a sustainable energy future has been envisaged mainly from a regulatory perspective. In such a role, the public sector provides the push factors---enforcing regulations and providing incentives---to correct market imperfections that impede energy transitions. An alternative and complementary role of the public sector that is now gaining increasing attention is that of catalyzing energy transitions through public sector energy management initiatives. This dissertation offers a conceptual framework to rationalize such a role for the public sector by combining recent theories of sustainable energy transition and public management. In particular, the framework identifies innovative public management strategies (such as performance contracting and procurement) for effectively implementing sustainable energy projects in government facilities. The dissertation evaluates a model of sustainable public sector energy management for promoting energy efficiency in Malaysia. The public sector in Malaysia can be a major player in leading and catalyzing energy efficiency efforts as it is not only the largest and one of the most influential energy consumers, but it also plays a central role in setting national development strategy. The dissertation makes several recommendations on how a public sector energy management strategy can be implemented in Malaysia. The US Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is used as a practical model. The analysis, however, shows that in applying the FEMP model to the Malaysian context, there are a number of limitations that will have to be taken into consideration to enable a public sector energy management strategy to be effectively implemented. Overall the analysis of this dissertation contributes to a rethinking of the public sector role in sustainable energy development that can strengthen the sector's credibility both in terms of governance and institutional performance. In

  1. From Principle to Action. An Analysis of the Financial Sector's Approach to Addressing Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudde, P.; Abadie, A.

    2008-05-01

    The Ministry of the Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment of the Netherlands (VROM), has taken the initiative to commission a study to determine best practice approaches within the financial sector regarding climate change. This study focuses on the indirect climate change footprint of the financial sector, i.e. the impact of the financial sector's clients on climate change. The study sets out to further the body of knowledge relating to the financial sector's approach to understanding and managing the effects of climate change on their clients' business. Specifically, it offers recommendations and potential next steps for both the financial sector and the Dutch government to enable a more focused and definitive approach to understanding, addressing and incorporating climate change considerations into decision-making procedures and policy development. The paper comprises the following analysis: Chapter 1 is an introduction describing why climate change is relevant to the financial sector, and introduces 18 financial institutions which were selected as the basis for the study. Chapter 2 elaborates on challenges for the financial sector regarding the incorporation of climate change considerations into enhanced risk analysis and decision making. Chapter 3 provides a comprehensive overview of the main international business initiatives regarding climate change and sustainability. It can be seen as a summary of Annex I to this report, which identifies which initiatives the 18 financial institutions are involved in. Chapter 4 highlights selected best practices amongst the 18 financial institutions assessed. Chapter 5 provides the main conclusions of the study and puts forward general and specific recommendations and potential next steps for the Dutch government and the financial sector. The Annexes contain fact sheets containing information about the climate change strategy and main activities of these organisations

  2. Furthering critical institutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Dalton Cleaver

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This special issue furthers the study of natural resource management from a critical institutional perspective. Critical institutionalism (CI is a contemporary body of thought that explores how institutions dynamically mediate relationships between people, natural resources and society. It focuses on the complexity of institutions entwined in everyday social life, their historical formation, the interplay between formal and informal, traditional and modern arrangements, and the power relations that animate them. In such perspectives a social justice lens is often used to scrutinise the outcomes of institutional processes. We argue here that critical institutional approaches have potentially much to offer commons scholarship, particularly through the explanatory power of the concept of bricolage for better understanding institutional change.  Critical institutional approaches, gathering momentum over the past 15 years or so, have excited considerable interest but the insights generated from different disciplinary perspectives remain insufficiently synthesised. Analyses emphasising complexity can be relatively illegible to policy-makers, a fact which lessens their reach. This special issue therefore aims to synthesise critical institutional ideas and so to lay the foundation for moving beyond the emergent stage to make meaningful academic and policy impact. In bringing together papers here we define and synthesise key themes of critical institutionalism, outline the concept of institutional bricolage and identity some key challenges facing this school of thought.

  3. Entrepreneurship as institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper responds to calls to make more explicit linkages between institutional theory and entrepreneurship research through studies on how entrepreneurs navigate and work with institutions. The research examines the micro-strategies and activities through which small-scale entrepreneurs maneuver...... between and exploit the multiple, potentially contradictory institutional logics of the different spheres in which they operate. While much research has elucidated how institutional entrepreneurs effect change, this study illustrates how effective entrepreneurs managing and exploiting institutional...... contradictions engage simultaneously in practices of maintaining and changing institutions to establish a balance between the poles on which their ventures depend. We illustrate this by two cases of small-scale entrepreneurship bridging institutional contradictions from an ethnographic study conducted under...

