WorldWideScience

Sample records for instant fireball yield

  1. Spectrum of cosmic fireballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna (Italy). Lab. TESRE; Horstman, H M [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1981-03-01

    A progress report on cosmic fireballs is presented. The main new results are: (a) the phenomenon should be almost universal, and most explosive ..gamma..-ray sources should show the characteristic fireball spectrum; (b) even if the radiation density is insufficient, pair production in electron-proton or electron-electron scattering might start the fireball; (c) some computed fireball spectra are shown. They all have in common a 1/E low-energy behaviour, a 100 keV flattening, and a approx.0.5 MeV cut-off.

  2. Fireballs in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Bland, P.

    2016-12-01

    Fireballs in the Sky is an innovative Australian citizen science program that connects the public with the research of the Desert Fireball Network (DFN). This research aims to understand the early workings of the solar system, and Fireballs in the Sky invites people around the world to learn about this science, contributing fireball sightings via a user-friendly app. To date, more than 23,000 people have downloaded the app world-wide and participated in planetary science. The Fireballs in the Sky app allows users to get involved with the Desert Fireball Network research, supplementing DFN observations and providing enhanced coverage by reporting their own meteor sightings to DFN scientists. Fireballs in the Sky reports are used to track the trajectories of meteors - from their orbit in space to where they might have landed on Earth. Led by Phil Bland at Curtin University in Australia, the Desert Fireball Network (DFN) uses automated observatories across Australia to triangulate trajectories of meteorites entering the atmosphere, determine pre-entry orbits, and pinpoint their fall positions. Each observatory is an autonomous intelligent imaging system, taking 1000×36Megapixel all-sky images throughout the night, using neural network algorithms to recognize events. They are capable of operating for 12 months in a harsh environment, and store all imagery collected. We developed a completely automated software pipeline for data reduction, and built a supercomputer database for storage, allowing us to process our entire archive. The DFN currently stands at 50 stations distributed across the Australian continent, covering an area of 2.5 million km^2. Working with DFN's partners at NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, the team is expanding the network beyond Australia to locations around the world. Fireballs in the Sky allows a growing public base to learn about and participate in this exciting research.

  3. On exotic fireballs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tati, T.

    1984-01-01

    Exotic fireballs found by Brazil-Japan Collaboration of Chacaltaya Emulsion Chamber Experiment are interpreted in terms of a model of hadronic matter (of which hadrons are made) based on the theory of finite degree of freedom. It is considered in our picture that exotic fireballs reveal the part left undefined in the renormalization theory of quantum field and nonappearance of exotic fireballs (of relatively small mass, i.e. Mini-Centauro and Geminion) in CERN SPS collider experiment is possibly due to the existence of universal time realized by the cutoff of momentum degree of freedom of the field of basic particles. (Author) [pt

  4. Single fireball and fireball ideal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, R.; Page, R.; Sertorio, L.

    1977-01-01

    In the paper the partition function of a macroscopic hadron system with two models is studied. In one model the mathematical fireball appears as a fundamental particle in a Boltzmann ideal gas occupying a volume V. In a second model the macroscopic volume V is divided in noninteracting boxes of volume Vsub(0), each one containing and interacting-pion gas. Both cases show the same limiting temperature Tsup(*) produced by the bootstrap equation, although far from Tsup(*) they represent different thermodynamic systems

  5. Measurements of fireball onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Brett; Barnat, Edward V.; Baalrud, Scott D.; Hopkins, Matthew M.; Yee, Benjamin T.

    2018-04-01

    Laser-based measurements of the characteristic features of fireball onset and stabilization in response to a stepped voltage applied to an anode immersed in a low pressure (100 mTorr) helium afterglow are reported. These include spatial and temporal evolution of metastable species, electron density, and electric field magnitude as measured by planar laser induced fluorescence, laser-collision induced fluorescence, and laser-induced fluorescence-dip spectroscopy, respectively. These measurements are found to be in qualitative agreement with recent particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical models [Scheiner et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 113520 (2017)]. The measurements validate the simulations and models in which fireball onset was predicted to follow from the trapping of electrons born from electron impact ionization within a potential well created by a buildup of ions in the sheath. The experimental measurements also demonstrate transient features following the onset that were not present in previous simulations. New simulation results are presented which demonstrate that these features are associated with the abruptness of the voltage step used to initiate fireball onset. An abrupt step in the anode bias causes rapid displacement of ions and an associated plasma potential response following the sheath and fireball expansion.

  6. The NASA Fireball Network Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Danielle E.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has been operating an automated video fireball network since late-2008. Since that time, over 1,700 multi-station fireballs have been observed. A database containing orbital data and trajectory information on all these events has recently been compiled and is currently being mined for information. Preliminary results are presented here.

  7. The Fireball integrated code package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.; Powers, D.A.; Harper, F.T.

    1997-07-01

    Many deep-space satellites contain a plutonium heat source. An explosion, during launch, of a rocket carrying such a satellite offers the potential for the release of some of the plutonium. The fireball following such an explosion exposes any released plutonium to a high-temperature chemically-reactive environment. Vaporization, condensation, and agglomeration processes can alter the distribution of plutonium-bearing particles. The Fireball code package simulates the integrated response of the physical and chemical processes occurring in a fireball and the effect these processes have on the plutonium-bearing particle distribution. This integrated treatment of multiple phenomena represents a significant improvement in the state of the art for fireball simulations. Preliminary simulations of launch-second scenarios indicate: (1) most plutonium vaporization occurs within the first second of the fireball; (2) large non-aerosol-sized particles contribute very little to plutonium vapor production; (3) vaporization and both homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation occur simultaneously; (4) homogeneous condensation transports plutonium down to the smallest-particle sizes; (5) heterogeneous condensation precludes homogeneous condensation if sufficient condensation sites are available; and (6) agglomeration produces larger-sized particles but slows rapidly as the fireball grows.

  8. Instant GSON

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Sandeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant GSON is a practical, hands-on guide that will explain the implementation features of the GSON API through examples with code.Instant GSON is for software developers who are new to the GSON library, and who are looking to explore it in depth. You should have some experience in Java programming and Java POJO classes.

  9. Instant Fancybox

    CERN Document Server

    Diedrick, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Instant Fancybox is a tutorial guide with step-by step instructions and practical examples to help you customize your web pages.Instant Fancybox is great for web developers looking to learn more about the Fancybox jQuery plugin. The book assumes a working knowledge of HTML and CSS. Readers are also expected to have a basic understanding of jQuery and JavaScript.

  10. Instant Highcharts

    CERN Document Server

    Grandjean, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Highcharts Starter has a step-by-step approach to help you understand the core concepts of different types of Highcharts and create your own customized charts.Instant Highcharts Starter is for web developers who are new to the Highcharts library and looking to create their own charts in their webpages. You should have some experience with the JavaScript library. You should know how to develop a server-side language such as PHP to create

  11. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  12. Threshold current for fireball generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuis, Geert C.

    1982-05-01

    Fireball generation from a high-intensity circuit breaker arc is interpreted here as a quantum-mechanical phenomenon caused by severe cooling of electrode material evaporating from contact surfaces. According to the proposed mechanism, quantum effects appear in the arc plasma when the radius of one magnetic flux quantum inside solid electrode material has shrunk to one London penetration length. A formula derived for the threshold discharge current preceding fireball generation is found compatible with data reported by Silberg. This formula predicts linear scaling of the threshold current with the circuit breaker's electrode radius and concentration of conduction electrons.

  13. Instant Mockito

    CERN Document Server

    Grzejszczak, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This is a standard, tutorial-based guide using plenty of examples for illustration.Instant Mockito is ideal for developers new to unit testing, who are looking to get to know how to create high quality tests using Mockito. It's assumed that you will have some experience in Java already.

  14. Instant Ubuntu

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This title is a step-by-step guide to installing and using Ubuntu easily and quickly.If you are interested in exploring what Ubuntu Linux has to offer, this is the book for you.Instant Ubuntu is written from the standpoint of a beginner. All you need to get started with this book is a very basic understanding of computing, such as the ability to burn a DVD and navigate the Internet.

  15. Instant Markdown

    CERN Document Server

    Herrero, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A quick, clear, concise tutorial guide-based approach that will help you to get started with Markdown.Instant Markdown is for people who are interested in an introduction to Markdown. You will not need any specific knowledge about programming or markup languages. This book will give you many ideas to use and take full potential of Markdown over many different services.

  16. Instant edublogs

    CERN Document Server

    Bedell, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A concise guide full of step-by-step recipes to teach you how to set up and manage your blog.Instant Edublogs is aimed at educators - teachers, administrators, support specials, and paraprofessionals - who want to share their experiences and learn from others online. While some CSS and HTML skills can be helpful for understanding some of the advanced features, no specific technical knowledge is needed

  17. Annual Occurrence of Meteorite-Dropping Fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, Natalia; Jopek, Tadeusz J.

    2016-07-01

    The event of Chelyabinsk meteorite has brought about change the earlier opinion about limits of the sizes of potentially dangerous asteroidal fragments that crossed the Earth's orbit and irrupted in the Earth's atmosphere making the brightest fireball. The observations of the fireballs by fireball networks allows to get the more precise data on atmospheric trajectories and coordinates of predicted landing place of the meteorite. For the reason to search the periods of fireball activity is built the annual distribution of the numbers of meteorites with the known fall dates and of the meteorite-dropping fireballs versus the solar longitude. The resulting profile of the annual activity of meteorites and meteorite-dropping fireballs shows several periods of increased activity in the course of the year. The analysis of the atmospheric trajectories and physical properties of sporadic meteorite-dropping fireballs observed in Tajikistan by instrumental methods in the summer‒autumn periods of increased fireballs activity has been made. As a result the structural strength, the bulk density and terminal mass of the studied fireballs that can survive in the Earth atmosphere and became meteorites was obtained. From the photographic IAU MDC_2003 meteor database and published sources based on the orbit proximity as determined by D-criterion of Southworth and Hawkins the fireballs that could be the members of group of meteorite-dropping fireballs, was found. Among the near Earth's objects (NEOs) the searching for parent bodies for meteorite-dropping fireballs was made and the evolution of orbits of these objects in the past on a long interval of time was investigated.

  18. Photographic fireball networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceplecha, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Long term radar observations of any meteor shower yield good data for a study of the features of its cross section structure in detail. The hourly rates of meteor echoes represent usually the basic data from which shower characteristics are derived. Unfortunately, the hourly rate does not depend only on the activity of the shower in question but also on the position of the shower radiant, on the mutual radiant antenna position, and on the parameters of the radar system. It is known that the knowledge of the response function of the radar is necessary for good interpretation of the hourly echo counts. A method of long term radar shower data analysis is discussed along with preliminary results

  19. IMO Fireball report form: results and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, M.; Perlerin, V.

    2015-01-01

    At the 2014 IMC, we presented the new IMO (International Meteor Organization) online, Fireball report (available at fireballs.imo.net). This fireball report form was specifically designed for use by people with no astronomy experience who witnessed a fireball, a bolide or a suspected similar phenomenon. The IMO version of the form has been officially launched in February 2015. Since then, the form has been translated in different languages and customized for organizations around the world. In this paper, we will present preliminary results of the form and provide tips to improve the online presence of local organizations, in order to promote usage. We will also highlight procedures to be followed by local organizations to get a custom version of the form.

  20. Submillisecond fireball timing using de Bruijn timecodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Robert M.; Paxman, Jonathan; Bland, Philip A.; Towner, Martin C.; Sansom, Eleanor K.; Devillepoix, Hadrien A. R.

    2017-08-01

    Long-exposure fireball photographs have been used to systematically record meteoroid trajectories, calculate heliocentric orbits, and determine meteorite fall positions since the mid-20th century. Periodic shuttering is used to determine meteoroid velocity, but up until this point, a separate method of precisely determining the arrival time of a meteoroid was required. We show it is possible to encode precise arrival times directly into the meteor image by driving the periodic shutter according to a particular pattern—a de Bruijn sequence—and eliminate the need for a separate subsystem to record absolute fireball timing. The Desert Fireball Network has implemented this approach using a microcontroller driven electro-optic shutter synchronized with GNSS UTC time to create small, simple, and cost-effective high-precision fireball observatories with submillisecond timing accuracy.

  1. Valec fireball and predicted meteorite fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceplecha, Z.; Spurny, P.

    1987-01-01

    A fireball was photographed with a luminous trajectory below a height of 20 km. On Aug. 3, 1984, seven stations photographed this slow moving fireball, which traversed 94 km of luminous trajectory in 9.2 sec and terminated its visible flight at a height of 19.1 km. The computed dark flight trajectory intersected the surface close to Valec, a small village 40 km west of Brno. The Valec fireball was the lowest photographed fireball ever. The Valec fireball was photographed by fish eye cameras. The positional precision of all the records were within the range of 1 to 2 minutes of arc. All computations were done using the FIRBAL program, a set of almost 4000 Fortran statements run on EC 1040 computer. The average computed mass at the terminal point, i.e., the predicted mass of the biggest meteorite, was 16 kg. This number is based on the dynamical data at the terminal point solely. Visual data was also collected from occasional observers. This observed phenomenon is discussed

  2. Optical pyrometry of fireballs of metalized explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goroshin, Samuel; Frost, David L.; Levine, Jeffrey [McGill University, Mechanical Engineering, 817 Sherbrooke St. W., Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Yoshinaka, Akio; Zhang, Fan [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Box 4000, Stn. Main, Medicine Hat, Alberta, T1A 8K6 (Canada)

    2006-06-15

    Fast-response optical diagnostics (a time-integrated spectrometer and two separate fast-response three-color pyrometers) are used to record the transient visible radiation emitted by a fireball produced when a condensed explosive is detonated. Measurement of the radiant intensity, in several narrow wavelength bands, is used to estimate the temperature of the condensed products within the fireball. For kg-scale conventional oxygen-deficient homogeneous TNT and nitromethane explosive charges, the radiant intensity reaches a maximum typically after tens of milliseconds, but the measured fireball temperature remains largely constant for more than 100 ms, at a value of about 2,000 K, consistent with predictions using equilibrium thermodynamics codes. When combustible metal particles (aluminum, magnesium or zirconium) are added to the explosive, reaction of the particles enhances the radiant energy and the fireball temperature is increased. In this case the fireball temperatures are lower than equilibrium predictions, but are consistent with measurements of particle temperature in single particle ignition experiments. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. The modelling of BLEVE fireball transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shield, S.R. [Shell Research Ltd., Chester (United Kingdom). Thornton Research Centre

    1995-12-31

    An existing physically based BLEVE fireball model has been developed to predict the shape of the transient heat pulse to a receiver, to model ``cold`` BLEVEs, and to assess the consequences to structures and people. This has been achieved by finding a correlation to predict the size of a characteristic liquid drop within the flashing cloud. These drops burn out to predict the time to fireball break-up and extinction, and their height is tracked to find the rise of the fireball, agreement with small and large scale data being satisfactory. The model is semi-empirical in that, when the level of pre-heating is low, a heat balance cannot predict the development of fireball temperature with time since the fuel is pyrolising. Also, the modelling of the transition from ``cold`` BLEVE fireball to pool fire is a cautious best estimate. Using both traditional and more recent models, the prediction of pain, burns and fatality have been incorporated into the model. Whatever criterion for a safety distance is used, the effect of modelling the transient is to reduce the calculated safety distances by up to a factor of two, which brings fatality predictions for real incidents much more in line with the historical record. (author)

  4. Exceptional Fireball Activity of Orionids in 2006

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, Pavel; Shrbený, Lukáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, 1-4 (2008), s. 141-150 ISSN 0167-9295 Grant - others:EU(XE) MRTN-CT-2006-035519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : orionids * fireball * trajectory Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2008

  5. First light for the desert fireball network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bland, P.A.; Spurný, Pavel; Bevan, A.W.R.; Towner, M.C.; Deacon, G.; McClafferty, T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 8 (2006), A23 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /69./. Zurich, 06.08.2006-11.08.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : fireball * network * meteorit Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.524, year: 2006

  6. Local instant conservation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaje, Dzh.

    1984-01-01

    Local instant conservation equations for two-phase flow are derived. Derivation of the equation starts from the recording of integral laws of conservation for a fixed reference volume, containing both phases. Transformation of the laws, using the Leibniz rule and Gauss theory permits to obtain the sum of two integrals as to the volume and integral as to the surface. Integrals as to the volume result in local instant differential equations, in particular derivatives for each phase, and integrals as to the surface reflect local instant conditions of a jump on interface surface

  7. Fireballs Masses and Densities: Hypotheses and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, Maria

    Techniques of determining the masses of meteor bodies have long been discussed in the literature dedicated to meteor studies. Unfortunately the development of methods for evaluating meteors and fireballs parameters from observational data requires much attention since the available literature, including handbooks (e.g., C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities, Athlone, London, 1973), contains discrepancies that are of a basic character rather than due to experimental uncertainties. A comprehensive survey and analysis deserve a separate publication. Thus, we will cite here some literary sources. The mass of a fireball is conventionally determined using a photometric formula, by integrating the brightness along the entire luminous segment of the trajectory. The mass can also be estimated using the altitude and rate of fireball deceleration in the atmosphere. The discrepancy of the estimates obtained using these two techniques is usually diminished by selecting "appropriate" values of the fireball density. However, this leads to obviously underestimated values of 0.25 g/cm3 for this density. In order to eliminate these discrepancies, it was proposed to consider a swarm of similar-size fragments instead of a single meteoroid. In this case, it is the photometric-to-dynamic mass ratio that determines the number of such fragments. In the present report, the mass is calculated using the data of actual observations, by selecting the parameters describing deceleration and ablation of fireballs along the luminous segment of the trajectory. New model is based on the best fitting of the observational data by an analytical solution of the equations of meteor physics. In doing so, the author tried to take into account all of the peculiarities of the events noted in the literature, as well as the newest results of numerical experiments on the 3D aerodynamics of bodies of complicated shapes. The proximity of results obtained using different dynamic methods implies that observational

  8. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  9. Instant Messaging by SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhi, Daniel; Dulai, Tibor; Jaskó, Szilárd

    2008-11-01

    SIP is a general-purpose application layer protocol which is able to establish sessions between two or more parties. These sessions are mainly telephone calls and multimedia conferences. However it can be used for other purposes like instant messaging and presence service. SIP has a very important role in mobile communication as more and more communicating applications are going mobile. In this paper we would like to show how SIP can be used for instant messaging purposes.

  10. Fragmentation model analysis of EN2700 fireball

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, Pavel; Ceplecha, Zdeněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 95, 1-4 (2005), s. 477-487 ISSN 0167-9295. [Meteoroids 2004. London, Ontario, 16.08.2004-20.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : ablation * fireball * fragmentation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2005

  11. Instant BrainShark

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. ""Instant BrainShark"" is a step-by-step guide to creating online presentations using BrainShark. The book covers digital marketing best practices alongside tips for sales conversions. The book is written in an easy-to-read style for anybody to easily pick up and get started with BrainShark.Instant BrainShark is for anyone who wants to use BrainShark to create presentations online and share them around the community. The book is also useful for developers who are looking to explore

  12. Instant Cassandra query language

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Amresh

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. It's an Instant Starter guide.Instant Cassandra Query Language is great for those who are working with Cassandra databases and who want to either learn CQL to check data from the console or build serious applications using CQL. If you're looking for something that helps you get started with CQL in record time and you hate the idea of learning a new language syntax, then this book is for you.

  13. Instant typeahead.js

    CERN Document Server

    Osbourn, Toby

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Instant Typeahead.js is a concise guide with 14 recipes which deals with everything you need to know to become proficient in using this tool and teaches you how to integrate it with other popular projects such as WordPress, Bootstrap, and Ruby on Rails.Instant Typeahead.js is for any web developer who would like to learn more about Typeahead.js in terms of what it can offer and the best ways to achieve common tasks. This book assumes no prior knowledge, but an understanding of JavaS

  14. Instant Metasploit starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ranganath, Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Metasploit Starter is a fast-paced introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start as a smart ethical hacker, and defend your world from attacks instantly.This book is designed for security enthusiasts who are more interested in getting hands-on experience rather than reading just theory. It is also for anyone who is aware of the Metasploit framework and wishes to understand it better and start using it inst

  15. Instant Sinatra starter

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.

  16. Are Instant Messages Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Naomi S.

    Instant messaging (IM) is commonly viewed as a “spoken” medium, in light of its reputation for informality, non-standard spelling and punctuation, and use of lexical shortenings and emoticons. However, the actual nature of IM is an empirical issue that bears linguistic analysis.

  17. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  18. Instant Zepto.js

    CERN Document Server

    Pointer, Ian

    2013-01-01

    A simple starter guide that will walk you through Zepto.js from installation to more advanced topics using a step-by-step approach with useful examples included along the way.Instant Zepto.js is designed for web developers with some jQuery experience who are interested in speeding up and enhancing their web applications, especially on mobile devices.

  19. Heavy quarkonium suppression in a fireball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Nora; Escobedo, Miguel A.; Soto, Joan; Vairo, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of the time evolution of heavy-quarkonium states in an expanding hot QCD medium by implementing effective field theory techniques in the framework of open quantum systems. The formalism incorporates quarkonium production and its subsequent evolution in the fireball including quarkonium dissociation and recombination. We consider a fireball with a local temperature that is much smaller than the inverse size of the quarkonium and much larger than its binding energy. The calculation is performed at an accuracy that is leading order in the heavy-quark density expansion and next-to-leading order in the multipole expansion. Within this accuracy, for a smooth variation of the temperature and large times, the evolution equation can be written as a Lindblad equation. We solve the Lindblad equation numerically both for a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma and a strongly coupled medium. As an application, we compute the nuclear modification factor for the ϒ (1 S ) and ϒ (2 S ) states. We also consider the case of static quarks, which can be solved analytically. Our study fulfills three essential conditions: it conserves the total number of heavy quarks, it accounts for the non-Abelian nature of QCD, and it avoids classical approximations.

  20. Fireballs in the Sky: An Augmented Reality Citizen Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Fireballs in the Sky is an innovative Australian citizen science program that connects the public with the research of the Desert Fireball Network (DFN). This research aims to understand the early workings of the solar system, and Fireballs in the Sky invites people around the world to learn about this science, contributing fireball sightings via a user-friendly augmented reality mobile app. Tens of thousands of people have downloaded the app world-wide and participated in the science of meteoritics. The Fireballs in the Sky app allows users to get involved with the Desert Fireball Network research, supplementing DFN observations and providing enhanced coverage by reporting their own meteor sightings to DFN scientists. Fireballs in the Sky reports are used to track the trajectories of meteors - from their orbit in space to where they might have landed on Earth. Led by Phil Bland at Curtin University in Australia, the Desert Fireball Network (DFN) uses automated observatories across Australia to triangulate trajectories of meteorites entering the atmosphere, determine pre-entry orbits, and pinpoint their fall positions. Each observatory is an autonomous intelligent imaging system, taking 1000 by 36 megapixel all-sky images throughout the night, using neural network algorithms to recognize events. They are capable of operating for 12 months in a harsh environment, and store all imagery collected. We developed a completely automated software pipeline for data reduction, and built a supercomputer database for storage, allowing us to process our entire archive. The DFN currently stands at 50 stations distributed across the Australian continent, covering an area of 2.5 million square kilometers. Working with DFN's partners at NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, the team is expanding the network beyond Australia to locations around the world. Fireballs in the Sky allows a growing public base to learn about and participate in this exciting research.

  1. Fireballs in the Sky: an Augmented Reality Citizen Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Bland, P.; Sayers, R.

    2017-12-01

    Fireballs in the Sky is an innovative Australian citizen science program that connects the public with the research of the Desert Fireball Network (DFN). This research aims to understand the early workings of the solar system, and Fireballs in the Sky invites people around the world to learn about this science, contributing fireball sightings via a user-friendly augmented reality mobile app. Tens of thousands of people have downloaded the app world-wide and participated in the science of meteoritics. The Fireballs in the Sky app allows users to get involved with the Desert Fireball Network research, supplementing DFN observations and providing enhanced coverage by reporting their own meteor sightings to DFN scientists. Fireballs in the Sky reports are used to track the trajectories of meteors - from their orbit in space to where they might have landed on Earth. Led by Phil Bland at Curtin University in Australia, the Desert Fireball Network (DFN) uses automated observatories across Australia to triangulate trajectories of meteorites entering the atmosphere, determine pre-entry orbits, and pinpoint their fall positions. Each observatory is an autonomous intelligent imaging system, taking 1000×36Megapixel all-sky images throughout the night, using neural network algorithms to recognize events. They are capable of operating for 12 months in a harsh environment, and store all imagery collected. We developed a completely automated software pipeline for data reduction, and built a supercomputer database for storage, allowing us to process our entire archive. The DFN currently stands at 50 stations distributed across the Australian continent, covering an area of 2.5 million km^2. Working with DFN's partners at NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, the team is expanding the network beyond Australia to locations around the world. Fireballs in the Sky allows a growing public base to learn about and participate in this exciting research.

  2. Strange fireball as an explanation of the muon excess in Auger data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2017-03-01

    We argue that ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray collisions in Earth's atmosphere can probe the strange quark density of the nucleon. These collisions have center-of-mass energies ≳1 04.6A GeV , where A ≥14 is the nuclear baryon number. We hypothesize the formation of a deconfined thermal fireball which undergoes a sudden hadronization. At production the fireball has a very high matter density and consists of gluons and two flavors of light quarks (u , d ). Because the fireball is formed in the baryon-rich projectile fragmentation region, the high baryochemical potential damps the production of u u ¯ and d d ¯ pairs, resulting in gluon fragmentation mainly into s s ¯. The strange quarks then become much more abundant and upon hadronization the relative density of strange hadrons is significantly enhanced over that resulting from a hadron gas. Assuming the momentum distribution functions can be approximated by Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics, we estimate a kaon-to-pion ratio of about 3 and expect a similar (total) baryon-to-pion ratio. We show that, if this were the case, the excess of strange hadrons would suppress the fraction of energy which is transferred to decaying π0's by about 20%, yielding an ˜40 % enhancement of the muon content in atmospheric cascades, in agreement with recent data reported by the Pierre Auger Collaboration.

  3. Instant Vert.x

    CERN Document Server

    Scarduzio, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This Instant book will get you started with vert.x. You will learn everything you need to know to become an independent web application developer.This book is great for developers new to asynchronous programming. It's assumed that you will have some experience in JavaScript and the use of terminal and HTML. Many of the same basic concepts of Node.js can be reused.

  4. Instant testing with QUnit

    CERN Document Server

    Sheiko, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A concise guide full of step-by-step recipes to teach you how to perform automated testing using QUnit.""Instant Testing with QUnit"" is for anyone working with JavaScript who is looking for a powerful and easy-to-use testing framework. The reader does not need to know any particular framework, only the basic principles of JavaScript and HTML.

  5. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  6. Instant MuseScore

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant MuseScore is written in an easy-to follow format, packed with illustrations that will help you get started with this music composition software.This book is for musicians who would like to learn how to notate music digitally with MuseScore. Readers should already have some knowledge about musical terminology; however, no prior experience with music notation software is necessary.

  7. Instant Flask web development

    CERN Document Server

    DuPlain, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. The book uses a bottom-up approach to help you build applications, and is full of step-by-step instructions and practical examples to help you improve your knowledge.Instant Flask Web Development is for developers who are new to web programming, or are familiar with web programming but new to Flask. This book gives you a head start if you have some beginner experience with Python and HTML, or are willing to learn.

  8. Instant Apache Maven starter

    CERN Document Server

    Turatti, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

  9. Instant Google Compute Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Papaspyrou, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is a step-by-step guide to installing and using Google Compute Engine.""Instant Google Compute Engine"" is great for developers and operators who are new to Cloud computing, and who are looking to get a good grounding in using Infrastructure-as-a-Service as part of their daily work. It's assumed that you will have some experience with the Linux operating system as well as familiarity with the concept of virtualization technologies, suc

  10. Instant Apache Wicket 6

    CERN Document Server

    Longo, João Sávio Ceregatti

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This Starter style guide takes the reader through the basic workflow of Apache Wicket in a practical and friendly style.Instant Apache Wicket 6 is for people who want to learn the basics of Apache Wicket 6 and who already have some experience with Java and object-oriented programming. Basic knowledge of web concepts like HTTP and Ajax will be an added advantage.

  11. Instant jqGrid

    CERN Document Server

    Manricks, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A step-by-step, practical Starter book, Instant jqGrid embraces you while you take your first steps, and introduces you to the content in an easy-to-follow order.This book is aimed at people who have some knowledge of HTML and JavaScript. Knowledge of PHP and SQL would also prove to be beneficial. No prior knowledge of jqGrid is expected.

  12. Instant Sencha Touch

    CERN Document Server

    Dave, Hiren J

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is a practical, step by step tutorial that will get you to use Sencha Touch core components quickly and efficiently.Instant Sencha Touch is for hobbyists who want to explore the capabilities of Sencha Touch. No prior knowledge of Sencha Touch is assumed. This book is simultaneously helpful for developers as well who want to quickly learn about Sencha Touch Framework. The book is structured in such a way that amateurs as well as experts

  13. Instant Prezi starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ladores, Minerva M

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

  14. Instant Zurb Foundation 4

    CERN Document Server

    Arévalo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    A quick and easy guide that follows a practical approach to rapidly create responsive web pages using Foundation 4 framework, following the mobile-first philosophy.If you are a web developer who wants to get the most out of your HTML5/CSS/JavaScript skills, this book is ideal for you. It is assumed that you will have some experience with these languages, but for those who don't, you can also be up and running in an instant.

  15. Neutron star accretion and the neutrino fireball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.; Herant, M.E.; Benz, W.

    1991-01-01

    The mixing necessary to explain the ''Fe'' line widths and possibly the observed red shifts of 1987A is explained in terms of large scale, entropy conserving, up and down flows (calculated with a smooth particle 2-D code) taking place between the neutron star and the explosion shock wave due to the gravity and neutrino deposition. Depending upon conditions of entropy and mass flux further accretion takes place in single events, similar to relaxation oscillator, fed by the downward flows of low entropy matter. The shock, in turn, is driven by the upflow of the buoyant high entropy bubbles. Some accretion events will reach a temperature high enough to create a neutrino ''fireball,'' a region hot enough, 11 Mev, so as to be partially opaque to its own (neutrino) radiation. The continuing neutrino deposition drives the explosion shock until the entropy of matter flowing downwards onto the neutron star is high enough to prevent further accretion. This process should result in a robust supernova explosion

  16. Status of the Desert Fireball Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillepoix, H. A. R.; Bland, P. A.; Towner, M. C.; Cupák, M.; Sansom, E. K.; Jansen-Sturgeon, T.; Howie, R. M.; Paxman, J.; Hartig, B. A. D.

    2016-01-01

    A meteorite fall precisely observed from multiple locations allows us to track the object back to the region of the Solar System it came from, and sometimes link it with a parent body, providing context information that helps trace the history of the Solar System. The Desert Fireball Network (DFN) is built in arid areas of Australia: its observatories get favorable observing conditions, and meteorite recovery is eased thanks to the mostly featureless terrain. After the successful recovery of two meteorites with 4 film cameras, the DFN has now switched to a digital network, operating 51 cameras, covering 2.5 million km2 of double station triangulable area. Mostly made of off-the-shelf components, the new observatories are cost effective while maintaining high imaging performance. To process the data (~70TB/month), a significant effort has been put to writing an automated reduction pipeline so that all events are reduced with little human intervention. Innovative techniques have been implemented for this purpose: machine learning algorithms for event detection, blind astrometric calibration, and particle filter simulations to estimate both physical properties and state vector of the meteoroid. On 31 December 2015, the first meteorite from the digital systems was recovered: Murrili (the 1.68 kg H5 ordinary chondrite was observed to fall on 27 November 2015). Another 11 events have been flagged as potential meteorites droppers, and are to be searched in the coming months.

  17. FIREBALL-2: Pioneering Space UV Baryon Mapping (Lead Institution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    This is the lead proposal of a multi-institutional submission. The Faint Intergalactic-medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2) is designed to discover and map faint emission from the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) for low redshift galaxies. This balloon is a modification of FIREBall-1 (FB-1), a path-finding mission built by our team with two successful flights. FB-1 provided the strongest constrains on IGM emission available from any instrument at the time. FIREBall-2 has been significantly upgraded compared to FB-1, and is nearly ready for integration and testing before an anticipated Spring 2016 launch from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. The spectrograph has been redesigned and an upgraded detector system including a groundbreaking high QE, low-noise, UV CCD detector is under final testing and will improve instrument performance by more than an order of magnitude. CNES is providing the spectrograph, gondola, and flight support team, with construction of all components nearly complete. The initial FIREBall-2 launch is now scheduled for Spring 2016. FIREBall-2 combines several innovations: -First ever multi-object UV spectrograph -Arcsecond quality balloon pointing system, developed from scratch, improved from FB-1 -Partnership of national space agencies (NASA & CNES); highly leveraged NASA resources -A Schmidt corrector built into the UV grating for better optical performance and throughput -A total of four women trained in space experimental astrophysics, including 3 Columbia Ph.Ds. and 1 Caltech Ph.D. -A total of 7 graduate students trained on FIREBall-1 (3) and FIREBall-2 (4), with opportunities for more in future flights. FIREBall-2 will test key technologies and science strategies for a future mission to map IGM emission. Its flights will provide important training for the next generation of space astrophysicists working in UV instrumentation. Most importantly, FIREBall-2 will detect emission from the CGM of nearby galaxies, providing the first census of the

  18. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  19. American Meteor Society Fireball reporting system and mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, M.

    2014-07-01

    The American Meteor Society (AMS) founded in 1911 pioneered the visual study of meteors and has collected data relating to meteor observations and bright fireballs for over 100 years. In December 2010, the online fireball reporting system was upgraded to an interactive application that utilizes Google Maps and other programmatic methods to pinpoint the observer's location, azimuth and elevation values with a high degree of precision. The AMS has collected 10s of 1000s of witness reports relating to 100s of events each year since the new application was released. Three dimensional triangulation methods that average the data collected from witnesses have been developed that can determine the start and end points of the meteor with an accuracy of web application. Users can file a new report directly on the phone or update the values submitted through a web report. After web users complete their fireball report online, they are prompted to download the app and update their observation with the more precise data provided by the sensors in the mobile device. The mobile app also provides an accurate means for the witness to report the elapsed time of the fireball. To log this value, the user drags the device across the sky where they saw the fireball. This process is designed to require no button click or user interaction to start and stop the time recording. A count down initiates the process and once the user's phone crosses the plane of azimuth for the end point of the fireball the velocity timer automatically stops. Users are asked to log the recording three times in an effort to minimize error. The three values are then averaged into a final score. Once enough witnesses have filed reports, elapsed time data collected from the mobile phone can be used to determine the velocity of the fireball. With the velocity, trajectory solution and RA/DEC the AMS can plot orbital estimates for significant fireball events reported to the society. Our hope is that overtime this

  20. Enhancements to the Sentinel Fireball Network Video Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Wayne

    2009-05-01

    The Sentinel Fireball Network that supports meteor imaging of bright meteors (fireballs) has been in existence for over ten years. Nearly five years ago it moved from gathering meteor data with a camera and VCR video tape to a fisheye lens attached to a hardware device, the Sentinel box, which allowed meteor data to be recorded on a PC operating under real-time Linux. In 2006, that software, sentuser, was made available on Apple, Linux, and Window operating systems using the Python computer language. It provides basic video and management functionality and a small amount of analytic software capability. This paper describes the new and attractive future features of the software, and, additionally, it reviews some of the research and networks from the past and present using video equipment to collect and analyze fireball data that have applicability to sentuser.

  1. High speed radiometric measurements of IED detonation fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidell, Matthew T.; Gordon, J. Motos; Pitz, Jeremey; Gross, Kevin C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-04-01

    Continuum emission is predominant in fireball spectral phenomena and in some demonstrated cases, fine detail in the temporal evolution of infrared spectral emissions can be used to estimate size and chemical composition of the device. Recent work indicates that a few narrow radiometric bands may reveal forensic information needed for the explosive discrimination and classification problem, representing an essential step in moving from "laboratory" measurements to a rugged, fieldable system. To explore phenomena not observable in previous experiments, a high speed (10μs resolution) radiometer with four channels spanning the infrared spectrum observed the detonation of nine home made explosive (HME) devices in the 0.98) using blast model functional forms, suggesting that energy release could be estimated from single-pixel radiometric detectors. Comparison of radiometer-derived fireball size with FLIR infrared imagery indicate the Planckian intensity size estimates are about a factor of two smaller than the physical extent of the fireball.

  2. Dynamic Monte Carlo simulations of radiatively accelerated GRB fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhotray, Atul; Lazzati, Davide

    2018-05-01

    We present a novel Dynamic Monte Carlo code (DynaMo code) that self-consistently simulates the Compton-scattering-driven dynamic evolution of a plasma. We use the DynaMo code to investigate the time-dependent expansion and acceleration of dissipationless gamma-ray burst fireballs by varying their initial opacities and baryonic content. We study the opacity and energy density evolution of an initially optically thick, radiation-dominated fireball across its entire phase space - in particular during the Rph matter-dominated fireballs due to Thomson scattering. We quantify the new phases by providing analytical expressions of Lorentz factor evolution, which will be useful for deriving jet parameters.

  3. Note on the formation of the fireball plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberg, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    A model for the formation of the fireball arc or spark discharge, sometimes called a fireball plasma, is developed based on the nonlinearity of the voltage-current characteristics of a high-current arc discharge. A nonlinear transmission line equation for the discharge current is obtained which is solved in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions. Under certain prescribed conditions the current field collapses into a small region. This collapse of the current field is taken to be the fireball. It is additionally pointed out that nonlinearities other than the voltage-current characteristics of the high-current arc could produce similar results. Finally, it is suggested that Ball Lightning may have the same origin

  4. Nanoparticle production in arc generated fireballs of granular silicon powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyohito Ito

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently we observed buoyant fireballs by arc igniting silicon that drift in air for several seconds and postulated that the low aggregate density was attributed to the formation of a network of nanoparticles that must completely surround the burning silicon core, trapping the heated vapor generated as a result of particle combustion [Ito et al. Phys Rev E 80, 067401 (2009]. In this paper, we describe the capturing of several of these fireballs in flight, and have characterized their nanostructure by high resolution microscopy. The nanoparticle network is found to have an unusually high porosity (> 99%, suggesting that this arc-ignition of silicon can be a novel method of producing ultra-porous silica. While we confirm the presence of a nanoparticle network within the fireballs, the extension of this mechanism to the production of ball lightning during atmospheric lightning strikes in nature is still the subject of ongoing debate.

  5. The numerical study of the compressible rising of nuclear fireball at low altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Zheng Yi; Cheng Xianyou

    2010-01-01

    To study the evolution of nuclear fireball during the phase of compressible rising, the pressure and density were computed with numerical method. It can be concluded that the distribution of parameters of fireball changed during its rising the pressure in the upper part of fireball increased while the one of lower part decreased. the dilute area lied in the middle of fireball initially moved upward, on the other hand, the gradient of density in the upper and side part increased and is contrary to the changing of density beneath the fireball. The computational results of density agreed with experimental shadow graphs very well. (authors)

  6. FIREBall-2: Trailblazing observations of the space UV circumgalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    The Faint Intergalactic-medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2) is designed to discover and map faint emission from the circumgalactic medium of low redshift galaxies (0.3zz 0.7, conduct a targeted search of circumquasar (CQM) media for selected targets, and conduct follow up on likely tar-gets selected via GALEX and a pilot survey conducted by our group. We will also conduct a statistical search for the faint IGM via statistical stacking of our data. The FIREBall-2 team includes two female graduate students in key roles (both of whom are finishing their PhDs in 2016) and is overseen by a female Postdoctoral scholar (supported by NSF AAPF and Caltech Millikan Fellowships, in addition to a recent Roman Technology Fellowship award). Additional funding is necessary to keep this highly qualified balloon team together for a second flight. FIREBall-2 will test key technologies and science strategies for a future space mission to map emission from CGM and IGM baryons. Its flights will continue to provide important training for the next generation of space astrophysicists working in UV and other wavelength instrumentation. Most importantly, FIREBall-2 will detect emission from the CGM of nearby galaxies, providing the first census of the density and kinematics of this material for low z galaxies and open-ing a new field of CGM science.

  7. Instant AutoIt scripting

    CERN Document Server

    Laso, Emilio Aristides de Fez

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This is a Packt Instant How-to guide, which provides concise and clear recipes for getting started with AutoIt.Instant AutoIt Scripting Essentials How-to is for beginners who wish to know more about automation and programming, system administration developers who intent to automate/manage clusters and servers, and for computer programmers who want to control any PC to create seamless automation apps.

  8. Instant PageSpeed optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jaiswal, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Instant PageSpeed Optimization is a hands-on guide that provides a number of clear, step-by-step exercises for optimizing your websites for better performance and improving their efficiency.Instant PageSpeed Optimization is aimed at website developers and administrators who wish to make their websites load faster without any errors and consume less bandwidth. It's assumed that you will have some experience in basic web technologies like HTML, CSS3, JavaScript, and the basics of netw

  9. Meteoroid rotation and fireball flickering: a case study of the Innisfree fireball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Martin

    2001-09-01

    Some 5 per cent of bright meteors show rapid, quasi-periodic brightness variations. It is argued that this effect, observationally known as flickering, is a manifestation of the rotational modulation of surface mass loss through ablation of a non-spherical meteoroid. We develop a set of time-dependent, single-body ablation equations that include the effect of cross-section area modulation. We present a discussion of the effects that the rotation of a non-spherical meteoroid has on the resultant meteor light curve, and we look in depth at the data related to the fireball associated with the fall of the Innisfree meteorite. We find that the parent object to the Innisfree meteorite was spinning at a rotation frequency of 2.5Hz when it encountered the Earth's upper atmosphere. We also find that the Innisfree parent body had an initial mass of about 20kg and that the ratio of its semiminor and semimajor axes was about 0.5.

  10. A Novel Fireball Analysis for an Explosive Aerosolization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, A.; Halevy, I.; Sattinger, D.; Banaim, P.; Yaar, I.; Krantz, L.; Pinhas, M.

    2014-01-01

    The final consequent risk following an explosion of radiological dispersal device (RDD) is highly depends on final radioactive particles’ size distribution creates by detonation shock wave. Respirable, aerosols contribute to risk in a different way when compare it to non respirable aerosols or to ballistic, inertial, particles or even larger fragments. While aerosols (both, respirable and non respirable) are moving downwind with the cloud, heavier, inertial particles escape the initial fireball and deposited on the ground at a short distances from the ground zero (GZ) point. Respirable aerosols are risky when inhaled into the body (internal radiation) while non respirable have risk as an external exposure on the skin and from a distance. Hence, knowing the size distribution of the radioactive particles will, thus, enable more realistic risk assessment predictions. We show here that detonation fireball fast multispectral radiometrycan be a novel tool that can be indicative to the final particles size distribution

  11. Fast Multispectral Fireball Analyses and the Relation to Particles’ Aerosolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, A.; Halevy, I.; Sattinger, D.; Berenstein, Z.; Neuman, R.; Banaim, P.; Pinhas, M.; Yaar, I.

    2014-01-01

    One of the key questions in analyzing the consequent risk following an explosion of radiological dispersal device (RDD) is the final radioactive particles’ size distribution caused by the detonation. Fine, respirable, aerosols behave different when compare it to large, non respirable, aerosols or to inertial particles. While aerosols (both, respirable and non respirable) are trapped inside the detonation cloud moving downwind with the cloud, heavier, inertial particles escape the initial fireball and settled on the ground at a short distances due to hydrodynamic drug. Respirable aerosols are mostly risky when inhaled into the body (internal radiation) while non respirable are risky as an external exposure agents (both on the skin and from a distance). Knowing the size distribution of the radioactive particles will, thus, enable more realistic risk assessment predictions of such events. Fast multispectral radiometry of detonation fireballs can be used as novel tool for the estimation of the RA material final size distribution

  12. Which fireballs are meteorites - A study of the Prairie Network photographic meteor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, G. W.; Revelle, D. O.

    1981-11-01

    With the exception of three recovered meteorites with photographic fireball data (Pribram, Lost City, Innisfree), there is generally little information regarding the location of meteorites in the solar system prior to their impact on the earth. An investigation is conducted with the objective to identify those fireballs (bright meteor) data from the Prairie Network. The investigation is based on the belief that many small ordinary chondrites must be present among the photographed bright fireballs. Observations of the recovered fireballs are used to identify characteristics of their dynamics while passing through the atmosphere. In this way criteria are established for identifying those fireballs with similar dynamical characteristics. On the basis of the studies, a catalog is provided of fireballs which have a high probability of being ordinary chondrites or other strong meteorites.

  13. PF120916 Piecki fireball and Reszel meteorite fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olech, A.; Żołądek, P.; Tymiński, Z.; Stolarz, M.; Wiśniewski, M.; Bęben, M.; Lewandowski, T.; Polak, K.; Raj, A.; Zaręba, P.

    2017-06-01

    On September 12, 2016, at 21:44:07 UT, a -9.2±0.5 mag fireball appeared over northeastern Poland. The precise orbit and atmospheric trajectory of the event are presented, based on the data collected by six video stations of the Polish Fireball Network (PFN). The PF120916 Piecki fireball entered the Earth's atmosphere with the velocity of 16.7±0.3 km/s and started to shine at a height of 81.9 ± 0.3 km. Clear deceleration started after first three seconds of the flight, and the terminal velocity of the meteor was only 5.0±0.3 km/s at a height of 26.0 ± 0.2 km. Such a low value of the terminal velocity indicates that fragments with the total mass of around 10-15 kg could survive the atmospheric passage and cause fall of the meteorites. The predicted area of possible meteorite impact is computed and it is located south of Reszel city at the Warmian-Masurian region. The impact area was extensively searched by experienced groups of meteorite hunters, but without any success.

  14. Absolute mass scale calibration in the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenichenko, V. V.

    A method of the absolute mass scale calibration is suggested for solving the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs. The method is based on the data on the masses of the fallen meteorites whose fireballs have been photographed in their flight. The method may be applied to those fireballs whose bodies have not experienced considerable fragmentation during their destruction in the atmosphere and have kept their form well enough. Statistical analysis of the inverse problem solution for a sufficiently representative sample makes it possible to separate a subsample of such fireballs. The data on the Lost City and Innisfree meteorites are used to obtain calibration coefficients.

  15. Thermal dileptons from coarse-grained transport as fireball probes at SIS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatyuk, Tetyana; Seck, Florian; Hohler, Paul M.; Rapp, Ralf; Stroth, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing a coarse-graining method to convert hadronic transport simulations of Au+Au collisions at SIS energies into local temperature, baryon and pion densities, we compute the pertinent radiation of thermal dileptons based on an in-medium ρ spectral function that describes available spectra at ultrarelativistic collision energies. In particular, we analyze how far the resulting yields and slopes of the invariant-mass spectra can probe the lifetime and temperatures of the fireball. We find that dilepton radiation sets in after the initial overlap phase of the colliding nuclei of about 7 fm/c, and lasts for about 13 fm/c. This duration closely coincides with the development of the transverse collectivity of the baryons, thus establishing a direct correlation between hadronic collective effects and thermal EM radiation, and supporting a near local equilibration of the system. This fireball ''lifetime'' is substantially smaller than the typical 20-30 fm/c that naive considerations of the density evolution alone would suggest. We furthermore find that the total dilepton yield radiated into the invariant-mass window of M = 0.3-0.7 GeV/c 2 normalized to the number of charged pions, follows a relation to the lifetime found earlier in the (ultra-)relativistic regime of heavy-ion collisions, and thus corroborates the versatility of this tool. The spectral slopes of the invariant-mass spectra above the φ -meson mass provide a thermometer of the hottest phases of the collision, and agree well with the maximal temperatures extracted from the coarse-grained hadron spectra. (orig.)

