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  1. Vaccines for all: Institut Pasteur vaccinology course, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindiş, Emrah

    2010-09-01

    A comprehensive 5-week vaccinology course was recently held in Paris (1 March-2 April 2010) hosted by the Institut Pasteur, a world-renowned center for science and vaccinology. A total of 25 young scientists from different parts of the world participated and 63 world experts gave lectures in six specific modules that covered all aspects of vaccinology, from basic research to clinical studies. Students also had the opportunity to attend a 2-day "Pandemic Influenza Workshop". This article summarizes the issues discussed during this course and highlights the importance of global access to vaccines.

  2. The Restructuring of the Portal at the Institut Pasteur Library: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medawar, Katia

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the restructuring project of the portal BioLib at the Institut Pasteur Library in Paris and to share experiences with others facing similar challenges. Design/methodology/approach: Provides an outline of the history and the steps followed during the initial project (2001), an evaluation of the use of the portal and the stages…

  3. CAS, Shanghai, Pasteur to Jointly Set Up a New Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ An agreement for jointly establishing the CAS Institut Pasteur of Shanghai was signed on August 30 in east China's Shanghai Municipality. Representatives from the collaborative partners, including Shanghai Vice Mayor Yan Junqi, CAS Vice President Chen Zhu and President of Institut Pasteur Philippe Kourilsky witnessed the signing ceremony.

  4. The designing of anti-diphtheria serotherapy at the Institut Pasteur (1888-1900): the role of a supranational network of microbiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachelin, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    The development of anti-diphtheria serotherapy at the Institut Pasteur immediately follows the crisis known as the Pasteur-Koch debate. Research on diphtheria in Paris is indicative of the importance granted by Pasteurian scientists to Koch's school criticisms. After 1887, relations between French and German bacteriologists become more relaxed. A scientific and social network develops between them. It later extends to other fields of research at the Institut Pasteur, particularly therapeutic chemistry. The evolution of Franco-German relations at the Institut Pasteur is placed in the general framework of the way French universities considered German science.

  5. [Georges Moustardier, physician of the Colonial Health Service and Overseas Pasteur Institutes and university professor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedet, J P

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a step-by-step description of Georges Moustardier's career. After completing studies at the Ecole Principale du Service de Santé de la Marine et des Colonies in Bordeaux, and at the Ecole d'Application du Service de Santé des Troupes Coloniales in Marseille, he was deployed to Indochina where he served as physician first at the Poulo Condor penitentiary from (1929 to 1930) and then in Cambodia from (1931 to 32). In 1933, he returned to Paris where he followed lectures on Microbiology at the Institut Pasteur, in Paris. He was then assigned to the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar from 1931 to 1932. From 1939 to 1944, he was Head of the General Hospital in Brazzaville, Congo and Director of the Medical School in French Equatorial Africa. He retired from the army in 1946. From 1949 to 1972, he held an academic position as Professor of Bacteriology at the Bordeaux School of Medicine.

  6. Figures du sacré à l'Institut Pasteur

    OpenAIRE

    Perrey, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    Malgré plus d’un siècle d’histoire tourmenté, l’Institut Pasteur a préservé son statut ambigu de fondation privée reconnue d’utilité publique et sa triple fonction de centre de recherche, d’enseignement et de vaccination. Cet article étudie la manière dont les pasteuriens ont su défendre et faire fructifier à leur profit l’image de Louis Pasteur, transformer l’Institut en un véritable lieu de mémoire et assurer le maintien des composantes majeures du projet fondateur. Les transformations inte...

  7. Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佩君

    2005-01-01

    Paris, the capital of France, is located in northern France on both banks of the Seine River, 145km from the river’s mouth on the English Channel. A total of 2, 135, 300 inhabitants live in Paris proper, and almost 11 million persons live in greater Paris, which is one of Europe’s largest metropolitan areas. A city of world importance and the business, historic, intellectual, diplomatic, religious, educational, artistic, and tourist center of France, Paris owes its prosperity in large part to its favorable position on the Seine, which has been a major commercial artery since the Roman period.

  8. Jacques Monod (1910-1976) and his publications in the "Annales de l'Institut Pasteur".

    OpenAIRE

    Legout, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Between 1942 and 1956, Jacques Monod, Nobel Prize winner in Physiology/Medicine, contributed a number of papers to the Annales de l' Institut Pasteur, the ancestor of the journal "Research in Microbiology". Circumstances that led him to publish in the "Annales" are recalled here. Entre 1942 et 1956, Jacques Monod, Prix Nobel de physiologie et de médecine a rédigé de nombreux articles dans les Annales de l'Institut Pasteur, ancêtre du journal "Research in Microbiology". Les circonstances qui ...

  9. [Leishmania epidemiology, diagnosis, chemotherapy and vaccination approaches in the international network of Pasteur Institutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzir, Hechmi; Aoun, Karim; Späth, Gerald F; Laouini, Dhafer; Prina, Eric; Victoir, Kathleen; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2013-12-01

    Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania generate severe human diseases termed leishmaniases. Due to their frequency and the severity of certain clinical forms, these diseases represent a major public health problem and limit the economic growth in various developing countries. The presence of Pasteur Institutes in countries with endemic leishmaniasis has provided important incentives to develop a strong public health agenda in the Pasteur scientific community with respect to this important disease. A concerted effort is now coordinated through the recently created LeishRIIP platform (www.leishriip.org), which aims to identify synergies and complementary expertise between the eleven members of the international network of Pasteur Institutes working on various aspects of the disease including epidemiology, diagnosis, chemotherapy and vaccination.

  10. Jacques Monod (1910-1976) and his publications in the "Annales de l'Institut Pasteur".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legout, Sandra

    2010-03-01

    Between 1942 and 1956, Jacques Monod, Nobel Prize winner in Physiology/Medicine, contributed a number of papers to the Annales de l' Institut Pasteur, the ancestor of the journal "Research in Microbiology". Circumstances that led him to publish in the "Annales" are recalled here.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar Tolworthi Strain Pasteur Institute Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Kohzo; Nakashima, Kaede

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar tolworthi strain Pasteur Institute Standard was determined. The genome consists of a 5.9-Mb chromosome and eight plasmids, one of which is linear. The second largest plasmid (293 kb) carries the genes encoding insecticidal proteins. PMID:26139717

  12. Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image of Paris was acquired on July 23, 2000 and covers an area of 23 by 20 km. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century BC. Paris is an alluring city boasting many monumental landmarks, such as the Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Louvre, and the Eiffel Tower. Its beautiful gardens, world-class cuisine, high fashion, sidewalk cafes, and intellectual endeavors are well known. The city's cultural life is centered on the Left Bank of the Seine, while business and commerce dominate the Right Bank. The image is located at 48.8 degrees north latitude and 2.3 degrees east longitude. In figure 1, the 4 enlarged areas zoom in to some of the major buildings. In the UPPER LEFT, the Eiffel Tower and its shadow are seen. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 m (1054 ft), compared to its actual height of 303 m (985 ft). In the UPPER RIGHT, the Arc de Triomphe is at the center of the Place de L'etoile, from which radiate 12 major boulevards. In the LOWER LEFT is the Tuileries Garden and the Louvre Museum art its eastern end. In the LOWER RIGHT is the Invalides, the burial place and monument of Napoleon Bonaparte. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. [Edmond Sergent (1876-1969) and the Pasteur Institute of Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Tribonnière, X

    2000-01-01

    Edmond Sergent, supported by a distinguished team of colleagues, directed the Pasteur Institute of Algeria for over 60 years, from 1900 to 1963. As a student of Emile Roux, Sergent had received a Pasteurian training. His institute devoted extensive study to malaria. Sergent defined the concept of prevention and extended it to other pathologies. For many years, the Institute persevered in carrying out successful antimalarial campaigns such that Algeria was freed of the disease. In 1916-1917, Sergent and his brother were called upon to organise anti-malarial efforts for the Armée d'Orient. By way of systematic and energetic curative and prophylactic measures, they were able to eradicate the disease. In 1908, the Sergent brothers were the first to discover the role of the louse in the transmission of another disease, relapsing fever. The Pasteur Institute team also discovered the sand fly vector which transmits the parasite causing leishmaniasis. The Sergents found a new form of oculonasal myiasis, called "Thimni". In addition, they led effective campaigns against tuberculosis based on BCG vaccination administered throughout Algeria. The Pasteur Institute of Algeria conducted important research in plant and animal diseases. For example, they detected a trypanosome agent causing dromedary "debab", as well as its vector, the horsefly. They also studied in depth bovine piroplasmosis, which causes widespread and destructive disease, and demonstrated the role of the tick in promoting transmission generally. Their work in botany included the discovery that a Fusarium-type fungus was the causal agent for "baïoudh", the main disease of date palms. They also demonstrated the basic role of the fruit fly in alcoholic grape fermentation.

  14. [The development of the international network of Pasteur Institutes from 2003 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of the Institut Pasteur international network from 2003 to the present day, has coincided with the strengthening of a common legal framework, associated to a Declaration of shared scientific and ethical values qualified as "Pasteurian". The article explores the originality of the network, emphasises the importance of its reference to a shared history, and hypothesizes the ongoing fabrication of an esprit de corps uniting scientists coming from a variety of communities. The RIIP may thus be the tool of a scientific diplomacy working to lessen the inequalities in the domain of scientific and medical knowledge, in an unstable world.

  15. Research and Collaboration Overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: A Bibliometric Approach toward Research Funding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mostafavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN, which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions.

  16. Institut Pasteur v. United States: the AIDS patent dispute, the Contract Disputes Act and the international exchange of scientific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, H L

    1989-01-01

    In the case of Institut Pasteur v. United States, the Institut Pasteur (Pasteur) claimed that the National Cancer Institute (NCI) had breached express and implied contracts to share research on AIDS virus samples provided to NCI by Pasteur. NCI scientists allegedly used the samples to acquire information which allowed NCI to file patent applications for an AIDS blood test kit. The United States Claims Court dismissed the complaint by holding that the Institut Pasteur had not complied with certain administrative procedures required by the Contract Disputes Act before bringing its suit. The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit reversed the decision of the Claims Court by holding that the disputed contracts did not fit within the scope of the Contract Disputes Act. Soon after the Court of Appeals decision, President Reagan and Prime Minister Chirac announced a settlement agreement whereby the lawsuit was to be dropped, American and French scientists were to share credit for having discovered the AIDS virus, and both parties to the suit were to share the patent rights for the AIDS blood test kit. This settlement suggest that international legal disputes involving urgent scientific and medical matters may require dispute resolution techniques that serve as alternatives to national courts.

  17. [Evolution of tinea capitis observed in mycology laboratory of institute Pasteur of Algeria from1995 to 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamroune, Z; Mazouz, A; Benelmouffok, A-B; Kellou, D

    2016-12-01

    Tinea capitis are common in Algeria and are a frequent reason for consultation. This mycosis affects children and rarely adults. This is a retrospective study over a period of 20 years from 1995 to 2015 at the mycology laboratory of the Pasteur institute of Algeria.

  18. [The Pasteur network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosoir, J L

    1995-01-14

    Inspired by Louis Pasteur, the international network of Pasteur Institutes forms an original body of research institutes whose vitality has grown steadily since Albert Calmette first created the Saigon Institute in 1891. The dynamic development of the 23 Pasteur Institutes currently implanted throughout the world was made possible by three driving forces. First of all, Pasteur's own teaching--"Advance only what you can prove experimentally"--the founding principle of modern research. Secondly, the international missions headed by leading collaborators including Thuillier who worked on cholera in Egypt, Loir who initiated antirabies research in Australia and Russia, Calmette in Saigon, and others in Rio de Janeiro, Dalat, Tunis and Alger. And finally Pasteur's own personal renown. Today the Pasteur Institutes fill a vital need in their respective countries developing and producing vaccines locally, serving often as the only competent medical laboratory in developing countries and helping improve standards of hygiene adapted to local situations. Fundamental research has always been at the heart of Pasteur Institutes, coupled with essential training for technicians and researchers alike. Despite political incertitudes and turmoil, the international network of Pasteur Institutes has held its place as the leader in scientific progress for over a century, setting the place for modern international research. The Cantacuzene Institute in Bucarest and the Pasteur Institute in Saint-Petersburg which joined the network in 1991 and 1993 are the most recent examples of the fundamental principle of exchange and cooperation so important for further development.

  19. [Alexandre Yersin (1863-1943), explorer and a founding scientist of the Pasteur Institutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleliri, J M

    2014-01-01

    2013 was the year to celebrate Yersin: the 150th anniversary of his birth and the 70th anniversary of his death. Beyond the images usually attached to the memory of this doctor who discovered the bubonic plague bacillus (in Hong Kong in 1894), the author seeks to introduce Yersin, the man, as an explorer curious about his environment rather than a scientist concerned with honors and public recognition. Alexandre Yersin is an atypical figure in the universe of Pasteur, his collaborators, students, and followers. Although he began his career working with Louis Pasteur following the development of the vaccine against rabies, in 1885, the call of the sea led him to quit the laboratory on rue Ulm to, he said, "explore new lands". He worked for the Messageries maritimes merchant shipping company. In Saigon, he met Albert Calmette, who convinced him to join the newly created Colonial Army Medical Corps. In 1892 in Nha-Trang, Yersin set up a bacteriology laboratory in a straw hut; it subsequently became the first Pasteur Institute in Indochina, the starting point of a network of research laboratories. During the bubonic plague epidemic that raged in Hong Kong, Yersin succeeded in isolating its causal agent, surprising even himself by the ease with which he did so. He was 30 years old then, but what could have been the start of a prestigious career, crowned with honors, was spent instead at the service of the local populations. His exploration of the Vietnam highlands gave Yersin the occasion to cultivate and reveal a prodigious eclecticism and his profound humanism. He led three explorations in unknown regions of Annam and contributed to the development of this country by his social, educational, medical, and economic approach, entirely dedicated to aiding the indigenous populations. Yersin never left Vietnam again. He worked as an astronomer and agronomist (introducing the cultivation of cinchona (source of quinine) and rubber trees in the country) - always close to the

  20. [Cervical cancers diagnosed at the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar from 1992 to 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharisolo Vololonantenaina, C R; Rabarijaona, L P; Soares, J L; Rasendramino, M; Pécarrère, J L; Khun, H; Huerre, M

    2003-01-01

    In Madagascar, the epidemiological data actualized concerning the cancer of the collus of uterus are not available because of the absence of register of cancer. The objective of this study is to achieve a first assessment of the problem, to complete the epidemiological knowledge, to point out the tool of precoce detection of the precancerous lesions, to propose the measures aiming to improve the management of the patients and to contribute to the institution of a register of cancer. This is a retrospective survey on the frequency of the cancer of the cervix observed from 1992 to 2002 about 23,908 withdrawals addressed to the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar for anatomopathological exam and 12,605 cervical smears for cytological exam. In pathological anatomy, 2,621 (63.4%) of 4,136 cases of diagnosed cancer, have been observed in women. 687 cases (26.2%) of them were localized in the collus. The 3/4 of the cancers of the cervix is invasive and the mean age is 48.2 years old at the time of diagnosis. The cytology detects only 74 cases of invasive cancer of which most don't have an histological confirmation. 274 pre-lesions of cervix cancer were diagnosed for this period, the majority lesions are cytological diagnosis. In spite of a non representative recruitment of the general population, and by the number of withdrawals considered, these results may represent indicators of the epidemiological situation and justify the institution of program to detect the precancerous lesions in a national scale.

  1. [French language training course: malaria workshop organized by Institut Pasteur de Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domarle, O; Randrianarivelojosia, M; Duchemin, J B; Robert, V; Ariey, F; Hommel, M

    2007-10-01

    The Malaria Workshop organized by Institut Pasteur de Madagascar is an original course that applies innovative concepts to training of health professionals involved in malaria control in endemic countries. Course objectives are to enhance the skills needed to fight malaria (transversal competencies, critical approach, and position statement), to reinforce project cycle management proficiency, and to demonstrate how the Internet can be used as a source of documentation to compensate for geographical isolation. The Malaria Workshop is a six-consecutive-week full-day course that has been presented once a year since 2003. Seventy-six researchers, physicians or health ministry officials have already benefited from this training. Teaching methods emphasize andragogy that facilitates a learner/mentor relationship promoting exchange rather than transmission of knowledge and problem-based learning that engages learners to take an active part in gathering information. These methods in combination with the diverse backgrounds and experience of course participants foster a positive dynamic environment for learning that is monitored by weekly progress evaluation. Follow-up surveys have confirmed the positive effect of this training on the professional performance of former participants who become more involved in program development and fund-raising efforts. A professional network is growing and learners are starting to their experience. In this report workshop organizers describe the course's origins and concepts and present the conclusions drawn based on the first five yearly sessions.

  2. [Toxoplasmosis at the Pasteur Institute of Bangui, Central African Republic (1996-1998): serological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, J M; Mambely, R; Selekon, B; Coumanzi-Malo, M F

    1999-07-01

    A serological study of toxoplasmosis was conducted between 1996 and 1998 on 1953 patients of the Medical Analysis Laboratory of the Institut Pasteur de Bangui. The mean age of patients was 28 years. Among sera tested by ELISA, seropositivity to IgG antibodies was observed in 50.6%, and 2.6% sera were found positive for IgM antitoxoplasma antibodies (immuno-capture). The seroprevalence did not vary significantly according to sex or age. The results showed 40.8% sera had IgG antibodies titered 400 Ul/ml and more. The proportion of high level (> 400 Ul) IgG was more important in males than in females. High level IgG antibodies were statistically significant more frequently in the sera of females aged 10-29 years. Of the procreative women, 49.1% were at risk of contacting toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis of recently acquired infection, based on the coexistence of IgM antibodies and high level IgG antibodies, was noted in 1.6% among sera of procreative women. In the Central African Republic, serologic survey during pregnancy is not systematic and HIV seroprevalence is high (15%). Risks of acute infections during pregnancy and of opportunistic infections in HIV-infection patients are high. A control of toxoplasmosis is justifiable (screening during pregnancy, sanitary education) in CAR.

  3. [Management of breast cancers diagnosed at the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar from 1995 to 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharisolo Vololonantenaina, C R; Rabarijaona, L P; Rajemiarimoelisoa, C; Rasendramino, M; Migliani, R

    2002-01-01

    Breast cancer is a great problem of public health all over the world. In developed countries, breast cancer represents the most common cancer in females. Its incidence is also increasing in developing country. In Madagascar, no data is available to estimate the real incidence and prevalence rates of breast cancer. However, the data at the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar can confirm the extent of the problem even if it is not at a national scale. The authors report the results of a retrospective study from histological examination at the Laboratory of pathological anatomy of the IPM, during 7 years. Among 2,337 cases of cancer, 16% (373) were breast cancer. Most of them were a female breast cancer (356 cases). The average age is 48 years old. 30% of the tumors were more than 2 cm in size, corresponding at least to the T2 stade from the International Union Against Cancer anatomoclinical classification. The current histological type is the infiltrating ductal carcinoma (80%), about 2/3 belong to the grade 3 of the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histopronostical classification. Early diagnosis of the cancer is difficult because of the insufficiency of the sanitary infrastructure, particularly for cervical and breast cancers. A national policy for screening must be set up in order to decrease the rate of these invasive carcinomas. In the meantime, informing women and training all the medical staff is a priority. Recording all the data in Madagascar would be desirable.

  4. [Plasmodium falciparum susceptibility to antimalarial drugs: global data issued from the Pasteur Institutes international network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Didier; Ariey, Frédéric; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2013-01-01

    Malaria research units within the Institut Pasteur international network (RIIP-Palu) located in Africa, in South-East Asia and in South America, work for many years in close collaboration with the National malaria control programmes. Relying on technical platforms with well-equipped laboratories and scientific expertise, they are at the forefront of research on the antimalarial drug resistance by working together for training young scientists and developping similar protocols allowing comprehensive comparisons. Including fundamental and operational researches, they conduct regional and international projects which aim (1) to detect the emergence of antimalarial drugs resistant parasites and to evaluate their spatio-temporal distribution, (2) to develop in vitro and molecular tools, (3) to identify epidemiological factors involved in the emergence and the spread of antimalarial drugs resistant parasites and (4) to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated in resistance. In this review, will be presented methodological approaches and data obtained since 2000.

  5. [Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection: clinical trial under the coordination of the Institut Pasteur in Cambodia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borand, Laurence; Pheng, Phearavin; Saman, Manil; Leng, Chanthy; Chea, Phalla; Sarady Ay, Sao; Suom, Sophea; Roat Men, Nimul; Nerrienet, Eric; Marcy, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of death among adults infected by HIV. The CAMELIA (ANRS 1295/CIPRA KH001) randomized clinical trial aimed to determine the optimal timing of ARV initiation after tuberculosis treatment onset to reduce mortality. Here, we describe the trial implementation in five hospitals in Cambodia under the coordination of the Institut Pasteur in Cambodia, its conduct, the challenges and public health benefits in Cambodia and beyond.

  6. Peace through Institutions: Woodrow Wilson and the Paris Peace Conference

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    As we approach the centennial of World War I, it is fitting to undertake a retrospective, academic review of the institutions devised in the war’s aftermath. The efforts to build and sustain a global order ensuring peace and cooperation in the international community - which ultimately failed with the beginning of a Second World War—constitute telling and timely lessons for world politics today. This paper looks critically at America’s role in World War I, diplomatic talks preceding the signa...

  7. Louis Pasteur surgical revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is considered the most notable medical scientist of his time and perhaps one of the most distinguished of all times in the history of medicine. From Dole in France to Paris, from a student of crystals to "living ferments," and from chemistry to biology and medicine, Pasteur changed the world for the benefit of humanity. The genius of Pasteur dealt with the most pressing issues of his time, basing the germ theory on the effects that microorganisms had on fermentation and putrefaction of organic matter, which gave birth to the science of bacteriology. Many other difficult problems in medicine and biology were tackled by Pasteur, culminating in the spectacular results seen with the treatment of rabies. Surgery was no exception to the scientific conquests of Pasteur. The transformation of the surgical world arose from the antiseptic concepts of Lister that were based on the germ theory of the disease, which had been derived from the germ theory of fermentation and putrefaction discovered by Pasteur. The acceptance of these principles represented the surgical revolution brought on by the science of Pasteur, a revolution that is now accepted in our daily care of surgical patients.

  8. [Cancer in Madagascar. Experience of the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar from September 1992 to June 1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharisolo Vololonantenaina, C; Pécarrère, J L; Roux, J F

    1998-01-01

    The Unit of the anatomo-pathology in the "Institut Pasteur de Madagascar" (IPM) examined in the period from September 1992 to June 1996 tissue specimens from 10,275 patients. Tumorous pathology presented 40% of the tissues and half of which were of malign etiology. 64% of the cancer diagnosed were in females. Cervical cancer was most frequently observed (17%), followed by breast cancer (16%). Cancer in the gastro-intestinal tract (15%) was most often located in the colon without sex difference. Stomach cancer occurring predominantly in males presented 25% of the total cases of cancer in the gastro-intestinal tract. Cancer of liver is rarely diagnosed despite the high prevalence of infection with hepatitis B virus. Skin cancer constituted 9% of the malign diagnosis and was mainly found in males. Children under 15 years old presented 7.4% of the total cases of malignancy with the haematopoietic tissues (30%) and the eyes (17%) as the most frequent topic locations. Due to a very low seroprevalence of the HIV in Madagascar, malign tumours associated to AIDS were only seen in a few rare cases. The review of cancer cases in the IPM may not be representative for the cancer epidemiology of Madagascar because of a general very low level of health care coverage, especially in the rural areas. Furthermore, a major part of the specimens originates from easily accessible organsystems, whereas other organs seem less investigated due to lack of appropriate available technique. Therefore, it is not feasible for the moment to establish a cancer register in Madagascar, although the Unit of Pathology in the IPM can offer a valid cancer diagnostical service.

  9. Peace through Institutions: Woodrow Wilson and the Paris Peace Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Küntay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As we approach the centennial of World War I, it is fitting to undertake a retrospective, academic review of the institutions devised in the war’s aftermath. The efforts to build and sustain a global order ensuring peace and cooperation in the international community - which ultimately failed with the beginning of a Second World War—constitute telling and timely lessons for world politics today. This paper looks critically at America’s role in World War I, diplomatic talks preceding the signature of the treaty of Versailles, and domestic and international reactions to President Woodrow Wilson’s signature idealism.The paper begins with a historical overview of how World War I began in Europe in an effort to contextualize the entrance of the United States in 1917, two and a half years after the war began. Since Woodrow Wilson originally promoted American neutrality, and U.S. public opinion had mostly favored isolationism until World War I, Wilson’s presidency represents a historic shift in American foreign policy to interventionism and eventually, its post-Cold War “global policeman” status. Assessing the main actors of WWI and America’s role in it serves to frame Woodrow Wilson’s asymmetrical reception within his own country. In the U.S., Wilson’s foreign affairs record is characterized by his intervention in Mexico, his original attempt to remain uninvolved in Europe’s war, and his failed attempt to keep peace after the war. Wilson garnered domestic support for U.S. entrance with his call to “make the world safe for democracy.” Using such overt idealistic rhetoric in the foreign policymaking decision process was novel at the time, but sounds all too familiar today. Post-WWI, Wilson’s fight with Congress and the U.S. not entering into the League of Nations resembles rifts between U.S. administrations and their Congresses in recent times, and it arguably indirectly contributed to the occurrence of the World War II. As U

  10. Pluridisciplinary research on a woolly rhinoceros skeleton, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1799), from the Institut de paleontologie humaine (Paris, France)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercoutere, Carole; Guerin, Claude; Crepin, Laurent; Richardin, Pascale; Gandolfo, Nathalie; Vincent, Julien; Marsac, Jean; Cersoy, Sophie; Rousseliere, Helene; Walter, Philippe; Brunelle, Alain; Nowik, Witold; Brissaud, Didier; Drucker, Dorothee G.; van der Plicht, Johannes; Patou-Mathis, Marylene; Vialet, Amelie

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the foundation Institut de paleontologie humaine (Paris) acquired an assembled skeleton of woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1799). Its exceptional state of preservation allowed a multidisciplinary study: anatomical, biometrical, geochronological (AMS radiocarbon datin

  11. [Evaluation of toxoplasmosis seroprevalence among 2416 women of childbearing age followed at the Pasteur Institute of New Caledonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breurec, S; Berlioz-Arthaud, A; Baumann, E; Miègeville, M; Billaud, E

    2004-11-01

    Evaluation of Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence was conducted in 2416 women of childbearing age by Pasteur Institute of New-Caledonia. The estimated seroprevalence was 56.7%, significantly higher in the North-East part of the territory (79.1%), area characterized by strong precipitations, and in the Melanesian ethnic group (62.1%). The habits of this population could enhance contamination by ingestion of oocysts during childhood or adolescence, particularly in the North-East territory. Melanesian women living in the North-East and being not immunized against toxoplasmosis represent the population with the highest risk for Toxoplasma gondii infection.

  12. [Envenomations of the Kindia prefecture treated in the Institut Pasteur of Guinea for one year (2003-2004)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balde, M C; Camara, A M B; Koivogui, A; Camara, S K

    2005-11-01

    After a broadcast information on the availability of antivenom serum in Guinea Pasteur Institute (GPI), 76 snakebites victims have been admitted to the health centre of GPI within 11 months (October 2003-September 2004), 48 of whom were in a serious condition. In addition, 13 deaths occurred during the transport of the victims, i.e. a total incidence of 89 cases. Among these cases, 84% of the bites occurred during farming works (clearing, weeding, harvesting). Among the 76 victims who came alive at GPI, 9 of them did not present any envenomation. The 67 other victims have systematically received antivenom serum with a 100% recovery rate.

  13. Correção de dados sobre a Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo Rectification of data on the Helminthological Collection of the Pasteur Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dely Noronha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente nota se destina a corrigir informações anteriores a respeito da condição da Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Pasteur, que é, de fato, uma coleção institucional e que foi designada, erroneamente, como um acervo particular incorporado à Coleção Helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Também, dados bibliográficos e históricos são retificados.This note is to correct previous information about the status of the Helminthological Collection of the Pasteur Institute, that is, in fact, an institutional collection, and that appeared erroneously as a private survey incorporated to the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute. Also, bibliographical and historical data are rectified.

  14. [Toxoplasmosis mother-to-child screening: study of cases followed in the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (2007-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdallah, R; Siala, E; Bouafsoun, A; Maatoug, R; Souissi, O; Aoun, K; Bouratbine, A

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis when occurring during pregnancy can be transmitted to the fetus and lead to congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Therefore, pregnant women are a risk group, for which it is necessary to determine the serologic profile. The objective of this study is to determine the serologic profile of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women followed at the Parasitology Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute in Tunis, to establish the prevalence of toxoplasmic infections during pregnancy and the incidence of the CT, noting the difficulties faced in the interpretation of serological results. This is a retrospective study concerning 2833 toxoplasmic serologies practiced on 2070 pregnant women, followed at the Parasitology-Mycology Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis, between 2007 and 2010. Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was done by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) for the detection of Immunoglobulin (Ig) G and M and the study of toxoplasmosis IgG avidity. Prenatal diagnosis was performed for 58 women by amniotic fluid sampling. Toxoplasma gondii was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). At birth, the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis was established based on serology. The toxoplasmic serologies carried out have shown that 45.6% of the pregnant women were formerly immunized while 49.6% had a negative serology. A toxoplasmosis primary infection acquired during pregnancy was detected in 79 cases (3.8%). Among them, 33% had a true seroconversion while 67% had a recent toxoplasmosis infection in view of the positivity of IgG and IgM on the first sample with a low index of avidity (IA). For 21 parturients whose serology showed the presence of IgG, IgM and an intermediate or high IA. Among the 58 parturients in whom prenatal diagnosis was performed, PCR was positive in four cases. After birth, six cases of congenital toxoplasmosis were detected by serology.

  15. [Alain Georges: in the footsteps of Louis Pasteur and Eugène Jamot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélec, L; Milleliri, J M

    2014-01-01

    The biography of the physician general Alain Jean Georges (1946-2012) shows the exceptional career of a military physician-clinical pathologist specialized in tropical medicine and educated at the Navy Health School in Bordeaux and the Pharo School in Marseille. He completed his education at the Institut Pasteur de Paris in courses still conducted in the spirit of those taught by Louis Pasteur. In 1979, he became director of the Pasteur Institute of Bangui, following in the steps of Eugène Jamot, in the long tradition of military doctors from the Institut Pasteur overseas network committed to a career in Africa. For more than 12 years, Alain Georges directed the Pasteur Institute of Bangui, one of the last citadels of French postcolonial military medicine, in a very personal and charismatic style. He was thus a pioneer in research about both AIDS in Africa and hemorrhagic fevers. His methods were widely misunderstood later as the traditional networks of French biomedical research in its former African colonies modernized and opened internationally, including to national elites. Alain Georges was probably one of the last important figures of the golden age of French colonial medicine.

  16. [Stays in Paris of professors and students from the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), 1900-1936].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Arias, Brasa; Landín Pérez, Mariana

    2011-10-01

    In the early twentieth century, if there were an European Capital of biomedical research, it was definitely Paris. It was in this city where microbiology was born in the 19th century due to the crucial influence of Louis Pasteur. In 1888 he founded the Pasteur Institute in Paris where the rabies vaccine, that Pasteur himself had discovered in 1885, was administrated. This institution was also a place to continue his research on infectious diseases and to disseminate its findings. It is a private non-profit state-approved foundation that has attracted along the years many scientists from France and abroad who have been traditionally called "pasteuriens". So it was a world reference centre which has produced important scientific discoveries at a rapid pace and where resources both material and human, were abundant. The Pasteur institute therefore became one of the favourite research facilities of teachers and students from Spanish universities during the first third of the twentieth century, thanks to new regulations that encouraged training abroad. Scholarship policy promoted by the Spanish Government by an organization called Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (Council for Higher Studies and Scientific Research from, 1907 to 1936) formed scientists abroad. The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela sent some of its members to the French capital between 1905 and 1933. We found that the vast majority chose the Pasteur Institute to conduct the studies of biological chemistry and drug synthesis, but always dependent of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. Our study focuses on teachers and students who went to Paris, the dates, the course of their scientific stay and how these studies influenced their later work, once they returned to the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela.

  17. Figures and Institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Part IV: Psychiatry and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, J; Clarac, F; Barbara, J-G; Broussolle, E

    2012-05-01

    We present a short historical review on the major institutions and figures who contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the XIXth and the first half of the XXth century. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the actual beginning of neurosciences, and as 1950 marks their exponential rise. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines that have progressed and contributed most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology. The present article is the fourth of the four parts of this review, which deals with the chapter on psychiatry and psychology. When the French Revolution occurred, only a few institutions were taking care of the mentally ill. In the Paris area, these included Maison Royale de Charenton, Les Petites Maisons, and one of the departments of larger hospitals such as Hôtel-Dieu, the Salpêtrière Hospital and Bicêtre Hospital. One of the founders of psychiatry in Paris at that time and thereafter was Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) who was the first to distinguish insane/alienated patients from misfits, beggars, and other vagabonds. During the first half of the XIXth century, his student Jean-Étienne Esquirol (1772-1840) also played a major role with his treatise on mental diseases and the 1838 law and the creation of asylums in all parts of France. Alienists were in general caregivers and learned by themselves. In contrast, at the academic level, the emerging disciplines psychiatry and neurology were very close to each other in the second half of the XIXth century, the best example being Jules Baillarger (1809-1890). The actual development of psychiatry and psychology and the foundation of psychoanalysis later in the XIXth century and in the first half of the XXth century owed much to several European doctors and scientists, particularly those from British institutions and from German

  18. Between biomedical and psychological experiments: The unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institutes and the study of animal mind in the second quarter of twentieth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marion

    2016-02-01

    This article explores the unexpected connections between the Pasteur Institute in French Guinea and the study of animal mind in early twentieth century France. At a time when the study of animal intelligence was thriving in France and elsewhere, apes were appealing research subjects both in psychological and biomedical studies. Drawing on two case studies (Guillaume/Meyerson and Urbain), and then, on someone responding negatively to those connections, Thétard, this article shows how the long reach of biomedicine (linked to the prestige of Bernard and Pasteur) impinged on French biology and played a role in the tortuous, if not unsuccessful fate of animal psychology in France in the second quarter of the twentieth century. It shows how attempts to use apes (and other zoo animals) to yield new insights on animal psychology faced heavy restrictions or experienced false starts, and examines the reasons why animal psychology could not properly thrive at that time in France. Beyond the supremacy of biomedical interests over psychological ones, this article additionally explains that some individuals used animal behaviour studies as steppingstones in careers in which they proceeded on to other topics. Finally, it illustrates the tension between non-academic and academic people at a time when animal psychology was trying to acquire scientific legitimacy, and also highlights the difficulties attached to the scientific study of animals in a multipurpose and hybrid environment such as the early twentieth century Parisian zoo and also the Pasteur Institute of French Guinea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The mysterious fate of la Bibliothèque de Louis Pasteur (1822-1895).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertling, Sarita B; Marlin, Robert O; Goldman, Armond S

    2014-11-01

    In addition to the holdings at Bibliothèque Nationale de France and Musée du Pasteur Institut à Paris, major parts of la Bibliothèque de Louis Pasteur are in four institutions in the United States - Reynolds Historical Library at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama; Burndy Library on the History of Science and Technology at Huntington Library in San Marino, California; Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at University of Texas in Austin, Texas; and Truman G Blocker History of Medicine Collections, The Moody Medical Library, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas. The circuitous paths that led each part of la Bibliothèque de Louis Pasteur to their present locations were traced and the lives of key individuals in medicine, science and the humanities who obtained these valuable documents were recounted. The documents in each institution were discussed and a plan was considered to make them accessible to scholars who wish to further explore the life of Louis Pasteur.

  20. The research works on Shanghai Pasteur Institute%上海巴斯德研究所的研究工作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨威; 李志平

    2008-01-01

    Shanghai Pasteur Institute,found in 1899,was the first institute of medical research on rabies with modern western medical science,and was also the first rabies vaccine manufacturer in China.By making use of relevant archives and documents,the authors attempt to elaborate its foundation and evolution,which focus on the fields of infectious disease prevention,popularization of vaccine inoculation,vaccine manufacturing and cultivation of Chinese medical talents.Before 1949,two branches of the Institute had been set up.It was incorporated into the newly established PLA Academy of Military Medicine Sciences in 1951.As an orient branch of the original Pasteur Institute,Shanghai Pasteur Institute inherit the sprit and methodology of the original Institute,and make great contribution to the foundation and development of Chinese modern microbiology,immunology and modern medical education.%上海巴斯德研究所创建于1899年,是中国第一个通过近代医学科学方法治疗狂犬病和生产狂犬疫苗的研究机构.共和国成立前巴斯德研究所曾两次在上海建立过分所.1951年上海巴斯德研究所并入在上海新成立的中国人民解放军军事医学科学院.巴斯德研究所在传染病防治、疫苗接种推广、疫苗制备和对中国医学人才培养方面的工作,秉承巴斯德研究所一贯的科学方法和科学精神,为中国现代微生物学、现代免疫学、公共卫生事业和现代医学教育的启蒙和发展都做出了很大的贡献.

  1. [A rare cancer: cancers of the small intestine. 25 cases diagnosed at the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar from 1992 to 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharisolo Vololonantenaina, C R; Dina, T J N; Ravalisoa, A

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective survey of cases of cancer of the small intestine observed in the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar (IPM), in the Centre Hospitalier de Soavinandriana (CenHoSoa) and in the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Antananarivo/Hôpital Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona (CHUA/HJRA), has been undertaken with the goal to find out epidemiological and diagnostical particularities, as well as the therapeutic measures and their results. Only 25 cases have been found in 10 years (from 1992 to 2001). They represent 5.4% of the digestive cancers diagnosed by the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar. They concern 14 women and 11 men with a mean age of 36 years old at the time of diagnosis. The motive of hospitalization was an acute abdomen (peritonitis, perforation, occlusive syndrome, König's syndrome) in 64.3%, and a chronic abdominal pain often associated with abdominal mass in 35.7%. The duodenum is the predilection seat of the small bowel cancers (50%), followed by the ileum (25%) and the jejunum (10%). A diffuse shape has been observed in 15% of the cases. The most frequent histological type is the lymphoma (40%) followed by the adenocarcinoma (32%).

  2. Evaluating biological variation in non-transgenic crops: executive summary from the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute workshop, November 16-17, 2009, Paris, France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerrer, Nancy; Ladics, Gregory; McClain, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee hosted an international workshop November 16-17, 2009, in Paris, France, with over 60 participants from academia, government, and industry to review and discuss......, climate, stress) with potential alterations in plants at genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels; (c) many independent analytical measurements, but few replicates/subjects--poorly defined accuracy and precision; and (d) bias--a lack of hypothesis-driven science. Information on natural plant variation...

  3. Técnica Pasteur São Paulo para dimensionamento de população canina São Paulo Pasteur Institute Technique for estimating a canine population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ruiz de Matos

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta técnica para dimensionar e classificar populações caninas, segundo graus de dependência e restrição. Foi desenvolvida pelo Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, com a seguinte metodologia: (1 realização de um inquérito domiciliar para identificação dos cães com proprietário e do grau de restrição. Aos proprietários de cães restritos, totalmente ou parcialmente, e aos moradores que não se definiram como proprietários únicos foram entregues coleiras de três cores distintas, solicitando-lhes colocação nos cães sob seus cuidados; (2 contagem de cães que circulavam na rua e classificação conforme cor da coleira, cuja ausência identificou os cães sem proprietário. Os pesquisadores foram posicionados em locais pré-determinados, distantes em média cinqüenta metros. O tempo de cada contagem foi de trinta segundos, repetindo-se a cada 15 minutos, por uma hora, com início e término marcados por apito. A técnica, aplicada em dois setores censitários do Município de Serra Azul, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, foi realizada por adolescentes de 13 a 17 anos, submetidos a um dia de treinamento. O procedimento foi simples e possibilitou acesso à informação de difícil obtenção, como o percentual de cães sem proprietário ou sem proprietário definido, que, no caso estudado, foi de 5%.This paper describes a technique developed by the Pasteur Institute in São Paulo, Brazil, for counting and classifying a canine population according to levels of dependency and confinement. First, a household survey was performed to identify dogs with owners and their degree of restriction. Different-colored collars were given to totally and partially restricted dogs. Dogs cared for by individuals who did not consider themselves the owners received collars of a third color. After the survey, surveyors counted and recorded dogs on the streets according to the color of their collars. Absence of collars identified dogs without

  4. Figures and institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Introduction and Part I: Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarac, F; Barbara, J-G; Broussolle, E; Poirier, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a short historical review on the major institutions and figures that contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the xixth and the first half of the xxth centuries. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the development of brain science and 1950 marks the true beginning of neuroscience. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines which have progressed and contributed the most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology. The present article is the first of four parts of this review, which includes an introduction followed by the chapter on neuroanatomy and on anatomo-pathology, which includes biographical sketches of Félix Vicq d'Azyr, François-Xavier Bichat, Franz Joseph Gall, Jean Cruveilhier, Jules Bernard Luys, Paul Broca, Louis Ranvier, André-Victor Cornil, Albert Gombault, Jean Nageotte and René Couteaux.

  5. Setting up a Prospective Thyroid Biobank for Translational Research: Practical Approach of a Single Institution (2004-2009, Pasteur Hospital, Nice, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Sandra; Hofman, Véronique; Ilie, Marius; Butori, Catherine; Bonnetaud, Christelle; Gaziello, Marie Clotilde; Selva, Eric; Gavric-Tanga, Virginie; Guevara, Nicolas; Castillo, Laurent; Santini, José; Chabannon, Christian; Hofman, Paul

    2011-03-01

    In the last few years, conditions for setting up a human biobank in France have been upgraded by taking into account (1) the new laws and regulations that integrate the ethical and societal dimension of biobanking and delineate the risks for patients associated with the procurement of human cells and tissues, (2) the increasing request by scientists for human samples with proven biological quality and sophisticated sets of annotations, including information produced through the evergrowing use of molecular biology in pathology, and (3) establishment of procedures concerning the safety of the personnel working with biological products. For this purpose, health authorities and national research institutes in France have provided significant support for the set up of biobanks. The present work was conducted to describe how we set up a biobank targeting diseases of a specific organ (thyroid gland), with the aim of rapidly developing translational research projects. The prospective experience of a single institution (Pasteur Hospital, Nice, France) over a 6-year period (2004-2009) is presented from the practical point of view of a surgical pathology laboratory. We describe different procedures required to obtain high-quality thyroid biological resources and clinical annotations. The procedures were established for the management of biological products obtained from 1454 patients who underwent thyroid surgery. The preanalytical steps leading to the storage of frozen specimens were carried out in parallel with diagnostic procedures. As the number of international networks for research programs using biological products is steadily increasing, it is crucial to harmonize the procedures used by biobanks. In this regard, the described thyroid biobank has been set up using criteria established by the French National Cancer Institute (Institut National du Cancer) to guarantee the quality of different collections stored in biobanks.

  6. The 1951-98 experience of the Paris Institut Curie Radiopathology Unit: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosset, J.M.; Perdereau, B.; Dubray, B.; Helfre, S.; Brixy, F.; Gongora, R.; Fourquet, A. [Institut Curie, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France)

    1999-12-01

    From 1 January 1951 to 30 June 1998, 696 patients presented spontaneously or were referred to the French Institut Curie Radiopathology Unit following a more or less severe accidental irradiation. Of these, 568 patients came from France, while 128 were sent by various foreign countries. The very great majority of irradiation accidents occurred in the workplace, particularly in industry. Interestingly, 'non-nuclear' industry was responsible for three times more events than the nuclear industry. While incidental irradiation of the public by lost radioactive sources was exceedingly rare in France, it seemed to be more frequent in our cohort of foreign patients. Radiation phobia accounted for about 10% of cases in the French cohort, but the number of cases did not seem to increase with time. Overall, the accrual of patients over time appears to be stable, with 10 to 25 new cases consulting each year. Fortunately, a majority of cases corresponded to low-level irradiation (and even no irradiation at all). In the French cohort, only 21.6% of patients, showing deterministic effects, required some form of treatment, with 4.9% considered as 'severe' cases. Not unexpectedly, more patients required treatment in the foreign cohort (35.2%), with 24.2% of severe cases, including four deaths. The main features of this database are consistent with the data previously reported by the IAEA, UNSCEAR and REAC/TS. Although the number of severe cases is small, it should still be considered to be too high, especially as most of these accidents could have been easily avoided if a few basic radioprotection rules had been fully respected. (abstract)

  7. Genetic analysis of the Saimiri breeding colony of the Pasteur Institute (French Guiana): development of a molecular typing method using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Anne; Catzeflis, François; Lacôte, Sandra; Barnaud, Antoine; Bordier, Marion; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Contamin, Hugues

    2003-12-01

    Saimiri (Cebidae) groups a complex of species and subspecies, which present a large morphological plasticity. Genetic analysis is complicated by the absence of consensus on classification criteria and the paucity of molecular tools available for the genus. As the squirrel monkey is widely used in biomedical research, breeding centers have been established, but the genetic make up and diversity of many of the existing colonies is unknown precluding a rationale breeding policy. To develop a genetic typing strategy for the Saimiri breeding colony of Pasteur Institute of French Guiana, we have used Cytochrome b, a mitochondrial marker, and nuclear microsatellites. Cytochrome b sequences from wild-caught Saimiri boliviensis, Saimiri sciureus sciureus and S. s. collinsi reference specimens and captive animals identified 11 haplotypes, grouped into three distinct clades. An estimate of genetic variability within each captive morphotype, and of the extent of molecular divergence between the Bolivian, Guyanese and Brazilian breeds was obtained from the analysis of three nuclear microsatellites. Taxon-specific microsatellites enabled typing of F0-F3 animals, but did not differentiate Brazilian from Guyanese animals. Three locus microsatellite analysis of a representative sample from each generation showed no trend for loss of heterozygosity, and identified hybrid animals between Bolivian and the two others sub-species. These data provide novel evidence for taxonomic classification and a rationale strategy to further type the whole colony.

  8. [Incidence of HIV infection in consultants reviewed after a first negative test in an anonymous and free screening center at the Institut Pasteur of Cambodia, 1996-1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruy, S L; Glaziou, P; Flye Sainte Marie, F; Buisson, Y

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence of HIV seroconversion among repeat consultants attending the voluntary testing and counselling centre of the Institut Pasteur of Cambodia as well as factors associated with HIV seroconversion. From 1996 to 1999, 5541 repeat consultants were selected for the study. Exclusion criteria included being aged under 15 years, having initially tested positive or inconclusive and a time span of fewer than 30 days since the last test. In all, 276 persons had seroconverted to HIV, giving an incidence rate of 5.56 per 100 person-years. The seroconversion rate declined from 8.46% in 1996, to 3.06% in 1999 (chi 2 test for trend, p = 10(-5)). Among the risk factors analysed, 3 were significantly associated with lack of seroconversion: being a student (RR = 0.53, p = 0.032) or a civil servant (RR = 0.63, p = 0.012) and systematic condom use with causal partners (RR = 0.37, p = 10(-5)). The decline of HIV seroconversion among repeat consultants attending the VCT centre over the study period may reflect changes in risk behaviour and the beneficial impact of counselling.

  9. [Diagnosis of malaria in Antananarivo City: examination of the results obtained at the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar from 2001 to 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencimon, C; Belmonte, O; Randrianarivelojosia, M; Grosjean, P; Pfister, P; Combe, P

    2006-07-01

    Malaria diagnosis is part of the daily activities of the Clinical Biology Center (CBC) of the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar in Antananarivo. Over a period of four years (2001-2004), regardless the methods being used, out of 6537 blood samples examined, 159 (2.43%) tests were positive. All four species of Plasmodium infecting human. were detected with a high prevalence of P. falciparum (87.2%). 49/159 patients were foreigners, but their files did not allow us to distinguish imported from locally acquired malaria cases. Also, among Malagasy patients, there was no possibility to recognize introduced malaria cases (contracted in coastal areas). In Madagascar malaria remains a public health problem. But fever and recent history of fever are often considered and treated as malaria. Our results demonstrated that confirmed malaria rate was very low. Reporting malaria on the basis of clinical signs overestimates malaria cases at the national level. The importance of malaria biological diagnosis is discussed in this article.

  10. Paris 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Kompendium for 5 dages intensiv studietur i Paris med hovedvægt på ny arkitektur og byomdannelse i byernes by.......Kompendium for 5 dages intensiv studietur i Paris med hovedvægt på ny arkitektur og byomdannelse i byernes by....

  11. Paris Noir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a six-credit study abroad program open to undergraduate and graduate students through Syracuse University that explores historical, cultural, and intellectual connections between African Americans and Paris. (EV)

  12. [The Constantinople Imperial Bacteriology Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, M

    2000-01-01

    The Constantinople Imperial Bacteriology Institute (CIBI) allowed the development of a common medical effort between France and Turkey at a time when the main European powers were competing to have an influence on the Ottoman Empire. In 1887, Turkey sent Zoreos Pacha, a medical doctor, to Paris to learn anti-rabies immunization techniques, and he started a rabies control institute after his coming back. In 1893, a cholera epidemic in Constantinople was vanquished by A. Chantemesse, sent by Pasteur, and France was allowed to start another microbiologic Institute. The first director of this Constantinople Imperial Bacteriology Institute was Maurice Nicolle. A brillant man, but suffering from a lack of diplomacy; he encountered numerous difficulties and regularly threatened to turn in his resignation. His successor, Paul Remlinger, arrived in 1900. His main research topic was rabies, and he became later a world-class expert on the subject. His position was taken over in 1911 by Paul-Louis Simond, unjustly forgotten nowadays despite his major discovery in 1898 showing that the plague was transmitted by ratfleas. The next director was a veterinary doctor, P. Forgeot, but his tenure was cut short by World War I, and he was the last French director of the CIBI. Since that time, Turkey has felt some gratitude towards France for its medical efforts. It organized in 1957 in Istambul a very congenial celebration for the 70th anniversary of the Rabies Control Institute, which numerous Pasteur Institute alumni attended. There is a clear contrast between the CIBI, the target of many intrigues and hostile maneuvers, and the North African Pasteur Institutes, which were making crucial discoveries during the same period. This contrast was mostly due to the absolute power of the Sultan, who would arbitrarily oppose some directors decisions, whereas the French government allowed the balanced growth of the Pasteur Institutes in territories under his control.