  4. National financial institutions and technological development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, J

    1979-12-01

    The impact of technological policies on non-technological institutions is examined to see what some of the side effects are and how they can serve the needs of the local financial and productive sector. The interrelationships of the national financial systems with government departments, local infrastructure, local private sector, and international financing agencies are examined in the historical context of several development projects. The wrong emphasis is shown to be used by many technological planners, whose first consideration should be to build a loca planning and investment capability and to train local human resources to assume a decision-making role. The neglect seen in India, Brazil, and other countries is traced to the motivation of the industrial enterprises. A more-suitable technological policy could introduce the concepts of loan evaluation on the basis of technological criteria and fiscal incentives. 24 references, 1 figure, 4 tables. (DCK)

  5. From Institutional Change to Experimentalist Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Institutionalist theory has shown how work and employment relations are shaped by national contexts. Recent developments in these theories have been increasingly concerned with the issue of institutional change. This reflects a shift in the nature of the competitive environment of firms from...... and institutions. In this paper, we emphasize that in the current context of globalization, firms and actors within firms are continuously developing the way in which they organize work and employment to produce goods and services that are competitive in global markets. The paper argues that new market conditions...... lead firms to constant experimentation in work organization as they seek to position themselves within systems of production and innovation that are global in nature. This creates a pressure for institutional change to facilitate the process of firm-level experimentation; it also tends to create...

  6. Energy conservation in agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggo, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    The annual production of foodgrains in India rose from 50.8 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 178 million tonnes in 1989-90. One of the factors which led to this impressive growth is the continued increase in input of mechanization and energy in the agricultural sector by way of tractors running on diesel and pumps (for water supply) based on diesel and electricity. Electricity consumption in agricultural sector rose from 833 million kWh in 1960-61 to 47000 million kWh in 1990-91 and is further expected to rise to 81.8 TWH in 1999-2000. Considering the heavy investments required for production and supply of energy, it has become imperative to avoid wasteful use of energy and to use energy more efficiently. This can be done by : (1) Changing the electricity tariff structure from the present horse power related rates to energy consumption related rates. This will induce farmers to avoid waste in energy use. (2) Adopting energy efficiency measures. These measures are : (1) replacement of inefficient foot valves, suction pipes and delivery pipes of the pump sets, (2) increasing power factor of electric motors used for pumps sets, (3) reducing distribution losses over LT lines, and (4) optimizing use of fertilizers. This optimization will indirectly conserve energy by reducing electricity consumption by fertilizer industry. (M.G.B.). 5 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Probing the string winding sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, Gerardo; Mayo, Martín [G. Física CAB-CNEA and CONICET, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Nuñez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA),C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-03-17

    We probe a slice of the massive winding sector of bosonic string theory from toroidal compactifications of Double Field Theory (DFT). This string subsector corresponds to states containing one left and one right moving oscillators. We perform a generalized Kaluza Klein compactification of DFT on generic 2n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds and show that, up to third order in fluctuations, the theory coincides with the corresponding effective theory of the bosonic string compactified on n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds, obtained from three-point amplitudes. The comparison between both theories is facilitated by noticing that generalized diffeomorphisms in DFT allow to fix generalized harmonic gauge conditions that help in identifying the physical degrees of freedom. These conditions manifest as conformal anomaly cancellation requirements on the string theory side. The explicit expression for the gauge invariant effective action containing the physical massless sector (gravity+antisymmetric+gauge+ scalar fields) coupled to towers of generalized Kaluza Klein massive states (corresponding to compact momentum and winding modes) is found. The action acquires a very compact form when written in terms of fields carrying O(n,n) indices, and is explicitly T-duality invariant. The global algebra associated to the generalized Kaluza Klein compactification is discussed.

  8. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  9. A Water Demand Management Strategy For The Namibian Tourism Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschneider, K.; Winter, K.

    The arid conditions of Namibia are forcing its decision-makers to resort to new wa- ter resource management approaches, including Water Demand Management (WDM). When Namibia achieved its independence from South Africa 1990, a new opportunity arose to rewrite certain restrictive laws and policies in order to bring about redress, development and transformation. The new Water Policy is one example in which the mindset is changed from a supply to a demand oriented water management ap- proach. Legal support for WDM within the new Water Act is a critical component that will support the implementation of WDM in all economic sectors, such as agri- culture, mining and tourism. It is argued that an appropriate WDM strategy should be designed specifically for each sector, once the typical water use patterns in a sec- tor are understood and key water resource managers at all levels are identified. The Namibian tourism sector is geographically dispersed and control over its operations is compounded by the fact that it is frequently located in extremely remote areas that are arid and ecologically sensitive. In general, WDM is rarely practised, because it is not yet supported by law and there are currently no institutional arrangements to con- trol water use in this geographically dispersed industrial sector through which WDM could be enforced either through metering and/or payments. Managers of tourist en- terprises undertake most of the water management themselves, and have been identi- fied as being crucial to the implementation of WDM strategies. A study of six tourist facilities determined the willingness and motivation of these managers to undertake various WDM initiatives. The study identified three factors which appear to influence the actions of managers, namely external controls, economics and company ethics. It is recommended that a tourism sector WDM strategy should focus on these three factors in order to transform the WDM aims and objectives on the policy level into