  16. Instant Noodles and Iron Nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuntawiroon, Malulee; Sritongkul, Nopamon; Sookpeng Witoo

    2003-06-01

    Instant noodles represent the biggest category of instant foods in the supermarket. This study was undertaken to determine dietary availability for iron from their varieties without and with an addition of pork and/or vitamin C rich-vegetables by in vitro radiometric ( 59 Fe) method. The results showed that 8 to 13 percent of iron in the noodles was available for absorption of which contributed to 0.79 mg absorbed iron per day. This amount was too low to meet certain requirements for children, adolescents and menstruating women. With added pork or vegetables, iron availability increased by 2 to 3 times, and by 4 times with added pork and collard or cabbage (p<0.001). The amounts as high as 1.5 to 3.4 mg absorbed iron per day can meet the FAO/WHO requirements for most of the high-risk groups

  17. Instant Noodles and Iron Nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuntawiroon, Malulee; Sritongkul, Nopamon; Witoo, Sookpeng [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of radiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital (Thailand)

    2003-06-01

    Instant noodles represent the biggest category of instant foods in the supermarket. This study was undertaken to determine dietary availability for iron from their varieties without and with an addition of pork and/or vitamin C rich-vegetables by in vitro radiometric ({sup 59}Fe) method. The results showed that 8 to 13 percent of iron in the noodles was available for absorption of which contributed to 0.79 mg absorbed iron per day. This amount was too low to meet certain requirements for children, adolescents and menstruating women. With added pork or vegetables, iron availability increased by 2 to 3 times, and by 4 times with added pork and collard or cabbage (p<0.001). The amounts as high as 1.5 to 3.4 mg absorbed iron per day can meet the FAO/WHO requirements for most of the high-risk groups.

  18. Instant jQuery selectors

    CERN Document Server

    De Rosa, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Instant jQuery Selectors follows a simple how-to format with recipes aimed at making you well versed with the wide range of selectors that jQuery has to offer through a myriad of examples.Instant jQuery Selectors is for web developers who want to delve into jQuery from its very starting point: selectors. Even if you're already familiar with the framework and its selectors, you could find several tips and tricks that you aren't aware of, especially about performance and how jQuery ac

  19. Prairie Network Fireballs: Data of motion and ablation of fireball bodies obtained by local-ballistic method applied to variably-sliding path-segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenichenko, Valentin V.

    2000-11-01

    The electronic version of an extensive catalogue of the results of the fireball physics inverse problem solution for the precise observational data of the Prairie Network Fireballs (DTHM-values) obtained by local-ballistic method of a variably-sliding path-segment contains a set of the physical parameters for the 480 fireball images of the 248 cosmic body entries into the Earth's atmosphere (PNVK-values). The parameters are: the fireball velocity with the corresponding values of the mass to cross-section area ratio for the fireball-generating body a teach measured point of the fireball path, the ablation factor and the ratio of the luminous fireball energy to the drag work for the body in the Earth's atmosphere using a factor inversely proportional to the density of the body. The catalogue of all PNVK-values, about 3.1 Mbytes in ASCII is accessible from ftp://ftp2.mao.kiev.ua/pub/astro/pnvk, files pnvk.cat and pnvks.cat

  20. A Modular Instant Messaging System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Raad; Zouhair Bazzal; Majd Ghareeb; Hanan Farhat; Semar Bahmad

    2017-01-01

    Instant Messaging (IM) Android applications are a trend nowadays. These applications are categorized according to their features: usability, flexibility, privacy and security. However, IM applications tend to be inflexible in terms of functionality offered. The “Dble-U” system was developed as a solution to this inflexibility, with a focus on privacy as an example use case. “Dble-U” is a configurable modular system consisting of an Android chatting application, a privacy controller applicatio...

  1. Instant simple botting with PHP

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Shay Michael

    2013-01-01

    do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is a hands-on Starter guide that takes the reader from initialization to the coding and implementation of bot apps.Instant Simple Botting with PHP targets programmers of all levels who are familiar with common PHP functions and syntax, and who want to learn about bots and how to design and develop bots using objects.

  2. Instant CloudFlare starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dickey, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

  3. Instant web scraping with Java

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This book is full of short, concise recipes to learn a variety of useful web scraping techniques using Java. You will start with a simple basic recipe of setting up your Java environment and gradually learn some more advanced recipes such as using complex Scrapers.Instant Web Scraping with Java is aimed at developers who, while not necessarily familiar with Java, are at least ready to dive into the complexities of this language with simple, step-by-step instructions leading the way. It is assumed that you have at least an intermediate knowledge of HTML, some knowledge of MySQL, and access to a

  4. Instant OpenNMS starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hachey, Ghislain

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starters' guide to learning OpenNMS with ease, with a focus on immediate results.Instant OpenNMS Starter is for network administrators of any level with a slight focus on the novice that would enjoy a swift glance at what OpenNMS has to offer. It assumes the reader will have knowledge of basic network operations and protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite.

  5. Instant LEGO Mindstorm EV3

    CERN Document Server

    Garber, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A concise guide full of step-by-step recipes to teach you how to build and program an advanced robot.""Instant LEGO Mindstorm EV3"" is for both the adult tinkerer who has never touched LEGO before and the experienced LEGO engineer who has evolved from Mindstorm NXT to EV3. If you are interested in entering or advising students in robot competitions such as the FIRST LEGO League, the Wold Robot Olympiad, or RoboGames, then this book is a must for you. Even if you haven't purchased yo

  6. Instant RubyMine assimilation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Get the job done and learn as you go. A practical guide comprising of easy-to-follow recipes which provide concise and clear steps to help you enter the world of RubyMine.Instant RubyMine is ideal for you, if you are new to RubyMine or well acquainted with the technology. All you need is basic knowledge of writing in Ruby or Ruby on Rails.

  7. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  8. Survey of Instant Messaging Applications Encryption Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kabakuş, Abdullah; Kara, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Instant messaging applications has already taken the place of traditional Short Messaging Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) due to their popularity and usage easement they provide. Users of instant messaging applications are able to send both text and audio messages, different types of attachments such as photos, videos, contact information to their contacts in real time. Because of instant messaging applications use internet instead of Short Message Service Technical Reali...

  9. Neutrino emission from gamma-ray burst fireballs, revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hümmer, Svenja; Baerwald, Philipp; Winter, Walter

    2012-06-08

    We review the neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts, which is estimated from gamma-ray observations and used for the interpretation of recent IceCube data, from a particle physics perspective. We numerically calculate the neutrino flux for the same astrophysical assumptions as the analytical fireball neutrino model, including the dominant pion and kaon production modes, flavor mixing, and magnetic field effects on the secondary muons, pions, and kaons. We demonstrate that taking into account the full energy dependencies of all spectra, the normalization of the expected neutrino flux reduces by about one order of magnitude and the spectrum shifts to higher energies, where we can pin down the exact origin of the discrepancies by the recomputation of the analytical models. We also reproduce the IceCube-40 analysis for exactly the same bursts and same assumptions and illustrate the impact of uncertainties. We conclude that the baryonic loading of the fireballs, which is an important control parameter for the emission of cosmic rays, can be constrained significantly with the full-scale experiment after about ten years.

  10. Instant City@Roskilde Festival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    INSTANT CITY@ROSKILDE FESTIVAL pursues this phenomenon in a comprehensive analysis of one of the biggest cultural events in Denmark. Roskilde Festival’s comprehensive program and its physical size justify our perception of it as a new ‘temporary experience city’ with more than 100,000 inhabitants....... The book analyzes the concept of the festival, its mission statement, its physical layout, its urban life and its architecture, and it seeks to define the events that take place at the festival – be they scheduled or unscheduled. The potential of the temporary city to combine its ambitious music program...... with experimental architecture is the focal point, and the book thus explores the possibilities of promoting new aesthetics and a diverse social life in the city’s official spaces. The analyses take their point of departure in Roskilde Festival 2009. In advance (2008), research was carried out and interviews...

  11. Instant Messaging in Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, Binish; Hill, Kirsty B; Walmsley, A Damien

    2015-12-01

    Instant messaging (IM) is when users communicate instantly via their mobile devices, and it has become one of the most preferred choices of tools to communicate amongst health professions students. The aim of this study was to understand how dental students communicate via IM, faculty members' perspectives on using IM to communicate with students, and whether such tools are useful in the learning environment. After free-associating themes on online communication, two draft topic guides for structured interviews were designed that focussed on mobile device-related communication activities. A total of 20 students and six faculty members at the University of Birmingham School of Dentistry agreed to take part in the interviews. Students were selected from years 1-5 representing each year group. The most preferred communication tools were emails, social networking, and IM. Emails were used for more formal messages, and IM and social networking sites were used for shorter messages. WhatsApp was the most used IM app because of its popular features such as being able to check if recipients have read and received messages and group work. The students reported that changes were necessary to improve their communication with faculty members. The faculty members reported having mixed feelings toward the use of IM to communicate with students. The students wished to make such tools a permanent part of their learning environment, but only with the approval of faculty members. The faculty members were willing to accept IM as a communication tool only if it is monitored and maintained by the university and has a positive effect on learning.

  12. Should We Ban Instant Messaging In School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texley, Sharon; DeGennaro, Donna

    2005-01-01

    This article is a brief debate on the pros and cons of allowing students to use instant messaging (IM) in school. On one hand, teenagers' desire to socialize can overcome other priorities and schools may set policies to ban instant messaging. The contrary view is that schools should embrace the IM technology being popularized by youth and find…

  13. Enhancing Students' Learning: Instant Feedback Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.; Shinham, Kathe M.

    2015-01-01

    This study illustrates an active learning approach using instant feedback cards in the first course in accounting. The objectives of this study are to (1) describe instant feedback cards and (2) show how this tool, when used in an active learning environment, can enhance learning. We examined whether students exposed to immediate feedback…

  14. Absolute calibration of the mass scale in the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenichenko, V. V.

    1992-08-01

    A method of the absolute calibration of the mass scale is proposed for solving the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs. The method is based on data on the masses of fallen meteorites whose fireballs have been photographed in flight. The method can be applied to fireballs whose bodies have not experienced significant fragmentation during their flight in the atmosphere and have kept their shape relatively well. Data on the Lost City and Innisfree meteorites are used to calculate the calibration coefficients.

  15. A New Analysis of Fireball Data from the Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Brown, M. D.; Hildebrand, A.

    2004-12-01

    Sixty fireball cameras operated in Western Canada from 1971 to 1985. Over one thousand (1016) fireballs were recorded at more than one station, but only 367 were reduced, of which 285 have been published, including that of the Innisfree meteorite. Digitization of all the data is underway, and procedures are being developed which will allow the automatic reduction of events not previously examined. The results of the analysis of 80 fireballs reduced but not previously published are presented. When the new analysis is complete, the MORP archive will be a valuable source of information on meteoroid orbits.

  16. A microscopic modeling of the instant coffee effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, M; Nishimori, Y

    2014-01-01

    So-called the instant coffee effect is well known in the field of the physics education. The effect is explained that the sound yielded by touching the cup with a spoon is shifted to low-pitched by adulterating bubble owing to putting a spoon of instant coffee into hot water. The phenomenon has been interpreted with the averaged density and compressibility of the fluid in the macroscopic relation for the sound velocity, ν = √(κρ)"-"1. We introduce the linear coupled oscillator model with finite oscillators including the impurity air-mass oscillator. The model may well reproduce the increase in the shift of the eigen frequency accompanying with the amount of bubble.

  17. Hyper-entropic gravitational fireballs (grireballs) with firewalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, Don N.

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been much discussion as to whether old black holes have firewalls at their surfaces that would destroy infalling observers. Though I suspect that a proper handling of nonlocality in quantum gravity may show that firewalls do not exist, it is interesting to consider an extension of the firewall idea to what seems to be the logically possible concept of hyper-entropic gravitational hot objects (gravitational fireballs or grireballs for short) that have more entropy than ordinary black holes of the same mass. Here some properties of such grireballs are discussed under various assumptions, such as assuming that their radii and entropies both go as powers of their masses as the one independent parameter, or assuming that their radii depend on both their masses and their entropies as two independent parameters

  18. Hyper-entropic gravitational fireballs (grireballs) with firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Don N.

    2013-04-01

    Recently there has been much discussion as to whether old black holes have firewalls at their surfaces that would destroy infalling observers. Though I suspect that a proper handling of nonlocality in quantum gravity may show that firewalls do not exist, it is interesting to consider an extension of the firewall idea to what seems to be the logically possible concept of hyper-entropic gravitational hot objects (gravitational fireballs or grireballs for short) that have more entropy than ordinary black holes of the same mass. Here some properties of such grireballs are discussed under various assumptions, such as assuming that their radii and entropies both go as powers of their masses as the one independent parameter, or assuming that their radii depend on both their masses and their entropies as two independent parameters.

  19. Chemical equilibrium relations used in the fireball model of relativistic heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fireball model of relativistic heavy-ion collision uses chemical equilibrium relations to predict cross sections for particle and composite productions. These relations are examined in a canonical ensemble model where chemical equilibrium is not explicitly invoked

  20. Sequential Monte Carlo Instant Radiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Peter; Karras, Tero; Lehtinen, Jaakko

    2017-05-01

    Instant Radiosity and its derivatives are interactive methods for efficiently estimating global (indirect) illumination. They represent the last indirect bounce of illumination before the camera as the composite radiance field emitted by a set of virtual point light sources (VPLs). In complex scenes, current algorithms suffer from a difficult combination of two issues: it remains a challenge to distribute VPLs in a manner that simultaneously gives a high-quality indirect illumination solution for each frame, and to do so in a temporally coherent manner. We address both issues by building, and maintaining over time, an adaptive and temporally coherent distribution of VPLs in locations where they bring indirect light to the image. We introduce a novel heuristic sampling method that strives to only move as few of the VPLs between frames as possible. The result is, to the best of our knowledge, the first interactive global illumination algorithm that works in complex, highly-occluded scenes, suffers little from temporal flickering, supports moving cameras and light sources, and is output-sensitive in the sense that it places VPLs in locations that matter most to the final result.

  1. Pengkayaan Protein Mie Instant Dengan Tepung Tahu

    OpenAIRE

    Marsono, Yustinus; Astana, W. Pandhu

    2002-01-01

    A study on fortification of tofu flour in instant noodle has been conducted. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of tofu flour addition on chemical, nutritional and physical properties as well as panelist acceptance of the instant noodles. Four level of tofu flour fortification were evaluated, i.e. 10%, 12%, 14% and 16% wheat flour by weight. It is found that fortification of 16% tofu flour increased protein content instant noodles to 18% (from 9%) but decreased the in vitr...

  2. Observations of Twilight Fireballs over Kiev in 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, Klim; Steklov, Aleksey; Vidmachenko, Anatoliy; Dashkiev, Grigoriy

    2016-07-01

    The phenomenon of "Chelyabinsk bolide" 15.02.2013, resulted in damage to more than 1000 buildings and injure more than 500 people, after the explosion of fireball's body in the atmosphere over Chelyabinsk. The question about the dangers of such astronomical phenomena for life and health of citizens and for the existence of entire countries, arose with renewed vigor. Normally, bolides leave bright trace from ionized gas and dust. Traces of ionization can be seen particularly well at night. If a meteorite invades at the daytime at the cloudless sky and bright sunshine, the phenomenon of the fireball may not be visible. But if the fireball's track has noticeable angular size, it can be seen even in the daytime. After the flight, bolide remains a noticeable trace of a dust, dark against the light sky. If such a dust trail illuminated by the rays of the Sun, which had just hid behind the horizon (or even in the moonlight), it is visible as bright lanes in the night sky or in twilight. That's why we call it the twilight bolides. Typically, astronomical observations using of meteor patrols, carried out at night after the evening astronomical twilight. But from March 2013 to October 2015, the authors have obtained several thousands of different tracks in the sky over Kiev. Therefore, we have identified a special class of twilight observations of fireballs. We register the traces of invading to atmosphere of meteoroids of natural and artificial origin. At the same time, observe the traces of fireballs at the day-time are also possible. But they are less effective than in the twilight. Night observations of bright meteoric tracks can usually observe some seconds. While traces of the twilight bolides we observed from some minutes up to two hours, before they be scattered by atmospheric currents. It opens the great prospects for low-cost direct experiments probing of these tracks by using, for example, the astronomical aviation. We propose the twilight tracks are classified

  3. Technetium-99 in ''instant'' sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, S.

    1978-01-01

    The 99 Tc-content in sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate separated from 99 Mo by distillation or extraction has been studied with a plastic scintillation detector. The identification of the measured activity was achieved by beta-spectrometry, chemical separation and half-life studies. The frequency distribution of the sup(99)Tc/sup(99m)Tc-ratios in the different samples was observed to be log-normal. The most likely activity ratio was 0.4x10 -6 , the maximum value being 5x10 -6 . The specific activity of ''instant'' pertechnetate is approximately a factor of 60 lower than that normally recorded in pertechnetate derived from daily eluted column generators. The low specific activity of ''instant'' pertechnetate is primarily explained by the long time between separation and usage and secondly by the low yield of Tc in the distillation and extraction processes. In several of the ''instant'' pertechnetate solutions the carrier concentration exceeded the reductive capacity of the stannous ions in ''kits'' with small amounts of Sn(II) in usable form. (T.G.)

  4. Instant VMware view virtualization how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Geddam, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks.This is a Packt Instant How-to guide, which provides concise and clear recipes for getting started with setting up the VDI in different environments.Instant VMware View 5 Virtualization How-to is for architects, solution providers, consultants, engineers, and anyone planning to design and implement a solution based on VMware View 5.

  5. PENGGUNAAN INSTANT MESSANGER dan KOMUNIKASI INTERPERSONAL REMAJA

    OpenAIRE

    Primada Qurrota Ayun

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal communication should ideally in face to face, until the achievement of intimate communication. Instant messenger makes interpersonal communication easier and more efficient. However, it also resulted in less effective communication to occur, because it only uses text messaging as a means to convey a message so frequent miscommunication. This study wanted to see how the use of instant messenger among teenagers in interpersonal communication. The theory used in this study is a Com...

  6. Penggunaan Instant Messanger Dan Komunikasi Interpersonal Remaja

    OpenAIRE

    Ayun, Primada Qurrota

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal communication should ideally in face to face, until the achievement of intimate communication. Instant messenger makes interpersonal communication easier and more efficient. However, it also resulted in less effective communication to occur, because it only uses text messaging as a means to convey a message so frequent miscommunication. This study wanted to see how the use of instant messenger among teenagers in interpersonal communication. The theory used in this study is a Com...

  7. Instant collaboration: Using context-aware instant messaging for session management in distributed collaboration tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Damm, Christian Heide

    2002-01-01

    Distributed collaboration has become increasingly important, and instant messaging has become widely used for distributed communication. We present findings from an investigation of instant messaging use for work-related activities in a commercial setting. Based on these findings, we propose...... a lightweight session management design for distributed collaboration tools based on context-aware instant messaging. An implementation of this design is presented and an ongoing evaluation is discussed....

  8. Neural network and parton two fireball model for pseudo-rapidity distribution in proton-proton collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bakry, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Pseudo-Rapidity distribution of created pions from proton-proton (p-p) interaction has been studied in the framework of artificial neural network (ANN) and the parton two fireball model (PTFM). The predicted distributions from the ANN based model and the parton two fireball model is compared with the corresponding experimental results. The ANN model has proved better matching for experimental data specially at high energies where the conventional two fireball model representation deteriorates

  9. Formation and break-up of hadronic fireballs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachel, J.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental data presently available for beam energies of 14.6 to 200 GeV/nucleon support the picture of a large degree of nuclear stopping that forms the basis of fireball models. While the data clearly exclude the picture of a system emitting particles isotropically, many of the experimental features are in line with predictions from the Landau model. To what extent this indicates the formation of a thermalized system in such relativistic heavy ion collisions is unclear at present. While the amount of experimental data available has grown very much, there are still missing links. At present, the systematics of transverse momentum spectra is not understood well enough to distinguish between the various theoretical conjectures made in the literature. It is still not known to what extent slopes of p t spectra reflect the temperature of a system at all. One alternative test would be to measure excited state populations of e.g. the nucleon, by determining for instance the abundance thermalization and stopping are nucleon rapidity distributions. There, experimental measurements over the full range of rapidities and as large a p t range as possible are needed. In particular, to sort out the question of rescattering effects, comparison to symmetric target-projectile combinations is needed. While obviously not all of the observed experimental features are as expected based on the, admittedly very much simplified, assumptions of a thermal model present data certainly do not rule out such a scenario

  10. Instant noodles: processing, quality, and nutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Neelam; Dhaka, Vandana; Khatkar, B S

    2014-01-01

    Noodles are one of the staple foods consumed in many Asian countries. Instant noodles have become internationally recognized food, and worldwide consumption is on the rise. The properties of instant noodles like taste, nutrition, convenience, safety, longer shelf-life, and reasonable price have made them popular. Quality factors important for instant noodles are color, flavor, and texture, cooking quality, rehydration rates during final preparation, and the presence or absence of rancid taste after extended storage. Microstructure of dough and noodles has been studied to understand the influence of ingredients and processing variables on the noodle quality by employing scanning electron microscopy. Applications of newer techniques like confocal laser scanning microscopy and epifluorescence light microscopy employed to understand the microstructure changes in dough and noodles have also been discussed. Sincere efforts of researchers are underway to improve the formulation, extend the shelf life, and promote universal fortification of instant noodles. Accordingly, many researchers are exploring the potential of noodle fortification as an effective public health intervention and improve its nutritional properties. This review focuses on the functionality of ingredients, unit operations involved, quality criteria for evaluation, recent trends in fortification, and current knowledge in relation to instant noodles.

  11. PENGGUNAAN INSTANT MESSANGER dan KOMUNIKASI INTERPERSONAL REMAJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primada Qurrota Ayun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal communication should ideally in face to face, until the achievement of intimate communication. Instant messenger makes interpersonal communication easier and more efficient. However, it also resulted in less effective communication to occur, because it only uses text messaging as a means to convey a message so frequent miscommunication. This study wanted to see how the use of instant messenger among teenagers in interpersonal communication. The theory used in this study is a Computer Mediated Communication, Ecology Media and Interpersonal Intimacy. The method used in this research is phenomenology. The results of this study indicate that the instant messenger is a medium that is considered to be practical and easy to communicate interpersonally with family, friends, and lovers. Interpersonal communication process through instant messenger can not reach the stage of intimate relationship, because of interactions that occur frequently experienced miscommunication due to an incorrect perception. Interpersonal communication is more effective if it is done face to face. Teens when communicating via instant messenger, tend not to believe and to tell the truth.

  12. FIREBall, CHaS, and the diffuse universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamden, Erika Tobiason

    the CGM. Other ways of probing the CGM including direct detection via emission lines. I built a proto-type of the Circumgalactic Halpha Spectrograph (CHalphaS), a wide-field, low-cost, narrow-band integral field unit (IFU) that is designed to observe Halpha emission from the CGM of nearby, low-z galaxies. This proto-type has had two recent science runs, with preliminary data on several nearby galaxies. Additional probes of the CGM are emission lines in the rest ultra-violet. These include OVI, Lyalpha, CIV, SiIII, CIII, CII, FeII, and MgII. Such lines are accessible for low redshift galaxies in the space UV, historically a difficult wavelength range in which to work due in part to low efficiency of the available detectors. I have worked with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory to develop advanced anti-reflection (AR) coatings for use on thinned, delta-doped charge coupled device (CCD) detectors. These detectors have achieved world record quantum efficiency (QE) at UV wavelengths (>50% between 130 nm and 300nm), with the potential for even greater QE with a more complex coating. One of these AR coated detectors will be used on the Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2), a balloon-born UV spectrograph designed to observe the CGM at 205 nm via redshifted Lyalpha (at z=0.7), CIV (at z=0.3), and OVI (at z=1.0). FIREBall-2 will launch in the fall of 2015.

  13. Streaming movies, media, and instant access

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Wheeler Winston

    2013-01-01

    Film stocks are vanishing, but the iconic images of the silver screen remain -- albeit in new, sleeker formats. Today, viewers can instantly stream movies on televisions, computers, and smartphones. Gone are the days when films could only be seen in theaters or rented at video stores: movies are now accessible at the click of a button, and there are no reels, tapes, or discs to store. Any film or show worth keeping may be collected in the virtual cloud and accessed at will through services like Netflix, Hulu, and Amazon Instant.The movies have changed, and we are changing with them.

  14. End height of fireball as a function of their residual kinetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revelle, D.O.

    1987-01-01

    Previous analyses of meteoroid compositional groupings have utilized the end height of fireballs as a diagnostic tool. From an observational perspective this definition is straight forward, but from a theoretical viewpoint there are problems with using this operational definition. In order to realistically assess the estimated geometric uncertainty of + 1 km in the observed end height, a theoretical definition of the end height of meteoritic fireballs is proposed using the results from the integral radiation efficiency model of ReVelle. Three photographed and recovered meteorites are used as a calibration for this proposed definition. This definition was used to evaluate the end height of all fireballs that were deduced by Wetherill and ReVelle as being meteoritic. In almost all cases the theoretical values are lower than the observed values, in some cases as much as 5 km lower. A preliminary summary of results are given

  15. Thermal radiation from fireballs on failure of liquefied petroleum gas storage vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, T.; Hawksworth, S. [Health and Safety Executive, Health and Safety Lab., Buxton (United Kingdom); Gosse, A. [BG Technology, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    Fire impingement on vessels containing pressure liquefied gases can result in catastrophic failure of the vessel leading to a Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion (BLEVE). If the gas is flammable, this can result in the formation of very large fireballs. In safety assessments where catastrophic vessel failure is identified as a real possibility, the risk of death from a fireball tends to be higher than that from missiles or blast. Since many of the physical processes which take place in a BLEVE are scale dependent, a series of tests were undertaken at a large scale where 2 tonne propane vessels were taken to failure in a jet fire and the vessel response, mode of failure and consequence of failure characterised. The measurements taken by the Health and Safety Laboratory and BG Technology relating to fireball formation are described. (Author)

  16. On pattern recognition of fireballs and isobars in the Lobachevsky velocity space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubelev, E.G.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that a multidimensional statistical analysis of high particle jets means the classification of invariant pictures for their kinematics into types (with the production of fireballs and isobars and without one or the other) and recognition of statistical patterms for fireballs and isobars in the Lobachevsky velocity space (invariant phase space in high energy physics). The concept of likeness (closeness) of single-type pictures is taken as basis for such a classification. Two known methods of formalizing this concept are generalized in application to the noneuclidean metric of the velocity space

  17. Development, nutritional evaluation and optimization of instant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, different instant porridges were formulated from broken fractions of rice blended with bambara groundnut flour through extrusion cooking. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) were used to optimize the production variables. The objective was to locate the ...

  18. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Kulcsor, Istvan Zsolt; Roes, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the

  19. Interactive or interruptive? Instant messaging at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, C.X.J.; Davison, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of instant messaging (IM) technology at work is controversial, due to the interruptions it may cause and the difficulties associated with quantifying its benefits for individuals, teams and organizations. In this study, we investigate the use and impact of IM tools in the workplace. Based on

  20. Using Instant Messaging for Online Reference Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Many libraries are using co-browsing chat products to provide reference services to their patrons, whilst their patrons are online and using the internet. The concept of such an online service is highly desirable, but many libraries are concerned that they will never be able to afford such a system. This may have changed: Instant Messaging (IM)…

  1. 7 CFR 58.249 - Instant nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instant nonfat dry milk. 58.249 Section 58.249... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.249 Instant nonfat dry milk. (a) Only instant nonfat dry milk manufactured and packaged in accordance with the requirements of this part and with the applicable...

  2. What Do We Know About the "Carancas-Desaguadero" Fireball, Meteorite and Impact Crater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, G.; Ishitsuka, J.; Rosales, D.; Vidal, E.; Dalmau, A.; Pavel, D.; Benavente, S.; Miranda, P.; Pereira, G.; Vallejos, V.; Varela, M. E.; Brandstätter, F.; Schultz, P. H.; Harris, R. S.; Sánchez, L.

    2008-03-01

    On September 15, 2007, at noon local time, a fireball was observed and heard in the southern shore of the Lake Titicaca, close to the border between Peru and Bolivia. A crater was formed due to the impact of a chondrite meteorite weighing more than 2 tons.

  3. Phases of QCD, thermal quasiparticles, and dilepton radiation from a fireball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, Thorsten; Schneider, Roland; Weise, Wolfram

    2002-01-01

    We calculate dilepton production rates from a fireball adapted to the kinematical conditions realized in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions over a broad range of beam energies. The freeze-out state of the fireball is fixed by hadronic observables. We use this information combined with the initial geometry of the collision region to follow the space-time evolution of the fireball. Assuming entropy conservation, its bulk thermodynamic properties can then be uniquely obtained once the equation of state (EOS) is specified. The high-temperature quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase is modeled by a nonperturbative quasiparticle model that incorporates a phenomenological confinement description, adapted to lattice QCD results. For the hadronic phase, we interpolate the EOS into the region where a resonance gas approach seems applicable, keeping track of a possible overpopulation of the pion phase space. In this way, the fireball evolution is specified without reference to dilepton data, thus eliminating it as an adjustable parameter in the rate calculations. Dilepton emission in the QGP phase is then calculated within the quasiparticle model. In the hadronic phase, both temperature and finite baryon density effects on the photon spectral function are incorporated. Existing dilepton data from CERES at 158 and 40 A GeV Pb-Au collisions are well described, and a prediction for the PHENIX setup at RHIC for √(s)=200A GeV is given

  4. FIREBall-2: Trailblazing observations of the space UV circumgalactic medium (Columbia University, Co-I Proposal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiminovich, David

    Columbia University is a Co-I institution in a collaborative research program with Caltech, the Lead Institution (PI: Christopher Martin). The Faint Intergalactic-medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2) is designed to discover and map faint emission from the circumgalactic medium of low redshift galaxies (0.3zz 0.7, conduct a targeted search of circumquasar (CQM) media for selected targets, and conduct follow up on likely tar-gets selected via GALEX and a pilot survey conducted by our group. We will also conduct a statistical search for the faint IGM via statistical stacking of our data. The FIREBall-2 team includes two female graduate students in key roles (both of whom are finishing their PhDs in 2016) and is overseen by a female Postdoctoral scholar (supported by NSF AAPF and Caltech Millikan Fellowships, in addition to a recent Roman Technology Fellowship award). Additional funding is necessary to keep this highly qualified balloon team together for a second flight. FIREBall-2 will test key technologies and science strategies for a future space mission to map emission from CGM and IGM baryons. Its flights will continue to provide important training for the next generation of space astrophysicists working in UV and other wavelength instrumentation. Most importantly, FIREBall-2 will detect emission from the CGM of nearby galaxies, providing the first census of the density and kinematics of this material for low z galaxies and open-ing a new field of CGM science.

  5. The Australian Desert Fireball Network: a new era for planetary science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bland, P.A.; Spurný, Pavel; Bevan, A.W.R.; Howard, K.T.; Towner, M.C.; Benedix, G.K.; Greenwood, R.C.; Shrbený, Lukáš; Franchi, I.A.; Deacon, G.; Borovička, Jiří; Ceplecha, Zdeněk; Vaughan, D.; Hough, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2012), s. 177-187 ISSN 0812-0099 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : desert fireball network * nullarbor region * observed meteorite falls Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2012

  6. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon

    2011-01-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korea...

  7. HUBBLE STAYS ON TRAIL OF FADING GAMMA-RAY BURST FIREBALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A Hubble Space Telescope image of the fading fireball from one of the universe's most mysterious phenomena, a gamma-ray burst. Though the visible component has faded to 1/500th its brightness (27.7 magnitude) from the time it was first discovered by ground- based telescopes last March (the actual gamma-ray burst took place on February 28), Hubble continues to clearly see the fireball and discriminated a surrounding nebulosity (at 25th magnitude) which is considered a host galaxy. The continued visibility of the burst, and the rate of its fading, support theories that the light from a gamma-ray burst is an expanding relativistic (moving near the speed of light) fireball, possibly produced by the collision of two dense objects, such as an orbiting pair of neutron stars. If the burst happened nearby, within our own galaxy, the resulting fireball should have had only enough energy to propel it into space for a month. The fact that this fireball is still visible after six months means the explosion was truly titanic and, to match the observed brightness, must have happened at the vast distances of galaxies. The energy released in a burst, which can last from a fraction of a second to a few hundred seconds, is equal to all of the Sun's energy generated over its 10 billion year lifetime. The false-color image was taken Sept. 5, 1997 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Credit: Andrew Fruchter (STScI), Elena Pian (ITSRE-CNR), and NASA

  8. Can a large neutron excess help solve the baryon loading problem in gamma-Ray burst fireballs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller; Pruet; Abazajian

    2000-09-25

    We point out that the baryon loading problem in gamma-ray burst (GRB) models can be ameliorated if a significant fraction of the baryons which inertially confine the fireball is converted to neutrons. A high neutron fraction can result in a reduced transfer of energy from relativistic light particles in the fireball to baryons. The energy needed to produce the required relativistic flow in the GRB is consequently reduced, in some cases by orders of magnitude. A high neutron-to-proton ratio has been calculated in neutron star-merger fireball environments. Significant neutron excess also could occur near compact objects with high neutrino fluxes.

  9. Instant HTML5 fonts and typography

    CERN Document Server

    Jaouher, K

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Written as practical recipes, Instant HTML5 Fonts and Typography How-to will enable you to use custom fonts with outstanding effects.This book is great for both professional and amateur HTML and CSS developers who are looking to use fonts in order to enhance interface design. Familiarity with JavaScript is assumed.

  10. Biorefinery of instant noodle waste to biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Lee, Sang Jun; Yoo, Hah Young; Choi, Han Suk; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-05-01

    Instant noodle waste, one of the main residues of the modern food industry, was employed as feedstock to convert to valuable biofuels. After isolation of used oil from the instant noodle waste surface, the starch residue was converted to bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae K35 with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The maximum ethanol concentration and productivity was 61.1g/l and 1.7 g/lh, respectively. After the optimization of fermentation, ethanol conversion rate of 96.8% was achieved within 36 h. The extracted oil was utilized as feedstock for high quality biodiesel conversion with typical chemical catalysts (KOH and H2SO4). The optimum conversion conditions for these two catalysts were estimated; and the highest biodiesel conversion rates were achieved 98.5% and 97.8%, within 2 and 3h, respectively. The high conversion rates of both bioethanol and biodiesel demonstrate that novel substrate instant noodle waste can be an attractive biorefinery feedstock in the biofuels industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SharePoint 2010 Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Fast, accurate answers on SharePoint 2010 administration-in an instant If you're a SharePoint administrator and are looking for fast, accurate, easy-to-understand answers and solutions, then this reference is for you. Thumb tabs, secondary and tertiary tables of contents, and special heading treatments ensure quick and easy ways to find practical solutions on the spot. In addition, quick-reference tables, lists, and step-by-step instruction provide even more helpful information on the day-to-day administration of Microsoft's newest collaboration solution.Features invaluable answers and solutio

  12. Instant HTML5 presentations how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Davi

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Get the job done and learn as you go. A how-To book with practical recipes accompanied with rich screenshots for easy comprehension.As a Packt Instant, this book aims to provide short, fast and focused information to help you get the results that you need.This book is ideal for those with basic front-end development skills who want to create beautiful HTML5 presentations using the reveal.js library. We assume that you know how to create and edit HTML documents. You also must know ho

  13. Instant Apple Configurator how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Get the job done and learn as you go. A how-To book with practical recipes accompanied with rich screenshots for easy comprehension.This book follows the Packt How-to approach, offering an informative yet practical guide that is easy to understand. The book takes a meticulous approach to providing quick and simple recipe-based solutions for security and deployment of iOS devices.""Instant Apple iOS Configurator Utility How-to"" book is ideal for anyone with a working knowledge in iO

  14. Microsoft Windows 7 Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2010-01-01

    An on-the-spot reference for Windows 7 administrators. Hundreds of thousands of IT administrators, network administrators, and IT support technicians work daily with Windows 7. This well-organized, portable reference covers every facet of Windows 7, providing no-nonsense instruction that is readily accessible when you need it. Designed for busy administrators, it features thumb tabs and chapter outlines to make answers easy to find.: Windows 7 administrative and support personnel need quick answers to situations they confront each day; this Instant Reference is designed to provide information,

  15. 5-10 GeV neutrinos from gamma-Ray burst fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall; Meszaros

    2000-08-14

    A gamma-ray burst fireball is likely to contain an admixture of neutrons. Inelastic collisions between differentially streaming protons and neutrons in the fireball produce nu(&mgr;) (nu;(&mgr;)) of approximately 10 GeV as well as nu(e) (nu;(e)) of approximately 5 GeV, which could produce approximately 7 events/year in km(3) detectors, if the neutron abundance is comparable to that of protons. Photons of approximately 10 GeV from pi(0) decay and approximately 100 MeV nu;(e) from neutron decay are also produced, but will be difficult to detect. Photons with energies less, similar1 MeV from shocks following neutron decay produce a characteristic signal which may be distinguishable from the proton-related MeV photons.

  16. FDS simulation of the fuel fireball from a hypothetical commercial airliner crash on a generic nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Wolfgang [GRS, Forschungsinstitute, Garching (Germany); Mueller, W. Christoph [GRS, Forschungsinstitute, Garching (Germany)], E-mail: mur@grs.de

    2009-10-15

    In the aftermath of 9/11 events it became clear that the impact of a fast flying commercial airliner hitting the NPP could no longer be excluded as a potential external hazard threatening the nuclear power plant (NPP) safety. One of the potential consequences of the impact is the occurrence of a fireball, large enough to engulf the entire NPP. The knowledge about fireballs from air crashes is rather poor since it is only based on footage shot by chance. From careful physical and chemical examinations using first principles, it can be concluded that the physics and chemistry of the kerosene fireball are similar to BLEVE fireballs in gas tank accidents which have been studied during the last decades. The knowledge from these analyses can be applied to air crash fireball analysis. In order to obtain an adequate understanding of the potential hazards to a NPP engulfed by a fireball a detailed analysis of the fireball is necessary. It is only by a detailed analysis that the effect of the NPP structures on the evolution of the fireball can be derived. Though the safety-relevant parts of the NPP are strong concrete structures, according to IAEA regulations the hypothesized entry of combustion products into ventilation or air supply systems and the entry of fuel into buildings through normal openings have to be analyzed in detail. This requires local transient values of the safety-relevant fireball parameters. With the NPP being a very large structure an adequately detailed simulation requires large computing grids and substantial computing power. With the release of Version 5 of the Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) from NIST in 2007 a simulation tool is now available which is capable to perform simulations of large fireballs on sufficiently large computing grids. These fireball simulations can be performed also by any other CFD code in which the relevant models have been implemented. The FDS fireball simulation capabilities were validated with the help of a well

  17. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon

    2011-10-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products.

  18. Uji Organoleptik Hasil Jadi Kue Menggunakan Bahan Non Instant dan Instant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianka Wahyuningtias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of making a cake in the modern era, demanding speed because of the time more valuable and more widely distribution coverage, which means greater production capacity. Then the process is made as efficient as possible. Busyness is high enough to make parents and family also eventually follow the diet and no hassle instant preparation. Now was enough just to buy one box of instant cake mix that is usually already included in the package, plus live eggs, and butter cake be desired. The process is also very clear instructions printed on the packaging of instant flour. From the results of analysis of Material Differences between Normal and Instant Ingredients (Paired Samples Correlations then we can see the differences, views of significant value. If sig is smaller than 0:05, the materials A and B materials are different, but if the sig is greater than 0:05, the materials A and B, have same material. From the above table can be viewed texture and flavor of the cake A and B are different, while for the smell, taste, and colors have in common. So it can be concluded that between the two cakes A and B are same. 

  19. Recent computer attacks via Instant Messaging

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. Several computers at CERN have recently been broken into by attackers who have tricked users of Instant Messaging applications (e.g. MSN, Yahoo Messenger, etc.) into clicking on web links which appeared to come from known contacts. The links appeared to be photos from ‘friends’ and requested software to be installed. In practice, attacker software was installed and the messages did not come from real contacts. In the past such fake messages were mainly sent by email but now a wider range of applications are being targeted, including Instant Messaging. Cybercriminals are making growing use of fake messages to try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer. Anti-virus software cann...

  20. Meteor reporting made easy- The Fireballs in the Sky smartphone app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, E.; Ridgewell, J.; Bland, P.; Paxman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Using smartphone technology, the award-winning 'Fireballs in the Sky' app provides a new approach to public meteor reporting. Using the internal GPS and sensors of a smartphone, a user can record the start and end position of a meteor sighting with a background star field as reference. Animations are used to visualize the duration and characteristics of the meteor. The intuitive application can be used in situ, providing a more accurate eye witness account than after-the-fact reports (although reports may also be made through a website interface). Since its launch in 2013, the app has received over 2000 submissions, including 73 events which were reported by multiple users. The app database is linked to the Desert Fireball Network in Australia (DFN), meaning app reports can be confirmed by DFN observatories. Supporting features include an integrated meteor shower tool that provides updates on active showers, their visibility based on moon phase, as well as a tool to point the user toward the radiant. The locations of reports are also now shown on a live map on the Fireballs in the Sky webpage.

  1. Method for detecting neutrinos from internal shocks in GRB fireballs with AMANDA

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatikos, M

    2004-01-01

    Neutrino-based astronomy provides a new window on the most energetic processes in the universe. The discovery of high-energy (E >or= 10 /sup 14/ eV) muonic neutrinos (v/sub mu /) from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) would confirm hadronic acceleration in the relativistic GRB- wind, validate the phenomenology of the canonical fireball model and possibly reveal an acceleration mechanism for the highest energy cosmic rays (CRs). The Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) is the world's largest operational neutrino telescope with a PeV muon effective area (averaged over zenith angle) ~ 50,000 m/sup 2 /. AMANDA uses the natural ice at the geographic South Pole as a Cherenkov medium and has been successfully calibrated on the signal of atmospheric neutrinos (v/sub atm/). Contrary to previous diffuse searches, we describe an analysis based upon confronting AMANDA observations of individual GRBs, adequately modeled by fireball phenomenology, with the predictions of the canonical fireball model. The expected neut...

  2. Fireball flickering: the case for indirect measurement of meteoroid rotation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Martin; Brown, Peter

    2000-08-01

    Data collected during the Meteorite Observation and Recovery Program (MORP) indicate that 4% of bright fireballs show a periodic variation or flickering in brightness. The observed flickering frequencies vary from a few Hz to as high as 500 Hz. We interpret the flickering phenomenon in terms of meteoroid rotation. The MORP data does not reveal any apparent correlation between the flickering frequency and the properties of the meteoroid or the atmospheric flow conditions under which ablation is taking place. It is argued that the most likely cause of the flickering phenomenon is the rotational modulation of the cross-section area presented by the meteoroid to the on-coming airflow. A study is made of the Peekskill fireball and it is concluded that the meteoroid was spun-up during its long flight through the Earth's atmosphere, and that its initial brake up was due to rotational bursting. We also argue that the Peekskill event provides the best observational evidence that the flickering phenomenon is truly related to the rotation rate of the impinging meteoroid. We find that the observed rotation rates of the MORP fireballs are clustered just below the allowed limit set by rotational bursting, but argue that this is due to an observational selection effect that mitigates against the detection of low-frequency flickering.

  3. Instant Internationalization of Emerging Economy New Ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2012-01-01

    Being positioned and the intersection of international entrepreneurship and institutional theory, this study explores the process of instant internationalization of new ventures from emerging economies. It adopts a single-case study methodology, purposefully selecting an information-rich case where...... context of an emerging industry. Yet another set of contributions concerns the legitimation process of internationalization of a new venture from an emerging economy. A number of propositions are put forward to guide future research....... the phenomenon is manifested intensely, but not extremely. A family-owned venture located in Moldova that is in the business of processing fruit and vegetables was selected for this study. It started up in 2000 and from its inception the sales from exports grew almost 120% per year. Data collection took place...

  4. An instant dose obtainable in situ calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, H.; Mento, D.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a computer-linked water calorimeter is described. The advantages of this system are twofold: (i) instant dose determination is possible; and (ii) the calorimeter operation is much simpler than conventional null balance techniques. The entire calorimeter measurement procedure from the set-up to the dose determination for 10 runs was finished in approximately 2 1/2 h. A smaller calorimeter which could be kept in the treatment room for equilibrium, should permit further reduction of the time. The use of a smaller, portable computer would allow local data taking and analysis, eliminating the need for modems, phone lines and long cables. This would lead to a completely self-contained set-up at the treatment room. Although the technique is described for a polystyrene-water calorimeter, it should be equally applicable for a water calorimeter as well as a conventional isolated calorimeter. (author)

  5. Hypoglycemic effect of instant aloe vera on the diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Instant aloe vera contains phenolic compounds which has antioxidative activity. However, this product is hygroscopic and damaged easily during storage. The critical condition of the instant occurs at the moisture content of 12.52 ± 0.24% (wb. Increasing the moisture content could accelerate oxidation of the phenolic compounds, thus decrease the antioxidative activity. Previous research showed that the antioxidative activity of instant aloe vera could lower the blood glucose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of instant aloe vera during storage until the critical condition. The hypoglycemic effect was determined with the in vivo method using diabetic Wistar rats as experimental animals. The diabetic rats were fed with a standard feed combined with instant aloe vera which has been stored at various storage time i.e. 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks and used normal rats fed without instant aloe vera as a control. The blood glucose was analyzed every week until 4 weeks. The research showed that the diabetic rats fed with standard feed without instant aloe vera had high blood glucose (219.40 mg/dL after 4 weeks treatment. Otherwise, the blood glucose of diabetic rats fed with instant aloe vera decreased from 214.00 mg/dL to 97.57 mg/dL after 4 weeks.

  6. Lol: New Language and Spelling in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnhagen, Connie K.; McFall, G. Peggy; Pugh, Nicole; Routledge, Lisa; Sumida-MacDonald, Heather; Kwong, Trudy E.

    2010-01-01

    Written communication in instant messaging, text messaging, chat, and other forms of electronic communication appears to have generated a "new language" of abbreviations, acronyms, word combinations, and punctuation. In this naturalistic study, adolescents collected their instant messaging conversations for a 1-week period and then completed a…

  7. Nutrient and other trace elements in instant soups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    Instant soups are a new group of dried foods and will play an important role in the nutrition of people because they fulfill present and future social consumer requirements. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied in this work to determine the trace elements cesium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, strontium, silver and zinc in instant and long-time soups from the Greek market. According to our results, instant soups have the same iron content as those reported in the literature for bovine muscle, rice, legumes, porcine muscle and some meat products. Instant soup zinc content is the same as those reported for avian muscle, onions, rice, potatoes and sausages. Moreover the consumption of one plateful of instant soup offers to the human body about 8% of the daily required iron and about 2% of the daily required zinc. (author) 15 refs.; 4 tabs

  8. On the development of new SPMN diurnal video systems for daylight fireball monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiedo, J. M.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2008-09-01

    Daylight fireball video monitoring High-sensitivity video devices are commonly used for the study of the activity of meteor streams during the night. These provide useful data for the determination, for instance, of radiant, orbital and photometric parameters ([1] to [7]). With this aim, during 2006 three automated video stations supported by Universidad de Huelva were set up in Andalusia within the framework of the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN). These are endowed with 8-9 high sensitivity wide-field video cameras that achieve a meteor limiting magnitude of about +3. These stations have increased the coverage performed by the low-scan allsky CCD systems operated by the SPMN and, besides, achieve a time accuracy of about 0.01s for determining the appearance of meteor and fireball events. Despite of these nocturnal monitoring efforts, we realised the need of setting up stations for daylight fireball detection. Such effort was also motivated by the appearance of the two recent meteorite-dropping events of Villalbeto de la Peña [8,9] and Puerto Lápice [10]. Although the Villalbeto de la Peña event was casually videotaped, and photographed, no direct pictures or videos were obtained for the Puerto Lápice event. Consequently, in order to perform a continuous recording of daylight fireball events, we setup new automated systems based on CCD video cameras. However, the development of these video stations implies several issues with respect to nocturnal systems that must be properly solved in order to get an optimal operation. The first of these video stations, also supported by University of Huelva, has been setup in Sevilla (Andalusia) during May 2007. But, of course, fireball association is unequivocal only in those cases when two or more stations recorded the fireball, and when consequently the geocentric radiant is accurately determined. With this aim, a second diurnal video station is being setup in Andalusia in the facilities of Centro Internacional de Estudios y

  9. Fireball data analysis: bridging the gap between small solar system bodies and meteorite studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, Maria; Moreno-Ibáñez, Manuel; Kuznetsova, Daria; Bouquet, Alexis; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Koschny, Detlef

    2015-08-01

    One of the important steps in identification of meteorite-producing fireballs and prediction of impact threat to Earth raised by potentially hazardous asteroids is the understanding and modeling of processes accompanying the object’s entry into the terrestrial atmosphere (Gritsevich et al., 2012). Such knowledge enables characterization, simulation and classification of possible impact consequences with further reommendation for potential meteorite searches. Using dimensionless expressions, which involve the pre-atmospheric meteoroid parameters, we have built physically based parametrisation to describe changes in mass, height, velocity and luminosity of the object along its atmospheric path (Gritsevich and Koschny, 2011; Bouquet et al., 2014). The developed model is suitable to estimate a number of crucial unknown values including shape change coefficient, ablation rate, and surviving meteorite mass. It is also applicable to predict the terminal height of the luminous flight and therefore, duration of the fireball (Moreno-Ibáñez et al., 2015). Besides the model description, we demonstrate its application using the wide range of observational data from meteorite-producing fireballs appearing annually (such as Košice) to larger scale impacts (such as Chelyabinsk, Sikhote-Alin and Tunguska).REFERENCESBouquet A., Baratoux D., Vaubaillon J., Gritsevich M.I., Mimoun D., Mousis O., Bouley S. (2014): Planetary and Space Science, 103, 238-249, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2014.09.001Gritsevich M., Koschny D. (2011): Icarus, 212(2), 877-884, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2011.01.033Gritsevich M.I., Stulov V.P., Turchak L.I. (2012): Cosmic Research, 50(1), 56-64, http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0010952512010017Moreno-Ibáñez M., Gritsevich M., Trigo-Rodríguez J.M. (2015): Icarus, 250, 544-552, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2014.12.027

  10. Rate Aware Instantly Decodable Network Codes

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-02-26

    This paper addresses the problem of reducing the delivery time of data messages to cellular users using instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) with physical-layer rate awareness. While most of the existing literature on IDNC does not consider any physical layer complications, this paper proposes a cross-layer scheme that incorporates the different channel rates of the various users in the decision process of both the transmitted message combinations and the rates with which they are transmitted. The completion time minimization problem in such scenario is first shown to be intractable. The problem is, thus, approximated by reducing, at each transmission, the increase of an anticipated version of the completion time. The paper solves the problem by formulating it as a maximum weight clique problem over a newly designed rate aware IDNC (RA-IDNC) graph. Further, the paper provides a multi-layer solution to improve the completion time approximation. Simulation results suggest that the cross-layer design largely outperforms the uncoded transmissions strategies and the classical IDNC scheme. © 2015 IEEE.