  13. Pasteurization of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Barbosa Alzate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the time it takes milk, which is heated from 60°F to 150°F, to achieve pasteurization and compared this result with the standard pasteurization process of heating milk at a constant temperature of 150°F for 30 minutes. Instead of directly quantifying the bacterium population, we considered the bacteria to milk concentration ratio. To solve for the unknown time, we equated the final bacterium concentration ratio achieved through both varied temperature and constant temperature. After equating the final pasteurization concentrations we were unable to find an analytical solution, so we used numerical techniques to find the unknown heating time.

  14. Investigation of Pasteurization Conditions of Bottled Beer in Tunnel Pasteurizer

    OpenAIRE

    , N. Lajçi; , X. Lajçi; , B Baruti

    2012-01-01

    Pasteurization is the commonly method of food thermal treatment used in order to destroy the pathogenic agents. The main goals of pasteurization are to make the product safe for human consumption and to promote biological stability of the food and thereby improve its shelf life Without affecting the taste of the product. One of means how to achieve pasteurization of the product is tunnel pasteurizer. The Şlled and closed packages of beer are conveyed through different sections of a tunnel pas...

  15. Cytosine arabinoside, vinblastine, diethylstilboestrol and 2-aminoanthracene tested in the in vitro human TK6 cell line micronucleus test (MNvit) at Institut Pasteur de Lille in support of OECD draft test guideline 487.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesslany, Fabrice; Marzin, Daniel

    2010-10-29

    The reference genotoxic agents Cytosine arabinoside, Vinblastine, Diethylstilboestrol and 2-Aminoanthracene were tested in the in vitro micronucleus assay, in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells, without cytokinesis block, at the laboratories of Institut Pasteur de Lille, France. This was done in support of the toxicity measures recommended in the late 2007 version of the draft OECD Test Guideline 487 for the testing of chemicals. All four reference agents were positive in the assay at concentrations giving approximately 50% toxicity or less as assessed by draft Test Guideline 487 recommended measures, relative population doublings and relative increase in cell counts. Accordingly, this work supports the premise that relative population doublings and relative increase in cell counts are appropriate measures of toxicity for the non-cytokinesis blocked in vitro micronucleus assay.

  16. Pasteur: Student and Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Nicholas

    1983-01-01

    Louis Pasteur's career as a scientist and as a teacher of science is traced. The discovery of his ability and interest, his choice of teaching as a profession, the controversy over teaching versus research, and his methods of teaching science are included. (MNS)

  17. When did Louis Pasteur present his memoir on the discovery of molecular chirality to the Académie des sciences? Analysis of a discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Joseph

    2008-11-01

    Louis Pasteur presented his historic memoir on the discovery of molecular chirality to the Académie des sciences in Paris on May 22nd, 1848. The literature, however, nearly completely ignores this date, widely claiming instead May 15th, 1848, which first surfaced in 1922 in Pasteur's collected works edited by his grandson Louis Pasteur Vallery-Radot. On May 21st, 1848, i.e., one day before Pasteur's presentation in Paris, his mother died in Arbois, eastern France. Informed at an unknown point in time that she was "very ill," Pasteur left for Arbois only after his presentation. Biographies of Pasteur by his son-in-law René Vallery-Radot or the grandson, and Pasteur's collected correspondence edited by the grandson are incomprehensibly laconic or silent about the historic presentation. While no definite conclusions are possible, the evidence strongly suggests a deliberate alteration of the record by the biographer relatives, presumably for fear of adverse public judgment of Pasteur for a real or perceived insensitivity to a grave family medical emergency. Such fear would have been in accord with their hagiographic portrayal of Pasteur, and the findings raise questions concerning the extent of their zeal in protecting his "demigod" image. Universal recognition of the true date of Pasteur's announcement of molecular chirality is long overdue.

  18. 7 CFR 58.334 - Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.334 Pasteurization. The milk or cream shall be pasteurized at the plant where the milk or...) Cream for butter making. The cream for butter making shall be pasteurized at a temperature of not...

  19. [Henry Toussaint and Louis Pasteur. Rivalry over a vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier-Jussiau, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Henry Toussaint (1847-1890) is a veterinary who studied in Veterinary School of Lyon with his great master Auguste Chauveau the famous physiologist. This place is the First School founded in Europe at the end of the XVIIIth century and has opened a way of thinking. His carrer brilliant and rich begins first in Lyon and then when he is named Professor of Anatomy and Physiology at the Veterinary School of Toulouse. Doctor of Science and Doctor of Medecine Toussaint applies "the experimental method" to his research in his laboratory and makes a lot of publications. He starts with Anatomy, then Physiology and soon he prioritizes his research to infestious diseases which cause serious damage to cattle in this time. He developes his own methods about anthrax an its "bacteridie", its nature, its way of culture and especially he studies the physiopathology of this disease. Pasteur is a renowned scientist who does study Microbiology at the same time in his laboratory in Paris, and precisely anthrax. He has explained his theories about "microbes" and has predominant advice. Toussaint admires Pasteur; in the year 1879 he finds first and isolates the microbe of "cholera des poules" (now Pasteurella) and gives Pasteur this new germ which will be used by Pasteur for his particular works about reducing of virulence by successive subcultures. In 1880 with his publishing on July 12 at the Academy of Science, Toussaint presents his successful result with an attenuated vaccine against anthrax: he has got protection against anthrax for dogs and sheep by using a vaccine which he has reduced off virulence by chemical manner. Academy congratulates him. Pasteur jealous of one's reputation contests the demonstration of Toussaint because he does not believe in the chemical method too different from his tests but will make use of this method for an experience open to the public in Pouilly-le-Fort in 1881. After this promotional event Pasteur will product and sell vaccines maked in his

  20. ASTER Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Eiffel Tower and its shadow can be seen next to the Seine in the left middle of this ASTER image of Paris. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 meters (1,054 feet), compared to its actual height of 303 meters (985 feet). Acquired on July 23, 2000, this image covers an area 23 kilometers (15 miles) wide and 20 kilometers (13 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century B.C.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the

  1. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  2. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  3. Appropriation and commercialization of the Pasteur anthrax vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassier, Maurice

    2005-12-01

    Whereas Pasteur patented the biotechnological processes that he invented between 1857 and 1873 in the agro-food domain, he did not file any patents on the artificial vaccine preparation processes that he subsequently developed. This absence of patents can probably be explained by the 1844 patent law in France that established the non-patentable status of pharmaceutical preparations and remedies, including those for use in veterinary medicine. Despite the absence of patents, the commercial exploitation of the anthrax vaccine in the 1880s and 1890s led to a technical and commercial monopoly by Pasteur's laboratory as well as the founding of a commercial company to diffuse the vaccine abroad. Pasteur repeatedly refused to transfer his know-how and anthrax vaccine production methods to foreign laboratories, on the grounds that he wished to control the quality of the vaccines produced. Indeed, it was relatively difficult to transfer a method that was not yet perfectly stabilized in the early 1880s. Pasteur also wanted to maintain the monopoly of his commercial company and to increase the profits from vaccine sales so that the Institut Pasteur could be financially independent. The 'Pasteur anthrax vaccine' operating licences are described and analysed in detail in this article.

  4. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  5. Evaluating biological variation in non-transgenic crops: executive summary from the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute workshop, November 16-17, 2009, Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerrer, Nancy; Ladics, Gregory; McClain, Scott; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Poulsen, Lars K; Privalle, Laura; Stagg, Nicola

    2010-12-01

    The International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee hosted an international workshop November 16-17, 2009, in Paris, France, with over 60 participants from academia, government, and industry to review and discuss the potential utility of "-omics" technologies for assessing the variability in plant gene, protein, and metabolite expression. The goal of the workshop was to illustrate how a plant's constituent makeup and phenotypic processes can be surveyed analytically. Presentations on the "-omics" techniques (i.e., genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) highlighted the workshop, and summaries of these presentations are published separately in this supplemental issue. This paper summarizes key messages, as well as the consensus points reached, in a roundtable discussion on eight specific questions posed during the final session of the workshop. The workshop established some common, though not unique, challenges for all "-omics" techniques, and include (a) standardization of separation/extraction and analytical techniques; (b) difficulty in associating environmental impacts (e.g., planting, soil texture, location, climate, stress) with potential alterations in plants at genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels; (c) many independent analytical measurements, but few replicates/subjects--poorly defined accuracy and precision; and (d) bias--a lack of hypothesis-driven science. Information on natural plant variation is critical in establishing the utility of new technologies due to the variability in specific analytes that may result from genetic differences (crop genotype), different crop management practices (conventional high input, low input, organic), interaction between genotype and environment, and the use of different breeding methods. For example, variations of several classes of proteins were reported among different soybean, rice, or wheat varieties or varieties grown at different

  6. Science and the applications of science from Louis Pasteur to Jacques Monod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Maxime

    2015-06-01

    Jacques Monod's ideas on the applications of science came within the scope of a long tradition at the Institut Pasteur. Louis Pasteur, whose scientific career was characterized by a permanent come and go between science and its applications, long opposed the idea of getting any income from his research, until the financial needs of the Institut Pasteur made him change his mind. As for Jacques Monod, he remained a fervent supporter of basic science during his whole scientific career. However, once he became director of the Institut Pasteur, he realized that the applications of research had to be developed to support the institute from a financial point of view. Thus, he reorganized the valorization of research in the institute, through an incitation of scientists to develop projects with possible applications, and by creating a company, Institut Pasteur Production, for which he had a factory built, and which was in charge of producing and commercializing the vaccines and reagents stemming from the research at the Institut Pasteur.

  7. Louis Pasteur: el hombre y el artista Louis pasteur: the man and the artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herta Vélez Arango

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    El artista finlandés A. Edelfelt, autor del famoso retrato de Pasteur en el laboratorio en 1887, expresó el siguiente Juicio sobre Pasteur como pintor en una carta a uno de sus amigos: ";aparte de la ciencia, la pintura es una de las pocas cosas que le interesaban. Cuando tenía dieciséis años había intentado hacerse pintor y se entretenía haciendo retratos al pastel, de ciudadanos de Arbois; algunos de estos cuadros se encuentran en su casa o en el instituto; los he observado muy a menudo, son extremadamente buenos y superiores al trabajo habitual de los jóvenes que se dedican a la carrera artística. Hay algo del gran investigador en estos retratos: expresan la verdad absoluta y un poder de voluntad poco común. Estoy seguro de que si Pasteur hubiera elegido el arte en vez de la ciencia, Francia contaría hoy con uno de sus pintores más capaces";.

    The Finnish artist A. Edelfelt. author of the famous portrait of Pasteur in his laboratory (1887. expressed the following Judgement about Pasteur as a painter. in the letter addressed to one of his friends: ";besides science. painting is one of the few things that interested him. When he was sixteen he had attempted to become a painter and entertained himself making pastel portraits of citizens of Arbors; some of those portraits hang In his house or at the Institute; I have often observed them; they are extremely good and much better than the usual work of young people who devote themselves to artistic life. In those portraits there Is something of the great Investigator: they express absolute truth and a not-so-common will power. I am sure that had Pasteur opted for art Instead of science France would count him now among Its most gifted painters.";

  8. [About two unpublished autographs of Louis Pasteur belonging to the Academie national de pharmacie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, J

    1997-01-01

    Two unpublished autographs of Louis Pasteur, dated respectively november 26th 1853 and december 22nd 1853 in Strasbourg, were found in unclassified archives of the Academie nationale de pharmacie - Paris. They are described in the paper. They are related to the prize of F 1500 given to him by the Societe de pharmacie, the previous name of the Academy. This award concerned his famous studies on the racemic or paratartric acid.

  9. The Story of Louis Pasteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel García-Rodríguez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Story of Louis Pasteur is considered one of the first biopics – term that comes from the association of “biography” and “picture” – in the history of cinema. Directed by William Dieterle in 1936, it was distributed in Spain under the curious name of “La tragedia de Louis Pasteur” (The tragedy of Louis Pasteur. This tragedy is a consequence of the lack of understanding and culture, of the unfairness and ingratitude, which were all magnified in the figure of a man whose banner was the science and, according to him, the well-being of mankind depended on its application. The film is structured into three parts connected to events related to Pasteur´s studies in the field of Microbiology and infectious diseases: Microbial theory about the disease which was present all through the film and the main axe of the plot; studies in anthrax and research into rabies.

  10. WITHDRAWN: Annales de l'Institut Pasteur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldine, Camus

    2007-11-20

    This article has been withdrawn consistent with Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause.

  11. Louis Pasteur: in memoriam Louis Pasteur: in memoriam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Restrepo Moreno

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A description is presented of the experiments on which Pasteur based his conclusion than no spontaneous generation exists; some of the qualities of this researcher are emphasized such as originality. independence of criterion, perseverance. dedication. Broadmindedness and interest in serving other people; by applying it rigorously. Pasteur greatly contributed to the advancement of the scientific method; besides. he can be considered the founder of microbiology.

    Se hace un recuento de los experimentos que le permitieron a Pasteur concluir que no existe la generación espontánea; se enfatizan algunas de las cualidades de este investigador como la originalidad, la independencia de criterio, la perseverancia, la dedicación, la amplitud de horizontes y el interés en servir a los demás; Pasteur contribuyó al avance del método científico aplicándolo rigurosamente y puede ser considerado como el fundador de la microbiología.

  12. Amsterdam Paris Stockholm meeting

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    We are glad to welcome you in Paris at IAP for the third edition of the Amsterdam-Paris-Stockholm workshop, which will be held from December 16th to 18th 2013. Please register in order for us to know how many of you intend to participate.

  13. Paris i kroppen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    Bjørn Laursen argumenterer i artiklen Paris i kroppen – kroppen i Paris for notat-skitsebogen som et velegnet medie til indsamling og navnlig akkumulation af bevidsthedsmæssigt relevant fagligt stof ved at give indblik i sin egen brug af den. Artiklen forsøger at låne oplevelsesmæssigt og analytisk...

  14. Louis Pasteur's beer of revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, A G

    2001-12-01

    Although by the mid-nineteenth century evidence existed for an association between micoorganisms and disease, it was the combined efforts of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch that created the germ theory of disease--the theory that specific microbes cause specific diseases. Surprisingly, the relationship between the two founders of microbiology and immunology was far from friendly.

  15. Paris Offscreen: Chinese Tourists in Cinematic Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.-A. O. Dung (Yun-An Olivia); S.L. Reijnders (Stijn)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article examines from a European-Asian perspective the relationship between media representations and the tourist’s imagination. We use the case of Chinese tourists in Paris to investigate how these non-European tourists imagine Europe, and how these imaginations

  16. Pasteur, Koch and American bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossel, P P

    2000-01-01

    This study traces American awareness of the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch from the 1860s to the 1890s. In the years before the Civil War, American interest in germ theories had appeared at times of epidemics and persisted to a limited extent among physician-microscopists. Discussions of Pasteur's work occurred primarily in the context of spontaneous generation and antisepsis. Few Americans imitated his work on immunology or studied with Pasteur, but his work on immunity influenced their faith in the potential of bacteriology as a solution to problems of infectious disease. Koch's discoveries of the bacterial agents of tuberculosis and cholera stimulated American medical and public health interest in bacteriology in a more practical way. Americans learned Koch's methods by taking his courses and imported them directly into their own laboratories. A context of enthusiasm for science, educational reform, and problems of infectious disease associated with urbanization and changes in agriculture aided the growth of bacteriology in the American context.

  17. Louis Pasteur, language, and molecular chirality. I. Background and dissymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Louis Pasteur resolved sodium ammonium (±)-tartrate in 1848, thereby discovering molecular chirality. Although hindered by the primitive state of organic chemistry, he introduced new terminology and nomenclature for his new science of molecular and crystal chirality. He was well prepared for this task by his rigorous education and innate abilities, and his linguistic achievements eventually earned him membership in the supreme institution for the French language, the Académie française. Dissymmetry had been in use in French from the early 1820s for disruption or absence of symmetry or for dissimilarity or difference in appearance between two objects, and Pasteur initially used it in the latter connotation, without any reference to handedness or enantiomorphism. Soon, however, he adopted it in the meaning of chirality. Asymmetry had been in use in French since 1691 but Pasteur ignored it in favor of dissymmetry. The two terms are not synonymous but it is not clear whether Pasteur recognized this difference in choosing the former over the latter. However, much of the literature mistranslates his dissymmetry as asymmetry. Twenty years before Pasteur the British polymath John Herschel proposed that optical rotation in the noncrystalline state is due to the "unsymmetrical" [his term] nature of the molecules and later used dissymmetrical for handed. Chirality, coined by Lord Kelvin in 1894 and introduced into chemistry by Mislow in 1962, has nearly completely replaced dissymmetry in the meaning of handedness, but the use of dissymmetry continues today in other contexts for lack of symmetry, reduction of symmetry, or dissimilarity.

  18. Polaris Instrument Development and PARI Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    At the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) in Rosman, NC I spent 8 weeks as the NC Space Grant/J. Donald Cline Astronomy Scholar. I developed multiple projects and assisted as a mentor to PARI Space Science Lab and Duke TIP high school gifted student program which both took place during my stay. My main focus was the development of the Polaris imaging telescope. This telescope is used to take images of the pulsating variable star Polaris. These readings are used to make seeing estimates for the air column above PARI. The system stores and archives images and analyzes them for magnitude change and movement of the stellar image. In addition to the Polaris project I developed a solar panel voltage and charge monitoring system which involved me working with charge controllers and photovoltaic technology. I developed a charging scheme using Flexmax 60 charge controller. Data is recorded and transmitted via optical fiber for analysis and correlation with solar zenith angle.

  19. The Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Kamp, G

    1996-05-15

    The existence and the regulatory mechanisms of the Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa are discussed. There are three reasons for the controversy surrounding this phenomenon. 1) The different definitions of the Pasteur effect, 2) the antagonistic effect of metabolic depression and its species specific response to hypoxia, as well as 3) the laboratory-specific differences in the experimental procedures for analyzing the Pasteur effect and its regulation. This review aims to clarify the confusion about the existence of the Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa and to offer possible molecular mechanisms.

  20. Producing, controlling, and stabilizing Pasteur's anthrax vaccine: creating a new industry and a health market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassier, Maurice

    2008-06-01

    When Pasteur and Chamberland hastily set up their small biological industry to meet the agricultural demand for the anthrax vaccine, their methods for preparation and production had not yet been stabilized. The process of learning how to standardize biological products was accelerated in 1882 when vaccination accidents required the revision of production norms as the first hypotheses on fixity, inalterability, and transportability of vaccines were invalidated and replaced by procedures for continuous monitoring of the calibration of vaccines and the renewal of vaccine strains. Initially, the incompleteness and ongoing development of production standards justified Pasteur's monopoly on the production of the anthrax vaccine under his immediate supervision. Later on, the Pasteur Institute maintained control of these standards in the framework of a commercial monopoly that it established on the veterinary vaccines first sent and then cultivated abroad by the Société de Vulgarisation du Vaccin Charbonneux Pasteur, founded in 1886.

  1. El legado de Louis Pasteur The legacy of Lous Pasteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre Muñoz

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    En este artículo se destacan cualidades de Louis Pasteur como la precocidad de su aptitud artística, la capacidad de concentración y reflexión y la perseverancia en sus empeños para lograr lo deseado; luego se hace una síntesis de su vida a través de sus logros científicos: sentar las bases de la estereoquímica, demostrar que las fermentaciones se deben a la acción de organismos vivos, probar que no existe la generación espontánea, aclarar la etiología de varias enfermedades humanas y animales y proponer soluciones para ellas, incluyendo la producción de vacunas, que culminó con el éxito de la vacunación antirrábica. Pasteur había nacido en una época en que predominaba la insalubridad y se corría grave riesgo de fallecer de enfermedades infectocontagiosas; a su muerte había contribuido inmensamente a mejorar esa situación.

    Several qualities of Louis Pasteur are emphasized in this paper, namely: his artistic gift, his capacity for concentration and reflection and his perseverance in working to achieve his goals; a sinthesis of his life is presented through his scientific achievements: to establish the bases of stereochemistry, to prove that fermentations are due to the action of living organisms and that no spontaneous generation exists, to elucidate the etiology of several human and animal diseases and to propose solutions for them including the production of vaccines that culminated with the success of rabies vaccination. Pasteur had been born at a time of great unhealthiness and high risk of death due to infectious diseases; through his life-Iong research he considerably improved such situation.

  2. The Generalisation of Educational Innovations: The Administrator's Perspective. Contributions to a Workshop Held at the International Institute for Educational Planning (Paris, France, December 8-10, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos

    Twelve papers were presented at a 1980 International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) workshop on the generalization of educational innovations from the local to the national level. Six of these papers are published in this report, along with a substantial bibliography and an introductory chapter summarizing the papers and describing the…

  3. Bikes around Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余占

    2007-01-01

    Paris—a dream city for many people!It’s a city of food and art.And since this summer,it has become a city of bicycles. On July 15,when Paris people woke up,they found thousands of bikes in hundreds of bicycle

  4. Foodscapes in Paris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandhøj, Mia; Christensen, Camilla Berg; Nygaard, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    The report in hand is the result from work conducted on a PhD- course in Foodscapes, held in Paris, France, May 2011. The foodscapes approach in both data collection and throughout the report is applied as perspectives given from a couple of complementary foodscapes understandings, operating...

  5. Pasteur in Palestine: the politics of the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nadav; Zalashik, Rakefet

    2010-12-01

    We examine the creation and functioning of the "Pasteur Institute in Palestine" focusing on the relationship between biological science, health policy, and the creation of a "new society" within the framework of Zionism. Similar to other bacteriological institutes founded by colonial powers, this laboratory was developed in response to public health needs. But it also had a political role. Dr. Leo Böhm, a Zionist physician, strived to establish his institution along the lines of the Zionist aspiration to develop a national entity based on strong scientific foundations. Even though the institute enjoyed several fruitful years of operation, mainly during World War I, it achieved no lasting national or scientific importance in the country. Böhm failed to adapt to new ways of knowledge production, scientifically and socially. The case study of the "Pasteur Institute in Palestine" serves as a prism to view the role of the public health laboratory in the history of Palestine with its ongoing changes of scientific, organizational, and political context.

  6. Effects of Juice Matrix and Pasteurization on Stability of Black Currant Anthocyanins during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Gary; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2017-01-01

    The effects of juice matrix and pasteurization on the stability of total phenols and especially total and individual anthocyanins were examined in black currant (BC) juice and mixtures with apple, persimmon, and peach juices at 4 °C and 20 °C. Total phenol content decreased in all juices at both temperatures but there was a trend to lower levels in unpasteurized over pasteurized juices. Differences in the decline of total anthocyanins between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices varied according to the juice type and the storage temperature. At 4 °C storage, anthocyanins declined in all juices according to pseudo 1st-order kinetics and there were only small differences in the rates between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices. However, at 20 °C, although pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices and pasteurized mixed juices followed pseudo 1st-order kinetics, there was a different pattern in unpasteurized mixed juices; a rapid initial decline was followed by a slowing down. The effect of the added juice on anthocyanin decline was also different at either temperature. At 4 °C, the anthocyanins decreased faster in mixed juices than BC juice alone, but at 20 °C, at least in pasteurized mixed juices, the decline was similar or even slower than in BC juice; there were only small differences among the 3 mixed juices. At 20 °C, in pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices, the rate of decrease was essentially the same for all 4 individual anthocyanins but in the mixed juices the 2 glucosides decreased significantly faster than the 2 rutinosides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than 15...

  8. Pasteur and the art of chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    Louis Pasteur was a scientific giant of the nineteenth century, but, as Joseph Gal asks, was his most famous contribution to the understanding of chemistry -- chirality -- influenced more by his artistic talents?

  9. Louis Pasteur, the Father of Immunology?

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-01-01

    Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late nineteenth century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such ...

  10. Louis pasteur, the father of immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kendall A

    2012-01-01

    Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late nineteenth century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such a thing as an immune system did not exist, certainly not as we know it today, more than 130 years later. Accordingly, why was Pasteur such a genius as to discern how the immune system functions to protect us against invasion by the microbial world when no one had even made the distinction between fungi, bacteria, or viruses, and no one had formulated any theories of immunity. A careful reading of Pasteur's presentations to the Academy of Sciences reveals that Pasteur was entirely mistaken as to how immunity occurs, in that he reasoned, as a good microbiologist would, that appropriately attenuated microbes would deplete the host of vital trace nutrients absolutely required for their viability and growth, and not an active response on the part of the host. Even so, he focused attention on immunity, preparing the ground for others who followed. This review chronicles Pasteur's remarkable metamorphosis from organic chemist to microbiologist to immunologist, and from basic science to medicine.

  11. Discover Paris with Jules Verne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Anna E.

    1996-01-01

    An approach to teaching French literature that uses a Jules Verne novel published only in 1994 is described. The novel, "Paris in the 20th Century," is the basis for a series of written and oral exercises about the novel, its social and cultural context, the author, and the actual changes that have occurred in Paris in comparison with…

  12. Hydrocolloid sour taste control in pasteurized rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V

    2014-12-01

    The effects of kappa (κ)-carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in controlling the sourness intensity perception of added acetic, citric, and tartaric acids in solutions for steeping and cooking of rice intended for pasteurization were determined. The rank order of added acids (0.10 and 0.20 % w/v, pH 4.00) in the initial development of acidified hydrocolloid solutions was: acetic > citric > tartaric. The final rice acidification protocols included steeping and cooking of Japonica rice cultivar Kanto in tartaric-acidified hydrocolloid solutions of κ-carrageenan and CMC (0.30 % w/v, 50 ± 2 °C for 1 h) at pH 2.75 and 2.90, respectively. The acidified cooked rice in pouches were pasteurized in boiling water (100 °C) to reach 95 °C for 5 min. The pasteurized products were categorized under acidified foods with final Aw < 0.85 and pH < 4.00. No perceivable sour tastes from 1 to 12 week storage at 28 ± 2 °C were noted in the pasteurized rice products. The shelf-stable pasteurized products were described as white, translucent, with distinct natural rice aroma and flavor, firm, and slightly elastic mouth and hand feel.

  13. Physics buzz in Paris

    CERN Multimedia

    Katie Yurkewicz

    2010-01-01

    The International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP) took place from 22 to 28 July in Paris, and first results from the Large Hadron Collider experiments received top billing.   More than 1,100 physicists gathered in the Palais des Congrès conference centre to attend ICHEP, the world’s premier particle physics conference, where scientists presented and discussed the latest and most intriguing results from experiments in particle physics, particle astrophysics and cosmology, innovative theoretical approaches and predictions, and concepts for future accelerators and particle detectors. The buzz about the LHC experiments caught the eye of French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who addressed the conference on Monday 26 July. President Sarkozy exhorted the particle physics community to continue its quest to understand the nature of the Universe, and stated his belief that investment in fundamental research is critical for the progress of mankind. Steve Myers started off the mo...

  14. Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA POP

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

  15. Models and microbiology: Pasteur and the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, James G

    2003-01-01

    Louis Pasteur developed a model of the body as a culture vessel in the late 1870s as an explanation of both natural and acquired immunity, and other investigators quickly applied the model in the explanation of other microbiological phenomena, principally the tissue tropism seen in the normal and the pathological flora. This paper will argue that although Pasteur quickly abandoned the model, it persisted as an explanation of tissue tropism for nearly 70 years, structuring the interpretation of data by and guiding the research of a diverse group of microbiological researchers.

  16. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the food...

  17. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  18. 7 CFR 58.521 - Pasteurization and product flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... well as microorganisms which may cause spoilage of cottage cheese. Skim milk separated from pasteurized... cheese shall be pasteurized not more than 24 hours prior to the time of setting by heating every particle... and held at 45 °F. or lower until set. (b) Cream or cheese dressing shall be pasteurized at not...

  19. Quality of shell eggs pasteurized with heat or heat-ozone combination during extended storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J J; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Yousef, A E

    2011-09-01

    The physical quality and functionality of shell eggs, pasteurized with heat or a combination of heat and ozone, were assessed during eight weeks of storage at 4 or 25 °C. Shell eggs were treated as follows: (1) immersion heating that mimics commercial pasteurization processes (egg internal temperature of 56 ± 0.1 °C for 32 min), or (2) a newly developed combination process comprised of heating (56 ± 0.1 °C, internal, for 10 min) followed by gaseous ozone treatment. Eggs were tested for yolk index, Haugh units, albumen pH, albumen turbidity, and percent overrun. Additionally, albumen samples were assayed for lysozyme activity and free sulfhydryl group content, and were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Both processed and unprocessed eggs maintained superior quality when stored at 4 °C, as opposed to 25 °C. Pasteurization, regardless of method, led to superior maintenance of Haugh units during storage but also increased albumen opacity and decreased albumen overrun. Detrimental effects on quality markers were more severe in heat-pasteurized eggs than those treated with the ozone-based process. Pasteurization of shell eggs by either process did not affect lysozyme activity or sulfhydryl group content. Changes in protein secondary structure, as indicated by FTIR analysis, suggest that the ozone-based process is less damaging to albumen proteins than is the heat-alone process. In conclusion, heat-ozone pasteurization, by virtue of its less severe heat treatment, yields a safe final product that more closely resembles untreated shell eggs. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF INFRARED MILK PASTEURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the model representation of the process of pasteurization of milk infrared patterns of change in temperature of the product in the heating zone with the heat flows of different nature were obtained. The changes in the basic performance of the quartz oscillator during operation were also obtained.

  1. Pasteurization of IgM-enriched Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Mousavi Hosseini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma proteins are important for therapy or prophylaxis of human diseases. Due to the preparation of human plasma proteins from human plasma pools and risk of contamination with human viruses, different viral reduction treatments such as: pasteurization, solvent/detergent, dry heat treatment, steam treatment, beta-propiolactone/UV and nanofiltration have been implemented. As pasteurization can be performed for liquid protein, this method (a 10-hour heat treatment of the aqueous solutions at 60°C was introduced into the manufacturing procedure of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin, to improve its safety further. The efficiency of this method for inactivation of viruses was evaluated by the use of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (a non-enveloped virus and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR Virus (a lipid-enveloped virus. Pasteurization inactivated Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by 7 log10 and for IBR Virus by 5log10. These findings show a significant added measure of virus safety associated with pasteurization of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin preparation.

  2. Louis Pasteur, the father of immunology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Louis Pasteur is traditionally considered as the progenitor of modern immunology because of his studies in the late 19th century that popularized the germ theory of disease, and that introduced the hope that all infectious diseases could be prevented by prophylactic vaccination, as well as also treated by therapeutic vaccination, if applied soon enough after infection. However, Pasteur was working at the dawn of the appreciation of the microbial world, at a time when the notion of such a thing as an immune system did not exist, certainly not as we know it today, more than 130 years later. Accordingly, why was Pasteur such a genius as to discern how the immune system functions to protect us against invasion by the microbial world when no one had even made the distinction between fungi, bacteria or viruses, and no one had formulated any theories of immunity. A careful reading of Pasteur’s presentations to the Academy of Sciences reveals that Pasteur was entirely mistaken as to how immunity occurs, in that he reasoned, as a good microbiologist would, that appropriately attenuated microbes would deplete the host of vital trace nutrients absolutely required for their viability and growth, and not an active response on the part of the host. Even so, he focused attention on immunity, preparing the ground for others who followed. This review chronicles Pasteur’s remarkable metamorphosis from organic chemist to microbiologist to immunologist, and from basic science to medicine.

  3. Postcard from Paris

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this week I was in Paris to join particle physicists from around the world at the International Conference on High-Energy Physics, ICHEP 2010. This conference series began in 1950 as the ‘Rochester series’, named for the original venue in the US, and its meetings rapidly became the place to present the latest results and discoveries.   Particle physics has certainly come a long way since those early days. In 60 years, the meetings have witnessed the birth and growth of CERN, the development of the current Standard Model of particles and their interactions - and now the first results from a truly international project, the LHC. I’d had the opportunity to be present at some of the previous meetings where important discoveries were announced, but this was the first time I had the privilege to attend as the Director-General of the laboratory that was the focus of much of the attention. It is clear from many of the people with whom I talked that the high quality ...

  4. [A brief philatelic evocation of Louis Pasteur and of his disciples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouzier, E

    1997-01-01

    Philately is an important source of knowledge on numerous items. Evocation of Louis Pasteur's as well as his disciples life and works throughout stamp collection is a perfect example of this. Born in Dôle in 1822, he spent his youth in Arbois. It is at the Ecole normale supérieure that he performed his work on cristals which led him to establish molecular dissymetry principles. Later, he studied of the fermentation process, he searched the reason of wines' disease and the means to prevent it (i.e. pasteurisation), he solved the problem of the silkworm disease and discovered agents of numerous infectious diseases. He demonstrated scientifically the vaccination principle. In 1885 he tried with success the first human antirabic vaccination. Three years later, the Pasteur Institute was inaugurated. After his death, his works survived in numerous institutes all over the world. Many pasteurians received the Nobel Prize.

  5. Microwave milk pasteurization without food safety risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Géczi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE According to nutrition science, milk and milk products are essential food for humans. The primary processing of milk includes its storage, separation, homogenization and the pasteurization process as well. The latter is a kind of heat treatment, which has been used to extend the storage life of food since the late 18th century. Although heat treatment of milk can be achieved through the use of microwave technology, the inhomogeneity of electromagnetic fields leads to an uneven distribution of temperature in the food products, therefore precluding their use in industry. The pasteurization operation is very often Critical Controll Point (CCP according of food safety systems. In recent years our research team has developed continuously operating heat treatment pilot-plant equipment, capable of measuring and contrasting the effects of different heat treatment methods, such as thermostat-controlled water baths and microwave energy, on liquid food products. We examined and compared protein, fat and bacterial content in samples of fresh cow milk with heat-treated cow milk samples. In addition, storage experiments were carried out under a microscope and recordings made of fat globules. Our results so far show that the microwave heat treatment is equivalent to the convection manner pasteurization technology, as we found no difference between the heat-treated products.doi:10.5219/260

  6. Paris in Boston: A Photo Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Dzamba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is intriguing how certain scenes of Boston resemble those of Paris. In fact, the architects of some of Boston’s most famous buildings of the nineteenth century studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. The influence of Paris can be found everywhere in Boston, especially among the hotel images in this photo essay.

  7. Origin of the Societe des Americanistes, Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Pascal Riviale (1991 produced a two volume dissertation summarizing the work of French scholars involved in anthropology, ethnography, and archaeology in Peru from the beginning of Peruvian independence in 1821 up until World War 1. From the commentary, it is clear that not only does this volume trace individual scholars, and institu­tions involved in archaeologically-related research, but it develops a number of general intellectual themes as well. Riviale has recently (1996 extracted a portion of his dissertation relating to the events leading up to the founding of the Society of Americanists, Paris, in 1895. Because he is focusing in this case on the origin of a specific organiza­tion, he concentrates on exegesis of the institutional antecedents from 1821 onward.

  8. Hydrocolloid sour taste control in pasteurized rice

    OpenAIRE

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of kappa (κ)-carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in controlling the sourness intensity perception of added acetic, citric, and tartaric acids in solutions for steeping and cooking of rice intended for pasteurization were determined. The rank order of added acids (0.10 and 0.20 % w/v, pH 4.00) in the initial development of acidified hydrocolloid solutions was: acetic > citric > tartaric. The final rice acidification protocols included steeping and cooking of Japonica rice...

  9. The Pasteur effect in carrot root tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz-Ur-Rahman, A T; Trewavas, A J; Davies, D D

    1974-09-01

    The presence of a Pasteur effect in aged discs of carrot (Daucus carota L.) storage tissue and its apparent absence in fresh discs was confirmed. Changes in the concentration of glycolytic intermediates have been determined, following the transfer of fresh and aged discs from air to nitrogen. In addition the changes in glycolytic intermediates associated with the ageing of the discs have also been measured. The results are analysed and interpreted to indicate that in aged discs the enzyme phosphofructokinase plays an important role in controlling glycolysis. In fresh discs phosphofructokinase appears to exert little control of glycolysis. The results also suggest that glycolysis may be controlled at points other than phosphofructokinase.

  10. The Development of Vaccination and the Discoveries of Louis Pasteur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of vaccination and provides a brief biographical sketch of the life and work of Pasteur. Describes historical practices related to vaccination before Pasteur did his work, including variolation as practiced by the ancient Chinese and Jenner's use of smallpox. (PR)

  11. The Development of Vaccination and the Discoveries of Louis Pasteur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of vaccination and provides a brief biographical sketch of the life and work of Pasteur. Describes historical practices related to vaccination before Pasteur did his work, including variolation as practiced by the ancient Chinese and Jenner's use of smallpox. (PR)

  12. Pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-FSIS estimates that pasteurization of all shell eggs in the U.S. would reduce the annual number of illnesses by more than 110,000, yet less than 1% of shell eggs are commercially pasteurized. One of the main reasons for this is that the current process, hot water immersion, requires approxi...

  13. A Short Stay in Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Treasures from China’s Palace Museum will be displayed at the Louvre in France For the first time in its history,part of the royal antiquity collection at the Palace Museum in China will journey abroad.It will be displayed at the Louvre Museum in Paris from September 26,2011 to January 9,2012.This is no doubt good news for

  14. Monitoring Polaris and Seeing Conditions at PARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, April

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was originally built by NASA to track and collect data from satellites. The location in the Pisgah National Forest was chosen due to the excellent ability of the surrounding mountains to block radio interference and light pollution. The PARI observatory has been monitoring Polaris for over 10 years and has amassed a large collection of images of the star and those surrounding it. While several telescopes have been used throughout the project, we are currently using a Omni XLT Series Celestron and an SBIG ST-8300M CCD camera with a 0.70 arcsecond/pixel ratio. The software is run on Windows, however, we will be making a switch to Linux and implementing a new program to control the camera. The new images, once converted to a usable format (ST10 to FITS), can be automatically fed into an in-house Java program to track the variability of the star and simultaneously determine the seeing conditions experienced on the campus. Since we have several years worth of data, the program will also be used to provide a history of variability and seeing conditions. We ultimately hope to be able to track the possible changes in variability of Polaris, as it's current location on the HR diagram is being studied. The data could also prove valuable for our on-site scientists and many visiting students to study on campus. We are also developing a relative scale for our seeing conditions, accompanied by FWHM measurements in arcseconds that will can be compared to those of surrounding observatories in mountainous areas.

  15. Allergic reactions to raw, pasteurized, and homogenized/pasteurized cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Samuelsson, E G

    1988-01-01

    Five children aged 12-40 months with IgE-mediated adverse reactions to cow milk (immediate onset clinical pattern of cow milk allergy) were orally challenged double-blind in random order with three different milk preparations processed from the same batch of milk 1) raw untreated cow milk, 2......) pasteurized cow milk, 3) homogenized and pasteurized cow milk, and 4) Nutramigen (a commercial hypoallergenic infant formula based on hydrolysed casein) as placebo. Skin prick tests with the same preparations were also performed. On oral challenge the three different processed milk types provoked significant...... and similar allergic reactions in each child, and no adverse reactions followed the challenge with placebo (Nutramigen). Skin prick test with the same milk products were positive in all children and comparable to the results with an extract of purified raw cow milk protein (Soluprick), whereas Nutramigen did...

  16. Pasteurella multocida pathogenesis: 125 years after Pasteur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Marina; Boyce, John D; Adler, Ben

    2006-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida was first shown to be the causative agent of fowl cholera by Louis Pasteur in 1881. Since then, this Gram-negative bacterium has been identified as the causative agent of many other economically important diseases in a wide range of hosts. The mechanisms by which these bacteria can invade the mucosa, evade innate immunity and cause systemic disease are slowly being elucidated. Key virulence factors identified to date include capsule and lipopolysaccharide. The capsule is clearly involved in bacterial avoidance of phagocytosis and resistance to complement, while complete lipopolysaccharide is critical for bacterial survival in the host. A number of other virulence factors have been identified by both directed and random mutagenesis, including Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT), putative surface adhesins and iron acquisition proteins. However, it is likely that many key virulence factors are yet to be identified, including those required for initial attachment and invasion of host cells and for persistence in a relatively nutrient poor and hostile environment.

  17. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  18. [Nurses with the Paris Fire Brigade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boulleur, Thibaud; Damas, Cécile Rodrigues; Lefort, Hugues; Lamache, Christophe; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Domanski, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    The army nurses of the Paris Fire Brigade serve the population of Paris and three adjacent departments. They receive induction as well as continuous training and work within the mobile pre-hospital medical teams. In addition to their day-to-day support of firefighters, they train, teach and participate in clinical research and development.

  19. Reduction of pasteurization temperature leads to lower bacterial outgrowth in pasteurized fluid milk during refrigerated storage: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial numbers over refrigerated shelf-life were enumerated in high-temperature, short-time (HTST) commercially pasteurized fluid milk for 15 mo before and 15 mo after reducing pasteurization temperature from 79.4°C (175°F) [corrected] to 76.1°C (169°F). Total bacterial counts were measured in whole fat, 2% fat, and fat-free milk products on the day of processing as well as throughout refrigerated storage (6°C) at 7, 14, and 21 d postprocessing. Mean total bacterial counts were significantly lower immediately after processing as well as at 21 d postprocessing in samples pasteurized at 76.1°C versus samples pasteurized at 79.4°C. In addition to mean total bacterial counts, changes in bacterial numbers over time (i.e., bacterial growth) were analyzed and were lower during refrigerated storage of products pasteurized at the lower temperature. Lowering the pasteurization temperature for unflavored fluid milk processed in a commercial processing facility significantly reduced bacterial growth during refrigerated storage.

  20. 'Old Paris is no more'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2000-01-01

    the critique of the spectacle developed by the situationist Guy Debord. It situates his writings on the subject back into the context of his engagements with the modern city between the 1950s and 1970s, and especially in Paris where he spent much of his life. In particular, it reads them in terms of both his...... bleak view of urban change and alienation under capitalism as well as the ‘glimmers of light’ that he found in ‘the setting sun of this city’. Debord’s attachment to certain urban sites within this critique of urban spectacle was often nostalgic. Yet it can also be understood as part of his concern...

  1. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-11-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms.

  2. [Pathogenicity expressed by inhibition of the Pasteur effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomirescu, M; Marţincu, V; Novac, E

    1977-01-01

    The experiments carried out demonstrate that under the influence of tetanus exotoxin, Gram-negative bacteria endotoxins, staphylococcal infection and infestation with Tr. spiralis, inhibition of the Pasteur effect occurs. Recently published data show that the same manifestation of pathogenicity is induced by diphtheria alpha and delta exotoxin, staphylococcal toxin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin, streptolysin O, infections with Cl. perfringens, Pasteurella and Rickettsia and hepatitis viruses in man. These data confirm a previous hypothesis according to which inhibition of the Pasteur effect represents the expression and metabolic measure of pathogenicity and toxicity. The inhibitory effect was proportional to the amount of pathogenic agent or toxin, just as the respective anatoxin or toxin + endotoxin mixture does not influence the Pasteur effect. The metabolic criteria of the Pasteur effect, i.e. inhibition of hyperlactacidaemia and decrease of the organic P/inorganic P ratio, are thus the direct indices of pathogenicity and toxigenicity. This also accounts for deep alteration of the Pasteur effect in infections generating states of infectious and endotoxinic shock.

  3. 21 CFR 1210.25 - Permits for pasteurized milk or cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits for pasteurized milk or cream. 1210.25... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.25 Permits for pasteurized milk or cream. Permits to ship or transport pasteurized milk or cream into the United States will be granted only...

  4. Housing and the construction of the city: the Paris Habitat Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Arpa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Paris, the history and the evolution of social housing provision merge with those of a centennial institution. Created in 1914, the Office Public d’Habitations à Bon Marché, currently called Paris Habitat, manages more than 1,200 operations, 120,000 housing units inhabited by 200,000 residents. This article reviews an investigation to this exceptional heritage commissioned by the Pavillon de l'Arsenal in Paris, which resulted in the exhibition and catalogue Paris Habitat: Cent ans de ville, cent ans de vie, presented by the institution in 2015.The investigation, exhibition and publication were organized around the analysis of ten fragments of reality that, rather than matching administrative divisions or urban planning projects, span municipalities, districts and infrastructures. From low-cost to large-scale housing, from concerns with hygiene to ecology issues, each one of the building ensembles analyzed bears witness to the will to change society through housing. Written by the project’s main curator and catalogue editor, this review details the process through which essential questions formulated early on – What is the city we want like? How is it built? – were answered to: selecting from the wealth of material produced by Paris Habitat over one hundred years of activity, the team exposed their political stance on urban strategies at large. Importantly, Paris Habitat’s ‘actions’ substantiated the team’s belief that our knowledge of this long, continuous urban experiment can contribute to improve the metropolises of today and strengthen its ability to answer contemporary concerns: the transformation of offices into housing, new residents’ participation formulas, new building and conception processes, which are key elements in the making of cities that need to be dense, diverse, intense, fertile and agile.

  5. 7 CFR 58.635 - Pasteurization of the mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization of the mix. 58.635 Section 58.635 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...

  6. A Better Method for Filling Pasteur Pipet Chromatography Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruekberg, Ben

    2006-01-01

    An alternative method for the preparation of Pasteur pipet chromatography columns is presented that allows the column to be filled with solvent without bubbles and allows greater control of fluid flow while the materials to be separated are added. Students are required to wear gloves and goggles and caution should be used while handling glass…

  7. Supercritical carbon dioxide process for pasteurization of fruit juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) nonthermal processing inactivates microorganisms in juices using non-toxic and non-reactive CO2. However, data is lacking on the inactivation of E. coli K12 and L. plantarum in apple cider using pilot plant scale SCCO2 equipment. For this study, pasteurized pres...

  8. Liquid egg white pasteurization using a centrifugal UV irradiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies are lacking on UV nonthermal pasteurization of liquid egg white (LEW). The objective of this study was to inactivate Escherichia coli using a UV irradiator that centrifugally formed a thin film of LEW on the inside of a rotating cylinder. The LEW was inoculated with E. coli K12 to approximat...

  9. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than 6.0 undenatured whey protein nitrogen per gram of non-fat dry milk as classified in the U.S... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and buttermilk used in the manufacture of dry milk products and modified dry milk products shall be...

  10. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “American cheese” as prescribed in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section. Such mixtures are considered as one... granular cheese or any mixture of two or more of these, it may be designated “Pasteurized process American... cheeses or such mixture may be designated as “American cheese”. The full name of the food shall appear...

  11. Shelf life of pasteurized microfiltered milk containing 2% fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Z; Barbano, D M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research was to produce homogenized milk containing 2% fat with a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d using minimum high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization in combination with other nonthermal processes. Raw skim milk was microfiltered (MF) using a Tetra Alcross MFS-7 pilot plant (Tetra Pak International SA, Pully, Switzerland) equipped with Membralox ceramic membranes (1.4 μm and surface area of 2.31 m(2); Pall Corp., East Hills, NY). The unpasteurized MF skim permeate and each of 3 different cream sources were blended together to achieve three 2% fat milks. Each milk was homogenized (first stage: 17 MPa, second stage: 3 MPa) and HTST pasteurized (73.8°C for 15s). The pasteurized MF skim permeate and the 3 pasteurized homogenized 2% fat milks (made from different fat sources) were stored at 1.7 and 5.7°C and the standard plate count for each milk was determined weekly over 90 d. When the standard plate count was >20,000 cfu/mL, it was considered the end of shelf life for the purpose of this study. Across 4 replicates, a 4.13 log reduction in bacteria was achieved by MF, and a further 0.53 log reduction was achieved by the combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), resulting in a 4.66 log reduction in bacteria for the combined process. No containers of MF skim milk that was pasteurized after MF exceeded 20,000 cfu/mL bacteria count during 90 d of storage at 5.7°C. The 3 different approaches used to reduce the initial bacteria and spore count of each cream source used to make the 2% fat milks did not produce any shelf-life advantage over using cold separated raw cream when starting with excellent quality raw whole milk (i.e., low bacteria count). The combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), combined with filling and packaging that was protected from microbial contamination, achieved a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d at both 1.7 and 5.7°C for 2% fat milks.

  12. The Paris Observatory has 350 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequeux, James

    2017-01-01

    1926, the astrophysical observatory at Meudon was merged with the Paris one. A strong revival of the Observatory and of all French astronomy took place just after WW2 under the impulse of André Danjon. Radioastronomy was developed with the creation of the Nançay station in 1953, and the Observatory became very active in space research after 1963 thanks mainly to Jean-Louis Steinberg. It is presently one of the biggest astronomical institutes worldwide, with a total scientific, technical and administrative staff of 650, and many students and post-doctoral researchers. Essentially all the aspects of astronomy and astrophysics are covered, including laboratory work, especially on very accurate clocks. However, essentially all the observations are done elsewhere, particularly in international facilities such as IRAM, ESO and with many satellites and space probes.