  10. Strategy for Strengthening Farmer Groups by Institutional Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbayu Budi Santoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector becomes a spotlight because this sector will be full of potential but the welfare of farmers who become the leading actor is not guaranteed and has a poor tendency. The purpose of this study is to formulate strategies to strengthen farmers' groups in order to create the marketing of the agricultural sector that benefit farmers. The method used to achieve this goal is to use a qualitative approach and Analytical Network Process. In addition to the secondary data obtained from several agencies, this study also uses primary data obtained by in-depth interviews and observations. This research results a priority of aspects of the institutional strengthening of farmer groups as well as priority issues and priorities of the solution of each aspect. In addition, the priority of alternative strategies resulted based on the problems and solutions that have been analyzed in order to solve the problems in the institutional strengthening of farmer groups in Demak.

  11. Development of Management Quality Assessment Methodology in the Public Sector: Problems and Contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Kozhevina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development management quality assessment methodology in the public sector is relevant scientific and practical problem of economic research. The utilization of the results of the assessment on the basis of the authors’ methodology allows us to rate the public sector organizations, to justify decisions on the reorganization and privatization, and to monitor changes in the level of the management quality of the public sector organizations. The study determined the place of the quality of the control processes of the public sector organization in the system of “Quality of public administration — the effective operation of the public sector organization,” the contradictions associated with the assessment of management quality are revealed, the conditions for effective functioning of the public sector organizations are proved, a mechanism of comprehensive assessment and algorithm for constructing and evaluating the control models of management quality are developed, the criteria for assessing the management quality in the public sector organizations, including economic, budgetary, social and public, informational, innovation and institutional criteria are empirically grounded. By utilizing the proposed algorithm, the assessment model of quality management in the public sector organizations, including the financial, economic, social, innovation, informational and institutional indicators is developed. For each indicator of quality management, the coefficients of importance in the management quality assessment model, as well as comprehensive and partial evaluation indicators are determined on the basis of the expert evaluations. The main conclusion of the article is that management quality assessment for the public sector organizations should be based not only on the indicators achieved in the dynamics and utilized for analyzing the effectiveness of management, but also should take into account the reference levels for the values of these

  12. Private sector participation in power sector in transition economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purica, I.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the problems related to the private participation in the infrastructure projects developed mainly in the transient economies. The comparatively larger risk volatility of this economies is counterbalanced by the expected high return rates of these projects. In these circumstances the paper presents the possibility to use the World Bank Group support for enhancing the private sector investments. After a description of the type of support able to be given, some examples are presented related to an energy project in Pakistan and to two others in China. There is also given a synthesis concerning the potential places in Romania were such projects may be achievable. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 2 refs

  13. Issues for Agricultural Extension Policy: Structures and Institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined issues pertaining to structures and institutional arrangement for agricultural extension policy. It highlighted the broad objectives of the new policy thrust in agriculture in Nigeria, and identified sub-policies that were expected to facilitate growth of the agricultural sector of the economy. Agricultural ...

  14. Transcending Apartheid in Higher Education: Transforming an Institutional Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suransky, Caroline; van der Merwe, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years after Nelson Mandela became President of South Africa, deeply entrenched inequalities and injustices are still at the core of the country's social fabric. South Africa's public and private sectors continue to battle with the situation and higher education institutions are no exception. The South African Ministry of Education has…

  15. Markets and institutions for promoting rice for food security and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Markets and institutions for promoting rice for food security and poverty reduction in Sub-Sahara Africa. ... the popular conception of the 1950s with labour, surplus models (“development with unlimited supplies of labour”) with agriculture as an unlimited pool of costless labour, waiting to be transferred to the industrial sector.

  16. A study of institutional environment and household food security at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study looked into the current scenario of food security in Rwanda. After analysing the national level institutional and food security scenarios by using available secondary data, the researchers used primary data that have been collected from a random sample of 200 households spreading over six sectors of the Huye ...

  17. The Institutional Commodifi cation of Heritage Tourism in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... just the private sector or the individual consumer that is involved in commodification processes; rather the state plays a significant role in the necessary institutional arrangements for commodification to occur. This process is illustrated with reference to evidence from the production and sale of tourism souvenirs in Ghana.