  11. Rate Aware Instantly Decodable Network Codes

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed; Sorour, Sameh; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of reducing the delivery time of data messages to cellular users using instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) with physical-layer rate awareness. While most of the existing literature on IDNC does not consider any physical layer complications, this paper proposes a cross-layer scheme that incorporates the different channel rates of the various users in the decision process of both the transmitted message combinations and the rates with which they are transmitted. The completion time minimization problem in such scenario is first shown to be intractable. The problem is, thus, approximated by reducing, at each transmission, the increase of an anticipated version of the completion time. The paper solves the problem by formulating it as a maximum weight clique problem over a newly designed rate aware IDNC (RA-IDNC) graph. Further, the paper provides a multi-layer solution to improve the completion time approximation. Simulation results suggest that the cross-layer design largely outperforms the uncoded transmissions strategies and the classical IDNC scheme. © 2015 IEEE.

  12. Buoyancy of the ''Y2K'' Persistent Train and the Trajectory of the 04:00:29 UT Leonid Fireball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Rairden, Rick L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The atmospheric trajectory is calculated of a particularly well studied fireball and train during the 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. Less than a minute after the meteor's first appearance, the train curves into a '2'-shape, which persisted until at least 13 minutes after the fireball. We conclude that the shape results because of horizontal winds from gravity waves with a scale height of 8.3 km at 79-91 km altitude, as well as a westerly wind gradient with altitude. In addition, there is downward drift that affects the formation of loops in the train early on.

  13. Buoyancy of the "Y2K" Persistent Train and the Trajectory of the 04:00:29 UT Leonid Fireball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Rairden, Rick L.

    The atmospheric trajectory is calculated of a particularly well studied fireball and train during the 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. Less than a minute after the meteor's first appearance, the train curves into a "2"-shape, which persisted until at least 13 minutes after the fireball. We conclude that the shape results because of horizontal winds from gravity waves with a scale height of 8.3 km at 79-91 km altitude, as well as a westerly wind gradient with altitude. In addition, there is downward drift that affects the formation of loops in the train early on.

  14. Construction project investment control model based on instant information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-tong

    2006-01-01

    Change of construction conditions always influences project investment by causing the loss of construction work time and extending the duration. To resolve such problem as difficult dynamic control in work construction plan, this article presents a concept of instant optimization by ways of adjustment operation time of each working procedure to minimize investment change. Based on this concept, its mathematical model is established and a strict mathematical justification is performed. An instant optimization model takes advantage of instant information in the construction process to duly complete adjustment of construction; thus we maximize cost efficiency of project investment.

  15. An Analysis of the Atmospheric Trajectories of the Famous Meteorite Producing Fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, M. I.

    2010-08-01

    In the present study the modern analytical model of the atmospheric entry (Gritsevich, 2007) is applied to well-known real impacts. These are Pribram, Lost City, Innisfree, and Neuschwanstein meteorite falls. For each of the events preatmospheric mass is calculated using the data of actual observations, by selecting the parameters describing deceleration and ablation of fireballs along the luminous segment of the trajectory. Mathematical model is based on the best fitting of the observational data by the analytical solution of the equations of meteor physics. Other estimations of preatmospheric mass for Pribram, Lost City, Innisfree, and Neuschwanstein fireballs are also presented. The majority of them considerably differs from each other. The greater difference is appreciable between the estimations received by dynamic and photometric methods. In the paper (Ceplecha, ReVelle, 2005) the mixed approach is presented. However, the found terminal mass has been accepted by authors (Ceplecha, ReVelle, 2005) as the given condition. When this study was prepared, the terminal mass has been calculated analytically. And it is exceptionally important, that results have appeared quite close to their real values.

  16. The FIREBall-2 UV sample grating efficiency at 200-208nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiret, S.; Milliard, B.; Grange, R.; Lemaitre, G. R.; Caillat, A.; Belhadi, M.; Cotel, A.

    2014-07-01

    The FIREBall-2 (Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon-2) is a balloon-borne ultraviolet spectro-imaging mission optimized for the study of faint diffuse emission around galaxies. A key optical component of the new spectrograph design is the high throughput cost-effective holographic 2400 ℓ =mm, 110x130mm aspherized reflective grating used in the range 200 - 208nm, near 28°deviation angle. In order to anticipate the efficiency in flight conditions, we have developed a PCGrate model for the FIREBall grating calibrated on linearly polarized measurements at 12° deviation angle in the range 240-350nm of a 50x50mm replica of the same master selected for the flight grating. This model predicts an efficiency within [64:7; 64:9]+/-0:7% (S polarization) and [38:3; 45]+/-2:2% (P-polarization) for the baseline aluminum coated grating with an Al2O3 natural oxidation layer and within [63:5; 65] +/-1% (S-polarization) and [51:3; 54:8] +/-2:8% (P-polarization) for an aluminum plus a 70nm MgF2 coating, in the range 200 - 208nm and for a 28°deviation angle. The model also shows there is room for significant improvements at shorter wavelengths, of interest for future deep UV spectroscopic missions.

  17. Scaling Properties of Spectra in New Exact Solutions of Rotating, Multi-Component Fireball Hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Csörgő

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe fireballs that rehadronize from a perfect fluid of quark matter, characterized by the lattice QCD equation of state, to a chemically frozen, multi-component mixture, that contains various kinds of observable hadrons. For simplicity and clarity, we apply a non-relativistic approximation to describe the kinematics of this expansion. Unexpectedly, we identify a secondary explosion that may characterize fireball hydrodynamics at the QCD critical point. After rehadronization, the multi-component mixture of hadrons keeps on rotating and expanding together, similarly to a single component fluid. After kinetic freeze-out, the effective temperature T i of the single-particle spectra of hadron type h i is found to be a sum of the kinetic freeze-out temperature T f (that is independent of the hadron type h i and a term proportional to the mass m i of hadron type h i . The coefficient of proportionality to m i is found to be independent of the hadron type h i but to be dependent on the radial flow and vorticity of collective dynamics.

  18. Antimutagenicity and catechin content of soluble instant teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, A; Varga, N; Richoz, J; Stadler, R H

    1996-03-01

    The antimutagenic properties of soluble instant teas were examined using the bacterial Ames assay. Inhibition of the numbers of revertants induced from a number of known mutagens indicates that aqueous extracts of instant teas have antimutagenic activity and antioxidative properties, and can inhibit nitrosation reactions. Despite a significant reduction in the amounts of major green tea catechins, quantified using reversed-phase HPLC with electro-chemical detection, no differences in antimutagenicity were observed between the instant teas, a black fermented tea and a green tea. Oxidation of polyphenolic compounds which occurs during the production of instant tea does not therefore decrease the antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimutagenic properties. This suggests that catechins are not the only compounds responsible for the protective effects of teas.

  19. Exploring the influence of instant messaging and video conferencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bond-Barnard, Fletcher & Steyn • Exploring the influence of instant ... 37. 1. Introduction ..... its strategy; therefore, projects (in some shape or form) will be found in the vast majority of ...... corporate software vie for workplace. CNET News.

  20. Instant messaging an effective way of communication in workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Maina, Tirus Muya

    2013-01-01

    The modern workplace is inherently collaborative, and this collaboration relies on effective communication among coworkers. Instant messaging is the multitasking tools of choice most people chatting over IM do other things at the same time.The use of IM in workplace is less intrusive than the use of phone, more immediate than email and has added advantage due to the ability to detect presence.In order for institution to maximize increased business productivity using instant messaging its impe...

  1. Poincare invariant algebra from instant to light-front quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chueng-Ryong; Mitchell, Chad

    2001-01-01

    We present the Poincare algebra interpolating between instant and light-front time quantizations. The angular momentum operators satisfying SU(2) algebra are constructed in an arbitrary interpolation angle and shown to be identical to the ordinary angular momentum and Leutwyler-Stern angular momentum in the instant and light-front quantization limits, respectively. The exchange of the dynamical role between the transverse angular mometum and the boost operators is manifest in our newly constructed algebra

  2. Spectroscopy of a Geminid fireball: its similarity to cometary meteoroids and the nature of its parent body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J.M.; Llorca, L.; Borovička, Jiří; Fabregat, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 95, 1-4 (2005), s. 375-387 ISSN 0167-9295. [Meteoroids 2004. London, Ontario, 16.08.2004-20.08.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : fireball * spectrum * Phaethon Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2005

  3. Sup(99m)Tc(Sn)-sucralfate; development of an instant labelling kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouls, R.J.E.; Ackerman, E.W.; Weegh, G. op de

    1988-01-01

    An instant labelling kit for the preparation of 99m Tc(Sn)-sucralfate has been developed containing 500 mg sucralfate and 1 mg SnCl 2 · 2 H 2 O. The labelling yield, in vitro stability and biodistribution indicate (bio)equivalence of 99m Tc(Sn)-sucralfate and 99m Tc(HSA)-sucralfate. The percentages of labelling obtained with the kit during a period of 8 months always exceeded 95%. The preparation kit is inexpensive and the labelling procedure fast and easy. (author)

  4. Weak-scale hidden sector and energy transport in fireball models of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Durmus A.; Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J.

    2000-12-01

    The annihilation of pairs of very weakly interacting particles in the neighborhood of gamma-ray sources is introduced here as a plausible mechanism to overcome the baryon load problem. This way we can explain how these very high energy gamma-ray bursts can be powered at the onset of very energetic events like supernovae (collapsars) explosions or coalescences of binary neutron stars. Our approach uses the weak-scale hidden sector models in which the Higgs sector of the standard model is extended to include a gauge singlet that only interacts with the Higgs particle. These particles would be produced either during the implosion of the red supergiant star core or at the aftermath of a neutron star binary merger. The whole energetics and timescales of the relativistic blast wave, the fireball, are reproduced. (author)

  5. On the energy deposition into the plasma for an inverted fireball geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levko, Dmitry; Gruenwald, Johannes

    2017-10-01

    Energy deposition into a plasma for an inverted fireball geometry is studied using a self-consistent two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collision model. In this model, the cathode is a pin which injects the fixed electron current and the anode is a hollow metal tube covered with the metal grid. We obtain an almost constant ratio between the densities of plasmas generated in the cathode-grid gap and inside the hollow anode. The results of the simulations show that there is no energy exchange between the beam and plasma electrons at low emission currents. For increasing current, however, we observe the increasing coupling between the electron beam and the thermal plasma electrons. This leads to the heating of plasma electrons and the generation of the so-called supra-thermal electrons.

  6. Exotic Meteoritic Phenomena: The Tunguska Event and Anomalous Low Altitude Fireballs - Manifestations of the Mirror World ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.; Yoon, T.L.

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of very puzzling meteoritic events including (a) The Tunguska event. It is the only known example of a low altitude atmospheric explosion. It is also the largest recorded event. Remarkably no fragments or significant chemical traces have ever been recovered. (b) Anomalous low altitude fireballs which (in some cases) have been observed to hit the ground. The absence of fragments is particularly striking in these cases, but this is not the only reason they are anomalous. The other main puzzling feature is the lack of a consistent trajectory: low altitude fireballs, if caused by an ordinary cosmic body penetrating the Earth's atmosphere, should have been extremely luminous at high altitudes. But in these anomalous cases this is (remarkably) not observed to occur !. On the other hand, there is strong evidence that most of our galaxy is made from exotic dark material - ''dark matter''. Mirror matter is one well motivated dark matter candidate, since it is dark and stable and it is required to exist if particle interactions are mirror symmetric. If mirror matter is the dark matter, then some amount must exist in our solar system. Although there is not much room for a large amount of mirror matter in the inner solar system, numerous small asteroid sized mirror matter objects are a fascinating possibility because they can potentially collide with the Earth. We demonstrate that the mirror matter theory allows for a simple explanation for the puzzling meteoritic events [both (a) and (b)] if they are due to mirror matter space-bodies. A direct consequence of this explanation is that mirror matter fragments should exist in (or on) the ground at various impact sites. The properties of this potentially recoverable material depend importantly on the sign of the photon-mirror photon kinetic mixing parameter, ε. We argue that the broad characteristics of the anomalous events suggests that ε is probably negative. Strategies for detecting mirror matter in the

  7. On hot tenuous plasmas, fireballs, and boundary layers in the earth's magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.A.; Ackerson, K.L.; Lepping, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Intensive correlative studies of magnetic fields and plasmas within the earth's magnetotail at geocentric radial distances of approx. 23--46 R/sub E/ during March--October 1974 revealed striking new features. The hot tenuous plasmas within the plasma sheet were found to be in a state of almost continual flow and were threaded with northward, or closed, geomagnetic field lines. Proton bulk speeds were in the range 50--500 km s -1 . The magnetic fields are directed northward. These observations demand a strong persistent source of magnetic flux and hot plasmas for the plasma sheet. No characteristic proton bulk flows were evident during crossings of the neutral sheet. Occasionally, the satellite encountered the region of acceleration in the magnetotail, the 'fireball.' This spectacular phenomenon exhibits strong jetting of plasmas in exces of 1000 km s -1 , proton temperatures of approx. 10 7 degreeK (kT approx. 1 keV), disordered magnetic fields, southward magnetic fields during tailward jetting of the plasmas. Earthward plasma flows within the fireball are threaded with closed geomagnetic field lines, and open magnetic field lines are embedded in the tailward jetting plasmas. The magnetosheathlike plasmas within the boundary layers which are positioned contiguous to the plasma sheet display striking evidences of plasma heating, great changes in bulk flow velocities and acceleration of energetic electrons with E > 45 keV. Persistent zones of southward magnetic fields are detected, which are often positioned adjacent to the plasma sheet and within the boundary layer plasmas. Rotations of the magnetic fields from southward to northward, or vice versa, in these boundary layers are accompanied by large enhancements of energetic electron intensities, substantial heating of the low-energy electron distributions, and strong perturbations of the proton velocity distribution functions

  8. Instant messaging at the hospital: supporting articulation work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Tobias Buschmann; Melby, Line; Toussaint, Pieter

    2013-09-01

    Clinical work is increasingly fragmented and requires extensive articulation and coordination. Computer systems may support such work. In this study, we investigate how instant messaging functions as a tool for supporting articulation work at the hospital. This paper aims to describe the characteristics of instant messaging communication in terms of number and length of messages, distribution over time, and the number of participants included in conversations. We also aim to determine what kind of articulation work is supported by analysing message content. Analysis of one month's worth of instant messages sent through the perioperative coordination and communication system at a Danish hospital. Instant messaging was found to be used extensively for articulation work, mostly through short, simple conversational exchanges. It is used particularly often for communication concerning the patient, specifically, the coordination and logistics of patient care. Instant messaging is used by all actors involved in the perioperative domain. Articulation work and clinical work are hard to separate in a real clinical setting. Predefined messages and strict workflow design do not suffice when supporting communication in the context of collaborative clinical work. Flexibility is of vital importance, and this needs to be reflected in the design of supportive communication systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of the large meteoroid/NEO flux using infrasound: recent detection of the November 21, 1995, Colorado fireball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, Douglas O.; Whitaker, Rodney W.

    1996-10-01

    During the early morning of November 21, 1995, a fireball as bright as the full moon entered the atmosphere over southeastern Colorado and initially produced audible sonic boom reports from Texas to Wyoming. The event was detected locally by a security video camera which showed the reflection of the fireball event on the hood of a truck. The camera also recorded tree shadows cast by the light of the fireball. This recording includes the audio signal of a strong double boom as well. Subsequent investigation of the array near Los Alamos, New Mexico operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory as part of its commitment to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty negotiations, showed the presence of an infrasonic signal from the proper direction at about the correct time for this fireball. The Los Alamos array is a four-element infrasonic system in near-continuous operation on the laboratory property. The nominal spacing between the array elements is 212 m. The basic sensor is a Globe Universal Sciences Model 100C microphone whose response is flat from about 0.1 to 300 Hz (which we filter at the high frequency end to be limited to 20 Hz). Each low frequency microphone is connected to a set of twelve porous hoses to reduce wind noise. The characteristics of the observed signal include the onset arrival time of 0939:20 UT (0239:20 MST), with a maximum timing uncertainty of plus or minus 2 minutes, the signal onset time delay from the appearance of the fireball of 21 minutes, 20 seconds, total signal duration of 2 minutes 10 seconds, the source location determined to be toward 31 degrees from true north, the horizontal trace velocity of 429 m/sec, the signal velocity of 0.29 plus or minus 0.03 km/sec, assuming a 375 km horizontal range to the fireball, the dominant signal frequency content of 0.25 to 0.84 Hz (analyzed in the frequency interval from 0.2 to 2.0 Hz), the maximum signal cross-correlation of 0.97 and the maximum signal amplitude of 2.0 plus or minus 0.1 microbars

  10. Instant hot noodles: do they need to burn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Tan, A L; Maze, D A E; Holland, A J A

    2013-03-01

    Scalds and contact burns in children may occur as the result of spillage of hot food and drinks, including instant hot noodles. This study sought to determine the frequency of noodle burns in children and investigate the thermal properties of instant hot noodles. Data on instant hot noodle burns in children were retrieved from the New South Wales Severe Burn Injury Database between 2005 and 2010. Five widely available brands of instant hot noodles, including three cup and two packet varieties, were prepared following the manufacturer's instructions. For each preparation the initial temperature after cooking was recorded, together with the time to cool to 50°C. 291 children sustained instant hot noodle burns over the 6 year study period, representing 5.4% of all children referred to our burns unit. Over a third received inadequate first aid. Cup noodles cooked with boiling water reached the highest temperature of over 80°C and took the longest time to cool to 50°C: on average 52.3 min. Cup noodles in smaller, narrower containers achieved higher post-cooking temperatures compared to noodles in wider, bowel shaped containers. Packet noodles cooked in a Microwave oven attained lower peak temperatures and shorter cooling times compared to cup noodles. Although relatively uncommon in children, instant hot noodle burns often received inadequate first aid. When cooked according to manufacturer's instructions, noodles generally exceeded temperatures sufficient to cause a burn. Consumers and parents need to be aware of the risks of burn when preparing these foods. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early studies of instant-fMRI for routine examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yuuki; Harada, Kuniaki; Nagahama, Hiroshi; Akatsuka, Yoshihiro; Shinozaki, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Authors are developing a low-burden, short-time acquisition method of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 3T machine, named ''Instant-fMRI'', aiming for its application to routine examinations, of which results of early studies on identification of the language hemisphere are reported. Subjects were 10 healthy volunteers (8 males, 2 females, mean age 34.2 y, 8 right-handers) and 5 right-hander patients with brain tumor (4 males, 1 female, mean age 50 y). The machine was GE Signa HDx 3.0T ver. 14, using 8 channel head coil. For Instant-fMRI, T1-weighted imaging sequence for mapping was in fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (fSPGR) mode (scan time: 1 min 44 sec) and fMRI sequence, in GRE-EPI (scan time: 1 min), which thus required only about 3 min in total. Reference was defined to be the anterior-posterior commissure line, to which parallel sections involving centriciput and cerebellum were acquired. Rest (30 sec)-task (shiritori language game, 30 sec) cycle was to be one in instant-fMRI in contrast to three in the conventional fMRI. Volunteers received both instant-fMRI and conventional fMRI and patients, the former alone. Data were analyzed by GE Brain Wave PA. Right and left hemisphere of the left and right hander, respectively, was identified to be activated by instant-fMRI in 9 of 10 volunteers and in all patients, and by the conventional fMRI, in all volunteers. The instant-fMRI can be a useful examination of other brain functions as well as identifying the language field when acquisition parameters for desired diagnostic purpose are optimized. (T.T.)

  12. Natural radiation source fabricated from commercially available instant coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Ando, Yoshiaki; Izumi, Yuuichi

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available instant coffee, Nescafe Excella, contained the radionuclide 40 K. From the instant coffee, sixteen coffee-block radiation sources were successfully fabricated with sufficiently low production dependences. The coffee-block radiation sources were examined their suitability for a radiation protection course. Although a part of radiation counts(cpm) obtained with 1 minute measurement were largely deviated, those determined by 5 minute measurements and five times of 1 minute measurement were less deviated, enabling better comprehension of the three cardinal principles of radiation protection. (author)

  13. Instant EdgeSight for XenApp

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Vaqar

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Instant EdgeSight for XenApp is a practical, hands-on guide that contains instruction-based examples from basic to advanced level topics. Instant EdgeSight for XenApp will serve as an excellent source of information for Citrix XenApp professionals and novices alike. It is assumed that readers have experience working with Citrix products and have some sort of familiarity with monitoring.

  14. FDS simulation of the fuel fireball from a hypothetical commercial airliner crash on a generic nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, W.; Mueller, C.; Zocher, O.

    2008-01-01

    Before September 11, 2001 nuclear installations were designed to withstand the impact of a typical aircraft fighter of that time. In the aftermath of 9/11 it became clear that any new NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) must be designed sufficiently robust against terrorist attack and that the impact of a fast flying commercial airliner hitting the NPP can no longer be excluded as a potential external hazard threatening the NPP safety. The lesson learnt from the WTC and Pentagon attack is that the impact of the aircraft and the onboard jet fuel can cause structural damage, a fireball and a consecutive fire. This paper deals with the simulation of the fireball and its consequence for the NPP safety. (orig.)

  15. Lexical Cues of Interaction Involvement in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duyen T.; Fussell, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    We explore how people express and interpret lexical cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via instant messaging (IM) in two studies. In Study 1, an experiment with 60 participants, we manipulated level of involvement in a conversation with a distraction task. We examined how participants' uses of verbal cues such as pronouns…

  16. Instant Messaging: A Written or an Oral Genre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Mojdeh

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Instant Messaging from the new rhetorical genre perspective. Considering IM as a primary genre (Bakhtin, 1986) I intend to examine its social motive and social and textual features. Also, using Vygotsky's (1978, 1986) concept of situated learning, I will explain how IM users learn the genre to communicate through it.…

  17. Preliminary Studies on the Development and Evaluation of Instant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Instant poundo yam flour was prepared from D. alata by peeling, dicing and immersing ... for either 5 or 10 min, dried in a cabinet dryer at 60 oC for 72 hr, milled and sieved (600 µm) to obtain two ... The proximate composition of the flours was determined using standard ... (Sigma Chemical) was obtained from the Laboratory.

  18. Shaping guanxi networks at work through instant messaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.

    Instant messaging (IM) has become increasingly prevalent in social life. However, the use of IM at work remains controversial, owing to its unclear benefits to organizations. In this study, we employ media performance theories and the concept model of communicative ecology to examine the impact of

  19. Instant Messaging Language in Jordanian Female School Students' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabab'ah, Ghaleb A.; Rabab'ah, Bayan B.; Suleiman, Nour A.

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the existence of Instant Messaging language phenomenon among female teenagers in some Jordanian private schools and its influence on their learning experience, mainly literacy. It also raises questions about the characteristics of textese as well as teachers' attitude towards their students' use of SMS language in their…

  20. Young People's Everyday Literacies: The Language Features of Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Christina; Takayoshi, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine writing in the context of new communication technologies as a kind of everyday literacy. Using an inductive approach developed from grounded theory, we analyzed a 32,000-word corpus of college students' Instant Messaging (IM) exchanges. Through our analysis of this corpus, we identify a fifteen-item taxonomy of IM…

  1. The Effect of Instant Messaging on Lecture Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVaugh, Nathan Kant

    2012-01-01

    The impact of instant message interruptions via computer on immediate lecture retention for college students was examined. While watching a 24-minute video of a classroom lecture, students received various numbers of related-to-lecture ("Is consistent use of the eye contact method necessary for success?") versus not-related-to lecture…

  2. Design and Evaluation of Hapticons for Instant Messaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, A.F.; Essen, van H.A.; Buss, M.; Fritschi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Instant Messaging (IM) is a popular chatting platform on the internet and increasingly permeates teenage life. Even intimate and emotional content is discussed. As touch is a powerful signal for emotional content, haptic signals, and especially hapticons could contribute to overcome the inevitable

  3. A Massively Scalable Architecture for Instant Messaging & Presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, Jorrit; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Punt, Henk; Wegdam, M.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Thomas, N.; Bradley, J.; Knottenbelt, W.; Dingle, N.; Harder, U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the scalability of Instant Messaging & Presence (IM&P) architectures. We take a queueing-based modelling and analysis approach to ��?nd the bottlenecks of the current IM&P architecture at the Dutch social network Hyves, as well as of alternative architectures. We use the

  4. Instant messenger-facilitated knowledge sharing and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, C.X.J.; Davison, R.M.; Leung, D.

    2014-01-01

    The instant messenger (IM) is frequently encountered as a facilitator of communication in both social and working contexts. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the extent to which IMs bring organizational benefits, thereby overcoming interruptions to work. In this study, we focus on how IM tools

  5. From a Distance: Robust Reference Service via Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulemans, Yvonne Nalani; Carr, Allison; Ly, Pearl

    2010-01-01

    Reference service via instant messaging (IM) has significant potential to benefit distance learners. There has been wide experimentation with IM to expand reference services in libraries across the US, with mixed results. Concern has been expressed that IM cannot provide the same reference experience as face-to-face interactions. One academic…

  6. O2-GIDNC: Beyond instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Aboutorab, Neda; Sorour, Sameh; Sadeghi, Parastoo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with extending the graph representation of generalized instantly decodable network coding (GIDNC) to a more general opportunistic network coding (ONC) scenario, referred to as order-2 GIDNC (O2-GIDNC). In the O2-GIDNC

  7. Evidence of Mixed-mode oscillations and Farey arithmetic in double plasma system in presence of fireball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Vramori; Sarma, Bornali; Sarma, Arun

    2017-10-01

    Plasma fireballs are luminous glowing region formed around a positively biased electrode. The present work reports the observation of mix mode oscillation (MMO) in the dynamics of plasma oscillations that are excited in the presence of fireball in a double plasma device. Source voltage and applied electrode voltage are considered as the controlling parameters for the experiment. Many sequences of distinct multi peaked periodic states reflects the presence of MMO with the variation of control parameter. The sequences of states with two patterns are characterized well by Farey arithmetic, which provides rational approximations of irrational numbers. These states can be characterized by a firing number, the ratio of the number of small amplitude oscillations to the total number of oscillations per period. The dynamical transition in plasma fireball is also demonstrated by spectral analysis, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and by statistical measures viz., skewness and kurtosis. The mix mode phenomenon observed in the experiment is consistent with a model that describes the dynamics of ionization instabilities.

  8. High-theabrownins instant dark tea product by Aspergillus niger via submerged fermentation: α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibition and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwan; Zhang, Mingyue; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Lu, Hengqian; Gao, Xueling; Yue, Pengxiang

    2017-12-01

    Theabrownins (TB) are bioactive components that are usually extracted from Chinese dark tea, in which they are present at low concentrations. The present study aimed to produce an instant dark tea high in theabrownins via submerged fermentation by the fungus Aspergillus niger. Three fermentation parameters that affect theabrownins content (i.e. inoculum size, liquid-solid ratio and rotation speed) were optimized using response surface methodology. Optimum fermentation conditions were modeled to be an inoculum of 5.40% (v/v), a liquid-solid ratio of 27.45 mL g -1 and a rotation speed of 184 rpm and were predicted to yield 292.99 g kg -1 TB. Under these experimentally conditions, the TB content of the instant dark tea was 291.93 g kg -1 . The antioxidant capacity and α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the high-TB instant black tea were higher than four other typical instant dark tea products. The results of the present study show that careful management of culture conditions can produce a dark tea high in theabrownins. Furthermore, high-theabrownins instant dark tea could serve as a source of bioactive products and be used in functional foods as an ingredient imparting antioxidant properties and the ability to inhibit pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The preparation of 99Tcm-GSA and its instant lyophilized kit for hepatic receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yilei; Dong Yinv; Yang Wenjiang; Zhang Xianzhong; Tang Zhigang; Wang Xuebin

    2008-01-01

    The ligand GSA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-galactosyl-human serum albumin) was synthesized by introducing bifunctional chelator DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) to human serum albumin (HSA) via DTPA anhydride first, and then coupling galactosyl units (2-imino-2-methoxyethyl-thio-galactose) to DTPA-HSA. GSA was labeled with 99 Tc m by using SnCl 2 as reductant and the labeling conditions of 99 Tc m -GSA were optimized. Lyophilized kit of GSA was also developed for instant preparing of 99 Tc m - GSA. The labeling yields in excess of 96% by using both of liquid and lyophilized labeling methods. Biodistribution of 99 Tc m -GSA was investigated in both normal and liver-injury model mice. 99 Tc m -GSA showed high liver uptake in normal mice (>70%ID·g -1 at 30 min after injection). The liver uptake in liver-injury model mice is lower than that of in nor- mal mice (P=0.0324). The promising biological properties of 99 Tc m -GSA combined with the development of reliable and instant lyophilized GSA kit afford the opportunity of liver receptor imaging for routine clinical assessment of hepatocyte function. (authors)

  10. Beam On Target (BOT) Produces Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) Fireballs and Afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyber, H. D.

    1997-12-01

    Unlike the myriads of ad hoc models that have been offered to explain GRB, the BOT process is simply the very common process used worldwide in accelerator laboratories to produce gamma rays. The Strong Magnetic Field (SMF) model postulates an extremely intense, highly relativistic current ring formed during the original gravitational collapse of a distant galaxy when the plasma cloud was permeated by a primordial magnetic field. GRB occur when solid matter (asteroid, white dwarf, neutron star, planet) falls rapidly through the Storage Ring beam producing a very strongly collimated electromagnetic shower, and a huge amount of matter from the target, in the form of a giant, hot, expanding plasma cloud, or ``Fireball,'' is blown off. BOT satisfies all the ``severe constraints imposed on the source of this burst --'' concluded by the CGRO team (Sommer et al, Astrophys. J. 422 L63 (1994)) for the huge intense burst GRB930131, whereas neutron star merger models are ``difficult to reconcile.'' BOT expects the lowest energy gamma photons to arrive very slightly later than higher energy photons due to the time for the shower to penetrate the target. The millisecond spikes in bursts are due to the slender filaments of current that make up the Storage Ring beam. Delayed photons can be explained by a broken target ``rock.'' See H. Greyber in the book ``Compton Gamma Ray Observatory,'' AIP Conf. Proc. 280, 569 (1993).

  11. On tenuous plasmas, fireballs, and boundary layers in the earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K. L.; Lepping, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The plasma instrumentation (the Lepedea) and the magnetometer aboard IMP 8 performed correlative measurements of magnetic fields and plasmas within the geomagnetic tail at geocentric radial distances of about 23-46 R-E during March-October 1974. The hot tenuous plasmas within the plasma sheet were found to be in a state of almost continuous flow and were threaded with northward, or closed geomagnetic lines. The satellite encountered a region of acceleration in the magnetotail, the 'fireball' which exhibits strong jetting of plasmas in excess of 1000 km/s, proton temperatures of about 10 to the 7th K, disordered magnetic fields, southward magnetic fields during tailward jetting of plasmas, and northward magnetic fields for fast plasma flows toward earth. In addition, the magnetosheath plasmas within the boundary layers which are contiguous to the plasma sheet display evidence of plasma heating, great changes in bulk flow velocities, and acceleration of energetic electrons with an energy of greater than 45 keV.

  12. Unusual Radar Echo from the Wake of Meteor Fireball in Nearly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sook Lee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The summer polar lower thermosphere (90–100 km has an interesting connection to meteors, adjacent to the mesopause region attaining the lowest temperature in summer. Meteors supply condensation nuclei for charged ice particles causing polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE. We report the observation of meteor trail with nearly horizontal transit at high speed (20–50 km/s, and at last with re-enhanced echo power followed by diffusive echoes. Changes in phase difference between radar receivers aligned in meridional and zonal directions are used to determine variations in horizontal displacements and speeds with respect to time by taking advantage of radar interferometric analysis. The actual transit of echo target is observed along the straight pathway vertically and horizontally extended as much as a distance of at least 24 km and at most 29 km. The meteor trail initially has a signature similar to ‘head echoes’, with travel speeds from 20 – 50 km/s. It subsequently transforms into a different type of echo target including specular echo and then finally the power reenhanced. The reenhancement of echo power is followed by fume-like diffusive echoes, indicating sudden release of plasma as like explosive process probably involved. We discuss a possible role of meteor-triggered secondary plasma trail, such as fireball embedded with electrical discharge that continuously varies the power and transit speed.

  13. MODEL LOYALITAS PADA PENGGUNAAN BRAND INSTANT MESSAGING OLEH REMAJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Gustiasa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Instant messaging is one of the communication services that teenagers often use. Referring to its often socializing psychography, many instant messaging brands that compete get market share through marketing communications strategies. The condition of consumer loyalty as the ultimate goal of marketing communication here has its own challenges. Brand switching almost does not cost (zero cost so consumers often use two or more brands at once in their smartphone or gadget. This research builds and tests consumer loyalty model using brand instant messaging by adolescent. This type of quantitative research is selected by Structural Equation Modeling analysis. There are five hypothesis tests with six variables obtained through the results of previous research factor analysis and literature review. The analysis shows that the model is not fit and only two hypotheses accepted the significance of the influence between the variables. The first hypothesis received is the influence between information exposure variable to the level of brand attribute knowledge. The next hypothesis received significance is the influence of consumer satisfaction levels and perceptions of social support to consumer brand user loyalty.   Instant messaging merupakan salah satu layanan komunikasi yang kerap digunakan remaja. Mengacu pada psikografisnya yang kerap bersosialisasi, banyak merek instant messaging yang berkompetisi mendapatkan market share melalui strategi komunikasi pemasaran. Kondisi loyalitas konsumen sebagai tujuan akhir komunikasi pemasaran disini memiliki tantangan tersendiri. Perpindahan merek (brand switching nyaris tidak membutuhkan biaya (zero cost sehingga konsumen sering menggunakan dua atau lebih merek sekaligus dalam smartphone atau gadgetnya. Penelitian ini membangun dan menguji model loyalitas konsumen penggunaan brand instant messaging oleh remaja. Tipe penelitian kuantitatif dipilih dengan analisis Structural Equation Modeling. Terdapat lima

  14. Multi-level scaling properties of instant-message communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanxiong; Han, Xiaopu; Wang, Binghong

    2010-08-01

    To research the statistical properties of human's communication behaviors is one of the highlight areas of Human Dynamics. In this paper, we analyze the instant message data of QICQ from volunteers, and discover that there are many forms of non-Poisson characters, such as inter-event distributions of sending and receiving messages, communications between two friends, log-in activities, the distribution of online time, quantities of messages, and so on. These distributions not only denote the pattern of human communication activities, but also relate to the statistical property of human behaviors in using software. We find out that most of these exponents distribute between -1 and -2, which indicates that the Instant Message (IM) communication behavior of human is different from Non-IM communication behaviors; there are many fat-tail characters related to IM communication behavior.

  15. A clinician's artificial organ? Instant messaging applications in medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazegul, Gokhan; Bozoglan, Humeyra; Ogut, Tahir S; Balcı, Mustafa K

    2017-09-15

    After the development of the first phone at the end of 19th century, communication technologies took a great leap forward in the 20th century. With the birth of the "smartphone" in the 21st century, communication technologies exponentially evolved and became an important part of our daily routine. Effective communications between clinicians is critical in medical care and miscommunications are a source of errors. Although telecommunication technologies have proliferated dramatically in the last decade, there is scarce evidence-based information on the use of this technology in medical care. For the purposes of medical communication, we can now consult each other about patients individually and within a group via instant messaging applications by using text messages, photos, audio messages and even videos. In this review, we examine the uses and drawbacks of instant messaging applications in medical communications.

  16. Sound of a cup with and without instant coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Andrew; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2002-05-01

    An empty coffee cup, like an ancient Chinese two-tone bell, emits two distinctly different tones, depending upon where it is tapped. When it is filled with hot water, and some instant coffee is added, however, a whole new set of sounds is heard when the cup is tapped. The pitch rises an octave or more as the foam clears due to the dramatic change in the speed of sound in the bubble-filled liquid. A similar, but smaller, effect was noted in beer by Bragg [The World of Sound (1968)] and in hot chocolate by Crawford [Am. J. Phys. (1982)]. We describe the modes of vibration in a coffee cup and the sound emitted by a coffee cup as filled with instant coffee as the bubble density changes.

  17. Streaming Italian horror cinema in the United Kingdom: Lovefilm Instant

    OpenAIRE

    Baschiera, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the distribution of Italian horror cinema in the age of video streaming, analyzing its presence and categorization on the platform Lovefilm Instant UK, in order to investigate the importance of ‘niche’ in what is known as the long tail of online distribution and the online availability of exploitation films. I argue that looking at the streaming presence of Italian horror and comparing it to its prior distribution on home video formats (in particular VHS and DVD) we ...

  18. Managing the Risks and Rewards of Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    You probably think instant messaging (IM) as something teenagers do to chat up friends online, whether across the street or across the world. But IM has some buttoned-down business benefits, as well as some risks you may not be aware of. Unlike e-mail, in which you fire off messages to recipients who read them when they next check their in-box,…

  19. Kit for instant 99mTc labeling of the antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin 29-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro-Flores, G.; Arteaga de Murphy, C.; Pedraza-Lopez, M.; Palomares-Rodriguez, P.; Melendez-Alafort, L.

    2005-01-01

    The ubiquicidin 29-41 fragment (UBI) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide. An instant kit formulation was developed for the preparation of 99m Tc-UBI 29-41 in high radiochemical yield and its use as an infection imaging agent in humans was evaluated. The components were selected to produce a direct 99m Tc labeling, presumably to the amine groups of Lys and Arg7. 99m Tc-UBI 29-41 obtained from the lyophilized kit showed radiochemical purity of >97% with an average target/non-target ratio of 2.3±0.6 in positive infection sites at 2 hours. Kits were stable at 4 deg C for over 6 months. (author)

  20. Extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves using instant controlled pressure drop technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berka-Zougali, Baya; Hassani, Aicha; Besombes, Colette; Allaf, Karim

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, the new extraction process of Détente Instantanée Contrôlée DIC (French, for instant controlled pressure drop) was studied, developed, quantitatively and qualitatively compared to the conventional hydrodistillation method for the extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves. DIC was used as a thermomechanical treatment, DIC subjecting the product to a high-pressure saturated steam. The DIC cycle ends with an abrupt pressure drop towards vacuum, and this instantly leads to an autovaporization of myrtle volatile compounds. An immediate condensation in the vacuum tank produced a micro-emulsion of water and essential oils. Thus, an ultra-rapid cooling of residual leaves occurred, precluding any thermal degradation. An experimental protocol was designed with 3 independent variables: saturated steam pressure between 0.1 and 0.6 MPa, resulting in a temperature between 100 and 160°C, a total thermal processing time between 19 and 221 s, and between 2 and 6 DIC cycles. The essential oils yield was defined as the main dependent variable. This direct extraction gave high yields and high quality essential oil, as revealed by composition and antioxidant activity (results not shown). After this treatment, the myrtle leaves were recovered and hydrodistilled in order to quantify the essential oil content in residual DIC-treated samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed some modification of the structure with a slight destruction of cell walls after DIC treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of Mason Gully (H5): The second recovered fall from the Desert Fireball Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Kathryn A.; Benedix, Gretchen K.; Bland, Phil A.; Friedrich, Jon M.; Spurný, Pavel; Towner, Martin C.; O'Keefe, Mary Claire; Howard, Kieren; Greenwood, Richard; Macke, Robert J.; Britt, Daniel T.; Halfpenny, Angela; Thostenson, James O.; Rudolph, Rebecca A.; Rivers, Mark L.; Bevan, Alex W. R.

    2016-03-01

    Mason Gully, the second meteorite recovered using the Desert Fireball Network (DFN), is characterized using petrography, mineralogy, oxygen isotopes, bulk chemistry, and physical properties. Geochemical data are consistent with its classification as an H5 ordinary chondrite. Several properties distinguish it from most other H chondrites. Its 10.7% porosity is predominantly macroscopic, present as intergranular void spaces rather than microscopic cracks. Modal mineralogy (determined via PS-XRD, element mapping via energy dispersive spectroscopy [EDS], and X-ray tomography [for sulfide, metal, and porosity volume fractions]) consistently gives an unusually low olivine/orthopyroxene ratio (0.67-0.76 for Mason Gully versus ~1.3 for typical H5 ordinary chondrites). Widespread "silicate darkening" is observed. In addition, it contains a bright green crystalline object at the surface of the recovered stone (diameter ≈ 1.5 mm), which has a tridymite core with minor α-quartz and a rim of both low- and high-Ca pyroxene. The mineralogy allows the calculation of the temperatures and ƒ(O2) characterizing thermal metamorphism on the parent body using both the two-pyroxene and the olivine-chromite geo-oxybarometers. These indicate that MG experienced a peak metamorphic temperature of ~900 °C and had a similar ƒ(O2) to Kernouvé (H6) that was buffered by the reaction between olivine, metal, and pyroxene. There is no evidence for shock, consistent with the observed porosity structure. Thus, while Mason Gully has some unique properties, its geochemistry indicates a similar thermal evolution to other H chondrites. The presence of tridymite, while rare, is seen in other OCs and likely exogenous; however, the green object itself may result from metamorphism.

  2. Hot electromagnetic outflows. III. Displaced fireball in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Christopher; Gill, Ramandeep

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a dilute electron-positron fireball is calculated in the regime of strong magnetization and high compactness (ℓ ∼ 10 3 -10 8 ). Heating is applied at a low effective temperature (<25 keV), appropriate to breakout from a confining medium, so that relaxation to a blackbody is inhibited by pair annihilation. The diffusion equation for Compton scattering by thermal pairs is coupled to a trans-relativistic cyclo-synchrotron source. We find that the photon spectrum develops a quasi-thermal peak at energy ∼0.1 m e c 2 in the comoving frame, with a power-law slope below it that is characteristic of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; F ω ∼ const). The formation of a thermal high-energy spectrum is checked using the full kinetic equations. Calculations for a baryon-dominated photosphere reveal a lower spectral peak energy, and a harder low-energy spectrum, unless ion rest mass carries ≲ 10 –5 of the energy flux. We infer that (1) the GRB spectrum is inconsistent with the neutron-rich wind emitted by a young magnetar or neutron torus, and points to an event horizon in the engine; (2) neutrons play a negligible role in prompt gamma-ray emission; (3) the relation between observed peak frequency and burst energy is bounded below by the observed Amati relation if the Lorentz factor ∼(opening angle) –1 at breakout, and the jet is surrounded by a broader sheath that interacts with a collapsing stellar core; (4) X-ray flashes are consistent with magnetized jets with ion-dominated photospheres; (5) high-frequency Alfvén waves may become charge starved in the dilute pair gas; (6) limitations on magnetic reconnection from plasma collisionality have been overestimated.

  3. Hot electromagnetic outflows. III. Displaced fireball in a strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Christopher; Gill, Ramandeep [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-08-10

    The evolution of a dilute electron-positron fireball is calculated in the regime of strong magnetization and high compactness (ℓ ∼ 10{sup 3}-10{sup 8}). Heating is applied at a low effective temperature (<25 keV), appropriate to breakout from a confining medium, so that relaxation to a blackbody is inhibited by pair annihilation. The diffusion equation for Compton scattering by thermal pairs is coupled to a trans-relativistic cyclo-synchrotron source. We find that the photon spectrum develops a quasi-thermal peak at energy ∼0.1 m{sub e}c {sup 2} in the comoving frame, with a power-law slope below it that is characteristic of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; F{sub ω} ∼ const). The formation of a thermal high-energy spectrum is checked using the full kinetic equations. Calculations for a baryon-dominated photosphere reveal a lower spectral peak energy, and a harder low-energy spectrum, unless ion rest mass carries ≲ 10{sup –5} of the energy flux. We infer that (1) the GRB spectrum is inconsistent with the neutron-rich wind emitted by a young magnetar or neutron torus, and points to an event horizon in the engine; (2) neutrons play a negligible role in prompt gamma-ray emission; (3) the relation between observed peak frequency and burst energy is bounded below by the observed Amati relation if the Lorentz factor ∼(opening angle){sup –1} at breakout, and the jet is surrounded by a broader sheath that interacts with a collapsing stellar core; (4) X-ray flashes are consistent with magnetized jets with ion-dominated photospheres; (5) high-frequency Alfvén waves may become charge starved in the dilute pair gas; (6) limitations on magnetic reconnection from plasma collisionality have been overestimated.

  4. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  5. Effect of finite chemical potential on QGP-hadron phase transition in a statistical model of fireball formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, R.; Singh, S.S.; Jha, A.K.; Gupta, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of finite chemical potential for the QGP constituents in the Ramanathan et al. statistical model. While the earlier computations using this model with vanishing chemical potentials indicated a weakly first order phase transition for the system in the vicinity of 170 MeV, the introduction of finite values for the chemical potentials of the constituents makes the transition a smooth roll over of the phases, while allowing fireball formation with radius of a few 'fermi' to take place. This seems to be in conformity with the latest consensus on the nature of the QGP-Hadron phase transition. (author)

  6. Multiplicity and asymmetric fireballs from π+p, K+p, γp, e-p, and μ-p reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, T.F.; Chew, C.K.; Phua, K.K.