  13. Evaluation of calf milk pasteurization systems on 6 Pennsylvania dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Salazar, J A; Jones, C M; Heinrichs, A J

    2010-11-01

    Waste milk has been fed to calves for many years, but concerns with bacterial contamination as well as possible transmission of diseases have discouraged widespread use of this feed. Pasteurization of waste milk is one option to reduce management risk while utilizing a valuable, low-cost, liquid feed source for calves. However, many farms currently pasteurizing waste milk lack a system to adequately monitor the efficiency of the process. A study was carried out to evaluate 6 on-farm pasteurization systems, including high-temperature, short-time pasteurizers and low-temperature, batch pasteurizers. Milk samples were taken pre- and postpasteurization as well as from the calf buckets and immediately frozen for later bacterial culture. Samples were collected twice daily for 15 d. Milk samples were examined for standard plate count (SPC), coagulase-negative staphylococci count, environmental streptococci count, coliform count, gram-negative noncoliform count, Streptococcus agalactiae count, and Staphylococcus aureus count. Before pasteurization, 68% of the samples had SPC counts counts were significantly reduced by pasteurization, and pasteurized milk contained acceptable numbers of bacteria in >90% of samples. These results indicate that pasteurization can be very effective in lowering bacterial contamination of milk. However, bacteria numbers significantly increased after pasteurization and, in some cases, bacteria counts in milk fed to calves were similar to prepasteurization levels. Milk handling after pasteurization was identified as an important issue on the farms studied.

  14. KARAKTERISASI GLIKOSAMINOGLIKAN DARI TULANG RAWAN IKAN PARI AIR LAUT (Neotrygon kuhlii DAN PARI AIR TAWAR (Himantura signifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang - Riyanto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ikan pari merupakan komoditas perikanan yang populasinya besar di Indonesia, tetapi pemanfaatannyabelum optimal. Jaringan tulang rawan ikan pari mengandung molekul glikosaminoglikan dan telahdimanfaatkan dalam terapi osteoarthritis. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan karakteristikglikosaminoglikan dari tulang rawan ikan pari air laut (Neotrygon kuhlii dan pari air tawar (Himanturasignifer. Spektrum FTIR memperlihatkan pola yang sama dengan kondroitin sulfat. Konsentrasiglikosaminoglikan pada pari air laut adalah 74,767 mg/100 mL, konsentrasi ini lebih tinggi dibandingkandari ikan pari air tawar, yaitu 66,767 mg/100 mL.Kata kunci: glikosaminoglikan, Himantura signifer, kondroitin sulfat, Neotrygon kuhlii, osteoarthritis

  15. Academic Capitalism in the Pasteur's Quadrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Based on previous empirical studies, in this work the author presents an analysis of the role of context in academic capitalism. In particular, she argues that the literature on academic capitalism fails to properly acknowledge disciplinary and institutional differences, which results in an oversimplification of the effects of industry-academia…

  16. Academic Capitalism in the Pasteur's Quadrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Based on previous empirical studies, in this work the author presents an analysis of the role of context in academic capitalism. In particular, she argues that the literature on academic capitalism fails to properly acknowledge disciplinary and institutional differences, which results in an oversimplification of the effects of industry-academia…

  17. Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, René A; Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Pham, Huyên; Taflin, Erik

    2007-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the third volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by René Carmona, Ivar Ekeland/Erik Taflin, Arturo Kohatsu-Higa, Pierre-Louis Lions/Jean-Michel Lasry, and Hyuên Pham.

  18. The Expansion of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive at PARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, J. Donald; Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of photometric, astrometric, spectral and surface brightness data exist on decades of photographic glass plates. The Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was established in November 2007 and is dedicated to the task of collecting, restoring, preserving and storing astronomical photographic data and PARI continues to accept collections. APDA is also tasked with scanning each image and establishing a database of images that can be accessed via the Internet by the global community of scientists, researchers and students. APDA is a new type of astronomical observatory - one that harnesses analog data of the night sky taken for more than a century and making that data available in a digital format.In 2016, APDA expanded from 50 collections with about 220,000 plates to more than 55 collections and more than 340,000 plates and films. These account for more than 30% of all astronomical photographic data in the United States. The largest of the new acquisitions are the astronomical photographic plates in the Yale University collection. We present details of the newly added collections and review of other collections in APDA.

  19. Paris and Then? Holding States to Account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.

    2016-01-01

    So much focus is now given to getting the Paris agreement on climate change “right,” particularly that the intended nationally determined commitments (INDCs) should be ambitious, effective, and fair. But what about the morning after? There is no automatism in international norms, whether legally bin

  20. IMS LD. Paris Conference, April 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    3 presentations run in Paris, France, in Apri 1st, 2005, in the Cité des Sciences, sponsored by UNFOLD Project and l'AFNOR about the following topics: - Update on UNFOLD CoP Valkenburg meeting 2005 - Creating a UoL - Introducing CopperCore

  1. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies, underscores the…

  2. IMS LD. Paris Conference, April 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    3 presentations run in Paris, France, in Apri 1st, 2005, in the Cité des Sciences, sponsored by UNFOLD Project and l'AFNOR about the following topics: - Update on UNFOLD CoP Valkenburg meeting 2005 - Creating a UoL - Introducing CopperCore

  3. CTAF Paris, the New Geography of Sourcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yanwei; Tang Rong

    2011-01-01

    On September 19th 2011, a magnificent Chinese apparel salute drew its curtain at Le Bourget Expo Center, Paris. Sponsored by China National Textile and Apparel Council (CNTAC), organized by the Sub-Council of Textile Industry, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT TEX), China National Garment Association and Messe Frankfurt French Subsidiary,

  4. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies,…

  5. Apparel Sourcing Will Shine in Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2011-01-01

    This September, Messe Frankfurt France would stage a new international platform for apparel and fashion accessories sourcing, Apparel Sourcing (App), for the first time in Paris. First launched in the US in 2010, the French edition of Apparel Sourcing wou

  6. Paris through the eyes of IS supporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanninga, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The attacks in Paris have led to huge debates about the perpetrators and their backgrounds, the strategies of the Islamic State, security policies in Europe, the role of Islam in the West, the possible risks of refugees and the most effective measures to “degrade and destroy” the Islamic State in Sy

  7. Berlin – Paris – Tokyo. KARTOGRAFI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross; Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2010-01-01

    og bevægelse (2008). Resultaterne er blevet publiceret i bogen: Kartografi – Morfologi – Topologi. Arkitektskolens Forlag 2009. Dette forskningsarbejde er blevet fulgt op med en række nye studier, der i stedet for at have Hydra som topografisk udgangspunkt arbejder med tre udsnit af Berlin, Paris og...

  8. Health-aware Model Predictive Control of Pasteurization Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Pour, Fatemeh; Puig, Vicenç; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize the trade-off between components life and energy consumption, the integration of a system health management and control modules is required. This paper proposes the integration of model predictive control (MPC) with a fatigue estimation approach that minimizes the damage of the components of a pasteurization plant. The fatigue estimation is assessed with the rainflow counting algorithm. Using data from this algorithm, a simplified model that characterizes the health of the system is developed and integrated with MPC. The MPC controller objective is modified by adding an extra criterion that takes into account the accumulated damage. But, a steady-state offset is created by adding this extra criterion. Finally, by including an integral action in the MPC controller, the steady-state error for regulation purpose is eliminated. The proposed control scheme is validated in simulation using a simulator of a utility-scale pasteurization plant.

  9. [Louis Pasteur (1822-1895). A century later].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, P G

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the amazing series of successive and diverse items worked on by the chemist and physicist Pasteur starts with the asymmetry of paratartrates, switches over to the fermentations and ends in the fight against diseases of invertebrates and vertebrates, including man. It is the wonderful story of an exceptional contribution to the advancement of knowledge, which was made possible by his keen observation skill, his rigorous and innovative methods and his careful judgement. A retrospective analysis of the inner man may impair somewhat the fame of Pasteur. He was a lonely man, in need of solitude to be able to make full use of his thinking capacity, foreboding secretiveness and shrewdness , which are contradictory to his careful writing down day after day of all the details of his thinking and research in his notebooks by now available to the scientific community. He was furthermore selfish, domineering, inflexible, impulsive and inclined to engage in endless controversies. But on the contrary his motivation to accept new assignments was subordinate to their public welfare value and as a rule he endeavoured to work on the problems in the field and in association with those concerned. He was courageous when struck by a cerebral hemorrhage at middle age, so that its aftermath hardly hampered his research activities. The dimness cast on his personality is not up to his pioneer role within a general conservative climate among the medical and even scientific profession, antagonistic to innovation. Pasteur has been a founder of stereochemistry, microbiology and its applications, immunology, bacterial vaccines, pasteurisation and a promotor of prevention and hygiene. These overwhelming achievements justify to keep alive the recognition of the outstanding stature of Pasteur.

  10. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)--chance and the prepared mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, K L

    1995-12-01

    Louis Pasteur is often regarded as one of the founders of microbiology, and is chiefly famous for his discovery of the role that microorganisms play in health and disease. However, he was trained as a physical scientist, and his research began with the discovery of the stereoisomerism of the different forms of tartaric acid. As a biotechnologist, he is remembered for his studies on the nature of fermentation, and for his rebuttal of the theory of spontaneous generation.

  11. [The formative years of a research scientist: Louis Pasteur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrichs, L L

    The article endeavors to bring back to life Pasteur's years as a teenage boy, based on his correspondence with his parents and on the philosophy homework he undertook during his school days. These materials reveal an authoritarian, moralizing young man who bore the strong mark of his education and his father's personality but who was also endowed with a spirit of curiosity, already imbued with the rational faith that would characterize the entirety of his scientific works.

  12. Can bone scintigraphy predict the final outcome of pasteurized autografts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eid, Ahmed Shawky [Ain Shams University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cairo (Egypt); Jeon, Dae-Geun; Cho, Wan Hyeong [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    As pasteurization is becoming more widely used in limb salvage reconstruction, more study is required to understand about host-graft junction healing, graft revascularization and incorporation, and the incidence and type of complications among pasteurized autografts. This was mainly achieved by follow-up radiography. We aimed to clarify whether Tc99m bone scanning can be considered a reliable method in determining these three parameters. Twenty-seven osteosarcoma patients with pasteurized autograft reconstructions were retrospectively reviewed using available scintigraphic and radiographic follow-up every 6 months postoperatively for 36 months. Follow-up of the unhealed cases was continued for the maximum follow-up period available for each case beyond the original study period, ranging from 1 to 15 months. Tc99m uptake was classified as cold, faint, moderate and high uptake. Junction healing was classified as none, partial and complete healing. Seventy percent of junctions united with a mean of 22 months. Ninety to 100% of junctions showed increased uptake (high or moderate) at one time of the study regardless of final outcome. 85% of the pasteurized grafts showed the characteristic ''tramline appearance''. Four grafts (15%) were complicated: pseudoarthrosis and implant failure (1), fractured plate (1), intramedullary nail (IMN) fracture (1), and prosthesis stem loosening in the host bone (1), with underlying unhealed junctions in all cases. Bone scanning can determine the stages of the graft's rim revascularization and incorporation; however, it cannot detect or predict junction healing or occurrence of complications. Supplementary treatment of unhealed junctions showing either decreased junctional uptake or graft quiescence may be warranted. Otherwise, detection of distant metastasis and early local recurrence remains the main application of Tc99m scanning in the management of bone sarcomas. (orig.)

  13. [Experimental data on the virological study of pasteurized milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitina, T A

    1975-01-01

    Virological analyses of sterile milk per se enabled the poliovirus to be disclosed with a concentration of 30 infection units in 1 ml. To determine such doses of the viruses in pasteurized milk the viruses have to be concentrated, for prior to cytopathogenic manifestations subsequent to these viral doses there occurs bacterial germination. In achieving poliovirus concentration in pasteurized milk are suitable polyethyleneglycol, molecular weight 15 000, and polyvinylpyrolidon, molecular weight 10 000, in a 10% concentration. Dilution of milk with Hanks' solution in the ratio of 1:4 and 1:9 improves the process of the poliovirus sorption-eluation with the polymer, enabling it to detect 3 BOU of the virus in 1 ml of milk. The AB-17-8 anionite and Ky-21-8 cationite are capable of adequately sorbing the poliovirus in pasteurized milk, but it is only from the cationite, and then only in a small amount, that eluation of the virus can be accomplished.

  14. Pasteur effect in vascular and intestinal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, G; Lundholm, L

    1985-01-01

    The increase in lactate production on changing from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, i.e. the Pasteur effect, has been reported to be small in vascular muscle and especially in aorta. It has been suggested that this may be an artefact caused by damage to the intimal endothelium. We have compared the Pasteur effect in different kinds of pig arteries, but also in rabbit colon. The aerobic lactate production in 60 min was 11-15 mumol/g in the aorta and the carotid artery, but 3 mumol/g in the mesenteric and renal arteries and 4 mumol/g in the rabbit colon. The increase in lactate production under anaerobic conditions was 12-20 mumol/g/60 min in the carotid artery, aorta and rabbit colon and 10 mumol/g/60 min in the mesenteric and renal arteries. When calculated in per cent, the Pasteur effect was greater in the mesenteric artery than in the aorta, but the actual rise in lactate production in mumol/g was higher in the aorta and carotid artery. The high aerobic lactate production of smooth muscle in vitro may be related to its low ability to oxidize glucose; some other substrates may be preferentially oxidized when present in vitro or in vivo.

  15. Comparing the Protective Effect of the Conventional Pasteurized and Lactobacillus Acidophilus-fortified Pasteurized Yoghurts on Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problems: Candida species are the most common fungal pathogen in human’s body. Therefore an accurate and immediate treatment seems to be necessary. Nowadays, alternative treatments, such as probiotics, are considered because of the adverse side effects of chemical medications. Probiotics are alive organisms which can be used for medical purposes and are added to different kinds of diary such as yoghurt. Lactobacill Acidophilus (LA was detected form human’s recourses many years ago and nowadays can be found in special kinds of milk, yoghurt, juice and food complementories. Purpose: In this study we are to compare the effect of conventional pasteurized and lactobacillus acidophilus- fortified pasteurized yoghurt on Candida Albicans in vitro.Materials and Method: Candida Albicans was isolated from 30 oral candidasis patients, cultured and prepared as standard suspension. Probiotic powder of LA in MRS Media after 24hrs led to 5×109 lactobacillus. LA- fortified yoghurt was prepared via adding lactobacills into 250 ml of pasteurized boiled milk after 8hrs in 37oc. We prepared 3 tubes and added standard suspension of Candida in each of them. Adding sterile yoghourt, conventional pasteurized yoghurt and LA-fortified yoghurt to the tubes respectively, we put them in 35oc incubator for 48 hrs. We added the content of each tube in Sabouraud agar media and incubated in 25oc for 72 hrs and then counted the colonies.Results: There was a significant difference between the mean of colonies in each group during 5 days ( p = 0, df = 4 and also on each day ( p = 0, df = 2.Conclusion: L.A. can inhibit colonization of Candida in vitro. In this study the most of Candida colonies were in the sterile yoghurt and the least of them were in LA fortified yoghurt.

  16. Scientific Respiratory Symposium, Paris June 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalglish G

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gavin Dalglish, Graham PriestleyHorizon Medical Publishing, Chichester, UKAbstract: At a 2010 Respiratory Symposium in Paris, chaired by Professors Bousquet and Roche of the University of Paris, recent trends in research, therapy and treatment guidelines for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD were reviewed and discussed by a faculty of expert European and US respiratory physicians. This article reviews five key clinical presentations with particular emphasis given to the importance of small airways in the pathology and treatment of asthma and COPD. Further analysis of the economics of treatment in Europe and the US shows a wide variance in direct and indirect costs.Keywords: COPD, asthma, small airways, real-life clinical practice

  17. Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Çinlar, Erhan; Ekeland, Ivar; Jouini, Elyes; Scheinkman, José; Touzi, Nizar

    2004-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the second volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. This volume presents the following articles: "Hedging of Defaultable Claims" by T. Bielecki, M. Jeanblanc, and M. Rutkowski; "On the Geometry of Interest Rate Models" by T. Björk; "Heterogeneous Beliefs, Speculation and Trading in Financial Markets" by J.A. Scheinkman, and W. Xiong.

  18. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  19. Beyond Paris: 11 innovations in aid effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Morris; Jonathan Pryke

    2011-01-01

    The current framework for improving aid effectiveness, the 'Paris' agenda of harmonisation and alignment, has been found lacking. Alternatives are needed. This paper highlights some examples of recent innovations in the management and delivery of development aid. Drawing upon Barder (2009) and Howes (2011), the paper structures 11 innovations into three categories: improving the quality of the aid donor; improving the quality of the aid recipient; and improving how donors interact and the way...

  20. Establishing a Seismometer at PARI and Designing a Switching Circuit Utilizing Fiber Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Justin

    2007-12-01

    At Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) in Rosman, NC I spent ten weeks as the first NC Space Grant/Cline Astronomy Scholar developing multiple projects that helped to establish PARI as a resource for the scientific community. The first project that I worked on was establishing PARI's seismometer which serves as a resource for the region and utilizes sensitive equipment to measure 2.8 magnitude earthquakes occurring anywhere on earth. After basic seismometer operating principles were studied, multiple locations were surveyed to find an ideal location with little ambient noise and no disturbance from human or mechanical sources. Disturbances were generated at several locations identified as potential sites for the seismometer at 10, 20 and 30 feet by dropping a basketball and by driving a car around the location in an established pattern. Noise response was analyzed using the WinSDR software package which generates digital records of analog seismometer data and an ideal location was identified. The second project involved designing a circuit around the specific needs of the PARI optical telescope ridge. This ridge is susceptible to equipment that is damaged or improperly reset due to lightning. The circuit utilized the insulated properties of optical fiber to transmit a switching signal to the weather stations on the PARI optical ridge. This signal reset those stations that transmitted asynchronously after a lightning strike. Fiber optic transmitters were incorporated into the circuit along with TTL logic to provide a solid system that met the necessary specifications. After a rewarding an interesting summer I will follow up on my work next year for ten more weeks.

  1. Development of thermochromic strips as a water pasteurization indicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ishtiaq A. Qazi; M. Ali Awan; M. Anwar Baig

    2003-01-01

    Boiling of water, for purification, commonly practiced in the world, has many problems associated with it like danger of scalding,scaling in the vessels, removal of useful minerals and blandness of taste etc. Water can be made safe for drinking simply by heating at 65℃ for 6 minutes. A colour indicating strip was developed which changes colour from red to purple at 67℃. Use of this strip can help in pasteurizing water without the above problems and with considerable energy saving.

  2. Pasteurization of food by hydrostatic high pressure: chemical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauscher, B

    1995-01-01

    Food pasteurized by hydrostatic high pressure have already been marketed in Japan. There is great interest in this method also in Europe and USA. Temperature and pressure are the essential parameters influencing the state of substances including foods. While the influence of temperature on food has been extensively investigated, effects of pressure, also in combination with temperature, are attracting increasing scientific attention now. Processes and reactions in food governed by Le Chatelier's principle are of special interest; they include chemical reactions of both low- and macromolecular compounds. Theoretical fundamentals and examples of pressure affected reactions are presented.

  3. [Microbiological quality of pasteurized milk creams manufactured in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarcbort de Tamsut, L; García, C E

    1999-03-01

    A total of 100 samples of pasteurized milk creams produced by eleven (11) dairy milk industries were analyzed for the presence of microoganisms. The dairy milk industries were distributed along different places of Venezuela. The samples were analyzed for the presence of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychotropic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, coliformes, molds and yeasts 75% of the analyzed samples did not reach the international standards for aerobic mesophilic bacteria, similarly, 95% for Staphylococcus aureus, 91% for coliformes and 58% for molds and yeasts, so pathogenic enterobacteria we have found: Salmonella Typhimurium, Shigella sonnei and Escherichia coli enteropathogenic.

  4. The 7th CTAF Takes Off in Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Rong

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of European economic downturn, Chinese foreign trade and export business are confronting with grimmer challenge. From January to July 2012, the export volume of China's export to Europe decreased by 3.6%. Under such economic background, the 7th China Textile and Apparel Trade Fair (Paris), so called the Apparel Sourcing Paris (APP) was due to kick off at Le Bourget Exhibition Center from Sep 17th to 20th in Paris.

  5. Cost analysis of commercial pasteurization of orange juice by pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cost of pulsed electric field (PEF) pasteurization of orange juice was estimated. The cost analysis was based on processing conditions that met the US FDA (5 log reduction) requirement for fruit juice pasteurization and that achieved a 2 month microbial shelf-life. PEF-treated samples processed ...

  6. Biology, History and Louis Pasteur: A New Approach to Teaching Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Presents a rationale for using the history of science in science education. Uses the life and work of Louis Pasteur to illustrate how the history of science can illustrate the nature of science. Describes how Pasteur's bourgeois ideology and ambition influenced his selection of problems to investigate. (over 35 references) (PR)

  7. Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections linked to a pasteurized ice cream product served to hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietberg, K; Lloyd, J; Melius, B; Wyman, P; Treadwell, R; Olson, G; Kang, M-G; Duchin, J S

    2016-10-01

    Two cases of hospital-acquired listeriosis were linked to a commercially produced, pasteurized ice cream mix. Manufacturers should implement safety measures from the Food Safety Modernization Act to minimize the risk of Listeria contamination. Dietary guidelines for persons at high risk of listeriosis may need revision to recognize the potential risk from pasteurized products.

  8. 7 CFR 58.738 - Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... spread and related products. Shall conform to the applicable provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Spreads, Food and Drug Administration. The pH of... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese spread and related products...

  9. Biology, History and Louis Pasteur: A New Approach to Teaching Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Presents a rationale for using the history of science in science education. Uses the life and work of Louis Pasteur to illustrate how the history of science can illustrate the nature of science. Describes how Pasteur's bourgeois ideology and ambition influenced his selection of problems to investigate. (over 35 references) (PR)

  10. On some Brenthidae collected by Mr. J. D. Pasteur in Hava

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senna, Angelo

    1898-01-01

    Lately I have had the pleasure to receive an interesting collection of Brenthidae from West Java, very kindly offered to me by Mr. J. D. Pasteur to whom I here wish to express my sincere thanks. In the letter accompanying this valuable lot of specimens, Mr. Pasteur gives some remarks on the coloured

  11. Shiga toxin Stx2 is heat-stable and not inactivated by pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxins are expressed by Escherichia coli (STEC) and are associated with food-borne diseases. Pasteurization is used to retard microbial growth in milk, and an open question is whether milk pasteurization inactivates shiga toxins. To answer this question we measure shiga toxin’s inhibition effe...

  12. 21 CFR 133.170 - Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Unless a definition and standard of identity specifically applicable is established by another section of this part, a pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats...

  13. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats...

  14. What Does It Mean to be Central? A Botanical Geography of Paris 1830-1848.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the geography of the botanical community in Paris, under the July Monarchy (1830-1848). At that time, the Muséum d'Histoire naturelle (MHN) was at its institutional acme and, under the impulse of François Guizot, its budget was increasing dramatically. However, closer attention to manuscript sources (correspondence, travel diaries) reveals that the botanists of the time favoured other private institutions, located both on the Right and Left Banks of the Seine. The MHN was prestigious for its collections and professors but it was relatively remote from the centre of Paris, and its plant samples were sometimes difficult to access. Several other first-class private herbaria granted liberal access to botanists: those of Jacques Gay, Phillip Barker Webb, and Benjamin Delessert. Thanks to their wealth, these plant amateurs had ownership of historical herbaria consisting of species types alongside rich botanical libraries. Botanists visiting Paris from foreign countries or other provinces of France also spent some time studying less general plant collections, like those of Count Jaubert, or specialized collections, like Montagne's or Léveillé's on cryptogams. Other botanists also enjoyed renown at the time, although they published little, if anything (like Maire). Living in crammed apartments, literally in the middle of their plant samples, these botanists were key nodes in botanical networks, although they had no relation with the prestigious MHN.

  15. Yersinia enterocolitica infections associated with improperly pasteurized milk products: southwest Pennsylvania, March-August, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenberger, A H; Gronostaj, M P; Yee, G Y; Johnson, L M; Lando, J F; Voorhees, R E; Waller, K; Weltman, A C; Moll, M; Lyss, S B; Cadwell, B L; Gladney, L M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    In July 2011, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica infections was detected in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. We investigated the outbreak's source and scope in order to prevent further transmission. Twenty-two persons were diagnosed with yersiniosis; 16 of whom reported consuming pasteurized dairy products from dairy A. Pasteurized milk and food samples were collected from this dairy. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from two products. Isolates from both food samples and available clinical isolates from nine dairy A consumers were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental and microbiological investigations were performed at dairy A and pasteurization deficiencies were noted. Because consumption of pasteurized milk is common and outbreaks have the potential to become large, public health interventions such as consumer advisories or closure of the dairy must be implemented quickly to prevent additional cases if epidemiological or laboratory evidence implicates pasteurized milk as the outbreak source.

  16. Public health implication of refrigerated pasteurized ('sous-vide') foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossel, D A; Struijk, C B

    1991-07-01

    Food that upon pasteurization is stored in hermetically sealed containers at food temperatures not exceeding 3 degrees C could be designated by the generic term Refrigerated Pasteurized Foods of Extended Durability, REPFEDs. If not properly processed or protected against recontamination, or if temperature-abused, REPFEDs may present serious health risks. However, control is readily available. Sound microbial ecology, supported by expert risk assessment, allows the design and introduction of longitudinally integrated manufacture, distribution, handling by outlets and consumers and culinary preparation, which result in the assurance of the wholesomeness of the commodity as eaten. Recent progress, including intrinsic preservation by the incorporation of starter cultures, bacteriocins or particular enzymes, opens vistas for attractive future developments. Once microbiological safety has been built into the REPFED-line, monitoring can be limited to (i) real-time tests particularly applied to the factory environment; and (ii) rapid, simple examination for marker organisms of freshly manufactured products versus those approaching expiration dates. Such audits will allow rapid retrieval of incidental process failure and its rectification. It also serves to substantiate measurements of food temperature and spot checks on intrinsic inhibitory attributes. The application of scientific knowledge and technological expertise should primarily be entrusted to the industry itself, heeding Lord Plumb's strategy of "partnership along the food production chain from farm to fork." It should be supported and validated by Public Health Authorities. At all stages safety communication with the public should be ensured.

  17. Evidence for a negative Pasteur effect in articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R B; Urban, J P

    1997-01-01

    Uptake of external glucose and production of lactate were measured in freshly-excised bovine articular cartilage under O2 concentrations ranging from 21% (air) to zero (N2-bubbled). Anoxia (O2 concentration Pasteur effect in bovine articular cartilage. Anoxia also suppressed glycolysis in articular cartilage from horse, pig and sheep. Inhibitors acting on the glycolytic pathway (2-deoxy-D-glucose, iodoacetamide or fluoride) strongly decreased aerobic lactate production and ATP concentration, consistent with the belief that articular cartilage obtains its principal supply of ATP from substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis. Azide or cyanide lowered the ATP concentration in aerobic cartilage to approximately the same extent as did anoxia but, because glycolysis (lactate production) was also inhibited by these treatments, the importance of any mitochondrial ATP production could not be assessed. A negative Pasteur effect would make chondrocytes particularly liable to suffer a shortage of energy under anoxic conditions. Incorporation of [35S]sulphate into proteoglycan was severely curtailed by treatments, such as anoxia, which decreased the intracellular concentration of ATP.

  18. The Rise of Massage and Medical Gymnastics in London and Paris before the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Massage and medical gymnastics experienced a rapid institutionalization across Europe and North America between 1850 and 1914. This article explores how this process took place in London and Paris. Physiotherapy developed many of the hallmarks of an independent discipline during this period, including an identified corpus of manipulations and exercises, some autonomous training courses and degrees for future practitioners, and even the creation of departments within several hospitals. The article analyzes all of the processes surrounding this rise, paying special attention to the influence of the ambassadors of Swedish gymnastics (which led to the re-invention of massage across Europe), to the installation of physiotherapy in hospitals in London and in Paris, and to the practical and institutional innovations driven by nurses in England and by doctors in France.

  19. Plaster of Paris: the orthopaedic surgeon heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Plastering is one of the most ancient of the building handicrafts. Plaster is the common name for calcium sulphate hemi hydrate made by heating the mineral gypsum, the common name for sulphate of lime. In the tenth century the Arabs used liquid plaster in orthopaedic treatment. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, patients with fractures of the lower extremities-and often of the upper extremities as well-were treated in bed with restriction of all activity for many weeks until the fractures united. It was the practice of surgeons to dress wounds and fractures at frequent intervals. The bandages, pads, and splints were removed, the fractures manipulated, and the dressings reapplied. The search for simpler, less cumbersome methods of treatment led to the development of occlusive dressings, stiffened at first with starch and later with plaster of Paris. The ambulatory treatment of fractures was the direct result of these innovations. Two military surgeons, Antonius Mathijsen of the Netherlands, and Nikolai Ivanovitch Pirogov of Russia, were responsible for the introduction of the new plaster bandage technique. At the beginning of the twentieth century the technique was improved by Jean-François Calot, a French surgeon, who invented the hand manufacture of plaster bandage as a roll. During the twentieth century, walking cast and ambulation for fresh fractures were developed with plaster and pin incorporated in plaster; the open fracture care concept was introduced with plaster of Paris by Trueta before the external fixation.

  20. The Paris agreement: one year after

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouzel, J.

    2016-12-01

    Even if there is an important gap between the nationally determined contributions and the 2°C objective - of the order of 15 gigatonnes CO2 equivalent in 2030 - the agreement adopted in Paris last december (COP21) is largely considered as a success. This can be explained by the fact that this agreement - now signed by practically all countries - comes after the partial failure of the Kyoto protocol (COP3) - which has not been ratified by the US, the first emitting country in the late nineties - and the lack of ambition of the Copenhagen agreement (COP15). One year after COP21, the COP of « decision » and a few weeks after COP22, the COP of « action » to be held in Marrakech, it will be interesting to see if the Paris momentum has been kept. Is the ratification of the agreement, which requires 55 countries representing at least 55 of global emissions, under way ? Are there signs of stabilization of greenhouse gas emissions and some hope of increased ambition in terms of reduction of emissions after 2020 ? The 1°5 °C objective which will be the focus of an IPCC special report to be published in 2018 will also be discussed.

  1. Pariisi kord = Paris' move / João Francisco Figueira

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Figueira, João Francisco, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Pariisi nõustamisprojektide rahvusvahelisest võistlusest "Le Grand Pari(s)". Sooviti saada julget ja elluviidavat projekti Pariisi arenguks aastani 2050. Osales kümme kutsutud arhitektide, planeerijate ja ekspertide töörühma. Osade tööde mõningaid aspekte tutvustav käsitlus

  2. Pariisi kord = Paris' move / João Francisco Figueira

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Figueira, João Francisco, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Pariisi nõustamisprojektide rahvusvahelisest võistlusest "Le Grand Pari(s)". Sooviti saada julget ja elluviidavat projekti Pariisi arenguks aastani 2050. Osales kümme kutsutud arhitektide, planeerijate ja ekspertide töörühma. Osade tööde mõningaid aspekte tutvustav käsitlus

  3. PARIS II: Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is a summary of U.S. EPA researchers' work developing the solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). PARIS II finds less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures to replace more toxic solvents co...

  4. Expedition Paris-Beijing by Bicycle 2008 Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>From March 15 to17, at the invitation of the Euro-Chinese Friendship Association (ECFA) of France, a CPAFFC representative attended the launching ceremony of the Expedition Paris-Beijing by Bicycle 2008 in Paris, during which he met with officials of the National Commission on Decentralized Cooperation (Commission Nationale de la Cooperation Decentralisee-CNCD) of France.

  5. The Pasteur effect in human platelets: implications for storage and metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guppy, M; Abas, L; Arthur, P G; Whisson, M E

    1995-11-01

    The Pasteur effect and the associated acidosis have long been considered a major cause of platelet death during storage. We have investigated this phenomenon using a defined platelet preparation and a system whereby the oxidative and glycolytic contributions to total ATP production can be measured over a range of oxygen concentrations from saturating (pO2 = 158 mmHg) to anoxic (pO2 = 0 mmHg). Platelets do not show a Pasteur effect until the pO2 decreases to Pasteur effect is therefore not a likely cause of platelet death during storage where pO2 in a storage bag typically drops to no less than 50 mmHg. The data also have implications for the role of oxygen diffusion in oxidative metabolism, and for the compensatory nature of the Pasteur effect. As platelets are relatively small cells, and the onset of the Pasteur effect occurs at a relatively low oxygen concentration, diffusion may limit the rate of oxygen consumption in most other (larger) cells. The Pasteur effect is only fully compensative if the P/O2 ratio used for the calculations is lower than the conventional one. Since recent research strongly suggests that the conventional P/O2 ratio is too high, examples of fully compensative Pasteur effects may be more common than the literature suggests.

  6. Responding to bioterror concerns by increasing milk pasteurization temperature would increase estimated annual deaths from listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Martin, Nicole; Laue, Shelley; Gröhn, Yrjo T; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In a 2005 analysis of a potential bioterror attack on the food supply involving a botulinum toxin release into the milk supply, the authors recommended adopting a toxin inactivation step during milk processing. In response, some dairy processors increased the times and temperatures of pasteurization well above the legal minimum for high temperature, short time pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s), with unknown implications for public health. The present study was conducted to determine whether an increase in high temperature, short time pasteurization temperature would affect the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, a potentially lethal foodborne pathogen normally eliminated with proper pasteurization but of concern when milk is contaminated postpasteurization. L. monocytogenes growth during refrigerated storage was higher in milk pasteurized at 82 °C than in milk pasteurized at 72 °C. Specifically, the time lag before exponential growth was decreased and the maximum population density was increased. The public health impact of this change in pasteurization was evaluated using a quantitative microbial risk assessment of deaths from listeriosis attributable to consumption of pasteurized fluid milk that was contaminated postprocessing. Conservative estimates of the effect of pasteurizing all fluid milk at 82 °C rather than 72 °C are that annual listeriosis deaths from consumption of this milk would increase from 18 to 670, a 38-fold increase (8.7- to 96-fold increase, 5th and 95th percentiles). These results exemplify a situation in which response to a rare bioterror threat may have the unintended consequence of putting the public at increased risk of a known, yet severe harm and illustrate the need for a paradigm shift toward multioutcome risk benefit analyses when proposing changes to established food safety practices.

  7. Louis Pasteur, from crystals of life to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berche, P

    2012-10-01

    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is an exceptional scientist who opened a new era in medicine and biology. Starting from studies on crystals of by-products of wine fermentation, he first defined a distinct chemistry between dead and living matters. He then showed the role of living microbes in the fermentation and putrefaction processes. This brought him to challenge the two-millennium-old theory of spontaneous generation, using remarkably well-designed experiments. His observations on epidemics in silkworms allowed him to demonstrate the role of specific germs in infectious diseases. His discovery of the vaccine against fowl cholera can be considered as the birth of immunology. Finally, he became universally recognized through his famous vaccinations against anthrax and rabies.

  8. Establishing Quantitative Standards for Residual Alkaline Phosphatase in Pasteurized Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Kwang-Yup

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is a rapid and convenient method for verifying milk pasteurization. Since colorimetric ALP assays rely on subjective visual assessments, their results are especially unreliable near the detection limits. In this study, we attempted to establish quantitative criteria for residual ALP in milk by using a more objective method based on spectrophotometric measurements. Raw milk was heat-treated for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min and then subjected to ALP assays. The quantitative criteria for residual ALP in the milk was determined as 2 μg phenol/mL of milk, which is just above the ALP value of milk samples heat-treated for 30 min. These newly proposed methodology and criteria could facilitate the microbiological quality control of milk. PMID:27194927

  9. Decreased Pasteur effect in platelets of aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurelio, M; Merlo Pich, M; Catani, L; Sgarbi, G L; Bovina, C; Formiggini, G; Parenti Castelli, G; Baum, H; Tura, S; Lenaz, G

    2001-06-01

    We have investigated the mitochondrial energy state in human platelets of young (19-30 years old) and aged individuals (65-87 years old) exploiting the Pasteur effect, i.e. stimulation of lactate production by incubation of the purified platelets with the mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitor, antimycin A. This assay allows the determination of mitochondrial function with respect to glycolysis, and the ratio of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to glycolytic ATP. A significant increase of basal, non-stimulated lactate production and decrease of the stimulation by antimycin A were observed in the older individuals, suggesting that the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation detectable in post-mitotic tissues of aged individuals can be observed also in easily collectable blood cells.

  10. Detection of pasteurized milk adulteration through official methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mareze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of milk consumed is a constant concern of dairy industry and healthcare-related authorities, technicians as well as consumers. The most serious problems are the various frauds which cause economic losses, risks to consumer health and, sometimes, problems for industries, such as the decrease in industrial output. Many foods are subject to fraud, but milk is one of the most commonly spoofed. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of fraudulent substances and assess the physico-chemical properties of pasteurized milk produced in dairies from the North region of Paraná. Eighty samples were evaluated in the period from March to June 2014 and carried out specific methods for detection of restoratives: starch, alcohol, chloride and sucrose; neutralizers: bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide; preservatives: chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde. The evaluation of physico-chemical characteristics was carried out through the following analyses: density at 15° C, cryoscopic index, Dornic titratable acidity, 72 alizarol stability, pH, alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, fat, total solids, non-fat solids, urea, protein and lactose. Non-standard samples were observed for the following analyses: fat (12.5%, non-fat solids (5%, density (1.25%, cryoscopy (3.75%, pH (48.75%, urea (1.25%. Frauds were observed by addition of water and sucrose (3.75%, presence of hypochlorite (5% and occurrence of skim milk (12.5%. The evidence together can assist in detecting fraud most commonly performed in pasteurized milk, but does not show in which thread might have occurred. However, if not detected, the quality of the product cannot be assured since many frauds have been carried out in a balanced way hindering its detection.

  11. Louis Pasteur: a controversial figure in a debate on scientific ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, B Lee

    2002-04-01

    Louis Pasteur long has been heralded as the "father of modern hygiene, public health and much of modern medicine," despite early controversies regarding his findings and methodology. A recently published biography, however, has shed new light on both Pasteur's scientific acumen and integrity. Reactions to this portrayal have been mixed. This article provides an overview of Pasteur's life and the debate regarding his scientific discoveries and honesty that has ensued for more than 100 years, with insights gained from both supporters and critics of the new biography by Gerald L. Geison.

  12. The Pasteur effect in rat jejunum and the influence of nematode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, A M

    1978-01-01

    1. The Pasteur effect was shown after 15 min but not after 30 min incubation of jejunal rings from normal rats. 2. During 15-30 min incubation, the rate of anaerobic lactate production decreased, while aerobic lactate production remained unchanged. Thus oxygen was necessary to maintain the functional integrity of the tissue during this period. 3. After infection with either Nematospiroides dubius or Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, the Pasteur effect could not usually be shown, mainly due to a reduced rate of anaerobic lactate production. 4. The possible relationship of the loss of the Pasteur effect to the immune response is discussed.

  13. Role of phosphate in the regulation of the Pasteur effect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunas, R; Gancedo, C

    1983-12-15

    The occurrence of the Pasteur effect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in several conditions has been examined. In these conditions measurements of a series of metabolites potentially involved in the regulation of the effect were performed. These included, among others, adenine nucleotides, citrate, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and phosphate. Only phosphate changed in a consistent way, increasing in anaerobiosis when the Pasteur effect occurred. It is concluded that, with the available data, only phosphate may be considered as a regulator of the Pasteur effect in this microorganism.

  14. Paris 2000 researches and men; Paris 2000 des recherches et des hommes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The IWA and ISWA congresses organized in Paris in july showed the latest research developments in the field of water and wastes management. The water sector is more mature than the waste sector but for both a closer association of the public and private is increasing. A summary of the presentations in successively the water and the wastes management is proposed bringing an analysis of the international situation and regulations. (A.L.B.)

  15. Le festin des trois dames de Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre-Bidon, Danièle

    2008-01-01

    Les Parisiennes du XIIIe siècle ont mauvaise réputation. Non contentes de mal se tenir à table, elles se gavent et s'enivrent, parlent des vins en professionnelles de l'œnologie, suggérant une longue expérience de beuveries, et, surtout, se passent des hommes pour festoyer. Exclus de la convivialité féminine, ceux-ci se vengent en vers : c'est l'objet d'un poème comique, un fabliau, qui leur promet un sort funeste : le coma éthylique des trois dames de Paris les fait enterrer vives au ...

  16. Can the Paris Agreement stop global warming?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howalt Owe, Selina; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    in the year 2030 of about 55 Gt Carbon to 40 Gt Carbon. This can be compared to an approximate emission of 35 Gt in 2014 and thus means that a global rise in emission of only 5 Gt Carbon is allowed over the next 15 years Using the Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS)model [1] we have investigated...... how large an emission reduction is necessary to keep the global temperatures below these targets.The DCESS model is a low order Earth system box model which includes atmosphere, ocean, ocean sediment, land biosphere and lithosphere components, and using the year 1765 as the preindustriallevel. We have...... examined different emission scenarios and the national commitments and find that even if the Paris Agreement is fulfilled, global temperatures will have increased by 1.5 degree C in 2030, and then only a yearly percentage reduction of 5% or more will be sufficient to keep temperatures below 2 degree C...

  17. Gabriel Tarde (Sarlat 1843 - Paris 1904

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Salmon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fils d’un juge d’instruction près du tribunal civil de Sarlat, Gabriel Tarde se destina à son tour à cette profession. Bachelier ès sciences et ès lettres, il avait du renoncer à son projet de préparer Polytechnique suite à des troubles ophtalmologiques et avait poursuivit ses études à la Faculté de Droit de Toulouse, il les acheva à Paris en 1866 diplômé d’une licence. Secrétaire assistant du Juge de Sarlat en 1867, puis nommé Juge suppléant au Parquet de Sarlat en septembre 1869, il devint ...

  18. Methods for thermal inactivation of pathogens in mozzarella: a comparison between stretching and pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Raimundo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of stretching in the reduction of pathogens when compared to milk pasteurization, the official method to ensure safe cheese production. Whole buffalo milk was contaminated with Mycobacterium fortuitum, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Part of the milk was used in mozzarella production and the other part was submitted to holder pasteurization. Pathogens were quantified before and after thermal processing (mozzarella stretching and milk pasteurization. Pasteurization and stretching led to the following reductions in log cycles, respectively: 4.0 and 6.3 for Mycobacterium sp.; 6.0 and 8.4 for Listeria sp.; >6.8 and 4.5 for Staphylococcus sp.; and >8.2 and 7.5 for Salmonella sp.

  19. Numerical modeling of heat transfer and pasteurizing value during thermal processing of intact egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasnezhad, Behzad; Hamdami, Nasser; Monteau, Jean-Yves; Vatankhah, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Thermal Pasteurization of Eggs, as a widely used nutritive food, has been simulated. A three-dimensional numerical model, computational fluid dynamics codes of heat transfer equations using heat natural convection, and conduction mechanisms, based on finite element method, was developed to study the effect of air cell size and eggshell thickness. The model, confirmed by comparing experimental and numerical results, was able to predict the temperature profiles, the slowest heating zone, and the required heating time during pasteurization of intact eggs. The results showed that the air cell acted as a heat insulator. Increasing the air cell volume resulted in decreasing of the heat transfer rate, and the increasing the required time of pasteurization (up to 14%). The findings show that the effect on thermal pasteurization of the eggshell thickness was not considerable in comparison to the air cell volume.

  20. The Pasteur effect and catabolite repression in an oxidative yeast, Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royt, P W; MacQuillan, A M

    1979-01-01

    The presence of the Pasteur effect in Kluyveromyces lactis grown in glucose was shown by azide-stimulated glucose fermentation. Extracts from these cells contained ATP-sensitive phosphofructokinase activity. Cells grown on succinate oxidized glucose slowly at first without azide-stimulated rates of fermentation. Phosphofructokinase in these cells was ATP-insensitive. The activity of NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase in cell extracts did not require AMP activation. These results suggested the presence of a Pasteur effect in glucose-grown but not in succinate-grown K. lactis, mediated by (a) ATP inhibition of phosphofructokinase (b) possibly via feedback control of glucose transport, but not by AMP activation of isocitrate dehydrogenase. Azide inhibition of the Pasteur effect during growth of the cells did not lead to catabolite repression of respiratory activity. The results therefore suggest that the Pasteur effect does not inhibit the development of a Crabtree effect in oxidative yeasts.

  1. Raphaël Blanchard, parasitology, and the positioning of medical entomology in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, M A

    2008-12-01

    The histories of medical entomology and parasitology are entwined. Raphaël Blanchard (1857-1919), Chair of Medical Natural History and Parasitology at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, organized the teaching of medical entomology and civilian colonial medicine. He also founded and edited the journal Archives de Parasitologie and started the Institute de Médecine Coloniale where he mentored many foreign students and researchers. Additionally, Blanchard is important for his scientific internationalism and medical historical work on the cultural location of parasitology and for training the future professors of parasitology Jules Guiart, Emile Brumpt, and Charles Joyeux.

  2. Milk pasteurization: efficiency of the HTST process according to its bacterial concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Ajzental

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of milk pasteurization (HTST related to its standard plate count (SPC values were assessed in 41 milk samples using a laboratory designed pasteurizing equipment. Based on results, it is demonstrated that efficiency of the process is affected by its bacterial concentration, where lower SPC values mean decrease in efficiency and that the performance of the process is not affected in presence of high SPC values in raw product.

  3. Effect of two pasteurization methods on the protein content of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baro, Cristina; Giribaldi, Marzia; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Dellavalle, Giuseppina; Conti, Amedeo; Tonetto, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Coscia, Alessandra; Fabris, Claudio; Moro, Guido Eugenio; Cavallarin, Laura; Bertino, Enrico

    2011-06-01

    The Holder method is the recommended pasteurization method for human milk banks, as it ensures the microbiological safety of human milk (HM). The loss of some biologically active milk components, due to the heat treatment, is a main limit to the diffusion of donor HM. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization may be an alternative to maintain the nutritional and immunological quality of HM. The aim of the present study was to compare the impact of Holder and HTST pasteurization on the HM protein profile. The protein patterns of HTST-treated milk and raw milk were similar. The Holder method modified bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and components of the immune system. The HTST method preserved the integrity of bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and, to some extent, of IgAs. Holder pasteurization decreased the amount of bile salt-stimulated lipase and inactivated the remaining molecules, while the HTST method did not alter its activity. Pasteurization increased the bioavailable lysine quantity. HTST pasteurization seems to better retain the protein profile and some of the key active components of donor HM.

  4. Effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-09-01

    Although pasteurization is recommended before distributing donor human milk in North America, limited data are available on its impact on metabolic hormones in milk. We aimed to investigate the effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. The study investigates concentrations of components in donor human milk before and after Holder pasteurization. After the guidelines of the Human Milk Bank Association of North America, human milk samples were pooled to produce 17 distinct batches (4 individuals per batch) and pasteurized at 62.5°C for 30 min. Adiponectin, insulin, energy, fat, total protein, and glucose concentrations were measured pre- and postpasteurization. Pasteurization reduced milk adiponectin and insulin by 32.8 and 46.1%, respectively (both p milk composition (r = 0.36-0.47; all p milk hormone concentrations remained significant after adjusting for fat and energy (beta ± SEE: -4.11 ± 1.27, p = 0.003 for adiponectin; -70.0 ± 15.0, p human milk. In view of emerging knowledge on the importance of milk components, continued work to find the optimal pasteurization process that mitigates risks but promotes retention of bioactive components is needed.

  5. Future Heat Waves in Paris Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulant, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Somot, S.; Masson, V.