  18. Cambodian higher education in transition : an institutional governance perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sam, Chanphirun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to ascertain the governance arrangements of higher education providers in Cambodia and to seek insights into institutional governance while its higher education sector is in a significant transition towards the market model. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical research

  19. The Cochrane Collaboration: Institutional Analysis of a Knowledge Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Peter; Stephani, Anne Marie; Garner, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Cochrane is an international network that produces and updates new knowledge through systematic reviews for the health sector. Knowledge is a shared resource, and can be viewed as a commons. As Cochrane has been in existence for 25 years, we used Elinor Ostrom's theory of the commons and Institutional Analysis and Development Framework to appraise…

  20. Neo-institutional Perspectives on Public Management Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gestel, N.M. van; Teelken, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, theoretical explanations of competing drivers of change from neo-institutional theory are applied to public sector patterns of reform. The aim is to investigate basic ideas, assumptions, and practices of public management reform over the past two decades and analyze these elements of

  1. Toward an Institutional-Contingency View of School Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Joan E.

    Based on an institutional-contingency view, this study focuses on ways in which public and private school sectors in six San Francisco area counties embody different organizational logistics and authority principles, including rational-legal, traditional, and local-market. Results suggest that, among other characteristics, nonreligious private…

  2. Responsible leader behavior in health sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.

  3. [Ethical foundations of institutional psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, N

    2006-01-01

    The idea behind this work is to have an ethical examination of the institutional psychotherapy movement which has long influenced French public psychiatry and which has progressively, since the 80s, been subject to growing doubts. In the first part, institutional psychotherapy is presented. It is a model for theoretical development and practice in psychiatric care. It came into being just following the end of the Second World War at the same time as modern medical ethics. Its principles come on the one hand, from recognition of asylums' pathogenic effects--which led to the crushing of the patient's being--and on the other, through recognition of the uniqueness of each person and the subjectivity of mental suffering. These elements gave rise to creativity within the world of medicine and, in the sector, generated the science of psychiatry which advocated for continuity in care (both inpatient and outpatient) and preventive work directed at the population. This movement called for the use of the institution in its dynamic aspect which promotes exchanges and allows patients to situate or resituate themselves in historic and symbolic dimensions. It privileges a high level of transversality, maximum communication, favouring speaking out loud and responsibility. It requires a permanent analysis of the institutional counter transference (emotional reactions of the caregivers involved, their interrelations and the social and material organization of the institution) which determines the therapeutic action itself. THEORICAL BASIS: In a second part, its theoretical foundations and its practice shall be investigated in light of the guiding concepts of medical ethics (justice, autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance). Institutional psychotherapy responds to the need for justice by considering the patient as a whole and by conceiving each patient as being like oneself despite the differences (associated with the mode of hospitalization, the social or diagnostic category). The

  4. Overcoming the energy efficiency gap in India's household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Energy efficiency generates substantial financial savings while simultaneously improving environmental quality. Despite these benefits, developing countries like India are missing out on energy efficiency opportunities and instead concentrating on increased energy production. This paper identifies the efficient technologies in the household sector in India, and details their benefits to the consumer as well as to the society. It identifies the barriers that prevent the government from achieving its energy efficiency goals, analyses programs that addresses these barriers, and explores the creation of an institutional mechanism

  5. Institutional Support : Ethiopian Development Research Institute ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI) was established in 1999 and became operational in 2003 as a semi-autonomous organization accountable to ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: ...

  6. Afghanistan [Education Sector Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Three decades of conflict devastated Afghanistan's education systems and institutions. In 2002, an estimated 900,000 boys attended school, while women and girls were almost completely excluded from educational opportunities. Since then, the Afghan government, USAID, and international donors have worked closely to rebuild Afghanistan's education…

  7. The construction and legitimation of workplace bullying in the public sector: insight into power dynamics and organisational failures in health and social care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Marie; Jackson, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Health-care and public sector institutions are high-risk settings for workplace bullying. Despite growing acknowledgement of the scale and consequence of this pervasive problem, there has been little critical examination of the institutional power dynamics that enable bullying. In the aftermath of large-scale failures in care standards in public sector healthcare institutions, which were characterised by managerial bullying, attention to the nexus between bullying, power and institutional failures is warranted. In this study, employing Foucault's framework of power, we illuminate bullying as a feature of structures of power and knowledge in public sector institutions. Our analysis draws upon the experiences of a large sample (n = 3345) of workers in Australian public sector agencies - the type with which most nurses in the public setting will be familiar. In foregrounding these power dynamics, we provide further insight into how cultures that are antithetical to institutional missions can arise and seek to broaden the debate on the dynamics of care failures within public sector institutions. Understanding the practices of power in public sector institutions, particularly in the context of ongoing reform, has important implications for nursing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Assessing Institutional Characteristics on Microcredit Default in Kenya: A Comparative Analysis of Microfinance Institutions and Financial Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthoni, Muturi Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    A major concern on microcredit repayment remains a major obstacle to the Micro Financial Institutions (MFIs) and Financial Intermediaries (FIs) in Kenya. The health of MFI sector in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA) is a cause of concern due to the increased portfolio at risk (PAR). This region records the highest risk globally with its PAR 30 greater than…