    1979-01-01

    Negative-pion multiplicities produced by asymmetric fireballs are investigated in terms of the fireball mass M*, related to the Feynman-Yang scaling. Assuming approx. M* and making use of results of the previous analysis on pp and p-barp data, it is found that only one parameter is needed for both π + p and K + p reactions and another one for γp, e - p, and μ - p reactions. An attempt is made to analyze π production by e + e - in analogy with the analysis of p-barp annihilation in a previous work

  7. Instant messaging and nursing students' clinical learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimmer, Christoph; Brühlmann, Florian; Odetola, Titilayo Dorothy; Dipeolu, Oluwafemi; Gröhbiel, Urs; Ajuwon, Ademola J

    2018-05-01

    Although learning in clinical settings is a key element of nursing education, for many learners these are challenging developmental contexts often marked by isolation and a lack of belongingness. Despite the massive appropriation of mobile instant messaging (MIM) platforms and the connective properties attendant to them, very little is known about their role in and impact on nursing students' clinical learning experiences. To address this gap, the study, which was part of a multinational research project on the use of mobile social media in health professions education in developing countries, examined the use of the instant messaging platform WhatsApp by nursing students during placements and potential associations with socio-professional indicators. The survey involved a total number of 196 nursing students from 5 schools in Oyo State, Nigeria. The findings suggest that students used WhatsApp relatively frequently and they perceived that this platform strongly enhanced their communication with other students and nurses. WhatsApp use during placements was positively associated with students' maintained social capital with peer students, the development of a professional identity, placement satisfaction and with reduced feelings of isolation from professional communities. The determinants that influenced WhatsApp use during placements were perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. No associations were found between WhatsApp use during placement and age, attitude, subjective norms and placement duration. This study is one of the first of its kind that points to the relevance of mobile instant messaging as part of nursing students' (inter)personal learning environments in clinical settings and, particularly, in the development setting under investigation. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings, to enhance the understanding of the impact mechanisms, and to evaluate a more systematic use of MIM in clinical learning contexts. Copyright © 2018

  8. Development of an instant coffee enriched with chlorogenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Marinês Paula; Vignoli, Josiane Alessandra; Benassi, Marta de Toledo

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to present possible formulations for an instant coffee product enriched with chlorogenic acids for the Brazilian market. Formulations were prepared with different concentrations of freeze dried extracts of green Coffea canephora beans (G) added to freeze dried extracts of roasted Coffea arabica (A) and Coffea canephora (C). Medium (M) and dark (D) roasting degrees instant coffee were produced (AM, AD, CM and CD) to obtain four formulations with green extract addition (AMG, ADG, CMG and CDG). Chlorogenic acids were determined by HPLC, with average contents of 7.2 %. Roasted extracts and formulations were evaluated for 5-CQA and caffeine contents (by HPLC), browned compounds (absorbance 420 nm), and antioxidant activity (ABTS and Folin). Coffee brews of the four formulations were also assessed in a lab-scale test by 42 consumers for acceptance of the color, aroma, flavor and body, overall acceptance and purchase intent, using a 10 cm hybrid scale. The formulations obtained acceptance scores of 6.6 and 7.7 for all attributes, thus they were equally acceptable. Greater purchase intent was observed for ADG, CDG and CMG (6.9) in comparison to AMG (6.1). The formulations had, on average, 2.5 times more 5-CQA than the average obtained from conventional commercial instant coffees. In addition to being more economically viable, the formulations developed with C. canephora (CDG and CMG) showed greater antioxidant potential (32.5 g of Trolox/100 g and 13.8 g of gallic acid equivalent/100 g) due to a balance in the amount of bioactive compounds.

  9. Determination of the acid value of instant noodles: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Akiko; Sakaida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tadanao; Yasui, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate the method for determining the acid value of instant noodles, based on the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS), with extraction of lipid using petroleum ether at a volume of 100 mL to the test portion of 25 g. Thirteen laboratories participated and analyzed 5 test samples as blind duplicates. Statistical treatment revealed that the repeatability (RSDr) of acid value was noodles per unit weight, using the equation [acid value = percent free fatty acids (as oleic) x 1.99] and the extracted lipid contents. This method was shown to have acceptable precision by the present study.

  10. Instant radiography: a computerized support system for industrial radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiyus, M.K.; Sadique, J.

    1995-08-01

    This work describes an approach for systematic collection of information, organization of these information to create a database, which is based to create a user friendly software ( Instant Radiography). It helps to reduce the vagaries of radiographic practice and reduces the number of trials needed to get good radiographs. This software considers the interrelated and dependent parameters of radiography, e.g., quality of radiation, properties of films, source-to-film distance(SFD), processing conditions etc. and provides precise numerical values for exposure time and other parameters needed for field work. (author), 2 figs., 15 refs

  11. Expanding the Scope of Instant Messaging with Bidirectional Haptic Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngjae; Hahn, Minsoo

    2010-01-01

    This work was conducted on the combination of two fields, i.e., haptic and social messaging. Haptic is one of the most attention-drawing fields and the biggest buzzwords among nextgeneration users. Haptic is being applied to conventional devices such as the cellular phone and even the door lock. Diverse forms of media such as blogs, social network services, and instant messengers are used to send and receive messages. That is mainly why we focus on the messaging experience, the most frequent ...

  12. Medina (Medical Instant Pashmina) Hijab for Medical Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Limita, Sandrarizka Yuvike; Dinarsari, Fairuz Febrita; Rona, Tiga Putu; Halimi, Achmad Aunul

    2017-01-01

    MEDINA (Medical Instant Pashmina) is a hijab made for medical personnel. MEDINA hijab is a hijab in instantpashmina model with a small hole near the ears but it cannot be seen from outside and the function is to makeusing stetoskop easier. The purpose of making our product is to make MEDINA as medical personnel's hijabwhich has funct ion to easily use stethoscope and still look syar'i. It is convenient with our motto: “Beauty inSyari, Luxury in Simplicit y”. There are three stages in running ...

  13. Instant MapReduce patterns Hadoop essentials how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Perera, Srinath

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This is a Packt Instant How-to guide, which provides concise and clear recipes for getting started with Hadoop.This book is for big data enthusiasts and would-be Hadoop programmers. It is also meant for Java programmers who either have not worked with Hadoop at all, or who know Hadoop and MapReduce but are not sure how to deepen their understanding.

  14. Instant SQL Server Analysis Services 2012 Cube Security

    CERN Document Server

    Jayanty, Satya SK

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Instant Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services 2012 Cube Security is a practical, hands-on guide that provides a number of clear, step-by-step exercises for getting started with cube security.This book is aimed at Database Administrators, Data Architects, and Systems Administrators who are managing the SQL Server data platform. It is also beneficial for analysis services developers who already have some experience with the technology, but who want to go into more detail on advanced

  15. Innovation on Street Food Products (Instant Porridge and Cookies Based on Fortified Patin Fish Protein Concentrate with Red Palm Oil and Encaptulated Oil Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookies from Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patin fish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil using spray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1, 40 : 60 (A2 and 60 : 40 (A3 for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s results was fortified into street food (instant porridge and cookies. The blending was tested by measure yield, fat and fatty acid profile. Moreover, organoleptics and proximate tests were carrie out for the best treatment of blending in instant porridge and cookies. The results show that encaptulated yield reached 55 % that rise from A1 treatment as the best treatment with fat content of 17.26%. Profile of unsaturated fatty acid especially fatty acid omega 9 from blending fish oil and palm oil was 59.29%. The number of fatty acid omega 9 was higher than saturated fatty acid which was 18.56%. Furthermore, based on organoleptic tests of instant porridge and cookies using under five year children respondents, it was proven that 93% of children was like the products. Proximateanalysis of instant porridge revealed that protein content was 11.04 %, water content was 5.03%, fat content was 1.92 % and ash was 0.64 %. However, proximate analysis showed that cookies owned protein of 9.11%, fat of 17.03% , water content was 3.93% and ash of 1.38%.

  16. O2-GIDNC: Beyond instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Aboutorab, Neda

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with extending the graph representation of generalized instantly decodable network coding (GIDNC) to a more general opportunistic network coding (ONC) scenario, referred to as order-2 GIDNC (O2-GIDNC). In the O2-GIDNC scheme, receivers can store non-instantly decodable packets (NIDPs) comprising two of their missing packets, and use them in a systematic way for later decodings. Once this graph representation is found, it can be used to extend the GIDNC graph-based analyses to the proposed O2-GIDNC scheme with a limited increase in complexity. In the proposed O2-GIDNC scheme, the information of the stored NIDPs at the receivers and the decoding opportunities they create can be exploited to improve the broadcast completion time and decoding delay compared to traditional GIDNC scheme. The completion time and decoding delay minimizing algorithms that can operate on the new O2-GIDNC graph are further described. The simulation results show that our proposed O2-GIDNC improves the completion time and decoding delay performance of the traditional GIDNC. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Synchronicity, instant messaging, and performance among financial traders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Hagerty, Kathleen; Uzzi, Brian

    2011-03-29

    Successful animal systems often manage risk through synchronous behavior that spontaneously arises without leadership. In critical human systems facing risk, such as financial markets or military operations, our understanding of the benefits associated with synchronicity is nascent but promising. Building on previous work illuminating commonalities between ecological and human systems, we compare the activity patterns of individual financial traders with the simultaneous activity of other traders--an individual and spontaneous characteristic we call synchronous trading. Additionally, we examine the association of synchronous trading with individual performance and communication patterns. Analyzing empirical data on day traders' second-to-second trading and instant messaging, we find that the higher the traders' synchronous trading is, the less likely they are to lose money at the end of the day. We also find that the daily instant messaging patterns of traders are closely associated with their level of synchronous trading. This result suggests that synchronicity and vanguard technology may help traders cope with risky decisions in complex systems and may furnish unique prospects for achieving collective and individual goals.

  18. Technical Evaluation Report 6: Chat and Instant Messaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Stein

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Text-based conferencing can be both asynchronous (i.e., participants log into the conference at separate times, and synchronous (i.e., interaction takes place in real time. It is thus subject to the same wide variation as the online audio- and video-conferencing methods (see the earlier Reports in this series. Synchronous text-based approaches (e.g., online chat groups and instant messaging systems are highly popular among online users generally owing to their ability to bring together special-interest groups from around the world without cost. In distance education (DE, however, synchronous chat methods are less widely used, owing in part to the problems of arranging for working adults in different time zones to join a discussion group simultaneously. Instant text messaging is more popular among DE users in view of the choice it provides between responding to a message immediately (synchronous communication or after a delay (asynchronous. The different synchronous and asynchronous approaches are likely to become more widely used in parallel with one another, as they are integrated in individual product packages.

  19. The studies on the preparation of instant noodles from wheat flour supplementing withs weet potato flour

    OpenAIRE

    Taneya, M.L.J.; Biswas, M.M.H.; Shams-Ud-Din, M.

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on the effect of composite flours consisting of wheat and sweet potato flour on the physicochemical and sensory properties of instant noodles. Sweet potato flour was incorporated into wheat flour at flour replacement levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. The levels of sweet potato flours increased in the formulations of instant noodle that increased ash, starch, crude fiber and total carbohydrate contents but decreased level of protein. The instant noodles with 20% sweet potato flour...

  20. Improvement of Nutritional Value of Instant Noodles by Fortifying with Catfish (Pangasius Hypophthalmus) Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Gusriadi, Depri; Sukmiwati, Mery; ', Dahlia

    2014-01-01

    This study was intended to evaluate the nutritional value of instant noodlesfortified with catfish flour. Instant noodles were prepared from a mixture of wheatflour (50%), sweat potato flour (10%), egg (15%), salt (0,7%), water (23%),cooking oil (0,3%) and Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (1%). The noodles wereprepared by fortifying the mixture with catfish flour at a level of 0%, 5%, 10%,and 15 % respectively. Instant noodles was evaluated for sensory quality andproximate composition (moisture, prot...

  1. On electrode erosion in fluorescent lamps during instant start

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadrath, S.

    2006-09-15

    A fluorescent lamp driven with an 'instant start electronic control gear' starts in a glow mode. In the glow mode, which lasts typically for tens of milliseconds, the cathode fall exceeds hundreds of volts. This causes high energy ion bombardment of the electrode which heats the electrode, and induces a transition from glow to arc mode. In the arc mode the electrode emits thermionically and the cathode fall drops to the 12 - 15 V range. Unfortunately, the high energy ion bombardment during the glow mode leads also to intense sputtering of electrode material, including tungsten as well as emitter. Thus, instant started fluorescent lamps often suffer from early failures due to coil fracture. Therefore, the investigation of tungsten erosion during instant start is necessary and was the main goal of this work. The density of neutral atomic tungsten is determined by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and optical emission spectroscopy measurements (OES). Investigations are performed on a low-pressure argon dc discharge and on commercial fluorescent lamps. To include the entire temperature profile along the electrode the diffuse and spot operation modes of the dc lamp are studied experimentally and theoretically. The measured dependencies of the cathode temperature along the coil on the discharge and heating parameters are compared with the calculated results. For the first time the tungsten erosion during instant start of commercial fluorescent lamps was experimentally investigated in this work. The erosion process could be related to sputtering. A reconstruction of the temporal evolution of the absolute tungsten population density of the ground state during the glow mode was presented. The sputtered tungsten density increases immediately with the ignition, reaches a maximum where the discharge contracts at the end of the glow mode, and decreases some milliseconds before the glow-to-arc transition takes place. The maximum tungsten density was observed within a

  2. REM observations of GRB060418 and GRB060607A: the onset of the afterglow and the initial fireball Lorentz factor determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, E.; Covino, S.; D' Avanzo, P.; Chincarini, G.; Zerbi, F.M.; Conconi, P.; Malaspina, G.; Campana, S.; Rizzuto, D.; Tagliaferri, G. [Osserv Astron Brera, INAF, I-23807 Merate, LC, (Italy); Vergani, S.D.; Meurs, E.J.A.; Ward, P.A. [DIAS, Dunsink Observ, Dublin 15, (Ireland); Vergani, S.D.; Norci, L. [Dublin City Univ, Sch Phys Sci, NCPST, Dublin 9, (Ireland); Malesani, D. [SISSA, ISAS, I-34014 Trieste, (Italy); Malesani, D. [Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Dark Cosmol Ctr, DK-2100 Copenhagen, (Denmark); D' Avanzo, P. [Univ Insubria, Dipartimento Matemat and Fis, I-22100 Como, (Italy); Chincarini, G.; Rizzuto, D. [Univ Milan, I-20126 Milan, (Italy); Antonelli, L.A.; Testa, V.; Vitali, F.; D' Alessio, F.; Guetta, D.; Piranomonte, S.; Stella, L. [Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, (Italy); Tosti, G. [Univ Perugia, Dipartimento Fis, Osservatorio Astron, I-06123 Perugia, (Italy); Nicastro, L.; Palazzi, E.; Masetti, N. [IASF Bologna, INAF, I-40129 Bologna, (Italy); Goldoni, P. [APC, Lab Astroparticule and Cosmol, UMR 7164, F-75231 Paris 05, (France); Goldoni, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM, DAPNIA, Serv Astrophys, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)] (and others)

    2007-07-01

    Context. Gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission is believed to originate in highly relativistic fireballs. Aims. Currently, only lower limits were securely set to the initial fireball Lorentz factor {gamma}{sub 0}. We aim to provide a direct measure of {gamma}{sub 0}. Methods. The early-time afterglow light curve carries information about {gamma}{sub 0}, which determines the time of the afterglow peak. We have obtained early observations of the near-infrared afterglows of GRB060418 and GRB060607A with the REM robotic telescope. Results. For both events, the afterglow peak could be clearly singled out, allowing a firm determination of the fireball Lorentz of {gamma}{sub 0} similar to 400, fully confirming the highly relativistic nature of GRB fireballs. The deceleration radius was inferred to be R-dec approximate to 10{sup 17} cm. This is much larger than the internal shocks radius (believed to power the prompt emission), thus providing further evidence for a different origin of the prompt and afterglow stages of the GRB. (authors)

  3. Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles with oat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawladda Tiangpook

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Instant fried noodles have become one of the food products regularly consumed among people of all socioeconomic levels in both urban and rural areas. Oat bran is rich in β-glucan, a soluble fiber in oat. The objective of this study was to utilize oat bran, produced from dehulled oats by dry milling and cooking extrusion to improve the nutritional quality of wheat noodle and to evaluate the noodle quality. Three types of oat bran concentrate (OBC: OBCXF, OBCXEF, OBC native were used to replace wheat flour in noodle production, each type at the levels of 5, 10, and 15% (w/w. The experimental design was 3×3 factorial randomized complete block design. The flours and products were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, β- glucan, RVA and color. The texture of the products was determined using texture analyzer and sensory test. Protein contents of OBCXF, XEF, native and wheat flour were 22.05, 23.21, 22.00 and 13.16%, respectively. OBC β-glucan content was 16-17%. Increasing the amount of various OBC in the mixes caused the increase in protein content and β-glucan in the products. The texture of the noodles with 5% replacement with OBC was not significantly different from that of wheat noodle. The tensile force was in the range of 17.10-17.96 g. The sensory acceptability of the noodles replaced with 5-10% OBC was not significantly different from wheat noodle (p<0.05. Noodle with 10% OBC-XEF had the highest scores in texture, elasticity and accept- ability. Thus, instant fried noodle having its wheat partially replaced with 10-15% OBC contained β-glucan in the range of 0.80-1.27 g/serving (50 g, which met the FDA approved health claim which requires 0.75 g/ serving, and contained dietary fiber in the range of 3.0-4.5 g/serving. By using 10-15% OBC in the formulation, it was possible to satisfactorily make instant fried noodles.

  4. Instant magnetic labeling of tumor cells by ultrasound in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Runyang; Yang Jian; Wu, Ed X.; Lin Shuyu

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic labeling of living cells creates opportunities for numerous biomedical applications. Here we describe an instantly cell magnetic labeling method based on ultrasound. We present a detailed study on the ultrasound performance of a simple and efficient labeling protocol for H-22 cells in vitro. High frequency focus ultrasound was investigated as an alternative method to achieve instant cell labeling with the magnetic particles without the need for adjunct agents or initiating cell cultures. Mean diameter of 168 nm dextran-T40 coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles were prepared by means of classical coprecipitation in solution in our laboratory. H-22 tumor cells suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH=7.2) were exposed to ultrasound at 1.37 MHz for up to 120 s in the presence of SPIOs. The cellular uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles was detected by prussion blue staining. The viability of cells was determined by a trypan blue exclusion test. At 2 W power and 60 s ultrasound exposure in presence of 410 μg/ml SPIOs, H-22 cell labeling efficiency reached 69.4±6.3% and the labeled cells exhibited an iron content of 10.38±2.43 pg per cell. Furthermore, 95.2±3.2% cells remained viable. The results indicated that the ultrasound protocol could be potentially applied to label cells with large-sized magnetic particles. We also calculated the shear stress at the 2 W power and 1.37 MHz used in experiments. The results showed that the shear stress threshold for ultrasonically induced H-22 cell reparable sonoporation was 697 Pa. These findings provide a quantitative guidance in designing ultrasound protocols for cell labeling. - Highlights: → High frequency focus ultrasound can be used as a safe method for instant magnetic labeling of cells. → 8-16 times increased efficiency can be gained by ultrasound versus that by transfection agents. → Calculation of shear stress around cells provide a quantitative design for ultrasound protocols.

  5. Elemental content in ground and soluble/instant coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Iskander, F.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The concentration of thirty-four elements in twelve coffee brands has been measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples investigated included four brands of commercially available ground coffee and eight brands of soluble/instant coffee. The elements measured were Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, Tm, U, V, Yb and Zn. Twenty four elements were found to be below the detection limit in one or more samples. These elements were Ce, Cr, Fe, V, As, Eu, Ba, Dy, Gd, Hf, La, Lu, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, Yb, Tm, and U. (author)

  6. Effects of Instant Messaging on School Performance in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Karan; Pecor, Keith; Malkowski, Michael; Kang, Lilia; Machado, Sasha; Lulla, Roshni; Heisey, David; Ming, Xue

    2016-06-01

    Instant messaging may compromise sleep quality and school performance in adolescents. We aimed to determine associations between nighttime messaging and daytime sleepiness, self-reported sleep parameters, and/or school performance. Students from 3 high schools in New Jersey completed anonymous questionnaires assessing sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, messaging habits, and academic performance. Of the 2,352 students sampled, 1,537 responses were contrasted among grades, sexes, and messaging duration, both before and after lights out. Students who reported longer duration of messaging after lights out were more likely to report a shorter sleep duration, higher rate of daytime sleepiness, and poorer academic performance. Messaging before lights out was not associated with higher rates of daytime sleepiness or poorer academic performance. Females reported more messaging, more daytime sleepiness, and better academic performance than males. There may be an association between text messaging and school performance in this cohort of students. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Instant Messaging Usage and Interruptions in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui‐Jung Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to explore IM interruption by relating it to media choices and purposes of IM use in the workplace. Two major media choice concepts were: media richness and social influence; while four purposes of IM use were: organization work, knowledge work, socializing, and boundary spanning activities. Data (N = 283 were collected via a combination of convenience and snowball sampling of “computer‐using workers” in Taiwan, based on the Standard Occupational Classification system published by the Taiwan government. Results indicated that media choice works better than purpose of IM use to explain IM interruption. Among them, social influence was the best predictor to IM interruption in the workplace. In addition, instant feedback and personalization provided by IM, and IM usage for the purposes of knowledge work and socializing, also relate to IM interruption in the workplace.

  8. Generalized instantly decodable network coding for relay-assisted networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elmahdy, Adel M.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of minimizing the frame completion delay for Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) in relay-assisted wireless multicast networks. We first propose a packet recovery algorithm in the single relay topology which employs generalized IDNC instead of strict IDNC previously proposed in the literature for the same relay-assisted topology. This use of generalized IDNC is supported by showing that it is a super-set of the strict IDNC scheme, and thus can generate coding combinations that are at least as efficient as strict IDNC in reducing the average completion delay. We then extend our study to the multiple relay topology and propose a joint generalized IDNC and relay selection algorithm. This proposed algorithm benefits from the reception diversity of the multiple relays to further reduce the average completion delay in the network. Simulation results show that our proposed solutions achieve much better performance compared to previous solutions in the literature. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Reheating the D-brane universe via instant preheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, Sudhakar; Sami, M.; Thongkool, I.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a possibility of reheating in a scenario of D-brane inflation in a warped deformed conifold background which includes perturbative corrections to throat geometry sourced by a chiral operator of dimension 3/2 in the conformal field theory. The effective D-brane potential, in this case, belongs to the class of nonoscillatory models of inflation for which the conventional reheating mechanism does not work. We find that gravitational particle production is inefficient and leads to reheating temperature of the order of 10 8 GeV. We show that instant preheating is quite suitable to the present scenario and can easily reheat the universe to a temperature which is higher by about 3 orders of magnitude than its counterpart associated with gravitational particle production. The reheating temperature is shown to be insensitive to a particular choice of inflationary parameters suitable to observations.

  10. Emily Dickinson: instantáneas del abismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Consuelo Pinilla Monroy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Capturar a la poeta en instantáneas hechas de palabras es el objetivo de este texto. El presente artículo corresponde al primer capítulo del proyecto en investigación-creación “Emily o la invención del abismo”. Esta colección intenta asir a Emily Dickinson a partir de la lectura de su obra, y en diálogo con las versiones que de ella han observado algunos de sus biógrafos o lectores. Recolectar las migajas de pan, reconstruir, moldear cada fotograma de Emily, y dotar de vida a pequeños fragmentos de su existencia nos ayuda comprender el misterio palpitante, el abismo sin fondo en el que nunca terminamos de caer.

  11. Instant transformation of learned repulsion into motivational "wanting".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mike J F; Berridge, Kent C

    2013-02-18

    Learned cues for pleasant reward often elicit desire, which, in addicts, may become compulsive. According to the dominant view in addiction neuroscience and reinforcement modeling, such desires are the simple products of learning, coming from a past association with reward outcome. We demonstrate that cravings are more than merely the products of accumulated pleasure memories-even a repulsive learned cue for unpleasantness can become suddenly desired via the activation of mesocorticolimbic circuitry. Rats learned repulsion toward a Pavlovian cue (a briefly-inserted metal lever) that always predicted an unpleasant Dead Sea saltiness sensation. Yet, upon first reencounter in a novel sodium-depletion state to promote mesocorticolimbic reactivity (reflected by elevated Fos activation in ventral tegmentum, nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and the orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex), the learned cue was instantly transformed into an attractive and powerful motivational magnet. Rats jumped and gnawed on the suddenly attractive Pavlovian lever cue, despite never having tasted intense saltiness as anything other than disgusting. Instant desire transformation of a learned cue contradicts views that Pavlovian desires are essentially based on previously learned values (e.g., prediction error or temporal difference models). Instead desire is recomputed at reencounter by integrating Pavlovian information with the current brain/physiological state. This powerful brain transformation reverses strong learned revulsion into avid attraction. When applied to addiction, related mesocorticolimbic transformations (e.g., drugs or neural sensitization) of cues for already-pleasant drug experiences could create even more intense cravings. This cue/state transformation helps define what it means to say that addiction hijacks brain limbic circuits of natural reward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Instant polysaccharide-based emulsions: impact of microstructure on lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcello-Gómez, Amelia; Foster, Timothy J

    2017-06-21

    The development of emulsion-based products through optimisation of ingredients, reduction in energy-input during manufacture, while fulfilling healthy attributes, are major objectives within the food industry. Instant emulsions can meet these features, but comprehensive studies are necessary to investigate the effect of the initial formulation on the final microstructure and, in turn, on the in vitro lipolysis, comprising the double aim of this work. The instant emulsion is formed within 1.5-3 min after pouring the aqueous phase into the oil phase which contains a mixture of emulsifier (Tween 20), swelling particles (Sephadex) and thickeners (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, HPMC, and guar gum, GG) under mild shearing (180 rpm). The creation of oil-in-water emulsions is monitored in situ by viscosity analysis, the final microstructure visualised by microscopy and the release of free fatty acids under simulated intestinal conditions quantified by titration. Increasing the concentration and molecular weight (M w ) of GG leads to smaller emulsion droplets due to increased bulk viscosity upon shearing. This droplet size reduction is magnified when increasing the M w of HPMC or swelling capacity of viscosifying particles. In addition, in the absence of the emulsifier Tween 20, the sole use of high-Mw HPMC is effective in emulsification due to combined increased bulk viscosity and interfacial activity. Hence, optimisation of the ingredient choice and usage level is possible when designing microstructures. Finally, emulsions with larger droplet size (>20 μm) display a slower rate and lower extent of lipolysis, while finer emulsions (droplet size ≤20 μm) exhibit maximum rate and extent profiles. This correlates with the extent of emulsion destabilisation observed under intestinal conditions.

  13. The impact of instant reward programs and bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnema, Alec; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Non, Marielle C.

    This study examines the impact of an instant reward program (IRP) with bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior. An IRP is a rapidly growing form of short-term program that rewards consumers instantly with small premiums per fixed spending, where these premiums are part of a larger set of

  14. Collective memory and the Casa della Memoria : on the potential and risk of instant patina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Black, S.E.; Jenniskens, D.P.H.

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the way in which instant patina is employed in the Casa della Memoria (House of Memory) in Milan by Baukuh (2015), with reference to Maurice Halbwachs’s theory of collective memory. It observes that the Casa della Memoria uses instant patina with the aim of solidifying a

  15. HIV-positive and HIV-negative consumers accept an instant soy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-positive and HIV-negative consumers accept an instant soy maize porridge. ... Health SA Gesondheid ... The objective of this study was to assess consumer acceptability, preference and consumption intent of an instant soy ... as a food supplement for HIV subjects in a subsequent nutrition intervention trial, to improve

  16. Instant Messaging between Students and Faculty: A Tool for Increasing Student-Faculty Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickerson, Corey A.; Giglio, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the pedagogical potential of instant messaging in a communication course. Two instructors made themselves available to students via instant messaging as a supplement to other modes of communication (e.g., e-mail, office hours). In order to gauge students' reactions to and use of the technology, the researchers kept logs of…

  17. Windows Instant Messaging App Forensics: Facebook and Skype as Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teing Yee; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Muda, Zaiton

    2016-01-01

    Instant messaging (IM) has changed the way people communicate with each other. However, the interactive and instant nature of these applications (apps) made them an attractive choice for malicious cyber activities such as phishing. The forensic examination of IM apps for modern Windows 8.1 (or later) has been largely unexplored, as the platform is relatively new. In this paper, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of two popular Windows Store application software for instant messaging, namely Facebook and Skype on a Windows 8.1 client machine. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artefacts that are likely to remain after the use of instant messaging services and application software on a contemporary Windows operating system. Potential artefacts detected during the research include data relating to the installation or uninstallation of the instant messaging application software, log-in and log-off information, contact lists, conversations, and transferred files.

  18. Dilepton Yields from Brown-Rho Scaled Vector Mesons Including Memory Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenke, Bjoern; Greiner, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Scenarios with dropping vector meson masses, motivated by the work of Brown and Rho, have been strongly discussed after recent NA60 Collaboration data were presented. In this Letter they are investigated within a nonequilibrium field theoretical description that includes quantum mechanical memory. Dimuon yields are calculated by application of a model for the fireball, and strong modifications are found in the comparison to quasiequilibrium calculations, which assume instantaneous adjustment of all meson properties to the surrounding medium. In addition, results for the situation of very broad excitations are presented

  19. The nuclear equation of state in effective relativistic field theories and pion yields in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofen, M.; Cubero, M.; Gering, M.; Sambataro, M.; Feldmeier, H.; Noerenberg, W.

    1989-06-01

    Within the framework of relativistic field theory for nucleons, deltas, scalar and vector mesons, a systematic study of the nuclear equation of state and its relation to pion yields in heavy-ion collisions is presented. Not the compressibility but the effective nucleon mass at normal nuclear density turns out to be the most sensitive parameter. Effects from vaccum fluctuations are well modelled within the mean-field no-sea approximation by self-interaction terms for the scalar meson field. Incomplete thermalization in the fireball may be the reason for the low pion yields observed in heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)

  20. Quality Assessment of Physical and Organoleptic Instant Corn Rice on Scale-Up Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumalasari, R.; Ekafitri, R.; Indrianti, N.

    2017-12-01

    Development of instant corn rice product has been successfully conducted on a laboratory scale. Corn has high carbohydrate content but low in fiber. The addition of fiber in instant corn rice, intended to improve the functioning of the product, and replace fiber loss during the process. Scale up process of Instant corn rice required to increase the production capacity. Scale up was the process to get identic output on a larger scale based on predetermined production scale. This study aimed to assess the changes and differences in the quality of instant corn rice during scale up. Instant corn rice scale up was done on production capacity 3 kg, 4 kg and 5 kg. Results showed that scale up of instant corn rice producing products with rehydration ratio ranges between 514% - 570%, the absorption rate ranged between 414% - 470%, swelling rate ranging between 119% - 134%, bulk density ranged from 0.3661 to 0.4745 (g/ml) and porosity ranging between 30-37%. The physical quality of instant corn rice on scale up were stable from the ones at laboratory scale on swelling rate, rehydration ratio, and absorption rate but not stable on bulk density and porosity. Organoleptic qualities were stable at increased scale compared on a laboratory scale. Bulk density was higher than those at laboratory scale, and the porosity was lower than those at laboratory scale.

  1. Instant noodle consumption is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, In Sil; Kim, Hyesook; Jo, Hee Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Jong Seung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwon, Oran; Oh, Bumjo; Chang, Namsoo

    2017-06-01

    Increased consumption of instant noodles has recently been reported to be positively associated with obesity and cardiometabolic syndrome in South Korea, which has the highest per capita instant noodle consumption worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the association between instant noodle consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul. The study subjects consisted of 3,397 college students (1,782 male; 1,615 female) aged 18-29 years who participated in a health checkup. Information on instant noodle consumption was obtained from the participants' answers to a question about their average frequency of instant noodle intake over the 1 year period prior to the survey. Statistical analysis using a general linear model that adjusted for age, body mass index, gender, family income, health-related behaviors, and other dietary factors important for cardiometabolic risk, showed a positive association between the frequency of instant noodle consumption and plasma triglyceride levels, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels in all subjects. Compared to the group with the lowest frequency of instant noodle intake (≤ 1/month), the odds ratio for hypertriglyceridemia in the group with an intake of ≥ 3/week was 2.639 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.393-5.000] for all subjects, while it was 2.149 (95% CI, 1.045-4.419) and 5.992 (95% CI, 1.859-21.824) for male and female students, respectively. In female students, diastolic blood pressure was also higher among more frequent consumers of instant noodles. Our results suggest that frequent consumption of instant noodles may be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors among apparently healthy college students aged 18-29 years.

  2. Determination of the moisture content of instant noodles: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Akiko; Kasama, Hirotaka; Sakaida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tadanao; Yasui, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    Determination of the moisture content of instant noodles, currently under discussion by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) requires 2 methods: one for fried noodles and the other for nonfried noodles. The method to determine the moisture content of fried noodles by drying at 105 degrees C for 2 h used in the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS) system of Japan can be applied to this purpose. In the present study, the JAS method for fried noodles was modified to be suitable for nonfried noodles by extending the drying time to 4 h. An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate interlaboratory performance statistics for these 2 methods. Ten participating laboratories each analyzed 5 test materials of fried and nonfried noodles as blind duplicates. After removal of outliers statistically, the repeatability (RSDr) and the reproducibility (RSD(R)) of these methods were 1.6-2.6 and 3.9-4.8% for fried noodles, and 0.3-1.5 and 1.3-2.9% for nonfried noodles, respectively.

  3. Using Instant Messaging Systems as a Platform for Electronic Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletiadou, Anastasia; Grimm, Rüdiger

    Many Instant Messaging (IM) systems like Skype or Spark offer ex tended services such as file sharing, VoIP, or a shared whiteboard. As the name suggests, IM applications are predominantly used for spontaneous text-based communication for private or business purposes. In this paper we explore their potential to serve as platforms for secure collaborative applications like electronic contract negotiation, e-payment or electronic voting. Such applications have to deal with challenges like time constraints (“instant” com munication is desired), integration of media channels and the absence of one uni fying “sphere of control” covering all participants. In this paper, we address these challenges by discussing one particular secure collaborative application: secure decision processes for small groups. We provide the following contribu tions: (1) we define three varying scenarios and corresponding security require ments (2) we present an IM-based architecture implementing these scenarios, in cluding a Video-based authentication mechanism, and (3) we discuss poten tial attack patterns.

  4. Partially blind instantly decodable network codes for lossy feedback environment

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study the multicast completion and decoding delay minimization problems for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) in the case of lossy feedback. When feedback loss events occur, the sender falls into uncertainties about packet reception at the different receivers, which forces it to perform partially blind selections of packet combinations in subsequent transmissions. To determine efficient selection policies that reduce the completion and decoding delays of IDNC in such an environment, we first extend the perfect feedback formulation in our previous works to the lossy feedback environment, by incorporating the uncertainties resulting from unheard feedback events in these formulations. For the completion delay problem, we use this formulation to identify the maximum likelihood state of the network in events of unheard feedback and employ it to design a partially blind graph update extension to the multicast IDNC algorithm in our earlier work. For the decoding delay problem, we derive an expression for the expected decoding delay increment for any arbitrary transmission. This expression is then used to find the optimal policy that reduces the decoding delay in such lossy feedback environment. Results show that our proposed solutions both outperform previously proposed approaches and achieve tolerable degradation even at relatively high feedback loss rates.

  5. Heterogeneous characters modeling of instant message services users' online behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongyan; Li, Ruibing; Fang, Yajun; Horn, Berthold; Welsch, Roy E

    2018-01-01

    Research on temporal characteristics of human dynamics has attracted much attentions for its contribution to various areas such as communication, medical treatment, finance, etc. Existing studies show that the time intervals between two consecutive events present different non-Poisson characteristics, such as power-law, Pareto, bimodal distribution of power-law, exponential distribution, piecewise power-law, et al. With the occurrences of new services, new types of distributions may arise. In this paper, we study the distributions of the time intervals between two consecutive visits to QQ and WeChat service, the top two popular instant messaging services in China, and present a new finding that when the value of statistical unit T is set to 0.001s, the inter-event time distribution follows a piecewise distribution of exponential and power-law, indicating the heterogeneous character of IM services users' online behavior in different time scales. We infer that the heterogeneous character is related to the communication mechanism of IM and the habits of users. Then we develop a combination model of exponential model and interest model to characterize the heterogeneity. Furthermore, we find that the exponent of the inter-event time distribution of the same service is different in two cities, which is correlated with the popularity of the services. Our research is useful for the application of information diffusion, prediction of economic development of cities, and so on.

  6. Heterogeneous characters modeling of instant message services users' online behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Cui

    Full Text Available Research on temporal characteristics of human dynamics has attracted much attentions for its contribution to various areas such as communication, medical treatment, finance, etc. Existing studies show that the time intervals between two consecutive events present different non-Poisson characteristics, such as power-law, Pareto, bimodal distribution of power-law, exponential distribution, piecewise power-law, et al. With the occurrences of new services, new types of distributions may arise. In this paper, we study the distributions of the time intervals between two consecutive visits to QQ and WeChat service, the top two popular instant messaging services in China, and present a new finding that when the value of statistical unit T is set to 0.001s, the inter-event time distribution follows a piecewise distribution of exponential and power-law, indicating the heterogeneous character of IM services users' online behavior in different time scales. We infer that the heterogeneous character is related to the communication mechanism of IM and the habits of users. Then we develop a combination model of exponential model and interest model to characterize the heterogeneity. Furthermore, we find that the exponent of the inter-event time distribution of the same service is different in two cities, which is correlated with the popularity of the services. Our research is useful for the application of information diffusion, prediction of economic development of cities, and so on.

  7. Heterogeneous characters modeling of instant message services users’ online behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yajun; Horn, Berthold

    2018-01-01

    Research on temporal characteristics of human dynamics has attracted much attentions for its contribution to various areas such as communication, medical treatment, finance, etc. Existing studies show that the time intervals between two consecutive events present different non-Poisson characteristics, such as power-law, Pareto, bimodal distribution of power-law, exponential distribution, piecewise power-law, et al. With the occurrences of new services, new types of distributions may arise. In this paper, we study the distributions of the time intervals between two consecutive visits to QQ and WeChat service, the top two popular instant messaging services in China, and present a new finding that when the value of statistical unit T is set to 0.001s, the inter-event time distribution follows a piecewise distribution of exponential and power-law, indicating the heterogeneous character of IM services users’ online behavior in different time scales. We infer that the heterogeneous character is related to the communication mechanism of IM and the habits of users. Then we develop a combination model of exponential model and interest model to characterize the heterogeneity. Furthermore, we find that the exponent of the inter-event time distribution of the same service is different in two cities, which is correlated with the popularity of the services. Our research is useful for the application of information diffusion, prediction of economic development of cities, and so on. PMID:29734327

  8. Instant noodles as an antifriction device: making the BOP with PPP in PNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errington, Frederick; Fujikura, Tatsuro; Gewertz, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Focusing primarily, but not exclusively, on urban and periurban Papua New Guinea (PNG), we discuss the significance of instant ramen noodles to those now known as the “bottom of the pyramid” (BOP). Although instant noodles are remarkable in that they are eaten by virtually everyone in the world, albeit in different amounts and for different reasons, they are marketed in PNG specifically as a “popularly positioned product” (PPP) for the BOP. Cheap, convenient, tasty, filling, and shelf stable, they are a modern addition to Sidney Mintz's classic “proletarian hunger killers” of sugar, tea, and coffee. But, we argue, instant noodles have a distinctive contemporary role: they do more than sustain the poor; they transform them into the aspiring consumers of the BOP. As such, instant noodles can be viewed as an antifriction device, greasing the skids of capitalism as it extends its reach.

  9. Dr Math Rocks!: Using instant messaging to help pupils with mathematics homework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, LL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics education in South Africa needs help. This paper describes a project where school aged pupils could get help with their mathematics homework using MXit, South Africa's most popular instant messaging system, on their cell phones...

  10. Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computional allocation of peer tutors in learning communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2007). Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computational allocation of peer tutors in learning communities. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/2/5.html

  11. On minimizing the maximum broadcast decoding delay for instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Sorour, Sameh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ai-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of minimizing the maximum broadcast decoding delay experienced by all the receivers of generalized instantly decodable network coding (IDNC). Unlike the sum decoding delay, the maximum decoding delay as a

  12. Students and Instant Messaging: Survey on Current Use and Demands for Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, Gijs; Sloep, Peter; Jochems, Wim

    2008-01-01

    De Bakker, G., Sloep, P. B., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2007). Students and instant messaging: survey on current use and demands for higher education. Research in Learning Technology (ALT-J), 15(2), 143-153.

  13. Ontology-Driven Instant Messaging-Based Dialogue System for Device Control

    KAUST Repository

    Noguera-Arnaldos, José Á ngel; Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel; Ochoa, José Luis; Paredes-Valverde, Mario André s; Alcaraz-Má rmol, Gema; Valencia-Garcí a, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The im4Things platform aims to develop a communication interface for devices in the Internet of the Things (IoT) through intelligent dialogue based on written natural language over instant messaging services. This type of communication can

  14. LC-MS/MS determination of acrylamide in instant noodles from supermarkets in the Hebei province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Yang, Li-Xue; He, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) concentrations in instant noodles (90 samples, covering 10 different brands) from Hebei Province of China were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The instant noodles were sampled from the southern and northern areas of Hebei Province (Shijiazhuang and Tangshan, respectively). The average content of AA for all 10 instant noodle brands was 6-145 µg/kg. The average content of AA in fried instant noodles was 4.47 times of those in non-fried ones, indicating the influence of the frying process. The average content of AA in instant noodles from Shijiazhuang was 1.64 times that of the samples from Tangshan (56 µg/kg). Eighty-four percent of the instant noodle samples in Hebei were contaminated with AA, with an average content of 80 µg/kg. These observations will be helpful for evaluating individual exposure to AA from instant noodles in China.

  15. Pseudo Last Useful Instant Queuing Strategy for Handovers in Low Earth Orbit Mobile Satellite Networks

    OpenAIRE

    W. Kiamouche; M. Benslama

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative strategy of queuing handover called Pseudo Last Useful Instant PLUI scheme for Low Earth Orbit Mobile Satellite Systems LEO MSSs. The PLUI scheme uses the same approach as the Last Useful Instant LUI scheme previously proposed in literature, with less complex implementation. Simulation tests were carried out using Dynamic Channel Allocation DCA in order to evaluate the performance of this scheme and also an analytical approach has been p...

  16. Kompresi Teks Menggunakan Algoritma Huffman Dan Md5 Pada Instant Messaging Smartphone Android

    OpenAIRE

    Chulkamdi, M. Taofik; Pramono, Sholeh Hadi; Yudaningtyas, Erni

    2015-01-01

    Instant messaging is one of Android social media application that make user possible to send short messages directly in the same time (real time) using text to another user that online in the some network, more ever a lot of user using this application as an alternative communication via short message service (SMS). Remembering how important this application, so writer make an instant message application with small text transmission that will provide in the current needs with Huffman algorith...

  17. Designing mobile instant messaging for collaborative health data management in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Fraschetti, Yrjan Aleksander Frøyland

    2017-01-01

    Fast and efficient communication is crucial for workers that are required to collaborate. Instant messaging has been found to be more efficient than email and other asynchronous messaging systems when used for asking quick questions. Group chats have also been shown to stimulate collaboration between multiple users. In this thesis, we explore how mobile instant messaging can facilitate and stimulate collaboration between health data managers working in different facilities in Rwanda. An insta...

  18. Chemical, Physicochemical, Nutritional, Microbiological, Sensory and Rehydration Characteristics of Instant Whole Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, José Armando; Ibarra-Zavala, Silvia Jazmin; Ramírez-Salas, Silvia Patricia; Rosas-Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez-Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa-Rangel, Blanca Estela

    2015-03-01

    Instant whole beans obtained by drying at 25 °C were evaluated for their chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics. The proximal composition of instant whole beans was typical of this kind of food, whereas a w and L* , a* and b* values were 0.639, 98.55, -0.28 and -1.52, respectively. In instant whole beans, 75% of the essential amino acids had a value greater or equal to the reference standard for adult humans; the protein quality in terms of chemical score was 95%. Microbiological counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, moulds, yeasts and total coliforms of rehydrated instant whole beans were 0.99) to the experimental data for drying of cooked beans and rehydration of instant whole beans, respectively. In the light of the chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics of instant whole beans found in this study, drying at 25 °C is recommended for the production of such food.

  19. Exploring the use of text and instant messaging in higher education classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Lauricella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examined how higher education students used text and instant messaging for academic purposes with their peers and faculty. Specifically, comfort level, frequency of use, usefulness, reasons for messaging and differences between peer-to-peer and peer-to-instructor interactions were examined. Students noted that they were very comfortable with using both text and instant messaging. Text messaging was used weekly with instructors and daily with peers. Instant messaging was used rarely with instructors but weekly with peers. Students rated text messaging as very useful and instant messaging as moderately useful for academic purposes. Key reasons cited for using both text and instant messaging included saving time, resolving administrative issues, convenience and ease of use. Text messaging appears to be the preferred mode of communication for students with respect to communicating with both peers and instructors. It is concluded that both text and instant messaging are useful and viable tools for augmenting student's communication among peers and faculty in higher education.

  20. Presence of photoluminescent carbon dots in Nescafe® original instant coffee: applications to bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengkun; Wu, Hao; Song, Xiaojie; Ma, Xiaojun; Wang, Jihui; Tan, Mingqian

    2014-09-01

    The presence of the carbon dots (C-dots) in food is a hotly debated topic and our knowledge about the presence and the use of carbon dots (C-dots) in food is still in its infancy. We report the finding of the presence of photoluminescent (PL) C-dots in commercial Nescafe instant coffee. TEM analysis reveals that the extracted C-dots have an average size of 4.4 nm. They were well-dispersed in water and strongly photoluminescent under the excitation of ultra-violet light with a quantum yield (QY) about 5.5%, which were also found to possess clear upconversion PL properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization demonstrates that the C-dots contain C, O and N three elements with the relative contents ca. 30.1, 62.2 and 7.8%. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the C-dots are amorphous. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were employed to characterize the surface groups of the C-dots. The C-dots show a pH independent behavior by varying the pH value from 2 to 11. The cytotoxicity study revealed that the C-dots did not cause any toxicity to cells at a concentration as high as 20 mg/mL. The C-dots have been directly applied in cells and fish imaging, which suggested that the C-dots present in commercial coffee may have more potential biological applications. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Gambling-Related Attitudes and Behaviors in Adolescents Having Received Instant (Scratch) Lottery Tickets as Gifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Priya V.; Pilver, Corey E.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Instant (scratch) lottery ticket gambling is popular among adolescents. Prior research has not determined whether adolescents’ gambling behavior and attitudes toward gambling are influenced by the receipt of scratch lottery tickets as gifts. Method Cross-sectional survey data from 2,002 Connecticut high school students with past-year gambling were analyzed using bivariate approaches and logistic regression analyses. Interactions between gambling-problem severity and lottery-gift status were examined in relation to multiple outcomes. Results Adolescents who received a scratch lottery ticket as a gift compared with those who did not were more likely to report features of problem gambling, buy scratch lottery tickets for themselves, and buy and receive other types of lottery tickets; they were also less likely to report parental disapproval of gambling and to see gambling prevention efforts as important. Later (≥15 years) age-at-gambling-onset was inversely linked to gambling-problem severity in the lottery gift group (odds ratio [OR] = .38) but not in the nongift group (OR = .91), yielding a significant severity by gift status interaction. Other academic, health, and gambling-related correlates of gambling-problem severity were similar in the gift and nongift groups. Conclusions For adolescents, the receipt of scratch lottery tickets as gifts during childhood or adolescence was associated with risky/problematic gambling and with gambling-related attitudes, behaviors, and views suggesting greater gambling acceptability. The extent to which the receipt of scratch lottery tickets may promote gambling behaviors and the development of gambling problems warrants consideration. Education, prevention, and treatment strategies should incorporate findings relating to receipt of gambling products by underage individuals. PMID:23299004

  2. Windows Instant Messaging App Forensics: Facebook and Skype as Case Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teing Yee Yang

    Full Text Available Instant messaging (IM has changed the way people communicate with each other. However, the interactive and instant nature of these applications (apps made them an attractive choice for malicious cyber activities such as phishing. The forensic examination of IM apps for modern Windows 8.1 (or later has been largely unexplored, as the platform is relatively new. In this paper, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of two popular Windows Store application software for instant messaging, namely Facebook and Skype on a Windows 8.1 client machine. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artefacts that are likely to remain after the use of instant messaging services and application software on a contemporary Windows operating system. Potential artefacts detected during the research include data relating to the installation or uninstallation of the instant messaging application software, log-in and log-off information, contact lists, conversations, and transferred files.

  3. Windows Instant Messaging App Forensics: Facebook and Skype as Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teing Yee; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Muda, Zaiton

    2016-01-01

    Instant messaging (IM) has changed the way people communicate with each other. However, the interactive and instant nature of these applications (apps) made them an attractive choice for malicious cyber activities such as phishing. The forensic examination of IM apps for modern Windows 8.1 (or later) has been largely unexplored, as the platform is relatively new. In this paper, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of two popular Windows Store application software for instant messaging, namely Facebook and Skype on a Windows 8.1 client machine. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artefacts that are likely to remain after the use of instant messaging services and application software on a contemporary Windows operating system. Potential artefacts detected during the research include data relating to the installation or uninstallation of the instant messaging application software, log-in and log-off information, contact lists, conversations, and transferred files. PMID:26982207

  4. The Impacts of Perceived Advertising Spending and Price Promotions on Brand Equity: a Case of an Indonesian Instant Noodle Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara, Steven

    2014-01-01

    One of Indonesia's largest producers of instant noodle has the long term vision to make its brand Indonesia's number one instant noodles brand. Heavy advertising and intense price promotions are part of its strategy to increase the brand equity. The researcher, therefore, wishes to examine whether advertising and price promotions that the company conducts contribute to the instant noodle brand equity. To test the impacts of perceived advertising spending and price promotions on brand equity...