    2010-12-01

    Cities are particularly vulnerable to heat waves, firstly because they concentrate the majority of the population and, secondly because the heat island that characterizes the urban climate exacerbates heat wave effects. This work is part of the interdisciplinary VURCA project (Vulnerability of cities to heat waves), which deals with the evolution of heat wave events in the context of global warming, urban vulnerability and adaptation strategies. The aim of this study is to analyse urban heat wave events in present climate (1950-2009) and their evolution in an enhanced greenhouse gazes future climate (2010-2100). We used daily observations of temperature from several stations covering Paris metropolitan area and climate projections following three different IPCC-SRES scenarios (B1, A1B, A2) and issued from several ENSEMBLES regional climate models. The heat wave definition is based on the indexes of the operational French warning system. A heat wave is detected within observed or simulated time-series by a heat wave peak, when the temperatures exceed the value of the 99.9th percentile. Its duration is determined by all adjacent days to this peak, for which the temperatures are not durably smaller than the 99.9th percentile value minus 2 °C. The 99.9th percentile threshold is inferred from quantile-quantile plots produced for each climate model in comparison with observations for the reference period 1950-2000. Heat waves have been extracted within observations and 12 climatic simulations. The number of heat wave events and cumulated HW days per year have been calculated, the maximum being seven heat waves cumulating more than 60 HW days in one year in the case of the A2 scenario and until 50 days in the case of the more moderate A1B scenario. From 2050, the occurrence of three or four HW events per year is becoming the norm all scenarios taken together. The evolution of heat wave features has been analysed, highlighting the large variability of the climatic

  6. Paris, Texas. Saksamaal ja sinu peas / Kairi Prints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Kairi

    2010-01-01

    6.- 12. oktoobrini Tallinnas ja Tartus toimuval filmifestivalil "Uus Saksa Kino" saab vaadata Wim Wendersi muusikadokumentaale. "Film ja filosoofia" rubriigis koha- ja rahvusespetsiifika eksistentsist tänapäeva filmikunstis ja W. Wendersi filmist "Paris, Texas" (USA 1984)

  7. Paris, Texas. Saksamaal ja sinu peas / Kairi Prints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Kairi

    2010-01-01

    6.- 12. oktoobrini Tallinnas ja Tartus toimuval filmifestivalil "Uus Saksa Kino" saab vaadata Wim Wendersi muusikadokumentaale. "Film ja filosoofia" rubriigis koha- ja rahvusespetsiifika eksistentsist tänapäeva filmikunstis ja W. Wendersi filmist "Paris, Texas" (USA 1984)

  8. Getting Its Ducks in a Row? Qatar Foundation's Agreement with HEC Paris and the Launch of the Qatar Foundation Management, Education and Research Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Last week, private, non-profit organisation the Qatar Foundation (QF) announced a partnership agreement with French business institution HEC Paris to offer executive education programmes. According to the terms of the agreement, a full-time faculty will provide executive and short certificate programmes and corporate-specific training, including…

  9. Impact of pasteurization of human milk on preterm newborn in vitro digestion: Gastrointestinal disintegration, lipolysis and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; Bellanger, Amandine; Henry, Gwénaële; Rousseau, Florence; Dirson, Emelyne; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie

    2016-11-15

    Human milk feeding is an important recommendation for preterm newborns considering their vulnerability and digestive immaturity. Holder pasteurization (62.5°C, 30min) applied in milk banks modifies its biological quality and its microstructure. We investigated the impact of pasteurization of preterm human milk on its gastrointestinal kinetics of lipolysis, proteolysis and structural disintegration. An in vitro dynamic system was set up to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion of preterm newborns. A pool of preterm human milk was digested as raw or after Holder pasteurization. Pasteurization impacted the microstructure of undigested human milk, its gastrointestinal disintegration and tended to limit the intestinal lipolysis. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of some fatty acids was decreased by pasteurization, while the intestinal bioaccessibility of some amino acids was selectively modulated. The impact of pasteurization on the digestion of human milk may have nutritional relevance in vivo and potentially modulates preterm development and growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Undergraduate Research Resources at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, J. Donald; Castelaz, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI), a former NASA tracking station located in western North Carolina, has been offering programs, campus, and instrument use for undergraduate research and learning experiences since 2000. Over these years, PARI has collaborated with universities and colleges in the Southeastern U.S. Sharing its campus with institutions of higher learning is a priority for PARI as part of its mission to "to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines."PARI is a 200 acre campus for environmental, earth, geological, physical, and astronomical sciences. For example, the PARI 26-m and 4.6-m radio telescopes are excellent for teaching electromagnetic theory, spectroscopy, atomic and molecular emission processes, and general physics and astronomy concepts. The PARI campus has lab and office space, data centers with high speed internet, distance learning capabilities, radio and optical telescopes, earth science sensors, housing and cafeteria.Also, the campus is in an excellent spot for environmental and biological sciences lab and classroom experiences for students. The campus has the capability to put power and Internet access almost anywhere on its 200 acre campus so experiments can be set up in a protected area of a national forest. For example, Earthscope operates a Plate Boundary Observatory sensor on campus to measure plate tectonic motion. And, Clemson University has an instrument measuring winds and temperatures in the Thermsophere. The use of thePARI campus is limited only by the creativity faculty to provide a rich educational environment for their students. An overview of PARI will be presented along with a summary of programs, and a summary of undergraduate research experiences over the past 15 years. Access to PARI and collaboration possibilities will be presented.

  11. The use of electron beams for pasteurization of meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestwich, K.R.; Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.; Neau, E.L.

    1994-12-01

    Electron beam accelerators can be used for electronic pasteurization of meat products by: (1) using the electrons directly impacting the products, or (2) optimizing the conversion of electron energy to x-rays and treating the product with these x-rays. The choice of process depends on the configuration of the product when it is treated. For electron treatment, ten million electron volt (MeV) kinetic energy is the maximum allowed by international agreement. The depth of penetration of electrons with that energy into a product with density of meat is about five centimeters (cm). Two-sided treatment can be done on products up to 10 cm thick with a two-to-one ratio between minimum and maximum dose. Ground beef patties are about 1.25 cm (0.5 inch thick). Beams with 2.5 MeV electron energy could be used to treat these products. Our calculations show that maximum to minimum dose ratios less than 1.2 can be achieved with this energy if the transverse beam energy is small. If the product thickness is greater than 10 cm, x-rays can provide the needed dose uniformity. Uniform doses can be supplied for pallets with dimensions greater than 1.2 m on each side using x-rays from a 5 MeV electron beam. The efficiency of converting the electron beam to x-rays and configurations to achieve dose uniformity are discussed.

  12. Hexose metabolism in pancreatic islets: the Pasteur effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaisse, W J; Rasschaert, J; Zähner, D; Sener, A

    1988-02-01

    In rat pancreatic islets, hypoxia severely decreased both the oxidation of D-[U-14C]glucose and the release of insulin evoked by D-glucose. The production of [14C]lactate was increased in the hypoxic islets, the relative magnitude of such an increment being greater at low (2.8 mM) than high (8.3 and 16.7 mM) D-glucose concentrations. Hypoxia increased the detritiation of D-[5-3H]glucose at low glucose concentration (2.8 mM), failed to affect 3H2O production at an intermediate glucose level (8.3 mM), and inhibited the utilization of D-[5-3H]glucose at a higher hexose concentration (16.7 mM). In tumoral islet cells (RINm5F line) exposed to 16.7 mM D-glucose, hypoxia decreased D-[U-14C]glucose oxidation to the same extent as in normal islet cells, but increased the production of [14C]lactate and 3H2O to a greater extent than in normal islets. These findings indicate that the Pasteur effect is operative in islet cells. The experimental data also suggest that, under normal conditions of oxygenation, high concentrations of D-glucose lead to both activation of phosphofructokinase and stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative events in normal, but not tumoral, islet cells.

  13. Impact of human milk pasteurization on gastric digestion in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bellanger, Amandine; Ménard, Olivia; Pladys, Patrick; Le Gouar, Yann; Dirson, Emelyne; Kroell, Florian; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie; Bourlieu, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Holder pasteurization has been reported to modify human milk composition and structure by inactivating bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) and partially denaturing some of its proteins, potentially affecting its subsequent digestion. We sought to determine the impact of human milk pasteurization on gastric digestion (particularly for proteins and lipids) in preterm infants who were fed their mothers' own milk either raw or pasteurized. In a randomized controlled trial, 12 hospitalized tube-fed preterm infants were their own control group in comparing the gastric digestion of raw human milk (RHM) with pasteurized human milk (PHM). Over a 6-d sequence, gastric aspirates were collected 2 times/d before and after RHM or PHM ingestion. The impact of milk pasteurization digestive kinetics and disintegration was tested with the use of a general linear mixed model. Despite inactivating BSSL, instantaneous lipolysis was not affected by pasteurization (mean ± SD at 90 min: 12.6% ± 4.7%; P > 0.05). Lipolysis occurred in milk before digestion and was higher for PHM than for RHM (mean ± SD: 3.2% ± 0.6% and 2.2% ± 0.8%, respectively; P milk but did affect lactoferrin and α-lactalbumin proteolysis and emulsion disintegration. Freeze-thawing and pasteurization increased the milk lipolysis before digestion but did not affect gastric lipolysis. Possible consequences on intestinal digestion and associated nutritional outcomes were not considered in this study. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02112331. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. The Institut Pasteur attic dwellers: their origins, their paths to discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Melvin

    2014-06-01

    Although this volume is dedicated to honoring François Jacob, I would like my contribution to broaden the context by recalling the background within which the scientists of those times operated. The specific scientific accomplishments of Jacob will certainly be covered by the other contributors who collaborated with him. My handful of recollections presented here largely as vignettes is intended to give the reader a feeling for the elements, many social, that shaped the generation of scientists that included such central figures, Jacob, Lwoff, Monod. It is the tale of a generation trying to express its creativity in a world caught up in war, irrational values and unforgivable inhumanity. Even this limited account is a great story bringing us important lessons for thought.

  15. [Epstein-Barr virus and associated diseases. Course of Medical Virology, Institut Pasteur, 1995/1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Thé, G

    1997-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an ubiquitous virus infecting nearly the entire adult human population. The EBV is closely associated with rhinopharyngeal cancer in Southern China and Northern Africa. Three geographic subtypes of EBV have been identified to date. They differ by their nuclear antigene EBNA2. The EBNA2 AC strains predominate in Asia; EBNA2 AD strains predominate in the United States; EBNA2 B strains have all been identified in black Africa. Burkitt's lymphoma is the most frequent tumor in children aged 5 to 9 years in equatorial Africa. A prospective study in 42,000 children in Ouganda demonstrated that children who develop Burkitt's lymphoma have severe EBV infection during the first months of life. Very early EBV infection observed in North or equatorial Africa increases the risk of Burkitt's lymphoma by 20-times that in Europe. Hyperendemic malaria observed in the equatorial zone increases the incidence of tumors by a factor of 20. An association between EBV and rhinopharyngeal cancer is a constant feature only in South China, in North and East Africa, as well as in arctic regions as cases of carcinoma not associated with EBV infection have been reported in Greece. Surveys in the Democratic Republic of China concerning several hundred thousand persons have shown that serum IgA/VCA allows early diagnosis of cancer. It is estimated that the risk of rhinopharyngeal cancer is 20% in Chinese with high levels of IgA/VCA.

  16. From Paris to the End of Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Harald Claes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We analyze these issues by first locating oil in the overall energy system, then identifying possibilities and obstacles at various stages of the oil value chain, and finally by contextualizing global oil by discussing whether and how it may be affected by geopolitics and regional conflict. In brief, our argument is that developments in consumption volumes and patterns will be most important. Market forces are vital, but they are influenced by politics and public policy outcomes. Transportation is the most important sector for oil consumption, with changes in transport behavior, modes and technology being vital drivers. The behavior of investors will be a decisive factor in shaping the production side of the oil system. If investments go down as a response to lasting low oil prices and/or because investors decide to turn to green economy options, the supply of oil will logically shrink. On the other hand, the growth and development aspirations of a rapidly growing population in developing countries are likely to stimulate demand and thus increase exploration, production and subsequently the price. Finally, we emphasize the importance of (geopolitics influencing all aspects of the value chain of oil.

  17. From Paris to the End of Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Harald Claes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We analyze these issues by first locating oil in the overall energy system, then identifying possibilities and obstacles at various stages of the oil value chain, and finally by contextualizing global oil by discussing whether and how it may be affected by geopolitics and regional conflict. In brief, our argument is that developments in consumption volumes and patterns will be most important. Market forces are vital, but they are influenced by politics and public policy outcomes. Transportation is the most important sector for oil consumption, with changes in transport behavior, modes and technology being vital drivers. The behavior of investors will be a decisive factor in shaping the production side of the oil system. If investments go down as a response to lasting low oil prices and/or because investors decide to turn to green economy options, the supply of oil will logically shrink. On the other hand, the growth and development aspirations of a rapidly growing population in developing countries are likely to stimulate demand and thus increase exploration, production and subsequently the price. Finally, we emphasize the importance of (geopolitics influencing all aspects of the value chain of oil.

  18. Efficiency of a closed-coupled solar pasteurization system in treating roof harvested rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, P H; Carstens, M; De Villiers, J; Cloete, T E; Khan, W

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have concluded that roof harvested rainwater is susceptible to chemical and microbial contamination. The aim of the study was thus to conduct a preliminary investigation into the efficiency of a closed-coupled solar pasteurization system in reducing the microbiological load in harvested rainwater and to determine the change in chemical components after pasteurization. The temperature of the pasteurized tank water samples collected ranged from 55 to 57°C, 64 to 66°C, 72 to 74°C, 78 to 81°C and 90 to 91°C. Cations analyzed were within drinking water guidelines, with the exception of iron [195.59 μg/L (55°C)-170.1 μg/L (91°C)], aluminum [130.98 μg/L (78°C)], lead [12.81 μg/L (55°C)-13.2 μg/L (91°C)] and nickel [46.43 μg/L (55°C)-32.82 μg/L (78°C)], which were detected at levels above the respective guidelines in the pasteurized tank water samples. Indicator bacteria including, heterotrophic bacteria, Escherichia coli and total coliforms were reduced to below the detection limit at pasteurization temperatures of 72°C and above. However, with the use of molecular techniques Yersinia spp., Legionella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in tank water samples pasteurized at temperatures greater than 72°C. The viability of the bacteria detected in this study at the higher temperature ranges should thus be assessed before pasteurized harvested rainwater is used as a potable water source. In addition, it is recommended that the storage tank of the pasteurization system be constructed from an alternative material, other than stainless steel, in order for a closed-coupled pasteurization system to be implemented and produce large quantities of potable water from roof harvested rainwater.

  19. Lactational Stage of Pasteurized Human Donor Milk Contributes to Nutrient Limitations for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Valentine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mother’s own milk is the first choice for feeding preterm infants, but when not available, pasteurized human donor milk (PDM is often used. Infants fed PDM have difficulties maintaining appropriate growth velocities. To assess the most basic elements of nutrition, we tested the hypotheses that fatty acid and amino acid composition of PDM is highly variable and standard pooling practices attenuate variability; however, total nutrients may be limiting without supplementation due to late lactational stage of the milk. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional sampling of milk was obtained from five donor milk banks located in Ohio, Michigan, Colorado, Texas-Ft Worth, and California. Milk samples were collected after Institutional Review Board (#07-0035 approval and informed consent. Fatty acid and amino acid contents were measured in milk from individual donors and donor pools (pooled per Human Milk Banking Association of North America guidelines. Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal–Wallis, Spearman’s, or Multivariate Regression analyses with center as the fixed factor and lactational stage as co-variate. Results. Ten of the fourteen fatty acids and seventeen of the nineteen amino acids analyzed differed across Banks in the individual milk samples. Pooling minimized these differences in amino acid and fatty acid contents. Concentrations of lysine and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were not different across Banks, but concentrations were low compared to recommended levels. Conclusions. Individual donor milk fatty acid and amino acid contents are highly variable. Standardized pooling practice reduces this variability. Lysine and DHA concentrations were consistently low across geographic regions in North America due to lactational stage of the milk, and thus not adequately addressed by pooling. Targeted supplementation is needed to optimize PDM, especially for the preterm or volume restricted infant.

  20. [Anaerobic bacteria 150 years after their discovery by Pasteur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José Elías; García-Sánchez, Enrique; Martín-Del-Rey, Ángel; García-Merino, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    In 2011 we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the discovery of anaerobic bacteria by Louis Pasteur. The interest of the biomedical community on such bacteria is still maintained, and is particularly focused on Clostridium difficile. In the past few years important advances in taxonomy have been made due to the genetic, technological and computing developments. Thus, a significant number of new species related to human infections have been characterised, and some already known have been reclassified. At pathogenic level some specimens of anaerobic microflora, that had not been isolated from human infections, have been now isolated in some clinical conditions. There was emergence (or re-emergence) of some species and clinical conditions. Certain anaerobic bacteria have been associated with established infectious syndromes. The virulence of certain strains has increased, and some hypotheses on their participation in certain diseases have been given. In terms of diagnosis, the routine use of MALDI-TOF has led to a shortening of time and a cost reduction in the identification, with an improvement directly related to the improvement of data bases. The application of real-time PCR has been another major progress, and the sequencing of 16srRNA gene and others is currently a reality for several laboratories. Anaerobes have increased their resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the emergence of resistance to carbapenems and metronidazole, and multi-resistance is a current reality. In this situation, linezolid could be an effective alternative for Bacteroides. Fidaxomicin is the only anti-anaerobic agent introduced in the recent years, specifically for the diarrhoea caused by C.difficile. Moreover, some mathematical models have also been proposed in relation with this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  1. Decay of Mycobacterium bovis in whole milk submitted to pasteurization parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ribeiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parameters for milk pasteurization were established a long time ago, considering the thermal resistance of Mycobacterium bovis, and the systematic adoption of this process has drastically reduced the incidence of human tuberculosis caused by this pathogen. However, more recently, molecular methods have allowed the identification of genetic variations in this bacterium that may lead to greater thermal resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variation leads to variation in the death pattern of this bacterium during the milk pasteurization process. Samples of UHT (ultra-high temperature-treated whole milk were artificially contaminated with four different Mycobacterium bovis spoligotypes and were subjected to pasteurization by low-temperature long-time (LTLT and high-temperature short-time (HTST treatments. The M. bovis spoligotypes were quantified (Colony Forming Unit per milliliter of milk before and during the thermal process. The decay of the pathogen was quantified by calculating the difference between the measurements at the beginning and at the end of the thermal treatment. The data demonstrated that the LTLT and HTST pasteurization processes considerably reduced the M. bovis load in the milk; however, the bacterium was not eliminated. There was no difference in the thermal resistance of the spoligotypes tested or in the efficiency of pasteurization processes (LTLT versus HTST. However, heating phase was more effective in reducing the M. bovis load than the target temperature maintenance phase.

  2. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-01-01

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples (N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student’s t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001), and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001). Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants’ lives. PMID:28241418

  3. Polyphenol oxidase activity as a potential intrinsic index of adequate thermal pasteurization of apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Ingham, B H; Ingham, S C

    2004-05-01

    In response to increasing concerns about microbial safety of apple cider, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has mandated treatment of cider sufficient for a 5-log reduction of the target pathogen. Pasteurization has been suggested as the treatment most likely to achieve a 5-log reduction, with Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the target pathogen. Regulators and processors need a reliable method for verifying pasteurization, and apple cider polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was studied as a potential intrinsic index for thermal pasteurization. The effect of pasteurization conditions and apple cider properties on PPO activity and survival of three pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes) was studied using a Box-Behnken response surface design. Factors considered in the design were pasteurization conditions, i.e., hold temperature (60, 68, and 76 degrees C), preheat time (10, 20, 30 s), and hold time (0, 15, 30 s), pH, and sugar content ((o)Brix) of apple cider. Response surface contour plots were constructed to illustrate the effect of these factors on PPO activity and pathogen survival. Reduction in PPO activity of at least 50% was equivalent to a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes for cider at pH 3.7 and 12.5 (o)Brix. Further studies, however, are needed to verify the relationship between PPO activity and pathogen reduction in cider with various pH and (o)Brix values.

  4. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodie Daniels

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA, lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL-8 and IL-10. Donor milk samples (N = 50 were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student’s t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001, and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001 and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001. Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants’ lives.

  5. Are fat acids of human milk impacted by pasteurization and freezing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgo, Luiz Antônio; Coelho Araújo, Wilma Maria; Conceição, Maria Hosana; Sabioni Resck, Inês; Mendonça, Márcio Antonio

    2014-10-03

    The Human Milk Bank undergo human milk to pasteurization, followed by storage in a freezer at -18° C for up to six months to thus keep available the stocks of this product in maternal and infant hospitals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing on the lipid fraction of human milk. A sample of human milk was obtained from a donor and was subdivided into ten sub-samples that was subjected to the following treatments: LC = raw milk; T0 = milk after pasteurization; T30 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 30 days; T60 = milk after pasteurization and freeze for 60 days, and so on every 30 days until T240 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 240 days, with 3 repetitions for each treatment. Lipids were extracted, methylated and fatty acid profiles determined by gas chromatography. The fatty acids were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and functional groups were identified by infrared spectroscopy. There were variations in the concentration of fatty acids. For unsaturated fatty acids there was increasing trend in their concentrations. The IR and NMR analyze characterized and identified functional groups presents in fatty acids.

  6. Reconstruction with autologous pasteurized whole knee joint I: experimental study in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adel Refaat; Watanabe, Hideomi; Takagishi, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Hyperthermia-treated bone has been used for skeletal reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors, and more favorable results have been seen after pasteurization than after autoclaving or boiling. Pasteurization destroys malignant cells while preserving the bone-inducing property. All previous experimental models have studied replantation of bone segments, but reconstruction of joints is more important clinically. We studied the effects of extracorporeal hyperthermia on the reintegration of autologous whole knee joint grafts over a period of 16 weeks in a rabbit model. The whole knee joint was resected from 32 animals, heat-treated at 65 degrees C for 30 min, and replanted. In the control group, resection and replantation were performed without heat treatment. Reintegration was assessed by macroscopic analysis, histology, histochemistry, and radiography. Reintegration of the pasteurized group showed excellent remodeling during the 16 weeks, similar to the control groups. Responses to the pasteurization and the subsequent reintegration of cartilage, menisci, and ligaments were similar at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks with no significant difference between the two groups, although cartilage degradation seemed to occur earlier in the study group than in the control group. These results suggest that pasteurization may be superior to other cell-lethal treatments for autotransplantation of the whole joint currently available.

  7. [Mathematical model for carbohydrate energy metabolism. Mechanism of the Pasteur effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khainrikh, R; Dynnik, V V; Sel'kov, E E

    1980-06-01

    The simple mathematical model based on the stoichiometric structure of carbohydrate metabolism and the only allosteric regulation presented, i. e. activation of phosphofructokinase by AMP, was used to study the mechanism of the Pasteur effect, e. g. interrelationship of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and H-transporting shuttles at varying rates of oxidative phosphorylation and ATPase load. It was shown that the mechanism of the Pasteur effect is based on the presence of two negative feed-back mechanisms in carbohydrate metabolism, namely by the level of ATP in glycolysis and by the level of mitochondrial NADH in the Krebs cycle and H-transporting shuttles. It was also shown that the value and sign of the Pasteur effect depend on the level of ATPase load. The role of this phenomenon in stabilization of ATP in the cell is discussed. The effects of changes in the allosteric properties of phosphofructokinase and low activity of H-transporting shuttles on the Pasteur effect was studied. It was shown that the low values of the pasteur effect in tumour tissues are mainly determined by an insufficient activity of oxidative phosphorylation.

  8. Outbreak of staphylococcal food intoxication after consumption of pasteurized milk products, June 2007, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Daniela; Fretz, Rainer; Winter, Petra; Mann, Michaela; Höger, Gerda; Stöger, Anna; Ruppitsch, Werner; Ladstätter, Johann; Mayer, Norbert; de Martin, Alfred; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    On June 13, 2007, the public health authority informed the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety about 40 children from two neighboring elementary schools who had fallen ill with abdominal cramps and vomiting on June 8. School milk products consumed on June 8 were suspected as the source of the outbreak. On June 8, the milk products provided by local dairy X to eight elementary schools and two nurseries. The short incubation period - all cases fell ill on the day on which the products were consumed - and the short duration of illness (1-2 days) strongly suggested intoxication. In order to identify the causative pathogen, its reservoir and the mode of transmission, a descriptive-epidemiological and microbiological investigation and a retrospective cohort study were conducted. Six of the 10 institutions served by dairy X completed questionnaires on demographics and food consumption. One school had a 79% response rate (203/258) and was chosen as the basis for our cohort study. A total of 166 of the 1025 children (16.2%) at the 10 institutions fulfilled the case definition. Consumption of milk, cacao milk or vanilla milk originating from dairy X was associated with a 37.8 times higher risk of becoming a case (95% CI: 2.3-116.5). Unopened milk products left over at the affected institutions yielded staphylococcal enterotoxins A and D. Six out of 64 quarter milk samples from three of 16 cows producing milk for dairy X tested positive for S. aureus. The isolates produced enterotoxins A and D, yielded genes encoding enterotoxins and D, and showed spa type t2953. S. aureus isolated from the nasal swab of the dairy owner harbored genes encoding enterotoxins C, G, H and I, and showed spa type t635. Our investigation revealed that the milk products produced in dairy X on June 7 were the source of the outbreak on June 8. The cows - not the dairy owner - the likely reservoir of the enterotoxin-producing S. aureus. From the risk assessment of the production process at the

  9. Le pari de la médiatisation de la géographie et de la cartographie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Sierra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Frank Tétart est maître de conférences à l’Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris, spécialiste des questions européennes et russes ainsi que des nationalismes régionaux. Docteur en géographie et géopolitique de l’Université de Paris 8, diplômé de relations internationales, il s’est fait connaître du grand public en étant le collaborateur de Jean-Christophe Victor pour la réalisation de l’émission Le Dessous des Cartes, diffusée sur Arte. Depuis 2009, parallèlement à son travail d’enseignant-ch...

  10. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-02-22

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples (N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student's t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p milk, potentially saving infants' lives.

  11. PLC based automatic control of pasteurize mix in ice cream production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xudong; Liang, Kai

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the automatic control device of pasteurized mix in the ice cream production process.We design a scheme of control system using FBD program language and develop the programmer in the STEP 7-Micro/WIN software, check for any bugs before downloading into PLC .These developed devices will able to provide flexibility and accuracy to control the step of pasteurized mix. The operator just Input the duration and temperature of pasteurized mix through control panel. All the steps will finish automatically without any intervention in a preprogrammed sequence stored in programmable logic controller (PLC). With the help of this equipment we not only can control the quality of ice cream for various conditions, but also can simplify the production process. This control system is inexpensive and can be widely used in ice cream production industry.

  12. Development of Aa New Time Temperature Indicator for Enzymatic Validation of Pasteurization of Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the development of a new smart time-temperature indicator (TTI) of pasteurization whose operating principle is based on the complexation reaction between starch and iodine, and the subsequent action of an amylase on this complex causing its discoloration at a rate dependent on time and temperature of the medium. Laboratory simulations and tests in a manufacturing plant evaluated different enzyme concentrations in the TTI prototypes when exposed to pasteurization conditions. The results showed that the color response of the indicators was visually interpreted as adaptive to measurement using appropriate equipment, with satisfactory reliability in all conditions studied. The TTI containing 6.5% amylase was one whose best results were suited for use in validating the cooking of hams. When attached to the primary packaging of the product, this TTI indicated the pasteurization process inexpensively, easily, accurately, and nondestructively.

  13. Stability of aspartame and neotame in pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anuradha; Choudhary, Sonika; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek

    2016-04-01

    Analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions were standardized along with the isolation procedure for separation of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk (pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk). The recovery of the method was approximately 98% for both aspartame and neotame. The proposed HPLC method can be successfully used for the routine determination of aspartame and neotame in flavoured milk. Pasteurization (90 °C/20 min) resulted in approximately 40% loss of aspartame and only 8% of neotame was degraded. On storage (4-7°C/7 days) aspartame and neotame content decreased significantly (Paspartame; however, 50.50% of neotame remained intact. During storage (30 °C/60 days) neotame content decreased significantly (Paspartame in both pasteurized and in-bottle sterilized flavoured milk.

  14. Results from raw milk microbiological tests do not predict the shelf-life performance of commercially pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2011-03-01

    Analytical tools that accurately predict the performance of raw milk following its manufacture into commercial food products are of economic interest to the dairy industry. To evaluate the ability of currently applied raw milk microbiological tests to predict the quality of commercially pasteurized fluid milk products, samples of raw milk and 2% fat pasteurized milk were obtained from 4 New York State fluid milk processors for a 1-yr period. Raw milk samples were examined using a variety of tests commonly applied to raw milk, including somatic cell count, standard plate count, psychrotrophic bacteria count, ropy milk test, coliform count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, and spore pasteurization count. Differential and selective media were used to identify groups of bacteria present in raw milk. Pasteurized milk samples were held at 6°C for 21 d and evaluated for standard plate count, coliform count, and sensory quality throughout shelf-life. Bacterial isolates from select raw and pasteurized milk tests were identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Linear regression analysis of raw milk test results versus results reflecting pasteurized milk quality consistently showed low R(2) values (milk tests and results from tests used to evaluate pasteurized milk quality. Our findings suggest the need for new raw milk tests that measure the specific biological barriers that limit shelf-life and quality of fluid milk products.

  15. Antimicrobial and antiviral effect of high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization apllied to human milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, F.G.; Rechtman, D.J.; Lee, M.L.; Hoeij, K. van; Berg, H.; Engelenberg, F.A.C. van; Wout, A.B. van 't

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, concerns over the transmission of infectious diseases have led to donor human milk generally being subjected to pasteurization prior to distribution and use. The standard method used by North American milk banks is Holder pasteurization (63°C for 30 minutes). The authors undert

  16. Salmonella spp. isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg produce: thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by f...

  17. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... for sale or other distribution after shipment in interstate commerce any milk or milk product in final... ingredients (milk or milk products) that have all been pasteurized, except where alternative procedures...

  18. On a Fast p-ary m-Sequence Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小虎; 范平志

    2004-01-01

    m-Sequences have been used widely in many applications, but the corresponding computation of the correlation-detection is overwhelming N2 operations, where N is the length of the m-sequence, such that it is unpractical. In this paper, a transform from p-ary m-sequence matrices to generalized Hadamard matrices is developed; and then by the fast generalized Hadamard matrices transform, a fast p-ary m-sequence transform is developed. The results show that the computation can be dramatically reduced from N2 to NlogpN operations, so the fast p-ary m-sequence transform could enable a rapid correlation-detection at the receiver.

  19. PARIS: Probabilistic Alignment of Relations, Instances, and Schema

    CERN Document Server

    Suchanek, Fabian M; Senellart, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges that the Semantic Web faces is the integration of a growing number of independently designed ontologies. In this work, we present PARIS, an approach for the automatic alignment of ontologies. PARIS aligns not only instances, but also relations and classes. Alignments at the instance level cross-fertilize with alignments at the schema level. Thereby, our system provides a truly holistic solution to the problem of ontology alignment. The heart of the approach is probabilistic, i.e., we measure degrees of matchings based on probability estimates. This allows PARIS to run without any parameter tuning. We demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm and its precision through extensive experiments. In particular, we obtain a precision of around 90% in experiments with some of the world's largest ontologies.

  20. Le Paris des Ottomans à la Belle Epoque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kreiser

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available  « Hakir Alamanda iken Firansada, ehr-i Paris'i medh ederlerdi emma görmedim »(On a fait l'éloge de la ville de Paris en France pendant le séjour en Allemagne de ce pauvre, mais je ne l'ai pas vu (Evliyâ Çelebi Les premiers hôtes turcs arrivèrent en 1581 à Paris pour remettre au roi Henri III une invitation à participer aux festivités organisées pour la circoncision du fds du sultan régnant, Murad III. L'ambassadeur français à Venise qui, depuis des mois retenait les Turcs, les empêchant de...

  1. Prevalence, seasonality, and growth of enterococci in raw and pasteurized milk in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Catherine M; Britz, Margaret L; Gobius, Kari S; Craven, Heather M

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, seasonality, and species variety of enterococci present in raw milk factory silos and pasteurized milk in 3 dairying regions in Victoria, Australia, over a 1-yr period. Additionally, the growth ability of thermoduric enterococci isolated in this study (Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, and E. durans) was determined in milk at temperatures likely to occur during storage, transport, and distribution, and before domestic consumption (4 and 7°C). Enterococci were detected in 96% of 211 raw milk samples, with an average count of 2.48 log10 cfu/mL. Counts were significantly lower in winter than summer (average 1.84 log10 cfu/mL) and were different between factories but not regions. Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent species isolated from raw milk in every factory, comprising between 61.5 and 83.5% of enterococcal species across each season. Enterococci were detected in lower numbers in pasteurized milk than in raw milk and were below the limit of detection on spread plates (detected following enrichment using 100-mL samples of milk, with 20.8% of the samples testing positive; this equated to a decrease in the average raw milk enterococci count of >4 log10 cfu/mL following pasteurization. Although E. faecalis predominated in raw milk and E. durans was found in only 2.9% of raw milk samples, E. durans was the most prevalent species detected in pasteurized milk. The detection of enterococci in the pasteurized milk did not correlate with higher enterococci counts in the raw milk. This suggested that the main enterococci populations in raw milk were heat-sensitive and that thermoduric enterococci survived pasteurization in a small numbers of instances. All of the thermoduric enterococci that were assessed for growth at likely refrigeration temperatures were able to grow at both 4 and 7°C in sterile milk, with generation times of 35 to 41h and 16 to 22h, respectively. Thermoduric enterococci were detected in

  2. Water in type I chondrules of Paris CM chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephant, A.; Remusat, L.; Robert, F.

    2017-02-01

    Hydrogen isotopic ratio and water concentration have been measured with the NanoSIMS in olivine, pyroxene and mesostasis in individual chondrules from the carbonaceous chondrites Paris (CM2), Renazzo (CR2) and ordinary chondrite Bishunpur (LL3). On average, chondrule pyroxenes in Renazzo, Bishunpur and Paris contain 893 ± 637 ppm (1SD), 879 ± 536 ppm and 791 ± 227 ppm H2O, respectively. Concentration of H2O in Chondrule olivines from Renazzo and Bishunpur is 156 ± 44 ppm and 222 ± 123 ppm, respectively. Olivines in the Paris chondrules have high water concentration (603 ± 145-1051 ± 253 ppm H2O) with a minimum mean value of 645 ± 99 ppm. δD ranges from -212 ± 125‰ to 15 ± 156‰ and from -166 ± 133‰ to 137 ± 176‰ in Renazzo and Bishunpur chondrule olivines, pyroxenes and mesostases, respectively. In Paris chondrules, δD ranges from -398 ± 23‰ to 366 ± 35‰; this represents an extreme variation over 764‰. Paris olivines and pyroxenes are either enriched or depleted in deuterium relative to the mesostasis and no systematic isotopic pattern is observed. Simple model of chondrules hydration during parent body hydrothermal alteration is difficult to reconcile with such isotopic heterogeneity. It is proposed that a hydrous component, having a δD of c.a. -400‰, in the chondrule precursors, has been outgassed at 800-900 °C in the gas phase. Nevertheless, a residual water fraction remains trapped in Paris chondrules. Quantitative modeling supports this scenario.

  3. MIRIAM: the PACS project in Paris: overview and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, H; Picard, J E

    1997-08-01

    In this article the authors describe the Management Informatique de la Radiologie et de l'Imagerie Médicale (MIRIAM) major picture archiving and communication system (PACS) project in Paris, France. The Assistance Publique of Paris, France is a healthcare provider and took the initiative to start the largest PACS program in Europe to date. The MIRIAM project will start in 1997 and will be used in different, consecutive phases. A consortium of several companies is in charge of the implementation. Thirty-three hospitals with 54 imaging departments will be integrated in one system.

  4. Cairo-Paris:The Urban Imaginary of the Self

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sherif, Mona A.Selim

    2010-01-01

    AbstractCairo-Paris: The Urban Imaginary of the SelfByMona A. Selim El-SherifDoctor of Philosophy in Near Eastern StudiesProfessor Margaret Larkin, Chair My dissertation Cairo- Paris: the urban imaginary of the Self, examines expressions of Egyptian modernity through the use of the urban experience as a paradigm for it. The dissertation uses the three different genres of the essay, the novel, and film, in order to examine expressions of Egyptian modernity in its urban context. The disser...

  5. Paris-Princeton lectures on mathematical finance 2002

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the first volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by P. Bank/H. Föllmer, F. Baudoin, L.C.G. Rogers, and M. Soner/N. Touzi.

  6. Greater Paris Rail System%巴黎地区轨道交通系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylviane DELMAS

    2007-01-01

    @@ Greater Paris is famous for its extensive metro and RER (express rail) system. By the end of 2006, there were 14 metro lines in Paris as illustrated in Figure 1, and 5 RER lines as illustrated in Figure 2.

  7. 76 FR 12399 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Paris: Life & Luxury”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Paris: Life & Luxury'' SUMMARY..., I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Paris: Life &...

  8. Molecular Characterization of Black Bengal and Jamuna Pari Goat Breeds By RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31. Highest level of Nei's[1] gene diversity value (0.4898 was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's[1] genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.

  9. Paris-Nairobi Conference - Proceedings; Conference Paris-Nairobi - Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    Energy is critical to economic development and poverty reduction. The provision of reliable, affordable and sustainable energy services, especially for the poorest, contributes decisively to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Without energy, economies cannot grow and poverty cannot be reduced. Insufficient electricity supply affects many developing countries. Productivity, competitiveness, employment, and economic and social development are therefore limited. Low income countries are uppermost victims of climate change, though being the least responsible and the least armed to tackle and mitigate it. To meet the energy needs of Africa and other countries vulnerable to climate change and engage them on a sustainable development path, a priority for all countries, a concerted common global action is needed. This action shall be connected with existing initiatives in order to complement and enhance their efficiency. 2012 has been declared the international year for energy access by the United-Nations and during its presidency of the G8/G20, France wishes to foreground this issue. Therefore, France and Kenya want to contribute to this overall action, launching a global partnership for universal access to clean energy. In this context, the ministerial meeting launched this partnership on April 21, 2011 in Paris, France. This first meeting discussed ways to mobilize financing to achieve universal access to energy and to develop cleaner energies. Several obstacles have to be addressed and the following challenges shall be overcome: strengthening national and regional legal framework, improving capacity building and project management (source localization, technological options) and risk management. This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - white paper presentation (A. Mohamed, P. Lorec); 2 - Establishment of ECREEE as a regional

  10. Europeanising spaces in Paris, ca. 1947-1962

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDonnell, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    This examination of ‘Europeanising spaces’ looks at spaces in Paris in which ideas about Europe were formulated, expressed, exchanged, circulated, and contested during this post-war period, roughly between the escalation of the Cold War and the end of the Algerian war of decolonisation. The analysis

  11. An Empirical Reexamination of the Parent Attitude Research Instrument (PARI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Laura S.; Paolucci, Beatrice

    1975-01-01

    The Parent Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) was employed to study the attitudes of 146 mothers of preschool children toward childrearing. Because responses from the sample were not consistent with scales previously reported in the literature, reevaluation of the scales was performed. Reevaluation revealed groupings of clusters were comparable…

  12. The second skin of three archers: Herakles, Paris and Dolon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Javier Vilariño Rodríguez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The wearing of fur of lions, leopards and wolves by Herakles, Paris and Dolon, respectively, allows us, throw the study of the features and power attributed to those beasts, to review the importance and the status granted in the Greek world to each of those legendary archers.

  13. Paris: Beyond the Climate Dead End through Pledge and Review?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Keohane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Climate Agreement of December 2015 marks a decisive break from the unsuccessful Kyoto regime. Instead of targets and timetables, it established a Pledge and Review system, under which states will offer Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs to reducing emissions that cause climate change. But this successful negotiation outcome was achieved at the price of vagueness of obligations and substantial discretion for governments. Many governments will be tempted to use the vagueness of the Paris Agreement, and the discretion that it permits, to limit the scope or intensity of their proposed actions. Whether Pledge and Review under the Paris Agreement will lead to effective action against climate change will therefore depend on the inclination both of OECD countries and newly industrializing countries to take costly actions, which for the OECD countries will include financial transfers to their poorer partners. Domestic politics will be crucial in determining the attitudes of both sets of countries to pay such costs. The actual impact of the Paris Agreement will depend on whether it can be used by domestic groups favoring climate action as a point of leverage in domestic politics—that is, in a “two-level game” simultaneously involving both international and domestic politics.

  14. [History of the Journées Dermatologiques de Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, G

    2013-12-01

    Founded in 1801 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, under Jean-Louis Alibert, the French School of Dermatology was initially structured around the French Society of Dermatology (1889) and the organization of two world congresses (Paris 1889, 1900). After World War I, the creation of dermatological societies in the provinces infused French dermatology with new energy. In 1922, the first congress of the French-speaking dermatologists further contributed to the public profile of dermatologists in France. The "Journées de Mars" were initiated in 1961 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, and in 1975 they went on to become the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris". Pr. Jean Civatte played a key role in their creation and in their organization for 30 years. After 1979, since actual patients could no longer be presented, the organizers of the congress had to change the content of the meeting from clinical presentations to post-graduate teaching and clinical research. From its origins in the form of meetings of French dermatologists in an intimate setting at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris" grew within the ensuing decades into a major scientific event of the French-speaking dermatological community, bringing together more than 4000 participants in December each year.

  15. What does the Paris Agreement mean for adaptation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesnikowski, Alexandra; Ford, James; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Maillet, Michelle; Araos, Malcolm; Austin, Stephanie E.

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement takes a significant step forward in strengthening the adaptation pillar of global climate policy. By widening the normative framing around adaptation, calling for stronger adaptation commitments from states, being explicit about the multilevel nature of adaptation governance, and

  16. Paris: Beyond the Climate Dead End through Pledge and Review?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Keohane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Climate Agreement of December 2015 marks a decisive break from the unsuccessful Kyoto regime. Instead of targets and timetables, it established a Pledge and Review system, under which states will offer Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs to reducing emissions that cause climate change. But this successful negotiation outcome was achieved at the price of vagueness of obligations and substantial discretion for governments. Many governments will be tempted to use the vagueness of the Paris Agreement, and the discretion that it permits, to limit the scope or intensity of their proposed actions. Whether Pledge and Review under the Paris Agreement will lead to effective action against climate change will therefore depend on the inclination both of OECD countries and newly industrializing countries to take costly actions, which for the OECD countries will include financial transfers to their poorer partners. Domestic politics will be crucial in determining the attitudes of both sets of countries to pay such costs. The actual impact of the Paris Agreement will depend on whether it can be used by domestic groups favoring climate action as a point of leverage in domestic politics—that is, in a “two-level game” simultaneously involving both international and domestic politics.

  17. The Cabaret in Paris Life "Fin-de-Siecle."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzash, Michael D.

    College-level history courses can be improved by including instruction about social history, particularly the leisure time activities of the dominant cultural group. Paris of the late 19th century had the well-deserved reputation of being the pleasure capital of Europe. This reputation developed in spite of the disparity that existed between the…

  18. The Paris Agreement: Consequences for the EU and Carbon Markets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Andresen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most observers argue that this agreement is a step in the right direction. However, we do not know how effective it will be in terms of reducing emissions. We therefore discuss its potential effectiveness regarding EU climate policies and carbon markets. We argue that the Paris Agreement may have a positive effect but uncertainties abound.

  19. Incidence and Paris Classification of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Eszter Müller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New epidemiological data suggest that the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is increasing. As a result the burden of disease accounts for more strains to the health care system. The clinical variability queries whether disease characteristics are related to clinical outcome. Our aim was to delineate the latest results of incidence trends in pediatric IBD and to compare the first experiences with Paris Classification. Incidence of pediatric IBD has been increasing in Western Europe and in Eastern Europe. To better characterize IBD, Paris Classification was introduced and validated recently. Ileocolonic involvement is the most characteristic disease location in Crohn’s disease (CD based on applying Paris Classification. The rate of perianal disease and complicated behaviour in CD was similar. It is of interest that CD patients with colonic involvement were less likely to have stricturing disease compared with patients with ileal involvement. In addition, pancolitis dominated in ulcerative colitis (UC. However, most countries lack prospective, nationwide epidemiological studies to estimate incidence trends. This review emphasizes the importance of nationwide registries that enroll all pediatric IBD cases serving reliable data for “everyday practice.” These first reports have shown that Paris Classification is a useful tool to determine the pediatric IBD phenotype.

  20. Graph Theory in Paris : Conference in Memory of Claude Berge

    CERN Document Server

    Fonlupt, Jean; Fouquet, Jean-Luc; Fournier, Jean-Claude; Alfonsín, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    In July 2004, a conference on graph theory was held in Paris in memory of Claude Berge, one of the pioneers of the field. The event brought together many prominent specialists on topics, such as perfect graphs and matching theory, upon which Claude Berge's work has had a major impact. This volume includes contributions to these and other topics from many of the participants.

  1. The 26th International Geological Congress, Paris, 1980

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriel Gohau

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 1878, France hosted the first International Geological Congress on the occasion of the International Exhibition held in Paris that year. The decision to hold such a meeting in France had been taken two years earlier at the Exhibition in Philadelphia.

  2. [Nepal earthquake: nursing missions in Paris and Kathmandu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, Chrystel; Sergent, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    A violent earthquake hit Nepal on 25th April 2015, injuring and killing thousands. A nurse manager and a nurse, both working in anaesthesia and reservists in the French Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Organisation, describe their mission: one working in the crisis centre in Paris, the other on the ground, providing assistance to French victims.

  3. Validation of a pulsed electric field process to pasteurize strawberry puree

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inexpensive data acquisition method was developed to validate the exact number and shape of the pulses applied during pulsed electric fields (PEF) processing. The novel validation method was evaluated in conjunction with developing a pasteurization PEF process for strawberry puree. Both buffered...

  4. Rheology and texture of Queso Fresco cheeses made from raw and pasteurized milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queso Frescos made in Mexico from raw milk (RM) were compared with cheeses made in Mexico and the US from pasteurized milk (PM) to determine textural and rheological differences. RM cheese, considered the ideal Queso Fresco, contained more moisture than PM cheeses, displayed higher cohesiveness and...

  5. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats. 133.176 Section 133.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS...

  6. CARBON DIOXIDE HEAT PUMP IN TRANSCRITICAL CYCLE FOR INSTALLATION FOR PASTEURIZATION AND COOLING OF DAIRY FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There are elaborated schemes of installations for pasteurization and cooling of dairy foods with heat pumps introduced in there schemes. Schemes distinguish oneself by the possibility of using of additional useful heat for getting hot water for technological purposes.

  7. Growth characteristics of Salmonella enteritidis in pasteurized and unpasteurized liquid egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakha, Mohammad Zaher; Fujikawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Growth characteristics of a four-strain cocktail of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial products of pasteurized and unpasteurized liquid whole egg were studied with a growth model developed by us. The unpasteurized product contained total bacteria at 10(7.3) CFU/g, but no Salmonella. When the products were spiked with Salmonella at various doses ranging from 10(1) to 10(4) CFU/g, growth curves of the pathogen at 24°C were well described with our model. Salmonella growth curves at constant temperatures from 8°C to 36°C in the two products were also well described with the model. The Baranyi model also described well most of the growth curves. The rate constants of growth for Salmonella at various constant temperatures were well described with the square root model. The maximum cell level, N(max) of Salmonella was constant at all temperatures in the pasteurized products, while a linear relationship between log N(max) and the temperature was observed in the unpasteurized ones. Salmonella growth in the unpasteurized product was highly suppressed in comparison with that in the pasteurized. This study also suggested the suitability of our model for application in the Salmonella growth analysis in pasteurized and unpasteurized liquid egg products.

  8. Effects of environmental conditions on growth and survival of Salmonella in pasteurized whole egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Bisgaard, Magne; Hervé, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of three parameters (time, temperature and NaCl concentration) on survival and four parameters (temperature, NaCl and lysozyme concentrations and pH) on growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in pasteurized whole egg (PWE). Doehlert...... whole egg....

  9. Effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of pasteurized whole milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.

    2006-01-01

    Pasteurized whole milk (3% fat) was stored under fluorescent light at 8°C in clear 1 litre polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and three variants of pigmented PET bottles with different light transmittance. Changes in the vitamin content were monitored over a period of 10 days. Milk packed in p

  10. Effect of homogenization and pasteurization on the structure and thermal stability of whey protein in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of homogenization alone or in combination with high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization or UHT processing on the whey fraction of milk was investigated using highly sensitive spectroscopic techniques. In pilot plant trials, 1-L quantities of whole milk were homogenized in a two-...

  11. Effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of pasteurized whole milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.

    2006-01-01

    Pasteurized whole milk (3% fat) was stored under fluorescent light at 8°C in clear 1 litre polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and three variants of pigmented PET bottles with different light transmittance. Changes in the vitamin content were monitored over a period of 10 days. Milk packed in

  12. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or... properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (2) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain...

  13. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or... fruit; any properly prepared cooked, canned, or dried vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method prescribed for the...

  14. Pasteurization of Liquid Egg White using a Centrifugal Ultraviolet Light Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    A UV device that centrifugally forms a thin film has recently been shown to nonthermally pasteurize grapefruit juice. The effectiveness of this UV device on inactivating bacteria in liquid egg white (LEW) is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the nonthermal inactivation of Escheri...

  15. Process Control of Pink Guava Puree Pasteurization Process: Simulation and Validation by Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. F. Wan Mokhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, process control has been applied extensively in many food processes include pasteurization process. The purpose is to control and maintain the product temperature at desired value. In order to be able to control the process properly, the model of the process needs to be obtained. This research aims to obtain the empirical model and to determine the best control strategy in pasteurization process of pink guava puree. The PID controller tuned by different tuning methods was simulated using Simulink and closed loop responses were observed. Simulation results revealed that PID controller tuned by minimizing of integral absolute error (IAE method were satisfactory adaptable in this process in term of faster settling time, less overshoot, smallest values of IAE and ISE that less than 1. Then, experiment was performed using this method in order to validate simulation results. In general, a good agreement was achieved between experimental data and dynamic simulation result in control of pasteurization temperature process with  R2=0.83. As the conclusion, the results obtained can be used as the recommendation for a suitable control strategy for the pasteurization process of pink guava puree in the industry.

  16. Legionella Persistence in Manufactured Water Systems: Pasteurization Potentially Selecting for Thermal Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Legionella is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen of increasing public health significance. Pasteurization, otherwise known as super-heat and flush (increasing water temperature to above 70°C and flushing all outlets, has been identified as an important mechanism for the disinfection of Legionella in manufactured water systems. However, several studies have reported that this procedure was ineffective at remediating water distribution systems as Legionella was able to maintain long term persistent contamination. Up to 25% of L. pneumophila cells survived heat treatment of 70°C, but all of these were in a viable but non-culturable state. This demonstrates the limitations of the culture method of Legionella detection currently used to evaluate disinfection protocols. In addition, it has been demonstrated that pasteurization and nutrient starvation can select for thermal tolerant strains, where L. pneumophila was consistently identified as having greater thermal tolerance compared to other Legionella species. This review demonstrates that further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of pasteurization as a disinfection method. In particular, it focuses on the potential for pasteurization to select for thermal tolerant L. pneumophila strains which, as the primary causative agent of Legionnaires disease, have greater public health significance compared to other Legionella species.

  17. Operational cost minimization of heat pump for milk pasteurization in dairy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söylemez, Mehmet Sait

    2005-11-01

    A thermo economic optimization analysis is presented yielding simple algebraic formula for estimating the optimum operating conditions of interconnected heat pump assisted milk pasteurizing systems. The overall operational cost method including the cost of auxiliary heater is used in the present study, together with the thermal analyses of all system components, for thermo economic analysis of the system.

  18. The Summer Undergraduate Research Internship Program at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, J. Donald; Castelaz, M.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.; Owen, L.; Barker, T.