  9. Determinants of the Russian Banking Sector Development as the Drivers of Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal’ya Stepanovna Voronova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the relationship between the situation in the national banking sector and Russia’s economy. Using the data provided by the Bank of Russia [8; 9; 10], Federal State Statistics Service [2], IBM SPSS Statistics software product, the authors have carried out a regression-correlation analysis of the main indicators of the Russian banking sector in 2005–2015 and GDP. It has been found that there is the strongest positive correlation between GDP and aggregate banking risks and also the profit of credit institutions; the correlation between GDP and aggregate financial result of the banking sector is weaker; the return on equity has no significant relationship with major indicators of banking activities, except for a moderate negative relationship with the aggregate value of regulatory capital; the return on equity in the Russian banking sector is affected adversely by subordinated debt in the structure of capital. In a stable economic situation (2005–2007, 2010–2013 the authors point out a correlation between capital and the profit of the banking sector; in a crisis situation (2008–2009, 2014–2015, there is a correlation between capital and the profit of profitable credit institutions alone. A positive correlation has been revealed between the proportion of profit of the reserve fund in the structure of capital and risks undertaken. Taking into consideration the correlations identified, the authors make a forecast model for aggregate profits of Russia’s banking sector

  10. The important role of public-sector research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Between 1970 and 2009, US public institutions participated in the research and development of 153 drugs, including 15 vaccines. Between 1990 and 2007, nearly 10% of all the new drugs and vaccines marketed in the US and about 20% of those representing a therapeutic advance originated in public institutions. The proportion of these drugs that represented a substantial therapeutic advance was over twice that of those produced exclusively by the private sector.

  11. Do sector-specific shocks explain aggregate fluctuations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Girardi, Alessandro; Argentiero, Amedeo

    -sector productivity fluctuations.(ii) Cross-sector technology shocks have very little explanatory power on productivity andemployment, while cross-sector non-technology shocks explain more than 60 percent of employmentthat is reallocated across sector; this suggests that the shocks’ transmission mechanism....... Thenon-durable sector may follow a standard RBC model, while the durable sector should incorporateconsumption habit formation....

  12. Electricity sector reform in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadou, Ekaterini N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an outlook of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece which is heavily dependent on indigenous lignite firing generation, while being located in the periphery of the EU internal electricity and gas markets. Competition through enhancing electricity trade in the region is limited to date, as the establishment of an internal market in South East Europe also progresses slowly. Development of competition through gas-firing generation by new entrants has been the priority adopted by State and Regulator's policies. However, the gas supply market in Greece and in the region still lags behind. (author)

  13. Chapter 8. The radioactivity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Robert; Debetencourt, Michel; Cregut, Andre; Grauby, Andre; Sousselier, Yves

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the nuclear industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter dealing with radioactivity among the 'nuisance sectors' includes the following headings: natural radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation, the operation of a power station (principle, generating steam from nuclear energy, different types of reactors, safety barriers), radioactive effluents and wastes, nuclear controls and the environment, measures taken in the event of an accident occurring in a nuclear power station, the dismantling and decommissioning of power stations [fr

  14. Mergers & Acquisitions in India: A sectoral analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Bhalla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, deregulation and technological improvements have resulted in increase in M&A across the globe. There is enormous literature existing in the advanced economies. However, very little information is available regarding M&A in India. Various sectors have witnessed differential involvement in M&A activity indicating higher participation by some. Particularly, certain sectors such as financial services and pharmaceuticals demonstrate higher M&A activity. To emphasise differential importance of sectors in M&A activity, it is necessary to conduct a sector-wise analysis. Accordingly, this study attempts to investigate the differential representation of various sectors in M&A. Further, it explores the role played by India in the rising global M&A activity. In light of this, it specifies the factors driving consolidation in the financial sector globally.

  15. Private Sector Credit and Inflation Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Katusiime

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of inflation volatility on private sector credit growth. The results indicate that private sector credit growth is positively linked to the one period lagged inflation volatility. Given that past monetary policy actions continue to affect the targeted variables due to the substantial lags in the transmission mechanism, the positive response of private sector credit growth to past inflation volatility suggests a credible monetary policy regime in Uganda, which has led to a reduction in the level of macroeconomic uncertainty and the restoration of favorable economic conditions and prospects, thus increasing the demand for credit. Further, the study finds that the lagged private sector credit growth, nominal exchange rate, and inflation have a statistically significant effect on private sector credit growth while financial innovation, interest rates, and GDP growth appear not to be important determinants of private sector credit growth. The robustness of our findings is confirmed by sensitivity checks.