  5. Substorm processes in the magnetotail - Comments on 'On hot tenuous plasmas, fireballs, and boundary layers in the earth's magnetotail' by L. A. Frank, K. L. Ackerson, and R. P. Lepping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hones, E. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Various theories regarding the magnetotail are reviewed and discussed. These include the work of Dungey (1961) and Eastman et al., (1976) regarding the generation of the magnetotail, Frank et al., (1976) concerning the so-called magnetotail fireball and its characteristics, and Hones et al., (1976 and 1976a) on the formation of a neutral line across the near-earth plasma sheet near the substorm onset. A detailed discussion of a fireball encounter during 0900-1400 UT in April 1974 is presented, noting plasma and magnetic phenomena observed, and magnetic records from the earth. A critique is made by Hones of the interpretation of this fireball made by Frank et al. In an accompanying reply, Frank et al. comment on the observations made by Hones, with attention to the most evident discrepancy between the two theories, i.e., the generation of large closed magnetic loops in the plasma sheet during magnetic substorms.

  6. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour, instant noodle and biscuits commercialised in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adriana Palma de; Lamardo, Leda Conceição Antonia; Shundo, Luzia; Silva, Simone Alves da; Navas, Sandra Aparecida; Alaburda, Janete; Ruvieri, Valter; Sabino, Myrna

    2016-12-01

    A total of 134 samples, consisting of 58 wheat flour, 40 instant noodle and 36 biscuits, were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON). The samples were obtained from retail markets of the city of São Paulo during the period 2010-2014. DON was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and immunoaffinity sample clean-up. Method validation followed international guidelines. The LOD and LOQ were 60 and 200 µg kg -1 , respectively, considering the three different types of samples analysed. The lowest recovery found in this study was 91.8% with RSD 4.5% for instant noodles. DON was detected in 91.4%, 97.5% and 97.2% of samples wheat flour, instant noodles and biscuits, respectively, resulting in a total of 94.8% with levels ranging from LOD to 1720.0 µg kg -1 .

  7. TeleHealth networks: Instant messaging and point-to-point communication over the internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachpazidis, Ilias [Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Fraunhoferstr. 5, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: Ilias.Sachpazidis@igd.fraunhofer.de; Ohl, Roland [MedCom Gesellschaft fuer medizinische Bildverarbeitung mbH, Runderturmstr. 12, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany); Kontaxakis, George [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Sakas, Georgios [Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Fraunhoferstr. 5, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-12-20

    This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of a medical network based on point-to-point communication and a medical network based on Jabber instant messaging protocol. Instant messaging might be, for many people, a convenient way of chatting over the Internet. We will attempt to illustrate how an instant messaging protocol could serve in the best way medical services and provide great flexibility to the involved parts. Additionally, the directory services and presence status offered by the Jabber protocol make it very attractive to medical applications that need to have real time and store and forward communication. Furthermore, doctors connected to Internet via high-speed networks could benefit by saving time due to the data transmission acceleration over Jabber.

  8. Instant release fraction corrosion studies of commercial UO2 BWR spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torrents, Albert; Serrano-Purroy, Daniel; Sureda, Rosa; Casas, Ignasi; de Pablo, Joan

    2017-05-01

    The instant release fraction of a spent nuclear fuel is a matter of concern in the performance assessment of a deep geological repository since it increases the radiological risk. Corrosion studies of two different spent nuclear fuels were performed using bicarbonate water under oxidizing conditions to study their instant release fraction. From each fuel, cladded segments and powder samples obtained at different radial positions were used. The results were normalised using the specific surface area to permit a comparison between fuels and samples. Different radionuclide dissolution patterns were studied in terms of water contact availability and radial distribution in the spent nuclear fuel. The relationship between the results of this work and morphological parameters like the grain size or irradiation parameters such as the burn-up or the linear power density was studied in order to increase the understanding of the instant release fraction formation.

  9. Implementasi Kriptografi Kunci Publik dengan Algoritma RSA-CRT pada Aplikasi Instant Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashari Arief

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Instant messaging merupakan salah satu bentuk kemajuan teknologi komunikasi yang mempermudah penyampaian informasi. Saat ini, dengan semakin banyaknya pengguna aplikasi instant messaging berakibat pada dampak negatif berupa penyadapan data khususnya saat terjadi komunikasi yang bersifat rahasia. Algoritma RSA merupakan salah satu satu algoritma dalam kriptografi kunci publik. Pada proses enkripsi dan dekripsi digunakan kunci yang berbeda. Proses dekripsi algoritma RSA sering terjadi kendala karena ukuran kunci dekripsi yang relatif besar dapat memperlambat proses. Untuk mempercepat proses dekripsi, algoritma RSA dapat dimodifikasi dengan algoritma CRT (Chinese Remainder Theorem, sering disebut dengan Algoritma RSA-CRT. Implementasi algoritma kriptografi RSA-CRT pada aplikasi instant messaging pada panjang bit n mulai dari 56 bit sampai 88 bit, proses dekripsi RSA-CRT dua kali lebih cepat dibandingkan proses dekripsi RSA. 

  10. TeleHealth networks: Instant messaging and point-to-point communication over the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachpazidis, Ilias; Ohl, Roland; Kontaxakis, George; Sakas, Georgios

    2006-12-01

    This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of a medical network based on point-to-point communication and a medical network based on Jabber instant messaging protocol. Instant messaging might be, for many people, a convenient way of chatting over the Internet. We will attempt to illustrate how an instant messaging protocol could serve in the best way medical services and provide great flexibility to the involved parts. Additionally, the directory services and presence status offered by the Jabber protocol make it very attractive to medical applications that need to have real time and store and forward communication. Furthermore, doctors connected to Internet via high-speed networks could benefit by saving time due to the data transmission acceleration over Jabber.

  11. TeleHealth networks: Instant messaging and point-to-point communication over the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachpazidis, Ilias; Ohl, Roland; Kontaxakis, George; Sakas, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of a medical network based on point-to-point communication and a medical network based on Jabber instant messaging protocol. Instant messaging might be, for many people, a convenient way of chatting over the Internet. We will attempt to illustrate how an instant messaging protocol could serve in the best way medical services and provide great flexibility to the involved parts. Additionally, the directory services and presence status offered by the Jabber protocol make it very attractive to medical applications that need to have real time and store and forward communication. Furthermore, doctors connected to Internet via high-speed networks could benefit by saving time due to the data transmission acceleration over Jabber

  12. Instant release fraction corrosion studies of commercial UO{sub 2} BWR spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Torrents, Albert, E-mail: albert.martinez@ctm.com.es [Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Plaça de la Ciència 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Serrano-Purroy, Daniel [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre - JRC, Directorate G - Nuclear Safety & Security, Department G.III, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sureda, Rosa [Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Plaça de la Ciència 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Casas, Ignasi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – Barcelona Tech, Eduard Maristany 14, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Pablo, Joan de [Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Plaça de la Ciència 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – Barcelona Tech, Eduard Maristany 14, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-05-15

    The instant release fraction of a spent nuclear fuel is a matter of concern in the performance assessment of a deep geological repository since it increases the radiological risk. Corrosion studies of two different spent nuclear fuels were performed using bicarbonate water under oxidizing conditions to study their instant release fraction. From each fuel, cladded segments and powder samples obtained at different radial positions were used. The results were normalised using the specific surface area to permit a comparison between fuels and samples. Different radionuclide dissolution patterns were studied in terms of water contact availability and radial distribution in the spent nuclear fuel. The relationship between the results of this work and morphological parameters like the grain size or irradiation parameters such as the burn-up or the linear power density was studied in order to increase the understanding of the instant release fraction formation.

  13. A Systematic Evaluation of Mobile Applications for Instant Messaging on iOS Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Caro-Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, instant messaging applications (apps are one of the most popular applications for mobile devices with millions of active users. However, mobile devices present hardware and software characteristics and limitations compared with personal computers. Hence, to address the usability issues of mobile apps, a specific methodology must be conducted. This paper shows the findings from a systematic analysis of these applications on iOS mobile platform that was conducted to identify some usability issues in mobile applications for instant messaging. The overall process includes a Keystroke-Level Modeling and a Mobile Heuristic Evaluation. In the same trend, we propose a set of guidelines for improving the usability of these apps. Based on our findings, this analysis will help in the future to create more effective mobile applications for instant messaging.

  14. Measuring consumers' interest in instant fortified pearl millet products: a field experiment in Touba, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Hugo; Kariuki, Sarah W; Traore, Djibril; Taylor, John Rn; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2018-04-01

    In Africa, food-processing industries are emerging fast, especially for cereals. New low-cost extrusion cookers give small enterprises an opportunity to enter the market for processed cereal products, in particular instant, fortified and flavoured mixes. Before engaging in the marketing of these products, consumers' interest needs to be assessed. This study used a combination of affective tests and experimental auctions with 200 consumers in Touba, Senegal, to evaluate four new products with conventional pearl millet flour as the control: instant pearl millet flour, instant pearl millet flour with added dry mango and carrot powder (naturally fortified), and the previous products with added conventional chemical micronutrient fortificants. During affective tests, consumers made little distinction between the five products in appearance, aroma, taste and overall appreciation. The experimental auctions showed that, without providing additional information on the products, there was no difference in 'willingness to pay' (WTP) between them. However, after that information is provided, consumers were willing to pay a modest premium for instant flour, and a large premium for added mango and carrot extract and for added micronutrients, but were not willing to pay a premium if those micronutrients came from natural sources. Income increased overall WTP, while education increased WTP for instant flour. There is a potential market in low-income African countries for instant and fortified cereal food products, but likely in the higher income and education groups. The increased cost needs to be compared to the premiums consumers are willing to pay. In the next step, the new and promising products could be tested in pilot markets, with target consumers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Behavioural Sequential Analysis of Using an Instant Response Application to Enhance Peer Interactions in a Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ting-Chia

    2018-01-01

    To stimulate classroom interactions, this study employed two different smartphone application modes, providing an additional instant interaction channel in a flipped classroom teaching fundamental computer science concepts. One instant interaction mode provided the students (N = 36) with anonymous feedback in chronological time sequence, while the…

  16. Physical equivalence of three forms of relativistic dynamics and addition of interactions in the front and instant forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    The point, instant and front forms of the relativistic Hamiltonian theory are shown to be S-matrix equivalent in the general case (of many channels and particles with spin). The corresponding transformations are found. The problem of relativistic addition of the direct interactions is solved for the front and instant forms of dynamics

  17. The Educational Affordances of Mobile Instant Messaging (MIM): Results of Whatsapp® Used in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Amarolinda Zanela; da Silva Freitas, José Carlos, Jr.; da Silva, Juliana Vitória Vieira Mattiello Mattiello; Barbosa, Jorge Luis Victória; Baldasso, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    The popularity of Mobile Instant Messaging (MIM) has prompted educators to integrate it in teaching and learning in higher education. WhatsApp® is a multi-platform instant messaging application widely used worldwide, however, there is still little applied research on its use as a platform for educational activities in management higher education.…

  18. Pengaruh Bauran Komunikasi Pemasaran Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian (Studi Kasus pada Produk Mie Instant Indofood Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Chaerul Latief

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research to know the influence of the integrated communication marketing toward  the decision of purchasing  lndofood  instant noodles product  either partial  or simultant.  This research used survey method and the analysis  tool Double Regression.   It is  concluded  that,  as  a partial,  there  are four   of five  independent variables   which   have  a  significant   influence  toward  the  decision   of   consumer purchasing  Indofood noodles instant product.  These are advertising, personal selling, sales  promotion   and  public  relation.   Direct  marketing  doesn't   have  a  significant influence toward the decision of purchasing  lndofood noodles instant product. Simultaneously,  independent, variable has a significant influence toward the decision of a noodles instant product.

  19. Know Your Noodles! Assessing Variations in Sodium Content of Instant Noodles across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Clare; Charlton, Karen; Crino, Michelle; Santos, Joseph; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Webster, Jacqui

    2017-06-16

    Reducing salt intake is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs). Ultra-processed foods contribute ~80% of dietary salt in high income countries, and are becoming prominent in low-middle income countries. Instant noodle consumption is particularly high in the Asia Pacific region. The aim of this study was to compare the sodium content of instant noodles sold worldwide to identify potential for reformulation. Analysis was undertaken for 765 instant noodle products from 10 countries using packaged food composition databases of ultra-processed foods compiled by the Global Food Monitoring Group (GFMG) and national shop survey data. Sodium levels were high and variable, within and between countries. Instant noodles in China had the highest mean sodium content (1944 mg/100 g; range: 397-3678/100 g) compared to New Zealand (798 mg/100 g; range: 249-2380 mg/100 g). Average pack size ranged from 57 g (Costa Rica) to 98 g (China). The average packet contributed 35% to 95% of the World Health Organization recommended daily salt intake of <5 g. Forty-one percent of products met the Pacific Island (PICs) regional sodium targets, 37% met the South Africa 2016 targets, and 62% met the UK 2017 targets. This study emphasises a need for stronger regulation and closer monitoring to drive rigorous reformulation of salt in ultra-processed foods.

  20. Is Instant Messaging the Same in Every Language? A Basque Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone; Bereziartua, Garbiñe

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on computer mediated communication (CMC) in instant messaging using the Basque language in a context where exposure to English is very limited outside the classroom. This context provides an opportunity to analyze the universality of linguistic features identified in CMC in English. The corpus consists of 54 naturalistic dyadic…

  1. Know Your Noodles! Assessing Variations in Sodium Content of Instant Noodles across Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Clare; Charlton, Karen; Crino, Michelle; Santos, Joseph; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Webster, Jacqui

    2017-01-01

    Reducing salt intake is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs). Ultra-processed foods contribute ~80% of dietary salt in high income countries, and are becoming prominent in low-middle income countries. Instant noodle consumption is particularly high in the Asia Pacific region. The aim of this study was to compare the sodium content of instant noodles sold worldwide to identify potential for reformulation. Analysis was undertaken for 765 instant noodle products from 10 countries using packaged food composition databases of ultra-processed foods compiled by the Global Food Monitoring Group (GFMG) and national shop survey data. Sodium levels were high and variable, within and between countries. Instant noodles in China had the highest mean sodium content (1944 mg/100 g; range: 397–3678/100 g) compared to New Zealand (798 mg/100 g; range: 249–2380 mg/100 g). Average pack size ranged from 57 g (Costa Rica) to 98 g (China). The average packet contributed 35% to 95% of the World Health Organization recommended daily salt intake of sodium targets, 37% met the South Africa 2016 targets, and 62% met the UK 2017 targets. This study emphasises a need for stronger regulation and closer monitoring to drive rigorous reformulation of salt in ultra-processed foods. PMID:28621720

  2. On the Possibility of Instant Displacements in the Space-Time of General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing the mathematical apparatus of chronometric invariants (physical observable quantities, this study finds a theoretical possibility for the instant displacement of particles in the space-time of the General Theory of Relativity. This is to date the sole theoretical explanation of the well-known phenomenon of photon teleportation, given by the purely geometrical methods of Einstein’s theory.

  3. On the Possibility of Instant Displacements in the Space-Time of General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Borissova L.; Rabounski D.

    2005-01-01

    Employing the mathematical apparatus of chronometric invariants (physical observable quantities), this study finds a theoretical possibility for the instant displacement of particles in the space-time of the General Theory of Relativity. This is to date the sole theoretical explanation of the well-known phenomenon of photon teleportation, given by the purely geometrical methods of Einstein’s theory.

  4. Development of a protein-rich composite sorghum-cowpea instant porridge by extrusion cooking process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pelembe, LAM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available temperature gave lower NSI, TS and WAI, ESS, ER and WSI increased with severity of heat treatment. The composite of 50% sorghum and 50% cowpeas extruded at 130 degrees C was the most similar to a commercial instant maize-soya composite porridge in terms...

  5. Instant ticket purchasing by Ontario baby boomers: increasing risk for problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoff, Katharine M; Norris, Joan E

    2009-06-01

    Instant ticket purchase gambling (ITPG) is pervasive in Ontario and has features that mimic slot machine play. Previous researchers have reported that ITPG is one preferred activity for at-risk/problem gamblers. In the general Canadian population, rate of participation in ITPG is second only to lottery ticket gambling. Both are particularly favored by youth and seniors. The next cohort of seniors will be Canada's baby boomers, one-third of whom live in Ontario. Secondary analysis of Statistics Canada data revealed that adults in this cohort who buy instant gambling tickets (N = 1781) are significantly different from the complete group of their age peers (N = 4266) in number of activities pursued and frequency of involvement. At-risk/problem gambling prevalence was 10.2% amongst Ontario baby boomers who participate in instant ticket gambling, significantly higher than the 6.7% found amongst the total group of baby boom gamblers. For those who reported experiencing one or more of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index indicators for problem gambling (N = 237), 73% were buying instant tickets. Future research should consider cohort effects and explore combinations of preferred gambling activities that may increase risk for problem gambling. Social policy recommendations include the use of all ITPG venues as key locations for promoting awareness of problem gambling treatment services.

  6. Mobile Immersion: An Experiment Using Mobile Instant Messenger to Support Second-Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Immersion has been an acclaimed approach for second-language acquisition, but is not available to most students. The idea of this study was to create a mobile immersion environment on a smartphone using a mobile instant messenger, WhatsApp™. Forty-five Form-1 (7th grade) students divided into the Mobile Group and Control Group participated in a…

  7. WhatsApp Goes to School: Mobile Instant Messaging between Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhnik, Dan; Deshen, Mor

    2014-01-01

    WhatsApp is a Smartphone application for instant messaging. Lately the application's popularity has risen. One of the unique features of the application is its ability to enhance communication within a group. Classroom communication between teaching faculty and high school students using WhatsApp has not yet, to our knowledge, been researched…

  8. Constant Companions: Instant Messaging Conversations as Sustainable Supportive Study Structures amongst Undergraduate Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmis, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Universities are facing severe cuts in funding and a transformation of both the economic model underpinning higher education and the relationship between students, tutors and universities and the traditional forms of support for students' learning may be eroded. At the same time, mobile communications, instant messaging and social networking are…

  9. Effects of Mobile Instant Messaging on Collaborative Learning Processes and Outcomes: The Case of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyewon; Lee, MiYoung; Kim, Minjeong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of mobile instant messaging on collaborative learning processes and outcomes. The collaborative processes were measured in terms of different types of interactions. We measured the outcomes of the collaborations through both the students' taskwork and their teamwork. The collaborative…

  10. (In-)Secure messaging with the Silent Circle instant messaging protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, S.R.; Lange, T.

    2016-01-01

    Silent Text, the instant messaging application by the company Silent Circle, provides its users with end-to-end encrypted communication on the Blackphone and other smartphones. The underlying protocol, SCimp, has received many extensions during the update to version 2, but has not been subjected to

  11. "I know that you know" - ascertaining mutual awareness of recipient's availability status in instant messaging applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matysiak, A.J.; Eggen, J.H.; Gross, T.; Gulliksen, J.; Kotzé, P.; Oestreicher, L.; Palanque, P.; Oliveira Prates, R.; Winkler, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated ways to attain mutual, reciprocal awareness of recipient’s availability status in Instant Messaging (IM) applications. For that purpose we designed, implemented and tested a prototype of an IM system named DoNTBother. The analysis of the quantitative and qualitative results

  12. The effects of instant messaging on the quality of adolescents’ existing friendships: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that instant messaging (IM) is positively related to the quality of adolescents’ existing friendships. However, most of these studies were based on cross-sectional correlational data. In addition, most studies have focused on direct effects of IM on the quality of friendships

  13. Students and instant messaging: a survey of current use and demands for higher education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, de G.M.; Sloep, P.B.; Jochems, W.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Instant messaging (IM) is the term used to describe the technology through which 'users can set up a list of partners who will be able to receive notes that pop up on their screens the moment one of them writes and hits the send button'. While early use could be described as mainly for fun, IM today

  14. The impact of instant messaging tools on knowledge management and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, C.X.J.; Leung, D.W.L.; Davison, R.M.; Chiasson, M.; Henfridsson, O.; Karsten, H.; DeGross, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    Instant messaging (IM) has become increasingly popular as a form of social communication. However, the adoption of IM in the workplace remains controversial due to the challenges associated with quantifying organizational benefits. In this study, we evaluate the effects of using IM tools on

  15. A Customized Workflow-Driven Instant Messaging System Support Team Communication in the Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ying-Li; Chien, Tsai-Feng; Chen, Hsiu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication among the healthcare team is a very important skill to support team resource management (TRM). However, we take too much effort to connect with other team members by using traditional telephone communication. In this study, we developed an instant messaging system embedded in the original hospital information system and evaluated the preliminary outcome and the usage of the system.

  16. Social and Virtual Networks: Evaluating Synchronous Online Interviewing Using Instant Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchcliffe, Vanessa; Gavin, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of the quality and utility of synchronous online interviewing for data collection in social network research. Synchronous online interviews facilitated by Instant Messenger as the communication medium, were undertaken with ten final year university students. Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of…

  17. Becoming Embedded: Incorporating Instant Messaging and the Ongoing Evolution of a Virtual Reference Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormont, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The creation of an instant messaging (IM) service is described. The challenges encountered in developing, launching, and maintaining the project are examined and include technical support, archiving, balancing different formats, privacy, assessment, training, and the effectiveness of the IM channel. The process of choosing an aggregator and a…

  18. The Instant Composers Pool: Music Notation and the Mediation of Improvising Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article relates the recent development of a “relational musicology” to debates about participatory art and relational aesthetics. I present results from an ethnographic study of the Dutch improvising music collective the Instant Composers Pool, founded in 1967 and still performing. With a

  19. Nurses' use of mobile instant messaging applications: A uses and gratifications perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, John Robert; Lin, Trisha T C

    2017-10-01

    To explore how and why mobile instant messaging applications are used by Filipino nurses as part of their work. Guided by the uses and gratifications theory, in-depth interviews with 20 staff nurses working in 9 hospitals (ie, 4 private and 5 public hospitals) in the Philippines were conducted in July 2015. Interview data were analysed through a phenomenological perspective to thematic analysis. Results show that mobile instant messaging applications such as Facebook Messenger and Viber were mostly used by staff nurses and these were accessed using their own smartphones. Thematic analysis indicates that they were used to meet staff nurses' need for information exchange, socialization, and catharsis. Moreover, user interactions vary depending on members within a chat group. For instance, communication via mobile instant messaging applications are much formal when superiors are included in a chat group. In general, the results show that mobile instant messaging applications are routinely used by Filipino staff nurses not only for clinical purposes (ie, information exchange) but also for non-clinical purposes (ie, socialization and catharsis). This paper ends with several practical and theoretical implications including future research directions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Mobile instant messaging: the “killer application” for e(m)government in Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available most of these are commercial or entertainment-based in nature, there may be unique possibilities for mobile government-to-citizen type services. In South Africa a mobile instant messaging platform, MXit, is starting to overtake SMS-type textual...

  1. Technical Evaluation Report 14: Chat and Instant Messaging Systems (synchronous: Report 2/ 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Kinsel

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This study extends the earlier review of online chat systems (Report 6, by reviewing a further seven products that provide text-based instant messaging (IM. The functionality of these products in distance education contexts is stressed in relation to their comparative costs, complexity, control, clarity, technical framework, and other functional options.

  2. Effects of various iron fortificants on sensory acceptability and shelf-life stability of instant noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee; Kounhawej, Arunwadee; Chavasit, Visith; Charoensiri, Rin

    2007-06-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem in Thailand and many developing countries. One of the most sustainable and cost-effective strategies for combating iron deficiency is fortification of staple foods with iron. In this study, the feasibility of fortifying instant noodles with different forms of iron fortificants (ferrous sulfate [FS], ferric sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [NaFeEDTA], and encapsulated H-reduced elemental iron [EEI] was evaluated, and the fortified noodles were compared with unfortified noodles for changes in physical, chemical, and sensory qualities. Wheat flour used to make instant noodles was fortified to produce a concentration of 5 mg of iron per 50-g serving of instant noodles (one-third of the Thai recommended dietary intake). Analytical data showed that the iron contents were close to 5 mg per serving of noodles fortified with FS, NaFeEDTA, or EEI (5.27 +/- 0.10, 4.27 +/- 0.07, and 5.26 +/- 0.47 mg, respectively). The color quality (measured by L*, lightness, and b* yellowness) of the raw dough sheet and of uncooked and cooked instant noodles fortified with FS was lower than that of the unfortified, but color quality was not changed by the addition of NaFeEDTA. The overall sensory acceptability scores of unfortified and fortified noodles were about 6 ("like slightly"). No metallic odor was observed. During 3 months of storage at room temperature, the iron fortificants did not affect the peroxide level, color, or sensory qualities of the product. Iron fortification of wheat flour used to make instant noodles is feasible. NaFeEDTA is the preferred fortificant because of its nonsignificant effect on the color and sensory quality of the products.

  3. Instant controlled pressure drop technology and ultrasound assisted extraction for sequential extraction of essential oil and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaf, Tamara; Tomao, Valérie; Ruiz, Karine; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) technology enabled both the extraction of essential oil and the expansion of the matrix itself which improved solvent extraction. The sequential use of DIC and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) triggered complementary actions materialized by supplementary effects. We visualized these combination impacts by comparing them to standard techniques: Hydrodistillation (HD) and Solvent Extraction (SE). First, the extraction of orange peel Essential Oils (EO) was achieved by HD during 4h and DIC process (after optimization) during 2 min; EO yields was 1.97 mg/g dry material (dm) with HD compared to 16.57 mg/g d m with DIC. Second, the solid residue was recovered to extract antioxidant compounds (naringin and hesperidin) by SE and UAE. Scanning electron microscope showed that after HD the recovered solid shriveled as opposite to DIC treatment which expanded the product structure. HPLC analyses showed that the best kinetics and yields of naringin and hesperidin extraction was when DIC and UAE are combined. Indeed, after 1h of extraction, DIC treated orange peels with UAE were 0.825 ± 1.6 × 10(-2)g/g of dry material (dm) for hesperidin and 6.45 × 10(-2) ± 2.3 × 10(-4)g/g d m for naringin compared to 0.64 ± 2.7 × 10(-2)g/g of dry material (dm) and 5.7 × 10(-2) ± 1.6 × 10(-3)g/g d m, respectively with SE. By combining DIC to UAE, it was possible to enhance kinetics and yields of antioxidant extraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Probing the primeval fireball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1990-01-01

    The existence of cosmic background radiation is one of the strongest pieces of evidence that the universe experienced a fiery dense beginning called the Big Bang. This paper discusses the information on the cosmic background radiation brought by the NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which was launched on November 18, 1989 and is presently scanning the skies from a near-polar orbit. The three instruments of the COBE satellite (the Differential Microwave Radiometer, the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, and the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer) are designed to analyze the redshifted radiation from the Big Bang and the first generation of stars and young galaxies

  5. Development of instant noodles from high-iron rice and iron-fortified rice flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparat Reungmaneepaitoon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Instant high-iron noodles, prepared from wheat flour and high iron brown rice flour, were developed. Three varieties of rice flour, Suphan Buri 90 (SB, Homnin 313 (HW and Homnin 1000 (HP, containing amylose content of 30.40, 19.10 and 15.74% (w/w and iron content of 1.24, 2.04 and 2.22 (mg/100 g respectively, were used to replace wheat flour for instant fried noodle production. To determine the physicochemical properties and acceptability of instant fried noodles,different percentages (30, 40, 50% (w/w of each rice flour sample were used. The instant fried noodles were fortified with ferrous sulphate at levels of 0, 32, 64% iron of RDI per serving. Increasing amount of iron content in the mixtures decreased the L* value, b* value and increased a* value for the color of the instant fried noodle with brown rice flour. The texture characteristic of the noodles with 30, 40, 50% replacement with each variety of brown rice flour were significantly different from those of wheat noodle. Tensile force of the noodles decreased from 11.57±1.30 g to 6.38±1.45 g (SB, 8.36±0.96 g to 5.71±0.57 g (HP and 10.09±1.20 g to 5.46±1.31 g (HW as the rice flour content increased from 30 to 50%. The sensoryacceptability of the noodles made from each variety of 30% brown rice flour fortified with 32% iron of RDI had higher preference scores for elasticity, firmness, color and overall acceptability, than those with 64% iron of RDI. Instant fried noodles with HW and HP brown rice flour were subjected to consumer test using 100 rural primary school children. The frequency percent of the acceptability scores of the noodle with HP and HW were 88 and 84% respectively. Shelf life studyrevealed that the developed products were still acceptable up to 4 months. These products were claimed to be high iron noodle.

  6. Effect of whole wheat flour on the quality, texture profile, and oxidation stability of instant fried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinlei; Zhou, Sumei; Yi, Cuiping; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2017-12-01

    The effects of whole wheat flour (WWF) on pasting properties of instant fried noodle dry mix and quality of final product were investigated in this research. Refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle was replaced by WWF at different levels. The peak and final viscosities were significantly and negatively correlated to WWF substitution level. With increasing WWF level, the hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and resilience values of instant fried noodles decreased by 11.63, 16.23, 16.67, 20.00%, respectively. WWF darkened noodle's surface color and increased its oil content (26.63%). A porous and less uniformed structure of the WWF instant fried noodles was observed by a scanning electron microscope. Moreover, the WWF incorporation lowered peroxide values of the instant fried noodles during storage. In conclusion, even though the oil content increased, WWF was helpful to inhibit the oil oxidation and produce instant fried noodles with softer texture and less sticky surface. Refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle was replaced by whole wheat flour (WWF), which is rich in dietary fibers, vitamins, and other bioactive compounds. The addition of WWF delayed the retrogradation tendency of starch in the dry mix. WWF-added instant noodles had softer texture, less sticky surface, and lower peroxide value. Based on the results of this study, the refined wheat flour in the recipe for instant-fried noodle could be partially replaced by WWF to make noodles with better texture profile and higher consumer acceptance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Packaging Attributes of Antioxidant-Rich Instant Coffee and Their Influence on the Purchase Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês P. Corso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase intent for the packaging images was evaluated with conjoint analysis. In general, an increased purchase intent was verified for more modern packages and browner labels that indicated roasted coffee. The consumers preferred the image of green and roasted coffee beans next to the cup of coffee and valued information about the product’s differentiation (the origin, type, quantity and functions of antioxidants that was presented in the form of explanatory charts on the back of the packaging.

  8. Study on Process Parameters of Extraction of γ-aminobutyric Acid Instant Moringa oleifera Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiaokun, Fu; Suhui, Zhang; Neng, Liu; Jihua, Li; Shaodan, Peng; Changqing, Guo; Wei, Zhou

    2017-12-01

    To preliminary optimize the extraction of γ-aminobutyric acid instant tea powder from Moringa oleifera leaves,taking γ-aminobutyric acid Moringa oleifera leaves as raw material and pure water as extraction solvent and GABA content as the main evaluation index,the effects of extraction temperature, ratio of liquid to material and extraction time on biochemical components and sensory qualities of Moringa oleifera leaves extractor was studied by using one-factor-at-a-time experiment.The results showed shat the optimal extraction conditions for γ-aminobutyric acid instant tea powder were extraction temperature of 60 °C, material-to-water ration of 1:10 and extraction time of 40 min.

  9. An analysis of un-dissolved powders of instant powdered soup by using ultrasonographic image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaai, Yukinori; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu

    2008-11-01

    Nowadays, there are many instant powdered soups around us. When we make instant powdered soup, sometimes we cannot dissolve powders perfectly. Food manufacturers want to improve this problem in order to make better products. Therefore, they have to measure the state and volume of un-dissolved powders. Earlier methods for analyzing removed the un-dissolved powders from the container, the state of the un-dissolved power was changed. Our research using ultrasonographic image can measure the state of un-dissolved powders with no change by taking cross sections of the soup. We then make 3D soup model from these cross sections of soup. Therefore we can observe the inside of soup that we do not have ever seen. We construct accurate 3D model. We can visualize the state and volume of un-dissolved powders with analyzing the 3D soup models.

  10. A Novel Security Scheme Based on Instant Encrypted Transmission for Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT is a research field that has been continuously developed and innovated in recent years and is also an important driving force for the improvement of people’s life in the future. There are lots of scenarios in IoT where we need to collaborate through devices to complete tasks; that is, a device sends data to other devices, and other devices operate on the aid of the data. These transmitted data are often users’ privacy data, such as medical data and grid data. We propose an instant encrypted transmission based security scheme for such scenarios in IoT. The analysis in this paper indicates that our scheme can guarantee the security of users’ data while ensuring rapid transmission and acquisition of instant IoT data.

  11. Technical Evaluation Reports 15. Chat and Instant Messaging Systems (synchronous: Report 3/ 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Ludwig

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available [Previous reviews of chat and IM systems are presented in Reports 6 and 14 in this series.]A further set of four text-based instant messaging (IM products was evaluated: AT&T Anywhere, Parachat, Sonork, and Yahoo Messenger, all available at no cost. Yahoo Messenger was judged to be the most effective of the three products for use by distance education (DE teachers and students, being compatible with most common operating systems and accommodating up to 50 chat room participants. Yahoo Messenger also possesses integrated audio and video capabilities. AT&T Anywhere is an efficient product, which supports Windows-based operating systems only. Parachat (Basic version is a basic, browser accessed chat board without instant messaging (IM capabilities.

  12. Evaluation of a new self-developing instant film for imaging and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Patel, G. N.; Patel, P.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation sensitive films are standard dosimetric tools in radiation therapy. Films are used for machine quality assurance (QA) and treatment planning software evaluation. With the advent of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), simple and fast imaging technology is needed for patient-specific verification of radiation fields. Conventional radiographic films are often used. Radiochromic films, e.g. Gafchromic films, were recently introduced to the market. But these films have some disadvantages. JP Laboratories have developed a prototype radiochromic film, called SIFID (self-developing, instant film for imaging and dosimetry) with superior performance such that SIFID is unaffected by ambient light for months, stable up to 90 deg. C and can be archived. SIFID is made of polymerizable diacetylene. The film develops blue colour instantly upon absorbing radiation. We evaluated the film for radiation therapy applications. Our preliminary data demonstrate its feasibility as a dosimetric tool for IMRT QA as well as for other applications. (authors)

  13. Documentation of scintigraphic examinations using miniature format colour films and an instant slide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deininger, H.K.; Schmidt, C.

    1985-01-01

    A new 35 mm format instant film (Polachrome CS 135) was investigated for suitability in comparison to established conventional colour miniature films. Differences were found, depending on whether the photographic colour material was used for slides or paper prints. Optimum colour results were obtained in monitor photography. The material also proved useful for the recording of paper prints of colour scans, since these were mainly intended for the purpose of transferring the diagnostic findings as a complement to the written report. Priority was therefore given to the immediate availability of the copy, which may be of importance in monitor photography as well. In this respect the new polaroid instant miniature film is clearly superior to those 35 mm colour films that have been used in nuclear medicine up to now. (orig.) [de

  14. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a blanket contract for an instant-reading dosimeter system

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply, installation and maintenance of an instant-reading dosimeter system. Following a market survey (MS-3118/TIS) carried out among 28 firms in eleven Member States, a request for a quotation was sent to one firm on 3 October 2003. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket contract, without competitive tendering, with RADOS TECHNOLOGY (FI) for the supply, installation and maintenance of an instant-reading dosimeter system for a total amount not exceeding 2 100 000 euros (3 252 284 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation after 1 January 2007. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FI - 58%; CH - 38%; GB - 4%.

  15. Ontology-Driven Instant Messaging-Based Dialogue System for Device Control

    KAUST Repository

    Noguera-Arnaldos, José Ángel

    2015-10-14

    The im4Things platform aims to develop a communication interface for devices in the Internet of the Things (IoT) through intelligent dialogue based on written natural language over instant messaging services. This type of communication can be established in different ways such as order sending and, status querying. Also, the devices themselves are responsible for alerting users when a change has been produced in the device’s sensors. The system has been validated and it has obtained promising results.

  16. Invisible Whispering: Restructuring Collaborative Decision Making with Instant Messaging: Invisible Whispering

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Alan R.; Rennecker, Julie A.; Hansen, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Organizational decision making is dominated by teams. When an important decision is required, a team is often formed to make it or to advise the individual decision maker, because a team has more resources, knowledge, and political insight than any one individual working alone. As teams have become geographically distributed, collaboration technology has come to play an important role in such collective decision making efforts. Instant messaging (IM) is an increasingly prevalen...

  17. Instant recording of the duration of a single mode-locked Nd:YAG laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lompre, L.A.; Mainfray, G.; Thebault, J.

    1975-01-01

    An electro-optic streak camera incorporating a storage memory video system has been developed and used to instantly visualize and record the shape of a 1.06-μ-wavelength pulse generated by a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The duration of a single laser pulse (approximately 30 psec) has been directly measured with and without laser amplification. (U.S.)

  18. Instant Messaging for Creating Interactive and Collaborative m-Learning Environments

    OpenAIRE

    James Kadirire

    2007-01-01

    'Instant Messaging' (IM) and 'Presence,' which is essentially the ability of being able to detect if other users are logged in on the network and send them messages in real time, has become one of the most popular applications of the Internet, causing people to want to stay connected to the Internet for inordinate amounts of time, a phenomena that also fosters a sense of "online community," that perhaps no other application has done previously (Alvestrand, 2002). This research looks at the us...

  19. Effect of Flour Concentration and Retrogradation Treatment on Physical Properties of Instant Sinlek Brown Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Supat Chaiyakul; Direk Sukkasem; Patnachapa Natthapanpaisith

    2016-01-01

    Sinlek rice flour beverage or instant product is a dietary supplement for dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing. It is also consumed by individuals who need to consume supplements to maintain their calorific needs. This product provides protein, fat, iron, and a high concentration of carbohydrate from rice flour. However, the application of native flour is limited due to its high viscosity. Starch modification by controlling starch retrogradation was used in this study. The research studies the...

  20. Relationship of dough thermomechanical properties with oil uptake, cooking and textural properties of instant fried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Neelam; Khatkar, B S

    2014-04-01

    Instant noodles were prepared from fifteen diverse wheat cultivars varying widely in their flour quality and dough rheology. Dough thermomechanical parameters obtained by Mixolab and flour analytical properties were correlated with the quality of instant noodles including oil uptake, cooking quality and textural attributes. The Mixolab parameters dough development time and dough stability showed significant positive correlation with cooking time, cooked weight, overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles, while negatively correlated with oil uptake and cooking loss, therefore, exhibiting a marked positive effect on quality of instant noodles. Lower protein breakdown represented by C2 torque was also positively related with overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles. Stickiness/adhesiveness of noodles was revealed to be mainly conferred by falling number values (R (2 )= 0.671) and damaged starch (R (2 )= 0.523) content of wheat flour samples. Flour samples with lesser values of protein content, sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation volume, thermal stability of proteins, dough stability and dough development time were found to be linked with poor noodle quality. Medium strong flours performed better in noodle making, while weaker flours demonstrated poor noodle quality. Dough rheology of good noodle making flours was characterized with higher dough development time, dough stability, C2, C3, C4 as well as C5 values. Noodles with higher overall acceptability showed a more continuous and uniform protein starch matrix in comparison to the poor counterparts.

  1. Influence of full cream milk powder on the characteristics of sweet potato puree instant cream soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyoto, Marleen; Djali, Mohamad; Dwiastuti, Intan Btari

    2018-02-01

    A ready to use food such as instant cream soup become the most suitable choice for those who prefer being practical and also can be applied in any emergency situation such as areas affected by disaster. The adding of milk powder as the main ingredient in cream soup creates a complex bounding of fat and starch which complicates the rehydration process and affects other physical appearance. This research was aimed to find the proper concentration of full cream milk powder concentration to obtain the best characteristics of instant cream soup of dried sweet potato puree. The method used in this research was randomized block design with 6 treatments (12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, 22.5% and 25%, with an addition of full cream milk powder) and twice repetition. Instant cream soup with 20% of full cream milk powder concentration gave the best physical and chemical characteristics. The physical and chemical characteristic shows that it has 6% water content, 95.47% rehydration value, 18% protein, 20.7% fat, 1080.25 cP viscosity and 30.5% rendement.

  2. Relativistic two-and three-particle scattering equations using instant and light-front dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.; Frederico, T.

    1992-01-01

    Starting from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for two particles in the ladder approximation and integrating over the time component of momentum we derive three dimensional scattering integral equations satisfying constraints of unitarity and relativity, both employing the light-front and instant-form variables. The equations we arrive at are those first derived by Weinberg and by Blankenbecler and Sugar, and are shown to be related by a transformation of variables. Hence we show how to perform and relate identical dynamical calculation using these two equations. We extends this procedure to the case of three particles interacting via two-particle separable potentials. Using light-front and instant form variables we suggest a couple of three dimensional three-particle scattering equations satisfying constraints of two and three-particle unitarity and relativity. The three-particle light-front equation is shown to be approximately related by a transformation of variables to one of the instant-form three-particle equations. (author)

  3. Delay reduction in lossy intermittent feedback for generalized instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Sorour, Sameh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ai-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of lossy intermittent feedback loss events on the multicast decoding delay performance of generalized instantly decodable network coding. These feedback loss events create uncertainty at the sender about the reception statues of different receivers and thus uncertainty to accurately determine subsequent instantly decodable coded packets. To solve this problem, we first identify the different possibilities of uncertain packets at the sender and their probabilities. We then derive the expression of the mean decoding delay. We formulate the Generalized Instantly Decodable Network Coding (G-IDNC) minimum decoding delay problem as a maximum weight clique problem. Since finding the optimal solution is NP-hard, we design a variant of the algorithm employed in [1]. Our algorithm is compared to the two blind graph update proposed in [2] through extensive simulations. Results show that our algorithm outperforms the blind approaches in all the situations and achieves a tolerable degradation, against the perfect feedback, for large feedback loss period. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Delay reduction in lossy intermittent feedback for generalized instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of lossy intermittent feedback loss events on the multicast decoding delay performance of generalized instantly decodable network coding. These feedback loss events create uncertainty at the sender about the reception statues of different receivers and thus uncertainty to accurately determine subsequent instantly decodable coded packets. To solve this problem, we first identify the different possibilities of uncertain packets at the sender and their probabilities. We then derive the expression of the mean decoding delay. We formulate the Generalized Instantly Decodable Network Coding (G-IDNC) minimum decoding delay problem as a maximum weight clique problem. Since finding the optimal solution is NP-hard, we design a variant of the algorithm employed in [1]. Our algorithm is compared to the two blind graph update proposed in [2] through extensive simulations. Results show that our algorithm outperforms the blind approaches in all the situations and achieves a tolerable degradation, against the perfect feedback, for large feedback loss period. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Instant Messaging for Creating Interactive and Collaborative m-Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kadirire

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available 'Instant Messaging' (IM and 'Presence,' which is essentially the ability of being able to detect if other users are logged in on the network and send them messages in real time, has become one of the most popular applications of the Internet, causing people to want to stay connected to the Internet for inordinate amounts of time, a phenomena that also fosters a sense of "online community," that perhaps no other application has done previously (Alvestrand, 2002. This research looks at the use of mobile devices to send instant messages that can carry much more information than the short message service (SMS messages, but would be free to use, notwithstanding the price of getting online. We present a prototype IM system that can be used as a viable means of communicating and learning in higher education establishments. There is some evidence to show that learning using mobile devices reduces the formality of the learning experience, and helps engage reluctant learners and raise their self-confidence. In order for the learning process to be successful in online distance learning, unlike in the traditional face-to-face learning, attention must be paid to developing the participants' sense of community within their particular group. Instant messaging – or IM – is a natural medium for online community building and asynchronous/ synchronous peer discussions.

  6. A Spatio-Temporal Enhanced Metadata Model for Interdisciplinary Instant Point Observations in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengcheng Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the incomprehensive and inconsistent description of spatial and temporal information for city data observed by sensors in various fields, it is a great challenge to share the massive, multi-source and heterogeneous interdisciplinary instant point observation data resources. In this paper, a spatio-temporal enhanced metadata model for point observation data sharing was proposed. The proposed Data Meta-Model (DMM focused on the spatio-temporal characteristics and formulated a ten-tuple information description structure to provide a unified and spatio-temporal enhanced description of the point observation data. To verify the feasibility of the point observation data sharing based on DMM, a prototype system was established, and the performance improvement of Sensor Observation Service (SOS for the instant access and insertion of point observation data was realized through the proposed MongoSOS, which is a Not Only SQL (NoSQL SOS based on the MongoDB database and has the capability of distributed storage. For example, the response time of the access and insertion for navigation and positioning data can be realized at the millisecond level. Case studies were conducted, including the gas concentrations monitoring for the gas leak emergency response and the smart city public vehicle monitoring based on BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS used for recording the dynamic observation information. The results demonstrated the versatility and extensibility of the DMM, and the spatio-temporal enhanced sharing for interdisciplinary instant point observations in smart cities.

  7. Instant detection and identification of concealed explosive-related compounds: Induced Stokes Raman versus infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasuney, Sherif; El-Sherif, Ashraf F

    2017-01-01

    The instant detection of explosives and explosive-related compounds has become an urgent priority in recent years for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. Modern techniques should offer enhancement in selectivity, sensitivity, and standoff distances. Miniaturisation, portability, and field-ruggedisation are crucial requirements. This study reports on instant and standoff identification of concealed explosive-related compounds using customized Raman technique. Stokes Raman spectra of common explosive-related compounds were generated and spectrally resolved to create characteristic finger print spectra. The scattered Raman emissions over the band 400:2000cm -1 were compared to infrared absorption using FTIR. It has been demonstrated that the two vibrational spectroscopic techniques were opposite and completing each other. Molecular vibrations with strong absorption in infrared (those involve strong change in dipole moments) induced weak signals in Raman and vice versa. The tailored Raman offered instant detection, high sensitivity, and standoff detection capabilities. Raman demonstrated characteristic fingerprint spectra with stable baseline and sharp intense peaks. Complete correlations of absorption/scattered signals to certain molecular vibrations were conducted to generate an entire spectroscopic profile of explosive-related compounds. This manuscript shades the light on Raman as one of the prevailing technologies for instantaneous detection of explosive-related compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Instant noodle intake and dietary patterns are associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Joon; Cho, Eunyoung; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Fung, Teresa T; Rimm, Eric; Rosner, Bernard; Manson, JoAnn E; Wheelan, Kevin; Hu, Frank B

    2014-08-01

    The consumption of instant noodles is relatively high in Asian populations. It is unclear whether a higher intake of instant noodles is associated with cardiometabolic risk independent of overall dietary patterns. We therefore investigated the association using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2007-2009, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the Korean population with a clustered, multistage, stratified, and rolling sampling design. A total of 10,711 adults (54.5% women) 19-64 y of age were analyzed, with adjustment for sampling design complexity. Diet was assessed by using a 63-item food-frequency questionnaire. We identified 2 major dietary patterns with the use of principal components analysis: the "traditional dietary pattern" (TP), rich in rice, fish, vegetables, fruit, and potatoes, and the "meat and fast-food pattern" (MP), with less rice intake but rich in meat, soda, fried food, and fast food including instant noodles. The highest MP quintile was associated with increased prevalence of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.90), LDL cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL (1.3 g/L) (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.26, 1.95), decreased prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.80), and high triglycerides [≥150 mg/dL (1.5 g/L); OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.93]. The highest quintile for the TP was associated with decreased prevalence of elevated blood pressure (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.90) and marginally lower trends for abdominal obesity (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98; P-trend = 0.06), but neither of the dietary patterns was associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The consumption of instant noodles ≥2 times/wk was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.55) in women but not in men (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.49; P-interaction = 0.04). The 2 major dietary patterns were associated with distinct cardiometabolic risk factors. The consumption of instant noodles was

  9. Estimate of the instant release fraction for UO2 and MOX fuel at t=0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Poinssot, C; Ferry, C.; Lovera, P.