    2012-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) offers summer undergraduate research internships. PARI has received support for the internships from the NC Space Grant Consortium, NSF awards for public science education, private donations, private foundations, and through a collaboration with the Pisgah Astronomical Research and Education Center of the University of North Carolina - Asheville. The internship program began in 2001 with 4 students. This year 7 funded students participated in 2011. Mentors for the interns include PARI's Science, Education, and Information Technology Directors and visiting faculty who are members of the PARI Research Affiliate Faculty program. Students work with mentors on radio and optical astronomy research, electrical engineering for robotic control of instruments, software development for instrument control and software for citizen science projects, and science education by developing curricula and multimedia and teaching high school students in summer programs at PARI. At the end of the summer interns write a paper about their research which is published in the PARI Summer Student Proceedings. Several of the students have presented their results at AAS Meetings. We will present a summary of specific research conducted by the students with their mentors, the logistics for hosting the PARI undergraduate internship program, and plans for growth based on the impact of an NSF supported renovation to the Research Building on the PARI campus.

  19. 2012 Summer Research Experiences for Undergraduates at Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Cline, J. D.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.; Owen, L.

    2013-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) offers research experiences for undergraduates (REU). PARI receives support for the internships from the NC Space Grant Consortium, NSF awards, private donations, and industry partner funding. The PARI REU program began in 2001 with 4 students and has averaged 6 students per year over the past 11 years. This year PARI hosted 8 funded REU students. Mentors for the interns include PARI’s Science, Education, and Information Technology staff and visiting faculty who are members of the PARI Research Faculty Affiliate program. Students work with mentors on radio and optical astronomy research, electrical engineering for robotic control of instruments, software development for instrument control and software for citizen science projects, and science education by developing curricula and multimedia and teaching high school students in summer programs at PARI. At the end of the summer interns write a paper about their research which is published in the annually published PARI Summer Student Proceedings. Several of the students have presented their results at AAS Meetings. We will present a summary of specific research conducted by the students with their mentors and the logistics for hosting the PARI undergraduate internship program.

  20. Analysis of the Relationship between National Human Rights Institutions and Administrative Organs under the Framework of“Paris Principles”%《巴黎原则》框架下的国家人权机构与行政机关关系辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫姿含

    2013-01-01

    The national human rights institution is an important window position and role of national human rights in -stitutions in national political insight into the structure of the relationship of the administrative organ of the state .In practice,human rights institutions in some countries are set up by the administrative organs or the initiated the es-tablishment of departments,they play the role of administrative behavior of the administrative organ of the state .O-verall,national human rights institutions work is a complementary to the work of protecting human rights of national administrative organs.To a large degree,this complementary is realized through carrying out supervision of national administrative organs of the human rights protection work .%  国家人权机构与国家行政机关的关系是洞察国家人权机构在国家政权结构中的地位和作用的重要窗口。在实践中,部分国家人权机构由行政机关发起设立或成为其内设部门,对国家行政机关的行政行为发挥作用。总体来看,国家人权机构的工作是对国家行政机关人权保护工作的补充,这种补充在很大程度上是通过对国家行政机关的人权保护工作实施监督来实现的。

  1. Identification and characterization of psychrotolerant coliform bacteria isolated from pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, S N; Martin, N H; Trmčić, A; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2016-01-01

    The presence of coliform bacteria in pasteurized fluid milk typically indicates that product contamination occurred downstream of the pasteurizer, but it may also indicate pasteurization failure. Although coliform detection is frequently used as a hygiene indicator for dairy products, our understanding of the taxonomic and phenotypic coliform diversity associated with dairy products is surprisingly limited. Therefore, using Petrifilm Coliform Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), we isolated coliforms from high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized fluid milk samples from 21 fluid milk processing plants in the northeast United States. Based on source information and initial characterization using partial 16S rDNA sequencing, 240 nonredundant isolates were obtained. The majority of these isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Enterobacter (42% of isolates), Hafnia (13%), Citrobacter (12%), Serratia (10%), and Raoultella (9%); additional isolates were classified into the genera Buttiauxella, Cedecea, Kluyvera, Leclercia, Pantoea, and Rahnella. A subset of 104 representative isolates was subsequently characterized phenotypically. Cold growth analysis in skim milk broth showed that all isolates displayed at least a 2-log increase over 10 d at 6°C; the majority of isolates (n=74) displayed more than a 5-log increase. In total, 43% of the representative isolates displayed lipolysis when incubated on spirit blue agar at 6°C for 14 d, whereas 71% of isolates displayed proteolysis when incubated on skim milk agar at 6°C for 14 d. Our data indicate that a considerable diversity of coliforms is found in HTST-pasteurized fluid milk and that a considerable proportion of these coliforms have phenotypic characteristics that will allow them to cause fluid milk spoilage.

  2. Effect of pasteurization on the decay of Mycobacterium bovis in milk cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia de Andrade Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk cream must be pasteurized in order to be sold in Brazil. However, there are no specific legal requirements for this product, and producers set their own pasteurization parameters using the ones approved for milk as a reference. Considering that fat protects bacteria from heat, that no thermal inactivation studies have been performed on Mycobacterium bovis present in cream, and that bovine tuberculosis is endemic in Brazil, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inactivation of M. bovis in milk cream subjected to commercial parameters of pasteurization. Milk cream samples were contaminated and pasteurized in a water bath at 75, 80, 85, and 90°C for 5 and 15 s. M. bovis cells were plated onto Stonebrink-Leslie medium, incubated at 36°C for 45 days, and quantified; the result was expressed in log CFU mL-1. The fat content of the samples ranged from 34% to 37% and the average initial load of M. bovis was 8.0 Log CFU mL-1. The average decay of the M. bovis populations was 4.0, 4.3, 4.9 and 6.7 log CFU mL-1 when the cream was incubated for 15 sec at 75, 80, 85 and 90°C, respectively, showing that the efficiency of the heat treatment was improved by increasing the temperature of the process. Given the lipophilic nature of M. bovis, the cream should be subjected to more intense parameters of pasteurization than those applied to milk.

  3. School Choice in London and Paris – A Comparison of Middle-class Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michaela; Bridge, Gary; Wilson, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Education is one major public service in which quasi-markets and other choice-based mechanisms are now established methods of delivery. The types of school people choose, and the extent to which their choices are realized, have a fundamental impact on the outcomes of any mechanism of school choice. In this article, we provide a comparative analysis of the school choice strategies of middle-class families in London and Paris. We draw on approximately 200 in-depth interviews carried out across the two cities. This enables us to investigate the extent to which middle-class school choice strategies transcend the institutional context provided by both the local (state and private) schools market and national education policy in England and France. We discuss these findings in the context of current school choice policy and consider their implications for future policy design. PMID:25750467

  4. School Choice in London and Paris - A Comparison of Middle-class Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michaela; Bridge, Gary; Wilson, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Education is one major public service in which quasi-markets and other choice-based mechanisms are now established methods of delivery. The types of school people choose, and the extent to which their choices are realized, have a fundamental impact on the outcomes of any mechanism of school choice. In this article, we provide a comparative analysis of the school choice strategies of middle-class families in London and Paris. We draw on approximately 200 in-depth interviews carried out across the two cities. This enables us to investigate the extent to which middle-class school choice strategies transcend the institutional context provided by both the local (state and private) schools market and national education policy in England and France. We discuss these findings in the context of current school choice policy and consider their implications for future policy design.

  5. Reflections on small island states and the international climate change negotiations (COP21, Paris, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Hoad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest and most significant round of multilateral climate negotiations (COP21 takes place in Paris (30/11 to 11/12/2015. Like other participants and signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, small island states have submitted contributions (INDCs towards reducing emissions as a precursor to the creation of a post-Kyoto global emissions framework. This reflection outlines their contributions and examines the underlying dynamics of small island INDCs as they attempt to engage with the process of international negotiation. Preliminary findings confirm the need for small island states to be supported financially and technically by global institutional mechanisms in order to develop the capacity to deal with climate change.

  6. Effect of milk pasteurization on lipolysis during ripening of ovine cheese manufactured at different times of the year

    OpenAIRE

    Chávarri, Felisa; Angeles Bustamante, M.; Santisteban, Arantza; Virto, Mailo; Albisu, Marta; Barrón, Luis; De Renobales, Mertxe

    2000-01-01

    International audience; Lipolysis was studied in cheeses manufactured with pasteurized and raw ovine milk with a starter culture added in winter, spring and summer, up to 180 d of ripening. Pasteurized milk cheeses had significantly lower levels of lipolysis than raw milk cheeses in winter after 180 d of ripening and in spring both after 90 and 180 d of ripening. The relative amounts of individual FFA after 180 d of ripening changed from winter to summer, both in pasteurized and in raw milk c...

  7. Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide pasteurization on natural microbiota, texture, and microstructure of fresh-cut coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Balzan, Sara; Dorigato, Andrea; Pegoretti, Alessandro; Spilimbergo, Sara

    2012-05-01

    The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the effectiveness of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) as a nonthermal technology for the pasteurization of fresh-cut coconut, as an example of ready-to-eat and minimally processed food. First, the inactivation kinetics of microbiota on coconut were determined using SC-CO(2) treatments (pressures at 8 and 12 MPa, temperatures from 24 to 45 °C, treatment times from 5 to 60 min). Second, the effects of SC-CO(2) on the hardness and microstructure of fresh-cut coconut processed at the optimal conditions for microbial reduction were investigated. SC-CO(2) treatment of 15 min at 45 °C and 12 MPa induced 4 log CFU/g reductions of mesophilic microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria, total coliforms, and yeasts and molds. The hardness of coconut was not affected by the treatment but the samples developed an irregular and disorderly microstructure. Results suggested the potential of SC-CO(2) in preserving fresh-cut fruits and ready-to-eat products. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. La santé des pasteurs mobiles au Sahel - Bilan de 15 années de recherches et développement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavon, A; Jean-Richard, V; Bechir, M; Daugla, D M; Abdoulaye, M; Bongo Naré, R N; Diguimbaye-Djaibé, C; Alfaroukh, I O; Schelling, E; Wyss, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2013-09-01

    Dans le Sahel, entre la Mauritanie et la Somalie incluant le Nord Kenya, environ 20 à 30 millions de personnes vivent en transhumance. Le rythme de leur migration suit l'évolution saisonnière du climat et la disponibilité des ressources, telle que l'eau, le pâturage et le sel. Malgré une exposition élevée à certaines maladies comme les zoonoses et les problèmes conditionnés liés au climat, les pasteurs mobiles sont parmi les populations quasiment exclues du système de santé, car la mise à disposition des services sociaux adaptés à un mode de vie mobile est difficile. Suivant l'objectif de recherche d'un meilleur accès aux soins des pasteurs mobiles, l'Institut Tropical et de Santé Publique Suisse, en partenariat avec plusieurs institutions dans la région, est actif au Sahel depuis 15 ans, aussi bien dans le domaine de la recherche, que celui des actions de développement. Basées sur une approche orientée vers les besoins des pasteurs mobiles pour leur développement, des recherches interdisciplinaires ont contribué à mieux comprendre la situation et les problèmes des éleveurs. En relation de la proximité entre l'homme et son bétail, une approche unissant la santé humaine et animale s'est avérée bonne et la valeur ajoutée d'une meilleure collaboration entre médecine humaine, animale et l'environnement a été démontrée. Ces approches utiles devraient être poursuivies et consolidées dans les recherches et le développement des actions futurs. © 2013 The Authors. Tropical Medicine and International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of mineral and vitamin supplementation to pasteurized whole milk diets on growth and health of preruminant Holstein bull calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine whether supplementation of vitamins and trace minerals (VTM), formulated to meet or exceed NRC requirements when added to pasteurized whole milk (PWM), increases challenge resolution and prevents intestinal macromolecular permeability after injection with bacterial lip...

  10. Determination of antibiotic residues in the pasteurized milk produced in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirin Forouzan; Amir Rahimirad; Roya Seyedkhoei; Jafar Asadzadeh; Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To monitor antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran.Methods:In this study, 848 pasteurized milk samples were collected from factories and tested for the presence of antibiotic residues using the Copan test kit based on the manufacturer’s instructions.Results:Results indicated that 30.14% of samples were contaminated with a variety of antibiotics based on the detection of associated residues and 3.19% of these samples were suspected. Given the current rise of antimicrobial resistance among microbial pathogens, these findings amplify the need to ensure continuous monitoring of pasteurized milk that intended for human consumption.Conclusions:Continuous monitoring of pasteurized milk may improve human health but also limit the development and transmission of antibiotic resistant strains in the environment.

  11. Effect of Echinophora platyloba DC. essential oil and lycopene on the stability of pasteurized cream obtained from cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Ali; Hashemi, Mohammad; Hosseini Jazani, Nima; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Shokri, Sajad; Naghibi, Seyedeh Samane

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to enhance shelf life of pasteurized cream using Echinophora platyloba essential oil (EEO) and lycopene. For this purpose, two concentrations of EEO (0.10% and 0.50%) and lycopene (20 and 50 ppm) alone and together as combinations were added in pasteurized creams and analyzed for microbial characteristics, sensorial properties and lipid stability during storage at 4 ˚C and 25 ˚C for 14 days. Results of microbial and chemical analyses of experimental pasteurized creams showed that pasteurized creams treated with combinations of the EEO and lycopene in their higher concentrations had the best microbial and chemical properties and the most stability than control during storage (p creams with combinations of EEO and lycopene in their lower concentrations. Therefore, based on the results of the present study, application of EEO and lycopene as natural preservatives is especially recommend in high fat dairy products such as butter and cream.

  12. 巴黎历险记%Adventure in Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    良晨

    2003-01-01

    @@ Part oneCatacombs, Pistols andCarbines I.坟墓,手枪,卡宾枪 Lonely and homesick, I was staring at the Eiffel Tour from the single window of my attic. Suddenly" Ring, ring, ring,the phone rang. I cheerfully rushed on my phone. It was my partner for table tennis,a student in Paris. "Do you like adventures? Yes, of course! How about an adventure in the sewer system1 tomorrow night?""In the sewers! ! Why the sewers?""To find the Catacombs2!" As a foreign student in Paris, I felt so alone that I accepted his invitation in excitement. It was 15 years ago.

  13. Paris terrorist attack: early lessons from the intensivists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    During the night of 13-14 November, the city of Paris was exposed, within a few hours, to three bomb explosions, four shooting scenes, and one 3-hour hostage-taking of several hundred people causing at least 130 deaths and more than 250 injured victims. Most unstable patients were transferred to the six trauma centers of the Paris area, all members of the TRAUMABASE Group. A rapid adaptation of the organization of trauma patients' admittance was required in all centers to face the particular needs of the situation. Everything went relatively well in all centers, with overall hospital mortality below 2 %. Nevertheless, most physicians nowadays agree that anticipation, teaching, and training are crucial to appropriately face such events. All of us have learned many additional issues from this experience. Following a meeting of the TRAUMABASE Group, the most relevant issues are detailed in the following.

  14. Les mauvais rêves. Une prison à Disneyland Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Genetelli, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Situé à 35 km de Paris, dans la nouvelle ville de Marne-La-Vallée, Disneyland Paris représente la première destination de loisirs d'Europe. L'implantation du “rongeur aux grande oreilles” ne s'est pas contentée d'établir un simple parc à thème, mais elle a cherché à imposer un cadre de vie sur toute une partie du territoire français, à travers un partenariat public-privé unique en France. De ce fait, nous nous retrouvons dans un “territoire-bulle” contrôlé par Disney. Tout y est propre, sécur...

  15. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms.

  16. Paris-Princeton lectures on mathematical finance 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Cousin, Areski; Guéant, Olivier; Hobson, David; Jeanblanc, Monique; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Laurent, Jean-Paul; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Tankov, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance, of which this is the fourth volume, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding specialists - established or on the rise! The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference source for research in the field. The articles are the result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by Areski Cousin, Monique Jeanblanc and Jean-Paul Laurent, Stéphane Crépey, Olivier Guéant, Jean-Michel Lasry and Pierre-Louis Lions, David Hobson, and Peter Tankov.

  17. DOCUMENTARY LETTER OF CREDIT IN THE REGULATION OF 600-PARIS PUBLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE NEMES

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2007 was adopted the Publication no. 600 of Paris regarding the Rules and the Uniform Practices for documentary letters of credit which replaced the Publication no. 500. Publication no. 600 (UCP 600 is applied to all the irrevocable documentary letters of credit when the parties make express reference to these Rules. The Publication no. 600 includes uniform rules, international practices and standards of irrevocable documentary letters of credit. The new Publication has brought a number of changes on the issues regarding the performance of the letters of credit, both in the relationship with the nonbanking institutions participants and in the relationship between the credit institutions participating in the performance of the letter of credit. This study, without being exhaustive, aims to capture the main aspects of novelty brought by the publication no. 600 and their legal approach to the new perspective of the international trade relations. It has in view, in particular, the irrevocable character of the letter of credit, the elaboration method and procedure of the letter of credit, the participants to the unfolding of the specific relationship of the letter of credit and the main duties of the involved credit institutions.

  18. Information literacy training in AgroParisTech food studies

    OpenAIRE

    Agnès Grimal; Florence Dubois-Brissonnet; Elisabeth Dumoulin

    2015-01-01

    AgroParisTech professors and librarians in Food Science and Technology have developed information literacy instruction to help students find and use relevant information. The course trains students to develop information literacy competencies: to identify the information needed and define its nature and extent; to access the information with efficiency because they select and use methods, resources and retrieval systems most appropriate to the topic; to evaluate the used methods, information,...

  19. Politica, pari opportunità e Human Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Biagioli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio presenta una riflessione sul percorso di consapevolezza dei diritti umani, per favorire la partecipazione delle donne e conferire loro piena cittadinanza. Il dibattito sulla condizione femminile e sulla violenza di genere, ha fatto propria la problematica della sicurezza umana come protezione di libertà vitali, stimolando i sistemi politici, il diritto internazionale e una cultura della pace e delle pari opportunità.

  20. Practical and theoretical problems of pasteur's experiment on rabies in 1880 Problemas prácticos y teóricos del experimento sobre la rabia en los años 1880

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Raichvarg

    1996-01-01

    Ethical aspects of scientific experimentation on human beings and the technical problems of rabies vaccination at the end of the XIX century are analyzed. The importance of such preventive practice one century ago Is emphasized, since rabies virus was unknown and the bases of modern immunology had not been set. The Influence of these experiments on the creation of the Pasteur Institute Is highlighted.

  1. Inhibition of food-related bacteria by antibacterial substances produced by Pseudomonas sp. strains isolated from pasteurized milk

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Beatriz Ferreira Rangel; Jean Thiago Alves Soares; Mariana Maciel Pereira; Bruna Rachel de Britto Peçanha; Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira Costa; Janaína dos Santos Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the production of antimicrobial substances by strains of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from pasteurized milk and their potential action against food-related bacteria were investigated. Samples of pasteurized milk were purchased from arbitrarily chosen commercial establishments in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Of the four samples analyzed, three presented several typical colonies of Pseudomonas. About 100 colonies were chosen and subjected to biochemical tests for confirmation o...

  2. Information literacy training in AgroParisTech food studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Grimal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AgroParisTech professors and librarians in Food Science and Technology have developed information literacy instruction to help students find and use relevant information. The course trains students to develop information literacy competencies: to identify the information needed and define its nature and extent; to access the information with efficiency because they select and use methods, resources and retrieval systems most appropriate to the topic; to evaluate the used methods, information, and sources; to search, access and use information ethically and legally; to read, use and write bibliographic references.AgroParisTech trains two kinds of students. For Higher Education students (engineering students, the training takes place at their arrival in AgroParisTech, including courses and practical classes: role and management of information in organizations; information on plagiarism; resources in environment, food science and technology; use of relevant tools and methods for searching in databases; reference writing.For students attending a Master of Science, the training prepares them to produce a literature review. The curriculum includes: information about scientific integrity, plagiarism; information needed for a researcher; critical reading of a journal article; how to manage a literature review: resources used, information search with databases, full text access; reference writing.The students will use these information literacy skills along their studies as well as in their future jobs.

  3. A thyrotoxicosis outbreak due to dietary pills in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ioos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Ioos1, Vincent Das1, Eric Maury1,2, Jean-Luc Baudel1, Jérôme Guéchot3, Bertrand Guidet1,2, Georges Offenstadt1,21Réanimation Médicale; 2Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, INSERM, UMR-S 707; 3Unité d’Hormonologie, APHP, Hôpital Saint Antoine, F-75012, Paris, FranceAbstract: Three women were consecutively admitted to our medical intensive care unit for thyrotoxicosis after the ingestion of dietary pills accidentally containing high levels of thyroxin. These cases were observed during an outbreak in the Paris area. Despite similar blood levels of thyroid hormones, their clinical presentation and outcome were very different. One patient developed febrile confusion and died from malignant hyperthermia. The second one had progressive confusion requiring mechanical plasma exchange therapy and had a favorable outcome. The third one had very moderate symptoms. These exceptional observations raise several issues concerning diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment of thyrotoxicosis factitia.Keywords: thyrotoxicosis, dietary pills, thyroxin

  4. PARIS to Hektor, A Mission to the Jovian Trojan Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, R. E.; Ensworth, C. B.; McNutt, R. L.; Ostdiek, P. H.; Prockter, L. M.

    2005-12-01

    PARIS (Planetary Access with Radioisotope Ion-drive System) spacecraft enable a new class of missions to the outer solar system. The high power-to-mass ratio of new radioisotope power systems enables New-Frontiers class missions that carry a significant a science payload to new destinations. The PARIS spacecraft take advantage of the high-efficiency of Stirling radioisotope generators (SRGs) or new thermoelectric converters to provide the power for an electric propulsion system. These low-thrust missions launched to a high C3 are especially effective for exploring objects in shallow gravity wells. The Jovian Trojan asteroids are very primitive bodies located near the Jovian L4 and L5 Lagrange points and are discussed as targets in the Solar System Decadal Survey. There are estimated to be more than 105 Jovian Trojans greater than 1 km in diameter. We consider a PARIS mission that can reach the asteroids in less than 5 years, orbit 624 Hektor, the largest of the Jovian Trojans, and go on to orbit at least one other nearby object. The candidate payload for this mission includes wide-field and narrow-field cameras, a UV-Vis-IR spectrograph, gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers, and plasma and energetic particle spectrometers. About 900 W of power are required. The launch mass would be slightly less than 1000 kg. The generation power sources with a specific power of > 8W/kg.

  5. The epileptic singers of belle époque Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Sallie; Marshall, Fiona

    2012-12-01

    In late 19th century Paris, people with epilepsy were treated alongside those with hysteria in the now famous Salpêtrière Hospital, where both conditions were deemed to have a neurological basis. When Jean Martin Charcot became chief physician at the Salpêtrière Hospital in 1862, he described himself 'in possession of a kind of museum of living pathology whose holdings were virtually inexhaustible'. He opened the doors of his 'living museum' and exhibited his prize specimens to all of Paris. By putting his patients on display, Charcot introduced a vogue for pathology that permeated well beyond the world of medical enquiry and into the public psyche and vernacular. Not only did Charcot's demonstrations provide the inspiration for high culture in the form of operas, plays and novels, they also provided the inspiration for the 'gommeuses epileptiques' (epileptic singers), who entertained the masses at the café concerts. This paper explores the foundations of our current medical approaches to mental illness and epilepsy, with a particular focus on the boundaries that emerged between hysteria and epilepsy in 19th century Paris. These clinical boundaries were both shaped by and reflected in the popular entertainments in the city.

  6. An overview of water disinfection in developing countries and the potential for solar thermal water pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Thomas, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    This study originated within the Solar Buildings Program at the U.S. Department of Energy. Its goal is to assess the potential for solar thermal water disinfection in developing countries. In order to assess solar thermal potential, the alternatives must be clearly understood and compared. The objectives of the study are to: (a) characterize the developing world disinfection needs and market; (b) identify competing technologies, both traditional and emerging; (c) analyze and characterize solar thermal pasteurization; (d) compare technologies on cost-effectiveness and appropriateness; and (e) identify research opportunities. Natural consequences of the study beyond these objectives include a broad knowledge of water disinfection problems and technologies, introduction of solar thermal pasteurization technologies to a broad audience, and general identification of disinfection opportunities for renewable technologies.

  7. Effect of pasteurization on the protein composition and oxidative stability of beer during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne N; Hoff, Signe; Berner, Torben S; Lametsch, René; Andersen, Mogens L

    2012-12-19

    The impacts of pasteurization of a lager beer on protein composition and the oxidative stability were studied during storage at 22 °C for 426 days in the dark. Pasteurization clearly improved the oxidative stability of beer determined by ESR spectroscopy, whereas it had a minor negative effect on the volatile profile by increasing volatile compounds that is generally associated with heat treatment and a loss of fruity ester aroma. A faster rate of radical formation in unpasteurized beer was consistent with a faster consumption of sulfite. Beer proteins in the unpasteurized beer were more degraded, most likely due to proteolytic enzyme activity of yeast remnants and more precipitation of proteins was also observed. The differences in soluble protein content and composition are suggested to result in differences in the contents of prooxidative metals as a consequence of the proteins ability to bind metals. This also contributes to the differences in oxidative stabilities of the beers.

  8. Bacteriological and shelf-life characteristics of canned, pasteurized crab cake mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaharanu, P; Lopez, A

    1970-05-01

    The bacteriological spoilage characteristics of a canned, pasteurized crab cake mix product stored at various temperatures were investigated. A large number of bacteria, both mesophilic and psychrophilic, survived the pasteurization process. Bacillus and Micrococcus were found to predominate when the product was stored at 30 C (86 F) and 18 C (64 F), whereas Alcaligenes predominated at 2 C (36 F). The product was found to be free of Escherichia coli. Bacterial counts, trimethylamine nitrogen, volatile reducing substances, and ammonia determinations were evaluated as indices of quality for the product. Close correlation was observed between bacterial counts, volatile reducing substance values, and organoleptic tests when the product was stored at 30 C (86 F). The shelf-life of the product was approximately 6 months at 2 C (36 F), 4 days at 18 C (64 F), and 27 hr at 30 C (86 F).

  9. Comparison of bioactive components in fresh, pressurized, pasteurized and sterilized pennywort (Centella asiatica L.) juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Chattong, Utaiwan; Chunthanom, Pornprapa

    2012-06-01

    The biologically active constituents of pennywort juice were analyzed by HPLC. The juice extract contained the bioactive glycosides, including asiaticoside and madecassoside. Antioxidant properties of juices were determined in terms of ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, total polyphenol, β-carotene and ascorbic acid contents. After processing, asiaticoside, madecassoside and β-carotene in the extracted juice were relatively stable with no significant losses occurring. Pressurization could significantly retain ascorbic acid, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity than those pasteurization or sterilization. For storage assessment, asiaticoside in the processed juices was relatively stable during 4 months storage. Losses of ascorbic acid in the pressurized juice during storage were greater than in pasteurized and sterilized juice. However, the total amount of ascorbic acid retained in pressurized juice was still higher than those thermal-treated products.

  10. Comparison of bioactive components in pressurized and pasteurized longan juices fortified with encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2012-06-01

    In this study, longan juice was subjected to a high pressure of 500 MPa for 30 min and compared with a juice pasteurized at 90°C/2 min. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei 01 was fortified into both juices and the shelf life of these products was studied. Their bioactive components such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid and ellagic acid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic compounds and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrythydrazyl radical-scavenging activity were determined by colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. It was found that the pressurized longan juice retained higher amounts of bioactive compounds than the pasteurized juice. In terms of storage stability, bioactive compounds in both processed juices decreased according to the increase in storage time. The survivability of probiotic L. casei 01 in both processed juices declined from 9 to 6 log CFU/mL after 4 weeks of storage.

  11. Glycolysis and respiration in yeasts. The Pasteur effect studied by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, D; Kristensen, B; Degn, H

    1983-06-15

    Simultaneous and continuous measurements of changes in CO2 and O2 concentrations in glucose-metabolizing yeast suspensions by mass spectrometry enabled a study of the Pasteur effect (aerobic inhibition of glycolysis) in Saccharomyces uvarum and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A different control mechanism operates in Candida utilis to give a damped oscillation after the anaerobic-aerobic transition. The apparent Km values for respiration of the three yeasts were in the range 1.3-1.8 microM-O2. The apparent Km values for O2 of the Pasteur effect were 5 and 13 microM for catabolite-repressed and derepressed S. uvarum respectively and 7 microM for Sch. pombe. These results are discussed with respect to currently accepted mechanisms for the control of glycolysis.

  12. Geological rally in the heart of Paris: How to find fossils in freestone buildings in Paris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalaine, Stéphanie

    2014-05-01

    As a teacher in earth sciences, my challenge was to practise geology in an urban area. At the end of the school year, I organized a geological rally next to the Natural History Museum in the heart of Paris. The rally provided the opportunity to apply geological notions mentioned in class, and or a day out to my 16 years-old pupils. Just before this original session, students worked on different sedimentary stones such as limestone, sandstone, gypsum, and "meulière". They studied the conditions for the deposit of sediments and they identified different fossils (i.e: Cerithes, Nummulites, Milioles) in order to build "paleobackgrounds". This rally was a mean to improve with entertainment their knowledge in geology, and to discover the stones of the Parisian basin and their use as building materials. The rally was organized as follows: the pupils were divided into 4 teams of 8 students. Each team got a paper with 23 riddles. Each riddle led to a geological spot in the route of the rally. To attest their passing at each geological point the pupils had to take a picture of the characteristic fossil or the typical mark of each spot. Each team had a different itinerary to avoid pupils to meet during the rally. In order to motivate pupils and to ensure their safety, one teacher went with each team. Each riddle led to a stage. This rally comprised 23 steps which were geological spots. In case of pupils did not solve the enigma of one stage; they could open an envelope in which a map indicated the 23 geological spots. This rally lasted 2 hours. The purpose of this game was to obtain the most points thanks to the resolution of riddles. Timing and the quality of the pictures were also criterions used to evaluate the participants. At the end of this rally, pupils must be able to identify sedimentary stones, the conditions and the age of deposit of this stones (paleobackgrounds), the location of their extractions (carries), the interest of this stones in construction industry

  13. Variabilité socio- écologique et résilience des Peuls pasteurs du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 mars 2012 ... du changement socio-économique, les Peuls pasteurs recourent à la mobilité ... qu'Edward Evans-Pritchard a énoncé les relations entre les Nuer et leurs bovins en ces ..... peuls soient intervenus après moi, l'affaire a altéré les rapports entre ... partage des bestiaux entre les ayants droit – est révélateur du ...

  14. Fault detection and diagnosis in a food pasteurization process with Hidden Markov Models

    OpenAIRE

    Tokatlı, Figen; Cinar, Ali

    2004-01-01

    Hidden Markov Models (HMM) are used to detect abnormal operation of dynamic processes and diagnose sensor and actuator faults. The method is illustrated by monitoring the operation of a pasteurization plant and diagnosing causes of abnormal operation. Process data collected under the influence of faults of different magnitude and duration in sensors and actuators are used to illustrate the use of HMM in the detection and diagnosis of process faults. Case studies with experimental data from a ...

  15. Microbiological quality of retail cheeses made from raw, thermized or pasteurized milk in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Rhoades, J R; Sagoo, S K; Harris, J; Greenwood, M; Mithani, V; Grant, K; McLauchlin, J

    2008-04-01

    Two studies of retail fresh, ripened and semi-hard cheeses made from raw, thermized or pasteurized milk were undertaken in the UK during 2004 and 2005 to determine the microbiological quality of these products. Using microbiological criteria in European Commission Recommendations 2004/24/EC and 2005/175/EC, 2% of both raw, thermized (37/1819 samples) and pasteurized (51/2618 samples) milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality. Raw or thermized milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality due to levels of Staphylococcus aureus at 10(4)cfu g(-1), Escherichia coli at 10(5)cfu g(-1), and/or Listeria monocytogenes at 10(2)cfu g(-1), whereas pasteurized milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality due to S. aureus at 10(3)cfu g(-1) and/or E. coli at 10(3)cfu g(-1). Salmonella was not detected in any samples. Cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality more frequently when sampled from premises rated as having little or no confidence in management and control systems, and stored/displayed at above 8 degrees C. Raw or thermized milk cheeses were also more likely to be of unsatisfactory quality when they were unripened types, and pasteurized milk cheeses when they were: semi-hard types; from specialist cheese shops or delicatessens; cut to order. These results emphasize the need for applying and maintaining good hygiene practices throughout the food chain to prevent contamination and/or bacterial growth. Labelling of cheeses with clear information on whether the cheese was prepared from raw milk also requires improvement.

  16. Utilization of chitosan as an antimicrobial agent for pasteurized palm sap (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naknean, Phisut; Jutasukosol, Keawta; Mankit, Theerarat

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the potential of chitosan for improvement the quality of pasteurized palm sap during storage. First, the effect of chitosan content on sensory attributes was investigated to select suitable concentration of chitosan for further study. Fresh palm sap was enriched with chitosan at various concentrations (0-2 g/L) and pasteurized at 80 °C for 10 min, consequently evaluated by consumers. It was found that samples added chitosan in the range of 0-1.00 g/L were considered acceptable. Thus, the addition chitosan in the concentration of 0-1.00 g/L was chosen for further study. The sample without chitosan addition was used as a control sample. Each selected sample was determined for their qualities during storage at 1 week interval. It was found that lightness and transmittance values of all samples tended to increase during storage. Lower PPO and invertase activity were observed in all chitosan-treated samples compared to control sample. Chitosan could minimize the loss of sucrose and the increase in glucose and fructose content during storage. In addition, an increase in chitosan concentration resulted in the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, the addition of chitosan could retard the development of microorganism during storage as demonstrated by lower microbial loads compared to control sample. It can be concluded that a combination of pasteurization with chitosan addition (0.50 g/L) and low temperature storage could preserve palm sap for approximately 6 weeks. Thus, the incorporation of chitosan in palm sap could be used as an alternative way to extend shelf life of pasteurized palm sap.

  17. Negative Emissions Technologies, the Paris Agreement, and the Need for a Human-Rights Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. C. G.

    2016-12-01

    The new Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contemplates that its prospective Parties will balance emissions and sinks by 2050 as a means to effectuate the goal of holding temperature increases to well below 2°C from pre-industrial levels, as well as the more aspirational goal of holding temperature increases to 1.5°C. Most of the IPCC's AR5 scenarios that achieve these objectives contemplate the large-scale deployment of so-called "negative emissions technologies," with an emphasis on bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (BECCS), and to a lesser degree afforestation. BECCS could assuredly help society avoid passing critical climatic thresholds, or address overshoot scenarios in this century and beyond. However, it could also profound implications for food production, the status of forests, access to lands for livelihoods by vulnerable populations, and the integrity of critical ecosystems. This, in turn could have serious ramifications for human rights of some of the world's most vulnerable populations, including the rights to food, water, livelihoods and the benefits of biodiversity. The Preamble to the Paris Agreement acknowledges the need to take into consideration the potential impact of responses to climate change, providing that "Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights." This presentation will outline how application of a human rights-based approach to assessing such options could help to reconcile the objectives of ameliorating potential climatic impacts while protecting the human rights of potentially affected individuals and groups. This will include the potential role of Human Rights Impacts Assessments and potential configuration of HRIAs at the national and international level. It will also briefly suggest how to operationalize this approach within the Paris Agreement framework, including institutional

  18. Evolution of microbiological and physico-chemical quality of pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gonzaga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is defined, among other parameters, by a reduced number of spoilage microorganisms, low somatic cell count and the absence of pathogens and chemical waste. Several studies conducted in different regions of the country have emphasized the high percentage of samples not complying with the standard. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evolution of microbiological and physicochemical quality of pasteurized milk produced in the State of Paraná over 7 years. A total of 457 samples of pasteurized milk were analyzed, 104 samples in 2008, 269 samples in 2011 and 84 samples in 2014. The samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis of cryoscopy and enzyme search for alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase. Regarding microbiological tests, coliform counts were performed at 30°C and 45°C and count plate pattern. In the laboratory, physicochemical analysis were performed according to the Normative 68 and microbiological as normative instruction 62, both of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. The results showed that over the years the microbiological quality of milk decreased, with an increase of non-standard samples. For enzymes alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, the pasteurization temperature has been observed over time and the overheating of the milk was more frequent in 2011. Fraud by addition of water in milk has either decreased or become more sophisticated, making its detection difficult.

  19. Iodine in raw and pasteurized milk of dairy cows fed different amounts of potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzian, M A

    2011-02-01

    Relation between iodine (I) intake by lactating Holstein cows and iodine concentrations in raw and pasteurized milk were investigated. Four treatment groups with eight cows assigned to each treatment were fed a basal diet containing 0.534 mg I/kg alone or supplemented with potassium iodide at 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg in 7-week period. Iodine concentrations in raw milk increased with each increase in dietary I from 162.2 ng/ml for basal diet to 534.5, 559.8 and 607.5 ng/ml when 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg was fed as potassium iodide (P < 0.05). This trend was found for blood plasma and urine iodine concentration. Iodine supplementation had no significant effect on thyroidal hormones. high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization process reduced I concentration. The mean iodine content found in the milk prior to heating processing was 466.0 ± 205.0 ng/ml, whereas for the processed milk this level was 349.5 ± 172.8 ng/ml. It was concluded that iodine supplementation above of NRC recommendation (0.5 mg/kg diet DM) resulted in significant increases in iodine concentrations in milk, although the effect of heating in HTST pasteurization process on iodine concentration was not negligible.

  20. Effect of high pressure pasteurization on bacterial load and bioactivity of Echinacea purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Min; Hu, Chun; Raghubeer, Errol; Kitts, David D

    2010-09-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology was applied to organic Echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea) roots and flowers to determine the feasibility of using this technology for cold herb pasteurization, to produce microbiologically safe and shelf-stable products for the natural health products (NHPs) industry. HHP significantly (P purpurea methanol-derived extracts, evaluated in both chemical (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) [ABTS] and oxygen radical absorption capacity [ORAC] assay) and in cell culture models (RAW264, 7 macrophage, H(2)O(2)-induced intracellular oxidation, and lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-induced nitric oxide production), was not adversely affected by the application of HHP at both 2 and 5 min at 600 mPa. Furthermore, HHP did not affect the capacity of E. purpurea extracts to suppress nitric oxide production in LPS-activated macrophage cells. Therefore, our results show that HHP is an effective pasteurization process treatment to reduce microbial-contamination load while not adversely altering chemical and bioactive function of active constituents present in organic E. purpurea. Our study reports for the first time, the effectiveness of using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology pressure to pasteurize E. purpurea root and flower, and the comparative retention of bioactive phytochemicals. Therefore, this technique can be used in food and natural health product industries to produce high-quality, microbiologically safe, and shelf-stable products.

  1. Effect on orange juice of batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquanta, L; Albanese, D; Cuccurullo, G; Di Matteo, M

    2010-01-01

    The effects on orange juice batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave (MW) oven was evaluated by monitoring pectin methyl-esterase (PME) activity, color, carotenoid compounds and vitamin C content. Trials were performed on stirred orange juice heated at different temperatures (60, 70, 75, and 85 degrees C) during batch process. MW pilot plant allowed real-time temperature control of samples using proportional integrative derivative (PID) techniques based on the infrared thermography temperature read-out. The inactivation of heat sensitive fraction of PME, that verifies orange juice pasteurization, showed a z-value of 22.1 degrees C. Carotenoid content, responsible for sensorial and nutritional quality in fresh juices, decreased by about 13% after MW pasteurization at 70 degrees C for 1 min. Total of 7 carotenoid compounds were quantified during MW heating: zeaxanthin and beta-carotene content decreased by about 26%, while no differences (P < 0.05) were found for beta-cryptoxanthin in the same trial. A slight decrease in vitamin C content was monitored after MW heating. Results showed that MW heating with a fine temperature control could result in promising stabilization treatments.

  2. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of purple-rice drinks following ultrahigh pressure and pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worametrachanon, Srivilai; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how pressure (500, 600 MPa/20 min) altered the viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of germinated and non-germinated purple-rice drinks in comparison with pasteurization. Accordingly, color parameters, storage and loss moduli, anthocyanin content, γ-oryzanol, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), total phenolic compounds and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylthydrazyl (DPPH) capacity of the processed drinks were determined. The finding showed that germinated and pressurized rice drink had lower Browning Index than the non-germinated and pasteurized rice drink. The plots of storage and loss moduli for processed rice drinks indicated that time of pressurization had greater impact on gel structural modification than the level of pressure used. The phytochemicals, including total phenolics, and DPPH capacity in pressurized rice drinks retained higher quantity than those in pasteurized drink, despite less treatment effects on anthocyanin. On the contrary, both γ-oryzanol and GABA were found in high amounts in germinated rice drink with little variation among processing effects.

  4. Simultaneous pasteurization and homogenization of human milk by combining heat and ultrasound: effect on milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czank, Charles; Simmer, Karen; Hartmann, Peter E

    2010-05-01

    The combination of ultrasound and heat (thermoultrasound) is an emerging food preservation technique that retains higher quantities of bioactive components compared with current thermal pasteurization practice, but has not yet been assessed for pasteurizing human milk. Artificially contaminated human milk samples were treated with ultrasound (20 kHz, 150 watts) with and without heating. The retention of four human milk proteins was quantified by biochemical assay and laser scattering particle sizing was used to determine the extent of homogenization. While ultrasonic treatment was effective at inactivating Escherichia coli (D4 degrees C=5.94 min), Staphylococcus epidermidis exhibited resistance (D4 degrees C=16.01 min). Thermoultrasonic treatment was considerably more effective (Esch. coli D45 degrees C=1.74 min, D50 degrees C=0.89 min; Staph. epidermidis D45 degrees C=2.08 min, D50 degrees C=0.94 minutes) with a predicted retention (2.8 min treatment, 50 degrees C) of secretory IgA lysozyme, lactoferrin and bile salt stimulated lipase of 91, 80, 77, and 45%, respectively. Homogenization of the milk samples occurred after 5 min and 2 min of ultrasonic and thermoultrasonic treatment, respectively. Thermoultrasonic treatment is an effective method for pasteurizing donor human milk and retaining a greater proportion of bioactive components compared with current practices. However, further studies are required to assess the practicality of applying this technique routinely to donor human milk.

  5. Human Milk Composition and Preservation: Evaluation of High-pressure Processing as a Nonthermal Pasteurization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sílvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components, and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health Organization, as it is a better alternative than infant formula. However, because of the manner in which donor milk is handled in human milk banks (HMB) many of the properties ascribed to mother's own milk are diminished or destroyed. The major process responsible for these losses is Holder pasteurization. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a novel nonthermal pasteurization technology that is being increasingly applied in food industries worldwide, primarily as an alternative to thermal treatment. This is due to its capacity to inactivate microorganisms while preserving both nutritional and bioactive components of foods. This review describes human milk composition and preservation, and critically discusses HMB importance and practices, highlighting HPP as a potential nonthermal pasteurization technology for human milk preservation. HPP technology is described and the few currently existing studies of its effects in human milk are presented.

  6. Predicting the Quality of Pasteurized Vegetables Using Kinetic Models: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Ovissipour, Mahmoudreza; Sablani, Shyam S; Rasco, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    A resurgence in interest examining thermal pasteurization technologies has been driven by demands for "cleaner" labeling and the need of organic and natural foods markets for suitable preventive measures to impede microbial growth and extend shelf life of minimally processed foods and ready-to-eat foods with a concomitant reduction in the use of chemical preservatives. This review describes the effects of thermal pasteurization on vegetable quality attributes including altering flavor and texture to improve consumer acceptability, stabilizing color, improving digestibility, palatability and retaining bioavailability of important nutrients, and bioactive compounds. Here, we provide kinetic parameters for inactivation of viral and bacterial pathogens and their surrogates and marker enzymes used to monitor process effectiveness in a variety of plant food items. Data on thermal processing protocols leading to higher retention and bioactivity are also presented. Thermal inactivation of foodborne viruses and pathogenic bacteria, specifically at lower pasteurization temperatures or via new technologies such as dielectric heating, can lead to greater retention of "fresh-like" properties.

  7. Isolation and serological identification of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in pasteurized milk in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraide N da Silva

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of pasteurized milk commercialized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and determine serologically enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC strains in E. coli isolates obtained from milk samples. METHODS: Ninety samples of pasteurized milk -- types B and C -- of three different commercial brands, purchased in supermarkets and bakeries in Rio de Janeiro, were examined. The amount of total and fecal coliform bacteria was estimated using the Most Probable Number technique. Mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and thermoduric microorganism counts were determined by the Standard Plate Count technique. Isolation and identification of E. coli were carried out using conventional physiological tests. Commercial antisera were used for serological characterization of EPEC. RESULTS: The three milk brands analyzed revealed bacterial counts above the regulated values of the Brazilian government. It was found that among 208 strains of E. coli isolated, 46 (22.1% were serologically classified as EPEC. The most common EPEC serogroup was O55 (15.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Though recent studies on virulence factors indicate that not all strains serologically classified as EPEC are able to attaching/effacing lesion, it is believed that the isolation of EPEC serogroups from pasteurized milk represent a potential risk for children, as well as an indicative of the presence of other enteropathogens.

  8. Isolation and serological identification of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in pasteurized milk in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Zoraide N da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbiological quality of pasteurized milk commercialized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and determine serologically enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC strains in E. coli isolates obtained from milk samples. METHODS: Ninety samples of pasteurized milk -- types B and C -- of three different commercial brands, purchased in supermarkets and bakeries in Rio de Janeiro, were examined. The amount of total and fecal coliform bacteria was estimated using the Most Probable Number technique. Mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and thermoduric microorganism counts were determined by the Standard Plate Count technique. Isolation and identification of E. coli were carried out using conventional physiological tests. Commercial antisera were used for serological characterization of EPEC. RESULTS: The three milk brands analyzed revealed bacterial counts above the regulated values of the Brazilian government. It was found that among 208 strains of E. coli isolated, 46 (22.1% were serologically classified as EPEC. The most common EPEC serogroup was O55 (15.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Though recent studies on virulence factors indicate that not all strains serologically classified as EPEC are able to attaching/effacing lesion, it is believed that the isolation of EPEC serogroups from pasteurized milk represent a potential risk for children, as well as an indicative of the presence of other enteropathogens.

  9. EFFECT OF PASTEURIZATION TEMPERATURE AND ASEPTIC FILLING ON THE SHELF-LIFE OF MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues PETRUS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aseptic filling process can contribute to extend the shelf-life of pasteurized milk. However, this technology is not still commercially practiced in Brazil for this product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the pasteurization temperature and aseptic filling on the stability of milk packaged in high density polyethylene bottle (HDPE. Three batches of one hundred bottles each were processed at 72, 83, and 94ºC/15s, followed by aseptic packaging and storage at 9ºC, simulating a deficient cold chain scenario as found in the Brazilian market. Microbiological stability evaluation was based on mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts. Sensory shelf-life was estimated according to the ratings assigned to the attributes appearance, aroma, flavor and overall appreciation of milk samples. The pasteurization temperature, in the range investigated, did not affect the shelf-life of milk, which lasted up to 11 days for the three processed batches. The aseptic filling, associated to the employed thermal treatments, did not extend the shelf-life of milk stored under the abuse condition of 9°C, considering that the commercial product shelf-life in Brazil is of about 10 days.

  10. Predicting the Quality of Pasteurized Vegetables Using Kinetic Models: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A resurgence in interest examining thermal pasteurization technologies has been driven by demands for “cleaner” labeling and the need of organic and natural foods markets for suitable preventive measures to impede microbial growth and extend shelf life of minimally processed foods and ready-to-eat foods with a concomitant reduction in the use of chemical preservatives. This review describes the effects of thermal pasteurization on vegetable quality attributes including altering flavor and texture to improve consumer acceptability, stabilizing color, improving digestibility, palatability and retaining bioavailability of important nutrients, and bioactive compounds. Here, we provide kinetic parameters for inactivation of viral and bacterial pathogens and their surrogates and marker enzymes used to monitor process effectiveness in a variety of plant food items. Data on thermal processing protocols leading to higher retention and bioactivity are also presented. Thermal inactivation of foodborne viruses and pathogenic bacteria, specifically at lower pasteurization temperatures or via new technologies such as dielectric heating, can lead to greater retention of “fresh-like” properties.

  11. Géochimie organique du bassin de Paris Organic Geochemistry of the Paris Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espitalie J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente ici les principaux résultats de l'étude géochimique réalisée, dans le bassin de Paris, à partir des déblais et des carottes provenant de 100 sondages pétroliers ou miniers, et des huiles prélevées dans les réservoirs du Mésozoïque (Trias, Bathonien supérieur, Néocomien. Les différentes méthodes géochimiques utilisées sont la pyrolyse, particulièrement bien adaptée à l'étude des nombreux échantillons de déblais recueillis, la chromatographie en phase gazeuse pour l'analyse détaillée des huiles et des extraits de roche, la spectrométrie de masse pour l'étude des biomarqueurs. Les époques principales de formation de l'huile et du gaz ont été déterminées par simulation sur ordinateur d'un modèle mathématique de genèse des hydrocarbures. Les méthodes de pyrolyse ont permis de dresser des logs géochimiques des forages étudiés et de déterminer, par le calcul, les paramètres de pyrolyse initiaux des roches-mères, avant leur enfouissement. On a pu ainsi établir, dans le périmètre étudié, des cartes de carbone organique initial, de potentiels pétroliers totaux et de quantités d'HC migrés. L'ensemble de ces résultats montre que les roches-mères de la grande majorité des huiles du Mésozoïque sont situées dans le Lias, s'échelonnant depuis le Toarcien jusqu'à l'Hettangien et que les meilleures zones de potentiel pétrolier du Bassin sont localisées à l'emplacement des régions de forte subsidence à l'époque du Lias. L'étude détaillée des hydrocarbures et celle des biomarqueurs ne permettent pas de distinguer les différentes huiles entre elles, quelle que soit leur profondeur, ni de leur attribuer une origine précise à partir des différents niveaux du Lias. Les cartes de migration mettent en évidence des déplacements latéraux des hydrocarbures dans certaines roches-mères (cas du Toarcien inférieur. Elles montrent aussi un déficit important en hydrocarbures à la base du

  12. Surveys, Fields, and Collections in the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive at PARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, J. D.; Castelaz, M. W.; Barker, T.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse set of photometric, astrometric, spectral and surface brightness data exist on more than 100 years of photographic glass plates. About 20 percent of the plates in North America are located in the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI). APDA was established in November 2007 and is dedicated to the task of collecting, restoring, preserving and storing astronomical photographic data and PARI continues to accept collections. APDA is also tasked with scanning each image and establishing a database of images that can be accessed via the Internet by the global community of scientists, researchers and students. APDA is a new type of astronomical observatory - one that harnesses analog data of the night sky taken for more than a century and making that data available in a digital format. APDA currently has 50 collections with more than 250,000 plates taken for QSO identification, parallax measurements, spectral classification and monitoring, Magellanic Cloud studies, H-alpha emission star surveys, novae evolution, and astrometry of asteroids, outer planet satellites and Pluto. Some examples of collections include the complete set of the Henize H-alpha Southern Survey plates taken between 1949 and 1952 (Henize 1954, AJ, 59, 325), the Case Western Objective Prism All Sky Survey from 1958-1976 (e.g. Pesch, Sanduleak, and Stephenson 1996, ApJS, 103, 513), and QSO Survey from 1980 to 1991 (e.g. Pesch and Stephenson 1983, ApJS, 51, 171). We feature the contents of the APDA collections to provide the opportunity to the astronomical community to advance new and established areas of study.