  16. Financial Sector Structure and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marc Steffen

    Economists consider a well-functioning financial sector to be of first order importance for a modern (capitalist) economy. However, in the aftermath of the financial crisis a debate about the future role of the financial sector emerged and many commentators have called into question whether...... the financial sector actually creates value for the wider society. This research, which is part of a broad research project “Nordic Finance and the Good Society”, aims to contribute to this debate by studying the role of the financial sector structure for economic development of an economy. Therefore......, it proceeds in five steps. First, it provides some reflections on the financial sector and the existing literature studying financial sector structure and its association with economic development. Second, it presents stylized firm-level evidence on capital structure choice and firm behavior. It is argued...

  17. Texas Heart Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of seminars and conferences. Resources Texas Heart Institute Journal Scientific Publications Library & Learning Resources Resources for Physicians Fellowships & Residencies School of Perfusion Technology THI Spotlight Check out the ...

  18. The Multilateral Financial Institutions of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Munich i Gasa

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of Multilateral Development Institutions (MDIs in promoting economic and social progress in Less Developed Countries (LDC. After examining the activities of the main MDIs (International Monetary Fund, WorldBank Group, Interamerican Development Bank, African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development we have come to some conclusions. First, MDIs loans play a catalytic effect in channeling flows of additional public or private resources to LDC. Second, MDIs emphasize both the role of the private sector and an efficient public sector to achieve its objectives (to promote economic growth, reduce poverty, etc.. Third, MDIs provide direct financing for private sector activities, restructuring and privatisation to encourage the development of market economies as well as funding for the infrastructure that supports these activities. Fourth, over the last few years the MDIs have increased their conditionalities on the borrowers, especially in environment and governance areas. Fifth, the resources provided by the MDIs are not enough to cope with the financial needs of LDC; furthermore, a low percentage of total loans are on concessional terms. Sixth, most of the MDIs resources go to the benefit of medium-income countries (South Korea, Mexico, Brazil, etc. and only a small amount of credits go to the poorest countries; what´s more, in the last few last years MDIs are increasing their financial support of countries in the East. Seventh, MDIs have integrated social sector and environment as a first-order priority in their reports, but the lending reality is far from incorporating such an aim: one thing istheory, the other is practice. Eighth, MDIs’ institutional structures and decision-making processes are similar, as in most of them the principle of one dollar one vote holds. As a result, the MDIs are dominated by the developed countries, which use such

  19. Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealon, Teresa

    2014-06-30

    This report outlines the accomplishments of the Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology Institute (WCTI), including creating a website and online course catalog, sponsoring technology transfer workshops, reaching out to interested parties via news briefs and engaging in marketing activities, i.e., advertising and participating in tradeshows. We conclude that the success of WCTI was hampered by the lack of a market. Because there were no supporting financial incentives to store carbon, the private sector had no reason to incur the extra expense of training their staff to implement carbon storage. ii

  20. Third sector primary care for vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, P; Dowell, A; Woodward, A

    2001-12-01

    This paper aims to describe and explain the development of third sector primary care organisations in New Zealand. The third sector is the non-government, non-profit sector. International literature suggests that this sector fulfils an important role in democratic societies with market-based economies, providing services otherwise neglected by the government and private for-profit sectors. Third sector organisations provided a range of social services throughout New Zealand's colonial history. However, it was not until the 1980s that third sector organisations providing comprehensive primary medical and related services started having a significant presence in New Zealand. In 1994 a range of union health centres, tribally based Mäori health providers, and community-based primary care providers established a formal network -- Health Care Aotearoa. While not representing all third sector primary care providers in New Zealand, Health Care Aotearoa was the best-developed example of a grouping of third sector primary care organisations. Member organisations served populations that were largely non-European and lived in deprived areas, and tended to adopt population approaches to funding and provision of services. The development of Health Care Aotearoa has been consistent with international experience of third sector involvement -- there were perceived "failures" in government policies for funding primary care and private sector responses to these policies, resulting in lack of universal funding and provision of primary care and continuing patient co-payments. The principal policy implication concerns the role of the third sector in providing primary care services for vulnerable populations as a partial alternative to universal funding and provision of primary care. Such an alternative may be convenient for proponents of reduced state involvement in funding and provision of health care, but may not be desirable from the point of view of equity and social cohesion

  1. Private sector in public health care systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matějusová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...

  2. Institutional conditions for IWRM: the Israeli case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhendler, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Many places in the world are experiencing a water crisis. This water crisis is attributed to a governance crisis, whereas often fragmented institutional and physical water structures are used to explain a policy of overexploitation. The Israeli water system, which adopted integrated water resource management (IWRM), is often cited as a model for other countries struggling with fragmented water systems. Yet, despite the exceptional degree of integration, Israel in the past two decades has adopted an unsustainable water policy. The aim of this study is to understand this failure and thereby to postulate on the institutional conditions required for successful implementation of IWRM. The study focuses on the politics of water allocation during the drought of 1999 to 2002. It was found that the failure originates in setting administrative divisions in the decision-making process and in differential checks, with no balances implicitly instituted within the integrated water system. These two factors have resulted in a water system that is physically integrated but is not coupled by a balanced institutional structure. This case study teaches us that when reforming the water sector along IWRM lines, measures must be taken to ensure that the physical integration coincides with a balanced institutional integration-otherwise the results may be worse than if there were no integration at all.