    2004-07-01

    The Spent Fuel Stability Project of the European Union aims to develop a model predicting the radionuclide release rate from spent fuel as a function of time for geological disposal conditions. In the first phase of the project, an important aspect consists of the model development focused on defining the instant release fraction (IRF), which represents the fraction of the inventory of safety-relevant radionuclides that may be rapidly released from the fuel and fuel assembly materials at the time of canister breaching. The locations of these preferentially released radionuclides, their quantities, the evidence for their release and proposed estimates of the IRF for the key safety-relevant radionuclides for the case of fuel shortly after discharge from the reactor are the subjects of the present report. Spent fuel assemblies comprise several materials, including uranium oxide, Zircaloy and various steels or nickel alloys used in the structural components of fuel assemblies. Information on the distribution of both activation products and fission products in all these materials must be taken into account in deriving IRF values. Information is presented on the radionuclide distributions in the various materials and IRF values for key radionuclides are proposed. The IRF increases with burnup, particularly above 50 GWd/t IHM . The estimated IRF values are functions of the numbers of spent fuel assemblies in various burnup intervals. Use of bounding fission gas release (FGR) values lead to overestimates of derived IRF values. The problem of uncertainties must be given attention because there is considerable scatter in FGR data, as well as in data from fission product leaching studies. The following approaches and definitions are adopted in this report: a) Best estimate, based on a good understanding of the mechanism and a good quality database; b) Bounding or pessimistic estimate based on data and process understanding that provides a maximum for the range of derived

  10. Centrality dependence of bulk fireball properties in √(sNN)=200 GeV Au-Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, Johann; Letessier, Jean; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    We explore the centrality dependence of the properties of the dense hadronic matter created in √(s NN )=200 GeV Au-Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Using the statistical hadronization model, we fit particle yields known for 11 centrality bins. We present the resulting model parameters, rapidity yields of physical quantities, and the physical properties of bulk matter at hadronization as function of centrality. We discuss the production of strangeness and entropy

  11. The effects of an instant haw beverage on lipid levels, antioxidant enzyme and immune function in hyperlipidemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidi; Xue, Bin; Li, Keji; Shi, Jingda; Krempin, D; Zhu, M; Garland, C

    2002-05-01

    To determine the effectiveness of an instant haw beverage in regulating lipid disturbance, enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and immune function. Data was collected from 60 hyperlipidemic subjects. In this crossover design, each subject randomly received either the instant haw beverage (100 ml corresponding to 3 g of haw powder or 30 g of fresh haw fruit plus the carrier-guar gum plus some starch) or placebo (guar gum 1.5 g plus some starch as the carrier of the beverage) twice daily. Each supplementation lasted 31 days with a 28-day washout period between treatments. The instant haw beverage significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (9.6%), triglyceride (12.1%), LDLC (18%) while significantly increased SOD activities (7.5%). The placebo was shown to have positive results in some of the lipid profiles, though the effects of the instant haw beverage demonstrated greater significance. Serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased and SOD activity significantly increased only as subjects were supplemented with the instant haw beverage while no significant changes were seen with placebo. Supplementation with the instant haw beverage positively affects blood lipid profile, antioxidant status and immune function in individuals with hyperlipidemia.

  12. Instant Haml

    CERN Document Server

    Niksinskiis, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based guide to teach you how to integrate Haml into your Rails application.If you are a developer who would like to speed up and simplify your view template creation, this book is ideal for you. A basic working knowledge of HTML and CSS, as well as some Ruby on Rails experience is recommended.

  13. Instant Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Elaina

    2017-01-01

    Generation Z students (born between 1995-2010) have replaced millennials on college campuses. Generation Z students are entrepreneurial, desire practical skills with their education, and are concerned about the cost of college. This article presents what need to be known about this new generation of students.

  14. Instant Holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Pedersen, M.; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    . The holograms are made in a side-chain azobenzene polyester and can be erased through a thermal treatment of the film enabling the film to be reused. Significantly, an atomic force microscopic scan of the film shows a strong surface relief after the 5 ns exposure paving the way for a cheap, mass replication...... of the holograms using a micromolding technique. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics....

  15. Instant XBMC

    CERN Document Server

    McColm, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This is a precise written guide to understanding the functioning of XBMC and learning exciting things such as streaming music and videos from the Internet to your home or business.This book is great for those who want to get XBMC up and installed with an out-of-the-box experience on PC hardware. It is great for those who wish to learn more about XBMC as an entertainment system that stores and streams media to their Windows, Linux, or Mac-OS-X-ba

  16. Instant replay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, David I

    2013-06-01

    With widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) and electronic clinical documentation, health care organizations now have greater faculty to review clinical data and evaluate the efficacy of quality improvement efforts. Unfortunately, I believe there is a fundamental gap between actual health care delivery and what we document in the current EHR systems. This process of capturing the patient encounter, which I'll refer to as transcription, is prone to significant data loss due to inadequate methods of data capture, multiple points of view, and bias and subjectivity in the transcriptional process. Our current EHR, text-based clinical documentation systems are lossy abstractions - one sided accounts of what take place between patients and providers. Our clinical notes contain the breadcrumbs of relationships, conversations, physical exams, and procedures but often lack the ability to capture the form, the emotions, the images, the nonverbal communication, and the actual narrative of interactions between human beings. I believe that a video record, in conjunction with objective transcriptional services and other forms of data capture, may provide a closer approximation to the truth of health care delivery and may be a valuable tool for healthcare improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  18. An unsuspected cause of meal-time morbidity: instant noodle scald burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltz, Peter F; Wasicek, Philip; Mays, Chester; Bell, Derek E

    2013-01-01

    Observational analysis revealed a concerning frequency of scald burns secondary to instant noodles. A literature review reveals studies with small sample sizes of pediatric populations and analysis of container engineering. The adult cohort, treatments, and short-term outcomes have been neglected. Considering these deficiencies, we reviewed our institution's experience with burns secondary to instant noodles. Patient encounters due to instant noodle burns from January 1, 2007, through May 15, 2011, were reviewed. Demographics, burn characteristics, treatment, length of stay, number of operative interventions, and complications were analyzed. Eight hundred fifty-two patients were seen (460 were admitted) for scald burns of all pathogenesis. Of these, 121 (14%) were seen for burns secondary to noodles (63 men and 58 women). Of these, 48 were older than age 4 (group 1), and 73 were younger than age 4 (group 2). TBSA was 2.34 in group 1 and 1.64 in group 2 (P = .04). The most commonly burned areas in group 1 were extremities (n = 43) and in group 2 were chest (n = 32) and extremities (n = 31). Seven patients in group 1 and two patients in group 2 required operative intervention. Length of stay in groups 1 and 2 were 3.5 and 6 days, respectively. Noodle scald burns cause morbidity at all ages. Pediatric burns due to noodles are frequently managed conservatively but more often necessitate inpatient treatment. The nonpediatric population has larger TBSA and requires more frequent operative intervention. The morbidity of noodle burns is significant. Increased public education and container re-engineering is warranted.

  19. Sensorless control method of instant-heating module for a bidet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, D. [Korea Polytechnic Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electronics Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The three types of temperature control schemes for a bidet system are the mechanical type where both hot water and cold water are supplied to bidet system and users control the outlet water; hot water-tank type where temperature in outlet water is slowly controlled in the hot water tanks; and, instant-heating module type where temperature in outlet water is controlled by a ceramic heater and switching device. All types have advantages and disadvantages. This paper addressed the need for a sensor-less control scheme for an instant-heating module for a bidet, which can control water temperature effectively without using the flow-velocity sensor of the flowing water. The sensor-less control scheme is meant to reduce costs and improve reliability. In this study, a steady state model and simplified model of instant-heating module was developed. An estimation algorithm for the value of flow-velocity of water was also proposed. Experimental work performed under various operating conditions was presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed sensor-less control scheme. The velocity of the flowing water was estimated by monitoring the changes in outlet water temperature and by analyzing the results against information of inlet water temperature and the switching command for Triac bridge circuit. This information can be readily acquired during the cleaning operation of a bidet system. It was concluded that the proposed method can be easily integrated with existing low-cost control schemes. Future work will focus on mass production of the system, such as developing reliable automatic tuning algorithm to apply the proposed scheme for commercial use. 3 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  20. Instant coffee consumption may be associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom; Jacobs, David R; Park, Kyong

    2014-10-01

    Cumulative evidence suggests that coffee consumption may have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases; however, few previous studies have considered the types of coffee consumed and the additives used. We investigated the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and its components. We analyzed 17,953 Korean adults, aged 19-65 years, using cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2007-2011). Coffee consumption level, types of coffee consumed, and the additives used were assessed based on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall. Demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Data on metabolic biomarkers were obtained from a health examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios of prevalent metabolic syndrome and its components according to frequency and type of coffee consumption. We found that 76% of the subjects were habitual coffee drinkers, most of whom consumed instant coffee mix containing sugar and powder creamer. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% CI) comparing those who consumed coffee ≥3 times/day with those who consumed coffee <1 time/week were 1.37 (1.15-1.63) for obesity, 1.33 (1.11-1.59) for abdominal obesity, 1.28 (1.09-1.51) for hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, and 1.37 (1.10-1.72) for metabolic syndrome. Instant-coffee drinkers were observed to have elevated risks of these metabolic conditions. Consumption of coffee, particularly instant coffee mix, may have harmful effects on MetSyn, perhaps partly deriving from excessive intake of sugar and powder creamer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Usage of the hybrid encryption in a cloud instant messages exchange system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvyetnyy, Roman N.; Romanyuk, Olexander N.; Titarchuk, Evgenii O.; Gromaszek, Konrad; Mussabekov, Nazarbek

    2016-09-01

    A new approach for constructing cloud instant messaging represented in this article allows users to encrypt data locally by using Diffie - Hellman key exchange protocol. The described approach allows to construct a cloud service which operates only by users encrypted messages; encryption and decryption takes place locally at the user party using a symmetric AES encryption. A feature of the service is the conferences support without the need for messages reecryption for each participant. In the article it is given an example of the protocol implementation on the ECC and RSA encryption algorithms basis, as well as a comparison of these implementations.

  2. Pemanfaatan Limbah Cair Industri Mie Instant Untuk Proses Pembuatan Sabun Mandi Cair

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Markam A

    2013-01-01

    In the process of production, instant noodle industry using oil as a medium for frying stage. Cooking oil is a vegetable oil that has been purified and can be used as food. Cooking oil is one of the nine basic commodities consumed by the whole society. Consumption of cooking oil is usually used as a medium frying or food, flavor enhancer. In this research sample was take from the liquid waste that come from production process that contain an oil at the surface of the liquid. This Oil will be ...

  3. Clinical methods for single-shot instant MR imaging of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.S.; Weisskoff, R.; Rzedzian, R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have compared cardiac protocols for instant MR methods that acquire complete images in 32 msec. Four protocols are compared: continuous scanning at a fixed TR with retrospective reordering; pseudogating by using a TR 50 msec greater than the R-R interval; progressive time delay (PTD), in which the delay from the R wave is electronically advanced; and real-time (RT) imaging at 16 images/sec, which enabled complete movies to be obtained in a single heartbeat. Spin-echo techniques have been used for the first three protocols; the RT method used gradient echoes

  4. Instant live-cell super-resolution imaging of cellular structures by nanoinjection of fluorescent probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Simon; van de Linde, Sebastian; Lummer, Martina; Simonis, Matthias; Huser, Thomas; Sauer, Markus

    2015-02-11

    Labeling internal structures within living cells with standard fluorescent probes is a challenging problem. Here, we introduce a novel intracellular staining method that enables us to carefully control the labeling process and provides instant access to the inner structures of living cells. Using a hollow glass capillary with a diameter of <100 nm, we deliver functionalized fluorescent probes directly into the cells by (di)electrophoretic forces. The label density can be adjusted and traced directly during the staining process by fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate the potential of this technique by delivering and imaging a range of commercially available cell-permeable and nonpermeable fluorescent probes to cells.

  5. Instant-release fractions for the assessment of used nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.; Vance, E.R.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Johnson, L.H.

    1989-02-01

    Quantitative estimates of instant-release fractions for the potential release of radionuclides from used CANDU fuel in an underground disposal vault have been made in terms of probability- density functions, taking variability and uncertainty into account. The radionuclides included in this study are 129 I, 135 Cs, 79 Se, 126 Sn, 99 Tc, 14 C, and 3 H. The probability-density functions are based on experimental data on the short term release of radionuclides upon contact with groundwater, and on a knowledge of the solid-state chemistry of used fuel. They provide source terms for the environmental and safety assessment of used nuclear fuel disposal

  6. Instant Passbook app development for iOS how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Keith D

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide, focusing on simple projects to help you create a Passbook app for iOS 6.Instant Passbook App Development for iOS 6 How-to is for registered Apple iOS developers, experienced in building an app using Objective-C and Xcode, looking to add Passbook functionality to their app. You will need to have an understanding of the JSON format, REST APIs, and a server-side language like Ruby. Familiarity with executing commands via the Terminal app is expected for the exerci

  7. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  8. Mass yield distributions for the reactions Ca+Ca, Nb+Nb and Ca+Ca at E/A=800 MeV in the molecular-dynamical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mass yield distributions obtained on the basis of the molecular-dynamical model are presented for the Ca+Ca, Nb+Nb reactions at E/A=400 MeV and Ca+Ca reaction at E/A=800 MeV. For the fragments with masses upto quarter of the mass of initial nucleus the model predicts a power law for mass spectra with almost the same value of the exponent. Such the behaviour is roughly a result of the superposition of the fireball breakup and the disintegration of spectator regions rather than the evidence of a liquid-gas-like phase transition in hot nuclear matter

  9. Effect of Dehydration Conditions on the Chemical, Physical, and Rehydration Properties of Instant Whole Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alberto Resendiz Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydration conditions on the chemical, physical, and rehydration properties of instant whole beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Azufrado using a 22 factorial design (air temperature: 25°C and 30°C, air velocity: 0.5 m/s and 1.0 m/s. To determine the kinetic parameters, the rehydration data were fitted to three models: Peleg’s, First Order, and Sigmoid. The protein, fat, and ash contents of the beans were not significantly affected (P>0.05 by the dehydration conditions. Of the 11 physical properties of the instant whole beans, only water activity and splitting were significantly affected by dehydration conditions (P0.05 between the observed and predicted equilibrium moisture contents of the instant whole beans. Regarding the rehydration kinetics for the instant whole beans, the activation energy values ranged from 23.56 kJ/mol to 30.48 kJ/mol, depending on the dehydration conditions. The dehydration conditions had no significant effect (P>0.05 on the rehydration properties of instant whole beans.

  10. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  11. Iodine Intake Estimation from the Consumption of Instant Noodles, Drinking Water and Household Salt in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisna, Aang; Knowles, Jacky; Basuni, Abas; Menon, Ravi; Sugihantono, Anung

    2018-03-08

    The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of iodine intake from iodised household salt, iodised salt in instant noodles, and iodine in ground water in five regions of Indonesia. Secondary data analysis was performed using the 2013 Primary Health Research Survey, the 2014 Total Diet Study, and data from food industry research. Iodine intake was estimated among 2719 children, 10-12 years of age (SAC), 13,233 women of reproductive age (WRA), and 578 pregnant women (PW). Combined estimated iodine intake from the three stated sources met 78%, 70%, and 41% of iodine requirements for SAC, WRA and PW, respectively. Household salt iodine contributed about half of the iodine requirements for SAC (49%) and WRA (48%) and a quarter for PW (28%). The following variations were found: for population group, the percentage of estimated dietary iodine requirements met by instant noodle consumption was significantly higher among SAC; for region, estimated iodine intake was significantly higher from ground water for WRA in Java, and from household salt for SAC and WRA in Kalimantan and Java; and for household socio-economic status (SES), iodine intake from household salt was significantly higher in the highest SES households. Enforcement of clear implementing regulations for iodisation of household and food industry salt will promote optimal iodine intake among all population groups with different diets.

  12. Iodine Intake Estimation from the Consumption of Instant Noodles, Drinking Water and Household Salt in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aang Sutrisna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of iodine intake from iodised household salt, iodised salt in instant noodles, and iodine in ground water in five regions of Indonesia. Secondary data analysis was performed using the 2013 Primary Health Research Survey, the 2014 Total Diet Study, and data from food industry research. Iodine intake was estimated among 2719 children, 10–12 years of age (SAC, 13,233 women of reproductive age (WRA, and 578 pregnant women (PW. Combined estimated iodine intake from the three stated sources met 78%, 70%, and 41% of iodine requirements for SAC, WRA and PW, respectively. Household salt iodine contributed about half of the iodine requirements for SAC (49% and WRA (48% and a quarter for PW (28%. The following variations were found: for population group, the percentage of estimated dietary iodine requirements met by instant noodle consumption was significantly higher among SAC; for region, estimated iodine intake was significantly higher from ground water for WRA in Java, and from household salt for SAC and WRA in Kalimantan and Java; and for household socio-economic status (SES, iodine intake from household salt was significantly higher in the highest SES households. Enforcement of clear implementing regulations for iodisation of household and food industry salt will promote optimal iodine intake among all population groups with different diets.

  13. Delay Reduction for Instantly Decodable Network Coding in Persistent Channels With Feedback Imperfections

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2015-11-05

    This paper considers the multicast decoding delay reduction problem for generalized instantly decodable network coding (G-IDNC) over persistent erasure channels with feedback imperfections. The feedback scenario discussed is the most general situation in which the sender does not always receive acknowledgments from the receivers after each transmission and the feedback communications are subject to loss. The decoding delay increment expressions are derived and employed to express the decoding delay reduction problem as a maximum weight clique problem in the G-IDNC graph. This paper provides a theoretical analysis of the expected decoding delay increase at each time instant. Problem formulations in simpler channel and feedback models are shown to be special cases of the proposed generalized formulation. Since finding the optimal solution to the problem is known to be NP-hard, a suboptimal greedy algorithm is designed and compared with blind approaches proposed in the literature. Through extensive simulations, the proposed algorithm is shown to outperform the blind methods in all situations and to achieve significant improvement, particularly for high time-correlated channels.

  14. Instantly Decodable Network Coding: From Centralized to Device-to-Device Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2015-05-01

    From its introduction to its quindecennial, network coding have built a strong reputation in enhancing packet recovery process and achieving maximum information flow in both wires and wireless networks. Traditional studies focused on optimizing the throughput of the network by proposing complex schemes that achieve optimal delay. With the shift toward distributed computing at mobile devices, throughput and complexity become both critical factors that affect the efficiency of a coding scheme. Instantly decodable network coding imposed itself as a new paradigm in network coding that trades off this two aspects. This paper presents a survey of instantly decodable network coding schemes that are proposed in the literature. The various schemes are identified, categorized and evaluated. Two categories can be distinguished namely the conventional centralized schemes and the distributed or cooperative schemes. For each scheme, the comparison is carried out in terms of reliability, performance, complexity and packet selection methodology. Although the performance is generally inversely proportional to the computation complexity, numerous successful schemes from both the performance and complexity viewpoint are identified.

  15. Switching to instant black coffee modulates sodium selenite-induced cataract in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Okda, E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of daily consumption of some common beverages on the development of cataract in rats was investigated. Total phenol content was determined in the beverages and an oral standardized dose of total phenols from each beverage was given to the treated rats. Weaned male albino rats were used and divided into five groups (n=7. Rats were fed Ain 93G and administered the standardized dose of instant coffee, black tea and hibiscus beverages for 30 days. On day 14 all rats were injected with a single dose of sodium selenite (NaSeO bodyweight, except the control groups NC (negative control, did not receive NaSeO and PC (positive control, was already injected on day 1 of the study. The rats were continued on Ain 93G and the standardized dose for another 16 days. Positive control rats were used. Total phenols were 210, 40, and 44 mg/g dry weight gallic acid equivalent in black coffee, black tea, and hibiscus, respectively. Decreased levels (statistically significant P<0.05 of malondialdehyde, total nitric oxide, Ca-Ae, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, superoxide dismutase, and conversely, increased levels (statistically significant P<0.05 of total protein, reduced glutathione, catalase were found in the lenses of the coffee group compared to PC. There are co-phenol substances in the instant black coffee that promoted coffee to be the most effective beverage.

  16. Optimization of instant dalia dessert pre-mix production by using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Alok; Shalini, B N; Patel, Ashok Ambalal; Singh, Mithilesh; Rasane, Prasad

    2015-02-01

    Dalia, a wheat-based, particulate containing dairy dessert is popularly consumed as a breakfast food and is also considered as a health food. Though popular throughout Northern parts of the country, its limited shelf-life even under refrigeration imposes severe restrictions on its organized manufacture and marketing. In order to promote dalia dessert as a marketable product, in the present study, a process was developed for manufacture of instant dalia pre-mix, as a dry product with long shelf-life, which could be attractively packaged and easily reconstituted for consumption. During the investigation, the effect of different levels of milk solids and wheat solids was studied on dalia pre-mix quality by employing a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The suggested formulation had 17.82 % milk solids and 2.87 % wheat solids. This formulation was found to be most appropriate for manufacture of instant dalia pre-mix with predicted sensory scores (Max. 100) of 85.35, 41.98 and 67.27 for mouthfeel, consistency and flavor, respectively; the viscosity of the product was 941.0 cp.

  17. Inventions in architecture – an analysis of instant city as an experimental architectural proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Silvério Neto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo investiga sobre como el lenguaje arquitectónico fue abordado en Instant City, de Archigram. Se utilizan, como fundamentación del tema, la teorización y la aplicación de textos de Umberto Eco (principalmente el texto La Estructura Ausente a fin de comprender como se determinan la proposición proyectual y las estructuras arquitectónicas en este proyecto, especialmente con respecto a la relación entre percepción espacial, el role del proyecto para la representación de sus preposiciones y el lenguaje arquitectónico en los años 1960. Al efecto, se abordan el proyecto y el dibujo como tema de investigación y lenguaje arquitectónico, analizando los intereses de sus creadores. Creemos que hubo una interpretación de arquitectura fragmentada en objetos y un valor atribuido al proyecto como proposición final para Instant City.

  18. Characterization of ESIPT reactions with instant spectra of fluorescence and complexation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomin, Vladimir I.; Ushakou, Dzmitryi V.

    2016-01-01

    Proton transfer processes and especially excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) are of interest not only in physical studies but in a wide range of biological and chemical researches, since they play an important role in different fundamental reactions. Moreover, occurrence of ESIPT very often causes two-bands emission spectra corresponding to the normal and photoproduct (tautomer) forms of molecular structure. It allows carrying out unique measurement of microcharacteristics in chemical and biological researches by using substances with ESIPT as molecular probes, because its dual emission is very sensitive to parameters of microenvironment. Dual fluorescence signal is very convenient for two wavelength ratiometric measurements as they are more sensitive to variations of sample characteristics. Recently new approach for revealing type of excited state reaction which is based on analysis of dynamic changes of relative intensities in instant spectra of fluorescence ESIPT solutes was suggested and tested for neat solutions. Now we generalize this method on solutions in which ESIPT solute may participate also in creating fluorescent complexes. We demonstrate that relative intensities of instant spectra of fluorescence registered with high time resolution allow to get valuable information referring to type of excited state reaction in which dye may undergo complexation reactions with ions in solvent. In addition we show how it is possible in such case to determine characteristics of complexation as, for example, stability constant and efficiency of complexation.

  19. Instantly Decodable Network Coding: From Centralized to Device-to-Device Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2015-01-01

    From its introduction to its quindecennial, network coding have built a strong reputation in enhancing packet recovery process and achieving maximum information flow in both wires and wireless networks. Traditional studies focused on optimizing the throughput of the network by proposing complex schemes that achieve optimal delay. With the shift toward distributed computing at mobile devices, throughput and complexity become both critical factors that affect the efficiency of a coding scheme. Instantly decodable network coding imposed itself as a new paradigm in network coding that trades off this two aspects. This paper presents a survey of instantly decodable network coding schemes that are proposed in the literature. The various schemes are identified, categorized and evaluated. Two categories can be distinguished namely the conventional centralized schemes and the distributed or cooperative schemes. For each scheme, the comparison is carried out in terms of reliability, performance, complexity and packet selection methodology. Although the performance is generally inversely proportional to the computation complexity, numerous successful schemes from both the performance and complexity viewpoint are identified.

  20. Tweeting in the Classroom: Instant feedback and assessment using a mobile web app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, R.

    2011-12-01

    Cell phones with texting capabilities are ubiquitous in the college classroom, and smart phones are becoming increasingly common. These phones are used primarily for personal activities, including social networking, and are expected to remain switched off during instruction. The powerful communication capability of these devices, which could potentially facilitate novel forms of "instructional networking", remains untapped. Instead, special-purpose devices ("clickers") are used when instant feedback is desired in the classroom. A number of technical and behavioral challenges need to be overcome before mobile phones can be used routinely to assist in classroom instruction. This presentation will describe the experience of developing and deploying a mobile web app that enables students to provide instant feedback in the classroom using their mobile phones. The web app leverages existing social networking infrastructure, e.g., using the Twitter microblogging service to aggregate text messages sent by students, to promote classroom interaction. The web app was deployed both in a regular lecture hall and in a computer lab. Topics to be discussed include the technical challenges of deploying a mobile web app in a classroom setting, such as internet accessibility and latency, as well as non-technical issues relating to privacy, student reactions, etc.

  1. Instant messages vs. speech: hormones and why we still need to hear each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Leslie J; Prososki, Ashley R; Ziegler, Toni E; Pollak, Seth D

    2012-01-01

    Human speech evidently conveys an adaptive advantage, given its apparently rapid dissemination through the ancient world and global use today. As such, speech must be capable of altering human biology in a positive way, possibly through those neuroendocrine mechanisms responsible for strengthening the social bonds between individuals. Indeed, speech between trusted individuals is capable of reducing levels of salivary cortisol, often considered a biomarker of stress, and increasing levels of urinary oxytocin, a hormone involved in the formation and maintenance of positive relationships. It is not clear, however, whether it is the uniquely human grammar, syntax, content and/or choice of words that causes these physiological changes, or whether the prosodic elements of speech, which are present in the vocal cues of many other species, are responsible. In order to tease apart these elements of human communication, we examined the hormonal responses of female children who instant messaged their mothers after undergoing a stressor. We discovered that unlike children interacting with their mothers in person or over the phone, girls who instant messaged did not release oxytocin; instead, these participants showed levels of salivary cortisol as high as control subjects who did not interact with their parents at all. We conclude that the comforting sound of a familiar voice is responsible for the hormonal differences observed and, hence, that similar differences may be seen in other species using vocal cues to communicate.

  2. Delay Reduction for Instantly Decodable Network Coding in Persistent Channels With Feedback Imperfections

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Sorour, Sameh; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the multicast decoding delay reduction problem for generalized instantly decodable network coding (G-IDNC) over persistent erasure channels with feedback imperfections. The feedback scenario discussed is the most general situation in which the sender does not always receive acknowledgments from the receivers after each transmission and the feedback communications are subject to loss. The decoding delay increment expressions are derived and employed to express the decoding delay reduction problem as a maximum weight clique problem in the G-IDNC graph. This paper provides a theoretical analysis of the expected decoding delay increase at each time instant. Problem formulations in simpler channel and feedback models are shown to be special cases of the proposed generalized formulation. Since finding the optimal solution to the problem is known to be NP-hard, a suboptimal greedy algorithm is designed and compared with blind approaches proposed in the literature. Through extensive simulations, the proposed algorithm is shown to outperform the blind methods in all situations and to achieve significant improvement, particularly for high time-correlated channels.

  3. Design of Instant Messaging System of Multi-language E-commerce Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heng; Chen, Xinyi; Li, Jiajia; Cao, Yaru

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims at researching the message system in the instant messaging system based on the multi-language e-commerce platform in order to design the instant messaging system in multi-language environment and exhibit the national characteristics based information as well as applying national languages to e-commerce. In order to develop beautiful and friendly system interface for the front end of the message system and reduce the development cost, the mature jQuery framework is adopted in this paper. The high-performance server Tomcat is adopted at the back end to process user requests, and MySQL database is adopted for data storage to persistently store user data, and meanwhile Oracle database is adopted as the message buffer for system optimization. Moreover, AJAX technology is adopted for the client to actively pull the newest data from the server at the specified time. In practical application, the system has strong reliability, good expansibility, short response time, high system throughput capacity and high user concurrency.

  4. PENGEMBANGAN PLATFORM KOMUNIKASI INSTANT UNTUK MENDUKUNG COLABORATIVE LEARNING PADA UNIVERSITAS DIAN NUSWANTORO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri Firdausillah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Instant messaging (IM atau chatting merupakan aplikasi internet yang memungkinkan penggunanya saling berkomunikasi melalui pesan teks, audio, maupun video secara langsung. Keunggulan IM yang memungkinkan pengguna berinteraksi secara langsung berpotensi untuk diterapkan dalam pengembangan sebuah metode pembelajaran kolaboratif di Universitas Dian Nuswantoro (UDINUS. Sistem informasi akademik (SiAdin merupakan aplikasi berbasis web yang membantu manajemen administratif dan edukatif pada UDINUS yang memungkinkan mahasiswa, dosen maupun staff yang lain untuk saling bertukar informasi serta kebutuhan akademik. Namun, hingga kini, SiAdin masih belum terintegrasi dengan platform komunikasi instan apapun.Meskipun layanan broadcast pesan telah diterapkan, namun pengguna harus membuat group secara manual, kemudian menambahkan anggota group secara manual terlebih dahulu. Hal ini menjadikan proses komunikasi kolaboratif jadi kurang optimal.Dalam penelitian ini, penulis mengusulkan menerapkan metode Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL di UDINUS dengan memanfaatkan SiAdin yang telah berjalan di UDINUS untuk mendukung berjalannya collaborative learning. Kata Kunci: Instant Messaging, SiAdin, Pembelajaran Kolaboratif.

  5. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  6. Fission product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, V.; Hep, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)

  7. Emission of Gas and Al2O3 Smoke in Gas-Al Particle Deflagration: Experiments and Emission Modeling for Explosive Fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranc-Darbord, Isabelle; Baudin, Gérard; Genetier, Marc; Ramel, David; Vasseur, Pierre; Legrand, Julien; Pina, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    Emission of gas and Al2O3 smoke within the deflagration of H2{-}O2-{N2{-}CO2}-Al particles has been studied in a closed combustion chamber at pressures of up to 18 bar and at gas temperatures of up to 3700 K. Measurements of radiance intensity were taken using a five wavelength pyrometer (0.660 μ m, 0.850 μ m, 1.083 μ m, 1.260 μ m, 1.481 μ m) and a grating spectrometer in the range (4.10 μ m to 4.30 μ m). In order to characterize the aluminum oxide smoke size and temperature, an inversion method has been developed based on the radiation transfer equation and using pyrometer measurements and thermochemical calculations of Al2O3 smoke volume fractions. Temperatures in combustion gas have been determined using a method based on the assumed blackbody head of the 4.26 μ m CO2 emission line and on its spectral shift with pressure and temperature. For validation purpose, this method has been applied to measurements obtained when calibrated alumina particles are injected in a combustion chamber prior to gaseous deflagrations. This mathematical inversion method was developed to investigate explosive fireballs.

  8. Effect of Various Types of Herbs on Sensory Properties and Blood Glucosa Response Adan Instant Black Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernatal Saragih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Management based on the carbohydrate diet is very important to do and not to be avoided but how diet and variations of carbohydrate consumed is set mainly the source of rice that does not fast respond to an increase in blood glucose. Therefore, Evaluation of nutritional and instant rice production that is the functional food and have a low glycemic index rice sourced locally as the East Kalimantan native rice black Adan will be very beneficial for health. The aim of this research was to evaluate of the nutritional and effect of various herbal on sensory properties and blood glucose response Adan instant black rice. Adan black rice has a protein content of 8.10%, Fe 3.61 mg/1000g and 3.33 g/100g total dietary fiber and includes a group of rice with low amylose. Organoleptic value of instant rice black Adan produced the most preferred by panellists also from the addition of ginger extract and pandan leaves , water, onion tiwai, tea and last turmeric. The digestibility of starch decreased 19.04 (mg/1000g after being a functional of instant rice black Adan. Difference in reduction of blood glucose levels in volunteers who consumed black Adan instant rice by 14.20 mg/dL, whereas the provision of a reference food (glucose of 71.50 mg/dL, this indicates of instant rice functional black Adan provide availability of glucose in the blood longer available.

  9. The effect of an instant hand sanitizer on blood glucose monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John J; Ellison, John M; Glaeser, Danielle; Price, David

    2011-11-01

    People with diabetes mellitus are instructed to clean their skin prior to self-monitoring of blood glucose to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers have become popular when soap and water are not available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a hand sanitizer is compatible with glucose meter testing and effective for the removal of exogenous glucose. We enrolled 34 nonfasting subjects [14 male/20 female, mean ages 45 (standard deviation, 9.4)] years, 2 with diagnosed diabetes/32 without known diabetes]. Laboratory personnel prepared four separate fingers on one hand of each subject by (1) cleaning the second finger with soap and water and towel drying (i.e., control finger), (2) cleaning the third finger with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, (3) coating the fourth finger with cola and allowing it to air dry, and (4) coating the fifth finger with cola and then cleaning it with the instant hand sanitizer after the cola had dried. Finger sticks were performed on each prepared finger and blood glucose was measured. Several in vitro studies were also performed to investigate the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer for removal of exogenous glucose.z Mean blood glucose values from fingers cleaned with instant hand sanitizer did not differ significantly from the control finger (p = .07 and .08, respectively) and resulted in 100% accurate results. Blood glucose data from the fourth (cola-coated) finger were substantially higher on average compared with the other finger conditions, but glucose data from the fifth finger (cola-coated then cleaned with hand sanitizer) was similar to the control finger. The data from in vitro experiments showed that the hand sanitizer did not adversely affect glucose meter results, but when an exogenous glucose interference was present, the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer on glucose bias (range: 6% to 212%) depended on the surface area and degree of dilution. In our study

  10. A Two-Sided Market Model of Optimal Price Structure for Instant Messenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Instant messenger (IM is one of the most popular Internet applications all over the world. This paper examines the pricing problem of IM based on two-sided market model. IM serves as a two-sided platform, which gets both Internet users and advertisers on board. This paper concludes that IM operator adopts a heavily skewed price structure that favors IM users both under monopolistic case and under horizontal differentiated duopolistic case. When advertising revenue is large enough relatively to marginal cost for serving IM users, IM users can enjoy free service provided by IM operators. The competitive equilibrium of duopolistic case is not necessarily symmetric when advertisers choose singlehoming. Even in the symmetric equilibrium platform would rather deter all advertisers.

  11. A Forensic Log File Extraction Tool for ICQ Instant Messaging Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Morfitt

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Instant messenger programs such as ICQ are often used by hackers and criminals for illicit purposes and consequently the log files from such programs are of interest in a forensic investigation. This paper outlines research that has resulted in the development of a tool for the extraction of ICQ log file entries. Detailed reconstruction of data from log files was achieved with a number of different ICQ software. There are several limitations with the current design including timestamp information not adjusted for the time zone, data could be altered, and conversations must be manually reconstructed. Future research will aim to address these and other limitations as pointed out in this paper.

  12. Control neuronal predictivo por linealización instantánea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Lamanna

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se desarrolla un esquema de Control Predictivo Generalizado (GPC basado en un modelo neuronal del proceso, y se aplica en un reactor de neutralización de laboratorio. El modelo neuronal se obtiene previamente por identificación, y se linealiza en cada iteración del algoritmo de control. De esta manera se combina la capacidad de ajuste de la redes neuronales con la eficiencia de cálculo del GPC, consiguiéndose un sistema con las ventajas del control predictivo pero extendido a sistemas no lineales, que se comporta con precisión y rapidez ante perturbaciones. Palabras clave: Control Neuronal, Control Predictivo, Redes Neuronales, Linealización Instantánea, Control de pH

  13. Do instante ao estado de coisas: formas da estabilidade no discurso visual do fotojornalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamim Picado

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O texto procura examinar a questão da função narrativa atribuída aos temas da estabilidade no fotojornalismo, tomando como modelo de comparação as relações entre os temas de paisagem e o conceito de sublimidade da representação pictórica, na análise que o historiador da arte Louis Marin faz das funções narrativas nas tópicas da natureza, em Nicolas Poussin. Do lado do fotojornalismo, tomamos como exemplo dessas questões o ensaio visual “Shattered”, realizado pelo fotógrafo de guerra James Nachtwey, sobre os instantes seguintes do ataque às torres gêmeas, publicada na revista Time, como campo de provas da análise desse problema da estabilidade e do dicurso visual na fotografia.

  14. Determination of trace elements in coffee beans and instant coffee of various origins by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Fatima, I.; Arif, M.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive use of coffee, by one-third of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in it. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 20 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in four samples of coffee beans of various origins and two instant coffee brands most commonly consumed in Pakistan. Base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in coffee are provided. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through coffee was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits. (author)

  15. Aux prises avec la banalisation : la collection « L’instant érotique »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Swoboda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses contemporary condition of French erotic or/and pornographic novel. As social and cultural circumstances seem to put an end to its transgressive potential, the authors of this kind of writing tried, at first, to keep abreast of other media. Nevertheless, the “trash” or “grunge” novel as well as autofictional erotic writings were not able to satisfy the critics. The novels from L’instant erotique collection, written by specialists of erotic art, change the strategy and exploit the new state of cultural relations in which the role of this sort of literature is rather to imitate or to play with erotic or pornographic tradition, creating a new model of reception: very conscious and erudite.

  16. Addition of Bacillus Coagulans (Lactba cillus Esporogenes to a Powder Mixture Based Instant Cerea ls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucia Libreros López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discloses the results of the application of a probiotic infant formula based instant cereals through accelerated life assessment. This process is carried out at laboratory level, based on the assay technique / error.The selected strain of probiotic, Lactobacilluis (Bacillus coagulans, must comply with the following characteristics: be of human origin, survival during gastric transit, bile salts tolerate and adhere to intestinal epithelial tissue. From the technological point of view, the probiotic must: be tolerant to oxygen and acids, have the ability to grow in milk and probiotics to metabolize and not affect the sensory characteristics of the product.The probiotic must meet the technical and production requirements and be resistant to adverse external conditions that may alter its composition or life.The process of incorporating probiotics to infant cereal mixture is performed by a theoretical calculation based. If the recommended dose is used, the presence of bacillus coagulans is ensured during the accelerated life.

  17. Notes for methodological study of instant messaging from social sciences and humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba MANCINAS-CHÁVEZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article defends the need for transversality when methodologically addressing instant messaging via cellphones as a tool of communication from the point of view of social sciences and humanities. This leads us to the structural approach, which requires supplementary knowledge in fields such as Psychology or History, without losing sight that our study is composed in the areas of Communications and Journalism. We intend to avoid the functional approaches to think about the meaning of mobile phones as a communicative and palliative object of human loneliness. We believe that a part of the so-called applied research, in being useful to society, must take that path if we work as social science or humanities researchers. This issue gains even greater importance knowing that Spain is at the top of leading European countries in terms of the use of social networking systems of communication with software applications such as Whatsapp.

  18. First-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities: advantages of an instant results approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Mary E

    2010-09-01

    Protocols that include first trimester screening for fetal chromosome abnormalities have become standard of care throughout the United States. Earlier screening allows for first trimester diagnostic testing in cases found to be at increased risk. However, first trimester screening requires coordination of the nuchal translucency ultrasound screening (NT) and biochemical screening, during early, specific, narrow, but slightly different gestational age ranges. Instant results can often be provided at the time of the NT ultrasound if preceded by the programs that perform the biochemical analyses; this optimizes the benefits of the first trimester approach while improving efficiency and communication with the patient. This article discusses the benefits and logistics of such an approach. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Distractions, distractions: does instant messaging affect college students' performance on a concurrent reading comprehension task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Annie Beth; Rosen, Jonathan; Crawford, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Instant messaging (IM) has become one of the most popular forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and is especially prevalent on college campuses. Previous research suggests that IM users often multitask while conversing online. To date, no one has yet examined the cognitive effect of concurrent IM use. Participants in the present study (N = 69) completed a reading comprehension task uninterrupted or while concurrently holding an IM conversation. Participants who IMed while performing the reading task took significantly longer to complete the task, indicating that concurrent IM use negatively affects efficiency. Concurrent IM use did not affect reading comprehension scores. Additional analyses revealed that the more time participants reported spending on IM, the lower their reading comprehension scores. Finally, we found that the more time participants reported spending on IM, the lower their self-reported GPA. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  20. Ochratoxin A in brazilian instant coffee Ocratoxina A em café solúvel brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana P. de Almeida

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the ochratoxin A (OTA contamination of instant coffee samples collected in the market of the city of São Paulo, Brazil from August to December, 2004. The EN 14133/2003 method, originally developed to quantify OTA in wine, grape juice and beer samples, was evaluated and approved for analyzing OTA in instant coffee samples. OTA was isolated in an immunoaffinity column and quantified by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The established detection and quantification limits were 0.16 and 0.52 ng/g, respectively. The recoveries from spiked samples were 92.6 ± 1.7, 83.7 ± 0.8, and 91.0 ± 1.2 % at levels of 3.0, 5.0, and 8.0 ng/g, respectively. Of a total of 82 samples analised, 81 (98.8% contained OTA at levels ranging from 0.17 to 6.29 ng/g. The high frequency of OTA occurrence in the instant coffee samples demonstrates the importance of an effective control of this product by governmental authorities and industries. The rapid methodology for OTA analysis in instant coffee used in this study was defined and validated, permitting it´s use for quality control of this product.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a contaminação por OTA em amostras de café solúvel comercializadas na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil no período de agosto a dezembro de 2004. O método EN 14133/2003, originalmente desenvolvido para quantificar OTA em amostras de vinho, suco de uva e cerveja, foi avaliado e aprovado para análise de OTA em amostras de café solúvel. OTA foi isolada em coluna de imunoafinidade e quantificada por CLAE com detecção em fluorescência. Os limites de detecção e quantificação do método foram 0,16 e 0,52 ng/g, respectivamente. Os percentuais médios de recuperação foram de 92,6% (3 ng/g, 83,7% (5 ng/g e 91,0% (8 ng/g, com coeficientes de variação de 1,7 (3 ng/g, 0,8 (5 ng/g e 1,2 (8 ng/g. A análise das 82 amostras de café solúvel revelou a presença de ocratoxina A em 81 amostras (98

  1. Direct ion storage dosimetry systems for photon, beta and neutron radiation with instant readout capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernli, C.; Kahilainen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The direct ion storage (DIS) dosemeter is a new type of electronic dosemeter from which the dose information for both H p (10) and H p (0.07) can be obtained instantly at the workplace by using an electronic reader unit. The number of readouts is unlimited and the stored information is not affected by the readout procedure. The accumulated dose can also be electronically reset by authorised personnel. The DIS dosemeter represents a potential alternative for replacing the existing film and thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) used in occupational monitoring due to its ease of use and low operating costs. The standard version for normal photon and beta dosimetry, as well as a developmental version for neutron dosimetry, have been characterised in several field studies. Two new small size variations are also introduced including a contactless readout device and a militarised version optimised for field use. (author)

  2. Relativistic instant-form approach to the structure of two-body composite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutov, A.F.; Troitsky, V.E.

    2002-01-01

    An approach to the electroweak properties of two-particle composite systems is developed. The approach is based on the use of the instant form of relativistic Hamiltonian dynamics. The main feature of this approach is the method of construction of the matrix element of the electroweak current operator. The electroweak current matrix element satisfies the relativistic covariance conditions and in the case of the electromagnetic current also the conservation law automatically. The properties of the system as well as the approximations are formulated in terms of form factors. The approach makes it possible to formulate relativistic impulse approximation in such a way that the Lorentz covariance of the current is ensured. In the electromagnetic case the current conservation law is also ensured. Our approach gives good results for the pion electromagnetic form factor in the whole range of momentum transfers available for experiments at present time, as well as for the lepton decay constant of pions

  3. Instant stem cell therapy: Characterization and concentration of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kasten

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In regenerative medicine, there is an approach to avoid expansion of the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC before implantation. The aim of this study was to compare methods for instant MSC therapy by use of a portable, automatic and closed system centrifuge that allows for the concentration of MSCs. The main outcome measures were the amount of MSCs per millilitre of bone marrow (BM, clusters of differentiation (CD, proliferation and differentiation capacities of the MSC. A volume reduction protocol was compared to the traditional laboratory methods of isolation using a Ficoll gradient and native BM. Fifty millilitres of BM were obtained from haematologically healthy male Caucasians (n=10, age 8 to 49 years. The number of colony forming units-fibroblast (CFU-F/ml BM was highest in the centrifuge volume reduction protocol, followed by the native BM (not significant, the centrifuge Ficoll (p=0.042 and the manual Ficoll procedure (p=0.001. The MSC of all groups could differentiate into the mesenchymal lineages without significant differences between the groups. The CD pattern was identical for all groups: CD13+; CD 44+; CD73 +; CD90+; CD105+; HLA-A,B,C+; CD14-; CD34-; CD45-; CD271-; HLA-DR-. In a further clinical pilot study (n=5 with 297 ml BM (SD 18.6, the volume reduction protocol concentrated the MSC by a factor of 14: there were 1.08 x 102 MSC/ml BM (standard deviation (SD 1.02 x 102 before concentration, 14.8 x 102 MSC/ ml BM (SD 12.4 x 102 after concentration, and on average 296 x 102 MSC (SD 248.9 x 102, range 86.4-691.5 x 102 were available for MSC therapy. The volume reduction protocol of the closed centrifuge allows for the highest concentration of the MSC, and therefore, is a promising candidate for instant stem cell therapy.

  4. Instant centre frequency at anaesthetic induction--a new way to analyse sympathovagal balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Neto, Edmundo Pereira; Cerutti, Catherine; Loufoua, Joseph; Saroul, Christine; Chiari, Pascal; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Lehot, Jean-Jacques

    2003-02-01

    The instant centre frequency (ICF) of RR interval has been proposed as a global index to analyse the sympathovagal interaction in the heart. The aim of this study was to assess the ICF during anaesthesia to test if it can reliably capture the neural control of the cardiovascular system. Twenty-four ASA II or III patients scheduled for cardiac surgery were included in the study. They were allocated in two groups: control, no treatment (group 1, n = 12), and beta-adrenergic blockade by atenolol (group 2, n = 12). Spectra of pulse interval series were computed with a time-frequency method and they were divided into: very low frequency (VLF, 0.000-0.040 Hz), low frequency (LF, 0.050-0.150 Hz) and high frequency (HF, 0.160-0.500 Hz). Normalized power was obtained by dividing the cumulative power within each frequency band (LF or HF) by the sum of LF and HF; the ratio of LF/HF was also calculated. Instant centre frequency is a time-varying parameter that the evolution along time of the gravity centrum of a local spectrum. All spectral indexes were recorded at the following time points: before induction, after induction and before intubation, during intubation, and after intubation. The atenolol group had lower normalized LF and the LF/HF ratio (P ICF was higher in atenolol group at all times. The ICF shifted towards HF frequency after induction and before intubation and shifted towards LF during intubation in both groups. The autonomic nervous system control on the heart through the interaction of sympathetic and parasympathetic reflex mechanisms could be studied by the ICF. The ICF may assess the autonomic cardiac modulation and may provide useful information for anaesthetic management.

  5. Alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer reduces elementary school illness absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, D L; Shinder, A; Shinder, F

    2000-10-01

    BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESES: A substantial percentage of school absenteeism among children is related to transmissible infection. Rates of transmission can be reduced by hand washing with soap and water, but such washing occurs infrequently. This study tested whether an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer (CleanHands) could reduce illness absenteeism in school-age children. A 10-week, open-label, crossover study was performed on 420 elementary school-age children (ages 5-12). Students were given a brief orientation immediately prior to the start of the study on the relationship of germs, illness, and hand washing. Each student in the treatment group then received the test product in individual bottles, with instructions to apply one to two sprays to the hands after coming into the classroom, before eating, and after using the restroom, in addition to their normal hand washing with soap and water. The control group was instructed to continue hand washing as normal with non-medicated soap. After 4 weeks of treatment and a 2-week wash-out period, the control and experimental groups were reversed. Data gathered on absenteeism were classified as gastrointestinal or respiratory related and normalized for nonillness-related absenteeism and school holidays. Compared to the hand washing-only control group, students using CleanHands were found to have 41.9% fewer illness-related absence days, representing a 28.9% and a 49.7% drop in gastrointestinal- and respiratory-related illnesses, respectively. Likewise, absence incidence decreased by 31.7%, consisting of a 44.2% and 50.2% decrease in incidence of gastrointestinal- and respiratory-related illnesses, respectively. No adverse events were reported during the study. Daily use of the instant hand sanitizer was associated with significantly lower rates of illness-related absenteeism.