  13. Highly time-resolved trace element concentrations in aerosols during the Megapoli Paris campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furger, Markus; Visser, Suzanne; Slowik, Jay G.; Crippa, Monica; Poulain, Laurent; Appel, Karen; Flechsig, Uwe; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements contribute typically only a few percent to the total mass of air pollutants, however, they can affect the environment in significant ways, especially those that are toxic. Furthermore, they are advantageous with respect to a refinement of source apportionment when measured with high time resolution and appropriate size segregation. This approach is especially advantageous in an urban environment with numerous time-variant emission sources distributed across a relatively narrow space, as is typically the setting of a megacity. Two 1-month long field campaigns took place in the framework of the Megapoli project in Paris, France, in the summer of 2009 and in the winter of 2010. Rotating drum impactors (RDI) were operated at two sites in each campaign, one urban, the other one suburban. The RDI segregated the aerosols into three size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1 and PM1-0.1) and sampled with 2-hour time resolution. The samples were analyzed with synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) at the synchrotron facilities of Paul Scherrer Institute (SLS) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (HASYLAB), where a broad range of elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Zr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Pb) was analyzed for each size range. Time series of the analyzed elements for the different sites and campaigns were prepared to characterize the aerosol trace element composition and temporal behavior for the different weather situations and urban environments. They allow for the distinction of regional vs. local sources and transport, and provide a basis for source apportionment calculations. Local and regional contributions of traffic, including re-suspension, break wear and exhaust, wood burning, marine and other sources will be discussed. Indications of long-range transport from Polish coal emissions in the city center of Paris were also found.

  14. Atmospheric trace element concentrations in total suspended particles near Paris, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; Senhou, Abderrahmane; Moskura, Mélanie; Gaudry, André

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate today's trace element atmospheric concentrations in large urban areas, an atmospheric survey was carried out for 18 months, from March 2002 to September 2003, in Saclay, nearby Paris. The total suspended particulate matter (TSP) was collected continuously on quartz fibre filters. The TSP contents were determined for 36 elements (including Ag, Bi, Mo and Sb) using two analytical methods: Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measured concentrations were in agreement within the uncertainties with the certified values for the polycarbonate reference material filter SRM-2783 (National Institute for Standard Technology NIST, USA). The measured concentrations were significantly lower than the recommended atmospheric concentrations. In 2003, the Pb atmospheric level at Saclay was 15 ng/m 3, compared to the 500 ng/m 3 guideline level and to the 200 ng/m 3 observed value in 1994. The typical urban background TSP values of 1-2, 0.2-1, 4-6, 10-30 and 3-5 ng/m 3 for As, Co, Cr, Cu and Sb, respectively, were inferred from this study and were compared with the literature data. The typical urban background TSP concentrations could not be realised for Cd, Pb and Zn, since these air concentrations are highly influenced by local features. The Zn concentrations and Zn/Pb ratio observed in Saclay represented a characteristic fingerprint of the exceptionally large extent of zinc-made roofs in Paris and its suburbs. The traffic-related origin of Ba, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sb was demonstrated, while the atmospheric source(s) of Ag was not identified.

  15. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, Shahin, E-mail: shahinrafiee@ut.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshnevisan, Benyamin, E-mail: b_khoshnevisan@ut.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Environmental Specialist Research Team (ESRTeam), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Musazadeh, Hossein [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Clark, Sean [Agriculture and Natural Resources Program, Berea College, Berea, KY (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000 kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457 kg CO{sub 2,eq}. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. - Highlights: • Environmental aspects of milk production in Iran were investigated using LCA. • Feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory were taken into account. • Feed production stage was

  16. Effect of homogenization and pasteurization on the structure and stability of whey protein in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Phoebe X; Ren, Daxi; Xiao, Yingping; Tomasula, Peggy M

    2015-05-01

    The effect of homogenization alone or in combination with high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization or UHT processing on the whey fraction of milk was investigated using highly sensitive spectroscopic techniques. In pilot plant trials, 1-L quantities of whole milk were homogenized in a 2-stage homogenizer at 35°C (6.9 MPa/10.3 MPa) and, along with skim milk, were subjected to HTST pasteurization (72°C for 15 s) or UHT processing (135°C for 2 s). Other whole milk samples were processed using homogenization followed by either HTST pasteurization or UHT processing. The processed skim and whole milk samples were centrifuged further to remove fat and then acidified to pH 4.6 to isolate the corresponding whey fractions, and centrifuged again. The whey fractions were then purified using dialysis and investigated using the circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared, and Trp intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Results demonstrated that homogenization combined with UHT processing of milk caused not only changes in protein composition but also significant secondary structural loss, particularly in the amounts of apparent antiparallel β-sheet and α-helix, as well as diminished tertiary structural contact. In both cases of homogenization alone and followed by HTST treatments, neither caused appreciable chemical changes, nor remarkable secondary structural reduction. But disruption was evident in the tertiary structural environment of the whey proteins due to homogenization of whole milk as shown by both the near-UV circular dichroism and Trp intrinsic fluorescence. In-depth structural stability analyses revealed that even though processing of milk imposed little impairment on the secondary structural stability, the tertiary structural stability of whey protein was altered significantly. The following order was derived based on these studies: raw whole>HTST, homogenized, homogenized and pasteurized>skimmed and pasteurized, and skimmed UHT

  17. Real-Time PCR Detection of Paenibacillus spp. in Raw Milk To Predict Shelf Life Performance of Pasteurized Fluid Milk Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ranieri, Matthew L.; Ivy, Reid A.; Mitchell, W. Robert; Call, Emma; Masiello, Stephanie N.; Wiedmann, Martin; Kathryn J Boor

    2012-01-01

    Psychrotolerant sporeformers, specifically Paenibacillus spp., are important spoilage bacteria for pasteurized, refrigerated foods such as fluid milk. While Paenibacillus spp. have been isolated from farm environments, raw milk, processing plant environments, and pasteurized fluid milk, no information on the number of Paenibacillus spp. that need to be present in raw milk to cause pasteurized milk spoilage was available. A real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was designed to detect...

  18. Efficacy of Various Pasteurization Time-Temperature Conditions in Combination with Homogenization on Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Irene R.; Williams, Alan G.; Rowe, Michael T.; Muir, D. Donald

    2005-01-01

    The effect of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions with and without homogenization on the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was investigated using a pilot-scale commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurizer and raw milk spiked with 101 to 105 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells/ml. Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from 27 (3.3%) of 816 pasteurized milk samples overall, 5 on Herrold's egg yolk medium and 22 by BACTEC cult...

  19. On the linear span of the p-ary cascaded GMW sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG XiaoHu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a recursion is derived to compute the linear span of the p-ary cascaded GMW sequences. It is the first time to determine the linear span of the p-ary cascaded GMW sequence without any restriction on the parameters completely. Whereas, the known result on the p-ary cascaded GMW sequence with the specific parameters in the literature could be viewed as a special case of the new result.

  20. INSTITUTIONALISM AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS: CURRENT STATE OF THE ART AND POSITION OF FRENCH RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolande Marciniak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The various currents of institutionalism are used in management science, particularly in the area of information systems. Richard Scott's global model is a fertile framework for the analysis of institutional research. First, we will study the contributions of French research to institutionalism. Then, returning to the fundamentals of information systems (IS, we will show that the interaction between institutions and IS can be analysed via the notion of formal and informal rules. Research carried out at the University of Paris

  1. Short communication: Influence of pasteurization on the active compounds in medicinal plants to be used in dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna Katharina; Saaby, Lasse; Kudsk, Dorte Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    Interest from the dairy industry in adding herbal drugs to milk and yogurt products raises the question of whether these plant materials can be pasteurized. Root material of Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Panax ginseng, all plants with adaptogenic activities, was pasteurized....... The content of active compounds in the root material before and after pasteurization was quantified by HPLC analysis. The results show that the eleutherosides in E. senticosus, and to an extent the ginsenosides from P. ginseng, could withstand pasteurization, whereas salidroside and rosavin from R. rosea did...

  2. [DNA barcoding the medicinal plants of the genus Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying-jie; Chen, Shi-lin; Yao, Hui; Tan, Rui; Song, Jing-yuan; Luo, Kun; Lu, Jing

    2010-03-01

    DNA barcoding is a technique in which species identification and discovery are performed by using short and standard fragments of DNA sequences. In this study, eleven species of Paris, including seven varieties, were sampled. Five chloroplast sequences, psbA-trnH, rpoB, rpoC1, rbcL, matK, and one nuclear marker, the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA, were amplified and sequenced. The PCR amplification and sequencing efficiency, intra- and inter-specific divergence and barcoding gap were used to evaluate different loci, and the identification efficiency was assessed using BLAST1 and Nearest Distance methods. The ITS2 sequences in the studied samples of Paris were amplified and sequenced successfully using primers designed by our group, while matK showed low level in the amplification and psbA-trnH was difficult for sequencing because of over 800 bp and poly (A) structure. Analysis of the intra- and inter-specific divergence and barcoding gap showed ITS2 was superior to other loci. The ITS2 showed a much higher percentage of success (100%) in identification than other five loci, none of which indicated more than 50% except matK (52.9%). The 2-locus combination of rbcL+matK didn't improve ability of authentication. In addition, the rate of successful identification with ITS2 kept 100% when the samples were expanded to 67 samples of 29 species. In conclusion, ITS2 can be used to correctly identify medicinal plants of Paris, and it will be a potential DNA barcode for identifying medicinal plants of other taxa.

  3. A Library in the Grands Moulins de Paris: challenging Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tresson

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the University of Paris 7 and its new Main Library will move to Paris Rive Gauche, a recently developed neighbourhood on the left bank of the Seine. The library will occupy most of the city’s former industrial mills, the Grands Moulins de Paris. As part of the project, the library developed a very detailed functional program. The facilities are expected to comprise 1,800 workstations (half of which will be computerized, and upon completion will have a capacity of 300,000 freely accessible documents and 350,000 documents in store over a total surface area of some 12,000 m2. The architect Rudy Ricciotti won the international competition to design the library held in 2001. Perfectly suited to its function, the industrial building in which the library is housed dates from the 1920s. It presents both advantages (vast surfaces, sufficient load-bearing capacity, natural light, etc. and obstacles (restrictions on free circulation, forests of columns in certain areas, interrupted spaces, etc. to being transformed into a library that is functional and adapted to its purposes. The building’s structure and the constraints it imposed profoundly influenced the program which had to be adjusted, and also affected other aspects, including the arrangement and features of the furnishings as well as the building’s system of signs. In agreement with the university, the library worked in close collaboration with the architect from the earliest sketches onwards. As a result, his initial plan also evolved considerably. The installation of the library in the Grands Moulins offers us a chance to observe the nature and effects of the interactions between the transformation of a building and the evolution of a program.

  4. La Salpêtrière de Paris sous l’Ancien Régime : lieu d’exclusion et de punition pour femmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Carrez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A son ouverture, en 1656, la Salpêtrière de Paris s’impose comme le plus grand établissement d’enfermement de femmes à l’époque moderne. Cet article expose les conditions de naissance de cette institution jusqu’à sa transformation en hôpital pour le traitement de la folie durant la période révolutionnaire. 1. Les originesLes premières traces de répression de la pauvreté à Paris sont anciennes. Dès 1350, une ordonnance royale ordonne « que les pauvres valides fuient la ville et fauxbourgs de P...

  5. 5th Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Benth, Fred Espen; Guasoni, Paolo; Manolarakis, Konstantinos; Muhle-Karbe, Johannes; Nee, Colm; Protter, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The current volume presents four chapters touching on some of the most important and modern areas of research in Mathematical Finance: asset price bubbles (by Philip Protter); energy markets (by Fred Espen Benth); investment under transaction costs (by Paolo Guasoni and Johannes Muhle-Karbe); and numerical methods for solving stochastic equations (by Dan Crisan, K. Manolarakis and C. Nee).The Paris-Princeton Lecture Notes on Mathematical Finance, of which this is the fifth volume, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from renowned specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference source for research in the field.

  6. Numerical simulation of meteorological conditions for peak pollution in Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carissimo, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-06-01

    Results obtained on the simulation of meteorological conditions during two episodes of peak pollution in Paris are presented, one in the winter, the other in the summer. The A3UR air quality modelling system is first described followed by the MERCURE mesoscale meteorological model. The conditions of simulation are described. The results obtained on these two causes show satisfactory agreement, for example on the magnitude of the urban heat island which is correctly reproduced. In this study, several areas of progress have been identified: improvement of the altitude measurement network around cities, the simulation of light wind conditions and the simulation of formation and dissipation of fog. (author) 24 refs.

  7. Acts of terrorism in Paris and Brussels: common and different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the common and distinctive features of the terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels in 2015 and 2016. The attacks have confirmed the weakness of European security system in the context of the protection of its citizens from the threat № 1 in the world. The high level of democracy and liberalism are not allowed to use power instruments effectively in the fight against terrorism, which was the result of the fact that the terrorists were able to freely access to the place of their acts and to implement them. It was determined that the common features are the following: in Paris and in Brussels, the attacks were carried out by terrorist militaristic group «The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant» (ISIL; the places of commission of terrorist acts; guns of terrorists; military units of France and Belgium are parties of the armed conflict in Syria on the side of the Syrian opposition and struggle against ISIL; there were a few terrorist attacks. It is proved that the differences are as follows: in Paris, in addition to explosives, packed with nails, also were used automatic weapons and grenades, but only explosives in Brussels; France is more active in the fight against terrorism in the international arena and in every way opposed to violence against humanity, so there is a terrorist attack can be seen as a blow to the democratic and humanitarian values; Belgium is a «political heart» of the European Union that’s why the terrorist attack on it can be seen as a blow to the political system of the EU; in Paris, the attack was supposed to apply except for the population and for high officials in the name of F. Hollande and F. Steinmeier, and in Brussels – only civilians.conducting effective public diplomacy by means of virtual diplomacy. In the context of the establishment of the global information society the key target groups must be: Diasporas, foreign media (including bloggers, investors, influential foreign

  8. Paris, Moscow, and “Europe out of the EU”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perchoc Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the presidencies of Nicolas Sarkozy and François Hollande, the French diplomats were keen to strengthen the partnership between Paris and Moscow as it served French interests on the international stage. In this context, this article demonstrates that Eastern-Central Europe (Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the Caucasus is of secondary interest for French diplomacy, unless it provides an opportunity to highlight Paris’ role in international affairs. The Georgian war in 2008, the Mistral issue, and the Ukraine crises are several good illustrations of this phenomenon.

  9. Walter Benjamin e Paris: individualidade e trabalho intelectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ortiz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma leitura do texto de Walter Benjamin Paris capital do século XIX. A partir do conjunto de anotações que Benjamin faz de diversos livros consultados, principalmente durante sua pesquisa na Bibliothèque Nationale, o autor pretende trabalhar a noção de indivíduo vinculando-a a dois temas. Primeiro, a emergência do flâneur como tradução do espírito de mobilidade que se inaugura com a modernidade. Para isso a discussão sobre a noção de espaço, particularmente no que diz respeito a cidade de Paris, é importante. O flâneur surge assim como um indivíduo desenraizado que se locomove através do espaço urbano remodelado. Segundo, uma aproximação entre o ato da flânerie e o trabalho intelectual. Considerando a flânerie como uma atividade intelectual o autor mostra como os temas do distanciamento e da construção do objeto são relevantes tanto para o flâneur-detetive quanto para a reflexão nas ciências sociais.This paper is an interpretation of Walter Benjamins Paris, Capital of the 19th Century. Based on the notes Benjamin made on several books he read, mainly during his research at the Bibliotèque Nationale, the author discusses the notion of the individual linking it to two themes. First, to the emergence of the flâneur as a translation of the spirit of mobility which starts with modernity. The discussion on the notion of space, especially where it concerns Paris, is essential for this analysis. The flâneur is seen as an uprooted individual who moves around the remodelled urban space. Second, to the proximity between the act of flânerie and that of intellectual work. Taking flânerie to be intellectual activity, the author shows how the themes of the distancing and the construction of the object are relevant, both to the detective-flâneur and to the reflection in social sciences.

  10. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  11. Sensory descriptive quantitative analysis of unpasteurized and pasteurized juçara pulp (Euterpe edulis) during long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira; Casemiro, Renata Cristina; Zillo, Rafaela Rebessi; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Prospero, Evanilda Teresinha Perissinotto; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of pasteurization followed by storage under different conditions on the sensory attributes of frozen juçara pulp using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Pasteurization of packed frozen pulp was performed by its immersion in stainless steel tank containing water (80°C) for 5 min, followed by storage under refrigerated and frozen conditions. A trained sensory panel evaluated the samples (6°C) on day 1, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90. Sensory attributes were separated as follows: appearance (foamy, heterogeneous, purple, brown, oily, and creamy), aroma (sweet and fermented), taste (astringent, bitter, and sweet), and texture (oily and consistent), and compared to a reference material. In general, unpasteurized frozen pulp showed the highest score for foamy appearance, and pasteurized samples showed highest scores to creamy appearance. Pasteurized samples remained stable regarding brown color development while unpasteurized counterparts presented increase. Color is an important attribute related to the product identity. All attributes related to taste and texture remained constant during storage for all samples. Pasteurization followed by storage under frozen conditions has shown to be the best conservation method as samples submitted to such process received the best sensory evaluation, described as foamy, slightly heterogeneous, slightly bitter, and slightly astringent.

  12. The Effect of Holder Pasteurization on Nutrients and Biologically-Active Components in Donor Human Milk: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Moro, Guido E; Bertino, Enrico; Cavallarin, Laura; Giribaldi, Marzia; Giuliani, Francesca; Cresi, Francesco; Coscia, Alessandra

    2016-08-02

    When a mother's milk is unavailable, the best alternative is donor milk (DM). Milk delivered to Human Milk Banks should be pasteurized in order to inactivate the microbial agents that may be present. Currently, pasteurization, performed at 62.5 °C for 30 min (Holder Pasteurization, HoP), is recommended for this purpose in international guidelines. Several studies have been performed to investigate the effects of HoP on the properties of DM. The present paper has the aim of reviewing the published papers on this topic, and to provide a comparison of the reported variations of biologically-active DM components before and after HoP. This review was performed by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and Cochrane Library databases. Studies that clearly identified the HoP parameters and compared the same DM samples, before and after pasteurization, were focused on. A total of 44 articles satisfied the above criteria, and were therefore selected. The findings from the literature report variable results. A possible explanation for this may be the heterogeneity of the test protocols that were applied. Moreover, the present review spans more than five decades, and modern pasteurizers may be able to modify the degradation kinetics for heat-sensitive substances, compared to older ones. Overall, the data indicate that HoP affects several milk components, although it is difficult to quantify the degradation degree. However, clinical practices demonstrate that many beneficial properties of DM still persist after HoP.

  13. Impact of human milk pasteurization on the kinetics of peptide release during in vitro dynamic term newborn digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglaire, Amélie; De Oliveira, Samira C; Jardin, Julien; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Emily, Mathieu; Ménard, Olivia; Bourlieu, Claire; Dupont, Didier

    2016-07-01

    Holder pasteurization (62.5°C, 30 min) ensures sanitary quality of donor's human milk but also denatures beneficial proteins. Understanding whether this further impacts the kinetics of peptide release during gastrointestinal digestion of human milk was the aim of the present paper. Mature raw (RHM) or pasteurized (PHM) human milk were digested (RHM, n = 2; PHM, n = 3) by an in vitro dynamic system (term stage). Label-free quantitative peptidomics was performed on milk and digesta (ten time points). Ascending hierarchical clustering was conducted on "Pasteurization × Digestion time" interaction coefficients. Preproteolysis occurred in human milk (159 unique peptides; RHM: 91, PHM: 151), mostly on β-casein (88% of the endogenous peptides). The predicted cleavage number increased with pasteurization, potentially through plasmin activation (plasmin cleavages: RHM, 53; PHM, 76). During digestion, eight clusters resumed 1054 peptides from RHM and PHM, originating for 49% of them from β-casein. For seven clusters (57% of peptides), the kinetics of peptide release differed between RHM and PHM. The parent protein was significantly linked to the clustering (p-value = 1.4 E-09), with β-casein and lactoferrin associated to clusters in an opposite manner. Pasteurization impacted selectively gastric and intestinal kinetics of peptide release in term newborns, which may have further nutritional consequences.

  14. 国家柔道中心,巴黎(法国)%National Judo Institute, Paris (France)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 设计任务:2500个座位的柔道馆及练习厅,FFJDA总部,F1酒店,商业中心及停车场 国家柔道中心位于巴黎及其郊区间的高架路旁,其独特的建筑造型表达了城乡间的交互,乃是生活的象征.

  15. A Comuna de Paris e a democracia dos conselhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo Oliveira Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artigo analisa do conjunto das principais contribuições da Comuna de Paris de 1871 para o debate contemporâneo sobre a democracia, a hipótese de que os limites à plena vigência e consolidação da democracia representativa baseada no sufrágio universal a partir do final do século XIX, ao ser descaracterizada pelo próprio liberalismo, favoreceu a busca de experiências democráticas alternativas pelos movimentos operários e de massas. Defende-se a tese de que há uma linha de continuidade histórica, atravessando todo o século XX, de experiências históricas - analisadas na maior parte das vezes de forma isolada, unilateral ou excessivamente contextualizadas - de democracia direta de massas como o ensaio geral da Comuna de Paris.

  16. Science and policy characteristics of the Paris Agreement temperature goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Lissner, Tabea; Licker, Rachel; Fischer, Erich M.; Knutti, Reto; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Hare, William

    2016-09-01

    The Paris Agreement sets a long-term temperature goal of holding the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C, and pursuing efforts to limit this to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Here, we present an overview of science and policy aspects related to this goal and analyse the implications for mitigation pathways. We show examples of discernible differences in impacts between 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming. At the same time, most available low emission scenarios at least temporarily exceed the 1.5 °C limit before 2100. The legacy of temperature overshoots and the feasibility of limiting warming to 1.5 °C, or below, thus become central elements of a post-Paris science agenda. The near-term mitigation targets set by countries for the 2020-2030 period are insufficient to secure the achievement of the temperature goal. An increase in mitigation ambition for this period will determine the Agreement's effectiveness in achieving its temperature goal.

  17. Equitable mitigation to achieve the Paris Agreement goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robiou Du Pont, Yann; Jeffery, M. Louise; Gütschow, Johannes; Rogelj, Joeri; Christoff, Peter; Meinshausen, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarks to guide countries in ratcheting-up ambition, climate finance, and support in an equitable manner are critical but not yet determined in the context of the Paris Agreement. We identify global cost-optimal mitigation scenarios consistent with the Paris Agreement goals and allocate their emissions dynamically to countries according to five equity approaches. At the national level, China's Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) is weaker than any of the five equity approaches, India's NDC is aligned with two, and the EU's and the USA's with three. Most developing countries' conditional (Intended) NDCs (INDCs) are more ambitious than the average of the five equity approaches under the 2 °C goal. If the G8 and China adopt the average of the five approaches, the gap between conditional INDCs and 2 °C-consistent pathways could be closed. For an equitable, cost-optimal achievement of the 1.5 °C target, emissions in 2030 are 21% lower (relative to 2010) than for 2 °C for the G8 and China combined, and 39% lower for remaining countries. Equitably limiting warming to 1.5 °C rather than 2 °C requires that individual countries achieve mitigation milestones, such as peaking or reaching net-zero emissions, around a decade earlier.

  18. Conference Diplomacy: The Making of the Paris Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslak Brun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article offers an insider’s account of how the Paris Agreement on climate change was reached. Focusing on participation and ambition, it describes the efforts to include a long-term temperature goal, expectations for regular ratcheting up of climate efforts, and provisions for tracking global progress. The author argues that a shift from the earlier top-down approaches to setting targets, to a bottom-up, self-determined approach has spurred participation and made it easier to reach agreement. In addition, the Paris Agreement anchors a clearer direction of travel than before. The article also discusses the negotiations of the provisions in the Agreement to drive increased national climate mitigation efforts over time. Finally, the author considers the role of conference diplomacy, particularly the need for inclusive leadership. It is argued that the French Presidency combined a transparent negotiations process with a clear sense of direction that helped achieve a comprehensive and ambitious outcome. The role of back-channel talks as part of effective conference diplomacy is also discussed.

  19. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities.

  20. The Paris Agreement's imprint on 2300 sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Matthias; Nauels, Alexander; Rogelj, Joeri; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims at reducing climate-related risks by putting a limit to global mean temperature increase. Furthermore, global greenhouse gas emissions should peak as soon as possible and reach net-zero in the second half of the 21st century under the agreement. Sea level rise is one of the major impacts of climate change and will continue for long after emissions have ceased. Here we quantify the effect of near-term and long-term emissions constraints of the Paris Agreement on climate-driven sea level rise until 2300 using a contribution-based methodology that is consistent with the IPCC AR5 sea level estimates. We study median sea level rise for scenarios stabilizing global mean temperatures between 1.5° C and 2° C above pre-industrial levels and net-zero greenhouse gas emission scenarios that lead to declining temperatures. Once global mean temperatures pass 1.5 °C, sea level rise below one meter until 2300 is out of reach for temperature stabilization scenarios. Net-zero emissions can reduce sea level rise caused by temperature overshoot only within limits. By linking sea level rise to near-term mitigation action, we find that delayed near-term mitigation action leads to increased sea level rise far beyond 2100.

  1. Short communication: Nalpha-lauroyl-L-arginine ethylester monohydrochloride reduces bacterial growth in pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, N H; Hammond, B H; Ralyea, R D; Boor, K J

    2009-09-01

    Effective strategies for extending fluid milk product shelf-life by controlling bacterial growth are of economic interest to the dairy industry. To that end, the effects of addition of l-arginine, Nalpha-lauroyl ethylester monohydrochloride (LAE) on bacterial numbers in fluid milk products were measured. Specifically, LAE was added (125, 170, or 200 mg/L) to conventionally homogenized and pasteurized 3.25% fat chocolate or unflavored milk products. The treated milks and corresponding untreated controls were held at 6 degrees C and plated on standard plate count agar within 24 h of processing and again at 7, 14, 17, and 21 d of storage. Bacterial counts in all unflavored milk samples treated with LAE remained below the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance limit for grade A pasteurized fluid milk of 4.3 log cfu/mL for the entire 21 d. Bacterial counts in unflavored samples containing 170 and 200 mg/L of LAE were significantly lower than those in the untreated unflavored milk at d 17 and 21 postprocessing. Specifically, bacterial counts in the milk treated with 200 mg/L of LAE were 5.77 log cfu/mL lower than in untreated milk at 21 d postprocessing. Bacterial counts in chocolate milk treated with 200 mg/L of LAE were significantly lower than those in the untreated chocolate milk at d 14, 17, and 21. In chocolate milk treated with 200 mg/L of LAE, bacterial counts were 0.9 log cfu/mL lower than in the untreated milk at 21 d postprocessing. Our results show that addition of LAE to milk can reduce bacterial growth. Addition of LAE is more effective at controlling bacterial growth in unflavored milk than in chocolate milk.

  2. Effect of UV radiation as an alternative to thermal pasteurization on some properties of tomato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Noktehsanj-Avval

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are usually pasteurizedby thermal processes. Pasteurization can reduce organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of the products. Radiation isa new technique for reduction of food poisoning due to food consumption and increasing shelf life of the product. In the present study, the effect of UV radiation as a cold pasteurization was investigated on the quality of tomato juice (TJ to improve sensory, chemical and microbial properties. Treatments T1, T2, T3, T4, were tomato juice with heat treatment (treatment temperature 60 °C- 2 min as a control treatment, pasteurized samples (treatments 72 °C for 2min, irradiated samples (from 15cm- 30min, and irradiated samples (15cm- 60minute, respectively. T3 and T4 samples received radiation dose of 2.158 j/m2. The prepared samples were stored at a refrigerator for 90 days and every 30 days, the chemical test (lycopene content, pH, acidity, vitamin C, and Brix, were performed. The results showed that pH has significantly increased (p ˂ 0.05 in all four treatments during storage. Generally the effects of irradiation on the Brix were not significant (p ˂ 0.05. By increasing irradiation time, amounts of lycopene significantly increased (p ˂ 0.05, also decreases were observed in both treatments T3 and T4 during storage. Radiation compared to the thermal treatment was successful in retaining and increasing the amount of vitamin C, which was significantly increase in T4 treatment (p ˂ 0/05, in first day. pH were reduced during storage in all samples.

  3. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens.

  4. Contributions to the Knowledge of Microbiological Quality of Pasteurized Melange Produced in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Catalina NISTOR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Today's consumers show an affinity for quality products produced under production conditions that strictly observes the principles of food safety. Bacterial contamination of eggs and egg products can thus be a source of disease for the human consumer with the necessary effects on the sector of activity. The term "egg products" defines the components of the egg (separate or as a mixture-melange released from their shell and submitted to a heat treatment, they are forming foods rich in protein, vitamins and trace elements of high quality . The purpose of this study was to establishing and monitoring the microbiological indicators of melange produced in our country. The study was carried out on the pasteurized egg mix, packaged "bag-in-box" (5 units package, and stored for a period of 25 days at the temperature recommended by the manufacturer (0 ... + 4 °C. The actual analysis is to determine NTGMA, Enterobacter spp., Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Salmonella spp. Regarding developments of NTGMA in pasteurized melange stored for 25 days, our data showed an increase of 75.22% compared to the situation found on fresh product (3.656 log cfu/ml vs 6.406 log cfu/ml. The situation was similar for Enterobacter spp. (119.64% increase, Bacillus spp. (76.27% increase and Pseudomonas spp. (58.72% increase. Salmonella spp. was not identified in the product tested by us. The heat treatment of pasteurized liquid melange does not destroy completely the initial microbial load, therefore certain precautions are needed to store these foods.

  5. Effect of pasteurization temperature on stability of an acidified sugarcane juice beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kunitake

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of fresh sugarcane juice is quite limited due to the high rates of microbiological and enzymatic reactions which take place after extraction. In order to evaluate the impact of pasteurization temperature on quality and stability of sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp, nine batches of sugarcane juice with 4g/100g passion fruit pulp were processed at 85, 90 and 95 °C for 30 s, in triplicate. The pasteurized beverage was aseptically packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and stored at 7 °C in the dark. The beverage was characterized by physicochemical tests. Activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD were determined before and after processing. Coliforms and Salmonella tests were carried out to assure the beverage´s microbiological safety. Color parameters were measured in the processed juice throughout the storage period. Fifty panelists evaluated the beverage's appearance, aroma, flavor, and overall impression using seven-point hedonic scale tests. Sensory stability was estimated by considering score averages above four and percentages of acceptance above 60%. The pH, soluble solids and titratable acidity of end product ranged from 3.96 to 4.19, 19.7 to 20.1 ºBrix, and 0.163 to 0.175 g/100g citric acid, respectively. The three processing binomials were effective for PPO inactivation; however, complete POD inactivation was reached at 95 °C/30 s only. The estimated sensory shelf-lives for sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp processed at 85, 90 and 95 °C/30 s were 30, 40 and 50 days, respectively. Thus, the increase of pasteurization temperature had a positive effect on product's stability.

  6. Les rues de Paris vues par le Monopoly, une proposition de révision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Françoise Fleury

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The French Monopoly board features the streets of Paris. It was designed in 1935 and has not been updated since. Is the real-estate geography of the 1930s still valid? The authors propose a new version of the Paris Monopoly to better reflect today’s real-estate and social hierarchy.

  7. Energy and Global Climate Change: The Road from Paris to Denver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey

    2016-10-27

    This presentation provides an overview of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory; a snapshot of U.S. power sector transformation; a brief history of climate negotiations; an overview of the Paris Agreement; and what the Paris Agreement means for Colorado and beyond.

  8. Det strategiske spil om Syrien efter Paris – plus ça change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Analyse af det strategiske spil omkring Syrien og hvorvidt Paris angrebet har ændret noget afgørende - det har det så ikke.......Analyse af det strategiske spil omkring Syrien og hvorvidt Paris angrebet har ændret noget afgørende - det har det så ikke....

  9. 75 FR 28303 - Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (FR 75 21358). The... Employment and Training Administration Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on... reconsideration, I determine that workers of Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, Tennessee meet the worker...

  10. Images of Paris: Big C Culture for the Nonspeaker of French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, May; York, Holly U.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a course offered in both French and English at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia that is based on the study of representations of Paris from the Middle Ages to the present. It uses architecture as a point of departure and explores the myth of Paris as expressed through a profusion of images in literature, painting, and film.…

  11. Towards the Chalonge 16th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2012: Highlights and Conclusions of the Chalonge 15th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chalonge 15th Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2011 was held on 20-22 July in the historic Paris Observatory's Perrault building, in the Chalonge School spirit combining real cosmological/astrophysical data and hard theory predictive approach connected to them in the Warm Dark Matter Standard Model of the Universe: News and reviews from Herschel, QUIET, Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), South Pole Telescole (SPT), Planck, PIXIE, the JWST, UFFO, KATRIN and MARE experiments; astrophysics, partic...

  12. The German ''Energiewende''. Evaluation after the Paris-agreement; Die Deutsche Energiewende. Bewertung nach dem Klima-Abkommen von Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eike

    2016-12-15

    The World-Climate-Summit 2016 in Paris agreed to exacerbated goals for climate protection. This paper will scrutinize whether Germany can comply with its Paris-obligations by continuing the ongoing German ''Energiewende''. The result is clear-cut: The German ''Energiewende'' is inadequate. Due to the cap-and-trade system of the EU the ''Energiewende'' can in no way contribute to climate protection.

  13. The German ''Energiewende''. Evaluation after the Paris-agreement; Die Deutsche Energiewende. Bewertung nach dem Klima-Abkommen von Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eike

    2016-08-01

    The World-Climate-Summit 2016 in Paris agreed to exacerbated goals for climate protection. This paper will scrutinize whether Germany can comply with its Paris-obligations by continuing the ongoing German ''Energiewende''. The result is clear-cut: The German ''Energiewende'' is inadequate. Due to the cap-and-trade system of the EU the '''Energiewende''.

  14. [Evolution of human anti-rabies vaccines from Pasteur to the present].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barme, M; Tsiang, H

    1995-05-01

    Since the first immunization of man against rabies in 1885 by Louis Pasteur, antirabies vaccine has been continuously improved. Treatment failures, clinical infections by the fixed virus, neuroparalytic accidents in connection with myelin were progressively eliminated. Vaccines can be standardized and accurately controlled. After the original spinal cord, adult or newborn animals brains, embryonated eggs, primary tissue cultures, diploid and permanent cell lines have been used for the vaccine production. Today, safe and potent vaccines are available. New products might be developed from the technology of genetic recombinants.

  15. Rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp at pasteurization temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santos Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp in the range of temperatures used for pasteurization (83 to 97 °C was studied. The results indicated that Brazilian Cherry pulp presented pseudoplastic behavior, and the Herschel-Bulkley model was considered more adequate to represent the rheological behavior of this pulp in the range of temperatures studied. The fluid behavior index (n varied in the range from 0.448 to 0.627. The effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity was described by an equation analogous to Arrhenius equation, and a decrease in apparent viscosity with an increase in temperature was observed.

  16. Spiral plate count method for the examination of raw and pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C B; Gilchrist, J E; Peeler, J T; Campbell, J E

    1976-07-01

    The spiral plate count method (SPLPC) was compared with the standard plate count (SPC) method by examining 201 samples of raw and pasteurized milk. Although the means of the two methods differed significantly at alpha = 0.01,the difference was less than 10% and was not considered to be of any practical importance. The pooled replicate variances of both methods were less than 0.003, indicating good agreement between duplicate plates, with the variance of the SPLPC slightly less than that of the SPC. We believe this study indicates that the SPLPC could be substituted for the SPC in the bacteriological examination of milk.

  17. Gastric Emptying and Curding of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk and Mother's Own Milk in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Gridneva, Zoya; Simmer, Karen N; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of fortification and composition on gastric emptying and curding in un/fortified pairs of mother's own milk (MOM, n = 17) and pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM, n = 15) in preterm infants. Retained meal proportions (%) and curding were determined from sonography. Immediate and subsequent postprandial % were higher for PDHM (23%, P = 0.026; 15%, P = 0.006) and fortified meals (31.5%; 8.8%, both P lactose concentrations were associated with lower immediate postprandial % (all P intolerance.

  18. Estrone and 17beta-estradiol concentrations in pasteurized-homogenized milk and commercial dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape-Zambito, D A; Roberts, R F; Kensinger, R S

    2010-06-01

    Some individuals fear that estrogens in dairy products may stimulate growth of estrogen-sensitive cancers in humans. The presence of estrone (E(1)) and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in raw whole cow's milk has been demonstrated. The objectives of this study were to determine if pasteurization-homogenization affects E(2) concentration in milk and to quantify E(1) and E(2) concentrations in commercially available dairy products. The effects of pasteurization-homogenization were tested by collecting fresh raw milk, followed by pasteurization and homogenization at 1 of 2 homogenization pressures. All treated milks were tested for milk fat globule size, percentages of milk fat and solids, and E(2) concentrations. Estrone and E(2) were quantified from organic or conventional skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks, as well as half-and-half, cream, and butter samples. Estrone and E(2) were quantified by RIA after organic solvent extractions and chromatography. Pasteurization-homogenization reduced fat globule size, but did not significantly affect E(2), milk fat, or milk solids concentrations. Estrone concentrations averaged 2.9, 4.2, 5.7, 7.9, 20.4, 54.1 pg/mL, and 118.9 pg/g in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks, half-and-half, cream, and butter samples, respectively. 17Beta-estradiol concentrations averaged 0.4, 0.6, 0.9, 1.1, 1.9, 6.0 pg/mL, and 15.8 pg/g in skim, 1%, 2%, whole milks, half-and-half, cream, and butter samples, respectively. The amount of fat in milk significantly affected E(1) and E(2) concentrations in milk. Organic and conventional dairy products did not have substantially different concentrations of E(1) and E(2). Compared with information cited in the literature, concentrations of E(1) and E(2) in bovine milk are small relative to endogenous production rates of E(1) and E(2) in humans.

  19. The heuristic function of 'error' in the scientific methodology of Louis Pasteur: the case of the silkworm diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, A

    2000-01-01

    With the aid of the Cahiers de laboratoire, the Correspondence and, of course, the Oeuvre de Pasteur, this work reconstructs the extraordinary scientific undertakings of the great French scientist in his study of silkworm diseases. The focus of this study consists in the attempt to explain the initial perplexing behaviour of Pasteur, even in the presence of correct interpretations regarding the causes of these diseases (cfr. the results obtained by Béchamp); for a good three years he insisted on maintaining that the aetiology of silkworm diseases could not be attributed to pathogenetic germs from outside. And this was in spite of the fact that previously (through fermentation and spontaneous generation) he had been able to demonstrate the importance of microorganisms in biological processes. Finally it is intended to highlight the extraordinary methodological depth of that initial 'error', which was capable of paving the way for the future conquests of Pasteur in the field of aetiology and the prevention of infectious diseases.

  20. Multiple-pass high-pressure homogenization of milk for the development of pasteurization-like processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Espinosa, H; Amador-Espejo, G G; Barcenas-Pozos, M E; Angulo-Guerrero, J O; Garcia, H S; Welti-Chanes, J

    2013-02-01

    Multiple-pass ultrahigh pressure homogenization (UHPH) was used for reducing microbial population of both indigenous spoilage microflora in whole raw milk and a baroresistant pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) inoculated in whole sterile milk to define pasteurization-like processing conditions. Response surface methodology was followed and multiple response optimization of UHPH operating pressure (OP) (100, 175, 250 MPa) and number of passes (N) (1-5) was conducted through overlaid contour plot analysis. Increasing OP and N had a significant effect (P milk. Optimized UHPH processes (five 202-MPa passes; four 232-MPa passes) defined a region where a 5-log(10) reduction of total bacterial count of milk and a baroresistant pathogen are attainable, as a requisite parameter for establishing an alternative method of pasteurization. Multiple-pass UHPH optimized conditions might help in producing safe milk without the detrimental effects associated with thermal pasteurization.

  1. Practical and theoretical problems of pasteur's experiment on rabies in 1880 Problemas prácticos y teóricos del experimento sobre la rabia en los años 1880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Raichvarg

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Ethical aspects of scientific experimentation on human beings and the technical problems of rabies vaccination at the end of the XIX century are analyzed. The importance of such preventive practice one century ago Is emphasized, since rabies virus was unknown and the bases of modern immunology had not been set. The Influence of these experiments on the creation of the Pasteur Institute Is highlighted.

    A la luz de una carta enviada por Louis Pasteur a Pedro II, Emperador del Brasil, y de una comunicación pronunciada por el científico ante la Academia de Ciencias de París en 1885, se analizan los aspectos éticos de la experimentación científica en humanos y se cuestionan los problemas técnicos de la vacunación antirrábica a finales del siglo XIX. Se resalta la importancia de la vacunación contra la rabia hace más de un siglo, cuando no se conocía el virus causante de la enfermedad ni se habían sentado las bases de la moderna Inmunología. Finalmente, se hace énfasis en el papel fundamental que tuvo esta práctica preventiva en la creación del InstitUto Pasteur, entidad líder en la Investigación y el avance científico actuales.

  2. An Automated Grass-Based Procedure to Assess the Geometrical Accuracy of the Openstreetmap Paris Road Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Molinari, M. E.

    2016-06-01

    OpenStreetMap (OSM) is the largest spatial database of the world. One of the most frequently occurring geospatial elements within this database is the road network, whose quality is crucial for applications such as routing and navigation. Several methods have been proposed for the assessment of OSM road network quality, however they are often tightly coupled to the characteristics of the authoritative dataset involved in the comparison. This makes it hard to replicate and extend these methods. This study relies on an automated procedure which was recently developed for comparing OSM with any road network dataset. It is based on three Python modules for the open source GRASS GIS software and provides measures of OSM road network spatial accuracy and completeness. Provided that the user is familiar with the authoritative dataset used, he can adjust the values of the parameters involved thanks to the flexibility of the procedure. The method is applied to assess the quality of the Paris OSM road network dataset through a comparison against the French official dataset provided by the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN). The results show that the Paris OSM road network has both a high completeness and spatial accuracy. It has a greater length than the IGN road network, and is found to be suitable for applications requiring spatial accuracies up to 5-6 m. Also, the results confirm the flexibility of the procedure for supporting users in carrying out their own comparisons between OSM and reference road datasets.

  3. Characterization of the indigenous microflora in raw and pasteurized buffalo milk during storage at refrigeration temperature by high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of refrigeration on bacterial communities within raw and pasteurized buffalo milk was studied using high-throughput sequencing. High quality samples of raw buffalo milk were obtained from five dairy farms in the Guangxi province of China. A sample of each milk was pasteurized, and both r...

  4. The public science of Louis Pasteur: the experiment on anthrax vaccine in the popular press of the time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, M

    1997-01-01

    The paper focuses on Pasteur's public experimentation of the anthrax vaccine (Pouilly-le-Fort, 1881) as portrayed in the English and French popular press of the time. It is argued that this 'popular' level of representation did not merely provide additional publicity for Pasteur's ideas. Rather, the nature and meaning of the experiment itself and of the related controversy on immunisation were substantially negotiated and shaped within the public arena. The multifold consequences of this framing at the public level are explored. In particular, attention is drawn to the relationships that in such process were established with other issues debated at the same time in the arena, namely homeopathy, vivisection and vaccination.

  5. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Ninh Nguyen, Duc; de Waard, Marita

    2017-01-01

    ; ratio of males to females, 30:27) received decreasing volumes of parental nutrition (average 69 mL · kg−1 · d−1) and increasing volumes of the 3 DM diets (n = 19 each, average 89 mL · kg−1 · d−1) for 8–9 d. Body growth, gut structure and function, and systemic bacterial infection were evaluated. Results......Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants. Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward...

  6. Salmonella isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg products: Thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Hinton, Arthur; Bailey, Rebecca B; Cray, William C; Meinersmann, Richard J; Ball, Takiyah A; Jin, Tony Z

    2015-08-03

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by food manufacturers or the FSIS and may be present as a result of either pasteurization-resistant bacteria or post-processing contamination. In this study, seventeen strains of Salmonella isolated from pasteurized egg products and three heat-resistant control strains were compared for the following attributes: thermal resistance in liquid whole egg (LWE) at 60 °C, enzymatic profiles, and serotyping and phage typing, antibiotic susceptibility, fatty acid analysis and strain morphological variation evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were serotyped as Heidelberg (4 isolates), Widemarsh, Mbandaka, Cerro, Thompson, 4,12:i:-, and Enteritidis (8 isolates). All 20 isolates were sensitive to all 14 antibiotics tested for. The D60 values in LWE ranged from 0.34 to 0.58 min. All 20 strains were recovered from LWE inoculated with 8.5 logCFU/mL of Salmonella and pasteurized at 60 °C for 3.5 min; however, some isolates were not recovered from pasteurized LWE that had been inoculated with only 4.5 logCFU/mL Salmonella and treated at 60 °C for 3.5 min. Although some strains exhibited atypical enzymatic activity (e.g., reduction of adonitol, hydrolysis of proline nitroanilide or p-n-p-beta-glucuronide, and nonreduction of melibiose), differences in biochemical reactions could not be correlated with differences in thermal resistance. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis revealed that differences insaturate/unsaturated profiles may be correlated with differences in heat resistance, in two instances. One heat resistant strain (#13, Enteritidis) had the statistically lowest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 39%. However, one heat sensitive strain (#3, serovar 4,12:i:-) had the

  7. Effect of Echinophora platyloba DC. essential oil and lycopene on the stability of pasteurized cream obtained from cow milk

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsani,Ali; HASHEMI, Mohammad; Hosseini Jazani, Nima; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Shokri, Sajad; Naghibi, Seyedeh Samane

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to enhance shelf life of pasteurized cream using Echinophora platyloba essential oil (EEO) and lycopene. For this purpose, two concentrations of EEO (0.10% and 0.50%) and lycopene (20 and 50 ppm) alone and together as combinations were added in pasteurized creams and analyzed for microbial characteristics, sensorial properties and lipid stability during storage at 4 ˚C and 25 ˚C for 14 days. Results of microbial and chemical analyses of experimental pasteuriz...

  8. Undocumented Youth Living Between the Lines: Urban Governance, Social Policy, and the Boundaries of Legality in New York City and Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszczyk, Stephen P.

    decelerated transition to adulthood as most lack sufficient resources for adult responsibilities. The comparison of Paris and New York shows how different institutional, social, and political contexts---including different systems of state and local governance, political culture and labor market characteristics---produce specific contours of social life for undocumented youth, with varying outcomes. Using boundary theory to represent these different socio-legal and socio-economic contexts over time, we see the more flexible regularization practices in Paris helping youth cross the legal boundary but remaining stratified vis-a-vis the social boundary. With a low deportation risk, New York's legal boundary is blurred. Federal restrictions, however, mean youth also end up stratified vis-a-vis the social boundary. A key difference, however, lies in the family and romantic relationship benefits of available low-end work in New York.

  9. SUMOylation of the KRAB zinc-finger transcription factor PARIS/ZNF746 regulates its transcriptional activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Tamotsu, E-mail: nishida@gene.mie-u.ac.jp; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2016-05-13

    Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), a member of the family of Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc-finger transcription factors, is a substrate of the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin. PARIS represses the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that PARIS can be SUMOylated, and its SUMOylation plays a role in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy) was identified as an interacting protein of PARIS and shown to enhance its SUMOylation. PIASy repressed PGC-1a promoter activity, and this effect was attenuated by PARIS in a manner dependent on its SUMOylation status. Co-expression of SUMO-1 with PIASy completely repressed PGC-1a promoter activity independently of PARIS expression. PARIS-mediated PGC-1a promoter repression depended on the activity of histone deacetylases (HDAC), whereas PIASy repressed the PGC-1a promoter in an HDAC-independent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that PARIS and PIASy modulate PGC-1a gene transcription through distinct molecular mechanisms. -- Highlights: •PARIS can be SUMOylated in vivo and in vitro. •SUMOylation of PARIS functions in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. •PIASy interacts with PARIS and enhances its SUMOylation. •PIASy influences PARIS-mediated repression of PGC-1a promoter activity.