  3. Directory of the French thermal solar sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demangeon, Elsa; Simmonet, Raphael; Canals, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    After an overview of what is at stake for the thermal solar sector in terms of employment and industrial development, a discussion of the huge energy and industrial potential of this sector, and the proposition of a road map for the development of this sector in France, this publication proposes a directory of actors of the different activity sectors: research and development, engineering, electric and electronic hardware manufacturing, thermal equipment manufacturing, fluid manufacturing, reflector manufacturing, thermodynamic machine manufacturer, structure component manufacturer, control-command system, energy storage, developers, and so on

  4. The increased importance of sector switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2017-01-01

    Sector switching is an important phenomenon that casts light on public–private differences. Yet our knowledge about its prevalence and trends is limited. We study sector switching using unique Danish register-based employer–employee data covering more than 25 years. We find that sector switching...... constitutes 18.5% of all job-to-job mobility, and the trend is increasing both from public to private and from private to public. Sector switching is also generally increasing for middle managers, but for administrative professionals only the flows from private to public increase and for top managers only...... the flows from public to private increase....

  5. Cybersecurity Public Sector Threats and Responses

    CERN Document Server

    Andreasson, Kim J

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has given rise to new opportunities for the public sector to improve efficiency and better serve constituents in the form of e-government. But with a rapidly growing user base globally and an increasing reliance on the Internet, digital tools are also exposing the public sector to new risks. An accessible primer, Cybersecurity: Public Sector Threats and Responses focuses on the convergence of globalization, connectivity, and the migration of public sector functions online. It identifies the challenges you need to be aware of and examines emerging trends and strategies from around

  6. Industrial Disputes in the Construction Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J Perry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cole Royal Commission enquiry into the building and construction (abbreviated to ‘construction’ sector recommended controversial workplace-relation reforms for that sector. The recommended changes are likely to be enshrined in legislation within the year. The Commission drew on analyses of industrial disputes that focused, in the main, on quite recent experience. This paper attempts to give a broader historical perspective on disputes in that sector by considering the pattern of disputes for the entire post-World War II period. Accordingly, data on disputes and employees during the entire period are gathered from Australian Bureau of Statistics current and archived sources. These data are classified according to sector (construction versus non-construction and analysed. It is found that the strike rate has, on average, been greater in the construction sector than in the non-construction sector. However, there have been periods during which disputes in the construction sector have been relatively low. The most recent period was during the period of the Accord (1983-96, during which the strike rate in the construction sector fell relatively strongly. The analysis of this relatively broad historical period draws attention, among other things, to the possibility that the sort of strategies employed during the Accord years – strategies of cooperation and consensus building – may provide a more effective means of bringing industrial peace to the workplace relations scene of the construction sector than policies that are relatively confrontational.

  7. Healthcare and Social Assistance Sector (NAICS 62)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental regulations and information for the Healthcare sector, including doctor's offices, hospitals, and medical laboratories. Includes information about dental amalgam wastewater, sterilizers, and medical waste.

  8. Report of the renewable energy sector Committee. National steering committee of the region and sector mobilization plan for the development of green growth professions 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a presentation of the renewable energy sector, this report identifies the development or transformation of professions within this sector, and assesses its recruitment needs. It also identifies the associated needs in terms of education and of professional course organization. It indicates the various organizations and institutions involved in matching employment offer and demand. It discusses how to valorise the main professions and education courses. Recommendations are formulated to develop knowledge, to communicate, to educate all students in building construction and architecture, to promote architecture quality in individual housing, to educate both theoretically and practically, to match offer and demand, to propose appropriate remunerations, to educate teachers, and so on

  9. Post-Soviet gas sector restructuring in the CIS: a political economy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschhausen, C. von; Engerer, H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyses progress and obstacles to gas sector reform in the most important CIS-Countries (Russia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan), taking a political economy perspective. This reform process is embedded in a very specific post-Soviet institutional framework stemming from the legacy of socialism. Firstly, we review the evolution of the gas sector for the period 1992-1998. The paper then identifies the post-Soviet specifies of gas sector restructuring, to which any reform strategy and technical assistance have to he adapted. We derive concrete, process-oriented policy conclusions to accelerate the reform process in a market-oriented way. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the perspectives of gas sector restructuring in this geopolitically strategic area of the world. (author)