  6. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  7. Instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour to improve micronutrient intake in Asia: a review of simulation, nutrient retention and sensory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronder, Kayla L; Zimmerman, Sarah L; van den Wijngaart, Annoek; Codling, Karen; Johns, Kirsten Ag; Pachón, Helena

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of foods made with wheat flour, particularly instant noodles, is increasing in Asia. Given this trend, fortifying wheat flour with vitamins and minerals may improve micronutrient intake in the region. The objective of this review was to understand what is known about fortifying wheat flour used to make instant noodles. A literature review of seven databases was performed using the search terms "noodle" and ("Asian" or "instant"). Grey literature was requested through a food fortification listserv. Articles were title screened first for relevance and duplicity, with exclusion criteria applied during the second round of abstract-level screening. This review considered studies examining simulation, retention, sensory, bioavailability, efficacy, and effectiveness of instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour. Fourteen relevant documents were reviewed for simulation (n=1), retention (n=11), and sensory studies (n=3). The documents revealed that instant noodles produced from fortified wheat flour have potential to improve nutrient intakes, have high retention of most nutrients, and provoke no or minimal changes in sensory characteristics. The available literature indicates that using fortified wheat flour for instant noodle production results in retention of the added nutrients, except thiamin, with no significant sensory change to the final product. Given the rising consumption of instant noodles, production of this item with fortified wheat flour has potential to improve nutrient intakes in Asia. This review provides a resource for the design of a wheat flour fortification program in countries where a large proportion of wheat flour is consumed as instant noodles.

  8. Fish Protein Concentrate Fortification Siam Patin on Amplang Snack Products and Mi Sago Instant Product as a Leading Regional Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Buchari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To enhance fish consumption in the community especially children, fortification on processed fish product is conducted. The processed fish products are developed to fill the requirements as the fish based food products that own characterizations such as ready to eat, easy to carry, and less time to cook. Amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles are defined as the products that fills the requirements. The research was aimed to process catfish into fish protein concentrate to become amplang snack and instant sagoo noodles. These products were designed as the effort to develop the local priority products in Riau by using diversification and fortification methods. Experimental method with fortification treatments on Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC extract from Catfish that generate products of amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles and fish tofu were carried out. The fortified products were examined by organoleptics test that involved panelists. The results showed that the proximate analysis on fortified Catfish Protein Concentrate products were presented as following :1. water contents of 3,13 %, ash of 2,85 %, protein content of 16,13 % and fat content of 18, 66 % for ampang snacks; and 2. water contents of 11,77 %, ash of 1,30 %, protein content of 12,35 % and fat content of 1,86 % for instant sagoo nodles. All fortified FPC products filled the Indonesian Nasional Standard (SNI.Keywords: Fortification, Catfish, and Fish Protein Concentrate

  9. Interaction Involvement in Cross-Culture Computer-Mediated Communication: Examination of a Communication Process in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thao Duyen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores how participants express and interpret verbal cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via text-based Instant Messaging (IM). Moreover, it seeks to discover differences in the way American participants and Chinese participants use verbal cues when they are highly, or lowly involved. Based on previous…

  10. Practice makes perfect: the longitudinal effect of adolescents’ instant messaging on their ability to initiate offline friendships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, M.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate whether instant messaging (IM) influences adolescents’ ability to initiate offline friendships. The second aim was to study the validity of two underlying mechanisms that may account for this relationship: (a) the opportunities offered by IM to

  11. Effect of composition and processing conditions on selected characteristics of extruded corn instant gruels enriched with fruits addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kręcisz Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranberries and goji berries were used as natural supplements in extruded instant corn gruels. The effects of additive type and level, as well as extrusion-cooking screw speed on selected properties of extrudates were tested. Corn grit was used as the base raw materials and dry and ground goji berries and cranberries were added at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. Extrusion-cooking of blends was performed with a single screw extruder at temperature ranged 125-135°C using various screw speed during processing. Extrudates were ground below 1 mm for instant gruels. Water absorption, water solubility, as well as colour profile were tested. The results showed that the highest water absorption was evaluated for instant gruels consist the highest amount of goji berries extruded at the highest screw speed during processing, while cranberries addition have no significant effect on water absorption. Increasing amount of dry cranberries and goji berries in the recipe affected on lowering the water solubility of the extrudates. Significant effect of fruits on color coordinates was observed. Increasing amount of dry berries lowered lightness L* and yellowness of instant gruels, especially when goji berries were used in the recipe. Increasing the screw speed during processing decreased intensity b* values.

  12. A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach for Providing Instant Learning Support in Personal Computer Assembly Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Personal computer assembly courses have been recognized as being essential in helping students understand computer structure as well as the functionality of each computer component. In this study, a context-aware ubiquitous learning approach is proposed for providing instant assistance to individual students in the learning activity of a…

  13. College Students in an Experimental Study Took Longer to Achieve Comprehension when Instant Messaging while Reading. A Review of: Bowman, L. L., Levine, L. E., Waite, B. M., & Gendron, M. (2010). Can students really multitask? An experimental study of instant messaging while reading. Computers & Education, 54, 927-931.

    OpenAIRE

    Megan von Isenburg

    2010-01-01

    Objective – To examine the effects of multitasking while doing school work. The experiment specifically measured total time spent reading a simulated textbook passage and tested comprehension in students who received instant messages before reading, while reading, or not at all.Design – Experimental design in which one group of students read an online text while receiving and responding to instant messages. Comparison groups either received instant messages (IMs) prior to reading the text pas...

  14. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  15. Characterization of excited-state reactions with instant spectra of fluorescence kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomin, Vladimir I.; Ushakou, Dzmitryi V.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensible knowledge of the excited-state proton transfer processes in organic compounds is overwhelmingly important not only for physics, but also chemistry and Life Sciences, since they play a key role in main processes of photosynthesis and functioning of biological organisms. Moreover compounds with Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer (ESIPT) are in the focus of the interest of scientists throughout the world, because dual fluorescence spectra of such objects corresponding to two forms of molecular structure (normal and photoproduct) are very sensitive to characteristics of molecular microenvironment. This property allows to use such substances as fluorescent probes for diverse applications in chemistry and Life Sciences. But at the same time studying of proton transfer processes is not simple, because this process is characterized by extremely fast times (on picoseconds time scale and less order) and very often contribution of reverse reactions is essentially complicates an interpretation of observed properties of dual fluorescence. Hence, understanding of a role of reversible reactions is crucial for a comprehensive description of all processes accompanying excited state reactions. We discuss new approach for treatment ESIPT reaction on the basis of experimentally measured instant spectra of dual fluorescence and temporal behavior of ratiometric signal of normal to tautomer form intensities. Simple analytical expressions show in transparent way how to distinguish a degree of reverse reaction contribution to ratiometric signal. A validation of the approach under consideration is fulfilled with two different flavonols – 3-hydroxyflavone and 4′-(Dimethylamino)-3-hydroxyflavone – representing two extreme cases in affecting reversible reaction on dual emission. A comparing of new approach and traditional method when we analyze kinetics of separate the N* and T* fluorescence bands decays, has been carried out. - Highlights: • The excited

  16. Characterization of excited-state reactions with instant spectra of fluorescence kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomin, Vladimir I., E-mail: tomin@apsl.edu.pl; Ushakou, Dzmitryi V.

    2015-10-15

    Comprehensible knowledge of the excited-state proton transfer processes in organic compounds is overwhelmingly important not only for physics, but also chemistry and Life Sciences, since they play a key role in main processes of photosynthesis and functioning of biological organisms. Moreover compounds with Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer (ESIPT) are in the focus of the interest of scientists throughout the world, because dual fluorescence spectra of such objects corresponding to two forms of molecular structure (normal and photoproduct) are very sensitive to characteristics of molecular microenvironment. This property allows to use such substances as fluorescent probes for diverse applications in chemistry and Life Sciences. But at the same time studying of proton transfer processes is not simple, because this process is characterized by extremely fast times (on picoseconds time scale and less order) and very often contribution of reverse reactions is essentially complicates an interpretation of observed properties of dual fluorescence. Hence, understanding of a role of reversible reactions is crucial for a comprehensive description of all processes accompanying excited state reactions. We discuss new approach for treatment ESIPT reaction on the basis of experimentally measured instant spectra of dual fluorescence and temporal behavior of ratiometric signal of normal to tautomer form intensities. Simple analytical expressions show in transparent way how to distinguish a degree of reverse reaction contribution to ratiometric signal. A validation of the approach under consideration is fulfilled with two different flavonols – 3-hydroxyflavone and 4′-(Dimethylamino)-3-hydroxyflavone – representing two extreme cases in affecting reversible reaction on dual emission. A comparing of new approach and traditional method when we analyze kinetics of separate the N* and T* fluorescence bands decays, has been carried out. - Highlights: • The excited

  17. Influence of the Reynolds number on the instant flow evolution of a turbulent rectangular free jet of air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Fabio; Petracci, Ivano; Angelino, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow with Negligible Disturbances, or first type, with length L ND = L 1 . • Flow with Small Disturbances, or second type, with length L SD . • Total length, L ND + L SD = L 2 , is in agreement with average Undisturbed flow, L U . • Flow with Coherent Vortices, or third type, with length L CV . • Total length, L ND + L SD + L CV = L 3 , is in agreement with average Potential core, L P . - Abstract: The paper is aimed at investigating the influence of the Reynolds number on the instant flow evolution of a rectangular free jet of air in the range of Reynolds numbers from Re = 35,300 to Re = 2,200, where the Reynolds number, Re, is defined according to the hydraulic diameter, D, of a rectangular slot of height H, equal to about D = 2H. The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique allows obtaining the instant PIV visualizations on the central symmetry section of the rectangular jet. The visual inspection of the instant frames with one and two vortices, except for Re = 35,300 where only one vortex images are detected, shows that after the jet exit is present the Flow with Constant Instant Height, with a length L CIH which increases with the decrease of the Reynolds number, from a ratio L CIH /H equal to L CIH /H = 0.9 at Re = 35,300 to L CIH /H = 4.0 at Re = 2,200. The instant PIV measurements, carried out at several distances from the jet exit, show that the variations of the ratio U/U ‾ 0 of the centerline instant velocity, U, to the exit average velocity, U ‾ 0 , remain below ±4% for a length L CIV , defining the Flow with Constant Instant Velocity on the centerline. The ratio L CIV /H increases from L CIV /H = 1.1 at Re = 35,300 to L CIV /H = 4.1 at Re = 2,200 and is quite similar to L CIH /H. The instant PIV measurements of the centerline turbulence intensity, Tu, show that its variations remain below ±4% for a length L CIT , defining the Flow with Constant Instant Turbulence on the centerline. The ratio L CIT /H is equal to L CIV /H

  18. Relationship between the dough quality and content of specific glutenin proteins in wheat mill streams, and its application to making flour suitable for instant Chinese noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Eriko; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Nishio, Zenta; Yamamoto, Yoshihiko; Hanaoka, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Hisashi; Tanida, Masatoshi; Saruyama, Haruo

    2006-04-01

    The content of specific proteins such as high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits HMW-GS 5+10 and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits LMW-GS KS2 in wheat mill streams of extra-strong Kachikei 33 wheat was quantified by SDS-PAGE and 2D-PAGE. The mill streams showed varied quantities of HMW-GS 5+10 (0.077 to 2.007 mg/g of mill stream), LMW-GS KS2 (0.018 to 0.586 mg/g of mill stream) and total protein (9.42% to 18.98%). The contents of these specific proteins in the mill streams were significantly correlated with the SDS sedimentation volume and the mixing properties, which are respective indices of specific loaf volume and dough strength. The contents of these specific glutenin proteins in the mill streams were therefore found to be significantly important for improving the dough quality suitable for bread and Chinese noodles. Accordingly, we present here the application of this information to the development of an effective method for producing mill streams with high quality and yield that are suitable for instant Chinese noodles.

  19. The preparation for an instant kit of 99mTc(V) DMSA as a tumor-seeking imaging agent and animal experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunlong; Li Hongyu; Jing Hui; Guo Hongyuan; Liu Yingmei; Zhao Hui

    1997-10-01

    A method for preparing an instant kit of 99m Tc(V) DMSA was described. The effect of pH on labelling efficiency of the kit was investigated. 99m Tc(V) DMSA was characterized by TLC on silica-gel sheets, eluting with n-butanol: acetic acid: water = 3:2:3 (volume ratio). Radiochemical purity and stability of 99m Tc(V) DMSA in vitro were studied. The results clearly demonstrated that the yield of 99m Tc(V) DMSA was more than 95% at pH 8∼8.5 and the agent was stable in 3 h at room temperature. Effect of temperature, moisture and luminosity on the stability of the freeze-dried kit were considered. The biological distributions of 99m Tc(V) DMSA were measured in mice bearing tumor S180. The results indicated that during 1∼6 h after i.v. injection, 99m Tc(V) DMSA was highly up taken in tumor tissue, the ratios of tumor: muscle and tumor: bone were in the ranges of 1.4∼2.4 and 1.2∼1.8, respectively. This peculiarity indicated that 99m Tc(V) DMSA has tumor-seeking property and could be used as a tumor-seeking imaging agent. (9 refs., 11 tabs.)

  20. Evaluation of instant cup noodle, irradiated for immuno-compromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jae-Nam; Yoon, Young-Min; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Seok; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, initial microbial load of instant cup noodle (ICN) was investigated and gamma irradiation applied to develop immuno-compromised patients food for their safe consumption. The initial microbial population of dried vegetable and meat, and noodle was below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g); however, that of seasoning powder was just above 4 log CFU/g. Moreover, rehydrated-ICN with water at 100 °C still show above 3 log CFU/g of microbial load, which indicates the need for an additional process to control microbial safety of the seasoning powder. The total aerobic bacteria in seasoning powder and rehydrated-ICN could be controlled with 17 kGy gamma irradiation. This result referred 17 kGy gamma irradiation could reach ‘practical sterility’ of ICN. The overall difference in sensory properties between the non-irradiated and irradiated ICN was insignificant. Thus, gamma irradiation could improve the microbial quality of ICN, and reduce the risk of infection posed by the seasoning powder, without any adverse effects on their sensory quality. These results suggest that gamma-irradiated ICN can be used as a snack food for immuno-compromised patients.

  1. Survival of resistant starch during the processing of atmospheric and vacuum fried instant noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela VERNAZA

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective was to develop instant noodles (IN made by atmospheric and vacuum frying processes, with addition of 10% of three different sources of resistant starch: resistant starch type 2 (RS2, resistant starch type 3 (RS3 and green banana flour (GBF aiming the increasing of the fibre content. The IN obtained by atmospheric frying lost water faster and absorbed more fat. However, for both frying treatments, the RS3 noodles absorbed the least amount of oil. The greatest loss of RS occurred during the cooking stage. RS2 and GBF noodles presented a loss of RS of around 30% during steam cooking, while the RS3 approximately 18%. The frying process decreased RS content of noodles, however, during both frying process, the samples with the highest RS content at all frying times were noodles containing RS3. When comparing products obtained after 90 and 120 s of atmospheric and vacuum frying, respectively, it was observed that, although the frying time in vacuum process was longer, higher RS values were obtained for the three different formulations. The vacuum frying process has advantages due to the lower fat absorption (3% less, lighter colour and a reduced conversion of RS to digestible starch, compared to atmospheric frying.

  2. Dehydration of Traditional Dried Instant Noodle (Mee Siput) Using Controlled Temperature & Humidity Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, K. A.; Yusof, M. S.; Yusoff, Wan Fauziah Wan; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Hassan, S.; Rahman, M. Qusyairi. A.; Karim, M. A. Abd

    2017-05-01

    Drying process is an essential step to produce instant noodles. Yet, the industries especially Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), is seeking for an efficient method to dry the noodles. This paper discusses the performance of an invented drying system which employed heating and humidifying process. The drying system was tested using 30 kilogram of the raw noodle known as “Mee Siput”. Temperature controlled system were used in the study to control the temperature of the drying process and prevent the dried noodles from damage by maintaining the temperature of lower than 80°C. The analysis shows that the system was drastically decreased the humidity from 80% to 40% just after 200 minutes of the drying process. The complete dehydration time of noodle has also decreased to only 4 hours from 16 hours when using traditional drying system without sacrificed the good quality of the dried noodle. In overall, the invented system believed to increase the production capacity of the noodle, reduce cost of production which would highly beneficial for Small Medium Industries (SMEs) in Malaysia.

  3. A lossy graph model for delay reduction in generalized instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2014-06-01

    The problem of minimizing the decoding delay in Generalized instantly decodable network coding (G-IDNC) for both perfect and lossy feedback scenarios is formulated as a maximum weight clique problem over the G-IDNC graph in. In this letter, we introduce a new lossy G-IDNC graph (LG-IDNC) model to further minimize the decoding delay in lossy feedback scenarios. Whereas the G-IDNC graph represents only doubtless combinable packets, the LG-IDNC graph represents also uncertain packet combinations, arising from lossy feedback events, when the expected decoding delay of XORing them among themselves or with other certain packets is lower than that expected when sending these packets separately. We compare the decoding delay performance of LG-IDNC and G-IDNC graphs through extensive simulations. Numerical results show that our new LG-IDNC graph formulation outperforms the G-IDNC graph formulation in all lossy feedback situations and achieves significant improvement in the decoding delay especially when the feedback erasure probability is higher than the packet erasure probability. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Delay reduction in persistent erasure channels for generalized instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of minimizing the decoding delay of generalized instantly decodable network coding (G-IDNC) in persistent erasure channels (PECs). By persistent erasure channels, we mean erasure channels with memory, which are modeled as a Gilbert-Elliott two-state Markov model with good and bad channel states. In this scenario, the channel erasure dependence, represented by the transition probabilities of this channel model, is an important factor that could be exploited to reduce the decoding delay. We first formulate the G-IDNC minimum decoding delay problem in PECs as a maximum weight clique problem over the G-IDNC graph. Since finding the optimal solution of this formulation is NP-hard, we propose two heuristic algorithms to solve it and compare them using extensive simulations. Simulation results show that each of these heuristics outperforms the other in certain ranges of channel memory levels. They also show that the proposed heuristics significantly outperform both the optimal strict IDNC in the literature and the channel-unaware G-IDNC algorithms. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Completion time reduction in instantly decodable network coding through decoding delay control

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the completion time and the decoding delay problems in Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) were considered separately and were thought to completely act against each other. Recently, some works aimed to balance the effects of these two important IDNC metrics but none of them studied a further optimization of one by controlling the other. In this paper, we study the effect of controlling the decoding delay to reduce the completion time below its currently best known solution. We first derive the decoding-delay-dependent expressions of the users\\' and their overall completion times. Although using such expressions to find the optimal overall completion time is NP-hard, we use a heuristic that minimizes the probability of increasing the maximum of these decoding-delay-dependent completion time expressions after each transmission through a layered control of their decoding delays. Simulation results show that this new algorithm achieves both a lower mean completion time and mean decoding delay compared to the best known heuristic for completion time reduction. The gap in performance becomes significant for harsh erasure scenarios.

  6. Effects of instant controlled pressure drop process on physical and sensory properties of puffed wheat snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yağcı, Sibel

    2017-04-01

    In this study, research on the development of a puffed wheat snack using the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) process was carried out. Snack products were produced by expanding moistened wheat under various DIC processing conditions in order to obtain adequate puffing, followed by drying in a hot air dryer. The effects of operational variables such as wheat initial moisture content (11-23% w/w, wet basis), processing pressure (3-5 × 10 2 kPa) and processing time (3-11 min) on the physical (density, color and textural characteristics) and sensory properties of the product were investigated. The physical properties of the wheat snack were most affected by changes in processing pressure, followed by processing time and wheat moisture content. Increasing processing pressure and time often improved expansion and textural properties but led to darkening of the raw wheat color. The most acceptable snack in terms of physical properties was obtained at the lowest wheat moisture content. Sensory analysis suggested that consumer acceptability was optimal for wheat snacks produced at higher processing pressure, medium processing time and lower moisture content. The most desirable conditions for puffed wheat snack production using the DIC process were determined as 11% (w/w) of wheat moisture content, 5 × 10 2 kPa of processing pressure and 7 min of processing time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Completion time reduction in instantly decodable network coding through decoding delay control

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Sorour, Sameh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2014-01-01

    For several years, the completion time and the decoding delay problems in Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) were considered separately and were thought to completely act against each other. Recently, some works aimed to balance the effects of these two important IDNC metrics but none of them studied a further optimization of one by controlling the other. In this paper, we study the effect of controlling the decoding delay to reduce the completion time below its currently best known solution. We first derive the decoding-delay-dependent expressions of the users' and their overall completion times. Although using such expressions to find the optimal overall completion time is NP-hard, we use a heuristic that minimizes the probability of increasing the maximum of these decoding-delay-dependent completion time expressions after each transmission through a layered control of their decoding delays. Simulation results show that this new algorithm achieves both a lower mean completion time and mean decoding delay compared to the best known heuristic for completion time reduction. The gap in performance becomes significant for harsh erasure scenarios.

  8. Delay reduction in persistent erasure channels for generalized instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh; Aboutorab, Neda; Sadeghi, Parastoo; Karim, Mohammad Shahriar; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of minimizing the decoding delay of generalized instantly decodable network coding (G-IDNC) in persistent erasure channels (PECs). By persistent erasure channels, we mean erasure channels with memory, which are modeled as a Gilbert-Elliott two-state Markov model with good and bad channel states. In this scenario, the channel erasure dependence, represented by the transition probabilities of this channel model, is an important factor that could be exploited to reduce the decoding delay. We first formulate the G-IDNC minimum decoding delay problem in PECs as a maximum weight clique problem over the G-IDNC graph. Since finding the optimal solution of this formulation is NP-hard, we propose two heuristic algorithms to solve it and compare them using extensive simulations. Simulation results show that each of these heuristics outperforms the other in certain ranges of channel memory levels. They also show that the proposed heuristics significantly outperform both the optimal strict IDNC in the literature and the channel-unaware G-IDNC algorithms. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. On minimizing the maximum broadcast decoding delay for instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of minimizing the maximum broadcast decoding delay experienced by all the receivers of generalized instantly decodable network coding (IDNC). Unlike the sum decoding delay, the maximum decoding delay as a definition of delay for IDNC allows a more equitable distribution of the delays between the different receivers and thus a better Quality of Service (QoS). In order to solve this problem, we first derive the expressions for the probability distributions of maximum decoding delay increments. Given these expressions, we formulate the problem as a maximum weight clique problem in the IDNC graph. Although this problem is known to be NP-hard, we design a greedy algorithm to perform effective packet selection. Through extensive simulations, we compare the sum decoding delay and the max decoding delay experienced when applying the policies to minimize the sum decoding delay and our policy to reduce the max decoding delay. Simulations results show that our policy gives a good agreement among all the delay aspects in all situations and outperforms the sum decoding delay policy to effectively minimize the sum decoding delay when the channel conditions become harsher. They also show that our definition of delay significantly improve the number of served receivers when they are subject to strict delay constraints.

  10. Instant Transport Media for Biopsied Soft Tissue Specimens: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankargouda Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Formalin, a traditionally preferred fixative in the field of pathology, has restricted usage in private settings. Since its toxicity violates the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations, an eco-friendly alternative would be the need of the hour. Hence an instant media which is economical and nontoxic and enables easy transport of biopsied soft tissue specimens in its original state is of vital importance. Materials and Methods. Commercially available fresh goat buccal mucosa specimens were sliced into smaller bits of equal dimensions and placed in six different containers containing 20% honey, 30% jaggery, milk, and ice for 1 hr, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours each with formalin as a positive control. After the set time interval, the specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 24 hours followed by routine processing and staining. The histologic interpretations were a blinded procedure and evaluated by two experts. Results were statistically analysed. Results. 30% jaggery proved to be an ideal transport media showing high quality preservation after 24 hours. 20% honey and ice showed optimal tissue preservation up to 6 hours following which quality deteriorated. Tissues transported in milk showed poor preservation. Conclusion. 30% jaggery can be endorsed in routine histopathological analysis as a transport media.

  11. Remote monitoring of videourodynamics using smart phone and free instant messaging software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Po-Fan; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Lien, Chi-Shun; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Hsiao, Po-Jen; Chou, Eric Chieh-Lung

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using smart phones plus free instant messaging software for remote monitoring of videourodynamics. From November 2011 to October 2012, 85 females with voiding disorders were enrolled for videourodynamic tests. The patients were assigned to videourodynamics remotely monitored by the attending physician by using iPhone/iPad and Skype (group 1) and videourodynamics with the attending physician present (group 2). The procedural time and videourodynamic qualities, assessed by the frequency of adherence to the modified Sullivan criteria, in each group were recorded and compared. There were 44 and 41 patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively. The mean procedural time was comparable between group 1 and group 2 (56.3 vs. 54.4 min, P = 0.25). The frequencies of adherence to the modified Sullivan criteria were similar in each group. The qualities of videourodynamics under the attending physician's remote or direct monitoring were both appropriate. Based on the convenience of Internet, the popularity of smart phones and the intention to make the urologists use their time more efficiently, our study provides remote monitoring as an alternative way for performing videourodynamics. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A new method for the preparation of 99mTc-stannous colloid instant kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoliang; Zhao Huiyang

    1988-01-01

    A new way for the preparation of 99m Tc-stannous cooloid instant kit, its animal experimental results and its application to clinical practice were described. 500 mg sodium fluoride and 25 mg stannous chloride were dissolved in 50 ml sterile water, and the pH was adjusted to 6.4 with 0.05 mol/LHCl 0.5 millilitre of this solution was filtered into a vial and dryed under sterile condition. The kit can be used immediately after adding 2 ∼ 4 ml of 99m TcO 4 . It is suitable for intravenous administration as a imaging agent for liver or other organs of the reticuloerdothelial (RE) system. Distribution stadies of the 99m Tc-stannous colloid in rats showed a rapid clearance of radioactivity from the blood stream and a subsequent rapid increase of radioactivity in the liver, up to approximately 90% of the injected dose. No toxic reactions were observed in rabbits at a dose of 1 ml of 99m Tc-stannous colloid/kg

  13. Reduction of illness absenteeism in elementary schools using an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C G; Shinder, F S; Shinder, A L; Dyer, D L

    2001-10-01

    Hand washing is the most effective way to prevent the spread of communicable disease. The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess whether an alcohol-free, instant hand sanitizer containing surfactants, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride could reduce illness absenteeism in a population of 769 elementary school children and serve as an effective alternative when regular soap and water hand washing was not readily available. Prior to the study, students were educated about proper hand washing technique, the importance of hand washing to prevent transmission of germs, and the relationship between germs and illnesses. Children in kindergarten through the 6th grade (ages 5-12) were assigned to the active or placebo hand-sanitizer product and instructed to use the product at scheduled times during the day and as needed after coughing or sneezing. Data on illness absenteeism were tracked. After 5 weeks, students using the active product were 33% less likely to have been absent because of illness when compared with the placebo group.

  14. Instant synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature and SERS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto Hurtado, R.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Ramírez-Rodríguez, L.P.; Larios-Rodriguez, Eduardo; Alvarez, Ramón A.B.; Rocha-Rocha, O.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C.E.; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Hernández-Martínez, A.R.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, gold nanoparticles (AuNps) can be used in a variety of applications, thus efficient methods to produce them are necessary. Several methods have been proposed in this area, but NPs production time is one limitation of these approaches. In this study, we propose a high competitive method to synthesize gold colloidal nanoparticles, instantaneously, using no-toxic reducing agents. These substances allow the instantaneous synthesis at room temperature, even without magnetic stirrers, ovens or ultrasonic baths. Optic analysis showed two absorption bands, associated with surface Plasmon as function of HAuCl_4 concentration. The nanoparticles synthesized have a 10–20 nm size, seen by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Therefore, it was possible to obtain several geometric patterns of AuNps, and the synthesis was performed reducing significantly processing time. Additionally, Mie and Fuchs theories were used to predict the location of the absorption bands linked to the plasmon surface in gold nanoparticles. The Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) effect was analyzed considering natural zeolite (Chabazite) as analyte, in order to determinate its possible application in soil analysis. - Highlights: • Cubic and spherical morphologies in AuNp. • Surface plasmon prediction in cubic and spherical AuNp. • Instant synthesis of AuNp. • SERS applications in soil analysis.

  15. Evaluation of instant cup noodle, irradiated for immuno-compromised patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jae-Nam; Yoon, Young-Min; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Seok; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, initial microbial load of instant cup noodle (ICN) was investigated and gamma irradiation applied to develop immuno-compromised patients food for their safe consumption. The initial microbial population of dried vegetable and meat, and noodle was below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g); however, that of seasoning powder was just above 4 log CFU/g. Moreover, rehydrated-ICN with water at 100 °C still show above 3 log CFU/g of microbial load, which indicates the need for an additional process to control microbial safety of the seasoning powder. The total aerobic bacteria in seasoning powder and rehydrated-ICN could be controlled with 17 kGy gamma irradiation. This result referred 17 kGy gamma irradiation could reach 'practical sterility' of ICN. The overall difference in sensory properties between the non-irradiated and irradiated ICN was insignificant. Thus, gamma irradiation could improve the microbial quality of ICN, and reduce the risk of infection posed by the seasoning powder, without any adverse effects on their sensory quality. These results suggest that gamma-irradiated ICN can be used as a snack food for immuno-compromised patients.

  16. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, P; Ganeshkumar, P

    2015-01-01

    A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.

  17. Mobile instant messaging for rural community health workers: a case from Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimmer, Christoph; Mhango, Susan; Mzumara, Alfred; Mbvundula, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Mobile instant messaging (MIM) tools, such as WhatsApp, have transformed global communication practice. In the field of global health, MIM is an increasingly used, but little understood, phenomenon. It remains unclear how MIM can be used by rural community health workers (CHWs) and their facilitators, and what are the associated benefits and constraints. To address this gap, WhatsApp groups were implemented and researched in a rural setting in Malawi. The multi-site case study research triangulated interviews and focus groups of CHWs and facilitators with the thematic qualitative analysis of the actual conversations on WhatsApp. A survey with open questions and the quantitative analysis of WhatsApp conversations were used as supplementary triangulation sources. The use of MIM was differentiated according to instrumental (e.g. mobilising health resources) and participatory purposes (e.g. the enactment of emphatic ties). The identified benefits were centred on the enhanced ease and quality of communication of a geographically distributed health workforce, and the heightened connectedness of a professionally isolated health workforce. Alongside minor technical and connectivity issues, the main challenge for the CHWs was to negotiate divergent expectations regarding the social versus the instrumental use of the space. Despite some challenges and constraints, the implementation of WhatsApp was received positively by the CHWs and it was found to be a useful tool to support distributed rural health work.

  18. ISOMP: An Instant Service-Orchestration Mobile M2M Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholhong Im

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones have greater computing power than ever before, providing convenient applications to improve our lives. In general, people find it difficult to locate suitable applications and implementing new applications often requires professional skills. In this paper, we propose a new service platform that facilitates the implementation of new applications by composing prebuilt components that provide the context information of mobile devices such as location and contacts. Our platform introduces an innovative concept named context collaboration, in which smartphones exchange context information with each other, which in turn is used to deduct useful inferences. The concept is realized by instant orchestration, which assembles some components and implements a composite component. The interactive communication interface helps a mobile device to communicate with other devices using open APIs, such as SOAP and HTTP (REST. The platform also works in heterogeneous environments, for example, between Android and iOS operating systems. Throughout the platform, mobile devices can act as smart M2M machines with context awareness, enabling intelligent tasks on behalf of users. Our platform will open up a new and innovative pathway for both enhanced mobile context awareness and M2M, which is expected to be a fundamental feature of the next generation of mobile devices.

  19. Visual Iconic Patterns of Instant Messaging: Steps Towards Understanding Visual Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Hillary

    An Instant Messaging (IM) conversation is a dynamic communication register made up of text, images, animation and sound played out on a screen with potentially several parallel conversations and activities all within a physical environment. This article first examines how best to capture this unique gestalt using in situ recording techniques (video, screen capture, XML logs) which highlight the micro-phenomenal level of the exchange and the macro-social level of the interaction. Of particular interest are smileys first as cultural artifacts in CMC in general then as linguistic markers. A brief taxonomy of these markers is proposed in an attempt to clarify their frequency and patterns of their use. Then, focus is placed on their importance as perceptual cues which facilitate communication, while also serving as emotive and emphatic functional markers. We try to demonstrate that the use of smileys and animation is not arbitrary but an organized interactional and structured practice. Finally, we discuss how the study of visual markers in IM could inform the study of other visual conversation codes, such as sign languages, which also have co-produced, physical behavior, suggesting the possibility of a visual phonology.

  20. Instant messaging addiction among teenagers in China: shyness, alienation, and academic performance decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hanyun; Leung, Louis

    2009-12-01

    This exploratory research proposes the concept of instant messaging (IM) addiction and examines (a) whether IM addiction exists among Chinese teenagers and, if so, who the addicts are, what their symptoms are, and to what extent they are addicted; (b) whether psychological variables such as shyness and alienation can predict IM use or addiction among teenagers; and (c) whether IM use or IM addiction can impair the academic performance of teenagers. Using Young's classic definition of Internet addiction, results of a stratified random sample of 330 teenagers in China in 2007 found 95.8% of participants use IM, and 9.8% of them can be classified as IM addicts. Factor analysis identified four major IM addiction symptoms among teenagers: preoccupation with IM, loss of relationships due to overuse, loss of control, and escape. Results also showed that shyness and alienation from family, peers, and school are significantly and positively associated with levels of IM addiction. As expected, both the level of IM use and level of IM addiction are significantly linked to teenagers' academic performance decrement.

  1. Instant photographic documentation in nuclear medicine and the use of colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1985-01-01

    Imaging techniques in medicine require fast transfer of images and written information to the clinician in order to allow immediate decision making. This task is markedly alleviated by use of instant film material without need of darkroom, chemical solutions, time consuming processing machines which require space and service. There are several facilities to have the clinical information on transparency film or paper film at all film sizes. Colour film provides special advantages to show the clinician convincing results, however, up to now colour was only seldom used to stress the significance of circumscribed abnormalities in scintiscans. Furthermore colour is a facility to co-ordinate heterogenous information providing a basic structure which is easily seized, so that the conduction of written and pictorial information to the reader is guided by use of colour (identical colour for ROI, curve, numerical results, written text). 35 mm film (colour, black/white) to be used in everyday standard camera types and processed within 2 min is the last step for a complete concept, as it facilitates the minification of images for long-time documentation of medical training (slides) having the data always in the department without the possibility of data misuse during extern film development. (orig.) [de

  2. Instant synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature and SERS applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto Hurtado, R. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, 83190, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Cortez-Valadez, M., E-mail: jose.cortez@unison.mx [CONACYT-Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, 83190, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Ramírez-Rodríguez, L.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, 83190, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Larios-Rodriguez, Eduardo [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Metalurgia, Universidad de Sonora, Rosales y Luis Encinas S/N, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Alvarez, Ramón A.B.; Rocha-Rocha, O.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C.E.; Arizpe-Chávez, H. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, 83190, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Hernández-Martínez, A.R. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada (CFATA), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro C.P. 76130 (Mexico); Flores-Acosta, M. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, 83190, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2016-08-06

    Nowadays, gold nanoparticles (AuNps) can be used in a variety of applications, thus efficient methods to produce them are necessary. Several methods have been proposed in this area, but NPs production time is one limitation of these approaches. In this study, we propose a high competitive method to synthesize gold colloidal nanoparticles, instantaneously, using no-toxic reducing agents. These substances allow the instantaneous synthesis at room temperature, even without magnetic stirrers, ovens or ultrasonic baths. Optic analysis showed two absorption bands, associated with surface Plasmon as function of HAuCl{sub 4} concentration. The nanoparticles synthesized have a 10–20 nm size, seen by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Therefore, it was possible to obtain several geometric patterns of AuNps, and the synthesis was performed reducing significantly processing time. Additionally, Mie and Fuchs theories were used to predict the location of the absorption bands linked to the plasmon surface in gold nanoparticles. The Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) effect was analyzed considering natural zeolite (Chabazite) as analyte, in order to determinate its possible application in soil analysis. - Highlights: • Cubic and spherical morphologies in AuNp. • Surface plasmon prediction in cubic and spherical AuNp. • Instant synthesis of AuNp. • SERS applications in soil analysis.

  3. Brazilian Soybean Yields and Yield Gaps Vary with Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, G. R.; Cohn, A.; Griffin, T. S.; Bragança, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the farm size-specific characteristics of crop yields and yield gaps may help to improve yields by enabling better targeting of technical assistance and agricultural development programs. Linking remote sensing-based yield estimates with property boundaries provides a novel view of the relationship between farm size and yield structure (yield magnitude, gaps, and stability over time). A growing literature documents variations in yield gaps, but largely ignores the role of farm size as a factor shaping yield structure. Research on the inverse farm size-productivity relationship (IR) theory - that small farms are more productive than large ones all else equal - has documented that yield magnitude may vary by farm size, but has not considered other yield structure characteristics. We examined farm size - yield structure relationships for soybeans in Brazil for years 2001-2015. Using out-of-sample soybean yield predictions from a statistical model, we documented 1) gaps between the 95th percentile of attained yields and mean yields within counties and individual fields, and 2) yield stability defined as the standard deviation of time-detrended yields at given locations. We found a direct relationship between soy yields and farm size at the national level, while the strength and the sign of the relationship varied by region. Soybean yield gaps were found to be inversely related to farm size metrics, even when yields were only compared to farms of similar size. The relationship between farm size and yield stability was nonlinear, with mid-sized farms having the most stable yields. The work suggests that farm size is an important factor in understanding yield structure and that opportunities for improving soy yields in Brazil are greatest among smaller farms.

  4. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  5. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF INSTANT PUMPKIN JAVANESE NOODLE GRAVY [Sifat Fisikokimia Saus Bubuk Mi Jawa Instan dari Labu Kering

    OpenAIRE

    Yusnita Hamzah*; Ng Kim Yee

    2012-01-01

    This research was carried out to study the physical and chemical characteristics of pumpkin Javanese noodle gravy prepared in powder form. The finished product is categorized as an instant product as it only needs to be rehydrated with warm water (60°C) before consumption. Five gravy formulations were developed with the incorporation of two types of flour (tapioca and corn flours) as the thickening agent. Physical characteristics including colour and swelling properties of the final products ...

  6. An instant photo-excited electrons relaxation on the photo-degradation properties of TiO2-x films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, SS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 293 (2014) 72–80 An instant photo-excited electrons relaxation on the photo- degradation properties of TiO2−x films S.S. Nkosi a,b,∗, I. Kortidis d, D.E. Motaungc,∗, P.R. Makgwanec, O.M. Ndwandwe b, S.S. Rayc, G...

  7. Place of Interpersonal Communication in the Instant Messaging Application: A Study on College Students Relating To the Whatsapp Applicatons

    OpenAIRE

    YAZICI, Tülay

    2015-01-01

    Today's technology has influenced and changed every area of your life and interpersonal communication formats effect too. Along with these developments, new media and have become indispensable tools in our everyday lives. Societies and life forms has changed by technology and reshaped the way of communication and socio-cultural relations has differentiated. One of the most important indicators of this change and differentiation is “instant messaging services” took place in interpersonal commu...

  8. INSTANT MESSENGER (IM) APPLICATION USAGE AT WORKPLACE AND WORKING CULTURE OF A PUBLIC UNIVERSITY SUPPORTING STAFF IN KOTA KINABALU SABAH.

    OpenAIRE

    Nading, Dorina; Morshidi, Azizan

    2016-01-01

    Instant Messenger (IM) has becoming a new form of social relations tool in which people interact, dialogue, collaborate and exchange information. Many organizations and companies have adapted their management strategies with the utilization of IM applications, both internally or externally. The popularity of IM in local organizational management in such a way that government agencies, companies, universities, colleges and schools. The use of applications such as wechat, whatsApp messenger...

  9. Application of instant messaging software in the follow-up of patients using peritoneal dialysis, a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fang; Li, Lanfei; Lin, Miao; Lin, Qinyu; Ruan, Yiping; Hong, Fuyuan

    2018-04-20

    This study aims to investigate the application value of Internet-based instant messaging software in the follow-up of patients using peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis is an effective renal replacement treatment for end-stage renal disease. The clinical usefulness of Internet-based instant messaging software in the follow-up of peritoneal dialysis patients, including the incidence of peritonitis and exit-site infection, the levels of albumin and electrolytes and the degree of patients' satisfaction, remains unknown. Between January 2009-April 2016, a total of 160 patients underwent continuous peritoneal dialysis in the Department of Nephrology, Fujian Provincial Hospital were invited to participate voluntarily in this study. The patients were randomly assigned to the instant messenger (QQ) follow-up group (n = 80) and the traditional follow-up group (n = 80). The differences in death, hospitalisation, peritonitis, exit-site infection, and patients' satisfaction were investigated during 1 year of follow-up. The mean follow-up duration is 11.4 ± 1.5 months. Compared with the patients in the traditional follow-up group, patients in the QQ follow-up group showed higher levels of serum albumin (p = .009) and haemoglobin (p = .009), lower levels of phosphorus (p instant messaging software appears to be a feasible and acceptable method of delivering peritoneal dialysis treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Analysis and lessons learned instituting an instant messaging reference service at an academic health sciences library: the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Daniel G; Kaplan, Gary E

    2008-01-01

    In February 2006, Thomas Jefferson University went live with a new instant messaging (IM) service. This paper reviews the first 102 transcripts to examine question types and usage patterns. In addition, the paper highlights lessons learned in instituting the service. IM reference represents a small proportion of reference questions, but based on user feedback and technological improvements, the library has decided to continue the service.

  11. Extraction of rutin from Tartary buckwheat milling fractions and evaluation of its thermal stability in an instant fried noodle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Jin; Lee, Suyong

    2015-06-01

    Extraction conditions of rutin from buckwheat milling fractions were established and a rutin-enriched material (REM, 31.8g/100g of rutin) was successfully obtained by the ultrasonic-assisted ethanol method (steaming, 16-150 mesh particle size, 70% ethanol, and ultrasonication at 40°C for 30min). When REM was applied to instant fried noodles (1% and 2% by weight of wheat flour) for rutin fortification, the levels of rutin in the noodles were determined to be about 250-500mg/100g which corresponded to the recommended daily dose of rutin. While frying temperatures (150-190°C) and times (1-3min) did not negatively affect the level of rutin in the instant fried noodles, the distinct loss of rutin was observed after cooking. Furthermore, REM did not significantly affect the oil uptake and mechanical property of instant fried noodles. The strong antioxidant activity of rutin in REM contributed to retarding the oxidative deterioration of the noodles during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro assessment of potential intestinal absorption of some phenolic families and carboxylic acids from commercial instant coffee samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Froilán, R; Ramírez-Moreno, E; Podio, N S; Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Cámara, M; Baroni, M V; Wunderlin, D A; Sánchez-Mata, M C

    2016-06-15

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, being a source of bioactive compounds as well as flavors. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and carboxylic acids have been studied in the samples of instant coffee commercialized in Spain. The studies about contents of food components should be complemented with either in vitro or in vivo bioaccessibility studies to know the amount of food components effectively available for functions in the human body. In this sense, a widely used in vitro model has been applied to assess the potential intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds and organic acids. The contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were higher in instant regular coffee samples than in the decaffeinated ones. Bioaccessible phenolic compounds in most analyzed samples account for 20-25% of hydroxycinnamic acids and 17-26% of flavonols. This could mean that a great part of them can remain in the gut, acting as potential in situ antioxidants. Quinic, acetic, pyroglutamic, citric and fumaric acids were identified in commercial instant coffee samples. Succinic acid was found in the coffee blend containing chicory. All carboxylic acids showed a very high bioaccessibility. Particularly, acetic acid and quinic acid were found in higher contents in the samples treated with the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal processes, compared to the original ones, which can be explained by their cleavage from chlorogenic acid during digestion. This is considered as a positive effect, since quinic acid is considered as an antioxidant inducer.

  13. Alcohol-based instant hand sanitizer use in military settings: a prospective cohort study of Army basic trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Peter J; Sisk, Brian W; Arbogast, James W; Ferrazzano-Yaussy, Cristina; Bondi, Cara A M; Sheehan, James J

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the impact of a customized alcohol-based instant hand sanitizer hand-hygiene regimen in an Army basic training setting. The entire population at the U.S. Army Field Artillery Training Center, Fort Sill, Oklahoma, participated in the 13-week prospective cohort study between January 18, 2005 and April 18, 2005. Two training battalions were randomly assigned to the control group, one to the primary intervention group (customized Purell Instant Hand Sanitizer regimen, education, reinforcement) and one to the secondary intervention group (customized Purell Instant Hand Sanitizer regimen). When compared to the control group, intervention groups experienced 40% less respiratory illness (p < 0.001), 48% less gastrointestinal illness (p < 0.02), 44% less lost training time (p < 0.001), and 31% fewer health care encounters (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that this intervention is capable of significantly reducing illness in this setting and has the potential to help reduce absenteeism in the military workforce as a whole.

  14. HIV-positive and HIV-negative consumers accept an instant soy maize porridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna C Bouwer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess consumer acceptability, preference and consumption intent of an instant soy maize porridge, compared to an instant plain maize porridge, in order to determine the successful inclusion of the soy maize porridge as a food supplement for HIV subjects in a subsequent nutrition intervention trial, to improve their nutritional status. A 5-point hedonic and food action rating scale was used for this purpose. HIV-positive (n=57 and HIV-negative (n=47 subjects were recruited on a basis of availability and willingness to participate. Long-term acceptability and compliance of HIV-positive consumers (n=9 was assessed after three and five months. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey’s multiple comparison test and T-tests (p≤0.05 were performed. Overall, consumers found the soy maize porridge significantly more acceptable, preferred it to, and also intended to consume it more often than the plain maize porridge. There were no significant differences between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative group regarding acceptability, preference and consumption intent. After three and five months, the HIV-positive consumers (n=9 did not find acceptability of the soy maize porridge significantly different from the first evaluation. It therefore had the potential to be included successfully in the nutrition intervention trial. The current study emphasises the need for sensory evaluation of food products prior to including them in intervention studies, to assess consumers’ acceptance of them. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om verbruikers se aanvaarding, voorkeur en voorneme van verbruik van ‘n kitssojamieliepap, in vergelyking met ‘n gewone kitsmieliepap te bepaal, ten einde die suksesvolle insluiting van die kitssojamieliepap as voedselaanvulling vir HIV-proefpersone om hul voedingstatus te verbeter, in ‘n daaropvolgende voedingsintervensiestudie te ondersoek. ‘n Vyf-punt hedoniese en voedselaksie

  15. Health risk assessment of instant noodles commonly consumed in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Iniobong A; Ogbolosingha, Atieme J; Afia, Inimfon U

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the levels of some heavy metals [lead (Pb), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), and chromium (Cr)] and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in six brands of instant noodles (CFN, GFC, NGP, GAA, CUN, and FCS) commonly consumed in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Risks of consumption of contaminated noodles were also assessed. Heavy metal content and PAHs were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and gas chromatography, respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals as Pb, Ni, Cu, Al, and Cr were detected while As, Hg, and Cd were not detected in noodles. High average concentrations (mean ± SD mg/kg) of Pb were observed in brands CFN (3.163 ± 0.21) and GFC (1.022 ± 0.08) which were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than in NGP (0.043 ± 0.15) and GAA (0.276 ± 0.18), although all were above WHO permissible limits (0.025 mg/kg). Target Hazard Quotient and Hazard Index for Pb were > 1 in brands CFN and GFC indicating unacceptable risk. Results of PAHs showed brands had total PAHs (mg/kg) in the order CFN > CUN > GAA > NGP > FCS > GFC. Although carcinogenic risks associated with these noodles are within permissible range, consumption of CFN and GFC could pose greater health risk to consumers. Long-term consumption of brands CUN, CFN, and GAA may have higher probability of carcinogenesis among consumers. We therefore recommend more diligent regulatory policies and monitoring by relevant government agencies (WHO, NAFDAC, CPC, and SON) to ensure wholesome noodles get to consumers.

  16. Y a-t-il eu un instant zéro ?

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    D'où vient l'univers ? Et d'où vient même qu'il y ait un univers ? Aura-t-il une fin ? Pourquoi les humains y sont-ils apparus ? Si ces questions nous obsèdent depuis toujours, celle de l'origine demeure la plus mystérieuse, la plus vertigineuse, d'où la profusion de discours — mythologiques, religieux ou philosophiques — qui tentent d'y répondre. C'est grâce à la science, aux découvertes de Newton, Galilée, Edwin Hubble, Alexandre Friedmann et Georges Lemaître, qu'on peut retracer le grand récit de l'univers, remonter son histoire à 13,7 milliards d'années, jusqu'à cette phase très dense et très chaude qu'on a appelée le big bang. Mais celui-ci n'est pas pour autant, comme on l'a imaginé, cette explosion originelle qui aurait créé tout ce qui existe. Cet instant zéro, peut-on le décrire, le penser, raconter d'où il peut bien provenir ? Et d'où serait venu l'univers d'avant le big bang ? Mystère ! Qu'il y ait eu origine ou pas, on ne part donc jamais de zéro. En parler, c'est p...