  10. Minimizing photooxidation in pasteurized milk by optimizing light transmission properties of green polyethylene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intawiwat, N; Wold, J P; Skaret, J; Rukke, E O; Pettersen, M K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different amounts of transmitted green light on photooxidation in pasteurized milk was studied. Five different green films produced with combinations of pigments and additives to minimize exposure to harmful wavelengths with regard to photosensitizers (400-450 and 600-650 nm) were evaluated. In addition, a non-colored transparent film and an orange film were compared with 1 selected green film. Pasteurized milk (3.9% fat) was packed in an air atmosphere and exposed to light for 14, 20, 26, and 32 h at 4 °C under the different films. Samples stored in the dark were control samples. The results showed that the most-effective green film had low overall light transmission, and also almost completely blocked light wavelengths shorter than 450 nm and wavelengths longer than 600 nm, which prevented photooxidation of riboflavin and chlorophyllic compounds. Chlorophyll degradation was highly correlated with sensory properties (coefficient of determination = 0.80-0.94). To preserve milk quality, total blocking of all visible light would be preferable. If total blocking is not feasible, then light transmission for wavelength below 450 nm and above 650 nm should be minimized (e.g., less than 5%). The newly developed green film can be used as a prototype for protection of dairy products to reduce the degradation of photosensitizers. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of somatic cell count on quality and shelf-life of pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y; Ryan, C; Barbano, D M; Galton, D M; Rudan, M A; Boor, K J

    2000-02-01

    Milk was collected from eight Holstein cows four times before and four times after intramammary infection with Streptococcus agalactiae. Postinfection milk had significantly higher somatic cell count (SCC) (849,000 cells/ml) than preinfection milk (45,000 cells/ml). High SCC raw milk had more lipolysis and proteolysis than low SCC raw milk. Pasteurized, homogenized, 2% fat milks from pre- and postinfection periods were stored at 5 degrees C and analyzed for lipolysis, proteolysis, microbial quality, and sensory attributes at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d post processing. During refrigerated storage, the average rates of free fatty acid increase (i.e., lipolysis) and casein hydrolysis in high SCC milk were, respectively, three and two times faster than those in low SCC milk. In general, standard plate counts, coliform counts, and psychrotrophic bacterial counts of both the high and low SCC milks remained low (<100,000 cfu/ ml) during 5 degrees C storage. Low SCC milk maintained high organoleptic quality for the entire 21-d shelf-life period. However, for high SCC milk, between 14 and 21 d, sensory defects were detected, which resulted in low overall quality ratings. The sensory defects mainly included rancidity and bitterness and were consistent with higher levels of lipolysis and proteolysis. Hence, mastitis adversely affected the quality of pasteurized fluid milk. It is recommended that the fluid milk industry consider implementation of premium quality payment programs for low SCC milks.

  12. Pasteur, Pastorians, and the dawn of immunology: the importance of specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, A M

    2000-01-01

    Throughout his career, the problems that attracted Louis Pasteur almost invariably involved considerations of specificity of structure and/or of action. Thus, his work on asymmetric crystals showed that chemical form not only specifies crystalline structure, but affects the affinity of ferments as well. In his studies of diseases of silkworms, of beer, and of wine, he could unerringly distinguish with the microscope the specific agents of disease. From this emerged his concept of the specificity of species and against the nonspecificity of spontaneous generation, whence the germ theory of disease. It was in the new field of immunology, however, where the manifestations of an exquisite specificity were most clearly seen. Here, Pasteur's vaccines worked because he chose the specific pathogen in order to induce a specific immunity, and he succeeded each time. But the two most prominent Pastorian successors in immunology, Elie Metchnikoff and Jules Bordet, were not equally successful. Although each contributed significantly to the birth of immunology, each advanced a theory that neglected the principle of specificity and paid a price in consequence. Metchnikoff's phagocytic theory of immunity could not survive the demonstrable specificity of humoral antibodies, while Bordet's physical adsorptive concept of the antibody-cell interaction quickly fell to Paul Ehrlich's demonstration of the stereochemical determination of immunological specificity.

  13. Frequency of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC non-reducing bacteria in pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloti Vanerli

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC is a dye largely used for enumeration of microbial colonies in solid culture media, being a key component of the dry rehydratable film system used for microbiological analysis of food. This dye is colorless in the oxidized form and red when reduced by microorganisms, due to formation of formazan. In this study, TTC was added to Plate Count Agar (PCA for enumeration of microorganisms in thirty four pasteurized milk samples, with the aim to verify the frequency of microorganisms that are unable to reduce TTC. Milk samples were decimally diluted in saline and pour-plated in PCA plus 0.015% TTC. Colonies were counted after 24h and 48 h of incubation at 35oC. From a total of 50,574 colonies, 19,665 (38.88% did not reduce TTC in 48h. It was observed that 571 (6.36% colonies that were colorless in 24h became red in 48h. From those that didn't reduce TTC in 48h, 233 were purified and Gram stained. 229 (98.71% of them were Gram positive cocci and bacilli. The results show that there is a high percentage of microorganisms unable to reduce TTC in pasteurized milk, which cannot be detected by laboratory procedures based on the formation of red colonies.

  14. Anaerobic mesophilic treatment of cattle manure in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with prior pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón, Elena; Castrillón, Leonor; Fernández, Juan José; Fernández, Yolanda; Peláez, Ana Isabel; Sánchez, Jesús

    2006-02-01

    Different autonomous communities located in northern Spain have large populations of dairy cattle. In the case of Asturias, the greatest concentration of dairy farms is found in the areas near the coast, where the elimination of cattle manure by means of its use as a fertilizer may lead to environmental problems. The aim of the present research work was to study the anaerobic treatment of the liquid fraction of cattle manure at mesophilic temperature using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor combined with a settler after a pasteurization process at 70 degrees C for 2 hr. The manure used in this study came from two different farms, with 40 and 200 cows, respectively. The manure from the smaller farm was pretreated in the laboratory by filtration through a 1-mm mesh, and the manure from the other farm was pretreated on the farm by filtration through a separator screw press (0.5-mm mesh). The pasteurization process removed the pathogenic microorganisms lacking spores, such as Enterococcus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas, and coliforms, but bacterial spores are only reduced by this treatment, not removed. The combination of a UASB reactor and a settler proved to be effective for the treatment of cattle manure. In spite of the variation in the organic loading rate and total solids in the influent during the experiment, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent from the settler remained relatively constant, obtaining reductions in the COD of approximately 85%.

  15. INFLUENCE OF MILK FAT IN THE RESISTANCE OF Mycobacterium fortuitum TO SLOW PASTEURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ramirez Starikoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ortuitum. Milk samples were divided into two portions, whole and skimmed, each part was inoculated with M. fortuitum and then distributed in tubes for quantification of the agent during pasteurization, in a water bath. As samples were diluted and plated on Lowenstein-Jensen (37 °C/5 days, the count results were expressed as log10 CFU/mL. The heat treatment reduced 4.4 log10 CFU/mL for goat whole milk (2.8% fat, 4.9 log10 CFU/mL for skim goat milk (0.3%, 3.9 log10 CFU/ml for whole bovine milk (5.9%, and 5.4 log10 CFU/mL for skim bovine milk (0.2%, without significant difference, possibly because of the low number of samples. Values of D65 °C were, respectively, 10.51 minutes, 8.61 minutes, 18.02 minutes, and 7.82 minutes and the low R2 value of the straight line equations indicated that other factors, in addition to the ones studied, influenced the heat death of the agent. The results suggest a trend of influence by fat milk, and by the animal species on the decay rate of M. fortuitum, and that pasteurization was less effective over M. fortuitum in whole bovine milk. Keywords: fat content;

  16. Hydrolysis and oxidation of covering oil in canned dried tomatoes as affected by pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caponio, Francesco

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pasteurization on the chemical quality of the extra-virgin olive oil used as a covering for canned dried tomatoes were studied during storage through conventional (acidity, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, spectrophotometric indexes and non conventional (polar compounds analytical determinations. All the performed analyses show that extra-virgin olive oil from pasteurized samples underwent hydrolytic degradation slightly more than unheated ones but resulted slightly less oxidized than oil from untreated vessels.Los efectos de la pasterización sobre la calidad química del aceite de oliva virgen extra de cobertura en tomates desecados enlatados han sido estudiados durante su almacenamiento a través de determinaciones analíticas convencionales (acidez, índice peróxidos, índice de p-anisidina, índices espectrofotométricos y no convencionales (compuestos polares. Todos los análisis realizados muestran que el aceite de oliva virgen extra de las muestras pasterizadas sufre una degradación hidrolítica ligeramente mayor que el de las no tratadas pero resulta menos oxidado que el aceite de las muestras no tratadas.

  17. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.

  18. In natura açaí beverage: quality, pasteurization and acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Antonia Alves Cruz de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physical, physicochemical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of in natura açai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.beverageprocessed and commercialized in Rio Branco, Acre, submitting it to acidification and pasteurization treatments and evaluating their effects. Açaí fruits were processed to obtain the beverage as generally consumed. A 25 L sample was collected from a processing unit at a market in Rio Branco and transported to the Laboratory of Food Technology at the Federal University of Acre, for sampling of the experiments in a completely randomized design. Analyses of total solids, pH, total titrable acidity, proteins, lipids, moulds and yeasts, total and heat-tolerant coliforms at 45 ºC were performed in in natura beverage and after treatments. The results of the ANOVA showed, except for lipids, difference (p < 0.01 in the parameters. The in natura açaí beverage presented an elevated contamination by total and heat-tolerant coliforms at 45 ºC, moulds and yeasts, being in hygienic-sanitary conditions both unsatisfactory and unsafe for consumption. Pasteurization was efficient in reducing the beverage microbiota; it reduced contamination to an acceptable level according to the legislation, warranting food quality and safety. The acidified treatment partially reduced the microbiota. The beverage was classified as fine or type C.

  19. Dielectric properties of almond kernels associated with radio frequency and microwave pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Shuang; Kou, Xiaoxi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shaojin

    2017-02-10

    To develop advanced pasteurization treatments based on radio frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of almond kernels were measured by using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer at frequencies between 10 and 3000 MHz, moisture contents between 4.2% to 19.6% w.b. and temperatures between 20 and 90 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant and loss factor of the almond kernels decreased sharply with increasing frequency over the RF range (10-300 MHz), but gradually over the measured MW range (300-3000 MHz). Both dielectric constant and loss factor of almond kernels increased with increasing temperature and moisture content, and largely enhanced at higher temperature and moisture levels. Quadratic polynomial equations were developed to best fit the relationship between dielectric constant or loss factor at 27, 40, 915 or 2450 MHz and sample temperature/moisture content with R(2) greater than 0.967. Penetration depth of electromagnetic wave into samples decreased with increasing frequency (27-2450 MHz), moisture content (4.2-19.6% w.b.) and temperature (20-90 °C). The temperature profiles of RF heated almond kernels under three moisture levels were made using experiment and computer simulation based on measured dielectric properties. Based on the result of this study, RF treatment has potential to be practically used for pasteurization of almond kernels with acceptable heating uniformity.

  20. Gas Geochemistry of the Dogger Geothermal Aquifer (Paris Basin, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.; Marty, B.; Brach, M.; Wei, H.F.

    1987-01-20

    The low enthalpy program developed in the Paris Basin provides the opportunity for studying the gas geochemistry of the calcareous aquifer of the Dogger. Hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} are mainly biogenic, He displays high concentrations. He, Ar and N{sub 2} have multiple origins (radioactive decay, atmospheric migration, biochemical processes). The distribution of the gases in the zones of the basin varies in relation to the general chemistry, sedimentology and hydrodynamics. The gas geothermometers do not apply to this environment but useful estimations of the redox potential of the fluid can be derived from CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} ratios. H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are involved in corrosion processes and scaling in the pipes. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Lutetian limestones in the Paris region: Petrographic and compositional examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A. [Lab. de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, Champs-sur-Marne (France); Holmes, L.L.; Harbottle, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists have investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemistry whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries.

  2. LUTETIAN LIMESTONES IN THE PARIS REGION: PETROGRAPHIC AND COMPOSITIONAL EXAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLANC,A.; HOLMES,L.L.; HARBOTTLE,G.

    1998-06-11

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific-stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemist whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries.

  3. Bordeaux parie sur les centres d’appels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Puel

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Les acteurs territoriaux de la métropole bordelaise ont parié depuis peu sur le développement des centres d’appels en dépit d’une concurrence de plus en plus vive et planétaire. Les logiques de localisation des entreprises favorisent la métropolisation des téléservices. L’espace métropolitain privilégié par cet aspect de la « nouvelle économie » est en périphérie urbaine dans les zones d’activités à proximité des grands réseaux de communication (rocades, aéroports, etc..

  4. New Coal-Fired Plants Jeopardise Paris Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel González-Eguino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global greenhouse gas emissions need to peak soon and be reduced practically to zero in the second half of this century in order to not exceed the climate targets adopted in the Paris Agreement. However, there are currently numerous coal-fired power stations around the world at different stages of construction and planning that could be completed in the next decade. If all these plants are actually built, their expected future emissions will make it very difficult to reach these targets, even in an optimistic scenario with the deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies. Policy makers around the world need to react quickly and help to redirect investment plans for new coal-fired power stations towards low-carbon technologies.

  5. La Cité Universitaire Internationale de Paris

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    Sébastien Bureau

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris est le lieu où se concentrent le plus de résidences universitaires en Île-de-France avec une vocation affichée d’accueillir les étudiants et chercheurs du monde entier, et ce depuis 1925. Elle leur offre un ensemble de services centralisés et un cadre privilégié mais se considère avant tout comme un creuset pour la rencontre des cultures et la diffusion de la culture française parmi les élites intellectuelles internationales. Au-delà des intentions, nous avons cherché, par la rencontre de ses dirigeants et des résidents, à saisir d’une part, la réalité actuelle des échanges culturels promus par une politique du « brassage » et d’autre part, la dynamique de « l’espace vécu » des résidents.The Cité Internationale of Paris is the place where concentrate most university halls of residence in the French capital with a displayed vocation to welcome the students and the researchers of the whole world since 1925. It offers to them a set of centralized services and a privileged living environment but considers itself above all as a melting pot for the meeting of cultures and the spreading of French culture among international intellectual elites. Beyond intentions, we tried, by the meeting of managements and residents, to grasp the current reality of cultural exchanges thanks to the policy of the "mixing" and the dynamic of "the space lived" on residents.

  6. EUROPEAN UNION IN GLOBAL CLIMATE GOVERNANCE: TO PARIS AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savorskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the European Union is aspiring global leadership in the area of climate change, which is refl ected in its active participation in the negotiations on the international climate change regime. However, those ambitions have not always turned out to be appropriate or justifi ed. Despite the fact that the European Union was able to achieve certain results during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations and even more signifi cant results in the process of its ratifi cation, for the most part EU negotiation strategy based on normative considerations, had not been successful, it was especially evident during the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen. Partly the disappointing results of EU performance during the Copenhagen negotiations are to be blamed on some of the key features of EU functioning logic, for example, the overall tendency to rely on scientifi c evidence in policy-making, which did not allow the EU to assess other parties’ interests adequately. As the results of the negotiations of parties to the UNFCCC in December 2015 in Paris have shown, the European Union did manage to work out its previous mistakes and build a broad informal international coalition. Contrary to the pessimistic expectations, the agreement was adopted and it took into account quite a few of the EU proposals. However, the Paris Treaty has a number of fl aws and inaccuracies, so the ability to eliminate them in a timely manner by the international community and the EU in particular, will determine the future of the new international climate change regime.

  7. Prospective study of melanoma in the Paris Region in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souques, M.; Baccard, M.; Barrazza, V.; Havard, S.; Verrier, A.; Wechsler, J. [Prevention et Epidemiologie des Tumeurs en Region Ile de France (PETRI), Domus Medica, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Introduction: Melanoma remains an important public health problem because of its increasing incidence and its responsibility for the deaths of young individuals. A first study was carried out by the P.E.T.R.I. association in 1994 to estimate the incidence of melanoma in the Paris region. A second one was carried out in 2004, with the same methodology, to estimate the increase of melanoma incidence in the Paris region and the main clinical and histological characteristics of these cancers, comparing to 1994 data. Methodology: Every pathologist of the region has been contacted to fill a questionnaire for each primary cutaneous melanoma excised between January 1. and December 31. 2004, from patients living in the Paris region (departments 75, 77, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95). The information requested included melanoma characteristics (localisation, type, Breslow thickness, Clark level, regression signs, pre existence of a nevus) and demographic data (age, sex, zip code of residence). Results: 98 % of pathologists in the region agree to participate in the study. They send 1453 questionnaires, among them 160 were excluded (double, non cutaneous melanoma, secondary lesion, non resident in the region, diagnoses out of the inclusion dates, biopsy followed by exeresis). The analyse included 1293 lesions in 1269 patients. More than 2/3 of diagnoses were confirmed by 2 laboratories and 10 laboratories (on 98) reported 86 % of the diagnoses. Incidence:The crude incidence of melanoma in the Paris region during 2004 was 11.4 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, by sex:11.1 per 100 000 males and 12.4 cases per 100 000 females. The sex ratio men/women was 0.82. The crude incidence of invasive melanoma (Clark 2 to 5) was 8,9 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, 9,2 per 100 000 women and 8,6 per 100 000 men, with a sex ratio men/women of 0,93. Demographic characteristics: Melanoma diagnosis was more often in women (54.9 %) than in men (45.1 %). The patients mean age was 59.3 years (S.D.: 17.3). The

  8. PINK1 Primes Parkin-Mediated Ubiquitination of PARIS in Dopaminergic Neuronal Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 and parkin cause autosomal-recessive Parkinson’s disease through a common pathway involving mitochondrial quality control. Parkin inactivation leads to accumulation of the parkin interacting substrate (PARIS, ZNF746 that plays an important role in dopamine cell loss through repression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1-alpha (PGC-1α promoter activity. Here, we show that PARIS links PINK1 and parkin in a common pathway that regulates dopaminergic neuron survival. PINK1 interacts with and phosphorylates serines 322 and 613 of PARIS to control its ubiquitination and clearance by parkin. PINK1 phosphorylation of PARIS alleviates PARIS toxicity, as well as repression of PGC-1α promoter activity. Conditional knockdown of PINK1 in adult mouse brains leads to a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that is dependent on PARIS. Altogether, these results uncover a function of PINK1 to direct parkin-PARIS-regulated PGC-1α expression and dopaminergic neuronal survival.

  9. Projets et pilotage stratégique de la recherche, le cas des PTR à l'Institut Pasteur

    OpenAIRE

    Charue-Duboc, Florence; Gastaldi, Lise

    2005-01-01

    Nous nous intéressons dans ce texte aux modes d'organisation et de management des départements de recherche, et à leurs évolutions récentes, du fait de la place croissante de l'innovation dans la stratégie des firmes. On observe en effet aujourd'hui de nombreuses réorganisations dans ces départements, qui visent une rationalisation de l'activité et une maximisation des performances. A partir d'une analyse de ces transformations, peut-on caractériser des formes et des outils de management de l...

  10. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  11. The challenge of improving boiling: lessons learned from a randomized controlled trial of water pasteurization and safe storage in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, K; Rocha, C A; Quick, R E; Montano, S M; Tilley, D H; Mock, C N; Carrasco, A J; Cabrera, R M; Hawes, S E

    2016-07-01

    Boiling is the most common method of household water treatment in developing countries; however, it is not always effectively practised. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 210 households to assess the effectiveness of water pasteurization and safe-storage interventions in reducing Escherichia coli contamination of household drinking water in a water-boiling population in rural Peru. Households were randomized to receive either a safe-storage container or a safe-storage container plus water pasteurization indicator or to a control group. During a 13-week follow-up period, households that received a safe-storage container and water pasteurization indicator did not have a significantly different prevalence of stored drinking-water contamination relative to the control group [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·92-1·52]. Similarly, receipt of a safe-storage container alone had no effect on prevalence of contamination (PR 1·02, 95% CI 0·79-1·31). Although use of water pasteurization indicators and locally available storage containers did not increase the safety of household drinking water in this study, future research could illuminate factors that facilitate the effective use of these interventions to improve water quality and reduce the risk of waterborne disease in populations that boil drinking water.

  12. Propyl Paraben Sensitizes Heat-Resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienburg to Thermal Pasteurization in Liquid Egg Albumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The USDA, Food Safety and Inspection Service requires that liquid egg albumen (or egg white, LEW) undergo pasteurization at 56.7 C for 3.5 min prior to distribution. This process is known change the physical properties of LEW. The use of antimicrobials to sensitize salmonellae to pa...

  13. Understanding the Nature of Science through a Critical and Reflective Analysis of the Controversy between Pasteur and Liebig on Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carmona, Antonio; Acevedo-Díaz, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative study, descriptive-interpretive in profile, of the effectiveness in learning about the nature of science (NOS) of an activity relating to the historical controversy between Pasteur and Liebig on fermentation. The activity was implemented during a course for pre-service secondary science teachers (PSSTs)…

  14. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HEAT PUMP EMBEDDED IN INSTALLATION FOR PASTEURIZATION AND COOLING OF MILK, part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A heat pump scheme embedded into the installation for pasteurization and cooling of milk products is developed. A scheme of gas cooler automatic control system is considered. Methods of autonomous control of heat pump gas cooler and evaporators are presented as well.

  15. Comparison of the in vitro digestion of raw pasture milk and commercial HTST and UHT pasteurized milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of raw milk from pasture-fed cows, typically purchased at local farms, is steadily increasing in the US because many consumers believe that high-temperature short-time (HTST) or ultrahigh temperature (UHT) pasteurization affects the digestibility of milk proteins and thus the bioavailabi...

  16. Plaster of Paris-Short History of Casting and Injured Limb Immobilzation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostakowski, B; Smitham, P; Khan, W S

    2017-01-01

    Various materials have been used since ancient times to help immobilise fractures. In this review, we discuss the history and developments of these materials as well as plaster of Paris. There has been a recent trend away from non-operative management of fractures, and skills in the use of plaster of Paris are declining. For the successful treatment of patients, it is important to appreciate how plaster works, how it should be used, and what can go wrong. In this review, we also discuss principles of applications and complications of plaster of Paris.

  17. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  18. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  19. Confucius Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Confucius Institute(simplified Chinese:孔子学院;traditional Chinese:孔子學院;pinyin:kǒngzǐ xuéyuàn)is a non-profit public institute which aims at promoting Chinese language and culture and supporting local Chinese teaching internationally through affiliated Confucius Institutes.

  20. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  1. Adoption of protocols to amend the Paris convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy and the Brussels convention supplementary to the Paris convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. W.; Jang, K. H.; Oh, B. J.; Song, J. M.; Jung, M. M.; Kim, H. J. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    To keep in line with the world-wide tendency to strengthen the nuclear third party liability system after the Chernobyl accident, the Protocols to amend the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention was adopted on 12 February, 2004. The most important feature of the revised Paris Convention is an increase in the nuclear operator's liability amount from 15 million SDRs to a new minimum of 700 million Euros. For the additional compensation to those provided by the domestic liability regime, the revised Brussels Supplementary Convention will maintain its basic three-tier compensation system but with significantly increased amounts(As a result the total amount to be compensated according to the three tiers will be 15 billions Euros). The protocols to amend the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy will come into force when ratified by two thirds of the Signatory States, and the protocol to amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention will come into force when ratified by all the Brussels Supplementary Convention Signatory States.

  2. Aflatoxin M1 level in pasteurized and sterilized milk of Babol city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi S J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are severe toxic secondary metabolites found in most plant products. When animals consume contaminated feed stuff to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, the toxin is metabolized by liver and is excreted as Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 via milk. Aflatoxins are acute toxic compounds, immunosuppressive, mutagen, tratogen and carcinogen."nMethods: During the winter of 2006, pasteurized and sterilized (ultra high temperature (UHT milk packages were collected from supermarkets in Babol city. 78 pasteurized and 33 sterilized milk, totally 111 samples were tested for AFM1 by competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Solid phase in plastic micro wells coated whit anti-Aflatoxin M1 antibodies. We added 100 microliter skimmed milk and Aflatoxin M1 standard solutions in each well. In each plate, we appointed seven wells for standards. Plates were incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 45 min. Each well was washed four times by washing buffer 20X concentration. Then 100 micro liter conjugated solution (100X was added to each well, and the plate was incubated at 20-25 centigrade for 15 min. After that, the wells were washed. After adding the substrates to wells, we incubated the plate at 20-25 centigrade in a dark place for 15 min. The reaction was stopped by stop solution. After one hour, light absorption was read at 450 nm by ELISA reader."nResults: AFM1 were detected in 100% of all samples. 100% of samples were above of European community regulations (50ng/l. AFM1 contamination mean levels pasteurized and sterilized milk were 230.5 and 221.66 respectively. Therefore more than four fold levels European community. There is not a significant relationship between AFM1 contamina-tion level and different months of winter applying statistical test."nConclusion: The results showed the need for introducing safety limits for AFM1 levels in child milk under Food Legislative liable of Iran. Aflatoxin M1 contamination is a serious problem for public health

  3. A novel combined solar pasteurizer/TiO2 continuous-flow reactor for decontamination and disinfection of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, José María; Durán, Antonio; Martín, Israel San; Acevedo, Alba María

    2017-02-01

    A new combined solar plant including an annular continuous-flow compound parabolic collector (CPC) reactor and a pasteurization system was designed, built, and tested for simultaneous drinking water disinfection and chemical decontamination. The plant did not use pumps and had no electricity costs. First, water continuously flowed through the CPC reactor and then entered the pasteurizer. The temperature and water flow from the plant effluent were controlled by a thermostatic valve located at the pasteurizer outlet that opened at 80 °C. The pasteurization process was simulated by studying the effect of heat treatment on the death kinetic parameters (D and z values) of Escherichia coli K12 (CECT 4624). 99.1% bacteria photo-inactivation was reached in the TiO2-CPC system (0.60 mg cm(-2) TiO2), and chemical decontamination in terms of antipyrine degradation increased with increasing residence time in the TiO2-CPC system, reaching 70% degradation. The generation of hydroxyl radicals (between 100 and 400 nmol L(-1)) was a key factor in the CPC system efficiency. Total thermal bacteria inactivation was attained after pasteurization in all cases. Chemical degradation and bacterial photo-inactivation in the TiO2-CPC system were improved with the addition of 150 mg L(-1) of H2O2, which generated approximately 2000-2300 nmol L(-1) of HO(●) radicals. Finally, chemical degradation and bacterial photo-inactivation kinetic modelling in the annular CPC photoreactor were evaluated. The effect of the superficial liquid velocity on the overall rate constant was also studied. Both antipyrine degradation and E. coli photo-inactivation were found to be controlled by the catalyst surface reaction rate.

  4. [Introduction to the commemorative session of the centennial of the death of Louis Pasteur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Minor, L

    1995-05-01

    When elected a member of Académie de médecine in 1873, Pasteur was well known for his achievements in chemistry, fermentation and silk worm diseases. He denied spontaneity of diseases, their cause are living germs. Passionate disputations took place in Academy on subjects of septicaemia, childbirth fever, or fowl cholera. In 1881, his success was obtained by vaccination of sheep against epidemic anthrax: his method of virus action softening was available for many human infections diseases, in spite of many disputations. The same method applied to rabies gave him universal glory. When he died in 1895, his views on infections diseases were accepted by Academie de medecine and all over the world.

  5. Household Pasteurization of Drinking-water: The Chulli Water-treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Fakhrul

    2006-01-01

    A simple flow-through system has been developed which makes use of wasted heat generated in traditional clay ovens (chullis) to pasteurize surface water. A hollow aluminium coil is built into the clay chulli, and water is passed through the coil during normal cooking events. By adjusting the flow rate, effluent temperature can be maintained at approximately 70 °C. Laboratory testing, along with over 400 field tests on chulli systems deployed in six pilot villages, showed that the treatment completely inactivated thermotolerant coliforms. The chulli system produces up to 90 litres per day of treated water at the household level, without any additional time or fuel requirement. The technology has been developed to provide a safe alternative source of drinking-water in arsenic-contaminated areas, but can also have wide application wherever people consume microbiologically-contaminated water. PMID:17366777

  6. [Chacterization of human reticulocytes: respiration, Pasteur effect, and electron microscopic findings on mitochondria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Rapoport, S K; Dumdey, R; Hiebsch, C; Thamm, R; Uerlings, I; Rapoport, S

    1977-01-01

    On 5 blood samples of newborns, whose reticulocytes had been enriched by density gradient centrifugation, and on 25 blood samples of different reticulocytoses of man were determined: the extent of intra- and extramitochondrial respiration, coupling of the electron transfer with the oxidative phosphorylation and the electronmicroscopic appearance, and the number of mitochondria. The reticulocytes occurring in the flowing human blood are in general relatively stiff and are characterized by the following properties:--low respiration--low capacity of the respiratory chain enzymes--weakened Pasteur effect --varying proportion of intramitochondrial respiration and total respiration--decoupling of a major part of the intramitochondrial respiration--low number of mitochondria--qualitative changes of mitochondria. However, there are situations of erythropoiesis where immature reticulocytes are discharged in man (similar to the socalled "stress reticulocytes" of rabbits). On the other hand, it could be shown that the reticulocytes of rabbits are mature in the normal state.

  7. Aventis Pasteur vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis A virus: a compilation of immunogenicity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidor, E; Dumas, R; Porteret, V; Bailleux, F; Veitch, K

    2004-04-01

    Inactivated hepatitis A vaccines were developed in the 1980s and were introduced during the early 1990s. The Aventis Pasteur (AvP) inactivated hepatitis A virus antigen is used in several different vaccine formulations licensed for adults and children. Presented here are the immunogenicity results compiled from 37 clinical trials performed in 20 different countries between 1991 and 2001 in which these vaccines were administered to adults (16 years of age and over), children (aged 12 months-17 years), and infants (younger than 12 months). The accumulated clinical experience with these hepatitis A virus-containing vaccines demonstrates the excellent immunogenicity of this antigen in a wide range of situations. As with other licensed inactivated hepatitis A vaccines, immunological priming is achieved in virtually all vaccinees after a single-dose primary immunization, and it may be reinforced by a booster vaccination administered 6-36 months after the primary vaccination.

  8. Experience of the Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussaume, Sylvie; Pacteau, Chantal; Vanderlinden, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that the complexity of climate change issues translates itself into a need for interdisciplinary approaches to science. This allows to first achieve a more comprehensive vision of climate change and, second, to better inform the decision-making processes. However, it seems that willingness alone is rarely enough to implement interdisciplinarity. The purpose of this presentation is to mobilize reflexivity to revisit and analyze the experience of the Paris Consortium for Climate-Environment-Society. The French Consortium Climate-Environment-Society aims to develop, fund and coordinate interdisciplinary research into climate change and its impacts on society and environment. Launched in 2007, the consortium relies on the research expertise of 17 laboratories and federation in the Paris area working mainly in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology, health sciences, and the humanities and social sciences. As examples, economists and climatologists have studied greenhouse gas emission scenarios compatible with climate stabilization goals. Historical records have provided both knowledge about past climate change and vulnerability of societies. Some regions, as the Mediterranean and the Sahel, are particularly vulnerable and already have to cope with water availability, agricultural production and even health issues. A project showed that millet production in West Africa is expected to decline due to warming in a higher proportion than observed in recent decades. Climate change also raises many questions concerning health: combined effects of warming and air quality, impacts on the production of pollens and allergies, impacts on infectious diseases. All these issues lead to a need for approaches integrating different disciplines. Furthermore, climate change impacts many ecosystems which, in turn, affect its evolution. Our experience shows that interdisciplinarity supposes, in order to take shape, the conjunction between programming

  9. The microbial content of unexpired pasteurized milk from selected supermarkets in a developing country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melisa Anderson; Patrice Hinds; Stacyann Hurditt; Princena Miller; Donovan McGrowder; Ruby Alexander-Lindo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence and levels of microbes in unexpired pasteurized milk from randomly selected supermarkets in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods: The quantitative study used a stratified random sampling technique in the selection of the 20 representative milk samples from six (6) supermarkets. Microbiological tests such as methylene blue reduction, standard plate count (SPC), coliform plate count (CPC), purity plate culture, gram staining and biochemical tests were performed to examine the microbes in purchased unexpired pasteurized milk. Results: One sample (BCr016) had a pH of 4.0, a rancid odour and curdled appearance. It decolourized within one hour during the methylene blue reduction test and was classified as class 4 milk. Seven of the samples were sterile with no microbe growth on the plate count agar and violet red bile salt agar (VRBA). The milk samples that appeared to be safe for consumption were all 10, 11, 12 and 13 days before expiration. The VRBA sample BCr016, had a colony count of 13 400 CFU/ mL. There was the presence of Escherichia coli in sample LCr021 which had a standard plate count of 1 580 SPC/mL and a coliform count of 500 CFU/mL. Enterobacter sp. was present in colonies from BCr016 and all the other milk samples. Conclusions: Unacceptable levels of Enterobacter spp. and Escherichiacoli were found in most of the samples. Effective measures to ensure safe milk for human consumption such as the phosphatase test and methylene blue reduction test should be routinely performed on each batch of milk processed by dairy plants.

  10. Dielectric properties of almond kernels associated with radio frequency and microwave pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Shuang; Kou, Xiaoxi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shaojin

    2017-01-01

    To develop advanced pasteurization treatments based on radio frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of almond kernels were measured by using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer at frequencies between 10 and 3000 MHz, moisture contents between 4.2% to 19.6% w.b. and temperatures between 20 and 90 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant and loss factor of the almond kernels decreased sharply with increasing frequency over the RF range (10–300 MHz), but gradually over the measured MW range (300–3000 MHz). Both dielectric constant and loss factor of almond kernels increased with increasing temperature and moisture content, and largely enhanced at higher temperature and moisture levels. Quadratic polynomial equations were developed to best fit the relationship between dielectric constant or loss factor at 27, 40, 915 or 2450 MHz and sample temperature/moisture content with R2 greater than 0.967. Penetration depth of electromagnetic wave into samples decreased with increasing frequency (27–2450 MHz), moisture content (4.2–19.6% w.b.) and temperature (20–90 °C). The temperature profiles of RF heated almond kernels under three moisture levels were made using experiment and computer simulation based on measured dielectric properties. Based on the result of this study, RF treatment has potential to be practically used for pasteurization of almond kernels with acceptable heating uniformity. PMID:28186149

  11. Development and shelf-life determination of pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, A E C; Silva E Alves, A T; Gallina, D A; Trento, F K H S; Zacarchenco, P B; Van Dender, A G F; Moreno, I; Ormenese, R C S C; Spadoti, L M

    2014-09-01

    The segment of the world population showing permanent or temporary lactose intolerance is quite significant. Because milk is a widely consumed food with an high nutritional value, technological alternatives have been sought to overcome this dilemma. Microfiltration combined with pasteurization can not only extend the shelf life of milk but can also maintain the sensory, functional, and nutritional properties of the product. This studied developed a pasteurized, microfiltered, lactose hydrolyzed (delactosed) skim milk (PMLHSM). Hydrolysis was performed using β-galactosidase at a concentration of 0.4mL/L and incubation for approximately 21h at 10±1°C. During these procedures, the degree of hydrolysis obtained (>90%) was accompanied by evaluation of freezing point depression, and the remaining quantity of lactose was confirmed by HPLC. Milk was processed using a microfiltration pilot unit equipped with uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) ceramic membranes with a mean pore size of 1.4 μm and UTP of 60 kPa. The product was submitted to physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory evaluations, and its shelf life was estimated. Microfiltration reduced the aerobic mesophilic count by more than 4 log cycles. We were able to produce high-quality PMLHSM with a shelf life of 21 to 27d when stored at 5±1°C in terms of sensory analysis and proteolysis index and a shelf life of 50d in regard to total aerobic mesophile count and titratable acidity. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dielectric properties of almond kernels associated with radio frequency and microwave pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Shuang; Kou, Xiaoxi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shaojin

    2017-02-01

    To develop advanced pasteurization treatments based on radio frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of almond kernels were measured by using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer at frequencies between 10 and 3000 MHz, moisture contents between 4.2% to 19.6% w.b. and temperatures between 20 and 90 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant and loss factor of the almond kernels decreased sharply with increasing frequency over the RF range (10–300 MHz), but gradually over the measured MW range (300–3000 MHz). Both dielectric constant and loss factor of almond kernels increased with increasing temperature and moisture content, and largely enhanced at higher temperature and moisture levels. Quadratic polynomial equations were developed to best fit the relationship between dielectric constant or loss factor at 27, 40, 915 or 2450 MHz and sample temperature/moisture content with R2 greater than 0.967. Penetration depth of electromagnetic wave into samples decreased with increasing frequency (27–2450 MHz), moisture content (4.2–19.6% w.b.) and temperature (20–90 °C). The temperature profiles of RF heated almond kernels under three moisture levels were made using experiment and computer simulation based on measured dielectric properties. Based on the result of this study, RF treatment has potential to be practically used for pasteurization of almond kernels with acceptable heating uniformity.

  13. Effective use of nisin to control Bacillus and Clostridium spoilage of a pasteurized mashed potato product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Linda V; Ingram, Richard E; Bevis, Helen E; Davies, E Alison; Milne, Catherine F; Delves-Broughton, Joss

    2002-10-01

    Heat-resistant spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus and Clostridium can survive and grow in cooked potato products. This situation represents both a public health problem and an economic problem. The natural food preservative nisin is used in heat-treated foods to prevent the growth of such bacteria. A cocktail of Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores was inoculated into cooked mashed potatoes, which were vacuum packed, pasteurized, and incubated at 8 and 25 degrees C. The shelf life of the mashed potatoes at 25 degrees C was extended by at least 58 days with the addition 6.25 microg of nisin per g. At 8 degrees C, in control samples not containing nisin, the natural contaminant Bacillus grew, but the inoculated Clostridium strains did not until the temperature was raised to 20 degrees C after 39 days. No bacterial growth occurred in nisin-containing samples. The shelf life of the mashed potatoes was extended by at least 30 days with 6.25 microg of nisin per g. In trials involving a cocktail of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis strains, 6.25 microg of nisin per g extended the shelf life of mashed potato samples that were not vacuum packed by at least 27 days at 8 degrees C. At 25 degrees C, 25 microg of nisin per g extended shelf life by a similar period. Shelf life extension was also observed at lower nisin levels. Microbiological analysis of the mashed potato ingredients showed that a high spore level was associated with the onion powder. It is emphasized that the preservative and the ingredients must be well mixed to ensure good nisin efficacy. Nisin remained at effective levels after pasteurization, and good retention was observed throughout the shelf life of the mashed potatoes.

  14. The Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Level in Collected Raw Milk for Pasteurized Dairy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sadeghi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins that have carcinogenic, cellular mutations and malformation effects. Aflatoxin M1 resists pasteurization, autoclave and the other methods that make foodstuff healthy. This study aims to determine the contents of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of milk factories in Kermanshah province.Materials and Methods: This research is carried out through the descriptive-cross sectional method. Among the raw milk received by four pasteurized milk factories in Kermanshah, coded by (A, B, C, D labels, six samples, totally 320 samples (80 samples from each factory, were taken within four seasons. The concentration of aflatoxin M1 was examined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The mean difference was analyzed statistically through t-test using SPSS software. Results: The content of aflatoxin was higher than Codex standard (0.5 µg/l in 295 samples. The total mean was 1.21, which exceeds two times the Codex standard. The highest and lowest contents of aflatoxin M1 were observed in “Factory D” in spring and in “Factory A” in autumn, respectively. There was a significant difference between contamination of aflatoxin M1 and different seasons (p< 0.05.Conclusion: High content of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk is worrying. Measuring the content of aflatoxin M1 is essential to reduce the toxin entering the daily food of animals and the other related factors. The considerable difference of aflatoxin M1 content between Factory D and Factory A can be attributed to the amount of the local milk and the industrial milk received by the factories.

  15. Market Potential of Pasteurized Coconut Water in the Philippine Beverage Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanilyn Aguilar Hidalgo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Trends in health and well-being are taking the lead in the beverage consumption movement.  The waning attractiveness of carbonated beverage may be attributed to the negative impression of the sugar content linking it to health problems.  Studies show that coconut water is found to be as effective as a sports drink for rehydration.  However, while coconut water may be an old commodity which is usually consumed as fresh, pasteurized coconut water (PCW becomes a new entrant in the Philippine beverage industry.  As new player, penetrating the market of the giant beverage manufacturers seem to be risky and challenging.  The study aimed to determine the market potential of bottled pasteurized coconut water and to identify product positioning opportunity in the beverage market. The study employed random consumption survey and product test. Van Westerndorp price sensitivity meter was used in determining the ideal price for PCW.  The properties of PCW against the respondents’ top beverage were used as bases for product positioning.  The study revealed that PCW is widely accepted by the general consumers and the target market using common beverage attributes. PCW is positioned as a functional health drink that could serve as a substitute beverage to bottled water and sports drink.  The natural and functional appeal of PCW may serve as its product differentiation tool in penetrating the beverage market and attracting consumers with active and healthy lifestyle.  With high market acceptability, there is a huge potential for PCW to infiltrate the Philippine beverage industry.

  16. Paris Photo 2015 / Kristel Schwede, Annika Haas, Laura Põld, Piret Frey

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline fotomess "Paris Photo 2015" 12. kuni 15. novembrini Pariisi messihallis Grand Palais. Eestit esindasid messil oma loominguga Jaanus Samma, Sigrid Viir, Krista Mölder (Temnikova & Kasela galerii)

  17. Globalizing forms of elite sociability: varieties of cosmopolitanism in Paris social clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousin, B.; Chauvin, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the cultivation of transnational connections, cosmopolitanism and global class consciousness among members of elite social clubs in Paris. Drawing from interviews with members, it compares how - according to their respective characteristics - various social clubs promote

  18. Globalizing forms of elite sociability: varieties of cosmopolitanism in Paris social clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousin, B.; Chauvin, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the cultivation of transnational connections, cosmopolitanism and global class consciousness among members of elite social clubs in Paris. Drawing from interviews with members, it compares how - according to their respective characteristics - various social clubs promote differ

  19. Air France Offers A Second Daily Flight on Its Beijing - Paris Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      Starting from 14 June 2005, Air France is adding one more daily flight on its Beijing - Paris's route. Air France customers will then have a choice of fourteen weekly flights between the two cities.……

  20. Air France Offers A Second Daily Flight on Its Beijing - Paris Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Starting from 14 June 2005, Air France is adding one more daily flight on its Beijing - Paris's route. Air France customers will then have a choice of fourteen weekly flights between the two cities.

  1. Paris Photo 2015 / Kristel Schwede, Annika Haas, Laura Põld, Piret Frey

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline fotomess "Paris Photo 2015" 12. kuni 15. novembrini Pariisi messihallis Grand Palais. Eestit esindasid messil oma loominguga Jaanus Samma, Sigrid Viir, Krista Mölder (Temnikova & Kasela galerii)

  2. GREEN CATALYZED OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENT SYSTEMS GENERATED BY PARIS II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Catalyzed Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in Alternative Solvent Systems Generated by PARIS IIMichael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas M. Becker, and Paul F. Harten; Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26...

  3. Non Destructive IR Micro-Imaging of Whole Grains of the Paris Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionnet, Z.; Aleon-Toppani, A.; Borondics, F.; Brunetto, R.; Djouadi, Z.; Troadec, D.

    2016-08-01

    Here, we report the results of high-resolution Fourier Transform IR spectral imaging experiments at micron scale using FPA (Focal Plan Array) and synchroton radiation of the Paris meteorite (carbonaceous chondrite,CM )with a new sample preparation.

  4. Highlights and Conclusions of the Chalonge 13th Paris Cosmology Colloquium

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The 13th Chalonge Paris Cosmology Colloquium was held at the historic Perrault building of Observatoire de Paris on 23-25 July 2009. The Colloquium was held in the spirit of the Chalonge School, putting together real cosmological and astrophysical data and hard theory predictive approach in the framework of the Standard Model of the Universe. Peter Biermann, James Bullock, Claudio Destri, Hector de Vega, Massimo Giovannini, Sasha Kashlinsky, Eiichiro Komatsu, Anthony Lasenby and Norma G. Sanc...

  5. Workshop Report: The Entry and Monitoring of Students in Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Leboyer, Claude

    1981-01-01

    A 1979 Paris workshop is summarized that included presentations and discussions on the causes of European and U.S. student dropouts and failures, methods for overcoming such failures and their specific applications in different institutions, and student selection problems. (MSE)

  6. Development of TV003/TV005, a single dose, highly immunogenic live attenuated dengue vaccine; what makes this vaccine different from the Sanofi-Pasteur CYD™ vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is caused by four serotype-distinct dengue viruses (DENVs), and developing a multivalent vaccine against dengue has not been straightforward since partial immunity to DENV may predispose to more severe disease upon subsequent DENV infection. The vaccine that is furthest along in development is CYD™, a live attenuated tetravalent vaccine (LATV) produced by Sanofi Pasteur. Although the multi-dose vaccine demonstrated protection against severe dengue, its overall efficacy was limited by DENV serotype, serostatus at vaccination, region and age. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has developed the LATV dengue vaccines TV003/TV005. A single dose of either TV003 or TV005 induced seroconversion to four DENV serotypes in 74-92% (TV003) and 90% (TV005) of flavivirus seronegative adults and elicited near-sterilizing immunity to a second dose of vaccine administered 6-12 months later. The important differences in the structure, infectivity and immune responses to TV003/TV005 are compared with CYD™.

  7. The carbon isotope composition of atmospheric CO 2 in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widory, David; Javoy, Marc

    2003-10-01

    One characteristic of air pollution in the urban environment is high CO 2 concentrations resulting from human activities. Determining the relative contributions of the different CO 2 sources can be addressed simply and elegantly by combining isotope and concentration measurements. Using this approach on atmospheric CO 2 samples collected in Paris, its suburbs and the open country provides fairly accurate conclusions. Our results show that air pollution within the first few metres above ground results basically from binary mixtures among which road traffic is the main contributor and, in particular, vehicles using unleaded gasoline (˜90% of the total). Heating sources, which account for 50% of the CO 2 input below the atmospheric inversion level, and vehicles using diesel contribute very little. Human respiration has a recognisable signature at street level under certain circumstances. The combined isotope and concentration analysis provides a sensitive tracer of local variations, even detecting the occasional prevalence of human respiration and the onset of actions in which natural gas is burnt. It also detects surprising inlets of 'clean air' (CO 2-wise) in the very centre of the city.

  8. Metaphors of Collecting in Late Nineteenth Century Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Mendelson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At the same time that Aby Warburg was assembling his library and organizing his 'Bildatlas Mnemosyne', art critics and writers theorized late nineteenth-century collecting in Paris in metaphoric terms. Over and again, art collections were described as a bouquet, a conversation, a book, or indeed as a painting in and of itself put together by an ‘amateur’. By creating an ensemble, the amateur proposed a metaphorical mode of knowledge similar to that celebrated by Aby Warburg. This article considers the ways in which the arrangement and spaces of the late nineteenth-century amateurs, as seen in newspaper articles, sales catalogue essays and other texts and photographs, positioned the collector of paintings, but also of drawings and prints and rare books, in contradistinction to the development of the museum and proposed alternative modes of viewing and of knowing. The interdisciplinarity of Warburg’s focus on image, word, orientation and action is paralleled in many private collections.

  9. Paris to Beijing by bike: they made it!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The challenge, a 12,623 km cycle trip to Beijing for the inauguration of the Olympic Games, was no easy ride, but they made it there on time. "I can do nothing for those who do not ask themselves questions" (Confucius -551-479 BC) CERN’s Raymond Cambarrat and Peter Dreesen arrived in the Chinese capital on 3 August after an incredible human and sporting adventure that began in Paris on 16 March (see Bulletin No. 20 & 21, 8 May 2008). The two cyclists, who set off on their journey with 102 other enthusiasts, rode for a total of 120 days with only ten days’ rest along the way. The greatest distance they covered in a single day was a 192 km leg in Russia, one of 12 countries their expedition took them through. From the arid steppes of Kirghizstan through the fog of Mount Hua to the snowy wind-swept pass of Kampa, the group covered roads of varying quality, some of them untarmacked, notchi...

  10. An American termite in Paris: temporal colony dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Guillaume; Dedeine, Franck; Bech, Nicolas; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-09-22

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information. Herein, colony delineations were inferred from genetic differences at nine microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus. Four of the 18 identified colonies did not show significant differences in their genotype distributions between the two sampling periods. While allelic richness was low, making it hard to reliably distinguish colony family type, most colonies appeared to retain the same breeding structure over time. These large and expansive colonies showed an important ability to fuse (39% were mixed-family colonies), contained hundreds of reproductives and displayed evidence of isolation-by-distance, suggesting budding dispersal. These traits, which favor colony persistence over time, present a challenge for pest control efforts, which apply treatment locally. The other colonies showed significant differences, but we cannot exclude the possibility that their genotype distributions simply changed over time.

  11. Paris law parameter identification based on the Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgar M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft structures are commonly subjected to repeated loading cycles leading to fatigue damage. Fatigue data can be extrapolated by fatigue models which are adopted to describe the fatigue damage behaviour. Such models depend on their parameters for accurate prediction of the fatigue life. Therefore, several methods have been developed for estimating the model parameters for both linear and nonlinear systems. It is useful for a broad class of parameter identification problems when the dynamic model is not known. In this paper, the Paris law is used as fatigue-crack-length growth model on a metallic component under loading cycles. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is proposed as estimation method. Simulated crack length data is used to validate the estimation method. Based on experimental data obtained from fatigue experiment, the crack length and model parameters are estimated. Accurate model parameters allow a more realistic prediction of the fatigue life, consequently, the remaining useful life (RUL of component can be accurately computed. In this sense, maintenance performance could be improved.