  10. Institutional capacity and climate actions. Summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, S.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the role of institutional capacity in selecting the most appropriate climate actions. More specifically, it investigates why, for some countries, institutional capacity may need to be considered as an important criterion for selecting future climate actions, alongside environmental, economic and/or political considerations. This paper is a synthesis of results of an OECD/IEA project undertaken in 2003 for the Annex I Expert Group, which led to several publications, namely a framework paper on Institutional Capacity and Climate Actions, three national cases studies, respectively on Mexico, India and Bulgaria, as well as a paper assessing the status of national inventory preparation in Annex I and non-Annex I Parties (OECD/IEA, 2003). The paper argues that the very nature of a country's institutional development suggests a progressive approach to climate actions, which takes into account the specificity of a country's existing institutional setting. More specifically, substantial changes in a country's existing institutions are likely to be required when particular levels or types of institutional capacities need to be developed, for example when these changes affect public governance as a whole. Finally, particular forms of actions may require significant changes in a country's institutional setting. For example, legally-binding quantified national targets tend to require significant institutional development in all functions of climate policy. With other approaches, such as those based on non-binding targets, sectoral targets or policies and measures, institutional development may be more progressive and targeted. Thus, when considering particular forms of climate actions, countries might benefit from investigating what kind of institutions are likely to be needed and whether they will be able to develop sufficient capacity in time to implement these actions. Overall, this analysis suggests a step-by-step, dynamic model for

  11. Institutions improving fiscal performance: Evidence from Swedish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Ellegård, Lina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts of interest within hierarchic government organizations regarding the importance of fiscal discipline create the need for institutions that curb the bargaining power of units in charge of implementing policy and align their incentives to the interests of the whole organization. We examine...... this general public sector problem by collecting unique data on budget institutions and conflicts of interest within the Swedish municipalities. Our estimations suggest that institutions pertaining to both the planning stage and the implementation stage of the budget process are important for fiscal...

  12. Institutional aspects of corporate governance (publishing and printing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Irina Petrovna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the fundamental principles of the corporate governance theory is carried out with substantiation of the use of institutional theory to ensure the effective development of the corporate sector of Ukrainian economy. The proposals on the allocation of corporate governance models on the example of publishing and printing industry are elaborated and institute of shareholder ownership was laid in the basis of construction. Institutional support at the macro-, meso-and micro-economic level is considered, that corresponds to the current state of Ukrainian economy and helps to improve the efficiency of corporate governance by domestic companies.

  13. Volunteer Teachers: Testing the Professionalisation Agenda in the Lifelong Learning Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Denise; Rennie, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Volunteer trainee teachers (trainee teachers who teach on an unpaid basis and not on a pre-service course) are present in a number of institutions across the lifelong learning sector (LLS) in England, giving the opportunity to gain entry into the teaching profession to those who might otherwise face difficulties in accessing paid teaching. Whilst…

  14. Orchestrating innovation networks: The case of innovation brokers in the agri-food sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batterink, M.H.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    This explorative study of network orchestration processes conducted by innovation brokers addresses new issues in bridging small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and research institutes in innovation networks. The study includes four in-depth case studies in the agri-food sector from different

  15. Risks mitigation in the poulty sub-sector in Oyo state: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risks and uncertainties associated with agricultural business have to a great extent undermined the productivity and sustainability of the agricultural sector by reducing the availability of institutional credit for investment in agriculture. Hence, this article examined the risks mitigating functions of the Nigerian Agricultural ...

  16. Did the price-related reforms in Ghana's cocoa sector favour farmers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Huis, van A.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Obeng-Ofori, D.; Asante, F.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally hypothesized in the innovation systems literature that institutions can create production incentives for farmers. This paper examines whether the introduction in 1984 of the Producer Price Review Committee (PPRC) in Ghana's cocoa sector has improved the transmission of world prices

  17. Sector surveys on working conditions : hotels and restaurants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Jettinghoff, K.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2003-01-01

    The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions has asked TNO Work & Employment to report on the quality of work and employment in the sector of Hotels & Restaurants in The Netherlands. Other research institutes were asked to do the same for the situation in the other

  18. UNDERSTANDING THE CHANGING ROLE OF PUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, Sandra; Mimba, Ni Putu S. H.; Van Helden, G. Jan

    This article develops a framework for understanding changes in the demand for and supply of performance information in public sector organizations in less developed countries (LDCs). New Institutional Sociology (NIS) is used to argue that pressures from specific stakeholders stimulate organizations

  19. Information and communication technologies in a multi-sector endogenous growth model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vourvachaki, Evangelia

    -, č. 386 (2009), s. 1-56 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : multi-sector economy * endogenous growth * information and communication technologies Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp386.pdf

  20. Sustainable growth of the Kenyan dairy sector : a quick scan of robustness, reliability and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, Corné J.; Omedo Bebe, Bockline; Lee, van der Jan; Kilelu, Catherine; Tonui, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of how the Kenyan dairy sector performs in three analytical domains: the robustness of the supply chains, the reliability of institutional governance and the resilience of the innovation system. Analysis is by literature review, stakeholder interviews and a