  17. Decoding Delay Controlled Completion Time Reduction in Instantly Decodable Network Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-06-27

    For several years, the completion time and the decoding delay problems in Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) were considered separately and were thought to act completely against each other. Recently, some works aimed to balance the effects of these two important IDNC metrics but none of them studied a further optimization of one by controlling the other. This paper investigates the effect of controlling the decoding delay to reduce the completion time below its currently best-known solution in both perfect and imperfect feedback with persistent erasure channels. To solve the problem, the decodingdelay- dependent expressions of the users’ and overall completion times are derived in the complete feedback scenario. Although using such expressions to find the optimal overall completion time is NP-hard, the paper proposes two novel heuristics that minimizes the probability of increasing the maximum of these decoding-delay-dependent completion time expressions after each transmission through a layered control of their decoding delays. Afterward, the paper extends the study to the imperfect feedback scenario in which uncertainties at the sender affects its ability to anticipate accurately the decoding delay increase at each user. The paper formulates the problem in such environment and derives the expression of the minimum increase in the completion time. Simulation results show the performance of the proposed solutions and suggest that both heuristics achieves a lower mean completion time as compared to the best-known heuristics for the completion time reduction in perfect and imperfect feedback. The gap in performance becomes more significant as the erasure of the channel increases.

  18. The isoflavone content of two new alfalfa-derived products for instant beverage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Zarazúa, M Guadalupe; Rodrigues, Francisca; Pimentel, Filipa B; Bah, M M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2016-01-01

    The frequent use of plant-based products to promote health leads to the search for scientific information related to efficacy and safety of those products for human consumption. Two alfalfa-derived products (ADP), freeze-dried juice (FDJ) and dehydrated powder (DP), from alfalfa harvested in Mexico, are being developed as new possible nutraceuticals. To the best of our knowledge, any study reports the real composition of such products used to prepare instant beverages in what concerns isoflavone contents. Seven isoflavones (glycitein, formononetin, biochanin A, daidzein, genistein, daidzin and genistin) were assessed by HPLC-DAD analysis as well as its variation in five different batches of these products. Different solvents were tested in order to choose the best one to extract isoflavones. The results showed the presence of daidzein, genistein, genistin and daidzin in most samples while glycitein, formononetin and biochanin A were not detected. Significant differences between isoflavone contents were found with different solvent systems. Water was the best option to extract daidzein (0.40-1.08 mg per unit and 1.30-4.90 mg per unit for DP and FDJ, respectively) whereas the water-methanol-formic acid mixture was efficient to extract genistein (0.19-0.43 mg per unit and 0.15-0.72 mg per unit for DP and FDJ, respectively). In all cases, the total isoflavone content was higher in freeze-dried juices than in dehydrated powders. Genistein and daidzein were the more abundant isoflavones quantified. Further physiological and nutritional studies are needed to complete the validation of effectiveness and safety of these products.

  19. Instantly decodable network coding for real-time device-to-device communications

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-01-04

    This paper studies the delay reduction problem for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC)-based device-to-device (D2D) communication-enabled networks. Unlike conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP) systems in which the wireless base station has the sufficient computation abilities, D2D networks rely on battery-powered operations of the devices. Therefore, a particular emphasis on the computation complexity needs to be addressed in the design of delay reduction algorithms for D2D networks. While most of the existing literature on IDNC directly extend the delay reduction PMP schemes, known to be NP-hard, to the D2D setting, this paper proposes to investigate and minimize the complexity of such algorithms for battery-powered devices. With delay minimization problems in IDNC-based systems being equivalent to a maximum weight clique problems in the IDNC graph, the presented algorithms, in this paper, can be applied to different delay aspects. This paper introduces and focuses on the reduction of the maximum value of the decoding delay as it represents the most general solution. The complexity of the solution is reduced by first proposing efficient methods for the construction, the update, and the dimension reduction of the IDNC graph. The paper, further, shows that, under particular scenarios, the problem boils down to a maximum clique problem. Due to the complexity of discovering such maximum clique, the paper presents a fast selection algorithm. Simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed schemes and suggest that the proposed fast selection algorithm provides appreciable complexity gain as compared to the optimal selection one, with a negligible degradation in performance. In addition, they indicate that the running time of the proposed solution is close to the random selection algorithm.

  20. Decoding Delay Controlled Completion Time Reduction in Instantly Decodable Network Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Sorour, Sameh; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    For several years, the completion time and the decoding delay problems in Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) were considered separately and were thought to act completely against each other. Recently, some works aimed to balance the effects of these two important IDNC metrics but none of them studied a further optimization of one by controlling the other. This paper investigates the effect of controlling the decoding delay to reduce the completion time below its currently best-known solution in both perfect and imperfect feedback with persistent erasure channels. To solve the problem, the decodingdelay- dependent expressions of the users’ and overall completion times are derived in the complete feedback scenario. Although using such expressions to find the optimal overall completion time is NP-hard, the paper proposes two novel heuristics that minimizes the probability of increasing the maximum of these decoding-delay-dependent completion time expressions after each transmission through a layered control of their decoding delays. Afterward, the paper extends the study to the imperfect feedback scenario in which uncertainties at the sender affects its ability to anticipate accurately the decoding delay increase at each user. The paper formulates the problem in such environment and derives the expression of the minimum increase in the completion time. Simulation results show the performance of the proposed solutions and suggest that both heuristics achieves a lower mean completion time as compared to the best-known heuristics for the completion time reduction in perfect and imperfect feedback. The gap in performance becomes more significant as the erasure of the channel increases.

  1. Road Accident Prevention with Instant Emergency Warning Message Dissemination in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gokulakrishnan

    Full Text Available A Road Accident Prevention (RAP scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET. The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i the Road Side Unit (RSU constructs a Prediction Report (PR based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM based on an abnormal PR, (iii the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ. These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure. The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.

  2. Spent UO{sub 2} TRISO coated particles. Instant release fraction and microstructure evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtius, Hildegard; Kaiser, Gabriele; Lieck, Norman; Guengoer, Murat; Klinkenberg, Martina; Bosbach, Dirk [Research Center Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6: Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety

    2015-09-01

    The impact of burn-up on the instant release fraction (IRF) from spent fuel was studied using very high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuel (∝ 100 GWd/t) from a prototype high temperature reactor (HTR). TRISO (TRi-structural-ISO-tropic) particles from the spherical fuel elements contain UO{sub 2} fuel kernels (500 μm diameter) which are coated by three tight layers ensuring the encapsulation of fission products during reactor operation. After cracking of the tight coatings {sup 85}Kr and {sup 14}C as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} were detected in the gas fraction. Xe was not detected in the gas fraction, although ESEM (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope) investigations revealed an accumulation in the buffer. UO{sub 2} fuel kernels were exposed to synthetic groundwater under oxic and anoxic/reducing conditions. U concentration in the leachate was below the detection limit, indicating an extremely low matrix dissolution. Within the leach period of 276 d {sup 90}Sr and {sup 134/137}Cs fractions located at grain boundaries were released and contribution to IRF up to max. 0.2% respectively 8%. Depending on the environmental conditions, different release functions were observed. Second relevant release steps occurred in air after ∝ 120 d, indicating the formation of new accessible leaching sites. ESEM investigations were performed to study the impact of leaching on the microstructure. In oxic environment, numerous intragranular open pores acting as new accessible leaching sites were formed and white spherical spots containing Mo and Zr were identified. Under anoxic/reducing conditions numerous metallic precipitates (Mo, Tc and Ru) filling the intragranular pores and white spherical spots containing Mo and Zr, were detected. In conclusion, leaching in different geochemical environments influenced the speciation of radionuclides and in consequence the stability of neoformed phases, which has an impact on IRF.

  3. Status of fission yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeck, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Fission yield measurement and yield compilation activities in the major laboratories of the world are reviewed. In addition to a general review of the effort of each laboratory, a brief summary of yield measurement activities by fissioning nuclide is presented. A new fast reactor fission yield measurement program being conducted in the US is described

  4. The Green Knowledge and Green Awareness Influences Analysis on Green Behavior and Its Impact on Green Lifestyle of Instant Noodles Consumer

    OpenAIRE

    Hadriana, Hadriana; Hudrasyah, Herry

    2013-01-01

    Changing in the consumer' behavior because of the growing of the people nowadaysin era modernization makes the consumers become more time conscious and want everything to be practical. That is why food such as instant noodles is become more and more popular these days because of its practical. Unfortunately, this instant noodles made by packaging product's plastic material which have many negative impact to the environment. The purpose of this research is to improve the quality of human and e...

  5. Forensic Investigation of Social Media and Instant Messaging Services in Firefox OS: Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Telegram, OpenWapp and Line as Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yusoff, Mohd Najwadi; Dehghantanha, Ali; Mahmod, Ramlan

    2017-01-01

    Mobile devices are increasingly utilized to access social media and instant messaging services, which allow users to communicate with others easily and quickly. However, the misuse of social media and instant messaging services facilitated conducting different cybercrimes such as cyber stalking, cyber bullying, slander spreading and sexual harassment. Therefore, mobile devices are an important evidentiary piece in digital investigation. In this chapter, we report the results of our investigat...

  6. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Declining soil fertility is one of the major problems causing yield reduction of barley ... (VC) with inorganic NP on growth, yield and yield components of food barley. ... The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with ...

  7. Calibration of ITER Instant Power Neutron Monitors: Recommended Scenario of Experiments at the Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, A. A.; Deryabina, N. A.; Markovskij, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    Instant power is a key parameter of the ITER. Its monitoring with an accuracy of a few percent is an urgent and challenging aspect of neutron diagnostics. In a series of works published in Problems of Atomic Science and Technology, Series: Thermonuclear Fusion under a common title, the step-by-step neutronics analysis was given to substantiate a calibration technique for the DT and DD modes of the ITER. A Gauss quadrature scheme, optimal for processing "expensive" experiments, is used for numerical integration of 235U and 238U detector responses to the point sources of 14-MeV neutrons. This approach allows controlling the integration accuracy in relation to the number of coordinate mesh points and thus minimizing the number of irradiations at the given uncertainty of the full monitor response. In the previous works, responses of the divertor and blanket monitors to the isotropic point sources of DT and DD neutrons in the plasma profile and to the models of real sources were calculated within the ITER model using the MCNP code. The neutronics analyses have allowed formulating the basic principles of calibration that are optimal for having the maximum accuracy at the minimum duration of in situ experiments at the reactor. In this work, scenarios of the preliminary and basic experimental ITER runs are suggested on the basis of those principles. It is proposed to calibrate the monitors only with DT neutrons and use correction factors to the DT mode calibration for the DD mode. It is reasonable to perform full calibration only with 235U chambers and calibrate 238U chambers by responses of the 235U chambers during reactor operation (cross-calibration). The divertor monitor can be calibrated using both direct measurement of responses at the Gauss positions of a point source and simplified techniques based on the concepts of equivalent ring sources and inverse response distributions, which will considerably reduce the amount of measurements. It is shown that the monitor

  8. Use of NWSChat (Instant Messaging program) as a coordination tool during the 2009 Redoubt Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiensky, J. M.; Jones, D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) based Instant Messaging service, NWSChat, is used for sharing critical warning decision expertise and other types of significant weather information between the NWS and partners in all levels of government, emergency managers, and the media. NWSChat allows multiple users to send messages to each other in forums known as “chat rooms.” NWSChat is used to enhance decision support during discussions related to high impact weather events, and improve outreach and real-time feed-back from partners. This information is exchanged with the media and emergency response community, who in turn play a key role in communicating the NWS’s hazardous weather messages to the public. NWSChat also provides media and emergency response partners with the ability to communicate significant event reports back to NWS operational personnel, who in turn utilize the information to make effective warning decisions. NWS partners can also use the Service as an efficient means of seeking clarifications and enhancements to the communication stream originating from the NWS. NWSChat will include a wide variety of types of information. Some of this information will include contents of official NWS products available through other NWS systems and thus available to the public. However, other NWSChat content may include preliminary data which has not been screened by NWS for accuracy or applicability; highly technical discussions, some of them speculative, regarding atmospheric or other environmental conditions; and other types of information not intended for a general audience. NWSChat participants are expected to avoid release of information to a broader audience that might be misinterpreted or cause confusion. NWSChat is an enhancement to communications between the NWS and its partners, and is not intended to replace official NWS products or official means of communications. In March 2009, the NWS stood up a Redoubt chatroom just prior to the first eruption

  9. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  10. Suitability of instant noodles for iron fortification to combat iron-deficiency anemia among primary schoolchildren in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huong Thi; Brouwer, Inge D; de Wolf, Corine A; van der Heijden, Lidwien; Nguyen, Khan Cong; Kok, Frans J

    2007-09-01

    Anemia is a significant public health problem among schoolchildren in Vietnam. Food fortification is considered one of the most sustainable long-term strategies to control iron-deficiency anemia in Vietnam. The success of a food-fortification program depends on the choice of the food vehicle. The aim of the present study was to identify an appropriate vehicle for iron fortification to be used in a school-feeding program aimed at improving the iron and anemia status of schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Children 6 to 8 years of age in two primary schools in Tam Nong District, Phu Tho Province, and their parents were included in this study. The study consisted of three substudies: a food-consumption study with 24-hour recalls of two nonconsecutive days; a food-beliefs study, with focus group discussions, a pile-sorting test, and a food attributes and differences exercise; and a food-acceptance study using noodles and biscuits fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA). The average number of meals consumed daily was 3.2 +/- 0.4, and the average intakes of energy and iron were 1,218 +/- 406 kcal and 7.5 +/- 4.0 mg, respectively. Compared with biscuits and instant rice soup, instant noodles were consumed more frequently and in larger portion sizes and are more acceptable as children's food in the culture of the local people. The iron level of the fortified product did not affect the mean consumption of noodles, but a higher level of iron was associated with a lower mean consumption of biscuits (p noodles; however, during preparation at least 70% of the iron is leaked into the soup. Instant noodles are a suitable vehicle for iron fortification for use in school-based intervention to improve iron-deficiency anemia among primary schoolchildren in rural Vietnam.

  11. Reliability of Smartphone-Based Instant Messaging Application for Diagnosis, Classification, and Decision-making in Pediatric Orthopedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Ido; Katsman, Alexander; Zaidman, Michael; Keshet, Doron; Sigal, Amit; Eidelman, Mark

    2017-07-11

    Smartphones have the ability to capture and send images, and their use has become common in the emergency setting for transmitting radiographic images with the intent to consult an off-site specialist. Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of smartphone-based instant messaging applications for the evaluation of various pediatric limb traumas, as compared with the standard method of viewing images of a workstation-based picture archiving and communication system (PACS). X-ray images of 73 representative cases of pediatric limb trauma were captured and transmitted to 5 pediatric orthopedic surgeons by the Whatsapp instant messaging application on an iPhone 6 smartphone. Evaluators were asked to diagnose, classify, and determine the course of treatment for each case over their personal smartphones. Following a 4-week interval, revaluation was conducted using the PACS. Intraobserver agreement was calculated for overall agreement and per fracture site. The overall results indicate "near perfect agreement" between interpretations of the radiographs on smartphones compared with computer-based PACS, with κ of 0.84, 0.82, and 0.89 for diagnosis, classification, and treatment planning, respectively. Looking at the results per fracture site, we also found substantial to near perfect agreement. Smartphone-based instant messaging applications are reliable for evaluation of a wide range of pediatric limb fractures. This method of obtaining an expert opinion from the off-site specialist is immediately accessible and inexpensive, making smartphones a powerful tool for doctors in the emergency department, primary care clinics, or remote medical centers, enabling timely and appropriate treatment for the injured child. This method is not a substitution for evaluation of the images in the standard method over computer-based PACS, which should be performed before final decision-making.

  12. Intersubject synchronisation analysis of brain activity associated with the instant effects of acupuncture: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingmin; Sun, Jinbo; Xu, Ziliang; Yang, Xuejuan; Liu, Peng; Qin, Wei

    2018-02-01

    To use a promising analytical method, namely intersubject synchronisation (ISS), to evaluate the brain activity associated with the instant effects of acupuncture and compare the findings with traditional general linear model (GLM) methods. 30 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. Block-designed manual acupuncture stimuli were delivered at SP6, and de qi sensations were measured after acupuncture stimulation. All subjects underwent functional MRI (fMRI) scanning during the acupuncture stimuli. The fMRI data were separately analysed by ISS and traditional GLM methods. All subjects experienced de qi sensations. ISS analysis showed that the regions activated during acupuncture stimulation at SP6 were mainly divided into five clusters based on the time courses. The time courses of clusters 1 and 2 were in line with the acupuncture stimulation pattern, and the active regions were mainly involved in the sensorimotor system and salience network. Clusters 3, 4 and 5 displayed an almost contrary time course relative to the stimulation pattern. The brain regions activated included the default mode network, descending pain modulation pathway and visual cortices. GLM analysis indicated that the brain responses associated with the instant effects of acupuncture were largely implicated in sensory and motor processing and sensory integration. The ISS analysis considered the sustained effect of acupuncture and uncovered additional information not shown by GLM analysis. We suggest that ISS may be a suitable approach to investigate the brain responses associated with the instant effects of acupuncture. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. COMPARATION STUDY OF INSTANT NOODLE NONG SHIM KOREA AND INDOMIE INDONESIA AS THE FEFFECT OF PACKAGING DESIGN POINT OF INTEREST TO THE CONSUMER BRAND PREFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listia Natadjaja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudah sejak lama%2C masyarakat mengkonsumsi mie instant. Di Korea mi instan yang disebut Ramyon%2C adalah salah satu makanan yang popular dan banyak dijual di toko-toko kecil%2C supermarket%2C restoran dan kantin. Mi instan yang terkenal di Korea diproduksi oleh Nong Shim Co.%2C Ltd. Di Indonesia%2C kebanyakan orang mengkonsumsi mi instan dengan alasan praktis%2C cepat saji dan lain sebagainya. Indomie%2C yang diproduksi oleh PT. Indofood adalah merk nomor satu dan menjadi pemimpin pasar pada pasar mi instan. Dalam studi komparasi antara dua merk terkenal ini%2C perlu diketahui seberapa jauh peran desain kemasan dalam menarik minat konsumen terhadap pilihan merk. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : For a long time%2C people have consumed the instant noodle. In Korea%2C instant noodle%2C which is called Ramyon%2C is one of popular food and it is often seen in the retail shop%2C supermarket%2C restaurant and cafeteria. Instant noodle that has a famous brand in Korea is produce by Nong Shim Co.%2C Ltd. In Indonesia%2C many people have consumed the instant noodle with practice reason%2C fast serving%2C and etc. Indomie%2C produced by PT. Indofood%2C is the number one brand and become the market leader of instant noodle. Comparing at two famous brand of instant noodle%2C it is needed to be known how far the effect of packaging design can attract the consumer brand preference. desain kemasan%2C pilihan merk%2C mi instan.

  14. A note on hypoplastic yielding

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, José Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses briefly the definition of yield surface in hypoplasticity in connection with the physical notion of yielding. The relation of yielding with the vanishing of the material time derivative of the stress tensor and the vanishing of the corotational stress rate is investigated.

  15. Correlation of the neutron yield from the plasma focus upon variations in the magnetic field energy of the discharge circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablesimov, V. E.; Dolin, Yu. N.; Kalinychev, A. E.; Tsibikov, Z. S.

    2017-10-01

    The relation between neutron yield Y and magnetic field energy variations Δ W in the discharge circuit has been studied for a Mather-type plasma-focus camera. The activation technique (activation of silver isotopes) has been used to measure the integral yield of DD neutrons from the source. The time dependence of the neutron yield has been recorded by scintillation detectors. For the device used in the investigations, the neutron yield exhibits a linear dependence on variations in the magnetic field energy Δ W in the discharge circuit at the instant of neutron generation. It is also found that this dependence is related to the initial deuteron pressure in the discharge chamber.

  16. Analysis of lifestyle, innovation products, and marketing mix of product purchase decision hen’s instant omelette (case study in pt eco Nature multiindo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Harun Al Rasyid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available PT Eco Nature Multiindo is a company which operating in the service and food processing. Hen's Instant Omelette is one form of innovative product that exist in Indonesia. In Indonesia, there is no competitor of Hen's product so Hen's became the first of instant egg in market. Response of consumer to this product is quite good, it is can be seen from the sale of products that have been sold to 6.000 bottles for 8 months. But it is still far from the company target ,which is targeting 7.500 bottles per month in accordance with market potential and company's production capacity 300 bottles a day. The purpose of this study are (1 to analyze the life style of Hen's Instant Omelette consumer (2 to analyze the influence of lifestyle, product innovation, and marketing mix of Hen's Instant Omelette product towards purchasing decision (3 to formulate managerial implication for the company. The results of the factor analysis indicates that the user segments of Hen's Instant Omelette consists of three segments: modern, clasic, and trendy. Analysis results of SEM indicates the variable that influence purchasing decision is Product Innovation which consists of Relative Advantages, Compatibility, Complexity, Divisibility, Communicability.

  17. Effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on the quality of instant sea cucumber: Emphatically on water status of by LF-NMR and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mingqian; Lin, Zhuyi; Zu, Yinxue; Zhu, Beiwei; Cheng, Shasha

    2018-07-01

    Instant sea cucumber has become one popular product due to its convenience to eat, favourable taste and minimal loss of nutrients and bioactive components. However, there was rare information about the water dynamic of instant sea cucumber subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles. In this study, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) were employed to investigate the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on water status of instant sea cucumber. Four water populations corresponding to strongly bound water, weakly bound water, immobile water and free water were observed in instant sea cucumber. With the increase of freeze-thaw cycles, the transverse relaxation time of immobile and free water increased, while the peak area of free water decreased significantly. MRI enabled the visualization of water migration of instant sea cucumber during multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles also led to significant changes of other quality properties including thawing loss, WHC, color parameters, texture and protein content, and enlarge the interspace between fiber network in microstructure. Good correlations between T 22 , A 22 , A 23 and thaw loss, WHC, L*, hardness and collagen content (0.873 ≤ r ≤ 0.958) revealed LF-NMR may be an effective real-time monitoring method of these physicochemical parameters as a non-destructive technique. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of instant kits 99Tcm-labelling of anti-CEA antibody and hIgG for scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonkittcharoen, V.

    1998-01-01

    99 Tc m -labelled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and human immunoglobulins (hIgG) have recently emerged as a new class of site specific radiopharmaceuticals. The role of 99 Tc m -labelled MAbs particularly anti-CEA IgG in tumour imaging has essentially established for early revealing of occult lesions in patients. Superiority of the method over X ray CT has been addressed for its capability in differentiating post-operation fibrosis from viable tumour. At present data, instant kits for preparation of this particular class of radiopharmaceuticals can be obtained from commercial sources but unfortunately at high prices. This prohibits the use of these promising diagnostic agents in developing country like Thailand. Under the assistance from IAEA through a research coordinating program, we worked on the 99 Tc m -radiochemistry in immunoglobulin labelling to establish the knowledge and acquire the know how in the development of in-house instant kits at low cost to serve the local nuclear medicine clinics in diagnosis of infectious and neoplastic diseases

  19. Tunicate-Inspired Gallic Acid/Metal Ion Complex for Instant and Efficient Treatment of Dentin Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajatelistia, Ekavianty; Ju, Sung-Won; Sanandiya, Naresh D; Jun, Sang Ho; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2016-04-20

    Dentin hypersensitivity is sharp and unpleasant pains caused by exposed dentinal tubules when enamel outside of the tooth wears away. The occlusion of dentinal tubules via in situ remineralization of hydroxyapatite is the best method to alleviate the symptoms caused by dentin hypersensitivity. Commercially available dental desensitizers are generally effective only on a specific area and are relatively toxic, and their performance usually depends on the skill of the clinician. Here, a facile and efficient dentin hypersensitivity treatment with remarkable aesthetic improvement inspired by the tunicate-self-healing process is reported. As pyrogallol groups in tunicate proteins conjugate with metal ions to heal the torn body armor of a tunicate, the ingenious mechanism by introducing gallic acid (GA) as a cheap, abundant, and edible alternative to the pyrogallol groups of the tunicate combined with a varied daily intake of metal ion sources is mimicked. In particular, the GA/Fe(3+) complex exhibits the most promising results, to the instant ≈52% blockage in tubules within 4 min and ≈87% after 7 d of immersion in artificial saliva. Overall, the GA/metal ion complex-mediated coating is facile, instant, and effective, and is suggested as an aesthetic solution for treating dentin hypersensitivity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. ? and ? nonquadratic stabilisation of discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno systems based on multi-instant fuzzy Lyapunov functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognetti, Eduardo S.; Oliveira, Ricardo C. L. F.; Peres, Pedro L. D.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of state feedback control design for discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno (TS) (T-S) fuzzy systems is investigated in this paper. A Lyapunov function, which is quadratic in the state and presents a multi-polynomial dependence on the fuzzy weighting functions at the current and past instants of time, is proposed.This function contains, as particular cases, other previous Lyapunov functions already used in the literature, being able to provide less conservative conditions of control design for TS fuzzy systems. The structure of the proposed Lyapunov function also motivates the design of a new stabilising compensator for Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems. The main novelty of the proposed state feedback control law is that the gain is composed of matrices with multi-polynomial dependence on the fuzzy weighting functions at a set of past instants of time, including the current one. The conditions for the existence of a stabilising state feedback control law that minimises an upper bound to the ? or ? norms are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Numerical examples show that the approach can be less conservative and more efficient than other methods available in the literature.

  1. L'errance du récit dans La folie du jour et L’instant de ma mort de Maurice Blanchot = A errância da narrativa em La folie du jour e L’instant de ma mort de Maurice Blanchot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passos, Marie-Hélène Paret

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse texto é uma reflexão sobre a aproximação de dois textos de Maurice Blanchot La folie du jour et L’instant de ma mort. Na escritura dessa leitura entrecruzada, sobretudo embasada nos ensaios do autor. É um diálogo acerca de temas blanchotianos tais como o errante, o instante, a injustiça, o Holocausto, que se instaura

  2. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  3. VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN “EGUSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Estimate of expected genetic advance in seed yield plant-1 ranged between. 25.90-48.40%. ..... values in fruit and seed yield characters have been reported in culinary melon, ... and Khund, A. 2004. Extent of heterosis and heritability in some.

  4. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis Tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial budget analysis also indicates that applications of 46 kg. N ha-1 and 10 kg P ha-1 are ..... (1994) indicated that where the grain yield response is negative, yield reduction is primarily caused by a .... An Economic Training. Manual.

  5. On yield gaps and yield gains in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gou, Fang; Yin, Wen; Hong, Yu; Werf, van der Wopke; Chai, Qiang; Heerink, Nico; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat-maize relay intercropping has been widely used by farmers in northwest China, and based on field experiments agronomists report it has a higher productivity than sole crops. However, the yields from farmers’ fields have not been investigated yet. Yield gap analysis provides a framework to

  6. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... peasant farmers in Nigeria. With the increased ... did not significantly (p=0.05) increase the fruit yield nor the seed yield. Key words: NPK fertilizer, Fruit ..... SAS (Statistical Analysis System) Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, ...

  7. SLIFER measurement for explosive yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.C.; Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.; Breding, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Piperine, Capsaicin, and Dihydrocapsaicin in Korean Instant-Noodle (Ramyun) Soup Base Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, You-Shin; Kim, Jong-Chan; Jeong, Seung-Weon

    2016-01-01

    A simultaneous analytical method for piperine, capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin in Korean instant-noodle soup base using HPLC was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and linearity. The HPLC separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column (5 μm particle size, 4.6 mm id, 250 mm length) using a UV detector fixed at 280 nm. The LOD and LOQ of the HPLC analyses ranged from 0.25 to 1.03 mg/kg. The intraday and interday precisions of the individual piperine, capsaicin, and dihydrocapsaicin were instant noodles based on their levels of spiciness.

  9. PENGARUH PERLAKUAN PENDAHULUAN SEBELUM PENGERINGAN TERHADAP INSTAN JAGUNG MUDA [Effects of Pre-treatments Prior Drying on Young Corn Kernel Instant (YCKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleni Limonu1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of pre-gelatinization and freezing processes on physico-chemical characteristics of young corn kernel instant. The results showed that pre-gelatinization and slow freezing processes significantly affected bulk density, rehidration capacity, hardness and cooking time of young corn kernel instant. The study of water sorption isothermic showed that the product had a sigmoid curve. Based on this curve, shelf life of the product had been calculated. The YCKI waxy, YCKI Flint, and YCKI Sweet products packed in alufo had shelf life of 7.2, 12.1 and 13.8 months respectively.

  10. Extending IM beyond the Reference Desk: A Case Study on the Integration of Chat Reference and Library-Wide Instant Messaging Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Chan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Openfire is an open source IM network and a single unified application that meets the needs of chat reference and internal communications. In Fall 2009, the California State University San Marcos (CSUSM Library began use of Openfire and other Jive software instant messaging technologies, to simultaneously improve our existing IM-integrated chat reference software and implement an internal IM network. This case study describes the chat reference and internal communications environment at the CSUSM Library and the selection, implementation, and evaluation of Openfire. In addition, the authors discuss the benefits of deploying an integrated instant messaging and chat reference network.

  11. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF A QUICK-DRIVING ACTUATOR OF AN AUTOMATIC SWITCH WITH AN INSTANT-DYNAMIC AND BISTABLE MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. BAIDA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of a mathematical model of an induction-dynamic drive of a switch with two coils, working with a bistable mechanism, which ensures the fixation of the instant-dynamic mechanism (IDM in trajectory extreme positions of the contact system. Methodology. The solution of the problems posed in the work was carried out using methods for calculating the electromagnetic field, finite elements, theoretical mechanics, and solving differential equations. Findings. The mathematical model of quick-driving actuator as part of instant dynamic and bistable mechanism was developed. It was based on electrical circuit’s electromagnetic equations and kinematic movements of the switching mechanism. Advantage of the given model is possibility of a breaker drive dynamic analysis basing on data of a contact pressure, pretravel and snatch gap. Initial data of the model formulation were outer circuit inductance, resistance of coils, which calculated on conductor cross-section and coils configuration. Initial conditions corresponded by Dirichlet conditions. Mathematical model equations system was calculated in cylindrical coordinate system. Problem was solved with the help ComsolMultiphysics system. Motion of the IDM movement part was modeled by deformation of a computational grid. Spring force and stress in a bistable mechanism construction were determined by initial data of a contact pressure, pretravel and snatch gap. Graphs by calculation data are shown, which allow to analyze of springing elements chose and make necessary adjustments on design stage and debugging construction. Operation parameters of mechanism work on IDM switch on and switch off stages were calculated. Value of movement, motion speed of armature breaker, currents of accelerating and retarding coils, summed electromagnetic and opposite force were figured. Originality. The mathematical model of quick-driving actuator as part of instant-dynamic and bistable mechanism was developed

  12. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  13. Análise de sensibilidade no processamento de dados de experimentos de perfil instantâneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. de Jong van Lier

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as propriedades físicas do solo, a condutividade hidráulica é uma das mais importantes, quando se estudam fenômenos que estão ligados ao movimento da água no solo. O método para determinar a função condutividade hidráulica versus umidade ou função K(θ de um solo, denominada método de perfil instantâneo, tem como maior vantagem o fato de se basear em medições diretas no campo, sem necessidade de aguardar o estabelecimento de um equilíbrio dinâmico. No caso de experimentos desse tipo, não se conhecem estudos sobre sua sensibilidade em relação a erros nos dados experimentais; tampouco se conhece a influência que uma observação experimental a mais ou a menos possa ter sobre a parametrização da função K(θ O presente trabalho visou analisar a sensibilidade do método de perfil instantâneo a variações nas observações realizadas in situ Utilizaram-se dados de dois experimentos de perfil instantâneo realizados no campus "Luiz de Queiroz", da Universidade de São Paulo, em Piracicaba (SP. Por meio de um algoritmo computacional para a análise dos dados experimentais, verificou-se a sensibilidade do resultado do cálculo dos parâmetros da função K(θ para variações nos valores de entrada. Foi analisado o efeito das seguintes alterações no conjunto original de dados: retirada de uma leitura completa do conjunto de dados; retirada de leituras finais; erro no coeficiente angular de calibração do TDR; erro no intercepto da curva de calibração do TDR; erro em uma das leituras do TDR. Pelos resultados do levantamento, concluiu-se que o método do perfil instantâneo, conjuntamente com a rotina computacional utilizada para processar os valores observados no campo, apresenta alta sensibilidade a pequenas incertezas no ajuste de funções aos valores da umidade Versus tempo; é também muito sensível à leitura do tempo zero, que, portanto, deveria ser desconsiderada. Erros ou incertezas nos ajustes dos valores

  14. Control Synthesis of Discrete-Time T-S Fuzzy Systems via a Multi-Instant Homogenous Polynomial Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiangpeng; Yue, Dong; Zhang, Huaguang; Xue, Yusheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper deals with the problem of control synthesis of discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems by employing a novel multiinstant homogenous polynomial approach. A new multiinstant fuzzy control scheme and a new class of fuzzy Lyapunov functions, which are homogenous polynomially parameter-dependent on both the current-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions and the past-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions, are proposed for implementing the object of relaxed control synthesis. Then, relaxed stabilization conditions are derived with less conservatism than existing ones. Furthermore, the relaxation quality of obtained stabilization conditions is further ameliorated by developing an efficient slack variable approach, which presents a multipolynomial dependence on the normalized fuzzy weighting functions at the current and past instants of time. Two simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and benefits of the results developed in this paper.

  15. Sorption isotherms modeling approach of rice-based instant soup mix stored under controlled temperature and humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogender Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms of rice-based instant soup mix at temperature range 15–45°C and relative humidity from 0.11 to 0.86 were determined using the standard gravimetric static method. The experimental sorption curves were fitted by five equations: Chung-Pfost, GAB, Henderson, Kuhn, and Oswin. The sorption isotherms of soup mix decreased with increasing temperature, exhibited type II behavior according to BET classification. The GAB, Henderson, Kuhn, and Oswin models were found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The isosteric heat of sorption of water was determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures. It decreased as moisture content increased and was found to be a polynomial function of moisture content. The study has provided information and data useful in large-scale commercial production of soup and have great importance to combat the problem of protein-energy malnutrition in underdeveloped and developing countries.

  16. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Gan et al., 2003). Nitrogen increases yield by influencing a variety of agronomic and quality parameters. In general, there was an increase in plant height and dry matter accumulation per plant in soybean (Manral and Saxena, ...

  17. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... density and nitrogen rate increased plant height, lowest pod height, harvest index and seed yield. ... since some combine harvester heads are unable to pick ..... as effected by population density and plant distribution.

  18. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF INSTANT PUMPKIN JAVANESE NOODLE GRAVY [Sifat Fisikokimia Saus Bubuk Mi Jawa Instan dari Labu Kering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusnita Hamzah*

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to study the physical and chemical characteristics of pumpkin Javanese noodle gravy prepared in powder form. The finished product is categorized as an instant product as it only needs to be rehydrated with warm water (60°C before consumption. Five gravy formulations were developed with the incorporation of two types of flour (tapioca and corn flours as the thickening agent. Physical characteristics including colour and swelling properties of the final products were evaluated. For chemical analysis, ash, moisture, protein, crude fiber, fat and carbohydrate compositions were also determined. For physical analysis, all formulations showed similar colour appearance of the gravy powder including lightness (L, redness (a* and yellowness (b*. Pertaining swelling properties of the dried gravy, the water absorption index (WAI values were low (2.0–3.0g/g, while the water solubility index (WSI were moderate (33.0–50.0% when evaluated at both hot (85°C and cold (25°C water. In termn of chemical compositions, carbohydrate and fat content increased and decreased, respectively with the addition of tapioca and corn flours. The moisture content of the instant gravy increased with the increased of corn flour addition. There were differences in fiber and ash content in all formulations, but no specific trend was observed. Finally, protein content remained the same in all formulations. This current finding provided information of the gravy powder produced. Further analysis on the characteristics of the rehydrated pumpkin Javanese noodle gravy will provide a more complete picture of the finished product.

  19. Un hombre solo : historia y virtud en "Anatomía de un instante", de Javier Cercas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo Serna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es analizar la obra del novelista español Javier Cercas desde el punto de vista de su indudable interés y valor para el historiador. En la primera parte del articulo he repasado algunos de los rasgos fundamentales que caracterizan la narrativa de Cercas y su forma de construir los personajes, para centrarme a continuación en el caso de su obra Anatomía de un instante (publicada en 2009 y galardonada con el «Premio Nacional de Narrativa» en 2010, con la intención de estudiar qué visión del proceso de la Transición a la democracia en España nos ofrece el autor a través de su minuciosa reconstrucción de los hechos históricos ocurridos durante el 23- F y del decisivo papel que asumieron en dichos hechos algunos de sus protagonistas principales.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the works of Spanish novelist Javier Cercas bearing in mind its unquestionable interest and value for the historians. In the first part of the article I have revised some of the fundamental features that characterize Cercas’ narrative and the creating of his characters; later I have concentrated on his work Anatomía de un instante (published in 2009 and «Spain’s National Narrative Prize» award-winning in 2010, with the intention to study the author’s view of the Spanish Transition to Democracy through his meticulous reconstruction of the historical facts happened during the 23-F and the decisive role played by some of its main figures.

  20. Optimization of instant powdered chicken feet broth’s drying temperature and time on pilot plant scale production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, N.; Widyaningsih, T. D.

    2018-03-01

    Chicken feet by-product of chicken industries amounted to approximately 65,894 tons/year commonly used as broths. These by-products are potentially produced into an instant form as an anti-inflammatory functional food on industrial scale. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the critical parameters of the drying process. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum temperature and time of instant powdered chicken feet broth’s drying on pilot plant scale, to find out product’s comparison of the laboratory and pilot plant scale, and to assess financial feasibility of the business plan. The optimization of pilot plant scale’s research prepared and designed with Response Surface Methodology-Central Composite Design. The optimized factors were powdered broth’s drying temperature (55°C, 60°C, 65°C) and time (10 minutes, 11 minutes, 12 minutes) with the response observed were water and chondroitin sulphate content. The optimum condition obtained was drying process with temperature of 60.85°C for 10,05 minutes resulting in 1.90 ± 0.02% moisture content, 32.48 ± 0.28% protein content, 12.05 ± 0.80% fat content, 28.92 ± 0.09 % ash content, 24.64 ± 0.52% carbohydrate content, 1.26 ± 0.05% glucosamine content, 0.99 ± 0.23% chondroitin sulphate content, 50.87 ± 1.00% solubility, 8.59 ± 0.19% water vapour absorption, 0.37% levels of free fatty acid, 13.66 ± 4.49% peroxide number, lightness of 60.33 ± 1.24, yellowness of 3.83 ± 0.26 and redness of 21.77 ± 0.42. Financial analysis concluded that this business project was feasible to run.

  1. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and Coban had the ...

  2. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  3. Fresh Ideas. Instant Replay, Instant Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Describes how to motivate students to learn by having them teach back to the class what they have just learned from the teacher. Students break into small groups and brainstorm how to teach what has just been presented, then the teacher picks one group to teach back to the class. (SM)

  4. PROSES PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN KONSUMEN DAN ATRIBUT PRODUK KOPI INSTAN DALAM SACHET [Consumer Decision Making Process and Product Attributes of Instant Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Satyajaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to observe the decision making process and the influence of product attributes in consuming of instant coffee products in sachets. This research used questionnaires to obtain information on the characteristics and consumer behavior of respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis and importance attributes.  The results showed that process of buying through the stages in the purchase decision process, namely:             a. need recognition: the main benefits expected was freshness of coffee, highest frequency was  once a day; and the main barrier was product quality; b. searching of information: the main source was promotion; c. alternative evaluation: The main factor in evaluation was taste, the known brand of instant coffee were Torabika, Nescafe, Kopi Luwak, ABC, Top, Good Day; d. The decision to buy: the main reasons to buy was taste; purchase decision depending on the situation, most influential are friends. e. post-purchase evaluation: customers are willing to keep buying previous products.. The highest product attributes importance of instant coffee were the highest sense of 4.34; aroma 4.23; and freshness of 4.11 which is the characteristics specialty[H1] of coffee. Keywords: consumer, instant coffee, product attributes. [H1] Has been changed

  5. PROSES PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN KONSUMEN DAN ATRIBUT PRODUK KOPI INSTAN DALAM SACHET [Consumer Decision Making Process and Product Attributes of Instant Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Satyajaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to observe the decision making process and the influence of product attributes in consuming of instant coffee products in sachets. This research used questionnaires to obtain information on the characteristics and consumer behavior of respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis and importance attributes.  The results showed that process of buying through the stages in the purchase decision process, namely               a. need recognition: the main benefits expected was freshness of coffee, highest frequency was  once a day; and the main barrier was product quality; b. searching of information: the main source was promotion; c. alternative evaluation: The main factor in evaluation was taste, the known brand of instant coffee were Torabika, Nescafe, Kopi Luwak, ABC, Top, Good Day; d. The decision to buy: the main reasons to buy was taste; purchase decision depending on the situation, most influential are friends. e. post-purchase evaluation: customers are willing to keep buying previous products.. The highest product attributes importance of instant coffee were the highest sense of 4.34; aroma 4.23; and freshness of 4.11 which is the characteristics specialty[H1] of coffee. Keywords: consumer, instant coffee, product attributes. [H1] Has been changed

  6. Mine and prospect map of the Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas, Coconino County, Arizona, and Kane County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas are mostly in Coconino County Ariz., but extend into Kane County, Utah. The area studied in this report encompasses about 560 mi2 (1,450 km2). The study area includes the established Paria Canyon Primitive and Vermilion Cliffs Natural Areas between U.S. Highways 89 and 89A.

  7. Use of Social Network Sites and Instant Messaging Does Not Lead to Increased Offline Social Network Size, or to Emotionally Closer Relationships with Offline Network Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Roberts, Sam G. B.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    The effect of Internet use on social relationships is still a matter of intense debate. This study examined the relationships between use of social media (instant messaging and social network sites), network size, and emotional closeness in a sample of 117 individuals aged 18 to 63 years old. Time

  8. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  9. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantz M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f and Th(p,f have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  10. Innovation on Street Food Products (Instant Porridge and Cookies Based on Fortified Patin Fish Protein Concentrate with Red Palm Oil and Encaptulated Oil Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Dewita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish innovation on street food (instant porridge and cookiesfrom Patin Fish Protein Concentrate fortified by blending red palm oil and encaptulated patinfish’s oil. The Encaptulation was conducted by blending of red palm oil and patin fish’s oil usingspray dryer. The blending was consisted of three combinations namely 50 : 50 (A1, 40 : 60 (A2and 60 : 40 (A3 for ratio between red palm oil and patin fish’s oil. The best combination’s resultswas fortified into street food (instant porridge and cookies. The blending was tested by measureyield, fat and fatty acid profile. Moreover, organoleptics and proximate tests were carrie out for thebest treatment of blending in instant porridge and cookies. The results show that encaptulatedyield reached 55 % that rise from A1 treatment as the best treatment with fat content of 17.26%.Profile of unsaturated fatty acid especially fatty acid omega 9 from blending fish oil and palm oilwas 59.29%. The number of fatty acid omega 9 was higher than saturated fatty acid which was18.56%. Furthermore, based on organoleptic tests of instant porridge and cookies using under fiveyear children respondents, it was proven that 93% of children was like the products. Proximate analysis of instant porridge revealed that protein content was 11.04 %, water content was 5.03%,fat content was 1.92 % and ash was 0.64 %. However, proximate analysis showed that cookiesowned protein of 9.11%, fat of 17.03% , water content was 3.93% and ash of 1.38%.Keywords : Encaptulated fish, street food, patin fish protein concentrate, palm oil

  11. Prospect: A Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)-based Instant Messaging Application for Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Pravind; Zainuri Saringat, Mohd; Mustapha, Aida; Zainal, Abidah

    2017-08-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASC) has widely gained the common attention from the public especially autistic communities. Individuals with ASC are said to have poor verbal skills and this affects them in carrying out their daily basis which they are afraid to expose themselves to the world due to their problems. ASC is diagnosed among children ranging from ages 5-12 years old and they suffer from the abnormal functioning of the brain which in turn causes lack of development activities. Thus, studies have shown that diagrammatic approaches help children with ASC to overcome their issues and improvise their visual and verbal skills. Picture Exchange Communication System or PECS consists of a series of illustrated cards and each cards has its own illustration with a caption on it. These children will understand the cards and they can compile several other cards to form sentences. This paper presents a mobile application called the Prospect, which has been developed using the agile development model for digital representation of PECS. The application is hoped to enhance the learning process and a better yielding results.

  12. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Attributes of Five Sweet Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0087, and TIS 2532.OP.1.13) were evaluated for yield and agronomic performance in Imo State University Farm, Owerri. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with three replications. The planting density was 33,000 ...

  13. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and yield component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ranged from 0 to -13% indicating that the hybrids tend to be earlier in maturity than the parents. The mean squares due to GCA for days to maturity, ear diameter, member of kernels per row, 1000 kernel weight and grain yield were significant, indicating the importance of additive genetic variance in controlling these traits.

  14. Rice yield prediction from yield components and limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.; Goudriaan, J.; Catala Former, M.M.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to quantify growth at field level in relation to crop status and soil properties in irrigated direct-seeded rice. Forty fields were selected in the Ebro Delta (Spain). Rice growth was monitored and soil properties measured. Yield was related to soil properties by a deductive

  15. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three critical growth stages which was imposed by withholding water (at ... November, 5th December, 19th December and 2nd January) laid out in a split ... Simple correlation coefficient ® of different crop parameters and grain yield ... The husk bran and germ are rich sources of ..... heat in 2009/2010 dry season at Fadam a ...

  16. Status of fission yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, T.R.; Blachot, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the current status of the recent US evaluation for 34 fissioning nuclides at one or more neutron incident energies and for spontaneous fission. Currently there are 50 yields sets, and for each we have independent and cumulative yields and uncertainties for approximately 1100 fission products. When finalized the recommended data will become part of Version VI of the US ENDF/B. Other major evaluations in progress that are included in a recently formed IAEA Coordinated Research Program are also summarized. In a second part we review two empirical models in use to estimate independent yields. Comparison of model estimates with measured data is presented, including a comparison with some recent data obtained from Lohengrin (Cf-249 T). 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  18. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  19. Mutual friends' social support and self-disclosure in face-to-face and instant messenger communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepte, Sabine; Masur, Philipp K; Scharkow, Michael

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated long-term effects of self-disclosure on social support in face-to-face and instant messenger (IM) communication between mutual friends. Using a representative sample of 583 German IM users, we explored whether self-disclosure and positive experiences with regard to social support would dynamically interact in the form of a reinforcing spiral across three measurement occasions. If mutual friends self-disclose today, will they receive more social support 6 months later? In turn, will this affect their willingness to self-disclose another 6 months later? We further analyzed spill-over effects from face-to-face to IM communication and vice versa. We found that self-disclosure predicted social support and vice versa in IM communication, but not in face-to-face communication. In light of these results, the impact of IM communication on how individuals maneuver friendships through the interplay between self-disclosure and social support are discussed.

  20. Mobile Real-time Tracking of Acute Stroke Patients and Instant, Secure Inter-team Communication - the Join App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munich, Stephan A; Tan, Lee A; Nogueira, Danilo M; Keigher, Kiffon M; Chen, Michael; Crowley, R Webster; Conners, James J; Lopes, Demetrius K

    2017-09-01

    The primary correlate to survival and preservation of neurologic function in patients suffering from an acute ischemic stroke is time from symptom onset to initiation of therapy and reperfusion. Communication and coordination among members of the stroke team are essential to maximizing efficiency and subsequently early reperfusion. In this work, we aim to describe our preliminary experience using the Join mobile application as a means to improve interdisciplinary team communication and efficiency. We describe our pilot experience with the initiation of the Join mobile application between July 2015 and July 2016. With this application, a mobile beacon is transported with the patient on the ambulance. Transportation milestone timestamps and geographic coordinates are transmitted to the treating facility and instantly communicated to all treatment team members. The transport team / patient can be tracked en route to the treating facility. During our pilot study, 62 patients were triaged and managed using the Join application. Automated time-stamping of critical events, geographic tracking of patient transport and summary documents were obtained for all patients. Treatment team members had an overall favorable impression of the Join application and recommended its continued use. The Join application is one of several components of a multi-institutional, interdisciplinary effort to improve the treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The ability of the treatment team to track patient transport and communicate with the transporting team may improve reperfusion time and, therefore, improve neurologic outcomes.