  12. What would it take to achieve the Paris temperature targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Benjamin M.; O'Neill, Brian C.; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims to limit warming to 2 or 1.5°C above preindustrial level, although combined Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) are likely insufficient to achieve these targets. We propose a set of idealized emission pathways consistent with the targets. If countries reduce emissions in line with their INDCs, the 2°C threshold could be avoided only if net zero greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) are achieved by 2085 and late century negative emissions are considerably in excess of those assumed in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 (net -5 Gt CO2/yr, compared with -1.5 Gt CO2/yr in RCP2.6). More aggressive near-term reductions would allow 2°C to be avoided with less end-of-century carbon removal capacity. A 10% cut in GHGEs by 2030 (relative to 2015) could likely achieve 2°C with RCP2.6 level negative emissions. The 1.5°C target requires GHGEs to be reduced by almost a third by 2030 and net zero by 2050, while a 50 year overshoot of 1.5°C allows net zero GHGEs by 2060.

  13. Institutional ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    . In institutional ethnography the notion of objectification is applied to describe research processes like those that have been found to dominate in scholarly work on M&As. In this chapter, we offer an outline of Smiths critique of objectification, elucidate how institutional ethnography seeks to address it...

  14. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  15. [Reaction time tests in Leipzig, Paris and Würzburg. The Franco-German history of a psychological experiment, 1890-1910].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroy, Jacqueline; Schmidgen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This article diiscusses from a comparative perspective the complex history of the reaction experiment with the Hipp chronoscope, one of the central experiments of late 19th-century psychology. It focuses on Wilhelm Wundt's (1832-1920) Institute for Experimental Psychology in Leipzig and on the Paris Laboratory for Physiological Psychology at the Sorbonne, which was initially directed by Henry Beaunis (1830-1921), but soon came to be dominated by the research activities of Alfred Binet (1857-1911). When the Paris psychologists founded their Laboratory in 1889, they took the Leipzig Institute as their model. In the early 1890s they adopted the reaction time experiment that had been central to Wundt's psychology. Shortly after, they modified this experiment according to their own specific interests. For Binet, it no longer served as a method for identifying the elementary components of "general" consciousness (as in Wundt), but for classifying "individual" personalities. The methodological and technological changes that Binet introduced into the experimental practice of psychology had no immediate impact on the research work in Leipzig. However, they influenced the "Wurzburg School" of psychology under Wundt's former assistant, Oswald Külpe (1862-1915). This illustrates that the comparative history of transfers of "experimental systems" (Rheinberger) across national borders is not simply a history of mere transports. Rather, it is a history of transferences that sometimes includes surprising "re-transferences".

  16. Ambient aerosol chlorine concentrations and artefacts during the MEGAPOLI Paris campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furger, Markus; Visser, Suzanne; Slowik, Jay; Crippa, Monica; Poulain, Laurent; Sciare, Jean; Flechsig, Uwe; Prévôt, André; Baltensperger, Urs

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements, especially those that are toxic, can affect the environment in significant ways. Studying them is advantageous with respect to a refinement of source apportionment when measured with high time resolution and appropriate size segregation. This approach is especially useful in urban environments with numerous time-variant emission sources distributed across a relatively narrow space. Two field campaigns took place in the framework of the MEGAPOLI project in Paris, France: one in the summer of 2009 (1-31 July), the other in the winter of 2010 (11 Jan - 10 Feb). Rotating drum impactors (RDI) were operated at an urban and a suburban site in each campaign. The RDI segregated the aerosols into three size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3) and sampled with 2-hour time resolution. The samples were analyzed with synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) at the synchrotron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute (SLS), where a broad range of elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn) was analyzed for each size range. Time series of the analyzed elements for the different sites and campaigns were prepared to characterize the aerosol trace element composition and temporal behavior for different weather situations and urban environments. Quality assurance was performed partly by intercomparison with independent measurements. An exceptional behavior was observed for chlorine (Cl), where periods with zero RDI concentration alternated with periods of normal load. Zero concentrations were not observed in particle-into-liquid (PILS) measurements. This identifies the observed behavior as a RDI sampling artefact. Nevertheless, the non-zero periods of Cl concentrations are still a gain in information compared to conventional sampling techniques, mainly due to the high time resolution.

  17. Public outreach, participatory communication, and communication impact assessment in Paris flood resilience policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Rosa; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Adverse social impacts can reduce the intended benefits of a project aimed to reduce flood risks, and can threaten its viability if they are severe enough. In some other cases, the diverse impacts may mutually counter-balance each other, by furthermore strengthening and amplifying the social resilience. Social changes include those associated with the phenomenon known as the social construction of reality. In the case of proposed actions that involve controversy, attitudes and perceptions toward a proposed policy change are one of the variables that must be considered in determining the significance of impacts. This research entails an analysis of public authorities strategic documents developed during the last ten years in the context of strengthening Paris flood resilience. The review highlights a clear trend to encourage citizen participation and to share responsibilities with the population. This trend does not only express a political will to apply the principle of subsidiarity and decentralise risk management, it also springs from a growing awareness among public institutions of the impact that social construction of the reality can have. Hence the communication between local governments and citizens, especially a two-ways dialogue (i.e. participatory communication), has become a keystone of resilience strategies since it facilitates mutual understanding, shared goals identification and cooperation. More and more frequently flood resilience projects entail a communication strategy or focus on communication actions. However not all these project identify clear communication objectives, target audiences or monitor communication impact. Measuring communication indicators allows decision makers to compare the costs of communication actions with the economic, environmental, social, and sanitary costs of non-action. Those metrics also help to set up clear communication objectives at the beginning of a project, to evaluate and improve management capacities, to

  18. History of psychosurgery at Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France, through translational interactions between psychiatrists and neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Marc; Pallud, Johan; Baup, Nicolas; Peeters, Sophie; Turak, Baris; Krebs, Marie Odile; Oppenheim, Catherine; Gaillard, Raphael; Devaux, Bertrand

    2017-09-01

    Sainte-Anne Hospital is the largest psychiatric hospital in Paris. Its long and fascinating history began in the 18th century. In 1952, it was at Sainte-Anne Hospital that Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker used the first neuroleptic, chlorpromazine, to cure psychiatric patients, putting an end to the expansion of psychosurgery. The Department of Neuro-psychosurgery was created in 1941. The works of successive heads of the Neurosurgery Department at Sainte-Anne Hospital summarized the history of psychosurgery in France. Pierre Puech defined psychosurgery as the necessary cooperation between neurosurgeons and psychiatrists to treat the conditions causing psychiatric symptoms, from brain tumors to mental health disorders. He reported the results of his series of 369 cases and underlined the necessity for proper follow-up and postoperative re-education, illustrating the relative caution of French neurosurgeons concerning psychosurgery. Marcel David and his assistants tried to follow their patients closely postoperatively; this resulted in numerous publications with significant follow-up and conclusions. As early as 1955, David reported intellectual degradation 2 years after prefrontal leucotomies. Jean Talairach, a psychiatrist who eventually trained as a neurosurgeon, was the first to describe anterior capsulotomy in 1949. He operated in several hospitals outside of Paris, including the Sarthe Psychiatric Hospital and the Public Institution of Mental Health in the Lille region. He developed stereotactic surgery, notably stereo-electroencephalography, for epilepsy surgery but also to treat psychiatric patients using stereotactic lesioning with radiofrequency ablation or radioactive seeds of yttrium-90. The evolution of functional neurosurgery has been marked by the development of deep brain stimulation, in particular for obsessive-compulsive disorder, replacing the former lesional stereotactic procedures. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital's Neurosurgery Department sheds

  19. Observing the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse from the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Sean Matthew; Cline, J. Donald; Krochmal, Mark; Donald Cline, Mark Krochmal

    2017-01-01

    The Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is located directly under the path of totality of next year’s solar eclipse and possesses two 26m radio telescopes capable of interferometry at simultaneously at 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHZ. PARI is preparing these radio telescopes for use by the astronomical community to observe solar eclipse. We will present the status of PARI’s radio telescopes and information on access for the eclipse. We will also present the status and availability of several optical telescopes.

  20. Institutional actorhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt

    In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts to c...... to comply with the Danish work environment regulation. And by doing so I also describe how institutional complexity and organizational responses to this complexity are particular important for the changing modes of governance that characterizes contemporary welfare states.......In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts...

  1. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....

  2. Protecting the natural spaces on the edge of the Paris metropolis. Guide plan for the development of the natural space 'Joncs Marins' in the Paris metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Horn

    2016-09-01

    Today situated on the edge of the metropolis, these natural spaces will form the future urban parks, when the urbanisation has overgrown them. Like the two major parks of Paris, the 'Bois de Boulogne' and the 'Bois de Vincennes' have been once woodlands for hunting situated far outside of the city.

  3. Diversity of thermophilic bacteria in raw, pasteurized and selectively-cultured milk, as assessed by culturing, PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Susana; Caio T C C Rachid; Fernández, Elena; Rychlik, Tomasz; Alegría, Ángel; Peixoto, R.S.; Mayo Pérez, Baltasar

    2013-01-01

    Thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus helveticus, enjoy worldwide economic importance as dairy starters. To assess the diversity of thermophilic bacteria in milk, milk samples were enriched in thermophilic organisms through a stepwise procedure which included pasteurization of milk at 63°C for 30min (PM samples) and pasteurization followed by incubation at 42°C for 24h (IPM samples). The microbial compo...

  4. Characterization of the indigenous microflora in raw and pasteurized buffalo milk during storage at refrigeration temperature by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Renye, John A; Feng, Ling; Zeng, Qingkun; Tang, Yan; Huang, Li; Ren, Daxi; Yang, Pan

    2016-09-01

    The effect of refrigeration on bacterial communities within raw and pasteurized buffalo milk was studied using high-throughput sequencing. High-quality samples of raw buffalo milk were obtained from 3 dairy farms in the Guangxi province in southern China. Five liters of each milk sample were pasteurized (72°C; 15 s); and both raw and pasteurized milks were stored at refrigeration temperature (1-4°C) for various times with their microbial communities characterized using the Illumina Miseq platform (Novogene, Beijing, China). Results showed that both raw and pasteurized milks contained a diverse microbial population and that the populations changed over time during storage. In raw buffalo milk, Lactococcus and Streptococcus dominated the population within the first 24h; however, when stored for up to 72h the dominant bacteria were members of the Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera, totaling more than 60% of the community. In pasteurized buffalo milk, the microbial population shifted from a Lactococcus-dominated community (7d), to one containing more than 84% Paenibacillus by 21d of storage. To increase the shelf-life of buffalo milk and its products, raw milk needs to be refrigerated immediately after milking and throughout transport, and should be monitored for the presence of Paenibacillus. Results from this study suggest pasteurization should be performed within 24h of raw milk collection, when the number of psychrotrophic bacteria are low; however, as Paenibacillus spores are resistant to pasteurization, additional antimicrobial treatments may be required to extend shelf-life. The findings from this study are expected to aid in improving the quality and safety of raw and pasteurized buffalo milk.

  5. EMA-qPCR to monitor the efficiency of a closed-coupled solar pasteurization system in reducing Legionella contamination of roof-harvested rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyneke, B; Dobrowsky, P H; Ndlovu, T; Khan, S; Khan, W

    2016-05-15

    Solar pasteurization is effective in reducing the level of indicator organisms in stored rainwater to within drinking water standards. However, Legionella spp. were detected at temperatures exceeding the recommended pasteurization temperatures using polymerase chain reaction assays. The aim of the current study was thus to apply EMA quantitative polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR) to determine whether the Legionella spp. detected were intact cells and therefore possibly viable at pasteurization temperatures >70°C. The BacTiter-Glo™ Microbial Cell Viability Assay was also used to detect the presence of ATP in the tested samples, as ATP indicates the presence of metabolically active cells. Chemical analysis also indicated that all anions and cations were within the respective drinking water guidelines, with the exception of iron (mean: 186.76 μg/L) and aluminium (mean: 188.13 μg/L), which were detected in the pasteurized tank water samples at levels exceeding recommended guidelines. The BacTiter-Glo™ Microbial Cell Viability Assay indicated the presence of viable cells for all pasteurized temperatures tested, with the percentage of ATP (in the form of relative light units) decreasing with increasing temperature [70-79°C (96.7%); 80- 89°C (99.2%); 90-95°C (99.7%)]. EMA-qPCR then indicated that while solar pasteurization significantly reduced (p0.05) in the mean copy numbers was detected with an increase in the pasteurization temperature, with 6 × 10(3) genomic copies/mL DNA sample obtained at 95°C. As intact Legionella cells were detected in the pasteurized tank water samples, quantitative microbial risk assessment studies need to be conducted to determine the potential health risk associated with using the water for domestic purposes.

  6. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying; Conservacao de polpa de jucara (Euterpe edulis) submetida a radiacao gama, pasteurizacao, liofilizacao e atomizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da

    2013-08-01

    In Brazil there are unexplored fruit species, which represent an opportunity for producers to access special markets, where consumers appreciate the exotic character and presence of nutrients capable of preventing degenerative diseases. In this context, jucara palm (Euterpe edulis), native of the Atlantic Forest, has long been explored only for the removal of the stem, but currently the pulp of its fruit is becoming more popular. The intense purple color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that act by inhibiting or decreasing the effects unleashed by free radicals. The pulp is highly perishable and its preservation is impossible at room temperature, lowering its market value in sales. In face of this, we need technologies that minimize nutritional and sensorial losses in order to produce healthy, tasty and long lasting foods. This study consists of five experiments with jucara pulp, which aimed to: evaluate the physico-chemical, mineral and lipid composition; realize the sensory characterization by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA); evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory conservation when submitted to radiation gamma, acidification and pasteurization, and dehydration by spray and freeze drying. The fruits have been obtained at Parque das Neblinas (Mogi das Cruzes/SP) and depulped at Agribusiness, Food and Nutrition Department (ESALQ/USP). Was verified that jucara pulp is excellent source of energy and minerals K, Fe, Co, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo; rich in anthocyanins and fatty oils of good quality (palmitic, oleic and linoleic). The irradiation of pulp was performed at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN - Sao Paulo, SP) at doses 0,0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5 and 10,0 kGy and stored at 6 degree C for 30 days (fortnightly assessments). That process was not promising for the conservation of the product at 6 degree C, because the degradation of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds was accelerated and the color changed from purple to

  7. Pursuing the Emancipatory Purport of Subjectivity from Frankfurt to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mesbahian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigating the philosophical place of Subjectivity in the contemporary thought. My justification for engaging in further study on this much-discussed concept is that three significant questions concerning subjectivity have remained insufficiently examined: What is the problem of philosophical foundation of modernity from Cartesian Cogito to the Kantian autonomous will and to the Hegelian subjectivity? Is there any possibility to overcome the proposed problem from an internal point of view and from the perspective of Jürgen Habermas? Whether the radical criticism of the Enlightenment idea of an autonomous subject by thinkers like Foucault and Derrida leads to loss of freedom or to the robust notion of freedom being deeply improved? This paper, accordingly, will examine the three above mentioned questions regarding subjectivity across three sections. I have argued, in the first section that the Enlightenment’s her¬itage is contradictory. On the one hand, the notion of subjectivity has generated a kind of emancipation. On the other hand, the subjectivity has enthroned a conception of reason and of method that can be interpreted as a new form of domination. In the second section, I have argued that Habermas’s answer to the philosophical dilemma of subjectivity is to accept the criticism of subject-centered reason but to find a basis for reason in communicative action. Habermas’s conception of subjectivity has been criticized by the help of some contemporary thinkers, in the third section of this paper, and it has been argued that based on his notions of modernity and subjectivity the marginalized populations of the World- namely the Other- can no longer expect intellectual and ethical support for their plight from Frankfurt and should immigrate to Paris in order to purse the emancipatory aspect of subjectivity.

  8. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set-Effect of Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-02-26

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified.

  9. Collaboration of Art and Science in Albert Edelfelt's Portrait of Louis Pasteur: The Making of an Enduring Medical Icon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Richard E; Hansen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Historians of medicine--and even Louis Pasteur's biographers--have paid little attention to his close relationship with the Finnish artist Albert Edelfelt. A new look at Edelfelt's letters to his mother, written in Swedish and never quoted at length in English, reveals important aspects of Pasteur's working habits and personality. By understanding the active collaboration through which this very famous portrait was made, we also discover unnoticed things in the painting itself, gain a new appreciation of its original impact on the French public's image of science, and better understand its enduring influence on the portrayal of medicine in the art and the popular culture of many countries even to the present day.

  10. Quantifying exposure to vero-cytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 in milk sold as pasteurized: a model-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Helen E; Clancy, Damian; French, Nigel P

    2009-05-31

    Milk sold as pasteurized has historically been implicated in the UK and worldwide as a vehicle for outbreaks of food-borne gastrointestinal disease, with a number of causative pathogenic organisms. One such organism is verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli, or E. coli, O157 (VTEC O157). We present a quantitative assessment of likely exposure to VTEC O157 via milk sold as pasteurized in the UK. Particular interest in our assessment concerns whether there is any differential risk between milk which is processed in on- and off-farm dairies. We model the milk production chain from the farm through to the point of retail and make a comparison between these two production environments. Our model is an example of the Modular Process Risk Modelling (MPRM) approach and represents uncertainty and variability in input parameters using probability distributions. We conclude that milk processed on farm poses the comparatively greater risk, although that risk is still small.

  11. Modulation of the Pasteur effect in retinal cells: implications for understanding compensatory metabolic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Barry S; Sauer, Michael W; Starnes, Catherine A

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the present experiments was to enhance understanding of the factors that are critical for the survival of retinal cells exposed to mitochondrial inhibition. Confluent cultures of Müller cells (rMC-1) and human retinal pigment epithelial cells (hRPE) were incubated in Dulbecco's minimal essential medium in the presence and absence of 1x10(-5)M Antimycin A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport. To modulate the rates of aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis, cells were incubated in media containing varying concentrations of glucose and 1-100 micro M of iodoacetic acid (IAA), an inhibitor of glyceraldehdye-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH). Measurements were made of G3PDH, lactic acid production, and cellular ATP levels, along with an examination of cellular morphology, the latter providing an index of cellular viability. Control rMC-1 and hRPE produced lactate aerobically, respectively, at 0.48 and 1.50 micro molhr(-1)/10(6) cells. Anaerobically, lactate production increased 2-fold in rMC-1 and 3-fold in hRPE. Anaerobic ATP levels in both types of cells were maintained at control levels over 8hr. Experimental conditions were sought that would modulate only the capacity of rMC-1 and hRPE to increase glycolysis following mitochondrial inhibition, i.e. alter their Pasteur effect. We used low concentrations of IAA to partially inhibit G3PDH. Incubation of rMC-1 with IAA for 6hr caused a graded inhibition of G3PDH: 70% inhibition with 1 micro M, 90% with 5 micro M, 97% with 10 micro M, and 100% with 100 micro M. While the aerobic and anaerobic rates of lactic acid production were not altered by 1 micro M IAA, both were suppressed completely by 100 micro M IAA. However, incubation of rMC-1 with 5 micro M IAA caused a decrease of 30% in the rate of anaerobic lactic acid production but no change in the rate of aerobic glycolysis. Moreover, with 5 micro M IAA, rMC-1 incubated aerobically maintained ATP levels, but anaerobic ATP content decreased to a low

  12. Transparent Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fombona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to create sets of media-based imagery that illustrate the internal workings of public institutions to the common citizen. This is an important need in countries that are seeking to open up their public and private institutions and bring them closer to their users. Method: There is a clear need to carry out proposals that tackle organizational lack of transparency; to this end, through an interdisciplinary approach, we propose the creation of a freeaccess Web-based portal that shows the interior of the institutions at hand, learning institutions to start with, this scope will be broadened later to institutions of health and public safety. The project chooses and shows a core selection of features capable of becoming international models for each kind of institutions, elementary schools in this phase. These features are shown in short videos, depicting every core element found: installations, governing bodies, documentation, samples of learning and teaching methodologies in use, etc. Results: the propossed project succeeds in getting institutions closer to their users. It has been developed in Spain, and translated to other Latin-American countries and the United States.

  13. Transparent Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fombona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to create sets of media-based imagery that illustrate the internal workings of public institutions to the common citizen. This is an important need in countries that are seeking to open up their public and private institutions and bring them closer to their users. Method: There is a clear need to carry out proposals that tackle organizational lack of transparency; to this end, through an interdisciplinary approach, we propose the creation of a freeaccess Web-based portal that shows the interior of the institutions at hand, learning institutions to start with, this scope will be broadened later to institutions of health and public safety. The project chooses and shows a core selection of features capable of becoming international models for each kind of institutions, elementary schools in this phase. These features are shown in short videos, depicting every core element found: installations, governing bodies, documentation, samples of learning and teaching methodologies in use, etc. Results: the propossed project succeeds in getting institutions closer to their users. It has been developed in Spain, and translated to other Latin-American countries and the United States.

  14. Using Computational Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) for the evaluation of beer pasteurization: effect of orientation of cans

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Esteves Duarte Augusto; Talita Ferramola Pinheiro; Marcelo Cristianini

    2010-01-01

    In-package pasteurization is the most used method for beer microbiological stabilization. The search for safer and better quality food has created a need to better understand the processes involved in producing it. However, little is known about the temperature and velocity profiles during the thermal processes of liquid foods in commercial packaging, which results in over-dimensioned processes to guarantee safety, decreasing the sensorial and nutritional characteristics of the product and in...

  15. Partial Failure of Milk Pasteurization as a Risk for the Transmission of Campylobacter From Cattle to Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Anand M; Balasegaram, Sooria; Willis, Caroline; Wimalarathna, Helen M L; Maiden, Martin C; McCarthy, Noel D

    2015-09-15

    Cattle are the second most common source of human campylobacteriosis. However, routes to account for this scale of transmission have not been identified. In contrast to chicken, red meat is not heavily contaminated at point of sale. Although effective pasteurization prevents milk-borne infection, apparently sporadic infections may include undetected outbreaks from raw or perhaps incompletely pasteurized milk. A rise in Campylobacter gastroenteritis in an isolated population was investigated using whole-genome sequencing (WGS), an epidemiological study, and environmental investigations. A single strain was identified in 20 cases, clearly distinguishable from other local strains and a reference population by WGS. A case-case analysis showed association of infection with the outbreak strain and milk from a single dairy (odds ratio, 8; Fisher exact test P value = .023). Despite temperature records indicating effective pasteurization, mechanical faults likely to lead to incomplete pasteurization of part of the milk were identified by further testing and examination of internal components of dairy equipment. Here, milk distribution concentrated on a small area, including school-aged children with low background incidence of campylobacteriosis, facilitated outbreak identification. Low-level contamination of widely distributed milk would not produce as detectable an outbreak signal. Such hidden outbreaks may contribute to the substantial burden of apparently sporadic Campylobacter from cattle where transmission routes are not certain. The effective discrimination of outbreak isolates from a reference population using WGS shows that integrating these data and approaches into surveillance could support the detection as well as investigation of such outbreaks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  16. Changes in water binding during ripening of cheeses made from raw, pasteurized or high-pressure-treated goat milk

    OpenAIRE

    Buffa, Martín; Guamis, Buenaventura; Saldo, Jordi; Trujillo, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The different types of water contained in the matrix of cheeses made from raw (RA), pasteurized (PA; 72 °C, 15 s) or pressure-treated (PR; 500 MPa, 15 min, 20 °C) goat milk were studied throughout ripening. Water content was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by thermogravimetry. Thermogravimetric curves showed that water is lost in two successive steps (W$_1$ and W$_2$), depending on the temperature required for water to leave the cheese network. Although water...

  17. Proteomic profile of culture filtrate from the Brazilian vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau compared to M. bovis BCG Pasteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degrave Wim M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG is currently the only available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB and comprises a heterogeneous family of sub-strains with genotypic and phenotypic differences. The World Health Organization (WHO affirms that the characterization of BCG sub-strains, both on genomic and proteomic levels, is crucial for a better comprehension of the vaccine. In addition, these studies can contribute in the development of a more efficient vaccine against TB. Here, we combine two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE and mass spectrometry to analyse the proteomic profile of culture filtrate proteins (CFPs from M. bovis BCG Moreau, the Brazilian vaccine strain, comparing it to that of BCG Pasteur. CFPs are considered of great importance given their dominant immunogenicity and role in pathogenesis, being available for interaction with host cells since early infection. Results The 2DE proteomic map of M. bovis BCG Moreau CFPs in the pH range 3 - 8 allowed the identification of 158 spots corresponding to 101 different proteins, identified by MS/MS. Comparison to BCG Pasteur highlights the great similarity between these BCG strains. However, quantitative analysis shows a higher expression of immunogenic proteins such as Rv1860 (BCG1896, Apa, Rv1926c (BCG1965c, Mpb63 and Rv1886c (BCG1923c, Ag85B in BCG Moreau when compared to BCG Pasteur, while some heat shock proteins, such as Rv0440 (BCG0479, GroEL2 and Rv0350 (BCG0389, DnaK, show the opposite pattern. Conclusions Here we report the detailed 2DE profile of CFPs from M. bovis BCG Moreau and its comparison to BCG Pasteur, identifying differences that may provide relevant information on vaccine efficacy. These findings contribute to the detailed characterization of the Brazilian vaccine strain against TB, revealing aspects that may lead to a better understanding of the factors leading to BCG's variable protective efficacy against TB.

  18. A Study on the Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Produced in Rafsanjan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    FaAkrami Mohajeri Akrami Mohajeri; Asieh Amiri; Hossein Khorramdel Azad; Zahra Ahmadi; Zahra Asadollahi; Mohsen Rezaeian; Fallah, Aziz A.; Seyed Razi Ghalebi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aflatoxins, known as causative factors of hepatic and extra-hepatic carcinogenesis within humans, are extremely teratogenic, mutagenic, toxic, and carcinogenic compounds. Materials & Methods: This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 40 raw milk and 47 pasteurized milk samples collected during spring and winter. In order to analyze the samples, the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure was used. The statistical methods used...

  19. Evaluation of Antibiotic Residues in Pasteurized and Raw Milk Distributed in the South of Khorasan-e Razavi Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Mortez Mohammadzadeh; Amiri, Mostafa; Riabi, Hamid Ramezani Awal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The presence of antibiotic residues in milk and other products livestock is a health problem which can endanger public health. Antibiotics are used widely in animal husbandry to treat diseases related to bacterial infections. Antimicrobial drugs have been in use for decades in industry. They are commonly used in livestock facilities to treat mastitis. Aim This study aimed to investigate antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk distributed in schools, in milk collection centers, and in milk production factories in Gonabad city. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 251 samples of commercial pasteurized milk packet distributed in schools (code A), raw milk collection centers in Gonabad city (code B), and pasteurized milk production factories (code C) in Gonabad city. The Copan test kit of Denmark Christian Hansen Company was used to monitor antibiotic residues in milk. The data were analysed employing Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine significant differences using SPSS software version 20. The significant level was considered at p0.05). The highest number of milk samples (n=7) contaminated with antibiotics were related to code B (38.5%). Most positive cases were related to code A in winter. Also, there was no significant difference among the three types of contaminated milk regarding the year and month (p=0.164 and p=0.917, respectively). Conclusion Pasteurized milk supplied in the studied city has high level of contamination due to high use of antibiotics. A standard limit needs to be set for the right level of residue of antibiotics in milk to avoid the harmful effects. PMID:28208877

  20. Gravity separation of fat, somatic cells, and bacteria in raw and pasteurized milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Z; Melilli, C; Barbano, D M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to determine if the extent of gravity separation of milk fat, bacteria, and somatic cells is influenced by the time and temperature of gravity separation or the level of contaminating bacteria present in the raw milk. The objective of experiment 2 was to determine if different temperatures of milk heat treatment affected the gravity separation of milk fat, bacteria, and somatic cells. In raw milk, fat, bacteria, and somatic cells rose to the top of columns during gravity separation. About 50 to 80% of the fat and bacteria were present in the top 8% of the milk after gravity separation of raw milk. Gravity separation for 7h at 12°C or for 22h at 4°C produced equivalent separation of fat, bacteria, and somatic cells. The completeness of gravity separation of fat was influenced by the level of bacteria in the milk before separation. Milk with a high bacterial count had less (about 50 to 55%) gravity separation of fat than milk with low bacteria count (about 80%) in 22h at 4°C. Gravity separation caused fat, bacteria, and somatic cells to rise to the top of columns for raw whole milk and high temperature, short-time pasteurized (72.6°C, 25s) whole milk. Pasteurization at ≥76.9°C for 25s prevented all 3 components from rising, possibly due to denaturation of native bovine immunoglobulins that normally associate with fat, bacteria, and somatic cells during gravity separation. Gravity separation can be used to produce reduced-fat milk with decreased bacterial and somatic cell counts, and may be a critical factor in the history of safe and unique traditional Italian hard cheeses produced from gravity-separated raw milk. A better understanding of the mechanism of this natural process could lead to the development of new nonthermal thermal technology (that does not involve heating the milk to high temperatures) to remove bacteria and spores from milk or other liquids. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  1. A Study on the Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Produced in Rafsanjan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FaAkrami Mohajeri Akrami Mohajeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aflatoxins, known as causative factors of hepatic and extra-hepatic carcinogenesis within humans, are extremely teratogenic, mutagenic, toxic, and carcinogenic compounds. Materials & Methods: This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in 40 raw milk and 47 pasteurized milk samples collected during spring and winter. In order to analyze the samples, the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA procedure was used. The statistical methods used in this study were based on normal confidence intervals and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Aflatoxin M1 was detected in 97.5% of the raw milk ranging from 6.52 to 68.17 ng/l and 95.7% of the pasteurized milk, ranging from 0.8 to 58.13 ng/l. Toxin levels in 10% of the raw milk and 2.1% of the pasteurized milk samples exceeded the Iranian national standard limit i.e. 50 ng/l.  Due to seasonal variations, mean concentration of AFM1 in the samples collected in winter was significantly (P < 0.03 higher than those collected in the summer. Conclusion: Large amount of AFM1 in milk samples might be a potential hazard for the public health. Reducing the levels of AFB1 in animal feedstuffs can be regarded as the initial step to control the transfer of AFM1 to humans.

  2. Burn Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now Help keep local seniors safe from fire! Burn Survivor Support If you are reading this, chances ... year – a burn injury. Learn more Fire and Burn Prevention Each year, the Burn Institute provides fire ...

  3. CSCAPES Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex Pothen

    2008-10-26

    We report on the progress made by researchers of the CSCAPES Institute at Old Dominion University for the years 2007 and 2008 in the areas of research, software creation, education and training, and outreach activities.

  4. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  5. [Medicen Paris Région: A world-class ''competitiveness cluster'' in the Paris region incorporating a neuroscience ''subcluster''].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canet, Emmanuel

    2007-04-01

    The French public-private partnerships known as "competitive clusters" [pôles de compétitivité (PdC)] are intended to be novel and ambitious engines of regional growth, employment and biomedical innovation. Partly funded by government and local councils, they aim to capitalize on regional expertise by bringing together basic scientists, clinicians, innovative entrepreneurs and local decision-makers around specific themes that have become too costly and complex for any of these actors to tackle alone. Clusters provide the critical mass required both to underpin innovation potential and to authenticate regional claims to international competitiveness. Medicen is a biomedicine and therapeutics cluster comprising 120 partners from four broad "colleges" in the greater Paris region: major industry, small and medium-sized businesses, teaching hospitals/State research bodies, and local councils. Chief among its cooperative R&D projects is the neuroscience subcluster, in which "TransAl" the neurodegenerative disease project, counts Sanofi-Aventis, Servier and the French Atomic Energy Commission [Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA)] as key partners. One main aim is to develop an experimental model in rhesus monkeys in which a putative cause of Alzheimer's disease, intracerebral accumulation of b-amyloid peptide, is generated by impairing the peptide's clearance. The other aim, in which the nuclear medicine expertise of the CEA will be crucial, is to identify, characterize and validate markers for magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography imaging, and to source biomarkers from cerebrospinal fluid proteomics. A human biological resource centre (DNA and tissue banks) project dedicated to neurological and psychiatric disease should be up and running in 2007. Only through fundamental restructuring of resources on such a large cooperative scale are solutions likely to be found to the major problems of modern medicine, bringing healthcare and regional

  6. The 2013 Summer Undergraduate Research Internship Program at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Cline, J. D.; Whitworth, C.; Clavier, D.; Barker, T.

    2014-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) offers summer undergraduate research internships. PARI has received support for the internships from the EMC Corporation, private donations, private foundations, and through a collaboration with the Pisgah Astronomical Research and Education Center of the University of North Carolina - Asheville. The internship program began in 2001 with 4 students. This year 10 funded students participated. Mentors for the interns include PARI’s Directors of Science, Education, and Information Technology and visiting faculty who are members of the PARI Research Faculty Affiliate program. Students work with mentors on radio and optical astronomy research, electrical engineering for robotic control of instruments, software development for instrument control and and science education by developing curricula and multimedia and teaching high school students in summer programs at PARI. At the end of the summer interns write a paper about their research which is published in the PARI Summer Student Proceedings. Students are encouraged to present their research at AAS Meetings. We will present a summary of specific research conducted by the students with their mentors.

  7. [Microbiological and physicochemical evaluation of pasteurized nectar elaborated with tree tomato (Cyphomandra betaceae Sendth)pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Alvarez, Mario José; Girán, Nathaly; Serrano, Karla; García, David; Belén Camacho, Douglas R

    2003-09-01

    Tree tomato (Cyphomandra betaceae Sendth) is a species from high tropical regions. In Venezuela, it is cultivate at the Andean and Aragua state but its consumption is restricted as fruit-fresh, though it a nutritious and industrial potential due its provitamin A content. In this research four nectars were elaborated in proportion I L pulp/4 L of water (1:4) and addition of ascorbic acid (I: 0%; II: 0.5%; III: 1.0 y IV: 1.5%). The nectars were pasteurized (60 degrees C for 30 min), tuned into amber bottle, and stored under refrigeration conditions (7.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C). Weekly during 21 days the mesophilic bacteria, molds, yeasts, total coliforms (MPN/mL), pH, degree Brix, acidity, total carotenoids, vitamin C and total sugars were evaluated. The mesophilic bacteria content was 0.05) were founded on: pH. degree Brix and total sugars. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were founded in vitamin C and total carotenoids content. Sensorial analysis did not show significant differences between formulations for the smell and flavor attributes, when the color was discriminate during the evaluations. The formulation I (without acid ascorbic) had more preference due its color. In conclusion, the nectars showed useful life of 14-21 days under refrigeration condition storage due to the adequate physicochemical and microbiological quality of the product.

  8. Identification and genetic characterization of Clostridium botulinum serotype A strains from commercially pasteurized carrot juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kristin M; Nowaczyk, Louis; Raphael, Brian H; Skinner, Guy E; Rukma Reddy, N

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium botulinum is an important foodborne pathogen capable of forming heat resistant endospores and producing deadly botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). In 2006, C. botulinum was responsible for an international outbreak of botulism attributed to the consumption of commercially pasteurized carrot juice. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize strains of C. botulinum from the adulterated product. Carrot juice bottles retrieved from the manufacturing facility were analyzed for the presence of BoNT and BoNT-producing isolates using DIG-ELISA. Toxigenic isolates from the carrot juice were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DNA microarray analysis to determine their genetic relatedness to the original outbreak strains CDC51348 and CDC51303. PFGE revealed that isolates CJ4-1 and CJ10-1 shared an identical pulsotype with strain CDC51303, whereas isolate CJ5-1 displayed a unique restriction banding pattern. DNA microarray analysis identified several phage related genes unique to strain CJ5-1, and Southern hybridization analysis of XhoI digested and nondigested DNA showed their chromosomal location, while a homolog to pCLI_A009 of plasmid pCLI of C. botulinum serotype Langeland F, was located on a small plasmid. The acquisition or loss of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements among C. botulinum strains has epidemiological and evolutionary implications.

  9. Approaches to understanding the contribution of anthocyanins to the antioxidant capacity of pasteurized pomegranate juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegara, Salud; Mena, Pedro; Martí, Nuria; Saura, Domingo; Valero, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Influence of processing and storage conditions on anthocyanin stability and antioxidant activity of clarified and cloudy juices from arils of the 'Mollar' pomegranate variety was studied. Clarification process reduced the content of total monomeric and individual anthocyanins, and increased the antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice. Thermal treatments (65 and 90 °C for 30 or 5 s) decreased the percentage of polymeric anthocyanin form, increasing on the contrary the monomeric one. In any case, storage temperature was the main factor affecting all the parameters tested. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (Cy3G) was more instable than delphinidin 3,5-di (Dp3,5dG) and cyaniding 3,5-diglucosides (Cy3,5dG). A linear relationship was observed between oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and total monomeric anthocyanins, suggesting that they contributed strongly to the antioxidant capacity. Results presented in this study show that hurdle technology (heating plus refrigeration) may help to reduce anthocyanin degradation in pasteurized pomegranate juice, avoiding a dramatic impact on its colour and preserving the beneficial effects of this specific bioactive compounds on human health.

  10. Microbiology of diabetic foot infections: from Louis Pasteur to 'crime scene investigation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spichler, Anne; Hurwitz, Bonnie L; Armstrong, David G; Lipsky, Benjamin A

    2015-01-07

    Were he alive today, would Louis Pasteur still champion culture methods he pioneered over 150 years ago for identifying bacterial pathogens? Or, might he suggest that new molecular techniques may prove a better way forward for quickly detecting the true microbial diversity of wounds? As modern clinicians faced with treating complex patients with diabetic foot infections (DFI), should we still request venerated and familiar culture and sensitivity methods, or is it time to ask for newer molecular tests, such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing? Or, are molecular techniques as yet too experimental, non-specific and expensive for current clinical use? While molecular techniques help us to identify more microorganisms from a DFI, can they tell us 'who done it?', that is, which are the causative pathogens and which are merely colonizers? Furthermore, can molecular techniques provide clinically relevant, rapid information on the virulence of wound isolates and their antibiotic sensitivities? We herein review current knowledge on the microbiology of DFI, from standard culture methods to the current era of rapid and comprehensive 'crime scene investigation' (CSI) techniques.

  11. Nonthermal Pasteurization of Fermented Green Table Olives by means of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing

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    Anthoula A. Argyri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green fermented olives cv. Halkidiki were subjected to different treatments of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP processing (400, 450, and 500 MPa for 15 or 30 min. Total viable counts, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts/moulds, and the physicochemical characteristics of the product (pH, colour, and firmness were monitored right after the treatment and after 7 days of storage at 20°C to allow for recovery of injured cells. The treatments at 400 MPa for 15 and 30 min, 450 MPa for 15 and 30 min, and 500 MPa for 15 min were found insufficient as a recovery of the microbiota was observed. The treatment at 500 MPa for 30 min was effective in reducing the olive microbiota below the detection limit of the enumeration method after the treatment and after 1 week of storage and was chosen as being more appropriate for storing olives for an extended time period (5 months. After 5 months of storage at 20°C, no microbiota was detected in treated samples, while significant changes for both HHP treated and untreated olives were observed for colour parameters only (minor degradation. In conclusion, HHP treatment may introduce a reliable nonthermal pasteurization method to extend the microbiological shelf-life of fermented table olives.

  12. Quality Attributes of Fresh-Cut Coconut after Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Pasteurization

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    Giovanna Ferrentino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2 process on the quality attributes of fresh-cut coconut has been investigated to establish the acceptability of SC-CO2 treated products by the consumers. Two process conditions, previously identified as optimal to reduce the microbial content of the product, were studied: 12 MPa, 40°C, 30 min and 12 MPa, 45°C, 15 min. The results highlighted that both conditions induced some effects on product attributes. After 30 min of treatment at 12 MPa and 40°C a decrease of lightness (8%, pH (13%, fat content (24%, total phenol content (29%, flavonoid compounds (49%, antioxidant capacity (30% and an increase of dry matter (11% and titratable acidity (51.1% were observed while polyphenol oxidase (PPO exhibited 35% and 98.5% inactivation. Peroxidase enzyme activity increased by 77.8% and 30.4% at 12 MPa, 40°C, 30 min and 12 MPa, 45°C, 15 min, respectively. Sensory evaluations revealed no significant differences in appearance, texture, taste, and aroma of treated fresh-cut coconut compared to the untreated. The study confirms the feasibility of SC-CO2 process for the pasteurization of fresh fruits with a firm structure and opens the door to the possibility of exploiting such a technology at industrial level.

  13. High pressure and thermal pasteurization effects on sweet cherry juice microbiological stability and physicochemical properties

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    Queirós, Rui P.; Rainho, Daniel; Santos, Mauro D.; Fidalgo, Liliana G.; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated high pressure processing (P1 - 400 MPa/5 min; P2 - 550 MPa/2 min) and thermal pasteurization (TP - 70°C/30 s) effects on sweet cherry juice's microbiological and physicochemical parameters, during four weeks of refrigerated storage. All treatments reduced the microbiological load to undetectable levels not affecting total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The pH increased with all treatments, however, it decreased during storage. Phenols were differently affected: TP increased them by 6%, P1 had no effect while P2 decreased them by 11%. During storage, phenols in control and TP samples decreased by 26% and 20%, P1 samples decreased them by 11% whereas P2 showed no variation. TP had no effect on anthocyanins, while pressure treatments increased them by 8%. Anthocyanins decreased during storage, particularly in the control and P1 (decreasing 41%). All treatments had no effect on antioxidant activity until the 14th day, thereafter high pressure processing samples showed the highest antioxidant activity.

  14. Effect of pasteurized egg and Rosmarinus officinalis supplementation on quality of cryopreserved ram semen.

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    Mascaro, F; Gil, L; Malo, C; Gonzales, N; Martinez, F; de Blas, I

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to assess the in vitro effect of pasteurized egg (PE) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen-thawed ram semen. Ejaculates from three mature rams of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were cryopreserved using a 2-step dilution method (Fraction 1: F1; Fraction 2: F2). In Experiment 1, semen was frozen in egg yolk (EY) or PE extenders. After thawing, similar results were obtained in terms of total and progressive motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosome integrity after 2 h incubation. In Experiment 2, addition of rosemary to F1, F2 or both fractions to EY extenders was evaluated. Rosemary in F1 decreased progressive motility (p = 0.013) after 2 h incubation. Finally, PE can be used as a substitute for EY to reduce hygienic risks in extenders and is easier to standardize. Supplementation of EY extender with rosemary in F1 reduced progressive motility. Rosemary supplementation in F2 does not affect semen quality.

  15. Dynamics of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in soil amended with irradiated, pasteurized and limed biosolids.

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    Franco-Hernández, Olivia; Mckelligan-Gonzalez, Alba Natalia; Lopez-Olguin, Ana Maria; Espinosa-Ceron, Fabiola; Escamilla-Silva, Eleazar; Dendooven, Luc

    2003-03-01

    Sewage biosolids contain high concentrations of pathogens, which limits their use as soil amendment. This study investigated how application of lime (Ca(OH)2), irradiation, or pasteurization reduced pathogens in biosolids and how its application affected soil characteristics. A soil sampled outside the canopy of Mesquite trees (Prosopis laevigata) and from a pasture at Lerma (Mexico) was amended with treated or untreated biosolids, characterized and incubated aerobically while dynamics of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were monitored. Heavy metals concentrations in the biosolids were low, so it was of excellent quality (USEPA). The amount of pathogens in the biosolids made it a class "B" (USEPA) which can be used in forests. Only irradiation sufficiently reduced faecal coliforms to make it a class "A" biosolids without restrictions in application. C mineralization increased significantly when biosolids were added, but not concentrations of available P (P < 0.05). Ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in soil amended with biosolids were higher compared to unamended soil, but not the concentrations of nitrate (NO3-) except when biosolids treated with Ca(OH)2 was added to the Lerma soil.

  16. Protease Activities of Semi-purified Pseudomonas fluorescensin Protein Degradation of Pasteurized Milk at Storage

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    Tatik Khusniati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein on stored milks spoiled due to protease activities of Pseudomonas fluorescens. To know protease effect on milks, protease activities of semi-purified P. fluorescens on protein degradation in stored pasteurized milks were detected. Protease was semi-purified by ethanol 70%. Protease activities were detected by modified Lowry method, protein degradation by formol titration, and protein content by Kjeldahl method. Milk storage' times were conducted on 0 day (4 days before expired date up to 12 days (8 days after expired date. The results show that the longer the storage times the higher protease activities and protein degradation of milks. At storage 12 days, protease activities on control were 0.2556 Unit/mL (skim and 0.2116 Unit/mL (whole, and on inoculated milk (crude was 2.2044 Unit/mL (skim and 1.5378 Unit/mL (whole; while on inoculated milk (semi-purified was 3.5355 Unit/mL (skim and 1.6778 Unit/mL (whole, respectively. The decrease of inoculated milk' homogeneous were faster than that of control. Protein degradation on control, inoculated skim milks (crude and semi-purified on 12 days were 4.48%, 7.28% and 7.62%, while that on whole milks were 3.81%, 7.28% and 6.04%, respectively. Based on protease, protein degradation and homogeneous, it can be concluded that skim milk spoiled faster than whole milk.

  17. Mechanisms of appearance of the Pasteur effect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: inactivation of sugar transport systems.

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    Lagunas, R; Dominguez, C; Busturia, A; Sáez, M J

    1982-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not show a noticeable Pasteur effect (activation of sugar catabolism by anaerobiosis) when growing with an excess of sugar and nitrogen source, but it does do so after exhaustion of the nitrogen source in the medium (resting state). We have found that this different behavior of growing and resting S. cerevisiae seems due to differences in the contribution of respiration to catabolism under both states. Growing S. cerevisiae respired only 3 to 20% of the catabolized sugar, depending on the sugar present; the remainder was fermented. In contrast, resting S. cerevisiae respired as much as 25 to 100% of the catabolized sugar. These results suggest that a shift to anaerobiosis would have much greater energetic consequences in resting than in growing S. cerevisiae. In resting S. cerevisiae anaerobiosis would strongly decrease the formation of ATP; as a consequence, various regulatory mechanisms would switch on, producing the observed increase of the rate of glycolysis. The greater significance that respiration reached in resting cells was not due to an increase of the respiratory capacity itself, but to a loss of fermentation which turned respiration into the main catabolic pathway. The main mechanism involved in the loss of fermentation observed during nitrogen starvation was a progressive inactivation of the sugar transport systems that reduced the rate of fermentation to less than 10% of the value observed in growing cells. Inactivation of the sugar transports seems a consequence of the turnover of the sugar carriers whose apparent half-lives were 2 to 7 h.

  18. Transcription factor HIF-1 is a necessary mediator of the pasteur effect in mammalian cells.

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    Seagroves, T N; Ryan, H E; Lu, H; Wouters, B G; Knapp, M; Thibault, P; Laderoute, K; Johnson, R S

    2001-05-01

    The ability to respond to differential levels of oxygen is important to all respiring cells. The response to oxygen deficiency, or hypoxia, takes many forms and ranges from systemic adaptations to those that are cell autonomous. Perhaps the most ancient of the cell-autonomous adaptations to hypoxia is a metabolic one: the Pasteur effect, which includes decreased oxidative phosphorylation and an increase in anaerobic fermentation. Because anaerobic fermentation produces far less ATP than oxidative phosphorylation per molecule of glucose, increased activity of the glycolytic pathway is necessary to maintain free ATP levels in the hypoxic cell. Here, we present genetic and biochemical evidence that, in mammalian cells, this metabolic switch is regulated by the transcription factor HIF-1. As a result, cells lacking HIF-1alpha exhibit decreased growth rates during hypoxia, as well as decreased levels of lactic acid production and decreased acidosis. We show that this decrease in glycolytic capacity results in dramatically lowered free ATP levels in HIF-1alpha-deficient hypoxic cells. Thus, HIF-1 activation is an essential control element of the metabolic state during hypoxia; this requirement has important implications for the regulation of cell growth during development, angiogenesis, and vascular injury.

  19. Influence of oxygen tension of the metabolism of vascular smooth muscle: demonstration of a Pasteur effect.

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    Arnqvist, H J; Lundholm, L

    1976-01-01

    The influence of variations of oxygen tension on the metabolism of bovine mesenteric arteries was studied in vitro. Glucose uptake, lactate production, glycogen content, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), creatine phosphate (CrP) and incorporation of [14C]leucine into protein were determined. The mesenteric arteries were suspended in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer which was aerated with a gas mixture containing 5% CO2,O-95% O2 and N2 to 100%. Reduction of the O2 concentration of the gas phase from 95-20% resulted in little metabolic change. A further reduction from 20-0% O2 increased the lactate production 4-fold, indicating a marked Pasteur effect. At 0% O2 the glucose uptake was moderately increased and the glycogen content was decreased. The tissue level of CrP was reduced at a low oxygen tension and at 0% O2 the ATP content was also lowered. The incorporation of leucine into proteins was reduced at 0% O2.

  20. [Possibility of achieving the Pasteur effect by ascites carcinoma cells in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagi-zade, S B; Shapot, V S

    1971-01-01

    Possibility of Pasteur effect in cancer cells in vivo was studied on mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and rats with carcinoma of ovaries++. The experiments were run in two series. In the first series, all animals were saturated with oxygen through inhalation. In this series, part of the animals were given glucose subcutaneously. In the second series, all animals were given oxygen intraperitoneally and some of the animals with carcinoma of ovaries++ were given glucose subcutaneously. Values of inhibition of glycolytic activity in cancer cells under various experimental conditions were estimated through a calculated coefficient. Results of the experiment evidenced that inhalational saturation of animals with oxygen did not inhibit glycolysis of ascites cells in vivo while after intraperitoneal administration of oxygen, coefficient of inhibition of glycolytic activity in mice with Ehrlich ascites++ carcinoma after 45-65 min was 50-615, respectively. Experiments on rats showed that inhibition of glycolytic activity in rats can be revealed during simultaneous administration of oxygen intraperitoneally and of glucose subcutaneously. The authors reached the conclusion that under adequate supply of cancer cells with oxygen respiration can suppress glycolysis at the level of organism as well.